WorldWideScience

Sample records for upflow bio-filter circuit

  1. Application and advantages of novel clay ceramic particles (CCPs) in an up-flow anaerobic bio-filter (UAF) for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Yue, Qinyan; Wu, Suqing; Zhao, Yaqin; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Wang, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Utilization of clay ceramic particles (CCPs) as the novel filter media employed in an up-flow anaerobic bio-filter (UAF) was investigated. After a series of tests and operations, CCPs have presented higher total porosity and roughness, meanwhile lower bulk and grain density. When CCPs were utilized as fillers, the reactor had a shorter start up period of 45 days comparing with conventional reactors, and removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) still reached about 76% at a relatively lower temperature during the stable state. In addition, degradation of COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) at different media height along the reactor was evaluated, and the dates showed that the main reduction process happened within the first 30 cm media height from the bottom flange. Five phases were observed according to different organic loadings during the experiment period, and the results indicated that COD removal increased linearly when the organic loading was increased. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Up-Flow Biological Aerated Filter (UFBAF) process in treating mixed (urban and industrial) sewage. Its performance in a pilot plant; Proceso de biofiltracion Up-Flow Biological Aerated Filter-UFBAF para el tratamiento de aguas residuales mixtas (urbanas e industriales). Rendimientos en planta piloto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Up-Flow Biological Aerated Filter (UFBAF) process is a variant on the conventional activated sludge process. It is based on a greater sludge density, as the sludge sticks to expanded clay balls of between 3 and 6 mm in diameter. A trial of this process was conducted using a pilot plant whose main components were a bio filter for eliminating organic matter and a single layer filter for eliminating the solids left over from the bio filter. the effluent employed in the trial was waste water that had been pretreated by sieving and primary decanting. The main object of these trials was to determine the capacity and limits of the treatment in eliminating organic matter under overload conditions in order to determine the recovery time required to return to normal operation. (Author) 3 refs.

  3. Enhanced azo dye removal in a continuously operated up-flow anaerobic filter packed with henna plant biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jingang, E-mail: hjg@hdu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Mengke; Chen, Jianjun; Liu, Xiuyan; Chen, Tingting [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wen, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Tang, Junhong; Xie, Zhengmiao [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Henna stem mixed with ceramic media in UAF enhanced the removal of AO7. • Bio-reduction was the main AO7 removal pathway in henna-added UAF. • Adsorption and endogenous reduction were the main removal pathways in the control. • Henna played a multiple role in providing electron donors and redox mediator. - Abstract: Effects of henna plant biomass (stem) packed in an up-flow anaerobic bio-filter (UAF) on an azo dye (AO7) removal were investigated. AO7 removal, sulfanilic acid (SA) formation, and pseudo first-order kinetic constants for these reactions (k{sub AO7} and k{sub SA}) were higher in the henna-added UAF (R2) than in the control UAF without henna (R1). The maximum k{sub AO7} in R1 and R2 were 0.0345 and 0.2024 cm{sup −1}, respectively, on day 18; the corresponding molar ratios of SA formation to AO7 removal were 0.582 and 0.990. Adsorption and endogenous bio-reduction were the main AO7 removal pathways in R1, while in R2 bio-reduction was the dominant. Organics in henna could be released and fermented to volatile fatty acids, acting as effective electron donors for AO7 reduction, which was accelerated by soluble and/or fixed lawsone. Afterwards, the removal process weakened over time, indicating the demand of electron donation and lawsone-releasing during the long-term operation of UAF.

  4. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  5. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor was developed. ► Alizarin Yellow R as the mode of azo dyes was efficiently converted to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). ► PPD and 5-ASA were further oxidized in a bio-contact oxidation reactor. ► The mechanism of UBER for azo dye removal was discussed. - Abstract: Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8 ± 1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 g m −3 d −1 ) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 g m −3 d −1 (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China.

  6. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 202 Haihe Road, Harbin 150090 (China); Lee, Hyung-Sool [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wang, Ai-Jie, E-mail: waj0578@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 202 Haihe Road, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alizarin Yellow R as the mode of azo dyes was efficiently converted to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPD and 5-ASA were further oxidized in a bio-contact oxidation reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of UBER for azo dye removal was discussed. - Abstract: Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8 {+-} 1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 g m{sup -3} d{sup -1}) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 g m{sup -3} d{sup -1} (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China.

  7. A Bio-Realistic Analog CMOS Cochlea Filter With High Tunability and Ultra-Steep Roll-Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Koickal, Thomas Jacob; Hamilton, Alister; Cheung, Rebecca; Smith, Leslie S

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental results of a cochlea filter in analog very large scale integration (VLSI) which highly resembles physiologically measured response of the mammalian cochlea. The filter consists of three specialized sub-filter stages which respectively provide passive response in low frequencies, actively tunable response in mid-band frequencies and ultra-steep roll-off at transition frequencies from pass-band to stop-band. The sub-filters are implemented in balanced ladder topology using floating active inductors. Measured results from the fabricated chip show that wide range of mid-band tuning including gain tuning of over 20 dB, Q factor tuning from 2 to 19 as well as the bio-realistic center frequency shift are achieved by adjusting only one circuit parameter. Besides, the filter has an ultra-steep roll-off reaching over 300 dB/dec. By changing biasing currents, the filter can be configured to operate with center frequencies from 31 Hz to 8 kHz. The filter is 9th order, consumes 59.5 ∼ 90.0 μW power and occupies 0.9 mm2 chip area. A parallel bank of the proposed filter can be used as the front-end in hearing prosthesis devices, speech processors as well as other bio-inspired auditory systems owing to its bio-realistic behavior, low power consumption and small size.

  8. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  9. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in domestic wastewater and their removal in anaerobic treatment systems: septic tank - upflow anaerobic filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrubla, Juan Pablo; Cubillos, Janneth A.; Ramírez Vargas, Carlos Andrés

    2016-01-01

    of use, consumption and presence of PPCPs in wastewater from a treatment plant in a rural area of Pereira (Colombia). Domestic sewage is treated in a septic tank followed by an Up-Flow Anaerobic Filter and its ef uent is discharged into the Otún River, upstream of the water intake of the supply system...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is intended to remove...

  11. Printed Graphene Derivative Circuits as Passive Electrical Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K

    2018-02-23

    The objective of this study is to inkjet print resistor-capacitor ( RC ) low pass electrical filters, using a novel water-based cellulose graphene ink, and compare the voltage-frequency and transient behavior to equivalent circuits constructed from discrete passive components. The synthesized non-toxic graphene-carboxymethyl cellulose (G-CMC) ink is deposited on mechanically flexible polyimide substrates using a customized printer that dispenses functionalized aqueous solutions. The design of the printed first-order and second-order low-pass RC filters incorporate resistive traces and interdigitated capacitors. Low pass filter characteristics, such as time constant, cut-off frequency and roll-off rate, are determined for comparative analysis. Experiments demonstrate that for low frequency applications (graphene derivative circuits performed as well as the circuits constructed from discrete resistors and capacitors for both low pass filter and RC integrator applications. The impact of mechanical stress due to bending on the electrical performance of the flexible printed circuits is also investigated.

  12. Printed Graphene Derivative Circuits as Passive Electrical Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Sinar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to inkjet print resistor-capacitor (RC low pass electrical filters, using a novel water-based cellulose graphene ink, and compare the voltage-frequency and transient behavior to equivalent circuits constructed from discrete passive components. The synthesized non-toxic graphene-carboxymethyl cellulose (G-CMC ink is deposited on mechanically flexible polyimide substrates using a customized printer that dispenses functionalized aqueous solutions. The design of the printed first-order and second-order low-pass RC filters incorporate resistive traces and interdigitated capacitors. Low pass filter characteristics, such as time constant, cut-off frequency and roll-off rate, are determined for comparative analysis. Experiments demonstrate that for low frequency applications (<100 kHz the printed graphene derivative circuits performed as well as the circuits constructed from discrete resistors and capacitors for both low pass filter and RC integrator applications. The impact of mechanical stress due to bending on the electrical performance of the flexible printed circuits is also investigated.

  13. Ammonia-nitrogen and Phosphate Reduction by Bio-Filter using Factorial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmuri, Norhafezah; Ashikin Mat Damin, Nur; Omar, Megawati

    2018-02-01

    Untreated landfill leachate is known to have endangered the environment. As such new treatment must be sought to ensure its cost-effective and sustainable treatment. Thus this paper reports the effectiveness of bio-filter to remove pollutants. In this research, the reduction of nutrients concentration was evaluated in two conditions: using bio-filter and without bio-filter. Synthetic wastewater was used in the batch culture. It was conducted within 21 days in the initial mediums of 100 mg/L ammonia-nitrogen. The nitrification medium consisted of 100 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen while the nitrite assay had none. The petri dish experiment was also conducted to observe the existence of any colony. The results showed 22% of ammonia- nitrogen reduction and 33% phosphate in the nitrification medium with the bio-filter. The outcome showed that the bio-filter was capable to reduce the concentration of pollutants by retaining the slow growing bacteria (AOB and NOB) on the plastic carrier surface. The factorial design was applied to study the effect of the initial ammonia-nitrogen concentration and duration on nitrite-nitrogen removal. Finally, a regression equation was produced to predict the rate of nitrite-nitrogen removal without conducting extended experiments and to reduce the number of trials experiment.

  14. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em reator UASB e filtro anaeróbio em série seguidos de filtro biológico percolador Treatment of swine wastewater in UASB reactor and anaerobic filter in series followed of trickling filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Maria Duda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de um reator anaeróbio de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB seguido de um filtro anaeróbio, instalados em série, com volume total de 300 L e 190 L, respectivamente, no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura. As cargas orgânicas volumétricas aplicadas no reator UASB foram de 12,4;15,5; 23,2 e 26,3 g DQOtotal (L d-1. Para o pós-tratamento do efluente do sistema anaeróbio em dois estágios utilizou-se um filtro biológico percolador com volume total de 250 L. O meio suporte utilizado nos filtros anaeróbio e biológico percolador foi composto por anéis de bambu. No sistema de tratamento anaeróbio e de pós-tratamento foram observadas eficiências médias de remoção de demanda química de oxigênio total (DQOtotal, sólidos suspensos totais (SST, nitrogênio total (NT, fósforo total (P-total, Cu e Zn de até 98, 99, 78, 84, 99 e 98%, respectivamente.The performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB followed by the anaerobic filter, installed in series, was evaluated for the treatment of swine wastewater. The total volume of UASB and anaerobic filter were of 300 L and 190 L, respectively. The organic load rate applied on the reactor UASB were of 12.4, 15.5, 23.2 and 26.3 g total COD (L d-1. For the post-treatment of effluent the anaerobic system was used a trickling filter with total volume of 250 L. The supports used in the anaerobic filter and trickling filter were composed by bamboo rings. The efficiencies of removal the chemical oxygen demand, total solids suspended, nitrogen, total phosphorus, Cu and Zn were of up to 98, 99, 78, 84, 99 and 98%, respectively, for the anaerobic and aerobic treatment system.

  15. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2012-11-15

    Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8±1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 gm(-3) d(-1)) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 gm(-3) d(-1) (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring user similarity using electric circuit analysis: application to collaborative filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joonhyuk; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Young Hwan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new technique of measuring user similarity in collaborative filtering using electric circuit analysis. Electric circuit analysis is used to measure the potential differences between nodes on an electric circuit. In this paper, by applying this method to transaction networks comprising users and items, i.e., user-item matrix, and by using the full information about the relationship structure of users in the perspective of item adoption, we overcome the limitations of one-to-one similarity calculation approach, such as the Pearson correlation, Tanimoto coefficient, and Hamming distance, in collaborative filtering. We found that electric circuit analysis can be successfully incorporated into recommender systems and has the potential to significantly enhance predictability, especially when combined with user-based collaborative filtering. We also propose four types of hybrid algorithms that combine the Pearson correlation method and electric circuit analysis. One of the algorithms exceeds the performance of the traditional collaborative filtering by 37.5% at most. This work opens new opportunities for interdisciplinary research between physics and computer science and the development of new recommendation systems.

  17. Measuring user similarity using electric circuit analysis: application to collaborative filtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonhyuk Yang

    Full Text Available We propose a new technique of measuring user similarity in collaborative filtering using electric circuit analysis. Electric circuit analysis is used to measure the potential differences between nodes on an electric circuit. In this paper, by applying this method to transaction networks comprising users and items, i.e., user-item matrix, and by using the full information about the relationship structure of users in the perspective of item adoption, we overcome the limitations of one-to-one similarity calculation approach, such as the Pearson correlation, Tanimoto coefficient, and Hamming distance, in collaborative filtering. We found that electric circuit analysis can be successfully incorporated into recommender systems and has the potential to significantly enhance predictability, especially when combined with user-based collaborative filtering. We also propose four types of hybrid algorithms that combine the Pearson correlation method and electric circuit analysis. One of the algorithms exceeds the performance of the traditional collaborative filtering by 37.5% at most. This work opens new opportunities for interdisciplinary research between physics and computer science and the development of new recommendation systems.

  18. Accurate automatic tuning circuit for bipolar integrated filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heij, Wim J.A.; de Heij, W.J.A.; Hoen, Klaas; Hoen, Klaas; Seevinck, Evert; Seevinck, E.

    1990-01-01

    An accurate automatic tuning circuit for tuning the cutoff frequency and Q-factor of high-frequency bipolar filters is presented. The circuit is based on a voltage controlled quadrature oscillator (VCO). The frequency and the RMS (root mean square) amplitude of the oscillator output signal are

  19. Derivation of Oscillators from Biquadratic Band Pass Filters Using Circuit Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yu Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Network transformations are the techniques to obtain new functional schemes from available circuits. They are systematic methodologies, since each transformation technique can be applied to many circuits to obtain the desired functions or characteristics. A convenient network transformation method, exploiting different circuit transformations, for deriving linear sinusoidal oscillators from biquadratic band pass filters is proposed. This method with generality can be applied to any band pass filter. The oscillation frequency of the new obtained oscillator is identical to the center frequency of the original band pass filter, and the useful properties of the selected band pass filter can be retained. Two examples are illustrated to confirm the feasibility of the proposed approach. The workability of the obtained oscillators is verified with PSPICE simulations.

  20. Active filter for the DESY III dipole circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothe, W.

    1991-01-01

    The DESY 3 dipole circuit is now operated in a ramp mode cycle with 3.6 s repetition rate. Excitation is done by a 12-pulse thyristor converter, followed by a passive filter. The existing current control could be improved by addition of an active filter. The use of a more efficient passive filter reduces the size of the active filter and does not deteriorate the dynamic behavior. The design of the control loops and the results of the simulation are presented

  1. Photonic crystal ring resonator based optical filters for photonic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two Dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal Ring Resonator (PCRR) based optical Filters namely Add Drop Filter, Bandpass Filter, and Bandstop Filter are designed for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). The normalized output response of the filters is obtained using 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and the band diagram of periodic and non-periodic structure is attained by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The size of the device is minimized from a scale of few tens of millimeters to the order of micrometers. The overall size of the filters is around 11.4 μm × 11.4 μm which is highly suitable of photonic integrated circuits

  2. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  3. Designing Asynchronous Circuits for Low Power: An IFIR Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Sparsø, Jens

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of asynchronous circuits for low power through an example: a filter bank for a digital hearing aid. The asynchronous design re-implements an existing synchronous circuit which is used in a commercial product. For comparison, both designs have been fabricated...

  4. Design of switched-capacitor filter circuits using low gain amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, Hugo Alexandre de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the design of switched-capacitor filter circuits using low gain amplifiers and demonstrates some techniques that can minimize the effects of parasitic capacitances during the design phase. Focus is given in the design of low-pass and band-pass SC filters, and how higher order filters can be achieved using cascaded biquadratic filter sections. The authors also describe a low voltage implementation of a low-pass SC filter.

  5. Detection of circuit-board components with an adaptive multiclass correlation filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Kober, Vitaly

    2008-08-01

    A new method for reliable detection of circuit-board components is proposed. The method is based on an adaptive multiclass composite correlation filter. The filter is designed with the help of an iterative algorithm using complex synthetic discriminant functions. The impulse response of the filter contains information needed to localize and classify geometrically distorted circuit-board components belonging to different classes. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed method are provided and compared with those of known multiclass correlation based techniques in terms of performance criteria for recognition and classification of objects.

  6. A simple structure wavelet transform circuit employing function link neural networks and SI filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Li; Yigang, He

    2016-12-01

    Signal processing by means of analog circuits offers advantages from a power consumption viewpoint. Implementing wavelet transform (WT) using analog circuits is of great interest when low-power consumption becomes an important issue. In this article, a novel simple structure WT circuit in analog domain is presented by employing functional link neural network (FLNN) and switched-current (SI) filters. First, the wavelet base is approximated using FLNN algorithms for giving a filter transfer function that is suitable for simple structure WT circuit implementation. Next, the WT circuit is constructed with the wavelet filter bank, whose impulse response is the approximated wavelet and its dilations. The filter design that follows is based on a follow-the-leader feedback (FLF) structure with multiple output bilinear SI integrators and current mirrors as the main building blocks. SI filter is well suited for this application since the dilation constant across different scales of the transform can be precisely implemented and controlled by the clock frequency of the circuit with the same system architecture. Finally, to illustrate the design procedure, a seventh-order FLNN-approximated Gaussian wavelet is implemented as an example. Simulations have successfully verified that the designed simple structure WT circuit has low sensitivity, low-power consumption and litter effect to the imperfections.

  7. Anaerobic treatment of rice winery wastewater in an upflow filter packed with steel slag under different hydraulic loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yeadam; Kim, Jaai; Hwang, Seokhwan; Lee, Changsoo

    2015-10-01

    Rice-washing drainage (RWD), a strong organic wastewater, was anaerobically treated using an upflow filter filled with blast-furnace slag. The continuous performance of the reactor was examined at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The reactor achieved 91.7% chemical oxygen demand removal (CODr) for a 10-day HRT (0.6 g COD/Ld organic loading rate) and maintained fairly stable performance until the HRT was shortened to 2.2 days (CODr > 84%). Further decreases in HRT caused process deterioration (CODr < 50% and pH < 5.5 for a 0.7-day HRT). The methane production rate increased with decreasing HRT to reach the peak level for a 1.3-day HRT, whereas the yield was significantly greater for 3.4-day or longer HRTs. The substrate removal and methane production kinetics were successfully evaluated, and the generated kinetic models produced good performance predictions. The methanogenic activity of the reactor likely relies on the filter biofilm, with Methanosaeta being the main driver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Voltage-Mode All-Pass Filters Including Minimum Component Count Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Maheshwari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two new first-order voltage-mode all-pass filters using a single-current differencing buffered amplifier and four passive components. Each circuit is compatible to a current-controlled current differencing buffered amplifier with only two passive elements, thus resulting in two more circuits, which employ a capacitor, a resistor, and an active element, thus using a minimum of active and passive component counts. The proposed circuits possess low output impedance, and hence can be easily cascaded for voltage-mode systems. PSPICE simulation results are given to confirm the theory.

  9. Nitrate remediation in a novel upflow bio-electrochemical reactor (UBER) using palm shell activated carbon as cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafari, Shahin; Hasan, Masitah; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the biological denitrification method which is a treatment method able to reduce inorganic nitrate compounds to harmless nitrogen gas. Autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria were used in this study to prevent any problematic outcomes associated with heterotrophic microorganisms. An upflow bio-electrochemical reactor (UBER) was used to accommodate hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria employing palm shell granular activated carbon (GAC) as the biocarrier and cathode material. Bicarbonate as the external inorganic carbon source was fed to the reactor and hydrogen as the electron donor was generated in situ through electrolysis of water. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to investigate the effects of two operating parameters, namely electric current (I) and hydraulic retention time (HRT), on performance of the UBER. Electric current range of 0-20 mA and HRT range of 6-36 h were examined and results showed that nitrate can be entirely reduced within application of a wide operational range of electric current (10-16 mA) as well as HRT (13.5-30 h). However, increase of pH at cathode zone up to 10.5 inhibited nitrite reduction, and it was not reduced to the satisfactory level.

  10. Sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol wastewater treatment by two-phase multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) combination with up-flow UASB and down-flow hanging sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choeisai, P; Jitkam, N; Silapanoraset, K; Yubolsai, C; Yoochatchaval, W; Yamaguchi, T; Onodera, T; Syutsubo, K

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate a treatment system for high strength wastewater (vinasse) from a sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol plant in Thailand. A laboratory-scale two-phase treatment system composed of a sulfate reducing (SR) tank and multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (MS-UASB) reactor was used as the pre-treatment unit. Conventional UASB and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors were used as the post-treatment unit. The treatment system was operated for 300 days under ambient temperature conditions (24.6-29.6 °C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) in each unit was kept at 25 h for the two-phase system and 23 h for the UASB&DHS. The influent concentration was allowed to reach up to 15,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. COD removal efficiency (based on influent COD) of the two-phase MS-UASB and the UASB&DHS was 54.9 and 18.7%, respectively. Due to the effective removal of sulfide in the SR tank, the MS-UASB achieved a high methane conversion ratio of up to 97%. In DHS, nitrification occurred at the outside portion of the sponge media while denitrification occurred at the inside. Consequently, 27% of the total nitrogen (TN) was removed. An amount of 32% of residual nitrogen (28 mgN/L) was in the form of nitrate, a better nitrogen state for fertilizer.

  11. Accelerometer North Finding System Based on the Wavelet Packet De-noising Algorithm and Filtering Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Yongle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a method and system for north finding with a low-cost piezoelectricity accelerometer based on the Coriolis acceleration principle. The proposed setup is based on the choice of an accelerometer with residual noise of 35 ng•Hz-1/2. The plane of the north finding system is aligned parallel to the local level, which helps to eliminate the effect of plane error. The Coriolis acceleration caused by the earth’s rotation and the acceleration’s instantaneous velocity is much weaker than the g-sensitivity acceleration. To get a high accuracy and a shorter time for north finding system, in this paper, the Filtering Circuit and the wavelet packet de-nosing algorithm are used as the following. First, the hardware is designed as the alternating currents across by filtering circuit, so the DC will be isolated and the weak AC signal will be amplified. The DC is interfering signal generated by the earth's gravity. Then, we have used a wavelet packet to filter the signal which has been done through the filtering circuit. Finally, compare the north finding results measured by wavelet packet filtering with those measured by a low-pass filter. Wavelet filter de-noise data shows that wavelet packet filtering and wavelet filter measurement have high accuracy. Wavelet Packet filtering has stronger ability to remove burst noise and higher engineering environment adaptability than that of Wavelet filtering. Experimental results prove the effectiveness and project implementation of the accelerometer north finding method based on wavelet packet de-noising algorithm.

  12. Sequential nitrification and denitrification in a novel palm shell granular activated carbon twin-chamber upflow bio-electrochemical reactor for treating ammonium-rich wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyedalireza; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a twin-chamber upflow bio-electrochemical reactor packed with palm shell granular activated carbon as biocarrier and third electrode was used for sequential nitrification and denitrification of nitrogen-rich wastewater under different operating conditions. The experiments were performed at a constant pH value for the denitrification compartment. The effect of variables, namely, electric current (I) and hydraulic retention time (HRT), on the pH was considered in the nitrification chamber. The response surface methodology was used based on three levels to develop empirical models for the study on the effects of HRT and current values as independent operating variables on NH(4)(+)-N removal. The results showed that ammonium was reduced within the function of an extensive operational range of electric intensity (20-50 mA) and HRT (6-24h). The optimum condition for ammonium oxidation (90%) was determined with an I of 32 mA and HRT of 19.2h. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Hybrid Circuit for Spoof Surface Plasmons and Spatial Waveguide Modes to Reach Controllable Band-Pass Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hao Chi; Wu, Han; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-11-10

    We propose a hybrid circuit for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and spatial waveguide modes to develop new microwave devices. The hybrid circuit includes a spoof SPP waveguide made of two anti-symmetric corrugated metallic strips and a traditional substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). From dispersion relations, we show that the electromagnetic waves only can propagate through the hybrid circuit when the operating frequency is less than the cut-off frequency of the SPP waveguide and greater than the cut-off frequency of SIW, generating efficient band-pass filters. We demonstrate that the pass band is controllable in a large range by designing the geometrical parameters of SPP waveguide and SIW. Full-wave simulations are provided to show the large adjustability of filters, including ultra wideband and narrowband filters. We fabricate a sample of the new hybrid device in the microwave frequencies, and measurement results have excellent agreements to numerical simulations, demonstrating excellent filtering characteristics such as low loss, high efficiency, and good square ratio. The proposed hybrid circuit gives important potential to accelerate the development of plasmonic integrated functional devices and circuits in both microwave and terahertz frequencies.

  14. Filtering device for primary coolant circuits in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Fumio; Yamamoto, Tetsuo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a filtering device with a large filtering area and requiring less space. Constitution: A condensate inlet for introducing condensates to be filtered of primary coolant circuits, a filtrate exit, a backwash water exit and a bent tube are disposed to a container, and a plurality of hollow thread membrane modules are suspended in the container. The condensates are caused to flow through the condensate inlet, filtered through the hollow thread membrane and then discharged from the filtrate exit. When the filtering treatment is proceeded to some extent, since solid contents captured in the hollow thread membranes are accumulated, a differential pressure is produced between the condensate inlet and the filtrate exit. When the differential pressure reaches a predetermined value, the backwash is conducted to discharge the liquid cleaning wastes through the backwash exit. The bent tube disposed to the container body is used for water and air draining. The hollow thread membranes are formed with porous resin such as of polyethylene. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. General oscillation damping analysis of the L-C filter circuit in the high-power rectifying power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weihua; Chen Yonghao; Wu Junshuan; Kuang Guangli

    1998-06-01

    Rectifier circuit is the most popular converter. For the ripple demand of high-power load, the L-C filter with invert 'L' type has been used universally. Due to the influence of the second-order link, damped oscillation will occur with proper condition while the circuit state is changed. The ideal cascade damping condition and the parallel one can be obtained easily. Generally, the damping condition of the step response of the L-C filter circuit is induced, and the discussion is given

  16. An Improved Memristive Diode Bridge-Based Band Pass Filter Chaotic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By replacing a series resistor in active band pass filter (BPF with an improved memristive diode bridge emulator, a third-order memristive BPF chaotic circuit is presented. The improved memristive diode bridge emulator without grounded limitation is equivalently achieved by a diode bridge cascaded with only one inductor, whose fingerprints of pinched hysteresis loop are examined by numerical simulations and hardware experiments. The memristive BPF chaotic circuit has only one zero unstable saddle point but causes complex dynamical behaviors including period, chaos, period doubling bifurcation, and coexisting bifurcation modes. Specially, it should be highly significant that two kinds of bifurcation routes are displayed under different initial conditions and the coexistence of three different topological attractors is found in a narrow parameter range. Moreover, hardware circuit using discrete components is fabricated and experimental measurements are performed, upon which the numerical simulations are validated. Notably, the proposed memristive BPF chaotic circuit is only third-order and has simple topological structure.

  17. A filter circuit board for the Earthworm Seismic Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Edward Gray

    2000-01-01

    The Earthworm system is a seismic network data acquisition and processing system used by the Northern California Seismic Network as well as many other seismic networks. The input to the system is comprised of many realtime electronic waveforms fed to a multi-channel digitizer on a PC platform. The digitizer consists of one or more National Instruments Corp. AMUX–64T multiplexer boards attached to an A/D converter board located in the computer. Originally, passive filters were installed on the multiplexers to eliminate electronic noise picked up in cabling. It was later discovered that a small amount of crosstalk occurred between successive channels in the digitizing sequence. Though small, this crosstalk will cause what appear to be small earthquake arrivals at the wrong time on some channels. This can result in erroneous calculation of earthquake arrival times, particularly by automated algorithms. To deal with this problem, an Earthworm filter board was developed to provide the needed filtering while eliminating crosstalk. This report describes the tests performed to find a suitable solution, and the design of the circuit board. Also included are all the details needed to build and install this board in an Earthworm system or any other system using the AMUX–64T board. Available below is the report in PDF format as well as an archive file containing the circuit board manufacturing information.

  18. The Experiment Study of Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation Start-up by Using the Upflow Double Layer Anaerobic Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anammox is an efficient nitrogen removal process, but it is difficult to start-up and operate, and ananammox reactor is the efficient way to resolve this problem. The start-up of anammox reactor by upflow anaerobic filter was studied. Denitrifying sludge, anaerobic sludge, and mixed sludge was inoculated on the packing materials, respectively and an autotrophic denitrification condition was provided by the simulated wastewater influent. Along with the gradual increase of matrix concentration and hydraulic load, the microflora was converted to the anaerobic ammonium oxidation(anammoxreaction. The results showed that the anammox reaction could be started by all the three sludge, and the time of start-up of denitrifying sludge, anaerobic sludge, mixed sludge was 42, 54 days and 45 days, respectively. The best result was that inoculated with denitrifying sludge with 82.2% of the total nitrogen removal rate, which started-up quickly and nitrogen was removed efficiently. Double packing effectively improved the stability of anammox process in the reactor, in which the suitable influent concentration loading for the anammox bacteria was 270 mg·L-1 and 360 mg·L-1 for ammonia nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen, respectively, and the COD concentration could not be more than 150 mg· L-1. Furthermore, there was a coexist-effect for anaerobic ammonia oxidation and methanation in this reactor system.

  19. PARALLEL EVOLUTION OF QUASI-SEPARATRIX LAYERS AND ACTIVE REGION UPFLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandrini, C. H.; Cristiani, G. D.; Nuevo, F. A.; Vásquez, A. M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC. 67, Suc. 28 Buenos Aires, 1428 (Argentina); Baker, D.; Driel-Gesztelyi, L. van [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Démoulin, P.; Pick, M. [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, UMR 8109 (CNRS), F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Vargas Domínguez, S. [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2015-08-10

    Persistent plasma upflows were observed with Hinode’s EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) at the edges of active region (AR) 10978 as it crossed the solar disk. We analyze the evolution of the photospheric magnetic and velocity fields of the AR, model its coronal magnetic field, and compute the location of magnetic null-points and quasi-sepratrix layers (QSLs) searching for the origin of EIS upflows. Magnetic reconnection at the computed null points cannot explain all of the observed EIS upflow regions. However, EIS upflows and QSLs are found to evolve in parallel, both temporarily and spatially. Sections of two sets of QSLs, called outer and inner, are found associated to EIS upflow streams having different characteristics. The reconnection process in the outer QSLs is forced by a large-scale photospheric flow pattern, which is present in the AR for several days. We propose a scenario in which upflows are observed, provided that a large enough asymmetry in plasma pressure exists between the pre-reconnection loops and lasts as long as a photospheric forcing is at work. A similar mechanism operates in the inner QSLs; in this case, it is forced by the emergence and evolution of the bipoles between the two main AR polarities. Our findings provide strong support for the results from previous individual case studies investigating the role of magnetic reconnection at QSLs as the origin of the upflowing plasma. Furthermore, we propose that persistent reconnection along QSLs does not only drive the EIS upflows, but is also responsible for the continuous metric radio noise-storm observed in AR 10978 along its disk transit by the Nançay Radio Heliograph.

  20. GCFR upflow/downflow study summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, H.F.

    1979-08-01

    During the one-year study a conceptual upflow core plant design was developed and the downflow core plant reference design updated. A comparison was made between the two plant designs in critical areas of plant performance, safety, and licensing. The results of that comparison led to the recommendation to adopt an upflow core for the GCFR plant reference design. Although additional development and design efforts are required, the potential of residual heat removal by natural circulation alone offers a decisive safety and licensing advantage

  1. On-chip single photon filtering and multiplexing in hybrid quantum photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaari, Ali W; Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil; Fognini, Andreas; Reimer, Michael E; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J; Zwiller, Val; Jöns, Klaus D

    2017-08-30

    Quantum light plays a pivotal role in modern science and future photonic applications. Since the advent of integrated quantum nanophotonics different material platforms based on III-V nanostructures-, colour centers-, and nonlinear waveguides as on-chip light sources have been investigated. Each platform has unique advantages and limitations; however, all implementations face major challenges with filtering of individual quantum states, scalable integration, deterministic multiplexing of selected quantum emitters, and on-chip excitation suppression. Here we overcome all of these challenges with a hybrid and scalable approach, where single III-V quantum emitters are positioned and deterministically integrated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible photonic circuit. We demonstrate reconfigurable on-chip single-photon filtering and wavelength division multiplexing with a foot print one million times smaller than similar table-top approaches, while offering excitation suppression of more than 95 dB and efficient routing of single photons over a bandwidth of 40 nm. Our work marks an important step to harvest quantum optical technologies' full potential.Combining different integration platforms on the same chip is currently one of the main challenges for quantum technologies. Here, Elshaari et al. show III-V Quantum Dots embedded in nanowires operating in a CMOS compatible circuit, with controlled on-chip filtering and tunable routing.

  2. A New LCL -Filter With In-Series Parallel Resonant Circuit for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Sun, Yunjie; Lin, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    are investigated for the conventional LCL-filter-based system. Based on this, a modified LCL-filter topology using an extra parallel LrCr resonant circuit is proposed to reduce the total inductance value, without increasing the capacitive reactive power. The validity is verified through the experiments on a 500-W...

  3. EVIDENCE OF FILAMENT UPFLOWS ORIGINATING FROM INTENSITY OSCILLATIONS ON THE SOLAR SURFACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.; Ning, Zongjun; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Ji Haisheng

    2010-01-01

    A filament footpoint rooted in an active region (NOAA 11032) was well observed for about 78 minutes with the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory on 2009 November 18 in Hα ±0.75 A. This data set had high cadence (∼15 s) and high spatial resolution (∼0.''1) and offered a unique opportunity to study filament dynamics. As in previous findings from space observations, several dark intermittent upflows were identified, and they behave in groups at isolated locations along the filament. However, we have two new findings. First, we find that the dark upflows propagating along the filament channel are strongly associated with the intensity oscillations on the solar surface around the filament footpoints. The upflows start at the same time as the peak in the oscillations, illustrating that the upflow velocities are well correlated with the oscillations. Second, the intensity of one of the seven upflows detected in our data set exhibits a clear periodicity when the upflow propagates along the filament. The periods gradually vary from ∼10 to ∼5 minutes. Our results give observational clues on the driving mechanism of the upflows in the filament.

  4. In vitro evaluation of gaseous microemboli handling of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits with and without integrated arterial line filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Saifei; Newland, Richard F; Tully, Phillip J; Tuble, Sigrid C; Baker, Robert A

    2011-09-01

    The delivery of gaseous microemboli (GME) by the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit should be minimized whenever possible. Innovations in components, such as the integration of arterial line filter (ALF) and ALFs with reduced priming volumes, have provided clinicians with circuit design options. However, before adopting these components clinically, their GME handling ability should be assessed. This study aims to compare the GME handling ability of different oxygenator/ALF combinations with our currently utilized combination. Five commercially available oxygenator/ALF combinations were evaluated in vitro: Terumo Capiox SX25RX and Dideco D734 (SX/D734),Terumo Capiox RX25R and AF125 (RX/AF125), Terumo FX25R (FX), Sorin Synthesis with 102 microm reservoir filter (SYN102), and Sorin Synthesis with 40 microm reservoir filter (SYN40). GME handling was studied by introducing air into the venous return at 100 mL/min for 60 seconds under two flow/ pressure combinations: 3.5 L/min, 150 mmHg and 5 L/min, 200 mmHg. Emboli were measured at three positions in the circuit using the Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier and analyzed with the General Linear Model. All circuits significantly reduced GME. The SX/D734 and SYN40 circuits were most efficient in GME removal whilst the SYN102 handled embolic load (count and volume) least efficiently (p circuits (p circuits (p circuits to handle GME. Venous reservoir design influenced the overall GME handling ability. GME removal was less efficient at higher flow and pressure, and for smaller sized emboli. The clinical significance of reducing GME requires further investigation.

  5. EDF operational experience of primary circuit filter usage. Analysis of results and strategy for optimizing filtration and reducing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Moleiro, Edgar; Bancelin, Estelle; Bretelle, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Pleated fibreglass media filter cartridges are used throughout the auxiliary systems at nuclear power plants across the 58 reactors of EDF fleet. The main role of these filters is to remove suspended solids from coolant to prevent them accumulating in circuits or in equipments. In the primary circuit, these filters therefore limit the deposition of solids that are active or could become active if allowed to recirculate throughout the primary circuit, avoiding potential consequences such as an increase in dose rates, axial offset anomalies, demineralisers fouling, higher pressure losses in primary loop, and clogging of the primary pumps. Since 2008, a steady increase in the consumption of filters has been noticed, and therefore an increase in the amount of solid waste to treat. Preliminary studies have identified the primary circuit high-flow filters of the 1300/1450 MWe reactors as the main source of this increase. Not only has this stretched of solid waste containers production to the limit, as well as strained site resources and increased risks of operational errors during periods of frequent filter changes; it has also suggested that there is an underlying problem that could pose a serious risk to the primary circuit if untreated. Further studies have been carried out to identify more precisely the impact of possible causes, including increased quality surveillance of the filters, correlation of consumption data with the concentrations of various conditioning products and typical pollutants, and an impact analysis of events such as steam generator replacements or new practices like zinc injection. Work has been done with the filter manufacturer to improve their service lifetime and a simulation tool has been developed in order to understand and optimise filtration. We are also working with sites on creating good practices and avoiding bad ones. These actions should reduce the consumption in the short term while still assuring a high quality of filtration and

  6. Modeling Adsorption Based Filters (Bio-remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Water)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Chris

    I will discuss kinetic models of adsorption, as well as models of filters based on those mechanisms. These mathematical models have been developed in support of our interdisciplinary lab group, which is centered at BMCC/CUNY (City University of New York). Our group conducts research into bio-remediation of heavy metal contaminated water via filtration. The filters are constructed out of biomass, such as spent tea leaves. The spent tea leaves are available in large quantities as a result of the industrial production of tea beverages. The heavy metals bond with the surfaces of the tea leaves (adsorption). The models involve differential equations, stochastic methods, and recursive functions. I will compare the models' predictions to data obtained from computer simulations and experimentally by our lab group. Funding: CUNY Collaborative Incentive Research Grant (Round 12); CUNY Research Scholars Program.

  7. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated abattoir wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannoun, H.; Bouallagui, H.; Okbi, A.; Sayadi, S.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrolysis pretreatment of abattoir wastewaters (AW), rich in organic suspended solids (fats and protein) was studied in static and stirred batch reactors without aeration in the presence of natural microbial population acclimated in a storage tank of AW. Microbial analysis showed that the major populations which contribute to the pretreatment of AW belong to the genera Bacillus. Contrary to the static pretreatment, the stirred conditions favoured the hydrolysis and solubilization of 80% of suspended matter into soluble pollution. The pretreated AW, in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days, was fed to an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) at an HRT of 2 days. The performance of anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated AW was examined under mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. The shifting from a mesophilic to a thermophilic environment in the UAF was carried out with a short start-up of thermophilic condition. The UAF ran at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.9 to 6 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions and at OLRs from 0.9 to 9 g COD/L d in thermophilic conditions. COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% were achieved for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions, while the highest OLRs i.e. 9 g COD/L d led to efficiencies of 70-72% in thermophilic conditions. The biogas yield in thermophilic conditions was about 0.32-0.45 L biogas/g of COD removed for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d. For similar OLR, the UAF in mesophilic conditions showed lower percentage of methanization. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been shown to destroy pathogens partially, whereas the thermophilic process was more efficient in the removal of indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria at different organic loading rates.

  8. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, James A; Holt, David W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line.

  9. Substrate removal kinetics in high-rate upflow anaerobic filters packed with low-density polyethylene media treating high-strength agro-food wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Torrijos, Michel; Kumar, Pradeep; Mehrotra, Indu

    2013-02-15

    The process kinetics for two upflow anaerobic filters (UAFs) treating high strength fruit canning and cheese-dairy wastewaters as feed were investigated. The experimental unit consisted of a 10-L (effective volume) reactor filled with low-density polyethylene media. COD removal efficiencies of about 80% were recorded at the maximum OLRs of 19 and 17 g COD L(-1) d(-1) for the fruit canning and cheese-dairy wastewaters, respectively. Modified Stover-Kincannon and second-order kinetic models were applied to data obtained from the experimental studies in order to determine the substrate removal kinetics. According to Stover-Kincannon model, U(max) and K(B) values were estimated as 109.9 and 109.7 g L(-1) d(-1) for fruit canning, and 53.5 and 49.7 g L(-1) d(-1) for cheese dairy wastewaters, respectively. The second order substrate removal rate k(2(s)) was found to be 5.0 and 1.93 d(-1) respectively for fruit canning and cheese dairy wastewaters. As both these models gave high correlation coefficients (R(2) = 98-99%), they could be used in predicting the behaviour or design of the UAF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of Heavy Metals from Synthesis Industrial Wastewater Using Local Isolated Candida Utilis and Aspergillus Niger as Bio-Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Safaa Abd Alrasool Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this study biomass filter of Candida Utilis which isolated from food sample in Baghdad local market and Aspergillus Niger which isolated from Baghdad soil used to biosorption heavy metals from synthesis industrial wastewater. two bio-filters were designed as cylindrical Perspex with height 10cm, diameter 3cm as a shell and inside their are layers of Sponge were prepare as the size of diameter of the cylindrical filter with thickness of 2cm arrange inside it, biomass production were 6 g of ...

  11. Culture scale-up and immobilisation of a mixed methanotrophic consortium for methane remediation in pilot-scale bio-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Saravanan, Nadarajan; Cirés, Samuel; Alvarez-Roa, Carlos; Razaghi, Ali; Chidambarampadmavathy, Karthigeyan; Velu, Chinnathambi; Subashchandrabose, Gobalakrishnan; Heimann, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    Robust methanotrophic consortia for methane (CH 4 ) remediation and by-product development are presently not readily available for industrial use. In this study, a mixed methanotrophic consortium (MMC), sequentially enriched from a marine sediment, was assessed for CH 4 removal efficiency and potential biomass-generated by-product development. Suitable packing material for bio-filters to support MMC biofilm establishment and growth was also evaluated. The enriched MMC removed ∼7-13% CH 4 under a very high gas flow rate (2.5 L min -1 ; 20-25% CH 4 ) in continuous-stirred tank reactors (∼10 L working volume) and the biomass contained long-chain fatty acids (i.e. C 16 and C 18 ). Cultivation of the MMC on plastic bio-balls abated ∼95-97% CH 4 in pilot-scale non-sterile outdoor-operated bio-filters (0.1 L min -1 ; 1% CH 4 ). Contamination by cyanobacteria had beneficial effects on treating low-level CH 4 , by providing additional oxygen for methane oxidation by MMC, suggesting that the co-cultivation of MMC with cyanobacterial mats does not interfere with and may actually be beneficial for remediation of CH 4 and CO 2 at industrial scale.

  12. Subarcsecond bright points and quasi-periodic upflows below a quiescent filament observed by IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Zhang, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The new Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission provides high-resolution observations of UV spectra and slit-jaw images (SJIs). These data have become available for investigating the dynamic features in the transition region (TR) below the on-disk filaments. Aims: The driver of "counter-streaming" flows along the filament spine is still unknown yet. The magnetic structures and the upflows at the footpoints of the filaments and their relations with the filament mainbody have not been well understood. We study the dynamic evolution at the footpoints of filaments in order to find some clues for solving these questions. Methods: Using UV spectra and SJIs from the IRIS, along with coronal images and magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we present the new features in a quiescent filament channel: subarcsecond bright points (BPs) and quasi-periodic upflows. Results: The BPs in the TR have a spatial scale of about 350-580 km and lifetimes of more than several tens of minutes. They are located at stronger magnetic structures in the filament channel with a magnetic flux of about 1017-1018 Mx. Quasi-periodic brightenings and upflows are observed in the BPs, and the period is about 4-5 min. The BP and the associated jet-like upflow comprise a "tadpole-shaped" structure. The upflows move along bright filament threads, and their directions are almost parallel to the spine of the filament. The upflows initiated from the BPs with opposite polarity magnetic fields have opposite directions. The velocity of the upflows in the plane of sky is about 5-50 km s-1. The emission line of Si IV 1402.77 Å at the locations of upflows exhibits obvious blueshifts of about 5-30 km s-1, and the line profile is broadened with the width of more than 20 km s-1. Conclusions: The BPs seem to be the bases of filament threads, and the upflows are able to convey mass for the dynamic balance of the filament. The "counter-streaming" flows in previous observations

  13. Mass upflows in 'post'-flare loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, T.G.; Priest, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    A self-consistent numerical model of a reconnecting magnetic field configuration similar to that occurring during the main-phase of two-ribbon flares is used to estimate the upflow caused by the fast-mode expansion of the magnetic field moving into the reconnection region. Such an expansion creates a field-aligned pressure gradient which accelerates plasma upward from the chromospheric base of magnetic field lines in the region external to the loops. The numerical results imply that the amount of mass sucked up in this way is even smaller than was previously estimated by Kopp and Pneuman who used a kinematic model. Therefore, some indirect mechanism (such as evaporation), which would probably derive its motive power from the thermal energy generated by the reconnection, is required to explain the large mass upflows inferred from observations. (orig.)

  14. Ion upflow and downflow at the topside ionosphere observed by the EISCAT VHF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Endo

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the MLT distribution and KP dependence of the ion upflow and downflow of the thermal bulk oxygen ion population based on a data analysis using the EISCAT VHF radar CP-7 data obtained at Tromsø during the period between 1990 and 1996: (1 both ion upflow and downflow events can be observed at any local time (MLT, irrespective of dayside and nightside, and under any magnetic disturbance level, irrespective of quiet and disturbed levels; (2 these upflow and downflow events are more frequently observed in the nightside than in the dayside; (3 the upflow events are more frequently observed than the downflow events at any local time except midnight and at any KP level and the difference of the occurrence frequencies between the upflow and downflow events is smaller around midnight; and (4 the occurrence frequencies of both the ion upflow and downflow events appear to increase with increasing KP level, while the occurrence frequency of the downflow appears to stop increasing at some KP level.Key words: Ionosphere (particle acceleration; plasma waves and instabilities - Space plasma physics (transport processes

  15. Suitability assessment of grey water quality treated with an upflow-downflow siliceous sand/marble waste filtration system for agricultural and industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Safa; Riahi, Khalifa; Hamrouni, Hédi; Thayer, Béchir Ben

    2017-04-01

    The present study examines the suitability assessment of an upflow-downflow siliceous sand/marble waste filtration system for treatment and reuse of grey water collected from bathrooms of the student residential complex at the Higher Institute of Engineering Medjez El Bab (Tunisia). Once the optimization of grey water pre-treatment system has been determined, the filtration system was operated at different hydraulic loading rate and media filter proportions in order to assess the suitability of treated grey water for irrigational purpose according to salinity hazard, sodium hazard, magnesium hazard, permeability index, water infiltration rate, and widely used graphical methods. Suitability of the treated grey water for industrial purpose was evaluated in terms of foaming, corrosion, and scaling. Under optimal operational conditions, results reveals that treated grey water samples with an upflow-downflow siliceous sand/marble waste filtration system may be considered as a good and an excellent water quality suitable for irrigation purpose. However, treated grey water was found not appropriate for industrial purpose due to high concentrations of calcium and sodium that can generate foaming and scaling harm to boilers. These results suggest that treated grey water with an upflow-downflow siliceous sand/marble waste filtration system would support production when used as irrigation water.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier via a virtual circuit approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chiarantoni, Ernesto; Aquila, Antonio Dell’

    2004-01-01

    Three-phase active rectifiers based on the voltage source converter topology can successfully replace traditional thyristor based rectifiers or diode bridge plus chopper in interfacing dc-systems to the grid. However, if the application in which they are employed has a high safety issue......, to the grid side stiffness and to the parameters of the controller has never been detailed considered. In this paper the experimental results of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier are analysed with the circuit theory approach. A ?virtual circuit? is synthesized in role of the digital controller...

  17. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A reconfigurable analog baseband circuit for WLAN, WCDMA, and Bluetooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tong; Baoyong, Chi; Ziqiang, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Hanjun, Jiang; Zhihua, Wang

    2010-05-01

    A reconfigurable analog baseband circuit for WLAN, WCDMA, and Bluetooth in 0.35 μm CMOS is presented. The circuit consists of two variable gain amplifiers (VGA) in cascade and a Gm-C elliptic low-pass filter (LPF). The filter-order and the cut-off frequency of the LPF can be reconfigured to satisfy the requirements of various applications. In order to achieve the optimum power consumption, the bandwidth of the VGAs can also be dynamically reconfigured and some Gm cells can be cut off in the given application. Simulation results show that the analog baseband circuit consumes 16.8 mW for WLAN, 8.9 mW for WCDMA and only 6.5 mW for Bluetooth, all with a 3 V power supply. The analog baseband circuit could provide -10 to +40 dB variable gain, third-order low pass filtering with 1 MHz cut-off frequency for Bluetooth, fourth-order low pass filtering with 2.2 MHz cut-off frequency for WCDMA, and fifth-order low pass filtering with 11 MHz cut-off frequency for WLAN, respectively.

  18. BioCMOS Interfaces and Co-Design

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    The application of CMOS circuits and ASIC VLSI systems to problems in medicine and system biology has led to the emergence of Bio/CMOS Interfaces and Co-Design as an exciting and rapidly growing area of research. The mutual inter-relationships between VLSI-CMOS design and the biophysics of molecules interfacing with silicon and/or onto metals has led to the emergence of the interdisciplinary engineering approach to Bio/CMOS interfaces. This new approach, facilitated by 3D circuit design and nanotechnology, has resulted in new concepts and applications for VLSI systems in the bio-world. This book offers an invaluable reference to the state-of-the-art in Bio/CMOS interfaces. It describes leading-edge research in the field of CMOS design and VLSI development for applications requiring integration of biological molecules onto the chip. It provides multidisciplinary content ranging from biochemistry to CMOS design in order to address Bio/CMOS interface co-design in bio-sensing applications.

  19. The electrocardiogram as an electronic filter and why ac circuits are important for pre-health physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Justin C.; Kutschera, Ellynne; Van Ness, Grace R.; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We present a general physics laboratory exercise that centres around the use of the electrocardiogram sensor as an application of circuits and electronic signal filtering. Although these topics are commonly taught in the general physics classroom, many students consider topics such as alternating current as unrelated to their future professions. This exercise provides the motivation for life science and pre-health majors to learn concepts such as voltage, resistance, alternating and direct current, RLC circuits, as well as signal and noise, in an introductory undergraduate physics lab.

  20. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in domestic wastewater and their removal in anaerobic treatment systems: septic tank - upflow anaerobic filter

    OpenAIRE

    Arrubla, Juan Pablo; Cubillos, Janneth A.; Ramírez Vargas, Carlos Andrés; Arredondo, Jhon Alexander; Arias, Carlos A.; Paredes, Diego

    2016-01-01

    In several countries around the world, Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) exist in aquatic environments, a fact that increases the awareness within the scientific community with respect to their possible fate and environment effects. This research presents a preliminary monitoring of use, consumption and presence of PPCPs in wastewater from a treatment plant in a rural area of Pereira (Colombia). Domestic sewage is treated in a septic tank followed by an Up-Flow Anaerobic Filte...

  1. Hydrogen production from rice winery wastewater in an upflow anaerobic reactor by using mixed anaerobic cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanqing Yu; Zhenhu Zhu [University of Science and Technology, Hefei, Anhui (China). School of Chemistry and Materials; Wenrong Hu [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Resources and Environmental Engineering; Haisheng Zhang [Jingzi Wine Distillery Company, Shandong (China)

    2002-12-01

    Continuous production of hydrogen from the anaerobic acidogenesis of a high-strength rice winery wastewater by a mixed bacterial flora was demonstrated. The experiment was conducted in a 3.0-l upflow reactor to investigate individual effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2-24 h), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in wastewater (14-36 g COD/l), pH (4.5-6.0) and temperature (20-55{sup o}C) on bio-hydrogen production from the wastewater. The biogas produced under all test conditions was composed of mostly hydrogen (53-61%) and carbon dioxide (37-45%), but contained no detectable methane. Specific hydrogen production rate increased with wastewater concentration and temperature, but with a decrease in HRT. An optimum hydrogen production rate of 9.33 lH{sub 2}/gVSSd was achieved at an HRT of 2 h, COD of 34 g/l, pH 5.5 and 55{sup o}C. The hydrogen yield was in the range of 1.37-2.14 mol/mol-hexose. In addition to acetate, propionate and butyrate, ethanol was also present in the effluent as an aqueous product. The distribution of these compounds in the effluent was more sensitive to wastewater concentration, pH and temperature, but was less sensitive to HRT. This upflow reactor was shown to be a promising biosystem for hydrogen production from high-strength wastewaters by mixed anaerobic cultures. (Author)

  2. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  3. The Electrocardiogram as an Electronic Filter and Why AC Circuits Are Important for Pre-Health Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Justin C.; Kutschera, Ellynne; Van Ness, Grace R.; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We present a general physics laboratory exercise that centres around the use of the electrocardiogram sensor as an application of circuits and electronic signal filtering. Although these topics are commonly taught in the general physics classroom, many students consider topics such as alternating current as unrelated to their future professions.…

  4. The permanent NdFeB magnets in the circuits for magnetic filters and the first technological tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav; Straka, Pavel; Mucha, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2005), s. 31-39 ISSN 0301-7516 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3046004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : magnetic circuit * magnetic filter * rare earth magnets ( NdFeB ) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2005

  5. Kalman Filtered Bio Heat Transfer Model Based Self-adaptive Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxin; Chen, Shuo; Deng, Kexin; Chen, Bingyao; Wei, Xing; Yang, Jiafei; Wang, Shi; Ying, Kui

    2017-01-01

    To develop a self-adaptive and fast thermometry method by combining the original hybrid magnetic resonance thermometry method and the bio heat transfer equation (BHTE) model. The proposed Kalman filtered Bio Heat Transfer Model Based Self-adaptive Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Thermometry, abbreviated as KalBHT hybrid method, introduced the BHTE model to synthesize a window on the regularization term of the hybrid algorithm, which leads to a self-adaptive regularization both spatially and temporally with change of temperature. Further, to decrease the sensitivity to accuracy of the BHTE model, Kalman filter is utilized to update the window at each iteration time. To investigate the effect of the proposed model, computer heating simulation, phantom microwave heating experiment and dynamic in-vivo model validation of liver and thoracic tumor were conducted in this study. The heating simulation indicates that the KalBHT hybrid algorithm achieves more accurate results without adjusting λ to a proper value in comparison to the hybrid algorithm. The results of the phantom heating experiment illustrate that the proposed model is able to follow temperature changes in the presence of motion and the temperature estimated also shows less noise in the background and surrounding the hot spot. The dynamic in-vivo model validation with heating simulation demonstrates that the proposed model has a higher convergence rate, more robustness to susceptibility problem surrounding the hot spot and more accuracy of temperature estimation. In the healthy liver experiment with heating simulation, the RMSE of the hot spot of the proposed model is reduced to about 50% compared to the RMSE of the original hybrid model and the convergence time becomes only about one fifth of the hybrid model. The proposed model is able to improve the accuracy of the original hybrid algorithm and accelerate the convergence rate of MR temperature estimation.

  6. Two-Dimensional Planar Lightwave Circuit Integrated Spatial Filter Array and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun (Inventor); Dimov, Fedor (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A large coherent two-dimensional (2D) spatial filter array (SFA), 30 by 30 or larger, is produced by coupling a 2D planar lightwave circuit (PLC) array with a pair of lenslet arrays at the input and output side. The 2D PLC array is produced by stacking a plurality of chips, each chip with a plural number of straight PLC waveguides. A pupil array is coated onto the focal plane of the lenslet array. The PLC waveguides are produced by deposition of a plural number of silica layers on the silicon wafer, followed by photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE) processes. A plural number of mode filters are included in the silica-on-silicon waveguide such that the PLC waveguide is transparent to the fundamental mode but higher order modes are attenuated by 40 dB or more.

  7. Computerized tomographic scanner with shaped radiation filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Walters, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention comprises a shaped filter and a filter correction circuitry for computerized tomographic scanners. The shaped filter is a generally u-shaped block of filter material which is adapted to be mounted between the source of radiation and the scan circle. The u-shaped block has a parabolic recess. The filter material may be beryllium, aluminum, sulphur, calcium, titanium, erbium, copper, and compounds including oxides and alloys thereof. The filter correction circuit comprises a first filter correction profile adding circuit for adding a first scaler valve to each intensity valve in a data line. The data line is operated on by a beam hardness correction polynomial. After the beam hardness polynomial correction operation, a second filter correction circuit adds a second filter correction profile consisting of a table of scalor values, one corresponding to each intensity reading in the data line

  8. Photoelectrochemical Complexes of Fucoxanthin-Chlorophyll Protein for Bio-Photovoltaic Conversion with a High Open-Circuit Photovoltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianning; Liu, Cheng; Dong, Wenjing; Wang, Wenda; Sun, Yan; Chen, Xin; Yang, Chunhong; Dai, Ning

    2017-12-05

    Open-circuit photovoltage (V oc ) is among the critical parameters for achieving an efficient light-to-charge conversion in existing solar photovoltaic devices. Natural photosynthesis exploits light-harvesting chlorophyll (Chl) protein complexes to transfer sunlight energy efficiently. We describe the exploitation of photosynthetic fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein (FCP) complexes for realizing photoelectrochemical cells with a high V oc . An antenna-dependent photocurrent response and a V oc up to 0.72 V are observed and demonstrated in the bio-photovoltaic devices fabricated with photosynthetic FCP complexes and TiO 2 nanostructures. Such high V oc is determined by fucoxanthin in FCP complexes, and is rarely found in photoelectrochemical cells with other natural light-harvesting antenna. We think that the FCP-based bio-photovoltaic conversion will provide an opportunity to fabricate environmental benign photoelectrochemical cells with high V oc , and also help improve the understanding of the essential physics behind the light-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Microwave bio-sensor based on symmetrical split ring resonator with spurline filters for therapeutic goods detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammah A Alahnomi

    Full Text Available A novel symmetrical split ring resonator (SSRR based microwave sensor with spurline filters for detecting and characterizing the properties of solid materials has been developed. Due to the weak perturbation in the interaction of material under test (MUT and planar microwave sensor, spurline filters were embedded to the SSRR microwave sensor which effectively enhanced Q-factor with suppressing the undesired harmonic frequency. The spurline filter structures force the presented sensor to resonate at a fundamental frequency of 2.2 GHz with the capabilities of suppressing rejected harmonic frequency and miniaturization in circuit size. A wide bandwidth rejection is achieved by using double spurlines filters with high Q-factor achievement (up to 652.94 compared to single spurline filter. The new SSRR sensor with spurline filters displayed desired properties such as high sensitivity, accuracy, and performance with a 1.3% typical percentage error in the measurement results. Furthermore, the sensor has been successfully applied for detecting and characterizing solid materials (such as Roger 5880, Roger 4350, and FR4 and evidently demonstrated that it can suppress the harmonic frequency effectively. This novel design with harmonic suppression is useful for various applications such as food industry (meat, fruit, vegetables, biological medicine (derived from proteins and other substances produced by the body, and Therapeutic goods (antiseptics, vitamins, anti-psychotics, and other medicines.

  10. A bio-inspired spatial patterning circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Yuan; Joe, Danial J; Shealy, James B; Land, Bruce R; Shen, Xiling

    2014-01-01

    Lateral Inhibition (LI) is a widely conserved patterning mechanism in biological systems across species. Distinct from better-known Turing patterns, LI depend on cell-cell contact rather than diffusion. We built an in silico genetic circuit model to analyze the dynamic properties of LI. The model revealed that LI amplifies differences between neighboring cells to push them into opposite states, hence forming stable 2-D patterns. Inspired by this insight, we designed and implemented an electronic circuit that recapitulates LI patterning dynamics. This biomimetic system serve as a physical model to elucidate the design principle of generating robust patterning through spatial feedback, regardless of the underlying devices being biological or electrical.

  11. Eyes Matched to the Prize: The State of Matched Filters in Insect Visual Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Jessica R; Heath, Sarah L; Behnia, Rudy

    2018-01-01

    Confronted with an ever-changing visual landscape, animals must be able to detect relevant stimuli and translate this information into behavioral output. A visual scene contains an abundance of information: to interpret the entirety of it would be uneconomical. To optimally perform this task, neural mechanisms exist to enhance the detection of important features of the sensory environment while simultaneously filtering out irrelevant information. This can be accomplished by using a circuit design that implements specific "matched filters" that are tuned to relevant stimuli. Following this rule, the well-characterized visual systems of insects have evolved to streamline feature extraction on both a structural and functional level. Here, we review examples of specialized visual microcircuits for vital behaviors across insect species, including feature detection, escape, and estimation of self-motion. Additionally, we discuss how these microcircuits are modulated to weigh relevant input with respect to different internal and behavioral states.

  12. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for treatment of composite ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Granules grown in the bottom part of UASB reactor were more compact and tense ...

  13. Experiments and modelling on biomass transport inside upflow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the experimental and theoretical activities developed to study the biomass transport phenomena occurring in upflow anaerobic reactors influencing the biomass washout. Particularly, the experimental investigations have been carried out on a full-scale ABR and on a pilot UASB intermittently fed with ...

  14. Design of Microwave Multibandpass Filters with Quasilumped Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Miljanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of RF and microwave filters has always been the challenging engineering field. Modern filter design techniques involve the use of the three-dimensional electromagnetic (3D EM solvers for predicting filter behavior, yielding the most accurate filter characteristics. However, the 3D EM simulations are time consuming. In this paper, we propose electric-circuit models, instead of 3D EM models, suitable for design of RF and microwave filters with quasilumped coupled resonators. Using the diakoptic approach, the 3D filter structure is decomposed into domains that are modeled by electric networks. The coupling between these domains is modeled by capacitors and coupled inductors. Furthermore, we relate the circuit-element values to the physical dimensions of the 3D filter structure. We propose the filter design procedure that is based on the circuit models and fast circuit-level simulations, yielding the element values from which the physical dimensions can be obtained. The obtained dimensions should be slightly refined for achieving the desired filter characteristics. The mathematical problems encountered in the procedure are solved by numerical and symbolic computations. The procedure is exemplified by designing a triple-bandpass filter and validated by measurements on the fabricated filter. The simulation and experimental results are in good agreement.

  15. Occurrence rate of ion upflow and downflow observed by the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, S.; Lu, J.; Varney, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence rate of ion upflow and downflow events in the auroral ionosphere, using a full 3-year (2011-2013) dataset collected by the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) at 65.5° magnetic latitude. Ion upflow and downflow events are defined if there are three consecutive data points larger/smaller than 100/-100 m/s in the ion field-aligned velocity altitude profile. Their occurrence rates have been evaluated as a function of magnetic local time (MLT), season, geomagnetic activity, solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We found that the ion upflows are twice more likely to occur on the nightside than the dayside, and have slightly higher occurrence rate near Fall equinox. In contrast, the ion downflow events are more likely to occur in the afternoon sector but also during Fall equinox. In addition, the occurrence rate of ion upflows on the nightside increases when the aurora electrojet index (AE) and planetary K index (Kp) increase, while the downflows measured on the dayside clearly increase as the AE and Kp increase. In general, the occurrence rate of ion upflows increases with enhanced solar wind and IMF drivers. This correlation is particularly strong between the upflows on the nightside and the solar wind dynamic pressure and IMF Bz. The lack of correlation of upflows on the dayside with these parameters is due to the location of PFISR, which is usually equatorward of the dayside auroral zone and within the nightside auroral zone under disturbed conditions. The occurrence rate of downflow at all MLTs does not show strong dependence on the solar wind and IMF conditions. However, it occurs much more frequently on the dayside when the IMF By is strongly positive, i.e., >10 nT and the IMF Bz is strongly negative, i.e., < -10 nT. We suggest that the increased occurrence rate of downflows on the dayside is associated with dayside storm-enhanced density and the plume.

  16. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  17. Design of nuclear pulse shaped circuit based on proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qianqian; Cheng Yi; Tuo Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Use the self-developed proportional to sample gas tritium in environment and make the measurement. For this detector, a kind of pulse shape circuit based on second order active low pass filtering circuit realized filtering and shaping nuclear pulse by high-speed operational amplifier, with less stages that has been approved for filter Gaussian wave. Use Multisim 10.0 to simulate the different parameters of the filter circuit. The simulation result was consistent with the theoretical results. The experiments proved the feasibility of this circuit, and at the same time provided a convenient and reliable method for analysis and optimization of the nuclear pulse waveform in order for discriminating by MCA. (authors)

  18. Transformation of tetrachloroethene in an upflow anaerobic sludgeblanket reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, N.; Christensen, S.R.; Arvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene was studied in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Operating the reactor in batch mode the dynamic transformation of tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene and dichloroethene (DCE) was monitored. Tetrachloroethene was reductively...... methane-producing bacteria were inhibited by the chlorinated ethenes....

  19. Multistage parallel-serial time averaging filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodosiou, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Here, a new time averaging circuit design, the 'parallel filter' is presented, which can reduce the time jitter, introduced in time measurements using counters of large dimensions. This parallel filter could be considered as a single stage unit circuit which can be repeated an arbitrary number of times in series, thus providing a parallel-serial filter type as a result. The main advantages of such a filter over a serial one are much less electronic gate jitter and time delay for the same amount of total time uncertainty reduction. (orig.)

  20. BioRadioTransmitter: a self-powered wireless glucose-sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2011-09-01

    Although an enzyme fuel cell can be utilized as a glucose sensor, the output power generated is too low to power a device such as a currently available transmitter and operating system, and an external power source is required for operating an enzyme-fuel-cell-based biosensing system. We proposed a novel biosensor that we named BioCapacitor, in which a capacitor serves as a transducer. In this study, we constructed a new BioCapacitor-based system with an added radio-transmitter circuit and a miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A miniaturized direct-electron-transfer-type compartmentless enzyme fuel cell was constructed with flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex-based anode and a bilirubin-oxidase-based cathode. For construction of a BioRadioTransmitter wireless sensing system, a capacitor, an ultra-low-voltage charge-pump-integrated circuit, and Hartley oscillator circuit were connected to the miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A radio-receiver circuit, comprising two field-effect transistors and a coil as an antenna, was used to amplify the signal generated from the biofuel cells. Radio wave signals generated by the BioRadioTransmitter were received, amplified, and converted from alternate to direct current by the radio receiver. When the capacitor discharges in the presence of glucose, the BioRadioTransmitter generates a radio wave, which is monitored by a radio receiver connected wirelessly to the sensing device. Magnitude of the radio wave transmission frequency change observed at the radio receiver was correlated to glucose concentration in the fuel cells. We constructed a stand-alone, self-powered, wireless glucose-sensing system called a BioRadioTransmitter by using a radio transmitter in which the radio wave transmission frequency changes with the glucose concentration in the fuel cell. The BioRadioTransmitter is a significant advance toward construction of an implantable continuous glucose monitor. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Modern analog filter analysis and design a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Raut, R

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the fundamentals, the present book describes methods of designing analog electronic filters and illustrates these methods by providing numerical and circuit simulation programs. The subject matters comprise many concepts and techniques that are not available in other text books on the market. To name a few - principle of transposition and its application in directly realizing current mode filters from well known voltage mode filters; an insight into the technological aspect of integrated circuit components used to implement an integrated circuit filter; a careful blending of basi

  2. Application of Memristors in Microwave Passive Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Potrebic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent implementation of the fourth fundamental electric circuit element, the memristor, opened new vistas in many fields of engineering applications. In this paper, we explore several RF/microwave passive circuits that might benefit from the memristor salient characteristics. We consider a power divider, coupled resonator bandpass filters, and a low-reflection quasi-Gaussian lowpass filter with lossy elements. We utilize memristors as configurable linear resistors and we propose memristor-based bandpass filters that feature suppression of parasitic frequency pass bands and widening of the desired rejection band. The simulations are performed in the time domain, using LTspice, and the RF/microwave circuits under consideration are modeled by ideal elements available in LTspice.

  3. Concilier cantine bio et agriculture locale, les voies possibles

    OpenAIRE

    Aubry, Christine

    2012-01-01

    revue en ligne; Les cantines bio peinent souvent à concilier produits bio et circuits courts. Face au risque de « dilution de l’esprit pionnier », des expériences récentes montrent que le recours à des intermédiaires dans la chaîne agroalimentaire peut constituer une voie de diffusion du bio dans les cantines.

  4. Anaerobic acidification of glucose in an upflow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoetemeyer, R J; Matthijsen, A J.C.M.; Van den Heuvel, J C; Cohen, A; Boelhouwer, C

    1982-01-01

    Glucose (10 and 50 kg/cubic meters) was effectively biodegraded to mainly butyrate, lactate, and acetate in an anaerobic upflow reactor at minimum residence times of 26 and 82 minutes, respectivelyly. Sludge granulation occurred at residence times of 1 and 6 hours, respective, which increased biomass retention. Maximum glucose conversion was 450 and 630 kg/cubic meters-day.

  5. Bio-politics Reflexes” or something about what happens with Bio-politics today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorella Manolache

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the pressure dictated by Western modernity movements, life finally enters within strategic (long term relationships circuit. The present study establishes that, bio-politics and bio-power denounces the paradigm of politicization of the biological life. Foucault’s late writings confirm the subordination of bio-politics to the technologies of power, which integrate / reduce life to biological continuity of the species, to the objectification of individual body or investigation of self-techniques, that would allow (beyond the corset of the institutional, the (re affirmation of subjectivity as a force or a form of resistance. The present reactivation of the bio model establishes that we cannot evade Foucault’s view, in which, the biology- meeting – politics confirms that, none of the terms no longer retains its original meaning.

  6. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.

    1999-01-01

    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications.......Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  7. Process contribution evaluation for COD removal and energy production from molasses wastewater in a BioH2-BioCH4-MFC-integrated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeonghee; Lee, Yun-Yeong; Choi, Hyung Joo; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a three-stage-integrated process using the hydrogenic process (BioH 2 ), methanogenic process (BioCH 4 ), and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was operated using molasses wastewater. The contribution of individual processes to chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy production was evaluated. The three-stage integration system was operated at molasses of 20 g-COD L -1 , and each process achieved hydrogen production rate of 1.1 ± 0.24 L-H 2 L -1 day -1 , methane production rate of 311 ± 18.94 mL-CH 4 L -1 day -1 , and production rate per electrode surface area of 10.8 ± 1.4 g m -2 day -1 . The three-stage integration system generated energy production of 32.32 kJ g-COD -1 and achieved COD removal of 98 %. The contribution of BioH 2 , BioCH 4 , and the MFC reactor was 20.8, 72.2, and, 7.0 % of the total COD removal, and 18.7, 81.2, and 0.16 % of the total energy production, respectively. The continuous stirred-tank reactor BioH 2 at HRT of 1 day, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket BioCH 4 at HRT of 2 days, and MFC reactor at HRT of 3 days were decided in 1:2:3 ratios of working volume under hydraulic retention time consideration. This integration system can be applied to various configurations depending on target wastewater inputs, and it is expected to enhance energy recovery and reduce environmental impact of the final effluent.

  8. Role of electromagnetic filter in limitating radioactivity in the primary circuits of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.

    1978-01-01

    High temperature electromagnetic filtration of particulate corrosion products can be carried out with discharges up to 5% of the cooling flow rate. It allows efficient extraction of particulate matter which rate constants required for considerable reduction of activable crud deposition in the core. The paper holds a review of the preventing operation in the primary circuit of a PWR, and reports experimental results of efficiency measurments with an electromagnetic filter set in out-of-pile and in-pile pressurized water loops. The notable efficiencies towards radioactive fine grain and colloidal matter justify more extensive reactor scale application experiments. (author)

  9. Role of electromagnetic filter in limitating radioactivity in the primary circuits of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.

    1978-01-01

    High temperature electromagnetic filtration of particulate corrosion products can be carried out with discharges up to 5% of the cooling flow rate. It allows efficient extraction of particulate matter with rate constants required for considerable reduction of activable crud deposition in the core. The paper holds a review of the preventing operation in the primary circuit of a PWR, and reports experimental results of efficiency measurements with an electromagnetic filter set in out-of-pile and in-pile pressurized water loops. The notable efficiencies towards radioactive fine grain and colloidal matter justify more extensive reactor scale application experiments

  10. Series active power filter in power conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turunen, J.

    2009-07-01

    Power quality has become an important issue nowadays for several reasons, e.g. modern society's growing dependence on electricity and the fact that poor power quality may generate significant economic losses in few moments. Probable power quality problems are, e.g. harmonics, flicker, voltage dips and supply interruptions. The power quality may be improved by using filters and compensators.The purpose of this thesis is to research the operation of the series active power filter (SAPF) in power conditioning. Therefore, this thesis presents a comparison of three series hybrid active power filters (SHAPFs) in current harmonics filtering. In addition to this, it is shown how the voltage dip compensation performance of the SAPF is improved in a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) application.The three SHAPFs included in the comparison are series connected topology (SCT), filter connected topology (FCT) and electrically tuned LC shunt circuit (ETLC). The operating principle of these filters is to direct the harmonic currents produced by the load to flow in the LC shunt circuits instead of the supply. In the case of the SCT this phenomenon is boosted by applying so-called active resistance in the supply branch using the SAPF. In the case of the FCT a similar action is achieved by applying the compensation voltage in series with the LC shunt circuits using the SAPF. In the case of the ETLC the performance of the LC shunt circuit is enhanced by applying so-called active inductances in series with the LC shunt circuit using the SAPF. The SHAPFs are compared by searching for their best current filtering performance using various main circuit and control system configurations and loads. The operation of the SHAPFs is first analysed mathematically. After this, the current filtering performance of the SHAPFs is inspected using simulations and experimental tests. The experimental tests are carried out using SHAPF prototypes. As a result, it is shown that the current

  11. MOS voltage automatic tuning circuit

    OpenAIRE

    李, 田茂; 中田, 辰則; 松本, 寛樹

    2004-01-01

    Abstract ###Automatic tuning circuit adjusts frequency performance to compensate for the process variation. Phase locked ###loop (PLL) is a suitable oscillator for the integrated circuit. It is a feedback system that compares the input ###phase with the output phase. It can make the output frequency equal to the input frequency. In this paper, PLL ###fomed of MOSFET's is presented.The presented circuit consists of XOR circuit, Low-pass filter and Relaxation ###Oscillator. On PSPICE simulation...

  12. Treatment of grain distillation wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In operation of the full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) system at the Stellenbosch Farmers' Winery (SFW) Wellington distillery, a problem encountered in the treatment of grain distillation wastewater was the accumulation of a floating scum layer. On occasion this was so severe that it forced shutdown of the UASB ...

  13. A reconfigurable analog baseband circuit for WLAN, WCDMA, and Bluetooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Tao; Chi Baoyong; Wang Ziqiang; Zhang Ying; Jiang Hanjun; Wang Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    A reconfigurable analog baseband circuit for WLAN, WCDMA, and Bluetooth in 0.35 μm CMOS is presented. The circuit consists of two variable gain amplifiers (VGA) in cascade and a G m -C elliptic low-pass filter (LPF). The filter-order and the cut-off frequency of the LPF can be reconfigured to satisfy the requirements of various applications. In order to achieve the optimum power consumption, the bandwidth of the VGAs can also be dynamically reconfigured and some G m cells can be cut off in the given application. Simulation results show that the analog baseband circuit consumes 16.8 mW for WLAN, 8.9 mW for WCDMA and only 6.5 mW for Bluetooth, all with a 3 V power supply. The analog baseband circuit could provide -10 to +40 dB variable gain, third-order low pass filtering with 1 MHz cut-off frequency for Bluetooth, fourth-order low pass filtering with 2.2 MHz cut-off frequency for WCDMA, and fifth-order low pass filtering with 11 MHz cut-off frequency for WLAN, respectively. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. A reconfigurable analog baseband circuit for WLAN, WCDMA, and Bluetooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Tao; Chi Baoyong; Wang Ziqiang; Zhang Ying; Jiang Hanjun; Wang Zhihua, E-mail: tongt05@gmail.co [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-05-15

    A reconfigurable analog baseband circuit for WLAN, WCDMA, and Bluetooth in 0.35 {mu}m CMOS is presented. The circuit consists of two variable gain amplifiers (VGA) in cascade and a G{sub m}-C elliptic low-pass filter (LPF). The filter-order and the cut-off frequency of the LPF can be reconfigured to satisfy the requirements of various applications. In order to achieve the optimum power consumption, the bandwidth of the VGAs can also be dynamically reconfigured and some G{sub m} cells can be cut off in the given application. Simulation results show that the analog baseband circuit consumes 16.8 mW for WLAN, 8.9 mW for WCDMA and only 6.5 mW for Bluetooth, all with a 3 V power supply. The analog baseband circuit could provide -10 to +40 dB variable gain, third-order low pass filtering with 1 MHz cut-off frequency for Bluetooth, fourth-order low pass filtering with 2.2 MHz cut-off frequency for WCDMA, and fifth-order low pass filtering with 11 MHz cut-off frequency for WLAN, respectively. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Upflow anaerobic sludge reactors for the treatment of combined industrial effluent in subtropical conditions: a comparison between UASB and UASF reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, A.; Ahmad, N.; Chaudhry, M.N.; Sarwar, M.; Masood, T.; Yaqub, A.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of anaerobic biological process is heavily process conditions dependent. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of process conditions like temperature, sludge age and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the efficiency of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and upflow anaerobic sludge filter (UASF) to treat combined industrial wastewater. Reactors were operated at easing ambient temperatures (38, 30, 20 and 14 deg. C) and correspondingly increasing sludge ages (60, 90, 120 and 150 days). At temperature 38 deg. C and sludge age of 60 days, UASF showed better performance than VASE reactor. This mainly due to the enhanced filtration through well-graded sand filter and fairly good biological activity in UASF. At this stage, lack of sludge granulation in VASE reactor resulted in poor biological activity; hence, relatively poor performance. At temperatures 30 and 20 deg. C with sludge ages of 90 and 120 days, respectively, UASB gave better results than UASF. The reason was rapid biological degradation due to proper sludge granulation and favorable temperature. At temperature 14 deg. C, a substantial decrease in the efficiency of UASB reactor as compared to the UASF was evident. Drop in efficiency was because of inhabitation of methanogenic bacteria and liquidation of sludge granules. These factors mounted to a decrease in biological activity, stoppage as production and an increase in total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent. The influence of hydraulic retention time (ranging between 3-12 hours at an increment of 3 hours) on the removal efficiency of both UASB and UASF was not significant. At favorable temperature (20 to 30 deg. C) and sludge age (90 to 120 days) UASB reactor appeared to be more efficient than UASF.(author)

  16. Desenvolvimento e operação de reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB no tratamento dos efluentes da suinocultura em escala laboratorial Development and operation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB treating liquid effluent from swine manure in laboratory scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade suinícola vem, desde meados da década de 70, sendo uma das mais poluidoras atividades agroindustriais no Estado de Minas Gerais. Sendo assim, objetivou-se desenvolver um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo (UASB-Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket visando tratar os dejetos produzidos com máxima eficiência dentro de um tempo e com custo reduzidos. Para tanto um experimento em escala laboratorial foi projetado e monitorado no Laboratório de Análise de Água do Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (LAADEG, sendo composto por um Tanque de Acidificação e Equalização (TAE, um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo e uma Lagoa Aerada Facultativa (LAF, o qual foi alimentado com fluxo contínuo. As análises físico-químicas realizadas foram: DQO, DBO5, Sólidos Totais (Fixos e Voláteis, Temperatura, pH, Nitrogênio, Fósforo, Acidez e Alcalinidade Total. O sistema proporcionou eficiência de remoção média de 93% de DQO, 84% de DBO5 e 85% de Sólidos Totais Voláteis, demonstrando adequada adaptação aos diversos tempos de detenção hidráulica adotados (55, 40, 30, 25, 18 e 15 horas. Os parâmetros adotados na partida do reator UASB foram: COV: 1,11kgDQO.m-3.d-1, COB: 0,019 kgDBO5.kgSVT-1.d-1 e TDH: 55h.The swine production, since 70th , is one of the most pollutant agro-industrial activities in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The objective of this research was to develop an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB, aiming at treating the effluent generated within a maximum efficiency and minimum time and cost. Therefore, a lab-scale reactor was built up and monitored in the laboratory of Engineering Department at the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The system consisted of an Acidification and Equalization Tank (AET, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB, and an Aerated Facultative Pond (AFP. The system was fed continuously. The physical-chemical analyses carried out were: COD, BOD5, Total

  17. Adaptive noise reduction circuit for a sound reproduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise reduction circuit for a hearing aid having an adaptive filter for producing a signal which estimates the noise components present in an input signal. The circuit includes a second filter for receiving the noise-estimating signal and modifying it as a function of a user's preference or as a function of an expected noise environment. The circuit also includes a gain control for adjusting the magnitude of the modified noise-estimating signal, thereby allowing for the adjustment of the magnitude of the circuit response. The circuit also includes a signal combiner for combining the input signal with the adjusted noise-estimating signal to produce a noise reduced output signal.

  18. Perbandingan DED IPAL Anaerobic Filter dengan Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket untuk Tempat Pelelangan Ikan (TPI Sedati di Kabupaten Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmat Ridho Permata Putra Siregar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pengoperasian  tempat  pelelangan  ikan  (TPI  di  Kabupaten Sidoarjo  memberikan  dampak  positif  dan  negatif.  Salah  satu  dampak negatif yang ditimbulkan berupa timbulan limbah cair yang apabila tidak ditangani dengan tepat, maka akan mencemari lingkungan di sekitar TPI. Limbah  yang  dibuang  harus  memenuhi  baku  mutu  yang  diatur  dalamPeraturan Gubernur Jawa Timur No.72 Tahun 2013 tentang Baku Mutu Air Limbah bagi Industri dan/atau Kegiatan Usaha Lainnya. Oleh karena itu,  diperlukan  suatu  detailed  engineering  design (DED  instalasi pengolahan  air  limbah  (IPAL  yang  memadai,  yang  merupakan  tujuan tugas akhir (TA ini. Dalam TA ini, IPAL jenis  Anaerobic Filter(AF dan Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket(UASB, dibandingkan. Data  primer  pada  perencanaan  ini  adalah  data  pemakaian  air bersih dari TPI tiap bulan selama tahun 2015 serta data karakteristik air limbah, meliputi konsentrasi BOD, COD, TSS, dan Total N. Data sekunder meliputi  data  kualitas  dan  kuantitas  effluent  TPI  yang  diperoleh  dari analisis laboratorium. Perhitungan tiap sistem IPAL mengacu pada kriteria desain  sebagai  dasar  pembuatan  DED  dan  Rencana  Anggaran  Biaya (RAB  tiap  sistem  IPAL. Hasil  perhitungan  tiap  unit  IPAL  akan dibandingkan dari segi efisiensi penyisihan, luas lahan yang dibutuhkan, dan RAB.Hasil analisis kandungan air limbah adalah sebagai berikut, BOD = 894 mg/L, COD = 1443 mg/L, TSS = 280 mg/L, dan Total N = 423,9 mg/L. Hasil perhitungan desain AF adalah diperlukannya 2 kompartemen, demikian pula dengan sistem UASB. Efisiensi penyisihan BOD pada AF dan  UASB  bertutrut-turut  adalah  88,95%  dan  97,96%.  Sedangkan, efisiensi  COD  berturut-turut  adalah  89,68% dan  90,24%.  RAB  sistem IPAL  sebesar  Rp  59.609.889,-;  Sedangkan  sistem  UASB  sebesar  Rp 50.914.605,. Sehingga unit IPAL yang dipilih adalah sistem UASB.

  19. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  20. Estimation of the Diesel Particulate Filter Soot Load Based on an Equivalent Circuit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Du

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the diesel particulate filter (DPF soot load and improve the accuracy of regeneration timing, a novel method based on an equivalent circuit model is proposed based on the electric-fluid analogy. This proposed method can reduce the impact of the engine transient operation on the soot load, accurately calculate the flow resistance, and improve the estimation accuracy of the soot load. Firstly, the least square method is used to identify the flow resistance based on the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC test data, and the relationship between flow resistance, exhaust temperature and soot load is established. Secondly, the online estimation of the soot load is achieved by using the dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF. The results show that this method has good convergence and robustness with the maximal absolute error of 0.2 g/L at regeneration timing, which can meet engineering requirements. Additionally, this method can estimate the soot load under engine transient operating conditions and avoids a large number of experimental tests, extensive calibration and the analysis of complex chemical reactions required in traditional methods.

  1. On the Systematic Synthesis of OTA-Based KHN Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the nullor-mirror descriptions of OTA, the NAM expansion method for three different types of KHN filters employing OTAs is considered. The type-A filters employing five OTAs have 32 different forms, the type-B filters employing four OTAs have 32 different forms, and the type-C filters employing three OTAs have eight different forms. At last a total of 72 circuits are received. Having used canonic number of components, the circuits are easy to be integrated and both pole frequency and Q-factor can be tuned electronically through tuning bias currents of the OTAs. The MULTISIM simulation results have been included to verify the workability of the derived circuit.

  2. Instrumentation and test gear circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation and Test Gear Circuits Manual provides diagrams, graphs, tables, and discussions of several types of practical circuits. The practical circuits covered in this book include attenuators, bridges, scope trace doublers, timebases, and digital frequency meters. Chapter 1 discusses the basic instrumentation and test gear principles. Chapter 2 deals with the design of passive attenuators, and Chapter 3 with passive and active filter circuits. The subsequent chapters tackle 'bridge' circuits, analogue and digital metering techniques and circuitry, signal and waveform generation, and p

  3. RF and microwave coupled-line circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Mongia, R K; Bhartia, P; Hong, J; Gupta, K C

    2007-01-01

    This extensively revised edition of the 1999 Artech House classic, RF and Microwave Coupled-Line Circuits, offers you a thoroughly up-to-date understanding of coupled line fundamentals, explaining their applications in designing microwave and millimeter-wave components used in today's communications, microwave, and radar systems. The Second Edition includes a wealth of new material, particularly relating to applications. You find brand new discussions on a novel simple design technique for multilayer coupled circuits, high pass filters using coupled lines, software packages used for filter des

  4. A third-order active-R filter with feedforward input signal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    presented. This filter is useful for high frequency operation, monolithic IC imple- mentation and is easy to design. The single circuit gives three filter functions, low pass, high pass and band pass. This filter circuit can be used for different Q and f0 with high passband gain. This gives better stop band attenuation and sharper.

  5. OTRA-Based Multi-Function Inverse Filter Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdhesh Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new OTRA-based multifunction Inverse filter configuration is presented which is capable of realizing low pass, high pass and band pass filters using only two OTRAs and five to six passive elements. To the best knowledge of the authors, any inverse filter configuration using OTRAs has not been reported in the literature earlier. The effect of the major parasitics of the OTRAs and their effect on the performance filter have been investigated and measured through simulation results and Monte-Carlo analysis. The workability of the proposed circuits has been confirmed by SPICE simulations using CMOS-based-OTRA realizable in 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The proposed circuits are the only ones which provide simultaneously the following features: use of reasonable number of active elements (only 2, realizability of all the three basic filter functions, employment of all virtually grounded resistors and capacitors and tunability of all filter parameters (except gain factor, H_0 for inverse high pass. The centre/cut-off frequency of the various filter circuits lying in the vicinity of 1 MHz have been found to be realizable, which has been verified through SPICE simulation results and have been found to be in good agreement with the theoretical results.

  6. Supplementary High-Input Impedance Voltage-Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Using DVCCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To further extend the existing knowledge on voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter, in this paper, a new biquadratic filter circuit with single input and multiple outputs is proposed, employing three differential voltage current conveyors (DVCCs, three resistors, and two grounded capacitors. The proposed circuit realizes all the standard filter functions, that is, high-pass, band-pass, low-pass, notch, and all-pass filters simultaneously. The circuit enjoys the feature of high-input impedance, orthogonal control of resonance angular frequency (o, and quality factor (Q via grounded resistor and the use of grounded capacitors which is ideal for IC implementation.

  7. A current-excited triple-time-voltage oversampling method for bio-impedance model for cost-efficient circuit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Hong; Yong Wang; Wang Ling Goh; Yuan Gao; Lei Yao

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a mathematic method and a cost-efficient circuit to measure the value of each component of the bio-impedance model at electrode-electrolyte interface. The proposed current excited triple-time-voltage oversampling (TTVO) method deduces the component values by solving triple simultaneous electric equation (TSEE) at different time nodes during a current excitation, which are the voltage functions of time. The proposed triple simultaneous electric equations (TSEEs) allows random selections of the time nodes, hence numerous solutions can be obtained during a single current excitation. Following that, the oversampling approach is engaged by averaging all solutions of multiple TSEEs acquired after a single current excitation, which increases the practical measurement accuracy through the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition, a print circuit board (PCB) that consists a switched current exciter and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is designed for signal acquisition. This presents a great cost reduction when compared against other instrument-based measurement data reported [1]. Through testing, the measured values of this work is proven to be in superb agreements on the true component values of the electrode-electrolyte interface model. This work is most suited and also useful for biological and biomedical applications, to perform tasks such as stimulations, recordings, impedance characterizations, etc.

  8. Effect of upflow velocity on the performance of an inclined plate membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanos, P M; Yamamoto, K; Nakajima, F

    2011-01-01

    An inclined plate membrane bioreactor (iPMBR) was introduced to meet the challenge of handling high mixed liquor suspended solids when operating at long sludge retention times. During the first 407 days of operation, the iPMBR was able to rezone more sludge (1.5-10.5 times greater) in its upstream, anoxic tank compared to its downstream, aerobic tank. This could extend membrane filtration by diverting most of the sludge from the aerobic zone. During this period, the upflow velocities through the inclined plates of the anoxic tank ranged from 2.3 x 10(-4) to 7.7 x 10(-4) m/s. After Day 407, the operating conditions were changed to determine whether the iPMBR would fail to create a sludge concentration difference between its two tanks. When the upflow velocity was increased to 1.8 x 10(-3) m/s, the sludge concentration difference between the two zones was removed. This indicated that the upflow velocity had increased sufficiently to overcome the settling velocities of most flocs, resulting in more solids being carried from the anoxic to the aerobic tank. For the configuration of this iPMBR, operating at flow rates where the upflow velocity through the inclined plates was less than 1.0 x 10(-3) m/s would be necessary to keep a significant sludge concentration difference between its two zones.

  9. A CMOS transconductance-C filter technique for very high frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    1992-01-01

    CMOS circuits for integrated analog filters at very high frequencies, based on transconductance-C integrators, are presented. First a differential transconductance element based on CMOS inverters is described. With this circuit a linear, tunable integrator for very-high-frequency integrated filters

  10. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  11. Circuit, especially for digital nuclear gyroscope systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdenslager, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    The circuit with at least one or two spin generator shows a digital phase synchronizing loop in solid-state construction without movable mechanical parts. It is stable, may be turned in one direction any number of times without saturation, and also remains phase-synchronized when input signals are turned off. For this purpose, crystal oscillators with certain resonance frequencies are used. The spin generators are coupled at the outled side with filtering, squaring, and differential connections generating control impulses synchronous to the spin generators. Step divider circuits are connected to the oscillators, which act upon flip-flop registers. This is controlled by the filtering, squaring, and differential connections. Furthermore, field proportional control circuits with registers, advancing and delay circuits are provided, the registers being connected at the outlet side with digital adders and subtractors. The digital adder serves inertial-related purposes. (DG) [de

  12. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  13. A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Automated Electronic Circuit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Haith, Gary L.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe a parallel genetic algorithm (GA) that automatically generates circuit designs using evolutionary search. A circuit-construction programming language is introduced and we show how evolution can generate practical analog circuit designs. Our system allows circuit size (number of devices), circuit topology, and device values to be evolved. We present experimental results as applied to analog filter and amplifier design tasks.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.Q.; Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of cheese whey using a 17.5-litre up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was investigated in the laboratory. The reactor was studied over a range of influent concentration from 4.5 to 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre at a constant hydraulic retention time of 5 days. The reactor start-up and the sludge acclimatization were discussed. The reactor performance in terms of methane production, volatile fatty acids conversion, sludge net growth and chemical oxygen demand reduction were also presented in this paper. Over 97% chemical oxygen demand reduction was achieved in this experiment. At the influent concentration of 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre, an instability of the reactor was observed. The results indicated that the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor process could treat cheese whey effectively.

  15. Effect of upflowing field-aligned electron beams on the electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The role of low density upflowing field-aligned electron beams (FEBs) on the growth rate of the electron cyclotron waves at the frequencies r < e, propagating downward in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field, has been analysed in the auroral region at e/e < 1 where e is the plasma frequency and e is the ...

  16. Nonlinear performance characterization in an eight-pole quasi-elliptic bandpass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateu, J; Collado, C; Menendez, O; O'Callaghan, J M

    2004-01-01

    In this work we predict the nonlinear behaviour of an eight-pole quasi-elliptic bandpass high temperature superconducting (HTS) filter with an equivalent circuit extracted from intermodulation measurements performed at the centre of the filter passband. We present measurements that show that the equivalent circuit is able to predict the intermodulation products produced by the filter when driven by two in-band or out-of-band sinusoidal signals. Numerical techniques based on harmonic balance are used to extract the elements of the equivalent circuit and to simulate its nonlinear performance

  17. Levantamento de parâmetros cinéticos medidos em reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB em escala-piloto tratando efluentes de laticínio = Survey of kinetic parameters measured in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB in pilot-scale treatment of dairy wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Botelho Saléh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objeto desta pesquisa foi à obtenção e avaliação dos parâmetros cinéticos do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB-Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket na remoção da carga orgânica poluidora dos despejos da atividade laticinista. O sistema com suas principais unidades foi composto de tratamento preliminar (caixa de areia e flotadores,tanque de contato (TC, reator UASB, filtro anaeróbio (FAB e lodo ativo em batelada (LAB. Os TDH’s (tempos de detenção hidráulicos e a temperatura adotados para o reator UASB foram de 44, 35, 30, 26 e 20h após a fase de estabilização do sistema, com temperatura média de 24,8ºC ± 1,8ºC. O volume do reator era de 394 L. A partir dos dadosDQOT (mg L-1, Sólidos Totais Fixos e Voláteis (mg L-1, Temperatura (°C, Vazão (L dia-1 e Perfil de Lodo no reator (Sólidos Voláteis Totais em mg L-1, monitorados durante todo o período de pesquisa na estação-piloto, em cada um dos tempos de detenção hidráulicos(TDH’s no reator UASB, foi conduzido o estudo para obtenção dos parâmetros cinéticos: coeficiente de crescimento ‘Y’ (mg DQO mg SVT-1 d-1, coeficiente de decaimento ‘Kd’ (d-1, taxa máxima de crescimento ‘μmáx’ (d-1 e concentração de substrato limitante ‘Ks’ (mg DQO L-1. Os parâmetros cinéticos determinados se basearam em estudos de regressão linear para determinação de Y, Kd, μmáx e Ks, respectivamente, dando, assim, respaldo técnico-científicoaos dados físico-químicos levantados durante a operacionalização do sistema.The goal of this research was to obtain and withdraw the kinetic parameters from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket – UASB in removing the organic load from the waste by-product of a dairy activity. The treatment system was composed of a Sand Interceptor (Grit Chamber, Grease Intercept Chambers, Stirred Contact Tank (CT, a UASB reactor, Anaerobic Filter (AF, and Batch Activated Sludge System (BASS. The HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time and

  18. Treatment of arsenic contaminated water in a laboratory scale up-flow bio-column reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, P.; Majumder, C.B.; Mohanty, B.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper describes the observations on the treatment of arsenic contaminated synthetic industrial effluent in a bio-column reactor. Ralstonia eutropha MTCC 2487 has been immobilized on the granular activated carbon (GAC) bed in the column reactor. The synthetic water sample containing As(T) (As(III):As(V) = 1:1), Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn at the initial concentrations of 25, 10, 2, 5, 10 ppm, respectively, was used. Concentrations of all the elements have been found to be reduced below their permissible limits in the treated water. The significant effect of empty bed contact time (EBCT) and bed height on the arsenic removal was observed in the initial stage. However, after some time of operation (approximately 3-4 days) no such effect was observed. Removal of As(III) and As(V) was almost similar after ∼2 days of operation. However, at the initial stage As(V) removal was slightly more than that of As(III). In absence of washing, after ∼4-5 days of operation, the bio-column reactor was observed to act as a GAC column reactor based on physico-chemical adsorption. Like arsenic, the percent removals of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn also attained minimum after ∼1 day and increased significantly to the optimum value within 3-4 days of operation. Dissolved oxygen (DO) has been found to decrease along with the increasing bed height from the bottom. The pH of the solution in the reactor has increased slightly and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) has decreased with the time of operation

  19. Reproducibility of up-flow column percolation tests for contaminated soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Yasutaka

    Full Text Available Up-flow column percolation tests are used at laboratory scale to assess the leaching behavior of hazardous substance from contaminated soils in a specific condition as a function of time. Monitoring the quality of these test results inter or within laboratory is crucial, especially if used for Environment-related legal policy or for routine testing purposes. We tested three different sandy loam type soils (Soils I, II and III to determine the reproducibility (variability inter laboratory of test results and to evaluate the difference in the test results within laboratory. Up-flow column percolation tests were performed following the procedure described in the ISO/TS 21268-3. This procedure consists of percolating solution (calcium chloride 1 mM from bottom to top at a flow rate of 12 mL/h through softly compacted soil contained in a column of 5 cm diameter and 30 ± 5 cm height. Eluate samples were collected at liquid-to-solid ratio of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 L/kg and analyzed for quantification of the target elements (Cu, As, Se, Cl, Ca, F, Mg, DOC and B in this research. For Soil I, 17 institutions in Japan joined this validation test. The up-flow column experiments were conducted in duplicate, after 48 h of equilibration time and at a flow rate of 12 mL/h. Column percolation test results from Soils II and III were used to evaluate the difference in test results from the experiments conducted in duplicate in a single laboratory, after 16 h of equilibration time and at a flow rate of 36 mL/h. Overall results showed good reproducibility (expressed in terms of the coefficient of variation, CV, calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean, as the CV was lower than 30% in more than 90% of the test results associated with Soil I. Moreover, low variability (expressed in terms of difference between the two test results divided by the mean was observed in the test results related to Soils II and III, with a variability lower than 30

  20. A statistical study of diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle variations of F-region and topside auroral upflows observed by EISCAT between 1984 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Foster

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of F-region and topside auroral ion upflow events is presented. The study is based on observations from EISCAT Common Programmes (CP 1 and 2 made between 1984 and 1996, and Common Programme 7 observations taken between 1990 and 1995. The occurrence frequency of ion upflow events (IUEs is examined over the altitude range 200 to 500 km, using field-aligned observations from CP-1 and CP-2. The study is extended in altitude with vertical measurements from CP-7. Ion upflow events were identified by consideration of both velocity and flux, with threshold values of 100 m s–1 and 1013 m–2 s–1, respectively. The frequency of occurrence of IUEs is seen to increase with increasing altitude. Further analysis of the field-aligned observations reveals that the number and nature of ion upflow events vary diurnally and with season and solar activity. In particular, the diurnal distribution of upflows is strongly dependent on solar cycle. Furthermore, events identified by the velocity selection criterion dominate at solar minimum, whilst events identified by the upward field-aligned flux criterion dominated at solar maximum. The study also provides a quantitative estimate of the proportion of upflows that are associated with enhanced plasma temperature. Between 50 and 60% of upflows are simultaneous with enhanced ion temperature, and approximately 80% of events are associated with either increased F-region ion or electron temperatures.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle acceleration

  1. Kinetic model for an up-flow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor: Dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic studies of anaerobic digestion process of cheese whey were conducted in a pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor (UAPB). An influent COD concentration of 59419 mg/l was utilized at steady state condition. Logistic and Monod kinetic models were employed to describe microbial activities of cheese ...

  2. Effect of upflowing field-aligned electron beams on the electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The role of low density upflowing field-aligned electron beams (FEBs) on the growth rate of the electron cyclotron waves at the frequencies ωr < Ωe, propagating downward in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field, has been analysed in the auroral region at ωe/Ωe < 1 where ωe is the plasma frequency and Ωe is ...

  3. Active Comb Filter Using Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for the design of an active comb filter is proposed to remove the selected frequencies of various signals. The proposed filter is based on only OTAs and capacitors, hence suitable for monolithic integrated circuit implementation. The workability of the circuit is tested using PSPICE for test signals of 60, 180, 300, and 420 Hz as in ECG signal. The results are given in the paper and found to agree well with theory.

  4. Modified septic tank-anaerobic filter unit as a two-stage onsite domestic wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the performance evaluation of a uniquely designed two-stage system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic bioreactors, a modified septic tank followed by an upflow anaerobic filter, accommodated within a single cylindrical unit. The system was started up without inoculation at 24 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). It achieved a steady-state condition after 120 days. The system was observed to be remarkably efficient in removing pollutants during steady-state condition with the average removal efficiency of 88.6 +/- 3.7% for chemical oxygen demand, 86.3 +/- 4.9% for biochemical oxygen demand and 91.2 +/- 9.7% for total suspended solids. The microbial analysis revealed a high reduction (>90%) capacity of the system for indicator organism and pathogens. It also showed a very good endurance against imposed hydraulic shock load. Tracer study showed that the flow pattern was close to plug flow reactor. Mean HRT was also found to be close to the designed value.

  5. A Novel CPW BandPass Filter Integrating Periodic Rectangular Slot Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aytouna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the design and the achievement of a Bandpass filter structure based on the use of rectangular slot cell. The originality of this work is to achieve a coplanar filter easy to integrate with microwave planar circuits and having a wide frequency bandwidth. The proposed bandpass filter is a low cost and compact planar filter structure. The final circuit is simulated by using two electromagnetic solvers, ADS and HFSS. The validation into simulation is based on using optimization methods integrated into the both solvers. Simulations have taken into account a high meshing density to cover the whole circuit. The fabricated bandpass filter has an area of 35X31mm2 and having a good insertion loss around -0.75dB in the bandwidth. The comparison between simulation and measurement results presents a good agreement.

  6. Passive filter of the IFVE accelerator ring electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaz'min, B.V.; Mojzhes, L.L.; Polyakov, Eh.V.; Radin, O.N.; Fedorov, Yu.A.

    1977-01-01

    Two circuits of two-link passive filters for suppressing the current pulsation in the ring electromagnet of a synchrotron are presented, as well as calculated and experimental (for one of the circuits) characteristics of these filters. It is shown that the coefficient of suppression of 600 hertz pulsations in the flat portion of a magnetic field pulse is 570 at an intensity corresponding to a slow proton ejection

  7. All-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Li; Huang, Lirong

    2015-01-01

    The newly introduced metamaterial-based optical circuit, an analogue of electronic circuit, is becoming a forefront topic in the fields of electronics, optics, plasmonics, and metamaterials. However, metals, as the commonly used plasmonic elements in an optical circuit, suffer from large losses at the visible and infrared wavelengths. We propose here a low-loss, all-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale by using interleaved intrinsic GaAs and doped GaAs, and present the detailed design process for various lumped optical circuit elements, including lumped optical inductors, optical capacitors, optical conductors, and optical insulators. By properly combining these optical circuit elements and arranging anisotropic optical connectors, we obtain a subwavelength optical filter, which can always hold band-stop filtering function for various polarization states of the incident electromagnetic wave. All-semiconductor optical circuits may provide a new opportunity in developing low-power and ultrafast components and devices for optical information processing

  8. On the Realization of First-Order Current-Mode AP/HP Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tangsrirat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A compact circuit topology for the realization of the current-mode first-order allpass (AP and highpass (HP filters is described. The proposed circuit contains a minimum number of components, i.e., eight bipolar transistors and one grounded capacitor. The advantages of this circuit are the use of only grounded capacitor as a passive element, the electronic tunability of its parameters and its potential for low-voltage operation. Some simulation results are also reported, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed circuit. Owing to the pole frequency of the filter circuit is normally dependent on temperature; a low-voltage translinear–based current source circuit for temperature compensation is also suggested.

  9. Two Integrator Loop Filters: Generation Using NAM Expansion and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic synthesis method to generate a family of two integrator loop filters based on nodal admittance matrix (NAM expansion is given. Eight equivalent circuits are obtained; six of them are new. Each of the generated circuits uses two grounded capacitors and employs two current conveyors (CCII or two inverting current conveyors (ICCII or a combination of both. The NAM expansion is also used to generate eight equivalent grounded passive elements two integrator loop filters using differential voltage current conveyor (DVCC; six of them are new. Changing the input port of excitation, two new families of eight unity gain lowpass filter circuits each using two CCII or ICCII or combination of both or two DVCC are obtained.

  10. An LLCL Power Filter for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new topology of higher order power filter for grid-tied voltage-source inverters, named the LLCL filter, which inserts a small inductor in the branch loop of the capacitor in the traditional LCL filter to compose a series resonant circuit at the switching frequency. Particul......This paper presents a new topology of higher order power filter for grid-tied voltage-source inverters, named the LLCL filter, which inserts a small inductor in the branch loop of the capacitor in the traditional LCL filter to compose a series resonant circuit at the switching frequency...... to the inverter system control. The parameter design criteria of the proposed LLCL filter is also introduced. The comparative analysis and discussions regarding the traditional LCL filter and the proposed LLCL filter have been presented and evaluated through experiment on a 1.8-kW-single-phase grid-tied inverter...

  11. Functional Blocks and Biquadratic ARC Filters using Transimpedance Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sarman

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the article are design and analysis of modern circuits including high performance functional blocks and biquadratic filters using transimpedance amplifiers. Here are given various types of these circuits, that works in classical voltage, current or hybrid mode. In this paper are also compared various possibilities of connection of single amplifier filters as for reduction of influence of transimpedance amplifier parasitic elements.

  12. Functional Blocks and Biquadratic ARC Filters using Transimpedance Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    R. Sarman; R. Prokop; T. Dostal

    1997-01-01

    The aims of the article are design and analysis of modern circuits including high performance functional blocks and biquadratic filters using transimpedance amplifiers. Here are given various types of these circuits, that works in classical voltage, current or hybrid mode. In this paper are also compared various possibilities of connection of single amplifier filters as for reduction of influence of transimpedance amplifier parasitic elements.

  13. A Systems Approach to Bio-Oil Stabilization - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C; Meyer, Terrence; Fox, Rodney; Submramaniam, Shankar; Shanks, Brent; Smith, Ryan G

    2011-12-23

    The objective of this project is to develop practical, cost effective methods for stabilizing biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil for at least six months of storage under ambient conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy has targeted three strategies for stabilizing bio-oils: (1) reducing the oxygen content of the organic compounds comprising pyrolysis oil; (2) removal of carboxylic acid groups such that the total acid number (TAN) of the pyrolysis oil is dramatically reduced; and (3) reducing the charcoal content, which contains alkali metals known to catalyze reactions that increase the viscosity of bio-oil. Alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM), are known to catalyze decomposition reactions of biomass carbohydrates to produce light oxygenates that destabilize the resulting bio-oil. Methods envisioned to prevent the AAEM from reaction with the biomass carbohydrates include washing the AAEM out of the biomass with water or dilute acid or infusing an acid catalyst to passivate the AAEM. Infusion of acids into the feedstock to convert all of the AAEM to salts which are stable at pyrolysis temperatures proved to be a much more economically feasible process. Our results from pyrolyzing acid infused biomass showed increases in the yield of anhydrosugars by greater than 300% while greatly reducing the yield of light oxygenates that are known to destabilize bio-oil. Particulate matter can interfere with combustion or catalytic processing of either syngas or bio-oil. It also is thought to catalyze the polymerization of bio-oil, which increases the viscosity of bio-oil over time. High temperature bag houses, ceramic candle filters, and moving bed granular filters have been variously suggested for syngas cleaning at elevated temperatures. High temperature filtration of bio-oil vapors has also been suggested by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory although there remain technical challenges to this approach. The fast pyrolysis of biomass yields three main organic

  14. Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…

  15. Selenate removal in methanogenic and sulfate-reducing upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, M.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Hommes, G.; Corvini, P.F.X.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) bioreactors (30 degrees C, pH = 7.0) to remove selenium oxyanions from contaminated waters (790 mu g Se L-1) under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions using lactate as electron donor. One UASB reactor received sulfate at

  16. A realistic large-scale model of the cerebellum granular layer predicts circuit spatio-temporal filtering properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Solinas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The way the cerebellar granular layer transforms incoming mossy fiber signals into new spike patterns to be related to Purkinje cells is not yet clear. Here, a realistic computational model of the granular layer was developed and used to address four main functional hypotheses: center-surround organization, time-windowing, high-pass filtering in responses to spike bursts and coherent oscillations in response to diffuse random activity. The model network was activated using patterns inspired by those recorded in vivo. Burst stimulation of a small mossy fiber bundle resulted in granule cell bursts delimited in time (time windowing and space (center-surround by network inhibition. This burst-burst transmission showed marked frequency-dependence configuring a high-pass filter with cut-off frequency around 100 Hz. The contrast between center and surround properties was regulated by the excitatory-inhibitory balance. The stronger excitation made the center more responsive to 10-50 Hz input frequencies and enhanced the granule cell output (with spike occurring earlier and with higher frequency and number compared to the surround. Finally, over a certain level of mossy fiber background activity, the circuit generated coherent oscillations in the theta-frequency band. All these processes were fine-tuned by NMDA and GABA-A receptor activation and neurotransmitter vesicle cycling in the cerebellar glomeruli. This model shows that available knowledge on cellular mechanisms is sufficient to unify the main functional hypotheses on the cerebellum granular layer and suggests that this network can behave as an adaptable spatio-temporal filter coordinated by theta-frequency oscillations.

  17. Compressive Sensing Based Bio-Inspired Shape Feature Detection CMOS Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A CMOS imager integrated circuit using compressive sensing and bio-inspired detection is presented which integrates novel functions and algorithms within a novel hardware architecture enabling efficient on-chip implementation.

  18. Versatile current-mode universal biquadratic filter using DO-CCIIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Pin

    2013-07-01

    In this article, a new three-input and three-output versatile current-mode universal biquadratic filter is proposed. The circuit employs three dual-output current conveyors (DO-CCIIs) as active elements together with three grounded resistors and two grounded capacitors. The proposed configuration exhibits low-input impedance and high-output impedance which is important for easy cascading in the current-mode operations. It can be used as either a single-input and three-output or three-input and two-output circuit. In the operation of single-input and three-output circuit, the lowpass, bandpass and bandreject can be realised simultaneously, while the highpass filtering response can be easily obtained by connecting appropriated output current directly without using addition stages. In the operation of three-input and two-output circuit, all five generic filtering functions can be easily realised by selecting different three input current signals. The filter permits orthogonal controllability of the quality factor and resonance angular frequency, and no component matching conditions or inverting-type input current signals are imposed. All the passive and active sensitivities are low. HSPICE simulation results based on using TSMC 0.18 µm 1P6M CMOS process technology and supply voltages ±0.9 V to verify the theoretical analysis.

  19. Influence of flow direction in the performance of anaerobic filters - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i2.10353

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Fia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the performance of similar anaerobic filters operating with opposite wastewater flows, and compare mathematical models that describe the kinetics of organic matter degradation in both. Two pilot-scale filters were fed with domestic effluent – one filter worked as upflow (UAF and the other as downflow (DAF. Experimental COD data obtained from samples taken along the length of the filters were used to fit the first-order mathematical model, the model proposed by Leduy and Zajic (1973 and the model proposed by Brasil et al. (2007. The first model showed overestimated reaction constant (k values when compared to those obtained using the other models. The models proposed by Brasil et al. (2007 and Leduy and Zajic (1973 presented the highest coefficients of determination (R2. The average removal efficiencies of total COD were equal to 68 and 79% for UAF and DAF, respectively. The results revealed no significant differences between the two filters with regard to the variables applied.

  20. The performance of biological anaerobic filters packed with sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and commercial ceramic particles (CCP) during the restart period: effect of the C/N ratios and filter media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qinyan; Han, Shuxin; Yue, Min; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Yaqin; Qi, Yuanfeng

    2009-11-01

    Two lab-scale upflow biological anaerobic filters (BAF) packed with sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and commercial ceramic particles (CCP) were employed to investigate effects of the C/N ratios and filter media on the BAF performance during the restart period. The results indicated that BAF could be restarted normally after one-month cease. The C/N ratio of 4.0 was the thresholds of nitrate removal and nitrite accumulation. TN removal and phosphate uptake reached the maximum value at the same C/N ratio of 5.5. Ammonia formation was also found and excreted a negative influence on TN removal, especially when higher C/N ratios were applied. Nutrients were mainly degraded within the height of 25 cm from the bottom. In addition, SFCP, as novel filter media manufactured by wastes-dewatered sludge and fly ash, represented a better potential in inhibiting nitrite accumulation, TN removal and phosphate uptake due to their special characteristics in comparison with CCP.

  1. A Cytomorphic Chip for Quantitative Modeling of Fundamental Bio-Molecular Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We describe a 0.35 μm BiCMOS silicon chip that quantitatively models fundamental molecular circuits via efficient log-domain cytomorphic transistor equivalents. These circuits include those for biochemical binding with automatic representation of non-modular and loading behavior, e.g., in cascade and fan-out topologies; for representing variable Hill-coefficient operation and cooperative binding; for representing inducer, transcription-factor, and DNA binding; for probabilistic gene transcription with analogic representations of log-linear and saturating operation; for gain, degradation, and dynamics of mRNA and protein variables in transcription and translation; and, for faithfully representing biological noise via tunable stochastic transistor circuits. The use of on-chip DACs and ADCs enables multiple chips to interact via incoming and outgoing molecular digital data packets and thus create scalable biochemical reaction networks. The use of off-chip digital processors and on-chip digital memory enables programmable connectivity and parameter storage. We show that published static and dynamic MATLAB models of synthetic biological circuits including repressilators, feed-forward loops, and feedback oscillators are in excellent quantitative agreement with those from transistor circuits on the chip. Computationally intensive stochastic Gillespie simulations of molecular production are also rapidly reproduced by the chip and can be reliably tuned over the range of signal-to-noise ratios observed in biological cells.

  2. Design of UWB Filter with WLAN Notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UWB technology- (operating in broad frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz based filter with WLAN notch has shown great achievement for high-speed wireless communications. To satisfy the UWB system requirements, a band pass filter with a broad pass band width, low insertion loss, and high stop-band suppression are needed. UWB filter with wireless local area network (WLAN notch at 5.6 GHz and 3 dB fractional bandwidth of 109.5% using a microstrip structure is presented. Initially a two-transmission-pole UWB band pass filter in the frequency range 3.1–10.6 GHz is achieved by designing a parallel-coupled microstrip line with defective ground plane structure using GML 1000 substrate with specifications: dielectric constant 3.2 and thickness 0.762 mm at centre frequency 6.85 GHz. In this structure a λ/4 open-circuited stub is introduced to achieve the notch at 5.6 GHz to avoid the interference with WLAN frequency which lies in the desired UWB band. The design structure was simulated on electromagnetic circuit simulation software and fabricated by microwave integrated circuit technique. The measured VNA results show the close agreement with simulated results.

  3. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  4. Design and construction of electronic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerril Z, E.R.; Moreno P, C.; Salinas B, E.

    1979-01-01

    The design and construction of very low frequencies electronic filters which will be used for carrying out analysis of pile noise at Mexico's Nuclear Center Triga Mark III Reactor, in order to realize measurements of its parameters is presented. NIM norms and active filters with lineal integrated circuits were used: a. Band pass filter from 10 to 500 hertz, band width 50. b. Low pass filter from 0.001 to 10 hertz in 3 steps. c. Kalman Bucy filter, an analogical simulation of this filter was undertaken, obtained from a mathematical model of a Zero power experimental reactor, with the purpose to establish a control searching. (author)

  5. Improvements to Filter Debris Analysis in Aviation Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    which is primarily a Fatty-Acid Methyl Ester ( FAME ) or Bio-diesel fluid that is classified as a Class C2 combustible fluid (see Appendix E) and is...GasTOPS only, however fluid is a FAME (bio- Diesel) and a locally produce equivalent may be available. 3 micron FC290 Filter B067253 (Donaldson

  6. New series active power filter for computers loads and small non-linear loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnini, M.Y. [Hariri Canadian Univ., Meshref (Lebanon)

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposed the use of a single-phase series active power filter to reduce voltage total harmonic distortion and provide improved power quality. Control schemes were developed using simple control algorithms and a reduced number of current transducers. The circuit was comprised of a power supply and zero crossing detector; a hall-effect current sensor and signal conditioning circuit; a microcontroller circuit; a driving circuit; and an inverter bridge. The filter corrected fundamental and sinusoidal voltage amplitudes. The amplitude of the fundamental current in the series filter was controlled using a microcontroller placed between the load voltage and a pre-established reference point. Experiments were conducted to test the source voltage and source current after compensation using a prototype of the filter. The control system provided effective correction of the power factor and harmonic distortion, and reached steady state in approximately 2 cycles. It was concluded that the compensator can also be adapted for use in 3-phase systems. 13 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  7. Theory and design of microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Ian

    2000-01-01

    This is a thorough, graduate-level text which provides a single source for filter design including basic circuit theory, network synthesis and the design of a variety of microwave filter structures. The aim is to present design theories followed by specific examples with numerical simulations of the designs, with pictures of real devices wherever possible. The book is aimed at designers, engineers and researchers working in microwave electronics who need to design or specify filters.

  8. Quiescent Prominence Dynamics Observed with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. I. Turbulent Upflow Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Lites, Bruce W.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-06-01

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) "arches" or "bubbles" that "inflate" from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex "roll-up" of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) "optical flow" code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s-1, which is supersonic for a ~10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s-1. Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s (~5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km2 s-1 reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm2. Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to the bright prominence plasma in SOT images

  9. QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DYNAMICS OBSERVED WITH THE HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE. I. TURBULENT UPFLOW PLUMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Lites, Bruce W.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) 'arches' or 'bubbles' that 'inflate' from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex 'roll-up' of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) 'optical flow' code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s -1 , which is supersonic for a ∼10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s -1 . Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s (∼5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km 2 s -1 reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm 2 . Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to the bright prominence plasma in

  10. Different depth intermittent sand filters for laboratory treatment of synthetic wastewater with concentrations close to measured septic tank effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M; Walsh, G; Healy, M G

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply hydraulic and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates at the upper limits of the design criteria for buried sand filters to test the sand filter depth design criteria. Over a 274-day study duration, synthetic effluent with a strength of domestic wastewater was intermittently dosed onto two sand filters of 0.2 m diameter, with depths of 0.3 and 0.4 m. Hydraulic and organic carbon loading rates of 105 L m(-2) d(-1) and 40 g COD m(-2) d(-1), respectively, were applied to the filters. The filters did not clog and had good effluent removal capabilities for 274 and 190 days, respectively. However, the 0.3 m-deep filter did experience a reduced performance towards the end of the study period. In the 0.3 and 0.4 m-deep filters, the effluent COD and SS concentrations were less than 86 and 31 mg L(-1), respectively, and nitrification was nearly complete in both these columns. Ortho-phosphorus (PO(4)-P) removal in fine sand and laterite 'upflow' filters, receiving effluent from the 0.3 m-deep filter, was 10% and 44%, respectively.

  11. A INFLUÊNCIA DO TREINAMENTO RESISTIDO E AERÓBIO EM FORMA DE CIRCUIT TRAINING NO CONTROLE GLICÊMICO DO DIABETES TIPO I: ESTUDO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tadeu Grzelczak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes Mellitus é uma doença que pode desencadear uma série de complicações, desde problemas renais, hipertensão até cegueira e amputações. O exercício é normalmente indicado para portadores de diabetes, auxiliando no controle da doença, aumentando a sensibilidade à insulina, estabilizando as taxas de glicose no sangue auxiliando no controle de peso e redução das doses de insulina. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar a influência do treinamento de musculação ou treinamento resistido,sendo desenvolvido em forma de circuito com treinamento aeróbio durante as seções, no controle da glicemia de um diabético tipo 1 (insulino dependente. A amostra foi composta por um homem de 27 anos portador de Diabetes Mellitus tipo1, insulino dependente a 4 anos. O programa de exercícios teve duração de 90dias e consistiu de um Circuit Training de musculação(contrações dinâmicas em séries únicas de 30 repetições e aeróbio (intensidade60% a 80% da frequência cardíaca máxima, foi aplicada na estatística descritiva.Foi observado diminuição da média glicêmica de 209,3 mg/dl no inicio do treinamentopara 122,4 mg/dl, ao final do estudo, uma diminuição de 41,52 % em relação a média inicial. Observou-se diminuição dos níveis de HbA1c de 7,10% para 5,02%. Neste sentido o treinamento de musculação e aeróbio em Circuit Training demonstrou ser uma opção salutar para o controle glicêmico de portadores de diabetes tipo1.

  12. Performance of water filters towards the removal of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic matter removal was found to be 47%, 43%, 53%, 43.4% for bio-sand, slow sand, ceramic and membrane purifier respectively, while, fluoride removal was found to be 95.5% for bone char filter. Furthermore, filters were also assessed in terms of media availability, buying costs, operation, benefits/ effectiveness ...

  13. Neural Model for Left-Handed CPW Bandpass Filter Loaded Split Ring Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiwen; Wang, Shuxin; Tan, Mingtao; Zhang, Qijun

    2010-02-01

    Compact left-handed coplanar waveguide (CPW) bandpass filter loaded split ring resonator (SRR) is presented in this paper. The proposed filter exhibits a quasi-elliptic function response and its circuit size occupies only 12 × 11.8 mm2 (≈0.21 λg × 0.20 λg). Also, a simple circuit model is given and the parametric study of this filter is discussed. Then, with the aid of NeuroModeler software, a five-layer feed-forward perceptron neural networks model is built up to optimize the proposed filter design fast and accurately. Finally, this newly left-handed CPW bandpass filter was fabricated and measured. A good agreement between simulations and measurement verifies the proposed left-handed filter and the validity of design methodology.

  14. Versatile tunable current-mode universal biquadratic filter using MO-DVCCs and MOSFET-based electronic resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Pin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a versatile tunable current-mode universal biquadratic filter with four-input and three-output employing only two multioutput differential voltage current conveyors (MO-DVCCs), two grounded capacitors, and a well-known method for replacement of three grounded resistors by MOSFET-based electronic resistors. The proposed configuration exhibits high-output impedance which is important for easy cascading in the current-mode operations. The proposed circuit can be used as either a two-input three-output circuit or a three-input single-output circuit. In the operation of two-input three-output circuit, the bandpass, highpass, and bandreject filtering responses can be realized simultaneously while the allpass filtering response can be easily obtained by connecting appropriated output current directly without using additional stages. In the operation of three-input single-output circuit, all five generic filtering functions can be easily realized by selecting different three-input current signals. The filter permits orthogonal controllability of the quality factor and resonance angular frequency, and no inverting-type input current signals are imposed. All the passive and active sensitivities are low. Postlayout simulations were carried out to verify the functionality of the design.

  15. Versatile Tunable Current-Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Using MO-DVCCs and MOSFET-Based Electronic Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Pin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a versatile tunable current-mode universal biquadratic filter with four-input and three-output employing only two multioutput differential voltage current conveyors (MO-DVCCs, two grounded capacitors, and a well-known method for replacement of three grounded resistors by MOSFET-based electronic resistors. The proposed configuration exhibits high-output impedance which is important for easy cascading in the current-mode operations. The proposed circuit can be used as either a two-input three-output circuit or a three-input single-output circuit. In the operation of two-input three-output circuit, the bandpass, highpass, and bandreject filtering responses can be realized simultaneously while the allpass filtering response can be easily obtained by connecting appropriated output current directly without using additional stages. In the operation of three-input single-output circuit, all five generic filtering functions can be easily realized by selecting different three-input current signals. The filter permits orthogonal controllability of the quality factor and resonance angular frequency, and no inverting-type input current signals are imposed. All the passive and active sensitivities are low. Postlayout simulations were carried out to verify the functionality of the design.

  16. Haematobia irritans dataset of raw sequence reads from Illumina and Pac Bio sequencing of genomic DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, was sequenced using Illumina- and Pac Bio-based protocols. Following quality filtering, the raw reads have been deposited at NCBI under the BioProject and BioSample accession numbers PRJNA30967 and SAMN07830356, respectively. The Illumina reads are un...

  17. Improved Passive-Damped LCL Filter to Enhance Stability in Grid-Connected Voltage-Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved passive-damped LCL filter to be used as interface between the grid-connected voltage-source converters and the utility grid. The proposed filter replaces the LCL filter capacitor with a traditional C-type filter with the resonant circuit tuned in such a way...... passive-damped LCL filter. To verify the benefits of the proposed filter, a comparison with the conventional filter is made in terms of losses and ratings when both the filters are designed under the same condition....... that switching harmonics due to pulse width modulation are to be cancelled. Since the tuned circuit of the C-type filter suppresses the switching harmonics more effectively, the total inductance of the filter can be reduced. Additionally, the rating of the damping resistor is lower, compared with conventional...

  18. Desempenho de reator anaeróbio-aeróbio de leito fixo no tratamento de esgoto sanitário Performance of anaerobic-aerobic packed-bed reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Brasil Abreu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata a avaliação do desempenho de um reator anaeróbio-aeróbio, preenchido com espuma de poliuretano, para tratamento de esgoto sanitário. Inicialmente, foram testados diferentes tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH no reator que operou apenas em condições anaeróbias. Em seguida, foi operado o reator combinado anaeróbio-aeróbio. O melhor resultado para o reator em operação exclusivamente anaeróbia foi para o TDH de 10 horas, no qual se conseguiu reduzir a DQO de 389 ± 70 mg/L para 137 ± 16 mg/L. Para o reator anaeróbio-aeróbio, a DQO foi reduzida de 259 ± 69 mg/L para 93 ± 31 mg/L para TDH de 12 h (6 h no estágio anaeróbio e 6 h no aeróbio. A comparação de todos os resultados obtidos evidenciou a importância do pós-tratamento aeróbio na remoção de parcela de matéria orgânica não removida em tratamento unicamente anaeróbio.This paper reports on the performance evaluation of an upflow anaerobic-aerobic reactor, filled with polyurethane matrices, for domestic sewage treatment. Initially, different hydraulic retention times were assayed with the reactor operating exclusively in anaerobic condition. Afterwards, anaerobic-aerobic combined reactor was operated. The anaerobic operation with HRT of 10 h provided the best organic matter removal with COD reduction from 389 ± 70 mg/L to 137 ± 16 mg/L. Under anaerobic-aerobic condition, the COD dropped from 259 ± 69 mg/L to 93 ± 31 mg/L with HRT of 12 h (6 h in anaerobic and 6 h in aerobic stages. Finally, comparing all the obtained results, it was possible to verify the importance of the aerobic post treatment in the removal of part of the organic matter not removed in an exclusively anaerobic treatment.

  19. Comparison of pre-filter and post-filter ionised calcium monitoring in continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHD-F with citrate anti-coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Brain

    Full Text Available It is widespread practice during citrate anticoagulated renal replacement therapy to monitor circuit ionised calcium (iCa2+ to evaluate the effectiveness of anticoagulation. Whether the optimal site to sample the blood path is before or after the haemofilter is a common question.Using a prospectively collected observational dataset from intensive care patients receiving pre-dilution continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHD-F with integrated citrate anticoagulation we compared paired samples of pre and post filter iCa2+ where the target range was 0.3-0.5 mmol.L-1 as well as concurrently collected arterial iCa2+. Two nested mixed methods linear models were fitted to the data describing post vs pre filter iCa2+, and the relationship of pre, post and arterial samples.An 11 bed general intensive care unit.450 grouped samples from 152 time periods in seven patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation.The relationship of post to pre-filter iCa2+ was not 1:1 with post = 0.082 + 0.751 x pre-filter iCa2+ (95% CI intercept: 0.015-0.152, slope 0.558-0.942. Variation was greatest between patients rather than between circuits within the same patient or citrate dose. Compared to arterial iCa2+ there was no significant difference between pre and post-filter sampling sites (F-value 0.047, p = 0.827.These results demonstrate that there is minimal difference between pre and post filter samples for iCa2+ monitoring of circuit anticoagulation in citrate patients relative to the arterial iCa2+ in CVVHD-F however compared to pre-filter sampling, post filter sampling has a flatter response and greater variation.

  20. Functional optical probing of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit in vitro: network dynamics, filter properties, and polysynaptic induction of CA1 LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, Jens; Dine, Julien; Eder, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Decades of brain research have identified various parallel loops linking the hippocampus with neocortical areas, enabling the acquisition of spatial and episodic memories. Especially the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit [entorhinal cortex layer II → dentate gyrus (DG) → cornu ammonis (CA)-3 → CA1] was studied in great detail because of its seemingly simple connectivity and characteristic structures that are experimentally well accessible. While numerous researchers focused on functional aspects, obtained from a limited number of cells in distinct hippocampal subregions, little is known about the neuronal network dynamics which drive information across multiple synapses for subsequent long-term storage. Fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging in vitro allows real-time recording of activity patterns in large/meso-scale neuronal networks with high spatial resolution. In this way, we recently found that entorhinal theta-frequency input to the DG most effectively passes filter mechanisms of the trisynaptic circuit network, generating activity waves which propagate across the entire DG-CA axis. These "trisynaptic circuit waves" involve high-frequency firing of CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a rapid induction of classical NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 synapses (CA1 LTP). CA1 LTP has been substantially evidenced to be essential for some forms of explicit learning in mammals. Here, we review data with particular reference to whole network-level approaches, illustrating how activity propagation can take place within the trisynaptic circuit to drive formation of CA1 LTP.

  1. Realisation of low-voltage square-root-domain all-pass filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq A. Khanday

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel l ow-voltage first-order and second-order square-root-domain all-pass filters derived systematically by means of transfer function decomposition and state -space synthesis techniques are proposed. The employment of only a few geometric-mean cells and grounded capacitors permits the circuits to absorb shunt parasitic capacitances, which is desirable for production in monolithic form . The circuits enjoy the features of electronic adjustment of frequency characteristics, wider dynamic range and low-voltage environment operation. The filters are employed to design high-order all-pass filters using cascade approach. First-order low-pass and second-order band-pass filters, being the inherited building blocks of the proposed low-order all-pass filters are also discussed. The behaviour of the filters is evaluated through simulations using Taiwan semiconductor manufacturing company 0.25 μm level-3 complementary metal oxide semiconductor process parameters, where the most important performance factors are considered.

  2. Flexible RF filter using a nonuniform SCISSOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng

    2016-03-15

    This work presents a flexible radiofrequency (RF) filter using an integrated microwave photonic circuit that comprises a nonuniform side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators (N-SCISSOR). The filter passband can be reconfigured by varying the N-SCISSOR parameters. When employing a dual-parallel Mach-Zechnder modulator, the filter is also able to perform frequency down-conversion. In the experiment, various filter response shapes are shown, ranging from a flat-top band-pass filter to a total opposite high-rejection (>40  dB) notch filter, with a frequency coverage of greater than two octaves. The frequency down-conversion function is also demonstrated.

  3. Dynamics and developing of natural circulation cooling from vertical upflow and downflow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.W.; Ouyang, W.

    2004-01-01

    Several research programs have been conducted to evaluate the capability of natural circulation cooling of reactors following a loss of cooling accident. Both experimental and RELAP5 simulation results were obtained for these studies in a facility with vertical heated tube(s) and a unheated bypass channel. The analytical results showed that, under a certain power level, a natural circulation pattern can be developed from both initial upflow and downflow conditions, and maintained for a significant cooling period. This power level, for the discussion of this paper, is defined as the natural circulation cooling (NCC) power limit. Two import factors, namely the pump coastdown rate and the initial flow direction, are examined in this paper. In the benchmark case, as compared to the experimental results, the RELAP5 simulation program accurately predicted the transient phenomena from forced convection through flow reversal, then, into natural circulation cooling. Generally, the two-phase NCC power limit is higher and also more stable for the cases with initial upflow forced convection than for the cases with initial downflow. The transient phenomena (dynamics) of the natural circulation cooling was examined by varying the pump coast down rate in approaching the flow reversal natural circulation. A significant pump coastdown effect on the NCC power limit was observed for the analytical tests with initial downflow forced convection. For the tests with initial downflow condition, the higher the coastdown rate (or the shorter the coastdown period), the higher the NCC power limit. For the case with initial upflow forced convection, there may be an optimal coastdown rate for a given subcooled condition. However, for the subcooled condition used in this study, the effect of pump coast down rate is not as significant as in the downward forced convection. (author)

  4. THE PHASE REACTOR INDUCTANCE SELECTION TECHNIQUE FOR POWER ACTIVE FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Tugay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to develop technique of the phase inductance power reactors selection for parallel active filter based on the account both low-frequency and high-frequency components of the electromagnetic processes in a power circuit. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, vector analysis, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed a new technique of the phase reactors inductance selection for parallel power active filter. It allows us to obtain the smallest possible value of THD network current. Originality. We have increased accuracy of methods of the phase reactor inductance selection for power active filter. Practical value. The proposed technique can be used in the design and manufacture of the active power filter for real objects of energy supply.

  5. Improvement Bio sorption of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater Using Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotb, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to improve the removal process which is vital for some heavy metals and natural radionuclides from industrial wastewater by bio sorption using living organisms with rapid growth as a trial to increase the efficient use of those organisms in the removal process is vital for the toxic elements. Bio sorption of heavy metal (Copper, Manganese, Iron, Zinc, Lead and Strontium) from industrial waste water (contaminated) with six different time periods for Azolla growth. The results indicate that Azolla plant able to on the absorption of ions of heavy elements and Sr and was up to the maximum absorption of most of the elements at a concentration of 50% of polluted water + 50% fresh water so we recommend using the plant Azolla as bio sorbent in the disposal and collection of heavy metals and radionuclides from industrial waste water and deal with it safely to humans and the environment. The results obtained confirm the ability of the fern to grow and absorb ion of heavy metal when mixed with industrial waste water and other sources of polluted water and act as bio filter. The optimum conditions for maximum removal of heavy metals were also determined. Study was conducted on recycling municipal wastewaters for cultivation of Azollamicrophylla biomass, which is used for inoculation into paddy fields as N bio fertilizer and has other applications as green manure,animal feed and bio filter.

  6. Biomedical implementation of liquid metal ink as drawable ECG electrode and skin circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional ways of making bio-electrodes are generally complicated, expensive and unconformable. Here we describe for the first time the method of applying Ga-based liquid metal ink as drawable electrocardiogram (ECG electrodes. Such material owns unique merits in both liquid phase conformability and high electrical conductivity, which provides flexible ways for making electrical circuits on skin surface and a prospective substitution of conventional rigid printed circuit boards (PCBs. METHODS: Fundamental measurements of impedance and polarization voltage of the liquid metal ink were carried out to evaluate its basic electrical properties. Conceptual experiments were performed to draw the alloy as bio-electrodes to acquire ECG signals from both rabbit and human via a wireless module developed on the mobile phone. Further, a typical electrical circuit was drawn in the palm with the ink to demonstrate its potential of implementing more sophisticated skin circuits. RESULTS: With an oxide concentration of 0.34%, the resistivity of the liquid metal ink was measured as 44.1 µΩ·cm with quite low reactance in the form of straight line. Its peak polarization voltage with the physiological saline was detected as -0.73 V. The quality of ECG wave detected from the liquid metal electrodes was found as good as that of conventional electrodes, from both rabbit and human experiments. In addition, the circuit drawn with the liquid metal ink in the palm also runs efficiently. When the loop was switched on, all the light emitting diodes (LEDs were lit and emitted colorful lights. CONCLUSIONS: The liquid metal ink promises unique printable electrical properties as both bio-electrodes and electrical wires. The implemented ECG measurement on biological surface and the successfully run skin circuit demonstrated the conformability and attachment of the liquid metal. The present method is expected to innovate future physiological measurement and

  7. Power generation using an activated carbon fiber felt cathode in an upflow microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Qian; Li, Xinyang; Zuo, Jiane.; Ling, Alison; Logan, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber felt (ACFF) cathode lacking metal catalysts is used in an upflow microbial fuel cell (UMFC). The maximum power density with the ACFF cathode is 315 mW m-2, compared to lower values with cathodes made of plain carbon paper

  8. Low-altitude ion heating with downflowing and upflowing ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.; James, G.; Miles, D.; Cogger, L. L.; Perry, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanisms that energize ions at the initial stage of ion upflow are still not well understood. We statistically investigate ionospheric ion energization and field-aligned motion at very low altitudes (330-730 km) using simultaneous plasma, magnetic field, wave electric field and optical data from the e-POP satellite. The high-time-resolution (10 ms) dataset enables us to study the micro-structures of ion heating and field-aligned ion motion. The ion temperature and field-aligned bulk flow velocity are derived from 2-D ion distribution functions measured by the SEI instrument. From March 2015 to March 2016, we've found 17 orbits (in total 24 ion heating periods) with clear ion heating signatures passing across the dayside cleft or the nightside auroral regions. Most of these events have consistent ion heating and flow velocity characteristics observed from both the SEI and IRM instruments. The perpendicular ion temperature goes up to 4.5 eV within a 2 km-wide region in some cases, in which the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) sees broadband extremely low frequency (BBELF) waves, demonstrating significant wave-ion heating down to as low as 350 km. The e-POP Fast Auroral Imager (FAI) and Magnetic Field (MGF) instruments show that many events are associated with active aurora and are within downward current regions. Contrary to what would be expected from mirror-force acceleration of heated ions, the majority of these heating events (17 out of 24) are associated with the core ion downflow rather than upflow. These statistical results provide us with new sights into ion heating and field-aligned flow processes at very low altitudes.

  9. Simulation of upward flux from shallow water-table using UPFLOW model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The upward movement of water by capillary rise from shallow water-table to the root zone is an important incoming flux. For determining exact amount of irrigation requirement, estimation of capillary flux or upward flux is essential. Simulation model can provide a reliable estimate of upward flux under variable soil and climatic conditions. In this study, the performance of model UPFLOW to estimate upward flux was evaluated. Evaluation of model performance was performed with both graphical display and statistical criteria. In distribution of simulated capillary rise values against observed field data, maximum data points lie around the 1:1 line, which means that the model output is reliable and reasonable. The coefficient of determination between observed and simulated values was 0.806 (r = 0.93, which indicates a good inter-relation between observed and simulated values. The relative error, model efficiency, and index of agreement were found as 27.91%, 85.93% and 0.96, respectively. Considering the graphical display of observed and simulated upward flux and statistical indicators, it can be concluded that the overall performance of the UPFLOW model in simulating actual upward flux from a crop field under variable water-table condition is satisfactory. Thus, the model can be used to estimate capillary rise from shallow water-table for proper estimation of irrigation requirement, which would save valuable water from over-irrigation.

  10. Ultra-compact microwave filters using kinetic inductance microstrip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, J.M.; Carroll, K.R.; Cukauskas, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on multi-pole microwave filters designed and fabricated using microstrip transmission line sections which consist of two very thin films of sputtered niobium nitride (NbN) separated by another very thin film of sputtered Si. Since the thicknesses of all three films are much less than the superconducting penetration depth, the kinetic inductance is significantly greater than the magnetic inductance. As a result, the phase velocity of a microstrip transmission line is much less than the free space speed of light. Since resonant structures are reduced in size proportionately, the size and weight of microstrip circuits can be greatly reduced. Prototype filters consisting of four open circuit half-wavelength microstrip stubs separated by full-wavelength microstrip sections have been measured. The circuits are connected to 34 mil diameter coaxial cable via an intermediate coplanar waveguide section. Passbands of 4 GHz separated by 3 GHz reject bands have been measured in a structure which occupies less than 0.5 cm 2 including the coplanar waveguide transitions. Higher-order passbands, although possessing an increased insertion loss, maintain filter passband characteristics through 20.0 GHz

  11. Particle filters for random set models

    CERN Document Server

    Ristic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    “Particle Filters for Random Set Models” presents coverage of state estimation of stochastic dynamic systems from noisy measurements, specifically sequential Bayesian estimation and nonlinear or stochastic filtering. The class of solutions presented in this book is based  on the Monte Carlo statistical method. The resulting  algorithms, known as particle filters, in the last decade have become one of the essential tools for stochastic filtering, with applications ranging from  navigation and autonomous vehicles to bio-informatics and finance. While particle filters have been around for more than a decade, the recent theoretical developments of sequential Bayesian estimation in the framework of random set theory have provided new opportunities which are not widely known and are covered in this book. These recent developments have dramatically widened the scope of applications, from single to multiple appearing/disappearing objects, from precise to imprecise measurements and measurement models. This book...

  12. Novel Resistorless First-Order Current-Mode Universal Filter Employing a Grounded Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arslanalp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new bipolar junction transistor (BJT based configuration for providing first-order resistorless current-mode (CM all-pass, low-pass and high-pass filter responses from the same configuration is suggested. The proposed circuit called as a first-order universal filter possesses some important advantages such as consisting of a few BJTs and a grounded capacitor, consuming very low power and having electronic tunability property of its pole frequency. Additionally, types of filter response can be obtained only by changing the values of current sources. The suggested circuit does not suffer from disadvantages of use of the resistors in IC process. The presented first-order universal filter topology does not need any passive element matching constraints. Moreover, as an application example, a second-order band-pass filter is obtained by cascading two proposed filter structures which are operating as low-pass filter and high-pass one. Simulations by means of PSpice program are accomplished to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the developed first-order universal filter.

  13. Simulation of the High-Pass Filter for 56MHz Cavity for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2010-01-01

    The 56MHz Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity for RHIC places high demands High Order Mode (HOM) damping, as well as requiring a high field at gap with fundamental mode frequency. The damper of 56MHz cavity is designed to extract all modes to the resistance load outside, including the fundamental mode. Therefore, the circuit must incorporate a high-pass filter to reflect back the fundamental mode into the cavity. In this paper, we show the good frequency response map obtained from our filter's design. We extract a circuit diagram from the microwave elements that simulate well the frequency spectrum of the finalized filter. We also demonstrate that the power dissipation on the filter over its frequency range is small enough for cryogenic cooling.

  14. Process for washing electromagnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guittet, Maurice; Treille, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    This process concerns the washing of an electro-magnetic filter used, inter alia, for filtering the drain-off waters of nuclear power station steam generators, by means of a washing water used in closed circuit and freed, after each cleaning, of the solids in suspension it contains, by settlement of these solids. This invention enables the volume of water to be evaporated to be divided by 50, thereby providing a solid assurance of better safety, apart from a very significant saving [fr

  15. Palm oil mill effluent treatment using a two-stage microbial fuel cells system integrated with immobilized biological aerated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jia; Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Borthwick, Alistair

    2010-04-01

    An integrated system of two-stage microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and immobilized biological aerated filters (I-BAFs) was used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) at laboratory scale. By replacing the conventional two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) with a newly proposed upflow membrane-less microbial fuel cell (UML-MFC) in the integrated system, significant improvements on NH(3)-N removal were observed and direct electricity generation implemented in both MFC1 and MFC2. Moreover, the coupled iron-carbon micro-electrolysis in the cathode of MFC2 further enhanced treatment efficiency of organic compounds. The I-BAFs played a major role in further removal of NH(3)-N and COD. For influent COD and NH(3)-N of 10,000 and 125 mg/L, respectively, the final effluents COD and NH(3)-N were below 350 and 8 mg/L, with removal rates higher than 96.5% and 93.6%. The GC-MS analysis indicated that most of the contaminants were satisfactorily biodegraded by the integrated system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a dynamic model of a Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.A.; Al-Zybaidy, S.; Bridge, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor has been modeled in this paper using a semi-empirical correlation. The main objective of the modeling exercise was to examine the dynamics (hydrodynamics and transformation) of critical variables that are important for the reactor process design, performance and operation. These factors include some microbiological variables such as soluble (as COD) and biodegradable organics (as BOD), suspended solids (SS), and biomass concentration (as VSS). The hydraulic variables such as the upflow velocity of the liquid and by extension, upflow velocity of the solids and the volumetric fractions of the liquid (voidage) are also given considerations. The dynamics of external mass transfer of organics and inorganics and the transformation reactions within the reactor are modeled by five non-linear partial differential equations (PDE's), which define dependent variables in one-dimensional temporal and spatial planes, one integrand equation for the gas rate of flow and six algebraic equations that define the reactor performance (conversion rates and removal efficiencies). The PDE's are solved using backward finite differencing method. The discretized equations are computed using a simulation program that was written in the Borland C++ programming language. The model defines the dynamics of the UASB in a simplistic way but which, nonetheless, can be useful for engineering designs where the interest is in qualitative results and not quantitative outcomes. The simulation was validated with data derived from the operation of a pilot model UASB. The pilot model was operated using raw domestic wastewater as substrate, which had an average total COD of 492 mg/L, soluble COD of 172 mg/L, BOD of 220 mg/L, suspended solid of 0.235 g/L and a high sulphate content of 108 mg/L. The average nutrient concentrations were, NH3-N 20 mg/L and PO4 15 mg/L. The UASB was operated at HRT's of 10.968, 8.326 and 5.51 hours The average removal

  17. Innovative bio filtration for treatment of wastewater from communities and industry; Biofiltracion innovadora para el tratamiento de aguas residuales producidas por poblaciones e industrias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekoulov, I.; Rudiger, A.; Barz, M.

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays biological treatments are more and more required to clean municipal and industrial wastewater. More than 500 wastewater treatment plant use bio filtration. Bio filtration is a compact aerated reactor which does not imply expensive investments anymore. The real advantage of using bio filters is the aptitude to adapts the treatment to a wide range of entering polluting load, and also to low temperatures of wastewater. However, this technology needs a frequent cleaning that involves to stop the installation. Aquabiotec has solved this issue by enhancing a sequential cleaning. This new generation of bio filtration is able to treat wastewater steadily, with the same efficiency (>90%) and for lower costs compared to a classical bio filter. (Author) 6 refs.

  18. The application of expandable polystyrene pellets as filter media to controlled filter in a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Ruiguo; Liu Mingde; Li Chunhua

    1987-11-01

    Expandable polystyrene pellets as filter media are used for controlled filter of uranium ore processing. Results from bench scale tests, pilot plant tests and full scale tests are satisfactory. The filter used in the full scale tests is 4 m in diameter, and the capacity is from 75 to 100 m 3 per hour. The soild content in the pregnant solution which overflowing the first thichener contains about 250 ppm of suspended solid can be reduced to 5 ∼ 10 ppm. The filter bed is backflushed with the feed liquors and the backflush returns to the countercurrent decantation circuit. The entrainment loss of the organic phase in the raffinate from solvnet extraction can be decreased by about 60% with treating the filtrated solution

  19. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using

  20. Efficiency of removal of bod5 and ss in sedimentation tanks and filters in wastewater treatment systems for coffee bean (Coffea arabica processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gutiérrez Guzmán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available n order to evaluate the current operating conditions of wastewater treatment systems of small scale coffee growers in the south of Huila a lab-scale prototype (S 1:25 was constructed. It was composed of both a sediment tank and a filter fit in series, simulating similar operating conditions used by coffee producers. Removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD5 and suspended solids (SS was performed in wastewater from coffee bean processing. A 23 factorial experimental design for the evaluation of the type of sedimentation tank, type of filter and hydraulic retention time (HRT in the sedimentation tank was employed. The results showed high removal efficiencies of suspended solid concentrations (more than 95%, and low removal efficiencies in BOD5 (about 20%. The combination of tank type 1 (square with a lower area, filter type 1 (upflow anaerobic filter – UAF and HRT of 30 hours had the highest removal efficiency.

  1. A multi-standard active-RC filter with accurate tuning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Heping; Yuan Fang; Shi Yin; Dai, F F

    2009-01-01

    A low-power, highly linear, multi-standard, active-RC filter with an accurate and novel tuning architecture is presented. It exhibits IEEE 802.11 a/b/g (9.5 MHz) and DVB-H (3 MHz, 4 MHz) application. The filter exploits digitally-controlled polysilicon resistor banks and a phase lock loop type automatic tuning system. The novel and complex automatic frequency calibration scheme provides better than 4 corner frequency accuracy, and it can be powered down after calibration to save power and avoid digital signal interference. The filter achieves OIP3 of 26 dBm and the measured group delay variation of the receiver filter is 50 ns (WLAN mode). Its dissipation is 3.4 mA in RX mode and 2.3 mA (only for one path) in TX mode from a 2.85 V supply. The dissipation of calibration consumes 2 mA. The circuit has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm 47 GHz SiGe BiCMOS technology; the receiver and transmitter filter occupy 0.21 mm 2 and 0.11 mm 2 (calibration circuit excluded), respectively.

  2. Design and analysis of planar spiral resonator bandstop filter for microwave frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motakabber, S. M. A.; Shaifudin Suharsono, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    In microwave frequency, a spiral resonator can act as either frequency reject or acceptor circuits. A planar logarithmic spiral resonator bandstop filter has been developed based on this property. This project focuses on the rejection property of the spiral resonator. The performance analysis of the exhibited filter circuit has been performed by using scattering parameters (S-parameters) technique in the ultra-wideband microwave frequency. The proposed filter is built, simulated and S-parameters analysis have been accomplished by using electromagnetic simulation software CST microwave studio. The commercial microwave substrate Taconic TLX-8 has been used to build this filter. Experimental results showed that the -10 dB rejection bandwidth of the filter is 2.32 GHz and central frequency is 5.72 GHz which is suitable for ultra-wideband applications. The proposed design has been full of good compliance with the simulated and experimental results here.

  3. Butterworth passive filter in the fractional-order

    KAUST Repository

    Sołtan, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the generalized analysis of the first Butterworth filter based on two passive elements is introduced in the fractional-order sense. The fractional-order condition of the Butterworth circuit is presented for the first time where it will lead us back to the known condition of the integer-order circuit when the two fractional-orders equal one. Therefore, the conventional behavior of the integer-order circuit is a narrow subset of the fractional-order ones. The circuit is studied under same and different order cases, and verified through their numerical simulations. Stability analysis is also introduced showing the poles location in the fractional-order versus integer order cases. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Wavelet-Based Feature Extraction in Fault Diagnosis for Biquad High-Pass Filter Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Yuehai Wang; Yongzheng Yan; Qinyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Fault diagnosis for analog circuit has become a prominent factor in improving the reliability of integrated circuit due to its irreplaceability in modern integrated circuits. In fact fault diagnosis based on intelligent algorithms has become a popular research topic as efficient feature extraction and selection are a critical and intricate task in analog fault diagnosis. Further, it is extremely important to propose some general guidelines for the optimal feature extraction and selection. In ...

  5. Attrition-free pyrolysis to produce bio-oil and char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauviel, Guillain; Guillain, Mauviel; Kies, Fairouz; Fairouz, Kies; René, Mar Sans; Mar, Sans Rene; Ferrer, Monique; Monique, Ferrer; Lédé, Jacques; Jacques, Lédé

    2009-12-01

    Experiments are performed on a laboratory scale setup where beech wood chips are heated by gas convection and walls radiation. This study shows that it is possible to obtain high bio-oil and char yields with relatively low external heat transfer coefficients. The main advantage of this convection/radiation heat transfer mode compared to solid-solid collisions, applied in fluidized bed or twin screw reactors, is the reduction of solid attrition (char and sand). Thus tricky gas-solid separation through hot cyclones and/or hot filters could be avoided or reduced. It should be possible to recover directly bio-oil with less char particles and char free of sand dust. These qualities would allow easier use of these bio-products in different applications.

  6. Circuit Design and Implementation of Micro-Displacement Measurement System of Laser Self-Mixing Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Ya LIU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we put forward the basic structure of a micro-displacement measuring system based on the basic theory of laser feedback, and designed a hardware circuit of the system, including the LD driver and modulation circuit, photoelectric signal amplifier and filter circuit, which meet the requirements of the follow-up experimental study by theoretical analysis and Multisim simulation to the circuit.

  7. Construction and demolition waste: Comparison of standard up-flow column and down-flow lysimeter leaching tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Hyks, Jiri; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2015-01-01

    Five samples of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) were investigated in order to quantify leaching of inorganic elements under percolation conditions according to two different experimental setups: standardised up-flow saturated columns (-1TS) for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, DOC, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb...

  8. Polarized electrode enhances biological direct interspecies electron transfer for methane production in upflow anaerobic bioelectrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qing; Song, Young-Chae; Yoo, Kyuseon; Kuppanan, Nanthakumar; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Lal, Banwari

    2018-08-01

    The influence of polarized electrodes on the methane production, which depends on the sludge concentration, was investigated in upflow anaerobic bioelectrochemical (UABE) reactor. When the polarized electrode was placed in the bottom zone with a high sludge concentration, the methane production was 5.34 L/L.d, which was 53% higher than upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. However, the methane production was reduced to 4.34 L/L.d by placing the electrode in the upper zone of the UABE reactor with lower sludge concentration. In the UABE reactor, the methane production was mainly improved by the enhanced biological direct interspecies electron transfer (bDIET) pathway, and the methane production via the electrode was a minor fraction of less than 4% of total methane production. The polarized electrodes that placed in the bottom zone with a high sludge concentration enhance the bDIET for methane production in the UABE reactor and greatly improve the methane production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  10. A composite passive damping method of the LLCL-filter based grid-tied inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Huang, Min; Sun, Yunjie

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the maximum and the minimum gain of the proportional resonant based grid current controller for a grid-tied inverter with a passive damped high-order power filter. It is found that the choice of the controller gain is limited to the local maximum amplitude determined by Q......-factor around the characteristic frequency of the filter and grid impedance. To obtain the Q-factor of a high-order system, an equivalent circuit analysis method is proposed and illustrated through several classical passive damped LCL- and LLCL-filters. It is shown that both the RC parallel damper...... that is in parallel with the capacitor of the LCL-filter or with the Lf-Cf resonant circuit of the LLCL-filter, and the RL series damper in series with the grid-side inductor have their own application limits. Thus, a composite passive damped LLCL-filter for the grid-tied inverter is proposed, which can effectively...

  11. Molecular Ions in Ion Upflows and their Effects on Hot Atomic Oxygen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, V.; Yau, A. W.; Shizgal, B.

    2017-12-01

    We present new direct ion composition observations of molecular ions in auroral ion upflows from the CASSIOPE Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP). These observed molecular ions are N2+, NO+, and possibly O2+, and are found to occur at all e-POP altitudes starting at about 400 km, during auroral substorms and the different phases of magnetic storms, sometimes with upflow velocities exceeding a few hundred meters per second and abundances of 5-10%. The dissociative recombination of both O2+ and NO+ was previously proposed as an important source of hot oxygen atoms in the topside thermosphere [Hickey et al., 1995]. We investigate the possible effect of the observed molecular ions on the production of hot oxygen atoms in the storm and substorm-time auroral thermosphere. We present numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation for the steady-state oxygen energy distribution function, taking into account both the production of the hot atoms and their subsequent collisional relaxation. Our result suggests the formation of a hot oxygen population with a characteristic temperature on the order of 0.3 eV and constituting 1-5% of the oxygen density near the exobase. We discuss the implication of this result in the context of magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling.

  12. Integrated all optical transmodulator circuits with non-linear gain elements and tunable optical fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuindersma, P.I.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Zantvoort, van J.H.C.; Waardt, de H.

    2012-01-01

    We characterize integrated InP circuits for high speed ‘all-optical’ signal processing. Single chip circuits act as optical transistors. Transmodulation is performed by non-linear gain sections. Integrated tunable filters give signal equalization in time domain.

  13. Architecture of transcriptional regulatory circuits is knitted over the topology of bio-molecular interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    is to use the topology of bio-molecular interaction networks in order to constrain the solution space. Such approaches systematically integrate the existing biological knowledge with the 'omics' data. Results: Here we introduce a hypothesis-driven method that integrates bio-molecular network topology......Background: Uncovering the operating principles underlying cellular processes by using 'omics' data is often a difficult task due to the high-dimensionality of the solution space that spans all interactions among the bio-molecules under consideration. A rational way to overcome this problem...... with transcriptome data, thereby allowing the identification of key biological features (Reporter Features) around which transcriptional changes are significantly concentrated. We have combined transcriptome data with different biological networks in order to identify Reporter Gene Ontologies, Reporter Transcription...

  14. Novel Control Strategy for VSI and CSI Active Filters and Comparing These Two Types of Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Arab

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently to eliminate the harmonics and improve the power factor of the power networks, much attention has been attracted to active filters. The advantages of these filters are lower volume and their better compensating characteristics than the passive filters. In conventional sliding mode controllers, the source current waveform is fluctuated in near to zero values. In this paper, using a new sliding technique, lower Total Harmonic Distortion (THD in source current is obtained and the current waveform is improved. As well as, two novel control strategies for two types of active filters, VSI and CSI is proposed and then these two types of filters are compared to reduce THD value of source current.The proposed controlled strategies are simulated by MATLAB/Simulink. The Simulation results confirm that the proposed strategies reduce the THD of source current more than other strategies, and active filter based on CSI has a better performance than active filter based on VSI with a dead time area (for avoiding short circuit of the source in high powers.

  15. Effect of temperature on two-phase anaerobic reactors treating slaughterhouse wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Beux

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the anaerobic treatment of effluent from a swine and bovine slaughterhouse was assessed in two sets of two-phase anaerobic digesters, operated with or without temperature control. Set A, consisting of an acidogenic reactor with recirculation and an upflow biological filter as the methanogenic phase, was operated at room temperature, while set B, consisting of an acidogenic reactor without recirculation and an upflow biological filter as the methanogenic phase, was maintained at 32°C. The methanogenic reactors showed COD (Chemical Demand of Oxygen removal above 60% for HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time values of 20, 15, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 2 days. When the HRT value in those reactors was changed to 1 day, the COD percentage removal decreased to 50%. The temperature variations did not have harmful effects on the performance of reactors in set A.Avaliou-se a eficiência do tratamento anaeróbio de efluente de matadouro de suínos e bovinos em dois conjuntos de biodigestores anaeróbios de duas fases, operados com e sem controle de temperatura. O conjunto A, formado por um reator acidogênico com recirculação e um filtro biológico de fluxo ascendente, foi operado a temperatura ambiente e o conjunto B, formado por um reator de fluxo ascendente e um filtro biológico de fluxo ascendente, foi mantido a 32°C. Os reatores metanogênicos apresentaram remoção de DQO acima de 60 % para os TRHs de 20, 15, 10, oito, seis, quatro e dois dias. Quando o TRH destes reatores foi mudado para um dia observou-se uma queda da porcentagem de remoção de DQO para 50 %. As variações de temperatura parecem não ter prejudicado o desempenho dos reatores do conjunto A.

  16. Research of Measurement Circuits for High Voltage Current Transformer Based on Rogowski Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bing

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electronic current transformer plays an irreplaceable position in the field of relay protection and current measurement of the power system. Rogowski coils are used as sensor parts, and in order to improve the measurement accuracy and reliability, the circuits at the high voltage system are introduced and improved in this paper, including the analog integral element, the filtering circuit and the phase shift circuit. Simulations results proved the reliability and accuracy of the improved circuits.

  17. MISO Current-mode Biquad Filter with Independent Control of Pole Frequency and Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaikla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a three-inputs single-output biquadratic filter performing completely standard functions: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-reject and all-pass functions, based on current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCCTA. The quality factor and pole frequency can be electronically/independently tuned via the input bias current. The proposed circuit uses 2 CCCCTAs and 2 grounded capacitors without external any resistors which is very suitable to further develop into an integrated circuit. The filter does not require double input current signal. Each function response can be selected by suitably selecting input signals with digital method. Moreover, the circuit possesses high output impedance which would be an ideal choice for current-mode cascading. The PSPICE simulation results are included to verify the workability of the proposed filter. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

  18. Mixed-integrator-based bi-quad cell for designing a continuous time filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Zhou Yumei

    2010-01-01

    A new mixed-integrator-based bi-quad cell is proposed. An alternative synthesis mechanism of complex poles is proposed compared with source-follower-based bi-quad cells which is designed applying the positive feedback technique. Using the negative feedback technique to combine different integrators, the proposed bi-quad cell synthesizes complex poles for designing a continuous time filter. It exhibits various advantages including compact topology, high gain, no parasitic pole, no CMFB circuit, and high capability. The fourth-order Butterworth lowpass filter using the proposed cells has been fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The active area occupied by the filter with test buffer is only 200 x 170 μm 2 . The proposed filter consumes a low power of 201 μW and achieves a 68.5 dB dynamic range. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Novel Grounded Capacitor All-Pass and Notch Filters Using Current Conveyors and Differential Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saraswat

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Three circuits each realizing second-order all-pass/notch filter transfer functions are reported. All circuits use grounded capacitors and are suitable for IC implementation. These circuits offer the advantages of high input impedance and low output impedance and are superior to all earlier realisations.

  20. Design of a Narrow Bandwidth Bandpass Filter Using Compact Spiral Resonator with Chirality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a compact narrow-bandpass filter with high selectivity and improved rejection level is presented. For miniaturization, a pair of double negative (DNG cells consisting of quasi-planar chiral resonators are cascaded and electrically loaded to a microstrip transmission line; short ended stubs are introduced to expand upper rejection band. The structure is analyzed using equivalent circuit models and simulated based on EM simulation software. For validation, the proposed filter is fabricated and measured. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones. By comparing to other filters in the references, it is shown that the proposed filter has the advantage of skirt selectivity and compact size, so it can be integrated more conveniently in modern wireless communication systems and microwave planar circuits.

  1. 78 FR 44957 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log, Filter Holder Log DHS Form...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... engaged in the process of determining if any criminal activity has taken place. The Federal Bureau of... of written records is included in Attachment 1. Collection of written records establishing chain of... (Attachment 2). The FBI requirement levied on the BioWatch Program is consistent with Section 7 of the FBI...

  2. Artificial immune system algorithm in VLSI circuit configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In artificial intelligence, the artificial immune system is a robust bio-inspired heuristic method, extensively used in solving many constraint optimization problems, anomaly detection, and pattern recognition. This paper discusses the implementation and performance of artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm integrated with Hopfield neural networks for VLSI circuit configuration based on 3-Satisfiability problems. Specifically, we emphasized on the clonal selection technique in our binary artificial immune system algorithm. We restrict our logic construction to 3-Satisfiability (3-SAT) clauses in order to outfit with the transistor configuration in VLSI circuit. The core impetus of this research is to find an ideal hybrid model to assist in the VLSI circuit configuration. In this paper, we compared the artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm (HNN-3SATAIS) with the brute force algorithm incorporated with Hopfield neural network (HNN-3SATBF). Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 was used as a platform for training, simulating and validating the performances of the proposed network. The results depict that the HNN-3SATAIS outperformed HNN-3SATBF in terms of circuit accuracy and CPU time. Thus, HNN-3SATAIS can be used to detect an early error in the VLSI circuit design.

  3. Introduction of circuit design on RFID system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Sunho

    2007-06-01

    This is a case of research of Fujitsu company and design of basic circuit of electronic technique. It is composed of two parts. The first part deals with introduction of RFID system design, which lists basic knowledge of ubiquitous, glossary of high frequency, design of impedance matching circuit, RFID system, sorts and design of filter, modulator and a transmission and RFID system design. The second part deals with research and development of Fujitsu company, including RFID middle ware RFID CONNECT of Fujitsu, sensor network of Fujitsu and high handing technique of RFID system.

  4. Introduction of circuit design on RFID system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Sunho

    2007-06-15

    This is a case of research of Fujitsu company and design of basic circuit of electronic technique. It is composed of two parts. The first part deals with introduction of RFID system design, which lists basic knowledge of ubiquitous, glossary of high frequency, design of impedance matching circuit, RFID system, sorts and design of filter, modulator and a transmission and RFID system design. The second part deals with research and development of Fujitsu company, including RFID middle ware RFID CONNECT of Fujitsu, sensor network of Fujitsu and high handing technique of RFID system.

  5. Optimization of Segmentation Quality of Integrated Circuit Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Mušketas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigation into the application of genetic algorithms for the segmentation of the active regions of integrated circuit images. This article is dedicated to a theoretical examination of the applied methods (morphological dilation, erosion, hit-and-miss, threshold and describes genetic algorithms, image segmentation as optimization problem. The genetic optimization of the predefined filter sequence parameters is carried out. Improvement to segmentation accuracy using a non optimized filter sequence makes 6%.Artcile in Lithuanian

  6. [Numerical simulation and operation optimization of biological filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zong-Sen; Shi, Han-Chang; Chen, Xiang-Qiang; Xie, Xiao-Qing

    2014-12-01

    BioWin software and two sensitivity analysis methods were used to simulate the Denitrification Biological Filter (DNBF) + Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) process in Yuandang Wastewater Treatment Plant. Based on the BioWin model of DNBF + BAF process, the operation data of September 2013 were used for sensitivity analysis and model calibration, and the operation data of October 2013 were used for model validation. The results indicated that the calibrated model could accurately simulate practical DNBF + BAF processes, and the most sensitive parameters were the parameters related to biofilm, OHOs and aeration. After the validation and calibration of model, it was used for process optimization with simulating operation results under different conditions. The results showed that, the best operation condition for discharge standard B was: reflux ratio = 50%, ceasing methanol addition, influent C/N = 4.43; while the best operation condition for discharge standard A was: reflux ratio = 50%, influent COD = 155 mg x L(-1) after methanol addition, influent C/N = 5.10.

  7. Development of the signalling circuits for reactor emergency protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, A.V.; Nikiforov, B.N.; Ogon'kov, A.I.; Sychinskij, Yu.L.

    1978-01-01

    Construction of circuits for nuclear reactor emergency protection according to the power level and rate of power rise with the use of integrated microcircuits is discussed. Circuits of relay- and transformer-based logical signaling devices are presented. It is noted that disadvantages of a transformer-based loaical sianaling device are great power consumption (about 300 mW) and slow response limited by the time constant of the output smoothing filter. Further development of circuits under consideration is associated with the employment of new optronic elements intended to replace the transformers

  8. A multi-standard active-RC filter with accurate tuning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Heping; Yuan Fang; Shi Yin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Dai, F F, E-mail: hpma@semi.ac.c [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5201 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    A low-power, highly linear, multi-standard, active-RC filter with an accurate and novel tuning architecture is presented. It exhibits IEEE 802.11 a/b/g (9.5 MHz) and DVB-H (3 MHz, 4 MHz) application. The filter exploits digitally-controlled polysilicon resistor banks and a phase lock loop type automatic tuning system. The novel and complex automatic frequency calibration scheme provides better than 4 corner frequency accuracy, and it can be powered down after calibration to save power and avoid digital signal interference. The filter achieves OIP3 of 26 dBm and the measured group delay variation of the receiver filter is 50 ns (WLAN mode). Its dissipation is 3.4 mA in RX mode and 2.3 mA (only for one path) in TX mode from a 2.85 V supply. The dissipation of calibration consumes 2 mA. The circuit has been fabricated in a 0.35 {mu}m 47 GHz SiGe BiCMOS technology; the receiver and transmitter filter occupy 0.21 mm{sup 2} and 0.11 mm{sup 2} (calibration circuit excluded), respectively.

  9. Rotation speed measurement for turbine governor: torsion filtering by using Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houry, M.P.; Bourles, H.

    1995-11-01

    The rotation speed of a turbogenerator is disturbed by its shaft torsion. Obtaining a filtered measure of this sped a problem of a great practical importance for turbine governor. A good filtering of this speed must meet two requirements: it must cut frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation and it must not reduce or delay the signal in the pass-band. i.e. at lower frequencies. At Electricite de France, the speed measure is used to set in motion the fast valving system as quickly as possible, after a short circuit close to the unit (to contribute to the stability) or after an islanding (to quickly reach a balance with the house load). It is difficult to satisfy these two requirements by using conventional filtering methods. The standard solution consists in a first order filter: at Electricite de France, its time constant is equal to 80 ms; We have decided to improve this filtering by designing a new filter which cuts the frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation without reducing the bandwidth of the speed measure. If one uses conventional methods to obtain a band-stop filter (for instance a Butterworth, a Chebyshev or an elliptic band-stop filter),it is easy to obtain the desired magnitude but not a phase near zero in the whole pass-band. Therefore, we have chosen to design the filter by using Kalman's theory. The measurement noise is modeled as a colored one, generated by a very lightly damped system driven by a white noise. The resulting Kalman filter is an effective band-stop filter, whose phase nicely remains near zero in the whole pass-band. (authors). 13 refs., 12 figs

  10. Energy production from distillery wastewater using single and double-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muyodi, F J; Rubindamayugi, M S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A Single-phase (SP) and Double-phase (DP) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors treating distillery wastewater were operated in parallel. The DP UASB reactor showed better performance than the SP UASB reactor in terms of maximum methane production rate, methane content and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency. (au) 20 refs.

  11. Energy production from distillery wastewater using single and double-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muyodi, F.J.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A Single-phase (SP) and Double-phase (DP) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors treating distillery wastewater were operated in parallel. The DP UASB reactor showed better performance than the SP UASB reactor in terms of maximum methane production rate, methane content and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency. (au) 20 refs.

  12. Design of Microcantilever-Based Biosensor with Digital Feedback Control Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayu P. Kalambe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the design of cantilever-based biosensors with new readout, which hold promises as fast and cheap “point of care” device as well as interesting research tools. The fabrication process and related issues of the cantilever based bio-sensor are discussed. Coventorware simulation is carried out to analyze the device behavior. A fully integrated control circuit has been designed to solve manufacturing challenge which will take care of positioning of the cantilever instead of creating nanometer gap between the electrodes. The control circuit will solve the manufacturing challenge faced by the readout methods where it is essential to maintain precise gap between the electrodes. The circuit can take care of variation obtained due to fabrication process and maintain the precise gap between the electrodes by electrostatic actuation. The control circuit consist of analog and digital modules. The reliability issues of the sensor are also discussed.

  13. OBIST methodology incorporating modified sensitivity of pulses for active analogue filter components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khade, R. H.; Chaudhari, D. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, oscillation-based built-in self-test method is used to diagnose catastrophic and parametric faults in integrated circuits. Sallen-Key low pass filter and high pass filter circuits with different gains are used to investigate defects. Variation in seven parameters of operational amplifier (OP-AMP) like gain, input impedance, output impedance, slew rate, input bias current, input offset current, input offset voltage and catastrophic as well as parametric defects in components outside OP-AMP are introduced in the circuit and simulation results are analysed. Oscillator output signal is converted to pulses which are used to generate a signature of the circuit. The signature and pulse count changes with the type of fault present in the circuit under test (CUT). The change in oscillation frequency is observed for fault detection. Designer has flexibility to predefine tolerance band of cut-off frequency and range of pulses for which circuit should be accepted. The fault coverage depends upon the required tolerance band of the CUT. We propose a modification of sensitivity of parameter (pulses) to avoid test escape and enhance yield. Result shows that the method provides 100% fault coverage for catastrophic faults.

  14. New Gain Controllable Resistor-less Current-mode First Order Allpass Filter and its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaikla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New first order allpass filter (APF in current mode, constructed from 2 CCCCTAs and grounded capacitor, is presented. The current gain and phase shift can be electronically /orthogonally controlled. Low input and high output impedances are achieved which make the circuit to be easily cascaded to the current-mode circuit without additional current buffers. The operation of the proposed filter has been verified through simulation results which confirm the theoretical analysis. The application example as current-mode quadrature oscillator with non-interactive current control for both of oscillation condition and oscillation frequency is included to show the usability of the proposed filter.

  15. A CMOS Gm-C complex filter with on-chip automatic tuning for wireless sensor network application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Chuanchuan; Li Zhiqun; Hou Ningbing

    2011-01-01

    A G m -C complex filter with on-chip automatic tuning for wireless sensor networks is designed and implemented using 0.18 μm CMOS process. This filter is synthesized from a low-pass 5th-order Chebyshev RLC ladder filter prototype by means of capacitors and fully balanced transconductors. A conventional phase-locked loop is used to realize the on-chip automatic tuning for both center frequency and bandwidth control. The filter is centered at 2 MHz with a bandwidth of 2.4 MHz. The measured results show that the filter provides more than 45 dB image rejection while the ripple in the pass-band is less than 1.2 dB. The complete filter including on-chip tuning circuit consumes 4.9 mA with 1.8 V single supply voltage. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Primary circuit water chemistry during shutdown period at Kalinin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, S.; Otchenashev, G.; Yurmanov, V.

    2005-01-01

    The primary circuit water chemistry feature at Kalinin NPP is using of special up-dated regime during the period of unit shutdown for refueling. The main objective of up-dated regime is removing from the circuit long time living corrosion products on SVO-2 ion exchange filters with the purpose of dose rates reduction from the equipment and in such a way reduction of maintenance personnel overexposure. (N.T.)

  17. Bacterial degradation of styrene in waste gases using a peat filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, M.; Reittu, A. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Wright, A. von; Suihko, M.L. [VTT Biotechnology and Food Research (Finland); Martikainen, P.J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences]|[National Public Health Inst., Lab. of Environmental Microbiology, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    A biofiltration process was developed for styrene-containing off-gases using peat as filter material. The average styrene reduction ratio after 190 days of operation was 70% (max. 98%) and the mean styrene elimination capacity was 12 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} (max. 30 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}). Efficient styrene degradation required addition of nutrients to the peat, adjustment of the pH to a neutral level and efficient control of the humidity. Maintenance of the water balance was easier in a down-flow than in an up-flow process, the former consequently resulting in much better filtration efficiency. The optimum operation temperature was around 23 C, but the styrene removal was still satisfactory at 12 C. Seven different bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Tsukamurella, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Xanthomonas and an unidentified genus in the {gamma} group of the Proteobacteria isolated from the microflora of active peat filter material were capable of styrene degradation. The isolates differed in their capacity to decompose styrene to carbon dioxide and assimilate it to biomass. No toxic intermediate degradation products of styrene were detected in the filter outlet gas or in growing cultures of isolated bacteria. The use of these isolates in industrial biofilters is beneficial at low styrene concentrations and is safe from both the environmental and public health points of view. (orig.)

  18. Bacterial degradation of styrene in waste gases using a peat filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M; Reittu, A; von Wright, A; Martikainen, P J; Suihko, M L

    1997-12-01

    A biofiltration process was developed for styrene-containing off-gases using peat as filter material. The average styrene reduction ratio after 190 days of operation was 70% (max. 98%) and the mean styrene elimination capacity was 12 g m-3 h-1 (max. 30 g m-3 h-1). Efficient styrene degradation required addition of nutrients to the peat, adjustment of the pH to a neutral level and efficient control of the humidity. Maintenance of the water balance was easier in a down-flow than in an up-flow process, the former consequently resulting in much better filtration efficiency. The optimum operation temperature was around 23 degrees C, but the styrene removal was still satisfactory at 12 degrees C. Seven different bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Tsukamurella, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Xanthomonas and an unidentified genus in the gamma group of the Proteobacteria isolated from the microflora of active peat filter material were capable of styrene degradation. The isolates differed in their capacity to decompose styrene to carbon dioxide and assimilate it to biomass. No toxic intermediate degradation products of styrene were detected in the filter outlet gas or in growing cultures of isolated bacteria. The use of these isolates in industrial biofilters is beneficial at low styrene concentrations and is safe from both the environmental and public health points of view.

  19. Compact microstrip bandpass filter with tunable notch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Silas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    Two different designs combining a bandpass and a notch filter are developed to operate in the receiving band from 350–470 MHz. The bandpass filter is designed from a simple structure, by use of only four short circuited stubs and a half wavelength transmission line connecting the stubs. The tunable...... notch filter ensures an attenuation level of 19.3 dB to 27.3 dB in the frequency range from 360–480 MHz. The measured passband ripple of the combined filter is less than 0.5 dB, while the insertion loss for the simplest design is less than 1.7 dB only 10 MHz from the notch frequency. Even though...... the wavelength on the selected substrate (εr = 3.55) is approximately 45 cm, the outer dimensions of the final filter only measure 10×10 cm2....

  20. Determination of Extraction Process Conditions of Gambier Catechin (Uncaria Gambier Roxb) from Solok Bio Bio Lima Puluh Kota District – West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desni Rahman, Elly; Sari, Ellyta; Burmawi; Frizka; Endah

    2018-03-01

    Catechin content is the determinant key of quality in gambier trade. The required Catechin content of gambier extracts as a herbal medicinal ingridient is greater than 90%. Mostly, Local gambier that produced by community is not uniform and low quality, thus lowering the price in the export markets. The quality improvement of gambier can be done by extraction and purification processes. This study aims to determine the best extraction process of catechin from Gambier (Uncaria Roxb) which derived from Solok Bio Bio Lima Puluh Kota, West Sumatra. The research methodology includes pre purification: raw materials preparation, washing, filtration, extraction, drying and testing. Washing was done on 100 gr gambier with a variation of water at 500, 600, 700, and 800 ml, heating for an hour at a temperature of 70°C, screened, filtered, and allow to stand until a precipitate is formed, wash repeatedly, filtered, and dried. Further, extract with a solvent variation of : water, etyl acetate, heated at 70°C temperature for 1 hour, then filtered. Filtrate then thickened by using a Rotary evaporator, dried at 50°C temperature for 48 hours and analyzed. The results showed that the best conditions of the extraction process is by using a solvent etyl acetate, at a temperature of 70°C, grading 97.40% catechins.

  1. Computation of the lock-in ranges of phase-locked loops with PI filter

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrov, Konstantin D.; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Leonov, Gennady A.; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Yuldashev, Marat V.; Yuldashev, Renat V.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work the lock-in range of PLL-based circuits with proportionallyintegrating filter and sinusoidal phase-detector characteristics are studied. Considered circuits have sinusoidal phase detector characteristics. Analytical approach based on the methods of phase plane analysis is applied to estimate the lock-in ranges of the circuits under consideration. Obtained analytical results are compared with simulation results.

  2. A New Defected Ground Structure for Different Microstrip Circuit Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip transmission line combined with a new U-headed dumb-bell defected ground structure (DGS is investigated. The proposed DGS of two U-shape slots connected by a thin transverse slot is placed in the ground plane of a microstrip line. A finite cutoff frequency and attenuation pole is observed and thus, the equivalent circuit of the DGS unit can be represented by a parallel LC resonant circuit in series with the transmission line. A two-cell DGS microstrip line yields a better lowpass filtering characteristics. The simulation is carried out by the MoM based IE3D software and in the experimental measurements a vector network analyzer is used. The effects of the transverse slot width and the distance between arms of the U-slot on the filter response curve are studied. This DGS is utilized for different microstrip circuit applications. The DGS is placed in the ground of a capacitive loaded microstrip line and a very low cutoff frequency is obtained. The DGS is adopted under the coupled lines of a parallel line coupler and an improvement in coupling coefficient is noticed. The proposed DGS is also incorporated in the ground plane under the feed lines and the coupled lines of a bandpass filter to improve separately the stopband and passband performances.

  3. A bio-image sensor for simultaneous detection of multi-neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You-Na; Okumura, Koichi; Horio, Tomoko; Iwata, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Toshiaki; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2018-03-01

    We report here a new bio-image sensor for simultaneous detection of spatial and temporal distribution of multi-neurotransmitters. It consists of multiple enzyme-immobilized membranes on a 128 × 128 pixel array with read-out circuit. Apyrase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as selective elements, are used to recognize adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and acetylcholine (ACh), respectively. To enhance the spatial resolution, hydrogen ion (H + ) diffusion barrier layers are deposited on top of the bio-image sensor and demonstrated their prevention capability. The results are used to design the space among enzyme-immobilized pixels and the null H + sensor to minimize the undesired signal overlap by H + diffusion. Using this bio-image sensor, we can obtain H + diffusion-independent imaging of concentration gradients of ATP and ACh in real-time. The sensing characteristics, such as sensitivity and detection of limit, are determined experimentally. With the proposed bio-image sensor the possibility exists for customizable monitoring of the activities of various neurochemicals by using different kinds of proton-consuming or generating enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance analysis of a low power low noise tunable band pass filter for multiband RF front end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjula, J.; Malarvizhi, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low power tunable active inductor and RF band pass filter suitable for multiband RF front end circuits. The active inductor circuit uses the PMOS cascode structure as the negative transconductor of a gyrator to reduce the noise voltage. Also, this structure provides possible negative resistance to reduce the inductor loss with wide inductive bandwidth and high resonance frequency. The RF band pass filter is realized using the proposed active inductor with suitable input and output buffer stages. The tuning of the center frequency for multiband operation is achieved through the controllable current source. The designed active inductor and RF band pass filter are simulated in 180 nm and 45 nm CMOS process using the Synopsys HSPICE simulation tool and their performances are compared. The parameters, such as resonance frequency, tuning capability, noise and power dissipation, are analyzed for these CMOS technologies and discussed. The design of a third order band pass filter using an active inductor is also presented. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Bio-inspired feedback-circuit implementation of discrete, free energy optimizing, winner-take-all computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genewein, Tim; Braun, Daniel A

    2016-06-01

    Bayesian inference and bounded rational decision-making require the accumulation of evidence or utility, respectively, to transform a prior belief or strategy into a posterior probability distribution over hypotheses or actions. Crucially, this process cannot be simply realized by independent integrators, since the different hypotheses and actions also compete with each other. In continuous time, this competitive integration process can be described by a special case of the replicator equation. Here we investigate simple analog electric circuits that implement the underlying differential equation under the constraint that we only permit a limited set of building blocks that we regard as biologically interpretable, such as capacitors, resistors, voltage-dependent conductances and voltage- or current-controlled current and voltage sources. The appeal of these circuits is that they intrinsically perform normalization without requiring an explicit divisive normalization. However, even in idealized simulations, we find that these circuits are very sensitive to internal noise as they accumulate error over time. We discuss in how far neural circuits could implement these operations that might provide a generic competitive principle underlying both perception and action.

  6. A perturbation-based model for rectifier circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin B. Vats

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A perturbation-theoretic analysis of rectifier circuits is presented. The governing differential equation of the half-wave rectifier with capacitor filter is analyzed by expanding the output voltage as a Taylor series with respect to an artificially introduced parameter in the nonlinearity of the diode characteristic as is done in quantum theory. The perturbation parameter introduced in the analysis is independent of the circuit components as compared to the method presented by multiple scales. The various terms appearing in the perturbation series are then modeled in the form of an equivalent circuit. This model is subsequently used in the analysis of full-wave rectifier. Matlab simulation results are included which confirm the validity of the theoretical formulations. Perturbation analysis acts a helpful tool in analyzing time-varying systems and chaotic systems.

  7. Flat-Passband 3 × 3 Interleaving Filter Designed With Optical Directional Couplers in Lattice Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi Jie; Zhang, Ying; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a novel lattice optical delay-line circuit using 3 × 3 directional couplers to implement three-port optical interleaving filters. It is shown that the proposed circuit can deliver three channels of 2pi/3 phase-shifted interleaving transmission spectra if the coupling ratios of the last two directional couplers are selected appropriately. The other performance requirements of an optical interleaver can be achieved by designing the remaining part of the lattice circuit. A recursive synthesis design algorithm is developed to calculate the design parameters of the lattice circuit that will yield the desired filter response. As illustrative examples, interleavers with maximally flat-top passband transmission and with given transmission performance on passband ripples and passband bandwidth, respectively, are designed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed design scheme.

  8. A Compact VLSI System for Bio-Inspired Visual Motion Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cong; Luo, Gang

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a bio-inspired visual motion estimation algorithm based on motion energy, along with its compact very-large-scale integration (VLSI) architecture using low-cost embedded systems. The algorithm mimics motion perception functions of retina, V1, and MT neurons in a primate visual system. It involves operations of ternary edge extraction, spatiotemporal filtering, motion energy extraction, and velocity integration. Moreover, we propose the concept of confidence map to indicate the reliability of estimation results on each probing location. Our algorithm involves only additions and multiplications during runtime, which is suitable for low-cost hardware implementation. The proposed VLSI architecture employs multiple (frame, pixel, and operation) levels of pipeline and massively parallel processing arrays to boost the system performance. The array unit circuits are optimized to minimize hardware resource consumption. We have prototyped the proposed architecture on a low-cost field-programmable gate array platform (Zynq 7020) running at 53-MHz clock frequency. It achieved 30-frame/s real-time performance for velocity estimation on 160 × 120 probing locations. A comprehensive evaluation experiment showed that the estimated velocity by our prototype has relatively small errors (average endpoint error < 0.5 pixel and angular error < 10°) for most motion cases.

  9. A Novel Characterization And Application Of PZT Ceramic As A Frequency Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzy, Y.H.A.; Ashry, H.A.; Soliman, F.A.S.; Swidan, A.M.; Abdelmagid, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, ceramic filters have become indispensable components in numerous electronic equipment for military and space applications, as well as, commercial ones. So, the present paper is devoted in a trial to shed further light on such new devices. In this concern, a wide frequency range samples, extends from 400 kHz up to 6.5 MHz, were chosen for studying the frequency response and related terminologies, dynamic characteristics, and equivalent circuits and their relation with the elemental composition of the different samples. Also, the filter circuit elements effect on the operation of such devices was investigated

  10. A Tunable Low Noise Active Bandpass Filter Using a Noise Canceling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Soltani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A monolithic tunable low noise active bandpass filter is presented in this study. Biasing voltages can control the center frequency and quality factor. By keeping the gain constant, the center frequency shift is 300 MHz. The quality factor can range from 90 to 290 at the center frequency. By using a noise cancelling circuit, noise is kept lower than 2.8 dB. The proposed filter is designed using MMIC technology with a center frequency of 2.4 GHz and a power consumption of 180 mW. ED02AH technology is used to simulate the circuit elements.

  11. Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronn, Nicholas T., E-mail: ntbronn@us.ibm.com; Hertzberg, Jared B.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration.

  12. Correlator filters for feedback at SRS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, D.M.; Galayda, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    In order to amplify signals that are produced by an oscillating beam, it is desirable to first reject that part of the signal produced when the beam is not oscillating. This can be done through the use of correlator filters which have the advantages of simplicity, at least 200 MHz working bandwidth, and broadband matching to 50 ohms at both input and output. Correlator filters have been built for the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), the Daresbury SRS storage ring, and the NSLS x-ray ring. This report describes the performance of the filters and their associated electronic circuits. (FI)

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Plastic-Housing BioSand Filter and Its Impact on Diarrheal Disease in Copan, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M.; Stauber, Christine E.; Walters, Adam R.; Meza Sanchez, Rony E.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Point of use drinking water treatment with the BioSand filter (BSF) allows people to treat their water in the home. The purpose of this research was to document the ability of the Hydraid plastic-housing BSF to reduce diarrheal disease in households who received a BSF in a randomized controlled trial. The trial of the Hydraid plastic-housing BSF was carried out in rural, mountainous communities in Copan, Honduras during April of 2008 to February of 2009. A logistic regression adjusting for clustering showed that the incidence of diarrheal disease in children under 5 years was reduced by approximately 45% (odds ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval = 0.28, 1.10) in households that had a BSF compared with those households without a BSF, but this finding fluctuated depending on season and was not statistically significant. Households with a BSF had significantly better drinking water quality regardless of water source or season. PMID:22665593

  14. Low-power adaptive filter based on RNS components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernocchi, Gian Luca; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Del Re, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a low-power implementation of an adaptive FIR filter is presented. The filter is designed to meet the constraints of channel equalization for fixed wireless communications that typically requires a large number of taps, but a serial updating of the filter coefficients, based...... on the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm, is allowed. Previous work showed that the use of the residue number system (RNS) for the variable FIR filter grants advantages both in area and power consumption. On the other hand, the use of a binary serial implementation of the adaptation algorithm eliminates...... the need for complex scaling circuits in RNS. The advantages in terms of area and speed of the presented filter, with respect to its two's complement counterpart, are evaluated for implementations in standard cells....

  15. A Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactor for faecal coliform removal from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaya Beas, R.E.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Lier, van J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the faecal coliforms removal capacity of Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors as a post-treatment for an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Three long-term continuous lab-scale DHS reactors i.e. a reactor with cube type sponges without

  16. Single DV-DXCCII Based Voltage Controlled First Order All-pass Filter with Inverting and Non-inverting responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Chaturvedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new voltage controlled first order all-pass filter is presented. The proposed circuit employs a single differential voltage dual-X second generation current conveyor (DV-DXCCII and a grounded capacitor only. The proposed all-pass filter provides both inverting and non inverting voltage-mode outputs from the same configuration simultaneously without any matching condition. Non-ideal analysis along with sensitivity analysis is also investigated. The proposed circuit has low active and passive sensitivities. As an application the proposed all-pass filter is connected in cascade to get higher order filter. The theoretical results are validated thorough PSPICE simulations using TSMC 0.18µm CMOS process parameters.

  17. Characterization of a piezoelectric MEMS actuator surface toward motion-enabled reconfigurable RF circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellers, M. C.; Pulskamp, J. S.; Bedair, S. S.; Rudy, R. Q.; Kierzewski, I. M.; Polcawich, R. G.; Bergbreiter, S. E.

    2018-03-01

    As an alternative to highly constrained hard-wired reconfigurable RF circuits, a motion-enabled reconfigurable circuit (MERC) offers freedom from transmission line losses and homogeneous materials selection. The creation of a successful MERC requires a precise mechanical mechanism for relocating components. In this work, a piezoelectric MEMS actuator array is modeled and experimentally characterized to assess its viability as a solution to the MERC concept. Actuation and design parameters are evaluated, and the repeatability of high quality on-axis motion at greater than 1 mm s-1 is demonstrated with little positional error. Finally, an initial proof-of-concept circuit reconfiguration has been demonstrated using off-the-shelf RF filter components. Although initial feasibility tests show filter performance degradation with an additional insertion loss of 0.3 dB per contact, out-of-band rejection degradation as high as 10 dB, and ripple performance reduction from 0.25 dB to 1.5 dB, MERC is proven here as an alternative to traditional approaches used in reconfigurable RF circuit applications.

  18. Rotation speed measurement for turbine governor: torsion filtering by using Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houry, M.P.; Bourles, H.

    1996-01-01

    The rotation speed of a turbogenerator is disturbed by its shaft torsion. Obtaining a filtered measure of this speed is a problem of a great practical importance for turbine governor. A good filtering of this speed must meet two requirements: it must cut frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation and it must not reduce or delay the signal in the pass-band, i.e. at lower frequencies. At Electricite de France, the speed measure is used to set in motion the fast valving system as quickly as possible, after a short circuit close to the unit or rather an islanding. It is difficult to satisfy these two requirements by using conventional filtering methods. The standard solution consists in a first order filter: at Electricite de France, its time constant is equal to 80 ms. We have decided to improve this filtering by designing a new filter which cuts the frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation without reducing the bandwidth to the speed measure. If one uses conventional methods to obtain a band stop filter, it is easy to obtain the desired magnitude but not a phase near zero in the whole pass-band. Therefore, we have chosen to design the filter by using Kalman'a theory. The measurement noise is modeled as a colored one, generated by a very lightly damped system driven by a while noise. The resulting Kalman filter is an effective band stop filter, whose phase nicely remains near zero in the whole pass-band. The digital simulations we made and the tests we carried out with the Electricite de France Micro Network laboratory show the advantages of the rotation speed filter we designed using Kalman's theory. With the proposed filter, the speed measure filtering is better in terms of reduction and phase shift. the result is that there are less untimely solicitations of the fast valving system. Consequently, this device improves the power systems stability by minimizing the risks of deep perturbations due to a temporary lack of generation and the risks of under-speed loss

  19. Non anti-coagulant factors associated with filter life in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Matthew; Winson, Elizabeth; Roodenburg, Owen; McNeil, John

    2017-02-20

    Optimising filter life and performance efficiency in continuous renal replacement therapy has been a focus of considerable recent research. Larger high quality studies have predominantly focussed on optimal anticoagulation however CRRT is complex and filter life is also affected by vascular access, circuit and management factors. We performed a systematic search of the literature to identify and quantify the effect of vascular access, circuit and patient factors that affect filter life and presented the results as a meta-analysis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching Pubmed (MEDLINE) and Ovid EMBASE libraries from inception to 29 th February 2016 for all studies with a comparator or independent variable relating to CRRT circuits and reporting filter life. Included studies documented filter life in hours with a comparator other than anti-coagulation intervention. All studies comparing anticoagulation interventions were searched for regression or hazard models pertaining to other sources of variation in filter life. Eight hundred nineteen abstracts were identified of which 364 were selected for full text analysis. 24 presented data on patient modifiers of circuit life, 14 on vascular access modifiers and 34 on circuit related factors. Risk of bias was high and findings are hypothesis generating. Ranking of vascular access site by filter longevity favours: tunnelled semi-permanent catheters, femoral, internal jugular and subclavian last. There is inconsistency in the difference reported between femoral and jugular catheters. Amongst published literature, modality of CRRT consistently favoured continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHD-F) with an associated 44% lower failure rate compared to CVVH. There was a trend favouring higher blood flow rates. There is insufficient data to determine advantages of haemofilter membranes. Patient factors associated with a statistically significant worsening of filter life included mechanical

  20. What is this chocolate milk in my circuit? A cause of acute clotting of a continuous renal replacement circuit: Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakajiwala, Aadil; Chiotos, Kathleen; Brothers, Julie; Lederman, April; Amaral, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    One of the greatest problems associated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the early clotting of filters. A literature search revealed three case reports of lipemic blood causing recurrent clotting and reduced CRRT circuit survival time in adult patients, but no reports of cases in children. A 23-month-old male infant with Martinez-Frias syndrome and multivisceral transplant was admitted to the hospital with severe sepsis and hemolytic anemia. He developed acute kidney injury, fluid overload and electrolyte imbalances requiring CRRT and was also administered total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and fat emulsion. The first circuit lasted 60 h before routine change was required. The second circuit showed acute clotting after only 18 h, and brownish-milky fluid was found in the circuit tubing layered between the clotted blood. The patient's serum triglyceride levels were elevated at 988 mg/dL. The lipid infusion was stopped and CRRT restarted. Serum triglyceride levels improved to 363 mg/dL. The new circuit lasted 63 h before routine change was required. Clotting of CRRT circuits due to elevated triglyceride levels is rare and has not been reported in the pediatric population. Physicians should be mindful of this risk in patients receiving TPN who have unexpected clotting of CRRT circuits.

  1. Avaliação do desempenho do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (uasb em escala laboratorial na remoção da carga orgânica de águas residuárias da suinocultura Performance evaluation of a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB removing organic loading rate from swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o desempenho do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB-Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket construído em escala laboratorial na redução da carga orgânica poluidora dos despejos suinícolas brutos. O sistema completo foi composto de um tanque de acidificação e equalização, reator UASB e lagoa aerada facultativa. O tempo de detenção hidráulica (TDH e temperatura adotada para o reator UASB foram de 30 horas e 30 ºC, respectivamente. Os valores médios afluentes de DQO T, ST e SVT foram de 1806, 1810 e 1240 mg.L-1. As eficiências de remoção de DQO T, ST e SVT foram de 84, 58 e 73%, respectivamente. O sistema se apresentou-se estável, com boas condições de tamponamento, retenção e digestibilidade de sólidos, demonstrando que os critérios adotados foram adequados, principalmente aqueles referentes ao TDH, carga orgânica volumétrica (COV e temperatura.The present work was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of a lab scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB treating liquid effluent from swine manure without solids separation. The treatment system consisted of one acidification tank, which also equalized the substrate, an UASB reactor, and an aerated facultative pound. The hydraulic retention time (HRT and temperature adopted for the UASB reactor were 30h and 30ºC, respectively. The influent average values of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Solids (TS and Total Volatile Solids (TVS were 1806, 1810 and 1240 mg.L-1. The removal efficiencies were 84, 58 and 73 %, respectively. The system presented good stability and buffering conditions, and also a good solids digestibility, showing that the research criteria adopted was adequate, mainly those parameters referred to the HRT, Volumetric Organic Loading Rate (VOLR and temperature.

  2. Designing an Inverter-based Operational Transconductance Amplifier-capacitor Filter with Low Power Consumption for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefinezhad, Sajad; Kermani, Saeed; Hosseinnia, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    The operational transconductance amplifier-capacitor (OTA-C) filter is one of the best structures for implementing continuous-time filters. It is particularly important to design a universal OTA-C filter capable of generating the desired filter response via a single structure, thus reducing the filter circuit power consumption as well as noise and the occupied space on the electronic chip. In this study, an inverter-based universal OTA-C filter with very low power consumption and acceptable noise was designed with applications in bioelectric and biomedical equipment for recording biomedical signals. The very low power consumption of the proposed filter was achieved through introducing bias in subthreshold MOSFET transistors. The proposed filter is also capable of simultaneously receiving favorable low-, band-, and high-pass filter responses. The performance of the proposed filter was simulated and analyzed via HSPICE software (level 49) and 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The rate of power consumption and noise obtained from simulations are 7.1 nW and 10.18 nA, respectively, so this filter has reduced noise as well as power consumption. The proposed universal OTA-C filter was designed based on the minimum number of transconductance blocks and an inverter circuit by three transconductance blocks (OTA).

  3. A CMOS G{sub m}-C complex filter with on-chip automatic tuning for wireless sensor network application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Chuanchuan; Li Zhiqun; Hou Ningbing, E-mail: zhiqunli@seu.edu.cn [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2011-05-15

    A G{sub m}-C complex filter with on-chip automatic tuning for wireless sensor networks is designed and implemented using 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process. This filter is synthesized from a low-pass 5th-order Chebyshev RLC ladder filter prototype by means of capacitors and fully balanced transconductors. A conventional phase-locked loop is used to realize the on-chip automatic tuning for both center frequency and bandwidth control. The filter is centered at 2 MHz with a bandwidth of 2.4 MHz. The measured results show that the filter provides more than 45 dB image rejection while the ripple in the pass-band is less than 1.2 dB. The complete filter including on-chip tuning circuit consumes 4.9 mA with 1.8 V single supply voltage. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. Practical feasibility of Kalman filters for the state estimation of lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Campestrini, Christian

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of the Kalman filter for the state estimation of lithium-ion cells and modules under real conditions. Therefore, the dependencies of the cells during ageing are shown and various Kalman filter types are compared. The strongly varying model parameters, as well as the temperature and ageing dependent open circuit voltage, require an empirical adaptation of the inconstant and non-linear filter tuning parameters. The performance of the Kalman filter in a rea...

  5. A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, AB. Aziz Abdul; Daud, Zawawi; Ahmad, Zulkifli [Faculty of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28{+-}2 C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37{+-}1 C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

  6. Extracellular Polymers in Granular Sludge from Different Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1994-01-01

    lysis. ECP contents of 41 to 92 mg · g−1 volatile suspended solids of granules were found depending on the type of granular sludge examined. The content of polysaccharides, protein and lipids in the extracted ECP was quantified. Furthermore, the different methyl esters of the lipids were determined...... of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor from a sugar-containing waste-water to a synthetic waste-water containing acetate, propionate and butyrate resulted in a decrease in both the protein and polysaccharide content and an increase in the lipid content of the extracellular material. Furthermore...

  7. Two-step upflow anaerobic sludge bed system for sewage treatment under subtropical conditions with posttreatment in waste stabilization ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.; Trupiano, A.P.; Liberal, V.; Todd, P.G.; Figueroa, M.E.; Gutierrez, M.A.; Silva Wilches, Da A.C.; Iribarnegaray, M.; Guerra, R.G.; Arena, A.; Cuevas, C.M.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale sewage treatment system consisting of two upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors followed by five waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in series was studied under subtropical conditions. The first UASB reactor started up in only 1 mo (stable operation, high chemical oxygen demand

  8. An Improved Filtering Method for Quantum Color Image in Frequency Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panchi; Xiao, Hong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of quantum Fourier transform (QFT) in the field of image processing. We consider QFT-based color image filtering operations and their applications in image smoothing, sharpening, and selective filtering using quantum frequency domain filters. The underlying principle used for constructing the proposed quantum filters is to use the principle of the quantum Oracle to implement the filter function. Compared with the existing methods, our method is not only suitable for color images, but also can flexibly design the notch filters. We provide the quantum circuit that implements the filtering task and present the results of several simulation experiments on color images. The major advantages of the quantum frequency filtering lies in the exploitation of the efficient implementation of the quantum Fourier transform.

  9. Bio energy: Bio fuel - Properties and Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, Gunnar; Martinsen, Arnold Kyrre; Sandberg, Eiliv; Fladset, Per Olav; Kjerschow, Einar; Teslo, Einar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 3 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Definitions and properties, (2) Bio fuel from the forest, (3) Processed bio fuel - briquettes, pellets and powder, (4) Bio fuel from agriculture, (5) Bio fuel from agro industry, (6) Bio fuel from lakes and sea, (7) Bio fuel from aquaculture, (8) Bio fuel from wastes and (9) Hydrogen as a fuel. The exposition largely describes the conditions in Norway. The chapter on energy from the forest includes products from the timber and sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry, furniture factories etc. Among agricultural sources are straw, energy forests, vegetable oil, bio ethanol, manure

  10. Quantum Image Filtering in the Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANTA, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the emerging field of Quantum Image Processing. We investigate the use of quantum computing systems to represent and manipulate images. In particular, we consider the basic task of image filtering. We prove that a quantum version for this operation can be achieved, even though the quantum convolution of two sequences is physically impossible. In our approach we use the principle of the quantum oracle to implement the filter function. We provide the quantum circuit that implements the filtering task and present the results of several simulation experiments on grayscale images. There are important differences between the classical and the quantum implementations for image filtering. We analyze these differences and show that the major advantage of the quantum approach lies in the exploitation of the efficient implementation of the quantum Fourier transform.

  11. Process of recovery and reuse of the washing liquids from filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.C.

    1975-01-01

    The present invention relates to a backflush procedure intended for a repeated recovery and reuse of the liquid used for washing a 'pre-layer' filter. This type of filter is used for purifying the water of the steam generator circuit in electric energy generating plants equipped with steam turbines. Said 'pre-layer' filter can also be applied in the auxiliary facilities of electric energy generating plants, especially for treating the fuel ponds in nuclear reactors and for radioactive waste processing [fr

  12. A VLSI Implementation of Rank-Order Searching Circuit Employing a Time-Domain Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Tu Bui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a compact and low-power rank-order searching (ROS circuit that can be used for building associative memories and rank-order filters (ROFs by employing time-domain computation and floating-gate MOS techniques. The architecture inherits the accuracy and programmability of digital implementations as well as the compactness and low-power consumption of analog ones. We aim to implement identification function as the first priority objective. Filtering function would be implemented once the location identification function has been carried out. The prototype circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. It consumes only 132.3 μW for an eight-input demonstration case.

  13. Recent run-time experience and investigation of impurities in turbines circuit of Helium plant of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the key sub-systems of Steady State superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is cryogenic 1.3 kW at 4.5 K Helium refrigerator/liquefier system. The helium plant consists of 3 nos. of screw compressors, oil removal system, purifier and cold-box with 3 turbo expanders (turbines) and helium cold circulator. During the recent SST-1 plasma campaigns, we observed high pressure drop of the order of 3 bar between the wheel outlet of turbine A and the wheel inlet of turbine - B. This was significant higher values of pressures drop across turbines, which reduced the speed of turbine A and B and in turn reduced the overall plant capacity. The helium circuits in the plant have 10-micron filter at the mouth of turbine - B. Initially, major suspects of such high blockage are assumed to be air-impurity, dust particles or collapse of filter. Several breaks in plant operation have been taken to warm up the turbines circuits up to 90 K to remove condensation of air-impurities at filter. Still this exercise did not solve blockage of filter in turbine circuits. A detailed investigation exercise with air/water regeneration and rinsing of cold box as well as purification of helium gas in buffer tanks are carried out to remove air impurities from cold-box. A trial run of cold box was executed in liquefier mode with turbines up to cryogenic temperatures and solved blockage in turbine circuits. The paper describes run-time experience of helium plant with helium impurity in turbine circuits, methods to remove impurity, demonstration of turbine performance and lessons learnt during this operation. (author)

  14. Performance of biomorphic Silicon Carbide as particulate filter in diesel boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, M Pilar; Gómez-Martín, Aurora; Becerra, José A; Chacartegui, Ricardo; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín

    2017-12-01

    Biomorphic Silicon Carbide (bioSiC) is a novel porous ceramic material with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Previous studies have demonstrated that it may be a good candidate for its use as particle filter media of exhaust gases at medium or high temperature. In order to determine the filtration efficiency of biomorphic Silicon Carbide, and its adequacy as substrate for diesel particulate filters, different bioSiC-samples have been tested in the flue gases of a diesel boiler. For this purpose, an experimental facility to extract a fraction of the boiler exhaust flow and filter it under controlled conditions has been designed and built. Several filter samples with different microstructures, obtained from different precursors, have been tested in this bench. The experimental campaign was focused on the measurement of the number and size of particles before and after placing the samples. Results show that the initial efficiency of filters made from natural precursors is severely determined by the cutting direction and associated microstructure. In biomorphic Silicon Carbide derived from radially cut wood, the initial efficiency of the filter is higher than 95%. Nevertheless, when the cut of the wood is axial, the efficiency depends on the pore size and the permeability, reaching in some cases values in the range 70-90%. In this case, the presence of macropores in some of the samples reduces their efficiency as particle traps. In continuous operation, the accumulation of particles within the porous media leads to the formation of a soot cake, which improves the efficiency except in the case when extra-large pores exist. For all the samples, after a few operation cycles, capture efficiency was higher than 95%. These experimental results show the potential for developing filters for diesel boilers based on biomorphic Silicon Carbide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Peptide Logic Circuits Based on Chemoenzymatic Ligation for Programmable Cell Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Sun, Sujuan; Fan, Lin; Hu, Shanfang; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Ke; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhou

    2017-11-20

    A novel and versatile peptide-based bio-logic system capable of regulating cell function is developed using sortase A (SrtA), a peptide ligation enzyme, as a generic processor. By modular peptide design, we demonstrate that mammalian cells apoptosis can be programmed by peptide-based logic operations, including binary and combination gates (AND, INHIBIT, OR, and AND-INHIBIT), and a complex sequential logic circuit (multi-input keypad lock). Moreover, a proof-of-concept peptide regulatory circuit was developed to analyze the expression profile of cell-secreted protein biomarkers and trigger cancer-cell-specific apoptosis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Formation of metabolites during biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor under thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was shown in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor under thermophilic conditions. The reactor was inoculated with granular biomass and fed with a synthetic medium and 3 mumol/L of a mixture of LAS with alkylchain length of 10 to 13 carbon...

  17. Canonical cortical circuits: current evidence and theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capone F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fioravante Capone,1,2 Matteo Paolucci,1,2 Federica Assenza,1,2 Nicoletta Brunelli,1,2 Lorenzo Ricci,1,2 Lucia Florio,1,2 Vincenzo Di Lazzaro1,2 1Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome, Italy; 2Fondazione Alberto Sordi – Research Institute for Aging, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies have found that the same basic structural and functional organization of neuronal circuits exists throughout the cortex. This kind of cortical organization, termed canonical circuit, has been functionally demonstrated primarily by studies involving visual striate cortex, and then, the concept has been extended to different cortical areas. In brief, the canonical circuit is composed of superficial pyramidal neurons of layers II/III receiving different inputs and deep pyramidal neurons of layer V that are responsible for cortex output. Superficial and deep pyramidal neurons are reciprocally connected, and inhibitory interneurons participate in modulating the activity of the circuit. The main intuition of this model is that the entire cortical network could be modeled as the repetition of relatively simple modules composed of relatively few types of excitatory and inhibitory, highly interconnected neurons. We will review the origin and the application of the canonical cortical circuit model in the six sections of this paper. The first section (The origins of the concept of canonical circuit: the cat visual cortex reviews the experiments performed in the cat visual cortex, from the origin of the concept of canonical circuit to the most recent developments in the modelization of cortex. The second (The canonical circuit in neocortex and third (Toward a canonical circuit in agranular cortex sections try to extend the concept of canonical circuit to other cortical areas, providing some significant examples of circuit functioning in different cytoarchitectonic

  18. Passive and active elements using fractional Lβ C α circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    this illustration to verify the cases discussed in part one; develop the generalized parameters for the bandpass filter response of the L βCα circuit, such as the resonance frequency and quality factor versus α-β plane; discuss sensitivity analyses with respect

  19. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  20. Gaseous microemboli in a pediatric bypass circuit with an unprimed venous line: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudacko, Andrea; Sievert, Alicia; Sistino, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    Miniaturizing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuits to reduce hemodilution and allogenic blood product administration is common in cardiac surgery. One major concern associated with smaller CPB circuits is a possible increase in gaseous microemboli (GME) sent to the cerebral vasculature, which is exacerbated by vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD). The use of VAVD has increased with smaller venous line diameter and venous cannulae. This study examines the effects of CPB initiation with an unprimed venous line and VAVD in a pediatric circuit. A CPB circuit was set up with reservoir, oxygenator, and arterial filter with a bag reservoir to simulate the patient. All trials were done in vitro, and GME were measured using the EDAC Quantifier by Luna Innovations. EDAC sensors were placed proximal and distal to the oxygenator and distal to the arterial filter. Group 1 was the control group with no VAVD and a primed venous line. Groups 2, 3, and 4 used an unprimed venous line and VAVD of -40, -20, and -10 mmHg, respectively. Total microemboli counts and total embolic load in micrometers were measured at each sensor. Groups 2 (12,379.00 +/- 3180.37) and 3 (8296.67 +/- 2818.76) had significantly more microemboli than group 1 (923.33 +/- 796.08, p sensor. Group 2 (57.33 +/- 25.01, p sensor. No other findings were statistically significant. The results suggest that, if an oxygenator and arterial filter with sufficient air handling capabilities are used, this method to reduce prime volume may not increase GME in the arterial line distal to the arterial filter.

  1. Production and characterization of bio-oil from catalytic biomass pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonakou Eleni V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass flash pyrolysis is a very promising thermochemical process for the production of bio-fuels and/or chemicals. However, large-scale applications are still under careful consideration, because of the high bio-liquid upgrading cost. In this paper the production of bio-liquids from biomass flash pyrolysis in a single stage catalytic process is being investigated using a novel once through fluid bed reactor. This biomass pyrolysis unit was constructed in Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute and comprises of a catalyst regenerator, a biomass-vibrating hopper, a fluidization reactor (that consists of an injector and a riser reactor, a product stripper along with a hot cyclone and a filter housing and finally a product condensation/recovery section. The unit can process up to 20 g/min. of biomass (50-800 mm and can circulate up to 300 g/min. of catalyst or inert material. The experiments performed in the pilot plant showed that the unit operates without problems and with satisfactory mass balances in a wide range of experimental conditions both in the absence and presence of catalyst. With the incorporation of an FCC catalyst in the pyrolysis, the physical properties of the bio-oil produced changed, while more stable bio-oil was produced. .

  2. From neurons to circuits: linear estimation of local field potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Malte; Logthetis, Nikos K.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular physiological recordings are typically separated into two frequency bands: local field potentials (LFPs, a circuit property) and spiking multi-unit activity (MUA). There has been increased interest in LFPs due to their correlation with fMRI measurements and the possibility of studying local processing and neuronal synchrony. To further understand the biophysical origin of LFPs, we asked whether it is possible to estimate their time course based on the spiking activity from the same or nearby electrodes. We used Signal Estimation Theory to show that a linear filter operation on the activity of one/few neurons can explain a significant fraction of the LFP time course in the macaque primary visual cortex. The linear filter used to estimate the LFPs had a stereotypical shape characterized by a sharp downstroke at negative time lags and a slower positive upstroke for positve time lags. The filter was similar across neocortical regions and behavioral conditions including spontaneous activity and visual stimulation. The estimations had a spatial resolution of ~1 mm and a temporal resolution of ~200 ms. By considering a causal filter, we observed a temporal asymmetry such that the positive time lags in the filter contributed more to the LFP estimation than negative time lags. Additionally, we showed that spikes occurring within ~10 ms of spikes from nearby neurons yielded better estimation accuracies than nonsynchronous spikes. In sum, our results suggest that at least some circuit-level local properties of the field potentials can be predicted from the activity of one or a few neurons. PMID:19889990

  3. Design of 2.5 GHz broad bandwidth microwave bandpass filter at operating frequency of 10 GHz using HFSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, S. E.; Jusoh, M. A.; Mahmud, S. N. S.; Zamani, A. H.

    2018-04-01

    Development of low losses, small size and broad bandwidth microwave bandpass filter operating at higher frequencies is an active area of research. This paper presents a new route used to design and simulate microwave bandpass filter using finite element modelling and realized broad bandwidth, low losses, small dimension microwave bandpass filter operating at 10 GHz frequency using return loss method. The filter circuit has been carried out using Computer Aid Design (CAD), Ansoft HFSS software and designed with four parallel couple line model and small dimension (10 × 10 mm2) using LaAlO3 substrate. The response of the microwave filter circuit showed high return loss -50 dB at operating frequency at 10.4 GHz and broad bandwidth of 2.5 GHz from 9.5 to 12 GHz. The results indicate the filter design and simulation using HFSS is reliable and have the opportunity to transfer from lab potential experiments to the industry.

  4. Effect of biogas sparging on the performance of bio-hydrogen reactor over a long-term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualsri, Chatchawin; Kongjan, Prawit; Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance hydrogen production from sugarcane syrup by biogas sparging. Two-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor were used to produce hydrogen and methane, respectively. Biogas produced from the UASB was used to sparge into the CSTR. Results indicated that sparging with biogas increased the hydrogen production rate (HPR) by 35% (from 17.1 to 23.1 L/L.d) resulted from a reduction in the hydrogen partial pressure. A fluctuation of HPR was observed during a long term monitoring because CO2 in the sparging gas and carbon source in the feedstock were consumed by Enterobacter sp. to produce succinic acid without hydrogen production. Mixed gas released from the CSTR after the sparging can be considered as bio-hythane (H2+CH4). In addition, a continuous sparging biogas into CSTR release a partial pressure in the headspace of the methane reactor. In consequent, the methane production rate is increased. PMID:28207755

  5. Irradiation of electronic components and circuits at the Portuguese Research Reactor: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, J.G.; Ramos, A.R.; Fernandes, A.C.; Santos, J.P. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of electronic components and circuits under radiation is a concern shared by the nuclear industry, the space community and the high-energy physics community. Standard commercial components are used as much as possible instead of radiation hard components, since they are easier to obtain and allow a significant reduction of costs. However, these standard components need to be tested in order to determine their radiation tolerance. The Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) is a 1 MW pool-type reactor, operating since 1961. The irradiation of electronic components and circuits is one area where a 1 MW reactor can be competitive, since the fast neutron fluences required for testing are in most cases well below 10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2}. A program was started in 1999 to test electronics components and circuits for the LHC facility at CERN, initially using a dedicated in-pool irradiation device and later a beam line with tailored neutron and gamma filters. Neutron filters are essential to reduce the intensity of the thermal neutron flux, which does not produce significant defects in electronic components but produces unwanted radiation from activation of contacts and packages of integrated circuits and also of the printed circuit boards. In irradiations performed within the line-of-sight of the core of a fission reactor there is simultaneous gamma radiation which complicates testing in some cases. Filters can be used to reduce its importance and separate testing with a pure gamma radiation source can contribute to clarify some irradiation results. Practice has shown the need to introduce several improvements to the procedures and facilities over the years. We will review improvements done in the following areas: - Optimization of neutron and gamma filters; - Dosimetry procedures in mixed neutron / gamma fields; - Determination of hardness parameter and 1 MeV-equivalent neutron fluence; - Temperature measurement and control during irradiation; - Follow-up of reactor

  6. Analysis of the signal transfer and folding in N-path filters with a series inductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duipmans, L.; Struiksma, R.E.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Nauta, B.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2015-01-01

    N-path filters exploiting switched-series-R-C networks can realize high-Q blocking-tolerant band-pass filters. Moreover, their center frequency is flexibly programmable by a digital clock. Unfortunately, the time variant nature of these circuits also results in unwanted signal folding. This paper

  7. Active damping of LLCL-filter resonance based on LC-trap voltage and capacitor current feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    . In this paper, different feedback coefficients like the proportional, derivative, integral, high pass and low pass feedback coefficients of the filter capacitor current and the LC-trap circuit voltage are investigated for damping the filter resonance. Active damping methods are analyzed by using the concept...

  8. A highly linear baseband Gm-C filter for WLAN application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lijun; Chen Zhiming; Gong Zheng; Shi Yin

    2011-01-01

    A low voltage, highly linear transconductan-C (G m -C) low-pass filter for wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver application is proposed. This transmitter (Tx) filter adopts a 9.8 MHz 3rd-order Chebyshev low pass prototype and achieves 35 dB stop-band attenuation at 30 MHz frequency. By utilizing pseudo-differential linear-region MOS transconductors, the filter IIP 3 is measured to be as high as 9.5 dBm. Fabricated in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS technology, the proposed filter chip occupies a 0.41 x 0.17 mm 2 die area and consumes 3.36 mA from a 3.3-V power supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. A novel readout integrated circuit for ferroelectric FPA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Piji; Li, Lihua; Ji, Yulong; Zhang, Jia; Li, Min; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yanbo; Li, Songying

    2017-11-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors haves some advantages such as low cost light weight low power consumption, and superior reliability, compared with cryogenically cooled ones Ferroelectric uncooled focal plane array(FPA) are being developed for its AC response and its high reliability As a key part of the ferroelectric assembly the ROIC determines the performance of the assembly. A top-down design model for uncooled ferroelectric readout integrated circuit(ROIC) has been developed. Based on the optical thermal and electrical properties of the ferroelectric detector the RTIA readout integrated circuit is designed. The noise bandwidth of RTIA readout circuit has been developed and analyzed. A novel high gain amplifier, a high pass filter and a low pass filter circuits are designed on the ROIC. In order to improve the ferroelectric FPA package performance and decrease of package cost a temperature sensor is designed on the ROIC chip At last the novel RTIA ROIC is implemented on 0.6μm 2P3M CMOS silicon techniques. According to the experimental chip test results the temporal root mean square(RMS)noise voltage is about 1.4mV the sensitivity of the on chip temperature sensor is 0.6 mV/K from -40°C to 60°C the linearity performance of the ROIC chip is better than 99% Based on the 320×240 RTIA ROIC, a 320×240 infrared ferroelectric FPA is fabricated and tested. Test results shows that the 320×240 RTIA ROIC meets the demand of infrared ferroelectric FPA.

  10. Programmable Baseband Filter for Multistandard Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Glarborg; Christensen, Kåre Tais; Bruun, Erik

    2003-01-01

    of the input transconductor. The entire filter consumes between 2.5 mW and 7.5 mW, depending on the desired noise performance. It is implemented in a standard 0.25 mum CMOS process. A test circuit has been developed and fabricated and measurements show that both the required programmability and the required...

  11. Plasmonic band-stop filter with asymmetric rectangular ring for WDM networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezhad, Vahid Foroughi; Abrishamian, Mohammad Sadegh; Abaslou, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    We proposed a simple asymmetric rectangular band-stop filter based on metal–insulator–metal plasmonic waveguides. It is shown that the performance of the structure as a filter strongly depends on the asymmetry of the rectangular structure. An analytical model based on the analogy between MDM waveguides and the microwave transmission line is used to calculate the resonance wavelengths and explain the behavior of the filter. The bandwidth of spectra can be easily manipulated by adjusting the topological parameters of the filter. It is also demonstrated that by adjusting the bandwidth, the filter can be used for CWDM standard channels. The filter behavior is verified using the numerical finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The filter is compact and has a footprint of 1 μm × 0.5 μm, which is suitable for integrated optical circuits. (paper)

  12. Small Delay and High Performance AD/DA Converters of Lease Circuit System for AM&FM Broadcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takato, Kenji; Suzuki, Dai; Ishii, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masato; Yamada, Hirokazu; Amano, Shigeru

    Many AM&FM broadcasting stations in Japan are connected by the leased circuit system of NTT. Small delay and high performance AD/DA converter was developed for the system. The system was designed based on ITU-T J.41 Recommendation (384kbps), the transmission signal is 11bit-32 kHz where the Gain-frequency characteristics between 40Hz to 15kHz have to be quite flat. The ΔΣAD/DA converter LSIs for audio application in the market today realize very high performance. However the performance is not enough for the leased circuit system. We found that it is not possible to meet the delay and Gain-frequency requirements only by using ΔΣAD/DA converter LSI in normal operation, because 15kHz the highest frequency and 16kHz Nyquist frequency are too close, therefore there are aliasing around Nyquist frequency. In this paper, we designed AD/DA architecture having small delay (1msec) and sharp cut off LPF (100dB attenuation at 16kHz, and 1500dB/Oct from 15kHz to 16kHz) by operating ΔΣAD/DA converter LSIs over-sampling rate such as 128kHz and by adding custom LPF designed Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter. The IIR filter is a 16th order elliptic type and it is consist of eight biquad filters in series. We described how to evaluate the stability of IIR filter theoretically by calculating frequency response, Pole and Zero Layout and impulse response of each biquad filter, and experimentally by adding overflow detection circuit on each filters and input overlord signal.

  13. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    have developed means to increase the anhydrosugars content of bio-oil above the usual 3% produced during normal pyrolysis by mild acid pretreatment of the biomass feedstock. Mississippi State University has developed a proprietary method to produce an aqueous fraction containing more than 50% of anhydrosugars content. These anhydrosugars can be catalyzed to hydrogen or hydrocarbons; alter-nately, the aqueous fraction can be hydrolyzed to pro-duce a high-glucose content. The hydrolyzed product can then be filtered to remove microbial inhibitor compounds followed by production of alcohols by fer-mentation. Production of bio-oil is now considered a major candidate as a technology promising production of drop-in transportation and boiler fuels.

  14. Connection of comparator circuit for pseudocoincidence counting of radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukatko, T.; Hajek, P.; Vidra, M.

    1985-01-01

    A block diagram is presented of the radioactive aerosol measuring instrument. The first counter records electric pulses corresponding to gross alpha activity and the second indicates pseudocoincidences derived from natural radioactivity. Data from the counters are converted to analog voltages which in the comparator circuit are compared such that the mean value of the output voltage is zero insofar as artificial radioactivity is not present on the filter. The designed connection of the comparator circuit allows the permanent adjustment of the whole measuring equipment to maximum sensitivity. (E.S.)

  15. Integrated Circuits for Analog Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

      This book presents theory, design methods and novel applications for integrated circuits for analog signal processing.  The discussion covers a wide variety of active devices, active elements and amplifiers, working in voltage mode, current mode and mixed mode.  This includes voltage operational amplifiers, current operational amplifiers, operational transconductance amplifiers, operational transresistance amplifiers, current conveyors, current differencing transconductance amplifiers, etc.  Design methods and challenges posed by nanometer technology are discussed and applications described, including signal amplification, filtering, data acquisition systems such as neural recording, sensor conditioning such as biomedical implants, actuator conditioning, noise generators, oscillators, mixers, etc.   Presents analysis and synthesis methods to generate all circuit topologies from which the designer can select the best one for the desired application; Includes design guidelines for active devices/elements...

  16. Compact Unequal Power Divider with Filtering Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiang Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel unequal power divider with bandpass responses. The proposed power divider consists of five resonators and a resistor. The power division ratio is controlled by altering the coupling strength among the resonators. The output ports have the characteristic impedance of 50 Ω and impedance transformers in classical Wilkinson power dividers are not required in this design. Use of resonators enables the filtering function of the power divider. Two transmission zeros are generated near the passband edges, resulting in quasielliptic bandpass responses. For validation, a 2 : 1 filtering power divider is implemented. The fabricated circuit size is 0.22 λg × 0.08 λg, featuring compact size for unequal filtering power dividers, which is suitable for the feeding networks of antenna arrays.

  17. Resin intrusion into the primary circuit of NPP Jaslovske Bohunice V-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grezdo, O.; Mraz, V.

    2005-01-01

    During the refueling at the first unit of Bohunice NPP in 2005 a lot of sediment was found on the upper storage rack. This sediment was identification as a filter resin. Resin was found in most of the fuel assemblies, pipes and tanks of the primary circuit and his auxiliary systems. Resin producer and WANO network was contacted in order to get information about similar events. Management of Bohunice NPP made a decision that primary circuit, fuel assemblies and auxiliary systems have to be cleaned. Subsequent cleaning extended outage by 31 days. This paper summarizes causes, existing consequences and corrective actions. Accent was put on the hydraulic characteristics of the primary circuit measurement, power distribution core monitoring and the primary circuit water quality verification (Authors)

  18. UWB Bandpass Filter with Ultra-wide Stopband based on Ring Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh; Siahkamari, Hesam; Mohammadpanah, Mahmood

    2018-04-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter with ultra-wide stopband based on a rectangular ring resonator is presented. The filter is designed for the operational frequency band from 4.10 GHz to 10.80 GHz with an ultra-wide stopband from 11.23 GHz to 40 GHz. The even and odd equivalent circuits are used to achieve a suitable analysis of the proposed filter performance. To verify the design and analysis, the proposed bandpass filter is simulated using full-wave EM simulator Advanced Design System and fabricated on a 20mil thick Rogers_RO4003 substrate with relative permittivity of 3.38 and a loss tangent of 0.0021. The proposed filter behavior is investigated and simulation results are in good agreement with measurement results.

  19. Modular design of synthetic gene circuits with biological parts and pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, Mario Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic gene circuits can be designed in an electronic fashion by displaying their basic components-Standard Biological Parts and Pools of molecules-on the computer screen and connecting them with hypothetical wires. This procedure, achieved by our add-on for the software ProMoT, was successfully applied to bacterial circuits. Recently, we have extended this design-methodology to eukaryotic cells. Here, highly complex components such as promoters and Pools of mRNA contain hundreds of species and reactions whose calculation demands a rule-based modeling approach. We showed how to build such complex modules via the joint employment of the software BioNetGen (rule-based modeling) and ProMoT (modularization). In this chapter, we illustrate how to utilize our computational tool for synthetic biology with the in silico implementation of a simple eukaryotic gene circuit that performs the logic AND operation.

  20. Results of the International Energy Agency Round Robin on Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Marklund, Magnus

    2017-04-06

    An international round robin study of the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was undertaken. Fifteen institutions in six countries contributed. Three biomass samples were distributed to the laboratories for processing in fast pyrolysis reactors. Samples of the bio-oil produced were transported to a central analytical laboratory for analysis. The round robin was focused on validating the pyrolysis community understanding of production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil by providing a common feedstock for bio-oil preparation. The round robin included: •distribution of 3 feedstock samples from a common source to each participating laboratory; •preparation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in each laboratory with the 3 feedstocks provided; •return of the 3 bio-oil products (minimum 500 ml) with operational description to a central analytical laboratory for bio-oil property determination. The analyses of interest were: density, viscosity, dissolved water, filterable solids, CHN, S, trace element analysis, ash, total acid number, pyrolytic lignin, and accelerated aging of bio-oil. In addition, an effort was made to compare the bio-oil components to the products of analytical pyrolysis through GC/MS analysis. The results showed that clear differences can occur in fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by applying different reactor technologies or configurations. The comparison to analytical pyrolysis method suggested that Py-GC/MS could serve as a rapid screening method for bio-oil composition when produced in fluid-bed reactors. Furthermore, hot vapor filtration generally resulted in the most favorable bio-oil product, with respect to water, solids, viscosity, and total acid number. These results can be helpful in understanding the variation in bio-oil production methods and their effects on bio-oil product composition.

  1. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE MAGNETIC RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY IN THE KIPPENHAHN-SCHLÜTER PROMINENCE MODEL. I. FORMATION OF UPFLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, Andrew; Isobe, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kazunari; Berger, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The launch of the Hinode satellite led to the discovery of rising plumes, dark in chromospheric lines, that propagate from large (∼10 Mm) bubbles that form at the base of quiescent prominences. The plumes move through a height of approximately 10 Mm while developing highly turbulent profiles. The magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability was hypothesized to be the mechanism that drives these flows. In this study, using three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations, we investigate the nonlinear stability of the Kippenhahn-Schlüter prominence model for the interchange mode of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The model simulates the rise of a buoyant tube inside the quiescent prominence model, where the interchange of magnetic field lines becomes possible at the boundary between the buoyant tube and the prominence. Hillier et al. presented the initial results of this study, where upflows of constant velocity (maximum found 6 km s –1 ) and a maximum plume width ≈1.5 Mm which propagate through a height of approximately 6 Mm were found. Nonlinear interaction between plumes was found to be important for determining the plume dynamics. In this paper, using the results of ideal MHD simulations, we determine how the initial parameters for the model and buoyant tube affect the evolution of instability. We find that the 3D mode of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability grows, creating upflows aligned with the magnetic field of constant velocity (maximum found 7.3 km s –1 ). The width of the upflows is dependent on the initial conditions, with a range of 0.5-4 Mm which propagate through heights of 3-6 Mm. These results are in general agreement with the observations of the rising plumes.

  2. Design and experimentally measure a high performance metamaterial filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-wen; Xu, Jing-cheng

    2018-03-01

    Metamaterial filter is a kind of expecting optoelectronic device. In this paper, a metal/dielectric/metal (M/D/M) structure metamaterial filter is simulated and measured. Simulated results indicate that the perfect impedance matching condition between the metamaterial filter and the free space leads to the transmission band. Measured results show that the proposed metamaterial filter achieves high performance transmission on TM and TE polarization directions. Moreover, the high transmission rate is also can be obtained when the incident angle reaches to 45°. Further measured results show that the transmission band can be expanded through optimizing structural parameters. The central frequency of the transmission band is also can be adjusted through optimizing structural parameters. The physical mechanism behind the central frequency shifted is solved through establishing an equivalent resonant circuit model.

  3. Optimal Design of High-Order Passive-Damped Filters for Grid-Connected Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Harmonic stability problems caused by the resonance of high-order filters in power electronic systems are ever increasing. The use of passive damping does provide a robust solution to address these issues, but at the price of reduced efficiency due to the presence of additional passive components....... Hence, a new method is proposed in this paper to optimally design the passive damping circuit for the LCL filters and LCL with multi-tuned LC traps. In short, the optimization problem reduces to the proper choice of the multi-split capacitors or inductors in the high-order filter. Compared to existing...... filter resonance. The passive filters are designed, built and validated both analytically and experimentally for verification....

  4. HF radio systems and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, William

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive reference for the design of high frequency communications systems and equipment. This revised edition is loaded with practical data, much of which cannot be found in other reference books. Its approach to the subject follows the needs of an engineer from system definition and performance requirements down to the individual circuit elements that make up radio transmitters and receivers. The accompanying disk contains updated software on filters, matching networks and receiver analysis. SciTech Publishing also provides many other products related to Communication Systems Design.

  5. Technique and Calculation Results of Currents and Voltages in the Circuits of the Measuring Element of the Protection Device of the Transmission Line Based on the Control of Transient Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachugin, V. F.; Kulikov, A. L.; Platonov, P. S.; Vucolov, V. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    The specifics of generation of the signals of current and voltage in the circuits of a directional element of wave relay protection during short circuit (SC) in overhead power transmission lines are considered. The computing method of transient processes in the protection circuits, including frequency filters, that attenuate the parameters of currents and voltages of the mode taking into account the higher harmonic components and probable deviations of the frequency of transmission line from the rated value is presented. It is revealed that it is advisable to implement the measuring circuits of the directional elements of wave relay protection with the three-section filter attenuating the frequencies from 45 to 55 Hz and the low pass filter with cutoff frequency that does not exceed 1 kHz.

  6. Fractional Resonance-Based RLβCα Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Freeborn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the use of a fractional order capacitor and fractional order inductor with orders 0≤α,  β≤1, respectively, in a fractional RLβCα series circuit to realize fractional-step lowpass, highpass, bandpass, and bandreject filters. MATLAB simulations of lowpass and highpass responses having orders of (α+β=1.1, 1.5, and 1.9 and bandpass and bandreject responses having orders of 1.5 and 1.9 are given as examples. PSPICE simulations of 1.1, 1.5, and 1.9 order lowpass and 1.0 and 1.4 order bandreject filters using approximated fractional order capacitors and fractional order inductors verify the implementations.

  7. Analysis and application of analog electronic circuits to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2003-01-01

    This book introduces the basic mathematical tools used to describe noise and its propagation through linear systems and provides a basic description of the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio by signal averaging and linear filtering. The text also demonstrates how op amps are the keystone of modern analog signal conditioning systems design, and illustrates their use in isolation and instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, and numerous biomedical instrumentation systems and subsystems. It examines the properties of the ideal op amp and applies this model to the analysis of various circuits

  8. Comparative performance analysis of shunt and series passive filter for LED lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwono, Edi; Facta, Mochammad; Handoko, Susatyo

    2018-03-01

    Light Emitting Diode lamp or LED lamp nowadays is widely used by consumers as a new innovation in the lighting technologies due to its energy saving for low power consumption lamps for brighter light intensity. How ever, the LED lamp produce an electric pollutant known as harmonics. The harmonics is generated by rectifier as part of LED lamp circuit. The present of harmonics in current or voltage has made the source waveform from the grid is distorted. This distortion may cause inacurrate measurement, mall function, and excessive heating for any element at the grid. This paper present an analysis work of shunt and series filters to suppress the harmonics generated by the LED lamp circuit. The work was initiated by conducting several tests to investigate the harmonic content of voltage and currents. The measurements in this work were carried out by using HIOKI Power Quality Analyzer 3197. The measurement results showed that the harmonics current of tested LED lamps were above the limit of IEEE standard 519-2014. Based on the measurement results shunt and series filters were constructed as low pass filters. The bode analysis were appled during construction and prediction of the filters performance. Based on experimental results, the application of shunt filter at input side of LED lamp has reduced THD current up to 88%. On the other hand, the series filter has significantly reduced THD current up to 92%.

  9. A Compact UWB Band-Pass Filter Using Embedded Circular Slot Structures for Improved Upper Stop-band Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Ming; Ren, Jian; Mikkelsen, Jan Hvolgaard

    2016-01-01

    structures into the ring resonator. This is different from conventional designs using cascaded bandstop/low-pass filters for stop-band response suppression, which usually leads to big circuit sizes. And hence the proposed approach can reduce the circuit size significantly. A prototype filter with a compact...... size (13.6 mm×6.75 mm) has been implemented for experimental validation. The measured results show a −3 dB frequency band from 3.4 GHz to 11.7 GHz and > 20 dB upper stop-band suppression from 12.5 GHz to 20GHz....

  10. Standard filter approximations for low power Continuous Wavelet Transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Analogue domain implementations of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) have proved popular in recent years as they can be implemented at very low power consumption levels. This is essential for use in wearable, long term physiological monitoring systems. Present analogue CWT implementations rely on taking mathematical a approximation of the wanted mother wavelet function to give a filter transfer function that is suitable for circuit implementation. This paper investigates the use of standard filter approximations (Butterworth, Chebyshev, Bessel) as an alternative wavelet approximation technique. This extends the number of approximation techniques available for generating analogue CWT filters. An example ECG analysis shows that signal information can be successfully extracted using these CWT approximations.

  11. Fully integrated low-loss band-pass filters for wireless applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rais-Zadeh, M; Kapoor, A; Lavasani, H M; Ayazi, F

    2009-01-01

    Fully integrated low insertion loss micromachined band-pass filters are designed and fabricated on the silicon substrate (ρ = 10–20 Ω cm, ε r = 11.9) for UHF applications. Filters are made of silver, which has the highest conductivity of all metals, to minimize the ohmic loss. A detailed analysis for realizing low insertion loss and high out-of-band rejection filters using elliptic magnitude characteristics is presented, and a comprehensive model to take into account inductive parasitics of the interconnects is developed. Temperature characteristics of the filters are measured and show stable performance. The presented filters are different from the previously reported lumped element filters in that all filters are fully integrated on silicon substrate and occupy a remarkably smaller die area. Two filters are fabricated using the silver micromachining technique with center frequencies at 1.05 and 1.35 GHz. The filters have a constant 3 dB bandwidth of 300 MHz (28.6% and 22.2%) and an insertion loss of 1.4–1.7 dB. The low insertion loss and CMOS compatibility make the presented filters suitable candidates for radio frequency integrated circuits

  12. Interdigital filter design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available to the general inverter-coupled resonator bandpass filter structure in Figure 2 [6] by using the inverter shown in Figure 3. The admittance of the inverter in Figure 3 is 4 J= Y mn sin(βl) (1) where β is the propagation factor and l is the length... of the resonators (a quarter wavelength in this case). While the series quarter-wave line alone can approximate an inverter, the structure shown in Figure 3 is more accurate over wide bandwidths. At this point the circuits in Figures 1 and 2 still differ because...

  13. Water flow exchange characteristics in coarse granular filter media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    Elution of inhibitory metabolites is a key parameter controlling the efficiency of air cleaning bio- and biotrickling filters. To the authors knowledge no studies have yet considered the relationship between specific surface area related elution velocity and physical media characteristics, which...... in this study are performed at a concurrent airflow of 0.3 m s−1, water irrigation rates of 1–21 cm h−1 in materials with particle diameters ranging from 2 to 14 mm to represent media and operation conditions relevant for low flow biotrickling filter design. Specific surface area related elution velocity...... distribution was closely related to the filter water content, water irrigation rate, media specific surface area and particle size distribution. A predictive model linking the specific surface area related elution velocity distribution to irrigation rate, specific surface area and particle size distribution...

  14. VHF/UHF filters and multicouplers application of air resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Piette, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the various devices used in radio communication and broadcasting to achieve high selectivity filtering and coupling. After providing a background in the basics of microwave theory and more detailed material - including a special chapter on precision and errors in measurement - the reader will find detailed descriptions, manufacturing processes, and, for the most useful instances, a number of worked-through formulas, which will allow engineers and technicians to design circuits or components for filtering or coupling applications. Content is covered in this format across a b

  15. BioCreative V BioC track overview: collaborative biocurator assistant task for BioGRID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia; Matos, Sérgio; Santos, André; Campos, David; Oliveira, José Luís; Singh, Onkar; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Chang, Yung-Chun; Su, Yu-Chen; Chu, Chun-Han; Chen, Chien Chin; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K; Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kwon, Dongseop; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    BioC is a simple XML format for text, annotations and relations, and was developed to achieve interoperability for biomedical text processing. Following the success of BioC in BioCreative IV, the BioCreative V BioC track addressed a collaborative task to build an assistant system for BioGRID curation. In this paper, we describe the framework of the collaborative BioC task and discuss our findings based on the user survey. This track consisted of eight subtasks including gene/protein/organism named entity recognition, protein-protein/genetic interaction passage identification and annotation visualization. Using BioC as their data-sharing and communication medium, nine teams, world-wide, participated and contributed either new methods or improvements of existing tools to address different subtasks of the BioC track. Results from different teams were shared in BioC and made available to other teams as they addressed different subtasks of the track. In the end, all submitted runs were merged using a machine learning classifier to produce an optimized output. The biocurator assistant system was evaluated by four BioGRID curators in terms of practical usability. The curators' feedback was overall positive and highlighted the user-friendly design and the convenient gene/protein curation tool based on text mining.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-1-bioc/. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Bio politics - The bio-environment - bio-culture of the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlavianos-Arvanitis, A.

    1997-01-01

    The bio-environment has been the single most important correlation in human history and can successfully promote international co-operational co-operation and understanding. With the construction of a network for collaboration, the 'Danube Countries' can come together in celebration of their culture and heritage. As the Danube flows from the Black Forest to the Black Sea, it carries messages of peace, hope and co-operation. Applying these messages to every endeavour can improve our quality of life and lead to a brighter future. Since its inception in 1985, the Bio politics International Organization (B.I.O.) has been labouring to raise awareness of the urgent need to instate a new system of norms and principles, compatible with sound environmental management and with the most important task of ensuring global literacy on environmental issues. Along with critically re-assessing the concept of profit, the goal is to adopt a system of bio centric values, where respect for the bio-environment will govern our every action and thought

  17. Experimental Verification of Guided-Wave Lumped Circuits Using Waveguide Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhijun

    2018-04-01

    Through the construction and characterization in microwave frequencies, we experimentally demonstrate our recently developed theory of waveguide lumped circuits, i.e., waveguide metatronics [Sci. Adv. 2, e1501790 (2016), 10.1126/sciadv.1501790], as a method to design subwavelength-scaled analog circuits. In the paradigm of waveguide metatronics, numbers of lumped inductors and capacitors are easily integrated functionally inside the waveguide, which is an irreplaceable transmission line in millimeter-wave and terahertz systems with the advantages of low radiation loss and low crosstalk. An example of multiple-ordered metatronic filters with layered structures is fabricated utilizing the technique of substrate integrated waveguides, which can be easily constructed by the printed-circuit-board process. The materials used in the construction are also typical microwave materials with positive permittivity, low loss, and negligible dispersion, imitating the plasmonic materials with negative permittivity in the optical domain. The results verify the theory of waveguide metatronics, which provides an efficient platform of functional lumped circuit design for guided-wave processing.

  18. Realization of Current Mode Universal Filter and a Dual-Mode Single Resistance Controlled Quadrature Oscillator Employing VDCC and Only Grounded Passive Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript presents a circuit that can act as a universal filter as well as a single resistence controlled oscillator by unpretentiously changing the switch positions. The circuit employs only two active devices and all grounded passive elements. The utilization of only grounded passive components makes this circuit a better choice for integrated circuit implementation. The current mode biquadratic filter offers all the five basic responses along with independent tunability of its quality factor. The dual-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator offers explicit current outputs along with voltage outputs. The circuit also offers a simple and uncoupled condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation. The typical analysis such as non-ideal, sensitivity and parasitic analysis along with the regular simulation results as well as experimental results are exposed here, to strengthen the design idea.

  19. Planar Superconducting Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Channelizing Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Negar; U-yen, Kongpop; Brown, Ari; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is a compact, superconducting, channelizing bandpass filter on a single-crystal (0.45 m thick) silicon substrate, which operates from 300 to 600 GHz. This device consists of four channels with center frequencies of 310, 380, 460, and 550 GHz, with approximately 50-GHz bandwidth per channel. The filter concept is inspired by the mammalian cochlea, which is a channelizing filter that covers three decades of bandwidth and 3,000 channels in a very small physical space. By using a simplified physical cochlear model, and its electrical analog of a channelizing filter covering multiple octaves bandwidth, a large number of output channels with high inter-channel isolation and high-order upper stopband response can be designed. A channelizing filter is a critical component used in spectrometer instruments that measure the intensity of light at various frequencies. This embodiment was designed for MicroSpec in order to increase the resolution of the instrument (with four channels, the resolution will be increased by a factor of four). MicroSpec is a revolutionary wafer-scale spectrometer that is intended for the SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) Mission. In addition to being a vital component of MicroSpec, the channelizing filter itself is a low-resolution spectrometer when integrated with only an antenna at its input, and a detector at each channel s output. During the design process for this filter, the available characteristic impedances, possible lumped element ranges, and fabrication tolerances were identified for design on a very thin silicon substrate. Iterations between full-wave and lumped-element circuit simulations were performed. Each channel s circuit was designed based on the availability of characteristic impedances and lumped element ranges. This design was based on a tabular type bandpass filter with no spurious harmonic response. Extensive electromagnetic modeling for each channel was performed. Four channels

  20. MEMS-based Circuits and Systems for Wireless Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    MEMS-based Circuits and Systems for Wireless Communication provides comprehensive coverage of RF-MEMS technology from device to system level. This edited volume places emphasis on how system performance for radio frequency applications can be leveraged by Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Coverage also extends to innovative MEMS-aware radio architectures that push the potential of MEMS technology further ahead.  This work presents a broad overview of the technology from MEMS devices (mainly BAW and Si MEMS resonators) to basic circuits, such as oscillators and filters, and finally complete systems such as ultra-low-power MEMS-based radios. Contributions from leading experts around the world are organized in three parts. Part I introduces RF-MEMS technology, devices and modeling and includes a prospective outlook on ongoing developments towards Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) and phononic crystals. Device properties and models are presented in a circuit oriented perspective. Part II focusses on ...

  1. The circuit of polychromator for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak edge Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Qing; Zhao, Junyu; Chen, Hui; Li, Fengjuan; Hsieh, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    The detector circuit is the core component of filter polychromator which is used for scattering light analysis in Thomson scattering diagnostic, and is responsible for the precision and stability of a system. High signal-to-noise and stability are primary requirements for the diagnostic. Recently, an upgraded detector circuit for weak light detecting in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) edge Thomson scattering system has been designed, which can be used for the measurement of large electron temperature (T e ) gradient and low electron density (n e ). In this new circuit, a thermoelectric-cooled avalanche photodiode with the aid circuit is involved for increasing stability and enhancing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially the circuit will never be influenced by ambient temperature. These features are expected to improve the accuracy of EAST Thomson diagnostic dramatically. Related mechanical construction of the circuit is redesigned as well for heat-sinking and installation. All parameters are optimized, and SNR is dramatically improved. The number of minimum detectable photons is only 10

  2. Optimization of fermentative hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed film bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Mohammadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology with a central composite design was applied to optimize fermentative hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed film reactor. In this study, the concurrent effects of up-flow velocity (Vup and feed flow rate (QF as independent operating variables on biological hydrogen production were investigated. A broad range of organic loading rate between 10 and 60 g COD L−1 d−1 was used as the operating variables. The dependent parameters as multiple responses were evaluated. Experimental results showed the highest value of yield at 0.31 L H2 g−1 COD was obtained at Vup and QF of 0.5 m h−1 and 1.7 L d−1, respectively. The optimum conditions for the fermentative hydrogen production using pre-settled POME were QF = 2.0–3.7 L d−1 and Vup = 1.5–2.3 m h−1. The experimental results agreed very well with the model prediction.

  3. Loose part trapping device in the secondary circuit of a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poussin, C.; Ayme, H.

    1993-01-01

    The trap is principally formed from mesh filter placed across the annular section of the secondary circuit. The maximum mesh size is less than the distance separating the tubes so that the loose parts cannot caught between the tubular bundle tubes. 6 figs

  4. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  5. Signal processing: opportunities for superconductive circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralston, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Prime motivators in the evolution of increasingly sophisticated communication and detection systems are the needs for handling ever wider signal bandwidths and higher data processing speeds. These same needs drive the development of electronic device technology. Until recently the superconductive community has been tightly focused on digital devices for high speed computers. The purpose of this paper is to describe opportunities and challenges which exist for both analog and digital devices in a less familiar area, that of wideband signal processing. The function and purpose of analog signal-processing components, including matched filters, correlators and Fourier transformers, will be described and examples of superconductive implementations given. A canonic signal-processing system is then configured using these components in combination with analog/digital converters and digital output circuits to highlight the important issues of dynamic range, accuracy and equivalent computation rate. Superconductive circuits hold promise for processing signals of 10-GHz bandwidth. Signal processing systems, however, can be properly designed and implemented only through a synergistic combination of the talents of device physicists, circuit designers, algorithm architects and system engineers. An immediate challenge to the applied superconductivity community is to begin sharing ideas with these other researchers

  6. A highly linear fully integrated powerline filter for biopotential acquisition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaher, Hussain A; Tasadduq, Noman; Mahnashi, Yaqub

    2013-10-01

    Powerline interference is one of the most dominant problems in detection and processing of biopotential signals. This work presents a new fully integrated notch filter exhibiting high linearity and low power consumption. High filter linearity is preserved utilizing active-RC approach while IC implementation is achieved through replacing passive resistors by R-2R ladders achieving area saving of approximately 120 times. The filter design is optimized for low power operation using an efficient circuit topology and an ultra-low power operational amplifier. Fully differential implementation of the proposed filter shows notch depth of 43 dB (78 dB for 4th-order) with THD of better than -70 dB while consuming about 150 nW from 1.5 V supply.

  7. Diffraction-based BioCD biosensor for point-of-care diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.; Chang, C.; Savran, C.; Nolte, D.

    2018-02-01

    The BioCD platform technology uses spinning-disk interferometry to detect molecular binding to target molecular probes in biological samples. Interferometric configurations have included differential phase contrast and in-line quadrature detection. For the detection of extremely low analyte concentrations, nano- or microparticles can enhance the signal through background-free diffraction detection. Diffraction signal measurements on BioCD biosensors are achieved by forming gratings on a disc surface. The grating pattern was printed with biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and streptavidin coated beads were deployed. The diameter of the beads was 1 micron and strong protein bonding occurs between BSA and streptavidin-coated beads at the printed location. The wavelength for the protein binding detection was 635 nm. The periodic pattern on the disc amplified scattered light into the first-order diffraction position. The diffracted signal contains Mie scattering and a randomly-distributed-bead noise contributions. Variation of the grating pattern periodicity modulates the diffraction efficiency. To test multiple spatial frequencies within a single scan, we designed a fan-shaped grating to perform frequency filter multiplexing on a diffraction-based BioCD.

  8. Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Li, Sheng-Hua; Xiao, Sanshui

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN and satel...... and satellite communication signals. Due to planar structures proposed here, it is easy to integrate in the microwave integrated systems, which can play an important role in the microwave communication circuit and system.......Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN...

  9. A highly linear baseband G{sub m}-C filter for WLAN application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lijun; Chen Zhiming [Department of Electronic Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Gong Zheng; Shi Yin, E-mail: ljyang@sci-inc.com.cn [Suzhou-CAS Semiconductors Integrated Technology Research Center, Suzhou 215021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A low voltage, highly linear transconductan-C (G{sub m}-C) low-pass filter for wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver application is proposed. This transmitter (Tx) filter adopts a 9.8 MHz 3rd-order Chebyshev low pass prototype and achieves 35 dB stop-band attenuation at 30 MHz frequency. By utilizing pseudo-differential linear-region MOS transconductors, the filter IIP{sub 3} is measured to be as high as 9.5 dBm. Fabricated in a 0.35 {mu}m standard CMOS technology, the proposed filter chip occupies a 0.41 x 0.17 mm{sup 2} die area and consumes 3.36 mA from a 3.3-V power supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Micromachined filter-chamber array with passive valves for biochemical assays on beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, H; van der Wijngaart, W; Stemme, G

    2001-01-01

    The filter-chamber array presented here enables a real-time parallel analysis of three different samples on beads in a volume of 3 nL, on a 1 cm2 chip. The filter-chamber array is a system containing three filter-chambers, three passive valves at the inlet channels and a common outlet. The design enables parallel sample handling and time-controlled analysis. The device is microfabricated in silicon and sealed with a Pyrex lid to enable real-time analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis by using pyrosequencing has successfully been performed in single filter-chamber devices. The passive valves consist of plasma-deposited octafluorocyclobutane and show a much higher resistance towards water and surface-active solutions than previous hydrophobic patches. The device is not sensitive to gas bubbles, clogging is rare and reversible, and the filter-chamber array is reusable. More complex (bio)chemical reactions on beads can be performed in the devices with passive valves than in the devices without valves.

  11. Bio-films and processes of bio-corrosion and bio-deterioration in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Chugunov, V.A.; Rodin, V.B.; Zhigletsova, S.K.; Yermolenko, Z.M.; Rudavin, V.V. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    As a rule, oil- and gas-processing equipment and pipelines are attacked by different microorganisms. Their vital ability determines processes of bio-deterioration and bio-corrosion that lead often to technological accidents and severe environmental contamination. Bio-films presenting a complex association of different microorganisms and their metabolites are responsible for most of damages. In this context, to study the role bio-films may play in processes of bio-damages and in efficacy of protective measures is important. We have developed method of culturing bio-films on the surface of metal coupons by using a natural microbial association isolated from oil-processing sites. Simple and informative methods of determining microbiological parameters of bio-films required to study bio-corrosion processes are also developed. In addition, a method of electron microscopic analysis of bio-films and pitting corrosion is offered. Using these methods, we conducted model experiments to determine the dynamics of corrosion processes depending on qualitative and quantitative composition of bio-films, aeration conditions and duration of the experiment. A harmful effect of soil bacteria and micro-mycetes on different pipeline coatings was also investigated. Experiments were conducted within 3-6 months and revealed degrading action of microorganisms. This was confirmed by axial tension testing of coatings. All these approaches will be used for further development of measures to protect gas- and oil-processing equipment and pipelines against bio-corrosion and bio-damages (first of all biocides). (authors)

  12. Matlab/Simulink Implementation of Wave-based Models for Microstrip Structures utilizing Short-circuited and Opened Stubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana P. Stošić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes modeling and analyzing procedures for microstrip filters based on use of one-dimensional wave digital approach. Different filter structures are observed. One filter is based on quarter-wave length short-circuited stubs and connecting transmission lines. The other one is based on cross-junction opened stubs. Frequency responses are obtained by direct analysis of the block-based networks formed in Simulink toolbox of MATLAB environment. This wave-based method allows an accurate and efficient analysis of different microwave structures.

  13. A novel three-input monomolecular logic circuit on a rhodamine inspired bio-compatible bi-compartmental molecular platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistri, Tarun; Bhowmick, Rahul; Katarkar, Atul; Chaudhuri, Keya; Ali, Mahammad

    2017-01-01

    Methodological synthesis of a new biocompatible bi-compartmental rhodamine based probe (L 3 ) provides a multi-inputs and multi-outputs molecular logic circuit based on simple chemosensing phenomena. Spectroscopic responses of Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ towards L 3 together with reversible binding of S 2- with L 3 -Cu 2+ and L 3 -Hg 2+ complexes help us to construct a thee-input molecular circuit on their control and sequential addition to a solution of L 3 in a mixed organo-aqueous medium. We have further successfully encoded binary digits out of these inputs and outputs which may convert a three-digit input string into a two-digit output string resulting a simple monomolecular logic circuit. Such a molecular ‘Boolean’ logic operation may improve the complexity of logic gate circuitry and computational speed and may be useful to employ in potential biocompatible molecular logic platforms. - Graphical abstract: A new bi-compartmental molecular system equipped with Rhodamine fluorophore unit provides a Multi-inputs and Multi-outputs Molecular Logic Circuit based on a very simple observation of chemosensing activities.

  14. High temperature filtration of radioactivable corrosion products in the primary circuit of PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.

    1976-01-01

    A effective limitation to the deposition of radioactive corrosion products in the core of a reactor at power operation, is to be obtained by filtering the water of the primary circuit at a flow rate upper than 1% of the coolant flow rate. However, in view of accounting for more important release of corrosion products during the reactor start-up and also for some possible variations in the efficiency of the system, it is better that the flow rate to be treated by the cleaning circuit is stated at 5%. Filtration must be effected at the temperature of the primary circuit and preferably on each loop. To this end, the feasibility of electromagnetic filtration or filtration through a deep bed of granulated graphite has been studied. The on-loop tests effected on each filter gave efficiencies and yields respectively upper than 90% and 99% for magnetite and ferrite particles in suspension in water at 250 deg C. Such results confirm the interest lying in high temperature filtration and lead to envisage its application to reactors [fr

  15. A Novel Evolutionary Algorithm for Designing Robust Analog Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing robust circuits that withstand environmental perturbation and device degradation is critical for many applications. Traditional robust circuit design is mainly done by tuning parameters to improve system robustness. However, the topological structure of a system may set a limit on the robustness achievable through parameter tuning. This paper proposes a new evolutionary algorithm for robust design that exploits the open-ended topological search capability of genetic programming (GP coupled with bond graph modeling. We applied our GP-based robust design (GPRD algorithm to evolve robust lowpass and highpass analog filters. Compared with a traditional robust design approach based on a state-of-the-art real-parameter genetic algorithm (GA, our GPRD algorithm with a fitness criterion rewarding robustness, with respect to parameter perturbations, can evolve more robust filters than what was achieved through parameter tuning alone. We also find that inappropriate GA tuning may mislead the search process and that multiple-simulation and perturbed fitness evaluation methods for evolving robustness have complementary behaviors with no absolute advantage of one over the other.

  16. Characterization of the planktonic microbiome in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors during adaptation of mesophilic methanogenic granules to thermophilic operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinyu; Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology refers to reactor technology where granules, i.e. self-immobilised microbial associations, are the biological catalysts involved in the anaerobic digestion process. During the start-up period, UASB reactors operate at relatively long HRT and there......Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology refers to reactor technology where granules, i.e. self-immobilised microbial associations, are the biological catalysts involved in the anaerobic digestion process. During the start-up period, UASB reactors operate at relatively long HRT...... and therefore the liquid phase of the reactor becomes a favourable environment for microbial growth. The current study aimed to elucidate the dynamicity of the suspended microbial community in UASB reactors, during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon...... sequencing was used to characterize the taxonomic composition of the microbiome. The results showed that the microbial community was mainly composed by hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria. Results revealed relevant shifts in the microbial community composition, which is mainly determined by the operational...

  17. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter with on-chip charge pump auto-tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangxiong, Chen; Min, Lin; Heping, Ma; Hailong, Jia; Yin, Shi; Forster, Dai

    2009-08-01

    An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter (BPF) with on chip charge pump auto-tuning is presented. It is implemented in UMC (United Manufacturing Corporation) 0.18 μm CMOS process technology. The filter system with auto-tuning uses a master-slave technique for continuous tuning in which the charge pump outputs 2.663 V, much higher than the power supply voltage, to improve the linearity of the filter. The main filter with third order low-pass and second order high-pass properties is an asymmetric band-pass filter with bandwidth of 2.730-5.340 MHz. The in-band third order harmonic input intercept point (IIP3) is 16.621 dBm, with 50 Ω as the source impedance. The input referred noise is about 47.455 μVrms. The main filter dissipates 3.528 mW while the auto-tuning system dissipates 2.412 mW from a 1.8 V power supply. The filter with the auto-tuning system occupies 0.592 mm2 and it can be utilized in GPS (global positioning system) and Bluetooth systems.

  18. Granulated bog iron ores as sorbents in passive (bio)remediation systems for arsenic removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiec, Klaudia; Rzepa, Grzegorz; Bajda, Tomasz; Uhrynowski, Witold; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Krzysztoforski, Jan; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2018-03-01

    The main element of PbRS (passive (bio)remediation systems) are sorbents, which act as natural filters retaining heavy metals and carriers of microorganisms involved in water treatment. Thus, the effectiveness of PbRS is determined by the quality of the (ad)sorbents, which should be stable under various environmental conditions, have a wide range of applications and be non-toxic to (micro)organisms used in these systems. Our previous studies showed that bog iron ores (BIOs) meet these requirements. However, further investigation of the physical and chemical parameters of BIOs under environmental conditions is required before their large-scale application in PbRS. The aim of this study was (i) to investigate the ability of granulated BIOs (gBIOs) to remove arsenic from various types of contaminated waters, and (ii) to estimate the application potential of gBIOs in technologies dedicated to water treatment. These studies were conducted on synthetic solutions of arsenic and environmental samples of arsenic contaminated water using a set of adsorption columns filled with gBIOs. The experiments performed in a static system revealed that gBIOs are appropriate arsenic and zinc adsorbent. Dynamic adsorption studies confirmed these results and showed that the actual sorption efficiency of gBIOs depends on the adsorbate concentration and is directly proportional to them. Desorption analysis showed that As-loaded gBIOs are characterized by high chemical stability and they may be reused for the (ad)sorption of other elements, i.e. zinc. It was also shown that gBIOs may be used for remediation of both highly oxygenated waters and groundwater or settling ponds, where the oxygen level is low, as both forms of inorganic arsenic (arsenate and arsenite) were effectively removed. Arsenic concentration after treatment was <100 µg/L, which is below the limit for industrial water.

  19. Bio-prospecting of distillery yeasts as bio-control and bio-remediation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Juan F; Maldonado, María; Briones, Ana I; Francisco, J Fernández; González, Francisco J

    2014-05-01

    This work constitutes a preliminary study in which the capacity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from ancient distilleries as bio-control agents against moulds and in the treatment of waste waters contaminated by heavy metals-i.e. bio-remediation-is shown. In the first control assays, antagonist effect between non-Saccharomyces yeasts, their extracts and supernatants against some moulds, analysing the plausible (not exhaustive) involved factors were qualitatively verified. In addition, two enzymatic degrading properties of cell wall plant polymers, quitinolitic and pectinolitic, were screened. Finally, their use as agents of bio-remediation of three heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) was analysed semi-quantitatively. The results showed that all isolates belonging to Pichia species effectively inhibited all moulds assayed. Moreover, P. kudriavzevii is a good candidate for both bio-control and bio-remediation because it inhibited moulds and accumulated the major proportion of the three tested metals.

  20. Fast SPT-Term Allocation and Efficient FPGA Implementation of FIR Filters for Software Defined Radio Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Choonghoon; Moteki, Takayuki; Kim, Minseok; Ichige, Koichi; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a fast SPT-term allocation scheme and an efficient FPGA implementation of FIR filters for Software Defined Radio (SDR) applications. Direct conversion method based on RF direct sampling is nowadays widely used in SDR applications. Fast and accurate digital filters are required for RF direct sampling and processing in direct conversion, however such filters often require large digital circuit area. Signed-Power-of-Two (SPT) terms will be suitable for fast processing and eff...

  1. Dual and tri-band bandpass filters based on novel Π-shaped resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian-Kang; Zhu, Wen-Jun; Zhao, Wei

    2014-05-01

    A novel Π-shaped resonator is proposed, and compact dual-band and tri-band bandpass filters that meet IEEE 802.11 application requirements by using the new resonator are designed. The dual-band bandpass filter centres at 2.45 and 5.6 GHz with a simulated passband insertion loss of no more than 0.8 dB, and the tri-band bandpass filter which is got by two-path coupling achieves simulated passband insertion loss of no more than 1.1 dB. The new designs are demonstrated by experiment. The new filters have advantages of simple and compact structures, low passband insertion losses, good frequency selectivity and miniature circuit sizes. All these have prospect to be applied in future wireless communication systems.

  2. Single-Chip FPGA Azimuth Pre-Filter for SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Mimi; Cheng, Tsan-Huei; Madsen, Soren; Johnson, Robert; Le, Charles T-C; Moghaddam, Mahta; Marina, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) on a single lightweight, low-power integrated-circuit chip has been developed to implement an azimuth pre-filter (AzPF) for a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system. The AzPF is needed to enable more efficient use of data-transmission and data-processing resources: In broad terms, the AzPF reduces the volume of SAR data by effectively reducing the azimuth resolution, without loss of range resolution, during times when end users are willing to accept lower azimuth resolution as the price of rapid access to SAR imagery. The data-reduction factor is selectable at a decimation factor, M, of 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 so that users can trade resolution against processing and transmission delays. In principle, azimuth filtering could be performed in the frequency domain by use of fast-Fourier-transform processors. However, in the AzPF, azimuth filtering is performed in the time domain by use of finite-impulse-response filters. The reason for choosing the time-domain approach over the frequency-domain approach is that the time-domain approach demands less memory and a lower memory-access rate. The AzPF operates on the raw digitized SAR data. The AzPF includes a digital in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) demodulator. In general, an I/Q demodulator effects a complex down-conversion of its input signal followed by low-pass filtering, which eliminates undesired sidebands. In the AzPF case, the I/Q demodulator takes offset video range echo data to the complex baseband domain, ensuring preservation of signal phase through the azimuth pre-filtering process. In general, in an SAR I/Q demodulator, the intermediate frequency (fI) is chosen to be a quarter of the range-sampling frequency and the pulse-repetition frequency (fPR) is chosen to be a multiple of fI. The AzPF also includes a polyphase spatial-domain pre-filter comprising four weighted integrate-and-dump filters with programmable decimation factors and overlapping phases. To prevent aliasing of signals

  3. The biggest bio-fuel plant in Norway - a profitable environmental investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2002-01-01

    A few years ago, Norske Skog Saugbrugs in Halden, Norway, invested NOK 180 mill in a new combustion plant for bio-fuel. In 2001, the plant produced 400 GWh and so replaced about 35 000 tonnes of oil. Considering the Kyoto Agreement, the profitability is even greater. The capacity of the boiler is 400 - 450 GWh, which covers more than 40 percent of the paper factory's need for thermal energy. The paper factory in Halden is one of the largest in Europe. About half of the bio-fuel derives from the factory's own production, which is an important reason why the price of bio-energy is less than the price of oil. At the same time the use of the biomass for energy production implies that bark and mud does not pile up in the factory. The remaining half of the biomass, the external half, is wood returned from building activities in the form of wood chippings, one-time pallets and similar. This also solves a social problem. The bio-fuel plant uses a fluidized bed boiler of very high efficiency. This implies very small emissions of NOx and CO. Particles are removed by means of an electro filter. The system meets the requirements made by the EU and by Norwegian pollution control authorities

  4. A narrowband filter based on 2D 8-fold photonic quasicrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Sun, XiaoHong; Wang, Shuai

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a novel structure of narrowband filter based on 2D 8-fold photonic quasicrystal (PQC) is proposed and investigated. The structure size is 8 μm × 8 μm, which promises its applications in optical integrated circuits and communication devices. Finite Element Method (FEM) has been employed to investigate the band gap of the filter. The resonance wavelength, transmission coefficient and 3 dB bandwidth are analyzed by varying the parameters of the structure. By optimizing the parameters of the filter, two design formulas of resonance wavelength are obtained. Also, for its better linearity of the resonance, the structure with line-defect has also seen a large uptake in sensor design.

  5. A Miniaturize Bandpass Filter with Harmonic Suppression Using Meandered Quarter-Wavelength Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized bandpass filter with harmonics suppression is presented. The proposed filter consists of two quarter-wavelength microstrip resonators, which are meandered for circuit size reduction. An interdigital capacitor, loading at zero-voltage point, is employed to provide the desired coupling between the resonators at operating frequency, whereas the coupling coefficient at the third harmonic is realized to be zero. Besides, the second and fourth harmonics are suppressed since λ/4 resonators are adopted. Benefiting from these properties, a miniaturized bandpass filter with the second, third, and fourth harmonics suppression was designed and implemented. The final measured and simulated results show good consistence with the theoretical counterparts.

  6. Imaging the internal structure of fluid upflow zones with detailed digital Parasound echosounder surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, V.; Zuehlsdorff, L.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Schwenk, T.

    2001-12-01

    Sites of venting fluids both with continuous and episodic supply often reveal complex surface and internal structures, which are difficult to image and cause problems to transfer results from local sampling towards a structural reconstruction and a quantification of (average) flux rates. Detailed acoustic and seismic surveys would be required to retrieve this information, but also an appropriate environment, where fluid migration can be properly imaged from contrasts to unaffected areas. Hemipelagic sediments are most suitable, since typically reflectors are coherent and of low lateral amplitude variation and structures are continuous over distances much longer than the scale of fluid migration features. During RV Meteor Cruise M473 and RV Sonne Cruise SO 149 detailed studies were carried out in the vicinity of potential fluid upflow zones in the Lower Congo Basin at 5oS in 3000 m water depth and at the Northern Cascadia Margin in 1000 m water depth. Unexpected sampling of massive gas hydrates from the sea floor as well as of carbonate concretions, shell fragments and different liveforms indicated active fluid venting in a typically hemipelagic realm. The acoustic signature of such zones includes columnar blanking, pockmark depressions at the sea floor, association with small offset faults (ParaDigMA System for further processing and display, to image the spatial structure of the upflow zones. Due to the high data density amplitudes and other acoustic properties could be investigated in a 3D volume and time slices as well as reflector surfaces were analyzed. Pronounced lateral variations of reflection amplitudes within a complex pattern indicate potential pathways for fluid/gas migration and occurrences of near-surface gas hydrate deposits, which may be used to trace detailed surface evidence from side scan sonar imaging down to depth and support dedicated sampling.

  7. A novel three-input monomolecular logic circuit on a rhodamine inspired bio-compatible bi-compartmental molecular platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistri, Tarun; Bhowmick, Rahul [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, 188 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Katarkar, Atul; Chaudhuri, Keya [Molecular & Human Genetics Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ali, Mahammad, E-mail: mali@chemistry.jdvu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, 188 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Methodological synthesis of a new biocompatible bi-compartmental rhodamine based probe (L{sup 3}) provides a multi-inputs and multi-outputs molecular logic circuit based on simple chemosensing phenomena. Spectroscopic responses of Cu{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+} towards L{sup 3} together with reversible binding of S{sup 2-} with L{sup 3}-Cu{sup 2+} and L{sup 3}-Hg{sup 2+} complexes help us to construct a thee-input molecular circuit on their control and sequential addition to a solution of L{sup 3} in a mixed organo-aqueous medium. We have further successfully encoded binary digits out of these inputs and outputs which may convert a three-digit input string into a two-digit output string resulting a simple monomolecular logic circuit. Such a molecular ‘Boolean’ logic operation may improve the complexity of logic gate circuitry and computational speed and may be useful to employ in potential biocompatible molecular logic platforms. - Graphical abstract: A new bi-compartmental molecular system equipped with Rhodamine fluorophore unit provides a Multi-inputs and Multi-outputs Molecular Logic Circuit based on a very simple observation of chemosensing activities.

  8. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  9. The application of magnetic self-filter to optimization of AIN film growth process during the impulse plasma deposition synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodun Rafal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the very first results of the application of plasma magnetic filtering achieved by a coil coupled with an electrical circuit of a coaxial accelerator during the synthesis of A1N thin films by use of Impulse Plasma Deposition method (IPD. The uniqueness of this technical solution lies in the fact that the filter is not supplied, controlled and synchronized from any external device. Our solution uses the energy from the electrical circuit of plasma accelerator. The plasma state was described on the basis of OES studies. Estimation of the effects of plasma filtering on the film quality was carried out on the basis of characterization of structure morphology (SEM, phase and chemical composition (vibrational spectroscopy. Our work has shown that the use of the developed magnetic self-filter improved the structure of the AlN coatings synthesized under the condition of impulse plasma, especially by the minimization of the tendency to deposit metallic aluminum droplets and columnar growth.

  10. A universal gyroscope driving circuit with 70dB amplitude control range

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelghany, Mohamed A.

    2010-08-01

    A CMOS variable gain driving circuit with output signal amplitude control for gyroscopes with wide range of quality factors is presented. The driving circuit can be used for gyroscopes with Q values higher than 500. The circuit uses a current-commutating switching mixer to control the gyroscope driving signal level. Conventional driving circuits use automatic gain control (AGC) which suffers from limited linear range and the need for an off-chip capacitor for the peak detector and loop filter. Two stage variable gain amplifier is used in the proposed design to ensure enough gain for oscillation for such a wide range of quality factors. Analog and digital amplitude control methods are used to cover wide range of driving signal amplitude with enough accuracy to hit the maximum driving signal level without sacrificing gyroscope linearity. Due to the high DC gain of the amplifier chain, DC offset resulting from mismatches might saturate the amplifier output. DC offset correction is employed using a secondary negative feedback loop. The proposed driving circuit is being fabricated in 0.6μm CMOS technology. © 2010 IEEE.

  11. Sub-GHz-resolution C-band Nyquist-filtering interleaver on a high-index-contrast photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Zhu, Chen; Corcoran, Bill; Burla, Maurizio; Roeloffzen, Chris G H; Leinse, Arne; Schröder, Jochen; Lowery, Arthur J

    2016-03-21

    Modern optical communications rely on high-resolution, high-bandwidth filtering to maximize the data-carrying capacity of fiber-optic networks. Such filtering typically requires high-speed, power-hungry digital processes in the electrical domain. Passive optical filters currently provide high bandwidths with low power consumption, but at the expense of resolution. Here, we present a passive filter chip that functions as an optical Nyquist-filtering interleaver featuring sub-GHz resolution and a near-rectangular passband with 8% roll-off. This performance is highly promising for high-spectral-efficiency Nyquist wavelength division multiplexed (N-WDM) optical super-channels. The chip provides a simple two-ring-resonator-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which has a sub-cm2 footprint owing to the high-index-contrast Si3N4/SiO2 waveguide, while manifests low wavelength-dependency enabling C-band (> 4 THz) coverage with more than 160 effective free spectral ranges of 25 GHz. This device is anticipated to be a critical building block for spectrally-efficient, chip-scale transceivers and ROADMs for N-WDM super-channels in next-generation optical communication networks.

  12. Granulated Bog Iron Ores as Sorbents in Passive (BioRemediation Systems for Arsenic Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Debiec

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main element of PbRS (passive (bioremediation systems are sorbents, which act as natural filters retaining heavy metals and carriers of microorganisms involved in water treatment. Thus, the effectiveness of PbRS is determined by the quality of the (adsorbents, which should be stable under various environmental conditions, have a wide range of applications and be non-toxic to (microorganisms used in these systems. Our previous studies showed that bog iron ores (BIOs meet these requirements. However, further investigation of the physical and chemical parameters of BIOs under environmental conditions is required before their large-scale application in PbRS. The aim of this study was (i to investigate the ability of granulated BIOs (gBIOs to remove arsenic from various types of contaminated waters, and (ii to estimate the application potential of gBIOs in technologies dedicated to water treatment. These studies were conducted on synthetic solutions of arsenic and environmental samples of arsenic contaminated water using a set of adsorption columns filled with gBIOs. The experiments performed in a static system revealed that gBIOs are appropriate arsenic and zinc adsorbent. Dynamic adsorption studies confirmed these results and showed, that the actual sorption efficiency of gBIOs depends on the adsorbate concentration and is directly proportional to them. Desorption analysis showed that As-loaded gBIOs are characterized by high chemical stability and they may be reused for the (adsorption of other elements, i.e., zinc. It was also shown that gBIOs may be used for remediation of both highly oxygenated waters and groundwater or settling ponds, where the oxygen level is low, as both forms of inorganic arsenic (arsenate and arsenite were effectively removed. Arsenic concentration after treatment was <100 μg/L, which is below the limit for industrial water.

  13. Polymer filters for ultraviolet-excited integrated fluorescence sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandin, Marc; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Optical filters for blocking ultraviolet (UV) light were fabricated by doping various polymer hosts with a UV absorbing chromophore. The polymers were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a silicone elastomer frequently used in microfluidics, SU-8, a photopatternable epoxy, and Humiseal 1B66, an acrylic coating used for moisture protection of integrated circuits. The chromophore was 2-(2′-hydroxy-5′-methylphenyl) benzotriazole (BTA), which has a high extinction coefficient between 300 nm and 400 nm. We demonstrate filters 5 µm thick that exhibit high ultraviolet rejection (nearly −40 dB at 342 nm) yet pass visible light (near 0 dB above 400 nm), making them ideal for ultraviolet-excited fluorescence sensing within microsystems. The absorbance of the BTA depended on the host polymer. These filters are promising for integrated fluorescence spectroscopy in bioanalytical platforms because they can be patterned by dry etching, molding or exposure to ultraviolet light. (paper)

  14. Fabrication of a Cryogenic Bias Filter for Ultrasensitive Focal Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A fabrication process has been developed for cryogenic in-line filtering for the bias and readout of ultrasensitive cryogenic bolometers for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The design is a microstripline filter that cuts out, or strongly attenuates, frequencies (10 50 GHz) that can be carried by wiring staged at cryogenic temperatures. The filter must have 100-percent transmission at DC and low frequencies where the bias and readout lines will carry signal. The fabrication requires the encapsulation of superconducting wiring in a dielectric-metal envelope with precise electrical characteristics. Sufficiently thick insulation layers with high-conductivity metal layers fully surrounding a patterned superconducting wire in arrayable formats have been demonstrated. A degenerately doped silicon wafer has been chosen to provide a metallic ground plane. A metallic seed layer is patterned to enable attachment to the ground plane. Thick silicon dioxide films are deposited at low temperatures to provide tunable dielectric isolation without degrading the metallic seed layer. Superconducting wiring is deposited and patterned using microstripline filtering techniques to cut out the relevant frequencies. A low Tc superconductor is used so that it will attenuate power strongly above the gap frequency. Thick dielectric is deposited on top of the circuit, and then vias are patterned through both dielectric layers. A thick conductive film is deposited conformally over the entire circuit, except for the contact pads for the signal and bias attachments to complete the encapsulating ground plane. Filters are high-aspect- ratio rectangles, allowing close packing in one direction, while enabling the chip to feed through the wall of a copper enclosure. The chip is secured in the copper wall using a soft metal seal to make good thermal and electrical contact to the outer shield.

  15. Detecting Power Voltage Dips using Tracking Filters - A Comparison against Kalman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCIU, I.-R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due of its significant economical impact, Power-Quality (PQ analysis is an important domain today. Severe voltage distortions affect the consumers and disturb their activity. They may be caused by short circuits (in this case the voltage drops significantly or by varying loads (with a smaller drop. These two types are the PQ currently issues. Monitoring these phenomena (called dips or sags require powerful techniques. Digital Signal Processing (DSP algorithms are currently employed to fulfill this task. Discrete Wavelet Transforms, (and variants, Kalman filters, and S-Transform are currently proposed by researchers to detect voltage dips. This paper introduces and examines a new tool to detect voltage dips: the so-called tracking filters. Discovered and tested during the cold war, they can estimate a parameter of interest one-step-ahead based on the previously observed values. Two filters are implemented. Their performance is assessed by comparison against the Kalman filter?s results.

  16. Multifunction Voltage-Mode Filter Using Single Voltage Differencing Differential Difference Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaichana Amornchai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode multifunction filter based on single voltage differencing differential difference amplifier (VDDDA is presented. The proposed filter with three input voltages and single output voltage is constructed with single VDDDA, two capacitors and two resistors. Its quality factor can be adjusted without affecting natural frequency. Also, the natural frequency can be electronically tuned via adjusting of bias current. The filter can offer five output responses, high-pas (HP, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP and all-ass (AP functions in the same circuit topology. The output response can be selected by choosing the suitable input voltage without the component matching condition and the requirement of additional double gain voltage amplifier. PSpice simulation results to confirm an operation of the proposed filter correspond to the theory.

  17. Enhanced nitrogen removal from piggery wastewater with high NH4+ and low COD/TN ratio in a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Antwi, Philip; Deng, Kaiwen; Nan, Jun; Xu, Pianpian

    2018-02-01

    To enhance nutrient removal more cost-efficiently in microaerobic process treating piggery wastewater characterized by high ammonium (NH 4 + -N) and low chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) ratio, a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor (UMBR) was constructed and the efficiency in nutrient removal was evaluated with various influent COD/TN ratios and reflux ratios. The results showed that the biofilm on the carriers had increased the biomass in the UMBR and enhanced the enrichment of slow-growth-rate bacteria such as nitrifiers, denitrifiers and anammox bacteria. The packed bed allowed the microaerobic biofilm process perform well at a low reflux ratio of 35 with a NH 4 + -N and TN removal as high as 93.1% and 89.9%, respectively. Compared with the previously developed upflow microaerobic sludge reactor, the UMBR had not changed the dominant anammox approach to nitrogen removal, but was more cost-efficiently in treating organic wastewater with high NH 4 + -N and low COD/TN ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  19. Comparison of circuit patency and exchange rates between 2 different continuous renal replacement therapy machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Amirhossein; Still, Mary D; White, Sharon J; Buchman, Timothy G; Connor, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an important tool in the care of critically ill patients. However, the impact of a specific CRRT machine type on the successful delivery of CRRT is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CRRT delivery with an intensive care unit (ICU) bedside nurse delivery model for CRRT while comparing circuit patency and circuit exchange rates in 2 Food and Drug Administration-approved CRRT devices. This article presents the data comparing circuit exchange rates for 2 different CRRT machines. A group of ICU nurses were selected to undergo expanded training in CRRT operation and empowered to deliver all aspects of CRRT. The ICU nurses then provided all aspects of CRRT on 2 Food and Drug Administration-approved CRRT devices for 6 months. Each device was used exclusively in the designated ICU for a 2-week run-in period followed by 3-month data collection period. The primary end point for the study was the differences in average number of filter exchanges per day during each CRRT event. A total of 45 unique patients who underwent 64 separate CRRT treatment periods were included. Four CRRT events were excluded (see text for details). Twenty-eight CRRT events occurred in the NxStage System One arm (NxStage Medical, Lawrence, Mass) and 32 events in the Gambro Prismaflex arm (Gambro Renal Products, Boulder, Colo). Average (SD) filter exchanges per day was 0.443 (0.60) for the NxStage System One machine and 0.553 (0.65) for Gambro Prismaflex machine (P = .09). There was no demonstrable difference in circuit patency as defined by the rate of filter exchanges per day of CRRT therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  1. Bio-fuel barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a year of doubt and decline the consumption of bio-fuel resumed a growth in 2014 in Europe: +6.1% compared to 2013, to reach 14 millions tep (Mtep) that is just below the 2012 peak. This increase was mainly due to bio-diesel. By taking into account the energy content and not the volume, the consumption of bio-diesel represented 79.7% of bio-fuel consumption in 2014, that of bio-ethanol only 19.1% and that of biogas 1%. The incorporating rate of bio-fuels in fuels used for transport were 4.6% in 2013 and 4.9% in 2014. The trend is good and the future of bio-fuel seems clearer as the European Union has set a not-so-bad limit of 7% for first generation bio-fuels in order to take into account the CASI effect. The CASI effect shows that an increase of the consumption of first generation bio-fuels (it means bio-fuels produced from food crops like rape, soy, cereals, sugar beet,...) implies in fact a global increase in greenhouse gas release that is due to a compensation phenomenon. More uncultivated lands (like forests, grasslands, bogs are turned into cultivated lands in order to compensate lands used for bio-fuel production. In most European countries the consumption of bio-diesel increased in 2014 while it was a bad year for the European industry of ethanol because ethanol prices dropped by 16 %. Oil companies are now among the most important producers of bio-diesel in Europe.

  2. Uncalibrated Three-Dimensional Microrobot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    medical, biological, and industrial applications. Two of the most promising areas this technology can affect are bio-manufacturing and medical...Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Wollongong, Australia, 2013. [4] T. R. Kuphaldt, Lessons In Electric Circuits: Volume II - AC, ReadCycle...of Technology , 1999. [10] E. Eleftheriou and D. D. Falconer, "Tracking properties and steady-state performance of rls adaptive filter algorithms

  3. Voltage Harmonics Mitigation through Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Ali Sahito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast dynamic response, high efficiency, low cost and small size of power electronic converters have exponentially increased their use in modern power system which resulted in harmonically distorted voltage and currents. Voltage harmonics mainly caused by current harmonics are more dangerous as performance and expected operating life of other power system equipment are affected by harmonically distorted supply voltage. Electronic filter circuits are used to improve system power quality by mitigating adverse effects of harmonics. Hybrid filters having advantages of both passive and active filters are preferred to resolve the problem of harmonics efficiently and avoiding any chance of resonance. In this paper, a three phase three wire network is considered to supply an adjustable speed drive represented by a resistive load connected across a three phase bridge rectifier. Simulation of the considered system shows THD (Total Harmonic Distortion of 18.91 and 7.61% in supply current and voltage respectively. A HAPF (Hybrid Active Power Filter is proposed to reduce these THD values below 5% as recommended by IEEE Standard-519. P-Q theorem is used to calculate required parameters for proposed filter, which is implemented through hysteresis control. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the designed filter as THD for both current and voltage have reduced below allowable limit of 5%.

  4. An approach for fixed coefficient RNS-based FIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Reddy, Kotha; Sahoo, Subhendu Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In this work, an efficient new modular multiplication method for {2k-1, 2k, 2k+1-1} moduli set is proposed to implement a residue number system (RNS)-based fixed coefficient finite impulse response filter. The new multiplication approach reduces the number of partial products by using pre-loaded product block. The reduction in partial products with the proposed modular multiplication improves the clock frequency and reduces the area and power as compared with the conventional modular multiplication. Further, the present approach eliminates a binary number to residue number converter circuit, which is usually needed at the front end of RNS-based system. In this work, two fixed coefficient filter architectures with the new modular multiplication approach are proposed. The filters are implemented using Verilog hardware description language. The United Microelectronics Corporation 90 nm technology library has been used for synthesis and the results area, power and delay are obtained with the help of Cadence register transfer level compiler. The power delay product (PDP) is also considered for performance comparison among the proposed filters. One of the proposed architecture is found to improve PDP gain by 60.83% as compared with the filter implemented with conventional modular multiplier. The filters functionality is validated with the help of Altera DSP Builder.

  5. BioCatalogue: a universal catalogue of web services for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Jiten; Tanoh, Franck; Nzuobontane, Eric; Laurent, Thomas; Orlowski, Jerzy; Roos, Marco; Wolstencroft, Katy; Aleksejevs, Sergejs; Stevens, Robert; Pettifer, Steve; Lopez, Rodrigo; Goble, Carole A

    2010-07-01

    The use of Web Services to enable programmatic access to on-line bioinformatics is becoming increasingly important in the Life Sciences. However, their number, distribution and the variable quality of their documentation can make their discovery and subsequent use difficult. A Web Services registry with information on available services will help to bring together service providers and their users. The BioCatalogue (http://www.biocatalogue.org/) provides a common interface for registering, browsing and annotating Web Services to the Life Science community. Services in the BioCatalogue can be described and searched in multiple ways based upon their technical types, bioinformatics categories, user tags, service providers or data inputs and outputs. They are also subject to constant monitoring, allowing the identification of service problems and changes and the filtering-out of unavailable or unreliable resources. The system is accessible via a human-readable 'Web 2.0'-style interface and a programmatic Web Service interface. The BioCatalogue follows a community approach in which all services can be registered, browsed and incrementally documented with annotations by any member of the scientific community.

  6. DVCCs Based High Input Impedance Voltage-Mode First-Order Filters Employing Grounded Capacitor and Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Horng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A voltage-mode high input impedance first-order highpass, lowpass and allpass filters using two differential voltage current conveyors (DVCCs, one grounded capacitor and one grounded resistor is presented. The highpass, lowpass and allpass signals can be obtained simultaneously from the circuit configuration. The suggested filter uses a canonical number of passive components without requiring any component matching condition. The simulation results confirm the theoretical analysis.

  7. BioJS DAGViewer: A reusable JavaScript component for displaying directed graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalderimis, Alexis; Stepan, Radek; Sullivan, Julie; Lyne, Rachel; Lyne, Michael; Micklem, Gos

    2014-01-01

    The DAGViewer BioJS component is a reusable JavaScript component made available as part of the BioJS project and intended to be used to display graphs of structured data, with a particular emphasis on Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). It enables users to embed representations of graphs of data, such as ontologies or phylogenetic trees, in hyper-text documents (HTML). This component is generic, since it is capable (given the appropriate configuration) of displaying any kind of data that is organised as a graph. The features of this component which are useful for examining and filtering large and complex graphs are described. http://github.com/alexkalderimis/dag-viewer-biojs; http://github.com/biojs/biojs; http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8303.

  8. Instrumentation amplifier implements second-order active low-pass filter with high gain factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, Kim H; Eskelinen, Pekka; Sepponen, Raimo E

    2011-01-01

    A single-ended second-order active low-pass filter can simultaneously provide high gain factor and dc voltage subtraction. This makes it possible to reduce the number of components and signal processing stages needed in an application where small voltage changes are measured on the top of large dc voltage masked by a large amplitude oscillating carrier. The filter described in this paper is constructed from a conventional 3-op-amp instrumentation amplifier and five passive circuit elements. (technical design note)

  9. Short- circuit tests of circuit breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Chorovský, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with short-circuit tests of low voltage electrical devices. In the first part of this paper, there are described basic types of short- circuit tests and their principles. Direct and indirect (synthetic) tests with more details are described in the second part. Each test and principles are explained separately. Oscilogram is obtained from short-circuit tests of circuit breakers at laboratory. The aim of this research work is to propose a test circuit for performing indirect test.

  10. Theoretical and experimental study of Chen chaotic system with notch filter feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Zhang Xiao; Jian-Hua, Peng; Ju-Fang, Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since the past two decades, the time delay feedback control method has attracted more and more attention in chaos control studies because of its simplicity and efficiency compared with other chaos control schemes. Recently, it has been proposed to suppress low-dimensional chaos with the notch filter feedback control method, which can be implemented in a laser system. In this work, we have analytically determined the controllable conditions for notch filter feedback controlling of Chen chaotic system in terms of the Hopf bifurcation theory. The conditions for notch filter feedback controlled Chen chaoitc system having a stable limit cycle solution are given. Meanwhile, we also analysed the Hopf bifurcation direction, which is very important for parameter settings in notch filter feedback control applications. Finally, we apply the notch filter feedback control methods to the electronic circuit experiments and numerical simulations based on the theoretical analysis. The controlling results of notch filter feedback control method well prove the feasibility and reliability of the theoretical analysis. (general)

  11. The characteristics and application of sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) as novel filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shuxin; Yue Qinyan; Yue Min; Gao Baoyu; Li Qian; Yu Hui; Zhao Yaqin; Qi Yuanfeng

    2009-01-01

    Novel filter media-sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) were prepared using dewatered sludge, fly ash and clay with a mass ratio of 1:1:1. Compared with commercial ceramic particles (CCP), SFCP had higher total porosity, larger total surface area and lower bulk and apparent density. Tests of heavy metal elements in lixivium proved that SFCP were safe for wastewater treatment. A lab-scale upflow anaerobic bioreactor was employed to ascertain the application of SFCP in denitrification process using acetate as carbon source. The results showed that SFCP reactor brought a relative superiority to CCP reactor in terms of total nitrogen (TN) removal at the optimum C/N ratio of 4.03 when volumetric loading rates (VLR) ranged from 0.33 to 3.69 kg TN (m 3 d) -1 . Therefore, SFCP application, as a novel process of treating wastes with wastes, provided a promising way in sludge and fly ash utilization.

  12. Automation of the electromagnetic filter applied for condensation water treatment in the secondary cooling system of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, Gyoergy

    1989-01-01

    A full-flow condensation water purification system is applied in the secondary cooling circuit of the Paks NPP. The electromagnetic filter of the filtering system eliminates ferromagnetic impurities. The filter consists of a high current coil and an automatic control unit. During the improvement of this unit, a FESTO FPC-404 type controller based on an extended capability PLC was installed. (R.P.) 5 figs

  13. Primary Nutritional Content of Bio-Flocs Cultured with Different Organic Carbon Sources and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIE EKASARI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bio-flocs technology (BFT in aquaculture offers a solution to avoid environmental impact of high nutrient discharges and to reduce the use of artificial feed. In BFT, excess of nutrients in aquaculture systems are converted into microbial biomass, which can be consumed by the cultured animals as a food source. In this experiment, upconcentrated pond water obtained from the drum filter of a freshwater tilapia farm was used for bio-flocs reactors. Two carbon sources, sugar and glycerol, were used as the first variable, and two different levels of salinity, 0 and 30 ppt, were used as the second variable. Bio-flocs with glycerol as a carbon source had higher total n-6 PUFAs (19.1 ± 2.1 and 22.3 ± 8.6 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt, respectively than that of glucose (4.0 ± 0.1 and 12.6 ± 2.5 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt. However, there was no effect of carbon source or salinity on crude protein, lipid, and total n-3 PUFAs contents of the bio-flocs.

  14. Harmonic current control for LCL-filtered VSCs connected to ultra-weak grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Yang, Dongsheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the harmonic current control for LCL-filtered Voltage-Source Converters (VSCs) connected to ultra-weak (high-impedance) grids. It is shown that the harmonic current controllers tend to be unstable as the Short-Circuit Ratio (SCR) of the system reduces. An active stabilizing...... control scheme is thus proposed by feeding back the filter capacitor voltage and the converter-side current. The method not only stabilizes the harmonic current control with a wide range of SCR values, but also mitigates harmonic distortions in the grid-side current of the VSC. The stabilizing mechanism...

  15. A Tunable Low Noise Active Bandpass Filter Using a Noise Canceling Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani, N.

    2016-01-01

    A monolithic tunable low noise active bandpass filter is presented in this study. Biasing voltages can control the center frequency and quality factor. By keeping the gain constant, the center frequency shift is 300 MHz. The quality factor can range from 90 to 290 at the center frequency. By using a noise cancelling circuit, noise is kept lower than 2.8 dB. The proposed filter is designed using MMIC technology with a center frequency of 2.4 GHz and a power consumption of 180 mW. ED02AH techno...

  16. Shock resistance characteristic of a spiral symmetry stream anaerobic bio-reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Dai, Ruobin; Xiang, Xinyi; Li, Gang; Xu, Zhengqi; Hu, Tao; Abdelgadir, Awad

    2016-01-01

    The shock resistance characteristic (SRC) of an anaerobic bioreactor characterizes the ability of the anaerobic community in the reactor to withstand violent change in the living environment. In comparison with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR), the SRC of a spiral symmetry stream anaerobic bio-reactor (SSSAB) was systematically investigated in terms of removal efficiency, adsorption property, settling ability, flocculability and fluctuations in these parameters. A quantitative assessment method for SRC was also developed. The results indicated that the SSSAB showed better SRC than the UASBR. The average value (m value) of chemical oxygen demand removal rates of the SSSAB was 86.0%. The contact angle of granules in the SSSAB present gradient distribution, that is the m value of contact angle increasing from bottom (84.5°) to top (93.9°). The m value of the density at the upper and lower sections of the SSSAB were 1.0611 g·cm(-3) and 1.0423 g·cm(-3), respectively. The surface mean diameter of granules in the SSSAB increased from 1.164 to 1.292 mm during operation. The absolute m value of zeta potential of granular sludge at the upper and lower sections of the SSSAB were 40.4 mV and 44.9 mV, respectively. The weighted mean coefficient variance (C̅V̅) value indicated SSSAB was more stable than the UASBR.

  17. A membrane-free, continuously feeding, single chamber up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor for nitrobenzene reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ai-Jie; Cui, Dan; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Guo, Yu-Qi; Kong, Fan-Ying; Ren, Nan-Qi; Wu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) was developed. ► Nitrobenzene as the mode of nitroaromatics was efficiently converted to aniline. ► The impact of phosphate buffer and acetate concentrations and power supplied were investigated. ► The prospects of UBER for the recalcitrant compound removal were discussed. - Abstract: A new bioelectrochemical system (BES), a membrane-free, continuous feeding up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) was developed to reduce oxidative toxic chemicals to less- or non-toxic reduced form in cathode zone with oxidation of electron donor in anode zone. Influent was fed from the bottom of UBER and passed through cathode zone and then anode zone. External power source (0.5 V) was provided between anode and cathode to enhance electrochemical reactions. Granular graphite and carbon brush were used as cathode and anode, respectively. This system was tested for the reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) using acetate as electron donor and carbon source. The influent contained NB (50–200 mg L −1 ) and acetate (1000 mg L −1 ). NB was removed by up to 98% mainly in cathode zone. The anode potential maintained under −480 mV. The maximum NB removal rate was up to 3.5 mol m −3 TV d −1 (TV = total empty volume) and the maximum aniline (AN) formation rate was 3.06 mol m −3 TV d −1 . Additional energy required was less than 0.075 kWh mol −1 NB. The molar ratio of NB removed vs acetate consumed varied from 4.3 ± 0.4 to 2.3 ± 0.1 mol mol −1 . Higher influent phosphate or acetate concentration helped NB removal rate. NB could be efficiently reduced to AN as the power supplied of 0.3 V.

  18. A geometric approach for fault detection and isolation of stator short circuit failure in a single asynchronous machine

    KAUST Repository

    Khelouat, Samir

    2012-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of detection and isolation of stator short-circuit failure in a single asynchronous machine using a geometric approach. After recalling the basis of the geometric approach for fault detection and isolation in nonlinear systems, we will study some structural properties which are fault detectability and isolation fault filter existence. We will then design filters for residual generation. We will consider two approaches: a two-filters structure and a single filter structure, both aiming at generating residuals which are sensitive to one fault and insensitive to the other faults. Some numerical tests will be presented to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  19. A Sub-µW Tuneable Switched-Capacitor Amplifier-Filter for Neural Recording Using a Class-C Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghorbani-Nejad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A two stage sub-µW Inverter-based switched-capacitor amplifier-filter is presented which is capable of amplifying both spikes and local field potentials (LFP signals. Here we employ a switched capacitor technique for frequency tuning and reducing of 1/f noise of two stages. The reduction of power consumption is very necessary for neural recording devices however, in switched capacitor (SC circuits OTA is a major building block that consumes most of the power. Therefore an OTA-less technique utilizing a class-C inverter is employed that significantly reduces the power consumption. A detailed analysis of noise performance for the inverter-based SC circuits is presented. A mathematical model useful for analysis of such SC integrators is derived and a good comparison is obtained between simulation and analytical technique. With a supply voltage of 0.7V and using 0.18 µm CMOS technology, this design can achieves a power consumption of about 538 nW. The designed amplifier-filter has the gains 18.6 dB and 28.2 dB for low pass only and cascaded filter, respectively. By applying different sampling frequencies, the filter attains a reconfigurable bandwidth.

  20. Evaluation of decentralized treatment of sewage employing Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor (USBR) in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Tarek

    2010-02-15

    A new concept for a low-cost modified septic tank, named Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor (USBR), was constructed and tested in a small village in Egypt. During almost one year of continuous operation and monitoring, this system was found to have very satisfactory removal results, where the average results of COD, BOD, and TSS removal efficiencies were 84%, 81%, and 89%, respectively, and the results of the experiment proved that the second compartment (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) was the main treatment unit in removing the pollutants during the start-up period and at the very early steady-state stage. However, after this period and during the steady-state operation conditions, the second compartment served as a polishing step. Also, it was observed that the USBR system was not affected by the imposed shock loads at the peak flow and organic periods. The results showed that the system is slightly influenced by the drop in the temperature. Decreasing in BOD and COD removal by factor of 9% was observed, when temperature decreases from the average of 35 degrees C in summer time (for the first 127 days) to the average of 22 degrees C in winter time (between day 252 and day 280). Whereas, the TSS removals were not affected by the drop in temperature. The results of the sewage flow variations during one year of operation were compared with Goodrich Formula to see the applicability of this equation in rural developing countries. MAIN FINDING OF THE WORK: The Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor system could become a promising alternative to the conventional treatment plants in rural developing countries.

  1. Evaluation of decentralized treatment of sewage employing Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor (USBR) in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    A new concept for a low-cost modified septic tank, named Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor (USBR), was constructed and tested in a small village in Egypt. During almost one year of continuous operation and monitoring, this system was found to have very satisfactory removal results, where the average results of COD, BOD, and TSS removal efficiencies were 84%, 81%, and 89%, respectively, and the results of the experiment proved that the second compartment (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) was the main treatment unit in removing the pollutants during the start-up period and at the very early steady-state stage. However, after this period and during the steady-state operation conditions, the second compartment served as a polishing step. Also, it was observed that the USBR system was not affected by the imposed shock loads at the peak flow and organic periods. The results showed that the system is slightly influenced by the drop in the temperature. Decreasing in BOD and COD removal by factor of 9% was observed, when temperature decreases from the average of 35 deg. C in summer time (for the first 127 days) to the average of 22 deg. C in winter time (between day 252 and day 280). Whereas, the TSS removals were not affected by the drop in temperature. The results of the sewage flow variations during one year of operation were compared with Goodrich Formula to see the applicability of this equation in rural developing countries. Main finding of the work: The Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor system could become a promising alternative to the conventional treatment plants in rural developing countries.

  2. Evaluation of biological hydrogen sulfide oxidation coupled with two-stage upflow filtration for groundwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Audrey D; Raymer, Blake J; Jahn, Johna

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide in groundwater can be oxidized by aerobic bacteria to form elemental sulfur and biomass. While this treatment approach is effective for conversion of hydrogen sulfide, it is important to have adequate control of the biomass exiting the biological treatment system to prevent release of elemental sulfur into the distribution system. Pilot scale tests were conducted on a Florida groundwater to evaluate the use of two-stage upflow filtration downstream of biological sulfur oxidation. The combined biological and filtration process was capable of excellent removal of hydrogen sulfide and associated turbidity. Additional benefits of this treatment approach include elimination of odor generation, reduction of chlorine demand, and improved stability of the finished water.

  3. BioMagResBank databases DOCR and FRED containing converted and filtered sets of experimental NMR restraints and coordinates from over 500 protein PDB structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doreleijers, Jurgen F. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, BioMagResBank, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Nederveen, Aart J. [Utrecht University, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Vranken, Wim [European Bioinformatics Institute, Macromolecular Structure Database group (United Kingdom); Lin Jundong [University of Wisconsin-Madison, BioMagResBank, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Kaptein, Robert [Utrecht University, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Markley, John L.; Ulrich, Eldon L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, BioMagResBank, Department of Biochemistry (United States)], E-mail: elu@bmrb.wisc.edu

    2005-05-15

    We present two new databases of NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints: the Database Of Converted Restraints (DOCR) and the Filtered Restraints Database (FRED). These databases currently correspond to 545 proteins with NMR structures deposited in the Protein Databank (PDB). The criteria for inclusion were that these should be unique, monomeric proteins with author-provided experimental NMR data and coordinates available from the PDB capable of being parsed and prepared in a consistent manner. The Wattos program was used to parse the files, and the CcpNmr FormatConverter program was used to prepare them semi-automatically. New modules, including a new implementation of Aqua in the BioMagResBank (BMRB) software Wattos were used to analyze the sets of distance restraints (DRs) for inconsistencies, redundancies, NOE completeness, classification and violations with respect to the original coordinates. Restraints that could not be associated with a known nomenclature were flagged. The coordinates of hydrogen atoms were recalculated from the positions of heavy atoms to allow for a full restraint analysis. The DOCR database contains restraint and coordinate data that is made consistent with each other and with IUPAC conventions. The FRED database is based on the DOCR data but is filtered for use by test calculation protocols and longitudinal analyses and validations. These two databases are available from websites of the BMRB and the Macromolecular Structure Database (MSD) in various formats: NMR-STAR, CCPN XML, and in formats suitable for direct use in the software packages CNS and CYANA.

  4. BioMagResBank databases DOCR and FRED containing converted and filtered sets of experimental NMR restraints and coordinates from over 500 protein PDB structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doreleijers, Jurgen F.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Vranken, Wim; Lin Jundong; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Kaptein, Robert; Markley, John L.; Ulrich, Eldon L.

    2005-01-01

    We present two new databases of NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints: the Database Of Converted Restraints (DOCR) and the Filtered Restraints Database (FRED). These databases currently correspond to 545 proteins with NMR structures deposited in the Protein Databank (PDB). The criteria for inclusion were that these should be unique, monomeric proteins with author-provided experimental NMR data and coordinates available from the PDB capable of being parsed and prepared in a consistent manner. The Wattos program was used to parse the files, and the CcpNmr FormatConverter program was used to prepare them semi-automatically. New modules, including a new implementation of Aqua in the BioMagResBank (BMRB) software Wattos were used to analyze the sets of distance restraints (DRs) for inconsistencies, redundancies, NOE completeness, classification and violations with respect to the original coordinates. Restraints that could not be associated with a known nomenclature were flagged. The coordinates of hydrogen atoms were recalculated from the positions of heavy atoms to allow for a full restraint analysis. The DOCR database contains restraint and coordinate data that is made consistent with each other and with IUPAC conventions. The FRED database is based on the DOCR data but is filtered for use by test calculation protocols and longitudinal analyses and validations. These two databases are available from websites of the BMRB and the Macromolecular Structure Database (MSD) in various formats: NMR-STAR, CCPN XML, and in formats suitable for direct use in the software packages CNS and CYANA

  5. A reconfigurable complex band-pass filter with improved passive compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chaojie; Mo Tingting; Chen Dongpo; Zhou Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a 5th-order Chebyshev-I active RC complex filter for multi-mode multi-band global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) RF receivers. An improved passive compensation technique is used to cancel the excess phase lag of the integrators, thus ensuring the in-band flatness of the frequency response over various ambient conditions. The filter has a programmable gain from 0 to 42 dB with a 6 dB step, a tunable center frequency at either 6.4 MHz or 16 MHz, and a bandwidth from 2 to 20 MHz with less than 3% frequency uncertainty. Implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process, the whole filter consumes 7.8 mA from a 1.8 V supply voltage and occupies a die area of 0.4 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. A low-power bio-potential acquisition system with flexible PDMS dry electrodes for portable ubiquitous healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Wei; Lai, Shin-Chi; Chien, Tsung-Fu; Huang, Hong-Yi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2013-03-04

    This work describes a bio-potential acquisition system for portable ubiquitous healthcare applications using flexible polydimethylsiloxane dry electrodes (FPDEs) and a low-power recording circuit. This novel FPDE used Au as the skin contact layer, which was made using a CO2 laser and replica method technology. The FPDE was revised from a commercial bio-potential electrode with a conductive snap using dry electrodes rather than wet electrodes that proposed reliable and robust attachment for the purpose of measurement, and attaching velcro made it wearable on the forearm for bio-potential applications. Furthermore, this study proposes a recording device to store bio-potential signal data and provides portability and low-power consumption for the proposed acquisition system. To acquire differential bio-potentials, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, the proposed recording device includes a low-power front-end acquisition chip fabricated using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, a commercial microcontroller (MSP430F149), and a secure digital (SD) card for portable healthcare applications. The proposed system can obtain ECG signals efficiently and are comfortable to the skin. The power consumption of the system is about 85 mW for continuous working over a 3 day period with two AA batteries. It can also be used as a compact Holter ECG system.

  7. BIOS Security Analysis and a Kind of Trusted BIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenliu; Xu, Rongsheng

    The BIOS's security threats to computer system are analyzed and security requirements for firmware BIOS are summarized in this paper. Through discussion about TCG's trust transitivity, a new approach about CRTM implementation based on BIOS is developed. In this paper, we also put forward a new trusted BIOS architecture-UTBIOS which is built on Intel Framework for EFI/UEFI. The trustworthiness of UTBIOS is based on trusted hardware TPM. In UTBIOS, trust encapsulation and trust measurement are used to construct pre-OS trust chain. Performance of trust measurement is also analyzed in the end.

  8. Tunable Channel Drop Filter in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Modulated by a Nematic Liquid Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystals (PCs have many potential applications because of their ability to control light-wave propagation and because PC-based waveguides may be integrated into optical circuits. We propose a novel tunable PC channel drop filter based on nematic liquid crystals and investigate its properties numerically by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. The refractive indices of liquid crystals can be actively modulated after infiltrating nematic liquid crystals into the microcavity in PC waveguides with square lattices. Then we can control light propagation in a PC waveguide. We analyze the Q -factors and resonance frequencies of a tunable PC channel drop filter by considering various indices modulation of liquid crystals. The novel component can be used as wavelength division multiplexing in photonic integrated circuits.

  9. Improved equivalent circuit for twin slot terahertz receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    Series-fed coplanar waveguide embedding circuits are being developed for terahertz mixers using, in particular, submicron-sized superconducting devices, such as hot electron bolometers as the nonlinear element. Although these mixers show promising performance, they usually also show a considerable downward shift in the center frequency, when compared with simulations obtained by using simplified models. This makes it very difficult to design low-noise mixers for a given THz frequency. This shiftis principally caused by parasitics due to the extremely small details (in terms of wavelength) of the device, and by the electrical properties of the RF choke filter in the DC/IF line. In this paper, we present an improved equivalent network model of such mixer circuits which agrees with measured results at THz frequencies and we propose a new set of THz bolometric mixers that have been fabricated and are currently being tested.

  10. Design of low noise class D amplifiers using an integrated filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haishi; Zhang Bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the noise sources in a single-ended class D amplifier (SECDA) and suggests corresponding ways to lower the noise. The total output noise could be expressed as a function of the gain and noises from different sources. According to the function, the bias voltage (V B ) is a primary noise source, especially for a SECDA with a large gain. A low noise SECDA is obtained by integrating a filter into the SECDA to lower the noise of the V B . The filter utilizes an active resister and an 80 pF capacitance to get a 3 Hz pole. A noise test and fast Fourier transform analysis show that the noise performance of this SECDA is the same as that of a SECDA with an external filter. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  12. Synthesis and design of waveguide band-stop filters without out-of-band spurious responses for plasma diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montejo-Garai, Jose R., E-mail: jr@etc.upm.es [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Teoria de Circuitos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 20840 (Spain); Leal-Sevillano, Carlos A. [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Teoria de Circuitos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 20840 (Spain); Ruiz-Cruz, Jorge A. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/Fco. Tomas y Valiente 11, Madrid 28409 (Spain); Rebollar, Jesus M. [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Teoria de Circuitos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 20840 (Spain); Estrada, Teresa [T. Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rigorous systematic design process based on circuit synthesis is proposed for band-stop filters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new compact E-plane waveguide structure reduces drastically the unwanted resonances in a very large pass band. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The manufacturing process together with the computation effort is significantly reduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental results validate the state-of-art electrical responses. - Abstract: Band-stop or notch filters play a crucial role in plasma diagnosis systems to protect receivers from the stray radiation. In this work, a rigorous design process based on circuit synthesis in addition to an extremely compact E-plane waveguide structure is proposed for this kind of filters. On the one hand, the transfer function verifying the rejection specification is analytically obtained, fixing the minimum number of required cavities. On the other hand, a coupling structure that reduces drastically the unwanted resonances in filters with a very large pass band requirement, is presented. This coupling between the rejection cavities and the main rectangular waveguide has additional advantages; (a) unlike typical inductive irises, large coupling coefficients can be implemented (b) a pure E-plane configuration is achieved, which simplifies the manufacturing and also reduces significantly the computational effort. Experimental validation is demonstrated by two pseudo-elliptic fifth-order band-stop filters fabricated and measured in Ka and V bands. In both cases, the filters are free of spurious resonances in their total operation bands.

  13. Synthesis and design of waveguide band-stop filters without out-of-band spurious responses for plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montejo-Garai, José R.; Leal-Sevillano, Carlos A.; Ruiz-Cruz, Jorge A.; Rebollar, Jesús M.; Estrada, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A rigorous systematic design process based on circuit synthesis is proposed for band-stop filters. ► The new compact E-plane waveguide structure reduces drastically the unwanted resonances in a very large pass band. ► The manufacturing process together with the computation effort is significantly reduced. ► Experimental results validate the state-of-art electrical responses. - Abstract: Band-stop or notch filters play a crucial role in plasma diagnosis systems to protect receivers from the stray radiation. In this work, a rigorous design process based on circuit synthesis in addition to an extremely compact E-plane waveguide structure is proposed for this kind of filters. On the one hand, the transfer function verifying the rejection specification is analytically obtained, fixing the minimum number of required cavities. On the other hand, a coupling structure that reduces drastically the unwanted resonances in filters with a very large pass band requirement, is presented. This coupling between the rejection cavities and the main rectangular waveguide has additional advantages; (a) unlike typical inductive irises, large coupling coefficients can be implemented (b) a pure E-plane configuration is achieved, which simplifies the manufacturing and also reduces significantly the computational effort. Experimental validation is demonstrated by two pseudo-elliptic fifth-order band-stop filters fabricated and measured in Ka and V bands. In both cases, the filters are free of spurious resonances in their total operation bands.

  14. Characterising gas behaviour during gas-liquid co-current up-flow in packed beds using magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, James HP; Sederman, Andrew John; Gladden, Lynn Faith; Afeworki, Mobae; Kushnerick, J Douglas; Thomann, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques have been used to study gas phase dynamics during co-current up-flow in a column of inner diameter 43 mm, packed with spherical non-porous elements of diameters of 1.8, 3 and 5 mm. MR measurements of gas hold-up, bubble-size distribution, and bubble-rise velocities were made as a function of flow rate and packing size. Gas and liquid flow rates were studied in the range of 20–250 cm3 s−1 and 0–200 cm3 min−1, respectively. The gas hold-up within the b...

  15. Modeling Adsorption Kinetics (Bio-remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Water)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Chris

    My talk will focus on modeling the kinetics of the adsorption and filtering process using differential equations, stochastic methods, and recursive functions. The models have been developed in support of our interdisciplinary lab group which is conducting research into bio-remediation of heavy metal contaminated water via filtration through biomass such as spent tea leaves. The spent tea leaves are available in large quantities as a result of the industrial production of tea beverages. The heavy metals bond with the surfaces of the tea leaves (adsorption). Funding: CUNY Collaborative Incentive Research Grant.

  16. A low power Gm-C filter with on-chip automatic tuning for a WLAN transceiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Silin; Ma Heping; Shi Yin

    2010-01-01

    A sixth-order Butterworth Gm-C low-pass filter (LPF) with a continuous tuning architecture has been implemented for a wireless LAN (WLAN) transceiver in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. An interior node scaling technique has been applied directly to the LPF to improve the dynamic range and the structure of the LPF has been optimized to reduce both the die size and the current consumption. Measurement results show that the filter has 77.5 dB dynamic range, 16.3 ns group delay variation, better than 3% cutoff frequency accuracy, and 0 dBm passband IIP3. The whole LPF with the tuning circuit dissipates only 1.42 mA (5 MHz cutoff frequency) or 2.81 mA (10 MHz cutoff frequency) from 2.85 V supply voltage, and only occupies 0.175 mm 2 die size. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Adaptive Filtering to Enhance Noise Immunity of Impedance and Admittance Spectroscopy: Comparison with Fourier Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupin, Daniil D.; Koniakhin, Sergei V.; Verlov, Nikolay A.; Dubina, Michael V.

    2017-05-01

    The time-domain technique for impedance spectroscopy consists of computing the excitation voltage and current response Fourier images by fast or discrete Fourier transformation and calculating their relation. Here we propose an alternative method for excitation voltage and current response processing for deriving a system impedance spectrum based on a fast and flexible adaptive filtering method. We show the equivalence between the problem of adaptive filter learning and deriving the system impedance spectrum. To be specific, we express the impedance via the adaptive filter weight coefficients. The noise-canceling property of adaptive filtering is also justified. Using the RLC circuit as a model system, we experimentally show that adaptive filtering yields correct admittance spectra and elements ratings in the high-noise conditions when the Fourier-transform technique fails. Providing the additional sensitivity of impedance spectroscopy, adaptive filtering can be applied to otherwise impossible-to-interpret time-domain impedance data. The advantages of adaptive filtering are justified with practical living-cell impedance measurements.

  18. Ultrahigh-rate supercapacitors based on eletrochemically reduced graphene oxide for ac line-filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Kaixuan; Sun, Yiqing; Li, Chun; Yuan, Wenjing; Shi, Gaoquan

    2012-02-01

    The recent boom in multifunction portable electronic equipments requires the development of compact and miniaturized electronic circuits with high efficiencies, low costs and long lasting time. For the operation of most line-powered electronics, alternating current (ac) line-filters are used to attenuate the leftover ac ripples on direct current (dc) voltage busses. Today, aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely applied for this purpose. However, they are usually the largest components in electronic circuits. Replacing AECs by more compact capacitors will have an immense impact on future electronic devices. Here, we report a double-layer capacitor based on three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating graphene electrodes fabricated by electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (ErGO-DLC). At 120-hertz, the ErGO-DLC exhibited a phase angle of -84 degrees, a specific capacitance of 283 microfaradays per centimeter square and a resistor-capacitor (RC) time constant of 1.35 milliseconds, making it capable of replacing AECs for the application of 120-hertz filtering.

  19. On-chip visual perception of motion: a bio-inspired connectionist model on FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Huitzil, César; Girau, Bernard; Castellanos-Sánchez, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Visual motion provides useful information to understand the dynamics of a scene to allow intelligent systems interact with their environment. Motion computation is usually restricted by real time requirements that need the design and implementation of specific hardware architectures. In this paper, the design of hardware architecture for a bio-inspired neural model for motion estimation is presented. The motion estimation is based on a strongly localized bio-inspired connectionist model with a particular adaptation of spatio-temporal Gabor-like filtering. The architecture is constituted by three main modules that perform spatial, temporal, and excitatory-inhibitory connectionist processing. The biomimetic architecture is modeled, simulated and validated in VHDL. The synthesis results on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device show the potential achievement of real-time performance at an affordable silicon area.

  20. Stochastic simulation and robust design optimization of integrated photonic filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Tsui-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing variations are becoming an unavoidable issue in modern fabrication processes; therefore, it is crucial to be able to include stochastic uncertainties in the design phase. In this paper, integrated photonic coupled ring resonator filters are considered as an example of significant interest. The sparsity structure in photonic circuits is exploited to construct a sparse combined generalized polynomial chaos model, which is then used to analyze related statistics and perform robust design optimization. Simulation results show that the optimized circuits are more robust to fabrication process variations and achieve a reduction of 11%–35% in the mean square errors of the 3 dB bandwidth compared to unoptimized nominal designs.

  1. Assessment of the Biological Treatability of Black Tea Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anaerobic degradability of tea beverage processing effluent was assessed using a stationary upflow anaerobic filter. The filter, with an active column of 1.2m height, inner diameter of 100 mm and filled with rock as the attachment medium was operated at room temperature ranging between 20-250C throughout the ...

  2. Nano-bio-sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This book examines state-of-the-art applications of nano-bio-sensing. It brings together researchers from nano-electronics and bio-technology, providing multidisciplinary content from nano-structures fabrication to bio-sensing applications.

  3. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  4. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  5. Study of bio-oil and bio-char production from algae by slow pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiwong, K.; Kiatsiriroat, T.; Vorayos, N.; Thararax, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was used to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics and essential components of algae. It was found that the temperature for the maximum degradation, 322 °C, is lower than that of other biomass. With our fixed-bed reactor, 125 g of dried Spirulina Sp. algae was fed under a nitrogen atmosphere until the temperature reached a set temperature between 450 and 600 °C. It was found that the suitable temperature to obtain bio-char and bio-oil were at approximately 500 and 550 °C respectively. The bio-oil components were identified by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The saturated functional carbon of the bio-oil was in a range of heavy naphtha, kerosene and diesel oil. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) of bio-oil and bio-char was calculated, and the net energy output was positive. The ECR had an average value of 0.49. -- Highlights: •Bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. •Suitable temperature to obtained bio-oil and bio-char were at about 550 and 500 °C. •Saturated functional carbon of bio-oil was heavy naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil. •ECR had an average value of 0.49

  6. From marine bio-corrosion to new bio-processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergel, A.; Dasilva, S.; Basseguy, R.; Feron, D.; Mollica, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: From the middle of the last century it has been observed that the development of marine bio-films on the surface of stainless steels and different metallic materials induces the ennoblement of their free corrosion potential. A main step in deciphering the mechanisms of aerobic marine bio-corrosion has been achieved around 1976 with the demonstration that the potential ennoblement was due to the modification of the cathodic process. Since this date, the catalysis of oxygen reduction by marine bio-films has been the topic of numerous controversies, but it is now commonly agreed as a basic phenomena in aerobic corrosion. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the fine mechanisms of the bio-film-catalysed reduction of oxygen: intermediate formation of hydrogen peroxide, modification of the oxide layer on the stainless steel surface, involvement of manganese species and manganese oxidising bacteria, catalysis by proteins produced by the micro-organisms... Recent results may confirm the possible involvement of hemic enzymes or proteins. Whatever the mechanisms, very promising results have been obtained with the possible application of bio-film-catalysed oxygen reduction to conceive innovative biofuel cells with stainless steel electrodes. Actually, the catalysis of oxygen reduction is a key step that still drastically hinders the development of economically efficient hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells. The current technology requires high amounts of platinum or platinum-based materials to catalyze oxygen reduction on the cathode of these cells. The prohibitive cost of platinum is a main obstacle to the commercialization of low-cost fuel cells. Unpublished results recently showed that adapting the enzyme-catalysed reaction that was assumed for bio-corrosion on the cathode of hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells may lead to a significant decrease in the charge of platinum. Moreover, it was demonstrated on a laboratory-scale fuel cell pilot that

  7. Controller with an ispLS1016 circuit for the utilization of a TV fifo in spectrometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista Romeu, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.; Toledo Acosta, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    It is described the design of a controller based in the integrated circuit ispLS1016 for the utilization of a 256K x 8 FIFO originally for digital video applications in spectroscopy., Co, Zn, Sn, U and Th (deposited in filter paper) are The design was based upon an integrated circuit of the ispLSI family, which allowed drastically to diminish the quantity of utilized components, to obtain a flexible design in less time and to fulfill other specific requirements for spectroscopy applications

  8. Immobilization patterns and dynamics of acetate-utilizing methanogens in sterile granular sludge from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1999-01-01

    Sterile granular sludge was inoculated with either Methanosarcina mazeii S-6, Methanosaeta concilii GP-6, or both species in acetate-fea upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to investigate the immobilization patterns and dynamics of aceticlastic methanogens in granular sludge. After......, but where the acetate concentration was low this strain was immobilized on support material as single cells or small clumps, The data clearly show that the two aceticlastic methanogens immobilize differently in UASB systems, depending on the conditions found throughout the UASB reactor....

  9. Immobilization patterns and dynamics of acetate-utilizing methanogens immobilized in sterile granular sludge in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1999-01-01

    Sterile granular sludge was inoculated with either Methanosarcina mazeii S-6, Methanosaeta concilii GP-6, or both species in acetate-fea upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to investigate the immobilization patterns and dynamics of aceticlastic methanogens in granular sludge. After......, but where the acetate concentration was low this strain was immobilized on support material as single cells or small clumps, The data clearly show that the two aceticlastic methanogens immobilize differently in UASB systems, depending on the conditions found throughout the UASB reactor....

  10. Improving dynamic performances of PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems via a novel pneumatic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Ali; Najafi, Farid

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of pneumatic circuit design on the input-output behavior of PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems is investigated and their control performances are improved using linear controllers instead of complex and costly nonlinear ones. Generally, servo-pneumatic systems are well known for their nonlinear behavior. However, PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems have the advantage of flexibility in the design of pneumatic circuits which affects the input-output linearity of the whole system. A simple pneumatic circuit with only one fast switching valve is designed which leads to a quasi-linear input-output relation. The quasi-linear behavior of the proposed circuit is verified both experimentally and by simulations. Closed loop position control experiments are then carried out using linear P- and PD-controllers. Since the output position is noisy and cannot be directly differentiated, a Kalman filter is designed to estimate the velocity of the cylinder. Highly improved tracking performances are obtained using these linear controllers, compared to previous works with nonlinear controllers.

  11. Design and implementation of JOM-3 Overhauser magnetometer analog circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jianchang; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Zhou, Tingting

    2017-09-01

    Overhauser magnetometer, a kind of static-magnetic measurement system based on the Overhauser effect, has been widely used in archaeological exploration, mineral resources exploration, oil and gas basin structure detection, prediction of engineering exploration environment, earthquakes and volcanic eruotions, object magnetic measurement and underground buried booty exploration. Overhauser magnetometer plays an important role in the application of magnetic field measurement for its characteristics of small size, low power consumption and high sensitivity. This paper researches the design and the application of the analog circuit of JOM-3 Overhauser magnetometer. First, the Larmor signal output by the probe is very weak. In order to obtain the signal with high signal to noise rstio(SNR), the design of pre-amplifier circuit is the key to improve the quality of the system signal. Second, in this paper, the effectual step which could improve the frequency characters of bandpass filter amplifier circuit were put forward, and theoretical analysis was made for it. Third, the shaping circuit shapes the amplified sine signal into a square wave signal which is suitable for detecting the rising edge. Fourth, this design elaborated the optimized choice of tuning circuit, so the measurement range of the magnetic field can be covered. Last, integrated analog circuit testing system was formed to detect waveform of each module. By calculating the standard deviation, the sensitivity of the improved Overhauser magnetometer is 0.047nT for Earth's magnetic field observation. Experimental results show that the new magnetometer is sensitive to earth field measurement.

  12. Using RBF to Enable Circuit Emulation Service over Internet%采用RBF来支撑互联网络上的电路模拟服务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金涬; 张斌; 赵阳; 王庆波; 陈滢

    2009-01-01

    Circuit Emulation Service(CES)aims to enable packet switched networks to provide guaranteed services with comparable qualities of circuit switched networks.Our paper addresses the key issue of QoS of CES flows over Internet.Enlightened by the time division idea popularly used in circuit switched networks,we propose a time division based control mechanism to provide guaranteed QoS for the constant-rate CES flows.The control mechanism is able to estimate the arrival times of the coming packets in CES flows,and reserve the time slots for them.ACCOrdingly.it enables the packets to consume the reserved time slots of their own,so the CES flows are guaranteed to be processed.Refreshing Bloom Filter(RBF),an efficient data representation structure,is proposed to support the time division control mechanism.It consists of multiple bloom filters,and can efficiently record the arrival time slots of millions of packets.The proposed control system model could be a practical tool to support Circuit Emulation Services over Intemet.

  13. Passive and active elements using fractional Lβ C α circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.

    2011-10-01

    This paper introduces a qualitative revision of the traditional LC tank circuit in the fractional domain. The paper can be divided into six major parts, aiming in turn to establish the various conditions under which L βCα impedance may act as a resistor, negative resistor, or a positive or negative pure imaginary inductor or capacitor, in accordance to new frequency definitions; illustrate the process by which the phase response chooses the shortest path from initial to final phase, and use this illustration to verify the cases discussed in part one; develop the generalized parameters for the bandpass filter response of the L βCα circuit, such as the resonance frequency and quality factor versus α-β plane; discuss sensitivity analyses with respect to the fractional orders, as well as the time domain analyses for the impulse and step responses with their analytical formulas; and lastly, to propose some possible applications for this generalized circuit. Mathematical and PSpice simulation results are included to validate the discussion. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Resonance circuits for adiabatic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlachta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques to reduces the power consumption in digital CMOS circuits is to slow down the charge transport. This slowdown can be achieved by introducing an inductor in the charging path. Additionally, the inductor can act as an energy storage element, conserving the energy that is normally dissipated during discharging. Together with the parasitic capacitances from the circuit a LCresonant circuit is formed.

  15. Converting mesophilic upflow sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to thermophilic by applying axenic methanogenic culture bioaugmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinyu; Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis G.

    2018-01-01

    on the microbial consortium. The adaptation of microbial community to a new environment or condition can be accelerated by a process known as “bioaugmentation” or “microbial community manipulation”, during which exogenous microorganisms harbouring specific metabolic activities are introduced to the reactor....... The aim of the current study was to rapidly convert the operational temperature of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions by applying microbial community manipulation techniques. Three different bioaugmentation strategies were compared and it was proven...... that the injection of axenic methanogenic culture was the most efficient approach leading to improved biomethanation process with 40% higher methane production rate compared to the control reactor. Microbial community analyses revealed that during bioaugmentation, the exogenous hydrogenotrophic methanogen could...

  16. A numerical design approach for single amplifier, Active-RC Butterworth filter of order 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2007-01-01

    filter applying just one operational amplifier coupled as a unity gain amplifier. It is shown that the influence from the real operational amplifier may be reduced by trimming just one resistor in the circuit. The unity gain amplifiers have the advantage of providing low power consumption, yielding...

  17. A Simple Differential Mode EMI Suppressor for the LLCL-Filter-Based Single-Phase Grid-Tied Transformerless Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Junhao; Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin

    2015-01-01

    The single-phase power converter topologies evolving of photovoltaic applications are still including passive filters, like the LCLor LLCL-filter. Compared with the LCL-filter, the total inductance of the LLCL-filter can be reduced a lot. However, due to the resonant inductor in series...... with the bypass capacitor, the differential mode (DM) electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise attenuation of an LLCL-filter-based grid-tied inverter declines. Conventionally, a capacitor was inserted in parallel with the LC resonant circuit branch of the LLCL-filter to suppress the DM EMI noise. In order...... to achieve a small value of capacitor as well as to minimize the additional reactive power, a novel simple DM EMI suppressor for the LLCL-filter-based system is proposed. The characters of two kinds of DM EMI suppressor are analyzed and compared in detail. Simulations and experiments on a 0.5-kW 110-V/50-Hz...

  18. The principle of elaboration of the relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of high voltage electrical line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiorsak M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the elaboration of the principle of relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of higher voltage electrical line with self-compensation, based on the six phase’s symmetrical components. It is shown that the unsymmetrical short circuits between the closely placed phases are characterized by appearance of zero and tertiary sequences of symmetrical components. This fact can be used to choose them for relay protection. The electrical basic circuits and formulas for calculation of the passive parameters of zero and tertiary filters of currents (voltages are done. It is presented the structural-functional basic circuit scheme for relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of higher voltage electrical line with self-compensation.

  19. Plasma upflows and microwave emission in hot supra-arcade structure associated with AN M1.6 limb flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Shibasaki, K.; Bain, H.-M.; Cho, K.-S.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated a supra-arcade structure associated with an M1.6 flare, which occurred on the south-east limb on 2010 November 4. It is observed in EUV with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, microwaves at 17 and 34 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and soft X-rays of 8-20 keV with RHESSI. Interestingly, we found exceptional properties of the supra-arcade thermal plasma from the AIA 131 Å and the NoRH: (1) plasma upflows along large coronal loops and (2) enhancing microwave emission. RHESSI detected two soft X-ray sources, a broad one in the middle of the supra-arcade structure and a bright one just above the flare-arcade. We estimated the number density and thermal energy for these two source regions during the decay phase of the flare. In the supra-arcade source, we found that there were increases of the thermal energy and the density at the early and last stages, respectively. On the contrary, the density and thermal energy of the source on the top of the flare-arcade decreases throughout. The observed upflows imply that there is continuous energy supply into the supra-arcade structure from below during the decay phase of the flare. It is hard to explain by the standard flare model in which the energy release site is located high in the corona. Thus, we suggest that a potential candidate of the energy source for the hot supra-arcade structure is the flare-arcade, which has exhibited a predominant emission throughout.

  20. Numerical investigation of a tunable band-pass plasmonic filter with a hollow-core ring resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setayesh, Amir; Mirnaziry, S Reza; Abrishamian, Mohammad Sadegh

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a compact nanoscale plasmonic filter which consists of two metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguides coupled to each other by a rectangular ring resonator is presented and investigated numerically. The propagating modes of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are studied in this structure. By replacing a portion of the ring core with air, while the outer dimensions of the structure are kept constant, we illustrate the possibility of the redshift of resonant wavelengths in order to tune the resonance modes. This feature is useful for integrated circuits in which we have limitations on the outer dimensions of the filter structure and it is not possible to enlarge the dimension of the ring resonator to reach longer resonant wavelengths. The corresponding results are illustrated by the 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structure has potential applications in plasmonic integrated circuits and can be simply fabricated

  1. Numerical investigation of a tunable band-pass plasmonic filter with a hollow-core ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayesh, Amir; Mirnaziry, S. Reza; Sadegh Abrishamian, Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    In this study, a compact nanoscale plasmonic filter which consists of two metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides coupled to each other by a rectangular ring resonator is presented and investigated numerically. The propagating modes of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are studied in this structure. By replacing a portion of the ring core with air, while the outer dimensions of the structure are kept constant, we illustrate the possibility of the redshift of resonant wavelengths in order to tune the resonance modes. This feature is useful for integrated circuits in which we have limitations on the outer dimensions of the filter structure and it is not possible to enlarge the dimension of the ring resonator to reach longer resonant wavelengths. The corresponding results are illustrated by the 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structure has potential applications in plasmonic integrated circuits and can be simply fabricated.

  2. A low power Gm-C filter with on-chip automatic tuning for a WLAN transceiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Silin; Ma Heping; Shi Yin, E-mail: slliu@semi.ac.c [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A sixth-order Butterworth Gm-C low-pass filter (LPF) with a continuous tuning architecture has been implemented for a wireless LAN (WLAN) transceiver in 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology. An interior node scaling technique has been applied directly to the LPF to improve the dynamic range and the structure of the LPF has been optimized to reduce both the die size and the current consumption. Measurement results show that the filter has 77.5 dB dynamic range, 16.3 ns group delay variation, better than 3% cutoff frequency accuracy, and 0 dBm passband IIP3. The whole LPF with the tuning circuit dissipates only 1.42 mA (5 MHz cutoff frequency) or 2.81 mA (10 MHz cutoff frequency) from 2.85 V supply voltage, and only occupies 0.175 mm{sup 2} die size. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Software filtering method to suppress spike pulse interference in multi-channel scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shun; Zhao Xiuliang; Li Zhiqiang; Zhao Yanhui

    2008-01-01

    In the test on anti-jamming function of a multi-channel scaler, we found that the spike pulse interference on the second level counter caused by the motor start-stop operations brings a major count error. There are resolvable characteristics between effective signal and spike pulse interference, and multi-channel hardware filtering circuit is too huge and can't filter thoroughly, therefore we designed a software filtering method. In this method based on C8051F020 MCU, we dynamically store sampling values of one channel in only a one-byte variable and distinguish the rise-trail edge of a signal and spike pulse interference because of value changes of the variable. Test showed that the filtering software method can solve the error counting problem of the multi-channel scaler caused by the motor start-stop operations. The flow chart and source codes of the method were detailed in this paper. (authors)

  4. Amadurecimento de filtros lentos de areia e remoção de microrganismos indicadores de qualidade da água ao longo da profundidade do leito: uma avaliação em instalação piloto Maturation of slow sand filters and removal of microorganisms' indicators of water quality along the media depth: an evaluation in pilot plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Ladeira Alves de Brito

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O potencial da filtração lenta como opção tecnológica para o tratamento de água nos países em desenvolvimento e sua capacidade de remoção de contaminantes, sobretudo patogênicos, são reconhecidos. Contudo, ainda permanece incompleto o conhecimento acerca dos mecanismos que predominantemente atuam na remoção dos microrganismos. Objetivando avançar nessa compreensão, desenvolveu-se uma investigação experimental, em unidades piloto, em filtros lentos de areia com escoamento descendente e ascendente, operados com água sintética e duas taxas de filtração (3 e 6m³/m2.d. A retenção dos microrganismos indicadores foi avaliada em cinco camadas, com 0,15 m de espessura cada, em dois momentos da carreira. A maturidade biológica do leito filtrante foi menos favorecida pela taxa mais alta de filtração e pelo fluxo ascendente. Os 0,45 m iniciais do leito filtrante foram importantes na remoção de microrganismos sob as condições estudadas, mas a remoção não se restringiu a estas camadas, tendo sido observada para todos os indicadores retenção nas camadas de 0,45-0,60 m e de 0,60-0,75 m. A schmutzdecke parece desempenhar papel efetivo na remoção de indicadores microbiológicos apenas quando bem desenvolvida. Há uma indicação de que a camada suporte exerce algum papel na retenção de sólidos e microrganismos no fluxo ascendente.The potential of the slow sand filtration as technological option for drinking-water treatment in developing countries and its capacity of contaminants removal, mainly pathogens, are recognized.However, the knowledge concerning the predominant mechanisms that act in microorganism's removal still remains incomplete. Aiming to advance in the understanding of these themes, an experimental investigation was carried out, working with pilot plants of downflow and upflow slow sand filters, operated with synthetic water and two filtration rates (3 and 6 m³/m².d. The microorganisms indicators removal was

  5. Project Circuits in a Basic Electric Circuits Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, James P.; Plumb, Carolyn; Revia, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of project circuits (a photoplethysmograph circuit and a simple audio amplifier), introduced in a sophomore-level electric circuits course utilizing active learning and inquiry-based methods, is described. The development of the project circuits was initiated to promote enhanced engagement and deeper understanding of course content among…

  6. STATE ESTIMATION IN ALCOHOLIC CONTINUOUS FERMENTATION OF ZYMOMONAS MOBILIS USING RECURSIVE BAYESIAN FILTERING: A SIMULATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucia Quintero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a state estimator for a continuous bioprocess. To this aim, the Non Linear Filtering theory based on the recursive application of Bayes rule and Monte Carlo techniques is used. Recursive Bayesian Filters Sampling Importance Resampling (SIR is employed, including different kinds of resampling. Generally, bio-processes have strong non-linear and non-Gaussian characteristics, and this tool becomes attractive. The estimator behavior and performance are illustrated with the continuous process of alcoholic fermentation of Zymomonas mobilis. Not too many applications with this tool have been reported in the biotechnological area.

  7. Design and Analysis of a Triple Stop-band Filter Using Ratioed Periodical Defected Microstrip Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Yingsong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a triple stop-band filter with a ratioed periodical defected microstrip structure is proposed for wireless communication applications. The proposed ratioed periodical defected microstrip structures are spiral slots, which are embedded into a 50 Ω microstrip line to obtain multiple stop-bands. The performance of the proposed triple stop-band filter is investigated numerically and experimentally. Moreover, the equivalent circuit model of the proposed filter is also established and discussed. The results are given to verify that the proposed triple stop-band filter has three stop bands at 3.3 GHz, 5.2 GHz, 6.8 GHz to reject the unwanted signals, which is promising for integrating into UWB communication systems to efficiently prevent the potential interferences from unexpected narrowband signals such as WiMAX, WLAN and RFID communication systems.

  8. Design of CMOS analog integrated fractional-order circuits applications in medicine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsirimokou, Georgia; Elwakil, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design and realization of analog fractional-order circuits, which are suitable for on-chip implementation, capable of low-voltage operation and electronic adjustment of their characteristics. The authors provide a brief introduction to fractional-order calculus, followed by design issues for fractional-order circuits of various orders and types. The benefits of this approach are demonstrated with current-mode and voltage-mode filter designs. Electronically tunable emulators of fractional-order capacitors and inductors are presented, where the behavior of the corresponding chips fabricated using the AMS 0.35um CMOS process has been experimentally verified. Applications of fractional-order circuits are demonstrated, including a pre-processing stage suitable for the implementation of the Pan-Tompkins algorithm for detecting the QRS complexes of an electrocardiogram (ECG), a fully tunable implementation of the Cole-Cole model used for the modeling of biological tissues, and a simple, non-i...

  9. Three-Input Single-Output Voltage-Mode Multifunction Filter with Electronic Controllability Based on Single Commercially Available IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Klungtong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a second-order voltage-mode filter with three inputs and single-output voltage using single commercially available IC, one resistor, and two capacitors. The used commercially available IC, called LT1228, is manufactured by Linear Technology Corporation. The proposed filter is based on parallel RLC circuit. The filter provides five output filter responses, namely, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, and all-pass (AP functions. The selection of each filter response can be done without the requirement of active and passive component matching condition. Furthermore, the natural frequency and quality factor are electronically controlled. Besides, the nonideal case is also investigated. The output voltage node exhibits low impedance. The experimental results can validate the theoretical analyses.

  10. Comparative techno-economic analysis of biohydrogen production via bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanan; Brown, Tristan R.; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of biohydrogen production via two bio-oil processing pathways: bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming. Both pathways employ fast pyrolysis to produce bio-oil from biomass stock. The two pathways are modeled using Aspen Plus ® for a 2000 t d −1 facility. Equipment sizing and cost calculations are based on Aspen Economic Evaluation® software. Biohydrogen production capacity at the facility is 147 t d −1 for the bio-oil gasification pathway and 160 t d −1 for the bio-oil reforming pathway. The biomass-to-fuel energy efficiencies are 47% and 84% for the bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming pathways, respectively. Total capital investment (TCI) is 435 million dollars for the bio-oil gasification pathway and is 333 million dollars for the bio-oil reforming pathway. Internal rates of return (IRR) are 8.4% and 18.6% for facilities employing the bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming pathways, respectively. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that biohydrogen price, biohydrogen yield, fixed capital investment (FCI), bio-oil yield, and biomass cost have the greatest impacts on facility IRR. Monte-Carlo analysis shows that bio-oil reforming is more economically attractive than bio-oil gasification for biohydrogen production. -- Highlights: ► Biohydrogen production via bio-oil reforming has higher energy efficiency compared to gasification. ► Hydrogen price, fixed capital cost, and feedstock cost most strongly affect IRR. ► Lower risk investment is biohydrogen production via bio-oil reforming

  11. Design, Simulation and Characteristics Research of the Interface Circuit based on nano-polysilicon thin films pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaosong; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Yin, Liang

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a interface circuit for nano-polysilicon thin films pressure sensor. The interface circuit includes consist of instrument amplifier and Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC). The instrumentation amplifier with a high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) is implemented by three stages current feedback structure. At the same time, in order to satisfy the high precision requirements of pressure sensor measure system, the 1/f noise corner of 26.5 mHz can be achieved through chopping technology at a noise density of 38.2 nV/sqrt(Hz).Ripple introduced by chopping technology adopt continuous ripple reduce circuit (RRL), which achieves the output ripple level is lower than noise. The ADC achieves 16 bits significant digit by adopting sigma-delta modulator with fourth-order single-bit structure and digital decimation filter, and finally achieves high precision integrated pressure sensor interface circuit.

  12. D-Amino acid oxidase bio-functionalized platforms: Toward an enhanced enzymatic bio-activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Elisa; Valdez Taubas, Javier; Giacomelli, Carla E.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the adsorption process and surface bio-activity of His-tagged D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) from Rhodotorula gracilis (His6-RgDAAO) as the first step for the development of an electrochemical bio-functionalized platform. With such a purpose this work comprises: (a) the His6-RgDAAO bio-activity in solution determined by amperometry, (b) the adsorption mechanism of His6-RgDAAO on bare gold and carboxylated modified substrates in the absence (substrate/COO-) and presence of Ni(II) (substrate/COO- + Ni(II)) determined by reflectometry, and (c) the bio-activity of the His6-RgDAAO bio-functionalized platforms determined by amperometry. Comparing the adsorption behavior and bio-activity of His6-RgDAAO on these different solid substrates allows understanding the contribution of the diverse interactions responsible for the platform performance. His6-RgDAAO enzymatic performance in solution is highly improved when compared to the previously used pig kidney (pk) DAAO. His6-RgDAAO exhibits an amperometrically detectable bio-activity at concentrations as low as those expected on a bio-functional platform; hence, it is a viable bio-recognition element of D-amino acids to be coupled to electrochemical platforms. Moreover, His6-RgDAAO bio-functionalized platforms exhibit a higher surface activity than pkDAAO physically adsorbed on gold. The platform built on Ni(II) modified substrates present enhanced bio-activity because the surface complexes histidine-Ni(II) provide with site-oriented, native-like enzymes. The adsorption mechanism responsible of the excellent performance of the bio-functionalized platform takes place in two steps involving electrostatic and bio-affinity interactions whose prevalence depends on the degree of surface coverage.

  13. Performance prediction for silicon photonics integrated circuits with layout-dependent correlated manufacturing variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zeqin; Jhoja, Jaspreet; Klein, Jackson; Wang, Xu; Liu, Amy; Flueckiger, Jonas; Pond, James; Chrostowski, Lukas

    2017-05-01

    This work develops an enhanced Monte Carlo (MC) simulation methodology to predict the impacts of layout-dependent correlated manufacturing variations on the performance of photonics integrated circuits (PICs). First, to enable such performance prediction, we demonstrate a simple method with sub-nanometer accuracy to characterize photonics manufacturing variations, where the width and height for a fabricated waveguide can be extracted from the spectral response of a racetrack resonator. By measuring the spectral responses for a large number of identical resonators spread over a wafer, statistical results for the variations of waveguide width and height can be obtained. Second, we develop models for the layout-dependent enhanced MC simulation. Our models use netlist extraction to transfer physical layouts into circuit simulators. Spatially correlated physical variations across the PICs are simulated on a discrete grid and are mapped to each circuit component, so that the performance for each component can be updated according to its obtained variations, and therefore, circuit simulations take the correlated variations between components into account. The simulation flow and theoretical models for our layout-dependent enhanced MC simulation are detailed in this paper. As examples, several ring-resonator filter circuits are studied using the developed enhanced MC simulation, and statistical results from the simulations can predict both common-mode and differential-mode variations of the circuit performance.

  14. Effects of hydrogen and formate on the degradation of propionate and butyrate in thermophilic granules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, J E; Ahring, B K

    1993-01-01

    Degradation of propionate and butyrate in whole and disintegrated granules from a thermophilic (55 degrees C) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor fed with acetate, propionate, and butyrate as substrates was examined. The propionate and butyrate degradation rates in whole granules were 1.16 and 4.0 mumol/min/g of volatile solids, respectively, and the rates decreased 35 and 25%, respectively, after disintegration of the granules. The effect of adding different hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (...

  15. Graphene double-layer capacitor with ac line-filtering performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John R; Outlaw, R A; Holloway, B C

    2010-09-24

    Electric double-layer capacitors (DLCs) can have high storage capacity, but their porous electrodes cause them to perform like resistors in filter circuits that remove ripple from rectified direct current. We have demonstrated efficient filtering of 120-hertz current with DLCs with electrodes made from vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown directly on metal current collectors. This design minimized electronic and ionic resistances and produced capacitors with RC time constants of less than 200 microseconds, in contrast with ~1 second for typical DLCs. Graphene nanosheets have a preponderance of exposed edge planes that greatly increases charge storage as compared with that of designs that rely on basal plane surfaces. Capacitors constructed with these electrodes could be smaller than the low-voltage aluminum electrolyte capacitors that are typically used in electronic devices.

  16. Graphene Double-Layer Capacitor with ac Line-Filtering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John R.; Outlaw, R. A.; Holloway, B. C.

    2010-09-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (DLCs) can have high storage capacity, but their porous electrodes cause them to perform like resistors in filter circuits that remove ripple from rectified direct current. We have demonstrated efficient filtering of 120-hertz current with DLCs with electrodes made from vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown directly on metal current collectors. This design minimized electronic and ionic resistances and produced capacitors with RC time constants of less than 200 microseconds, in contrast with ~1 second for typical DLCs. Graphene nanosheets have a preponderance of exposed edge planes that greatly increases charge storage as compared with that of designs that rely on basal plane surfaces. Capacitors constructed with these electrodes could be smaller than the low-voltage aluminum electrolyte capacitors that are typically used in electronic devices.

  17. tmBioC: improving interoperability of text-mining tools with BioC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ritu; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Mao, Yuqing; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The lack of interoperability among biomedical text-mining tools is a major bottleneck in creating more complex applications. Despite the availability of numerous methods and techniques for various text-mining tasks, combining different tools requires substantial efforts and time owing to heterogeneity and variety in data formats. In response, BioC is a recent proposal that offers a minimalistic approach to tool interoperability by stipulating minimal changes to existing tools and applications. BioC is a family of XML formats that define how to present text documents and annotations, and also provides easy-to-use functions to read/write documents in the BioC format. In this study, we introduce our text-mining toolkit, which is designed to perform several challenging and significant tasks in the biomedical domain, and repackage the toolkit into BioC to enhance its interoperability. Our toolkit consists of six state-of-the-art tools for named-entity recognition, normalization and annotation (PubTator) of genes (GenNorm), diseases (DNorm), mutations (tmVar), species (SR4GN) and chemicals (tmChem). Although developed within the same group, each tool is designed to process input articles and output annotations in a different format. We modify these tools and enable them to read/write data in the proposed BioC format. We find that, using the BioC family of formats and functions, only minimal changes were required to build the newer versions of the tools. The resulting BioC wrapped toolkit, which we have named tmBioC, consists of our tools in BioC, an annotated full-text corpus in BioC, and a format detection and conversion tool. Furthermore, through participation in the 2013 BioCreative IV Interoperability Track, we empirically demonstrate that the tools in tmBioC can be more efficiently integrated with each other as well as with external tools: Our experimental results show that using BioC reduces >60% in lines of code for text-mining tool integration. The tmBioC toolkit

  18. Bacterial community involved in the nitrogen cycle in a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating UASB effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Conell, E F A; Almeida, P G S; Martins, K E L; Araújo, J C; Chernicharo, C A L

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition of a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent was investigated by pyrosequencing. Bacterial community composition considerably changed along the reactor and over the operational period. The dominant phyla detected were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes. The abundance of denitrifiers decreased from the top to the bottom and it was consistent with the organic matter concentration gradients. At lower loadings (organic and nitrogen loading rates), the abundance of anammox bacteria was higher than that of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the upper portion of the reactor, suggesting that aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation occurred. Nitrification occurred in all the compartments, while anammox bacteria prominently appeared even in the presence of high organic carbon to ammonia ratios (around 1.0-2.0 gCOD gN(-1)). The results suggest that denitrifiers, nitrifiers, and anammox bacteria coexisted in the reactor; thus, different metabolic pathways were involved in ammonium removal in the post-UASB reactor sponge-based.

  19. Silicon photonic integrated circuits with electrically programmable non-volatile memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J-F; Lim, A E-J; Luo, X-S; Fang, Q; Li, C; Jia, L X; Tu, X-G; Huang, Y; Zhou, H-F; Liow, T-Y; Lo, G-Q

    2016-09-19

    Conventional silicon photonic integrated circuits do not normally possess memory functions, which require on-chip power in order to maintain circuit states in tuned or field-configured switching routes. In this context, we present an electrically programmable add/drop microring resonator with a wavelength shift of 426 pm between the ON/OFF states. Electrical pulses are used to control the choice of the state. Our experimental results show a wavelength shift of 2.8 pm/ms and a light intensity variation of ~0.12 dB/ms for a fixed wavelength in the OFF state. Theoretically, our device can accommodate up to 65 states of multi-level memory functions. Such memory functions can be integrated into wavelength division mutiplexing (WDM) filters and applied to optical routers and computing architectures fulfilling large data downloading demands.

  20. Design of adaptive filter amplifier in UV communication based on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhaoshun; Wu, Hanping; Li, Junyu

    2016-10-01

    According to the problem of the weak signal at receiving end in UV communication, we design a high gain, continuously adjustable adaptive filter amplifier. Based on proposing overall technical indicators and analyzing its working principle of the signal amplifier, we use chip LMH6629MF and two chips of AD797BN to achieve three-level cascade amplification. And apply hardware of DSP TMS320VC5509A to implement digital filtering. Design and verification by Multisim, Protel 99SE and CCS, the results show that: the amplifier can realize continuously adjustable amplification from 1000 to 10000 times without distortion. Magnification error is <=%4@1000 10000. And equivalent input noise voltage of amplification circuit is <=6 nV/ √Hz @30KHz 45KHz, and realizing function of adaptive filtering. The design provides theoretical reference and technical support for the UV weak signal processing.

  1. Economical Implementation of a Filter Engine in an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, James E.

    2009-01-01

    advantageous to combine compact FPGA digital filter implementations with other application-specific logic implementations on single integrated-circuit chips. An FPGA could readily be tailored to implement a variety of filters because the filter coefficients would be loaded into memory at startup.

  2. Design on Hygrometry System of Primary Coolant Circuit of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yanfei; Zhong Shuoping; Huang Xiaojin

    2014-01-01

    Helium is the primary coolant in HTR-PM. If vapor get into the helium in primary coolant circuit because of some special reasons, such as the broken of steam-generator tube, chemical reaction will take effect between the graphite in reactor core and vapor in primary coolant circuit, and the safety of the reactor operation will be influenced. So the humidity of the helium in primary coolant circuit is one key parameter of HTR-PM to be monitored in-line. Once the humidity is too high, trigger signal of turning off the reactor must be issued. The hygrometry system of HTR-PM is consisting of filter, cooler, hygrometry sensor, flow meter, and some valves and tube. Helium with temperature of 250℃ is lead into the hygrometry system from the outlet of the main helium blower. After measuring, the helium is re-injected back to the primary circuit. No helium loses in this processing, and no other pump is needed. Key factors and calculations in design on hygrometry system of HTR-PM are described. A sample instrument has been made. Results of experiments proves that this hygrometry system is suitable for monitoring the humidity of the primary coolant of HTR-PM. (author)

  3. Steady State Analysis of LCLC Resonant Converter with Capacitive Output Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Shafiyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical analysis and modeling of a 4th order LCLC resonant converter with capacitive output filter in steady-state condition. Due to the nonlinearity of the LCLC resonant circuit with capacitive output filter, the conventional modeling procedure cannot thoroughly describe the behavior of the converter. In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed that can accommodate the absence of the output inductor and predict the converter performance for a wide range of operating conditions. A 2.25KW prototype converter is provided to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed model. Experimental results show that the proposed model can precisely predict the behavior of the converter for a wide range of operating conditions.

  4. An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter with on-chip charge pump auto-tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fangxiong; Ma Heping; Jia Hailong; Shi Yin; Lin Min; Dai, Forster

    2009-01-01

    An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter (BPF) with on chip charge pump auto-tuning is presented. It is implemented in UMC (United Manufacturing Corporation) 0.18 μm CMOS process technology. The filter system with auto-tuning uses a master-slave technique for continuous tuning in which the charge pump outputs 2.663 V, much higher than the power supply voltage, to improve the linearity of the filter. The main filter with third order low-pass and second order high-pass properties is an asymmetric band-pass filter with bandwidth of 2.730-5.340 MHz. The in-band third order harmonic input intercept point (IIP3) is 16.621 dBm, with 50 Ω as the source impedance. The input referred noise is about 47.455 μV rms . The main filter dissipates 3.528 mW while the auto-tuning system dissipates 2.412 mW from a 1.8 V power supply. The filter with the auto-tuning system occupies 0.592 mm 2 and it can be utilized in GPS (global positioning system) and Bluetooth systems. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter with on-chip charge pump auto-tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Fangxiong; Ma Heping; Jia Hailong; Shi Yin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin Min [Suzhou-CAS Semiconductors Integrated Technology Research Center, Suzhou 215021 (China); Dai, Forster, E-mail: fxchen@semi.ac.c [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter (BPF) with on chip charge pump auto-tuning is presented. It is implemented in UMC (United Manufacturing Corporation) 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process technology. The filter system with auto-tuning uses a master-slave technique for continuous tuning in which the charge pump outputs 2.663 V, much higher than the power supply voltage, to improve the linearity of the filter. The main filter with third order low-pass and second order high-pass properties is an asymmetric band-pass filter with bandwidth of 2.730-5.340 MHz. The in-band third order harmonic input intercept point (IIP3) is 16.621 dBm, with 50 {Omega} as the source impedance. The input referred noise is about 47.455 {mu}V{sub rms}. The main filter dissipates 3.528 mW while the auto-tuning system dissipates 2.412 mW from a 1.8 V power supply. The filter with the auto-tuning system occupies 0.592 mm{sup 2} and it can be utilized in GPS (global positioning system) and Bluetooth systems. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. Investigation of Optimal Integrated Circuit Raster Image Vectorization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Jasevičius

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual analysis of integrated circuit layer requires raster image vectorization stage to extract layer topology data to CAD tools. In this paper vectorization problems of raster IC layer images are presented. Various line extraction from raster images algorithms and their properties are discussed. Optimal raster image vectorization method was developed which allows utilization of common vectorization algorithms to achieve the best possible extracted vector data match with perfect manual vectorization results. To develop the optimal method, vectorized data quality dependence on initial raster image skeleton filter selection was assessed.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Electronic circuits, systems and standards the best of EDN

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Circuits, Systems and Standards: The Best of EDN is a collection of 66 EDN articles. The topics covered in this collection are diverse but all are relevant to controlled circulation electronics. The coverage of the text includes topics about software and algorithms, such as simple random number algorithm; simple log algorithm; and efficient algorithm for repeated FFTs. The book also tackles measurement related topics, including test for identifying a Gaussian noise source; enhancing product reliability; and amplitude-locked loop speeds filter test. The text will be useful to student

  8. Analysis of piezoelectric energy harvester under modulated and filtered white Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Giuseppe; Trentadue, Francesco; Maruccio, Claudio; Marano, Giuseppe C.

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive method for the electromechanical probabilistic analysis of piezoelectric energy harvesters subjected to modulated and filtered white Gaussian noise (WGN) at the base. Specifically, the dynamic excitation is simulated by means of an amplitude-modulated WGN, which is filtered through the Clough-Penzien filter. The considered piezoelectric harvester is a cantilever bimorph modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beam with a concentrated mass at the free-end, and its global behavior is approximated by the fundamental vibration mode (which is tuned with the dominant frequency of the dynamic input). A resistive electrical load is considered in the circuit. Once the Lyapunov equation of the coupled electromechanical problem has been formulated, an original and efficient semi-analytical procedure is proposed to estimate mean and standard deviation of the electrical energy extracted from the piezoelectric layers.

  9. Electromagnetic design methods in systems-on-chip: integrated filters for wireless CMOS RFICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contopanagos, Harry

    2005-01-01

    We present general methods for designing on-chip CMOS passives and utilizing these integrated elements to design on-chip CMOS filters for wireless communications. These methods rely on full-wave electromagnetic numerical calculations that capture all the physics of the underlying foundry technologies. This is especially crucial for deep sub-micron CMOS technologies as it is important to capture the physical effects of finite (and mediocre) Q-factors limited by material losses and constraints on expensive die area, low self-resonance frequencies and dual parasitics that are particularly prevalent in deep sub-micron CMOS processes (65 nm-0.18 μm. We use these integrated elements in an ideal synthesis of a Bluetooth/WLAN pass-band filter in single-ended or differential architectures, and show the significant deviations of the on-chip filter response from the ideal one. We identify which elements in the filter circuit need to maximize their Q-factors and which Q-factors do not affect the filter performance. This saves die area, and predicts the FET parameters (especially transconductances) and negative-resistance FET topologies that have to be integrated in the filter to restore its performance. (invited paper)

  10. Electromagnetic design methods in systems-on-chip: integrated filters for wireless CMOS RFICs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contopanagos, Harry [Institute for Microelectronics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , PO Box 60228, GR-153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

    2005-01-01

    We present general methods for designing on-chip CMOS passives and utilizing these integrated elements to design on-chip CMOS filters for wireless communications. These methods rely on full-wave electromagnetic numerical calculations that capture all the physics of the underlying foundry technologies. This is especially crucial for deep sub-micron CMOS technologies as it is important to capture the physical effects of finite (and mediocre) Q-factors limited by material losses and constraints on expensive die area, low self-resonance frequencies and dual parasitics that are particularly prevalent in deep sub-micron CMOS processes (65 nm-0.18 {mu}m. We use these integrated elements in an ideal synthesis of a Bluetooth/WLAN pass-band filter in single-ended or differential architectures, and show the significant deviations of the on-chip filter response from the ideal one. We identify which elements in the filter circuit need to maximize their Q-factors and which Q-factors do not affect the filter performance. This saves die area, and predicts the FET parameters (especially transconductances) and negative-resistance FET topologies that have to be integrated in the filter to restore its performance. (invited paper)

  11. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  12. Autotrophic denitrification of synthetic nitrate-contaminated groundwater in up-flow fixed-bed bioreactor by pumice as porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Tourang1

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Increasing nitrate concentrations in groundwater resources is considered a common environmental and public health problem worldwide. In this research, an autotrophic up-flow bioreactor with pumice as media was used to study the effects of the sulfur-to-nitrogen (S/N ratio and empty bed contact time (EBCT on nitrate removal efficiency and byproducts. Methods: Experiments were carried out in a 3.47 L up-flow, fixed-bed reactor with 3 sampling ports. To evaluate the overall impact of S/N ratio and EBCT on the performance of the bioreactor, several phases with different S/N ratios and EBCTs were applied. Results: At a constant S/N ratio of 3.85 g/g, as EBCT decreased from 24 hours to 2 hours, the nitrate removal efficiency decreased from 98% to 64%. On the other hand, at the desired EBCT of 4 hr, as S/N ratio decreased from 3.85 to 1.51 g/g, nitrate removal efficiency was reduced from 85% to 32%. Changing the EBCT and S/N ratio also affected the effluent nitrite and sulfate concentrations as byproducts. At the S/N ratio of 3.85 g/g and EBCT of 24 hours, effluent nitrite and sulfate concentrations were 0.1 mg NO2--N/L and 463 mg SO4 2-/L, respectively. Decreasing the S/N ratio to 1.51 g/g and the EBCT to 4 hours caused drastic changes in effluent nitrite and sulfate concentrations. Conclusion: The results indicated that the autotrophic denitrification with thiosulfate as electron donor and pumice as media was feasible and applicable for nitrate contaminated groundwater.

  13. Combinatorial Nano-Bio Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pingqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Ming; Wu, Yun-Long; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-06-08

    Nano-bio interfaces are emerging from the convergence of engineered nanomaterials and biological entities. Despite rapid growth, clinical translation of biomedical nanomaterials is heavily compromised by the lack of comprehensive understanding of biophysicochemical interactions at nano-bio interfaces. In the past decade, a few investigations have adopted a combinatorial approach toward decoding nano-bio interfaces. Combinatorial nano-bio interfaces comprise the design of nanocombinatorial libraries and high-throughput bioevaluation. In this Perspective, we address challenges in combinatorial nano-bio interfaces and call for multiparametric nanocombinatorics (composition, morphology, mechanics, surface chemistry), multiscale bioevaluation (biomolecules, organelles, cells, tissues/organs), and the recruitment of computational modeling and artificial intelligence. Leveraging combinatorial nano-bio interfaces will shed light on precision nanomedicine and its potential applications.

  14. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  15. Hardware design of the median filter based on window structure and batcher′s oddeven sort network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Kaimin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Area and speed are two important factors to be considered in designing Median Filter with digital circuits.Area consideration requires the use of logical resources as little as possible,while speed consideration requires the system capable of working on higher clock frequencies,with as few clock cycles as possible to complete a frame filtering or real time filtering.This paper gives a new design of Median Filter,the hardware structure of which is a 3×3 window structure with two buffers.The filter function module is based on Batcher′s Odd-Even Sort network theory.Structural design is implemented in FPGA,verified by ModelSim software and realizes video image filtering.The experimental analysis shows that this new structure of Median Filter effectively decreases logical resources (merely using 741 Logic Elements,and accelerates the pixel processing speed up to 27MHz.This filter achieves realtime processing of video images of 30 frames/s.This design not only has a certain practicality,but also provides a reference for the hardware structure design ideas in digital image processing.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor: Pt. 3; Sludge and substrate profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.Q.; Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (CA). Dept. of Bio-Resource Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of cheese whey using a 17.5 litre upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was investigated in the laboratory over a range of influent concentration from 4.5 to 38.1 g COD litre{sup -1} at a constant hydraulic retention time of 5 days. The results indicated that two sludge distribution regions, a sludge bed and a sludge blanket, as well as two distinct reaction phases, acidogenic and methanogenic, were formed. However, as the substrate loading was increased, the acidogenic region extended into the methanogenic region in the upper portion of the reactor until the whole region was acidogenic, leading to the failure of the reactor. (author).

  17. Research on sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) for synthetic and municipal wastewater treatment in biological aerated filter (BAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Renbo; Yue, Min; Han, Shuxin; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Yu, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and clay ceramic particles (CCP) were employed in two lab-scale up-flow biological aerated filters (BAF) for wastewater treatment to investigate the availability of SFCP used as biofilm support compared with CCP. For synthetic wastewater, under the selected hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1.5, 0.75 and 0.37 h, respectively, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) in SFCP reactor were all higher than those of CCP reactor all through the media height. Moreover, better capabilities responding to loading shock and faster recovery after short intermittence were observed in the SFCP reactor compared with the CCP reactor. For municipal wastewater treatment, which was carried out under HRT of 0.75 h, air-liquid ratio of 7.5 and backwashing period of 48 h, the SFCP reactor also performed better than the CCP reactor, especially for the removal of NH(4)(+)-N.

  18. Ultra-low power integrated circuit design circuits, systems, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the design of CMOS circuits for ultra-low power consumption including analog, radio frequency (RF), and digital signal processing circuits (DSP). The book addresses issues from circuit and system design to production design, and applies the ultra-low power circuits described to systems for digital hearing aids and capsule endoscope devices. Provides a valuable introduction to ultra-low power circuit design, aimed at practicing design engineers; Describes all key building blocks of ultra-low power circuits, from a systems perspective; Applies circuits and systems described to real product examples such as hearing aids and capsule endoscopes.

  19. Bio-oil and bio-char production from biomass and their structural analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Murat; Özsin, Gamzenur; Pütün, Ayşe E.; Pütün, Ersan

    2015-01-01

    Energy demand is increasing day by day because of the rapid developments in the population, industrialization and urbanisation. Since, fossil fuels will be at the verge of getting extinct, researches are mostly focused on the renewable sources, such as biomass, in recent years. This paper provides an environmentally friendly process to convert waste biomass samples to bio-oil and bio-char by pyrolysis. For this purpose, pyrolysis characteristics of pomegranate peels under inert atmosphere were studied by using both TGA to analysis decomposition behaviour and a batch reactor to investigate product yields and properties. The properties of bio-oil and bio-char were investigated by different analytical techniques such as GC-MS, FT-IR, SEM, He pycnometry and elemental analysis. As a consequence, it is possible to obtain bio-oil, which has similar properties like petroleum hydrocarbons, and to obtain bio-char, which can be further used as a solid fuel or a carbonaceous adsorbent material via pyrolysis process. (full text)

  20. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-15

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  1. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-01

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  2. Antibiotic Fermentation Broth Treatment by a pilot upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, T; Kabuk, H A; Varinca, K B; Debik, E; Durak, I; Kavurt, C

    2012-10-01

    In this study, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) mesophilic reactor was used to remove antibiotic fermentation broth wastewater. The hydraulic retention time was held constant at 13.3 days. The volumetric organic loading value increased from 0.33 to 7.43 kg(COD)m(-3)d(-1) using antibiotic fermentation broth wastewater gradually diluted with various ratios of domestic wastewater. A COD removal efficiency of 95.7% was obtained with a maximum yield of 3,700 L d(-1) methane gas production. The results of the study were interpreted using the modified Stover-Kincannon, first-order, substrate mass balance and Van der Meer and Heertjes kinetic models. The obtained kinetic coefficients showed that antibiotic fermentation broth wastewater can be successfully treated using a UASB reactor while taking COD removal and methane production into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Decentralized wastewater treatment using passively aerated biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elela, Sohair I; Hellal, Mohamed S; Aly, Olfat H; Abo-Elenin, Salah A

    2017-10-13

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a novel pilot-scale passively aerated biological filter (PABF) as a low energy consumption system for the treatment of municipal wastewater. It consists of four similar compartments, each containing 40% of a non-woven polyester fabric as a bio-bed. The PABF was fed with primary treated wastewater under a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.5 hr and a hydraulic loading rate of 5.5 m 2 /m 3 /d. The effect of media depth, HRT, dissolved oxygen (DO) and surface area of the media on the removal efficiency of pollutants was investigated. Results indicated that increasing media depth along the axis of the reactor and consequently increasing the HRT and DO resulted in great removal of different pollutants. A significant increase in the DO levels in the final effluent up to 6.7 mg/l resulted in good nitrification processes. Statistical analysis using SPSS showed that the reactor performance has significant removal efficiency (p filter systems.

  4. Photobiology of Symbiodinium revisited: bio-physical and bio-optical signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennige, S. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Warner, M. E.; McDougall, K. E.; Smith, D. J.

    2009-03-01

    Light is often the most abundant resource within the nutrient-poor waters surrounding coral reefs. Consequently, zooxanthellae ( Symbiodinium spp.) must continually photoacclimate to optimise productivity and ensure coral success. In situ coral photobiology is becoming dominated by routine assessments using state-of-the-art non-invasive bio-optical or chlorophyll a fluorescence (bio-physical) techniques. Multiple genetic types of Symbiodinium are now known to exist; however, little focus has been given as to how these types differ in terms of characteristics that are observable using these techniques. Therefore, this investigation aimed to revisit and expand upon a pivotal study by Iglesias-Prieto and Trench (1994) by comparing the photoacclimation characteristics of different Symbiodinium types based on their bio-physical (chlorophyll a fluorescence, reaction centre counts) and bio-optical (optical absorption, pigment concentrations) ‘signatures’. Signatures described here are unique to Symbiodinium type and describe phenotypic responses to set conditions, and hence are not suitable to describe taxonomic structure of in hospite Symbiodinium communities. In this study, eight Symbiodinium types from clades and sub-clades (A-B, F) were grown under two PFDs (Photon Flux Density) and examined. The photoacclimation response by Symbiodinium was highly variable between algal types for all bio-physical and for many bio-optical measurements; however, a general preference to modifying reaction centre content over effective antennae-absorption was observed. Certain bio-optically derived patterns, such as light absorption, were independent of algal type and, when considered per photosystem, were matched by reaction centre stoichiometry. Only by better understanding genotypic and phenotypic variability between Symbiodinium types can future studies account for the relative taxonomic and physiological contribution by Symbiodinium to coral acclimation.

  5. CDBA-Based Universal Biquad Filter and Quadrature Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapong Tangsrirat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter and sinusoidal quadrature oscillator based on the use of current differencing buffered amplifiers (CDBAs as active components have been proposed in this paper. All the proposed configurations employ only two CDBAs and six passive components. The first proposed CDBA-based biquad configuration can realize all the standard types of the biquadratic functions, that is, lowpass, bandpass, highpass, bandstop, and allpass, from the same topology, and can also provide orthogonal tuning of the natural angular frequency (ωo and the bandwidth (BW through separate virtually grounded passive components. By slight modification of the first proposed configuration, the new CDBA-based sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is easily obtained. The oscillation condition and the oscillation frequency are independently adjustable by different virtually grounded resistors. The sensitivity analysis of all proposed circuit configurations is shown to be low. PSPICE simulations and experimental results based upon commercially available AD844-type CFAs are included, which confirm the workability of the proposed circuits.

  6. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  7. Parallel power electronics filters in three-phase four-wire systems principle, control and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Man-Chung; Lam, Chi-Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book describes parallel power electronic filters for 3-phase 4-wire systems, focusing on the control, design and system operation. It presents the basics of power-electronics techniques applied in power systems as well as the advanced techniques in controlling, implementing and designing parallel power electronics converters. The power-quality compensation has been achieved using active filters and hybrid filters, and circuit models, control principles and operational practice problems have been verified by principle study, simulation and experimental results. The state-of-the-art research findings were mainly developed by a team at the University of Macau. Offering background information and related novel techniques, this book is a valuable resource for electrical engineers and researchers wanting to work on energy saving using power-quality compensators or renewable energy power electronics systems. .

  8. PLA/Bio-PE blends: effect of the Bio-PE content on the crystallinity rheological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Aylanna P.M. de; Agrawal, Pankaj; Cavalcanti, Shirley N.; Alves, Amanda M.; Melo, Tomas J.A. de; Brito, Gustavo F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the Bio-PE content on the crystallinity and rheological properties of PLA/Bio-PE blend. The blends containing 05 and 15% of Bio-PE were prepared by extrusion followed by injection molding and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and rheological properties at low and high shear rates. XRD results indicated that the PLA present low crystallinity and this behavior was not changed with the addition of Bio-PE, regardless of Bio-PE content. Rheological properties results indicated that at low shear rates the viscosity of the PLA/Bio-PE increased with the increase in the Bio-PE content while at high shear rates the viscosities where almost similar, which may be ascribed to the orientation of Bio-PE particles in the flow direction or by the viscous dissipation. (author)

  9. A Novel (DDCC-SFG-Based Systematic Design Technique of Active Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fakhfakh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel idea for the synthesis of active filters that is based on the use of signal-flow graph (SFG stamps of differential difference current conveyors (DDCCs. On the basis of an RLC passive network or a filter symbolic transfer function, an equivalent SFG is constructed. DDCCs’ SFGs are identified inside the constructed ‘active’ graph, and thus the equivalent circuit can be easily synthesized. We show that the DDCC and its ‘derivatives’, i.e. differential voltage current conveyors and the conventional current conveyors, are the main basic building blocks in such design. The practicability of the proposed technique is showcased via three application examples. Spice simulations are given to show the viability of the proposed technique.

  10. Bio-fuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    European Union bio-fuel use for transport reached 12 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009. The slowdown in the growth of European consumption deepened again. Bio-fuel used in transport only grew by 18.7% between 2008 and 2009, as against 30.3% between 2007 and 2008 and 41.8% between 2006 and 2007. The bio-fuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the E.U. is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009. We can note that: -) the proportion of bio-fuel in the German fuels market has plummeted since 2007: from 7.3% in 2007 to 5.5% in 2009; -) France stays on course with an incorporation rate of 6.25% in 2009; -) In Spain the incorporation rate reached 3.4% in 2009 while it was 1.9% in 2008. The European bio-diesel industry has had another tough year. European production only rose by 16.6% in 2009 or by about 9 million tonnes which is well below the previous year-on-year growth rate recorded (35.7%). France is leading the production of bio-ethanol fuels in Europe with an output of 1250 million liters in 2009 while the total European production reached 3700 million litters and the world production 74000 million liters. (A.C.)

  11. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  12. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-15

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  13. Two multichannel integrated circuits for neural recording and signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Iyad; Morizio, James C; Moxon, Karen A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Wolf, Patrick D

    2003-02-01

    We have developed, manufactured, and tested two analog CMOS integrated circuit "neurochips" for recording from arrays of densely packed neural electrodes. Device A is a 16-channel buffer consisting of parallel noninverting amplifiers with a gain of 2 V/V. Device B is a 16-channel two-stage analog signal processor with differential amplification and high-pass filtering. It features selectable gains of 250 and 500 V/V as well as reference channel selection. The resulting amplifiers on Device A had a mean gain of 1.99 V/V with an equivalent input noise of 10 microV(rms). Those on Device B had mean gains of 53.4 and 47.4 dB with a high-pass filter pole at 211 Hz and an equivalent input noise of 4.4 microV(rms). Both devices were tested in vivo with electrode arrays implanted in the somatosensory cortex.

  14. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  15. Organic printed photonics: From microring lasers to integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhao, Yan; Dong, Chun-Hua; Wei, Cong; Wang, Hanlin; Liu, Yunqi; Guo, Guang-Can; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2015-09-01

    A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is the optical analogy of an electronic loop in which photons are signal carriers with high transport speed and parallel processing capability. Besides the most frequently demonstrated silicon-based circuits, PICs require a variety of materials for light generation, processing, modulation, and detection. With their diversity and flexibility, organic molecular materials provide an alternative platform for photonics; however, the versatile fabrication of organic integrated circuits with the desired photonic performance remains a big challenge. The rapid development of flexible electronics has shown that a solution printing technique has considerable potential for the large-scale fabrication and integration of microsized/nanosized devices. We propose the idea of soft photonics and demonstrate the function-directed fabrication of high-quality organic photonic devices and circuits. We prepared size-tunable and reproducible polymer microring resonators on a wafer-scale transparent and flexible chip using a solution printing technique. The printed optical resonator showed a quality (Q) factor higher than 4 × 10(5), which is comparable to that of silicon-based resonators. The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device. On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units. Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices.

  16. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Applications on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetimakman, Ayse Filiz; Tanyildiz, Murat; Kesici, Selman; Kockuzu, Esra; Bayrakci, Benan

    2017-06-01

    Continuous venovenous hemofiltration or hemodiafiltration is used frequently in pediatric patients, but experience of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) application on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit is still limited. Among several methods used for applying CRRT on ECMO patients, we aim to share our experience on inclusion of a CRRT device in the ECMO circuit which we believe is easier and safer to apply. The data were collected on demographics, outcomes, and details of the treatment of ECMO patients who had CRRT. During the study period of 3 years, venous cannula of ECMO circuit before pump was used for CRRT access for both the filter inlet and outlet of CRRT machine to minimize the thromboembolic complications. The common indication for CRRT was fluid overload. CRRT was used in 3.68% of a total number of patients admitted and 43% of patients on ECMO. The patients have undergone renal replacement therapy for periods of time ranging between 24 h and 25 days (260 h mean). The survival rate of this group of patients with multiorgan failure was 33%. Renal recovery occurred in all of the survivors. Complications such as electrolyte imbalance, hypothermia, and bradykinin syndrome were easily managed. Adding a CRRT device on ECMO circuit is a safe and effective technique. The major advantages of this technique are easy to access, applying CRRT without extra anticoagulation process, preventing potential hemodynamic disturbances, and increased clearance of solutes and fluid overload using larger hemofilter.

  17. A novel SFG structure for C-T high-pass filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ivan Riis

    1993-01-01

    A signal flow graph (SFG) structure for simulating passive high-pass ladder filters, called the incremental integration structure, is proposed. The structure requires the use of integrators with nonintegrating inputs, and an implementation based on the MOSFET-C technique is discussed. The increme......A signal flow graph (SFG) structure for simulating passive high-pass ladder filters, called the incremental integration structure, is proposed. The structure requires the use of integrators with nonintegrating inputs, and an implementation based on the MOSFET-C technique is discussed....... The incremental integration structure is compared to the leapfrog and direct SFG simulation structures. Leapfrog high-pass filters are relatively simple and show good noise properties, but they are based on differentiators and thus stability problems exist. The direct SFG simulation method is based on integrators...... and has good stability properties, but it leads to a relatively high circuit complexity and a high noise level. However, the incremental integration structure inherits the low-noise properties of the leapfrog structure and the good stability of the direct SFG simulation method. A sixth-order elliptic high...

  18. Optically controlled photonic bandgap structures for microstrip circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadman, Darren Arthur

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the optical control of microwave photonic bandgap circuits using high resistivity silicon. Photoconducting processes that occur within silicon are investigated. The influence of excess carrier density on carrier mobility and lifetime is examined. In addition, electron-hole pair recombination mechanisms (Shockley-Read-Hall, Auger, radiative and surface) are investigated. The microwave properties of silicon are examined, in particular the variation of silicon reflectivity with excess carrier density. Filtering properties of microstrip photonic bandgap structures and how they may be controlled optically are studied. A proof-of-concept microstrip photonic bandgap structure with optical control is designed, simulated and measured. With no optical illumination incident upon the silicon, the microstrip photonic bandgap structure's filtering properties are well-defined; a 3dB stopband width of 2.6GHz, a 6dB bandwidth of 2GHz and stopband depth of -11.6dB at the centre frequency of 9.9GHz. When the silicon is illuminated, the structure's filtering properties are suppressed. Under illumination the experimental results display an increase in S 21 of 6.5dB and a reduction in S 11 of more than 10dB at 9.9GHz. A comparison of measured and simulated results reveal that the photogenerated excess carrier density is between 4 x 10 15 cm -3 and 1.1 x 10 16 cm -3 . (author)

  19. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Lima, Isabel M.; Laird, David A.; Hicks, Kevin B.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are ∼20 MJ kg -1 , and densities >1.0 Mg m -3 ) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, ∼20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed 'farm scale' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields.

  20. Bio-methane & Bio-hydrogen. Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Janssen, M.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eerst wordt het kader geschetst voor de potentiële rol van bio-methaan en bio-waterstof in de energiehuishouding en de invloeden daarop van de ontwikkeling van eindgebruikstechnologie en infrastructuur, en het energiebeleid. Daarna wordt uitvoerig ingegaan op de technieken voor bio-methaan en

  1. A Differential Electrochemical Readout ASIC With Heterogeneous Integration of Bio-Nano Sensors for Amperometric Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishizadeh, Sara S; Taurino, Irene; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro; Georgiou, Pantelis

    2017-10-01

    A monolithic biosensing platform is presented for miniaturized amperometric electrochemical sensing in CMOS. The system consists of a fully integrated current readout circuit for differential current measurement as well as on-die sensors developed by growing platinum nanostructures (Pt-nanoS) on top of electrodes implemented with the top metal layer. The circuit is based on the switch-capacitor technique and includes pseudodifferential integrators for concurrent sampling of the differential sensor currents. The circuit further includes a differential to single converter and a programmable gain amplifier prior to an ADC. The system is fabricated in [Formula: see text] technology and measures current within [Formula: see text] with minimum input-referred noise of [Formula: see text] and consumes [Formula: see text] from a [Formula: see text] supply. Differential sensing for nanostructured sensors is proposed to build highly sensitive and offset-free sensors for metabolite detection. This is successfully tested for bio-nano-sensors for the measurement of glucose in submilli molar concentrations with the proposed readout IC. The on-die electrodes are nanostructured and cyclic voltammetry run successfully through the readout IC to demonstrate detection of [Formula: see text].

  2. Pressurized water reactor monitoring. Study of detection, diagnostic and estimation (least squares and filtering) methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, M.

    1986-07-01

    This thesis presents a study for the surveillance of the Primary circuit water inventory of a pressurized water reactor. A reference model is developed for the development of an automatic system ensuring detection and real-time diagnostic. The methods to our application are statistical tests and adapted a pattern recognition method. The estimation of the detected anomalies is treated by the least square fit method, and by filtering. A new projected optimization method with superlinear convergence is developed in this framework, and a segmented linearization of the model is introduced, in view of a multiple filtering. 46 refs [fr

  3. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  4. A magnetic filter with permanent magnets on the basis of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zezulka, V.Vaclav; Straka, Pavel; Mucha, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the development and construction of a magnetic filter based on the HGMS principle with permanent magnets. It is aimed especially at the assembly of the magnetic circuit using magnets from the material NdFeB. The way of the construction of large magnetic blocks, their magnetization and assembly are described. Further, it contains the measured values of magnetic induction in the middle of the air gap as a function of the width of this gap and of the height of the magnetic blocks in question, as well as the corresponding graphic representation. The high values of the magnetic induction obtained together with favourable price are sufficient reasons for the employment of this type of magnetic circuit in various applications

  5. Delay Estimator and Improved Proportionate Multi-Delay Adaptive Filtering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Verteletskaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper pertains to speech and acoustic signal processing, and particularly to a determination of echo path delay and operation of echo cancellers. To cancel long echoes, the number of weights in a conventional adaptive filter must be large. The length of the adaptive filter will directly affect both the degree of accuracy and the convergence speed of the adaptation process. We present a new adaptive structure which is capable to deal with multiple dispersive echo paths. An adaptive filter according to the present invention includes means for storing an impulse response in a memory, the impulse response being indicative of the characteristics of a transmission line. It also includes a delay estimator for detecting ranges of samples within the impulse response having relatively large distribution of echo energy. These ranges of samples are being indicative of echoes on the transmission line. An adaptive filter has a plurality of weighted taps, each of the weighted taps having an associated tap weight value. A tap allocation/control circuit establishes the tap weight values in response to said detecting means so that only taps within the regions of relatively large distributions of echo energy are turned on. Thus, the convergence speed and the degree of estimation in the adaptation process can be improved.

  6. Working Memory and Decision-Making in a Frontoparietal Circuit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D; Jaramillo, Jorge; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-12-13

    Working memory (WM) and decision-making (DM) are fundamental cognitive functions involving a distributed interacting network of brain areas, with the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) at the core. However, the shared and distinct roles of these areas and the nature of their coordination in cognitive function remain poorly understood. Biophysically based computational models of cortical circuits have provided insights into the mechanisms supporting these functions, yet they have primarily focused on the local microcircuit level, raising questions about the principles for distributed cognitive computation in multiregional networks. To examine these issues, we developed a distributed circuit model of two reciprocally interacting modules representing PPC and PFC circuits. The circuit architecture includes hierarchical differences in local recurrent structure and implements reciprocal long-range projections. This parsimonious model captures a range of behavioral and neuronal features of frontoparietal circuits across multiple WM and DM paradigms. In the context of WM, both areas exhibit persistent activity, but, in response to intervening distractors, PPC transiently encodes distractors while PFC filters distractors and supports WM robustness. With regard to DM, the PPC module generates graded representations of accumulated evidence supporting target selection, while the PFC module generates more categorical responses related to action or choice. These findings suggest computational principles for distributed, hierarchical processing in cortex during cognitive function and provide a framework for extension to multiregional models. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Working memory and decision-making are fundamental "building blocks" of cognition, and deficits in these functions are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. These cognitive functions engage distributed networks with prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal

  7. Roles of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials in optical metatronic circuit networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fereshteh; Engheta, Nader

    2014-10-20

    The concept of metamaterial-inspired nanocircuits, dubbed metatronics, was introduced in [Science 317, 1698 (2007); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005)]. It was suggested how optical lumped elements (nanoelements) can be made using subwavelength plasmonic or non-plasmonic particles. As a result, the optical metatronic equivalents of a number of electronic circuits, such as frequency mixers and filters, were suggested. In this work we further expand the concept of electronic lumped element networks into optical metatronic circuits and suggest a conceptual model applicable to various metatronic passive networks. In particular, we differentiate between the series and parallel networks using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials. We employ layered structures with subwavelength thicknesses for the nanoelements as the building blocks of collections of metatronic networks. Furthermore, we explore how by choosing the non-zero constitutive parameters of the materials with specific dispersions, either Drude or Lorentzian dispersion with suitable parameters, capacitive and inductive responses can be achieved in both series and parallel networks. Next, we proceed with the one-to-one analogy between electronic circuits and optical metatronic filter layered networks and justify our analogies by comparing the frequency response of the two paradigms. Finally, we examine the material dispersion of near-zero relative permittivity as well as other physically important material considerations such as losses.

  8. Design of an improved RCD buffer circuit for full bridge circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Wei, Xueye; Du, Yongbo; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Ou

    2017-05-01

    In the full bridge inverter circuit, when the switch tube suddenly opened or closed, the inductor current changes rapidly. Due to the existence of parasitic inductance of the main circuit. Therefore, the surge voltage between drain and source of the switch tube can be generated, which will have an impact on the switch and the output voltage. In order to ab sorb the surge voltage. An improve RCD buffer circuit is proposed in the paper. The peak energy will be absorbed through the buffer capacitor of the circuit. The part energy feedback to the power supply, another part release through the resistor in the form of heat, and the circuit can absorb the voltage spikes. This paper analyzes the process of the improved RCD snubber circuit, According to the specific parameters of the main circuit, a reasonable formula for calculating the resistance capacitance is given. A simulation model will be modulated in Multisim, which compared the waveform of tube voltage and the output waveform of the circuit without snubber circuit with the improved RCD snubber circuit. By comparing and analyzing, it is proved that the improved buffer circuit can absorb surge voltage. Finally, experiments are demonstrated to validate that the correctness of the RC formula and the improved RCD snubber circuit.

  9. BioAir: Bio-Inspired Airborne Infrastructure Reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    must also minimize resource usage due to limitations on the amount of processing , memory and power onboard a node. BioAIR assumes the availability of...subsequent maintenance of tentacles, each node will take one of the following roles: “ orphan ”, “free”, “tip”, “backbone” or “extra”. The BioAIR...algorithm dictates that when a node is disconnected from the tentacle or origin it is an orphan , and as such it will change its target to the nearest

  10. Monolithic photonic integration for visible and short near-infrared wavelengths: technologies and platforms for bio and life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Marco A. G.; Artundo, Iñigo; Domenech, J. David; Geuzebroek, Douwe; Sunarto, Rino; Hoofman, Romano

    2018-04-01

    This tutorial aims to provide a general overview on the state-of-the-art of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) in the visible and short near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges, mostly focusing in silicon nitride (SiN) substrates, and a guide to the necessary steps in the design toward the fabrication of such PICs. The focus is put on bio- and life sciences, given the adequacy and, thus, a large number of applications in this field.

  11. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  12. Bacteria killing nanotechnology Bio-Kil effectively reduces bacterial burden in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, P-R; Huang, H-C; Young, T-G; Su, C-Y; Liu, C-S; Yen, M-Y

    2014-04-01

    A contaminated hospital environment has been identified as an important reservoir of pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of bacteria killing nanotechnology Bio-Kil on reducing bacterial counts in an intensive care unit (ICU). Two single-bed rooms (S-19 and S-20) in the ICU were selected from 7 April to 27 May 2011. Ten sets of new textiles (pillow cases, bed sheets, duvet cover, and patient clothing) used by patients in the two single-bed rooms were provided by the sponsors. In the room S-20, the 10 sets of new textiles were washed with Bio-Kil; the room walls, ceiling, and air-conditioning filters were treated with Bio-Kil; and the surfaces of instruments (respirator, telephone, and computer) were covered with Bio-Kil-embedded silicon pads. Room S-19 served as the control. We compared the bacterial count on textiles and environment surfaces as well as air samples between the two rooms. A total of 1,364 samples from 22 different sites in each room were collected. The mean bacterial count on textiles and environmental surfaces in room S-20 was significantly lower than that in room S-19 (10.4 vs 49.6 colony-forming units [CFU]/100 cm(2); P < 0.001). Room S-20 had lower bacterial counts in air samples than room S-19 (33.4-37.6 vs 21.6-25.7 CFU/hour/plate; P < 0.001). The density of microbial isolations was significantly greater among patients admitted to room S-19 than those to room S-20 (9.15 vs 5.88 isolates per 100 patient-days, P < 0.05). Bio-Kil can significantly reduce bacterial burden in the environment of the ICU.

  13. A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Automated Electronic Circuit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Haith, Gary L.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris

    2000-01-01

    issues in the GA, it is possible to have idle processors. However, as long as the load at each processing node is similar, the processors are kept busy nearly all of the time. In applying GAs to circuit design, a suitable genetic representation 'is that of a circuit-construction program. We discuss one such circuit-construction programming language and show how evolution can generate useful analog circuit designs. This language has the desirable property that virtually all sets of combinations of primitives result in valid circuit graphs. Our system allows circuit size (number of devices), circuit topology, and device values to be evolved. Using a parallel genetic algorithm and circuit simulation software, we present experimental results as applied to three analog filter and two amplifier design tasks. For example, a figure shows an 85 dB amplifier design evolved by our system, and another figure shows the performance of that circuit (gain and frequency response). In all tasks, our system is able to generate circuits that achieve the target specifications.

  14. A Two-Layer Gene Circuit for Decoupling Cell Growth from Metabolite Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Tat-Ming; Chng, Si Hui; Teo, Wei Suong; Cho, Han-Saem; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2016-08-01

    We present a synthetic gene circuit for decoupling cell growth from metabolite production through autonomous regulation of enzymatic pathways by integrated modules that sense nutrient and substrate. The two-layer circuit allows Escherichia coli to selectively utilize target substrates in a mixed pool; channel metabolic resources to growth by delaying enzymatic conversion until nutrient depletion; and activate, terminate, and re-activate conversion upon substrate availability. We developed two versions of controller, both of which have glucose nutrient sensors but differ in their substrate-sensing modules. One controller is specific for hydroxycinnamic acid and the other for oleic acid. Our hydroxycinnamic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 2-fold and productivity 5-fold, whereas our oleic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 1.3-fold and productivity 2.4-fold. These results demonstrate the potential for engineering strategies that decouple growth and production to make bio-based production more economical and sustainable. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of electrode microbial communities in an up-flow bioelectrochemical system treating azo dye wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Gao, Lei; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical system (BES) is a rapidly developing technology covering contamination remediation, resource recovery and power generation. Electrode biofilms play a key role in BES operation. In this work, a single chamber up-flow bioelectrochemical system (UBES) was assembled with two preinoculated anodes and two raw cathodes for azo dye wastewater treatment. Microbial community structures of these electrodes after long-term operation (more than 200 days) were carried out by high-throughput Illumina 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing platform. Microorganisms belonging to Enterobacter, Desulfovibrio and Enterococcus, which are capable of bidirectional extracellular electron transfer, were found to be the dominant members in all biofilms. Neither the polarity nor the position of the electrodes obviously altered the microbial community structures. This study provides a feasible strategy to build electrode active biofilms in a BES for azo dye wastewater treatment and gives great inspirations to bring this technology closer to application.

  16. Passive and active RF-microwave circuits course and exercises with solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jarry, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Microwave and radiofrequency (RF) circuits play an important role in communication systems. Due to the proliferation of radar, satellite, and mobile wireless systems, there is a need for design methods that can satisfy the ever increasing demand for accuracy, reliability, and fast development times. This book explores the principal elements for receiving and emitting signals between Earth stations, satellites, and RF (mobile phones) in four parts; the theory and realization of couplers, computation and realization of microwave and RF filters, amplifiers and microwave and RF oscillators. Pas

  17. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtler, J.L.; Femenias, A.; Blondy, J.

    2009-01-01

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  18. The Effect of the Hydraulic Retention Time on the Performance of an Ecological Wastewater Treatment System: An Anaerobic Filter with a Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Merino-Solís

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the performance of a municipal pilot wastewater treatment system employing an up-flow anaerobic filter (UAF followed by a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSCW. This pilot scale demonstration project was implemented in a zone with subtropical climate in order to protect Lake Chapala from wastewater loads that are discharged by small communities in the Lake’s vicinity. The filters were filled with tezontle as the media for biofilm support and the HSSCW was planted with two ornamental plants species, Canna hybrids and Strelitzia reginae. The experiment evaluated three hydraulic retention times (HRT of 18, 28 and 38 h in the UAF, which corresponds to two, three and four days in HSSCW over 66 weeks. The mean efficiencies found for the complete system were 80% and 90% of BOD, 80% and 86% of COD, 30% and 33% of Ntot and between 24% and 44% of Ptot. It was possible to remove almost 80% of organic matter in 18 h in the UAF while the HSSCW reached 30% of removal for Ntot in a HRT of three days. As expected, the UAF was responsible for removing most of the organic matter and the HSSCW removed most of the nitrogen.

  19. A Design of a Terahertz Microstrip Bandstop Filter with Defected Ground Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A planar microstrip terahertz (THz bandstop filter has been proposed with defected ground structure with high insertion loss (S21 in a stopband of −25.8 dB at 1.436 THz. The parameters of the circuit model have been extracted from the EM simulation results. A dielectric substrate of Benzocyclobutene (BCB is used to realize a compact bandstop filter using modified hexagonal dumbbell-shape defected ground structure (DB-DGS. In this paper, a defected ground structure topology is used in a λ/4, 50 Ω microstrip line at THz frequency range for compactness. No article has been reported on the microstrip line at terahertz frequency regime using DGS topology. The proposed filter can be used for sensing and detection in biomedical instruments in DNA testing. All the simulations/cosimulations are carried out using a full-wave EM simulator CST V.9 Microwave Studio, HFSS V.10, and Agilent Design Suite (ADS.

  20. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren

    2012-01-01

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath (''plasma shield'') that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  1. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren

    2012-05-01

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath ("plasma shield") that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  2. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Textile Engineering Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath (''plasma shield'') that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  3. Fate of dissolved organic nitrogen in two stage trickling filter process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Halis; Kasi, Murthy; Wadhawan, Tanush; Bye, Christopher; Blonigen, Mark; Khan, Eakalak

    2012-10-15

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents a significant portion of nitrogen in the final effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Biodegradable portion of DON (BDON) can support algal growth and/or consume dissolved oxygen in the receiving waters. The fate of DON and BDON has not been studied for trickling filter WWTPs. DON and BDON data were collected along the treatment train of a WWTP with a two-stage trickling filter process. DON concentrations in the influent and effluent were 27% and 14% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). The plant removed about 62% and 72% of the influent DON and BDON mainly by the trickling filters. The final effluent BDON values averaged 1.8 mg/L. BDON was found to be between 51% and 69% of the DON in raw wastewater and after various treatment units. The fate of DON and BDON through the two-stage trickling filter treatment plant was modeled. The BioWin v3.1 model was successfully applied to simulate ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, TDN, DON and BDON concentrations along the treatment train. The maximum growth rates for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, and AOB half saturation constant influenced ammonia and nitrate output results. Hydrolysis and ammonification rates influenced all of the nitrogen species in the model output, including BDON. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tunable high-channel-count bandpass plasmonic filters based on an analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hua; Liu Xueming; Wang Guoxi; Mao Dong

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed a novel type of bandpass plasmonic filter consisting of metal–insulator–metal bus waveguides coupled with a series of side-coupled cavities and stub waveguides. The theoretical modeling demonstrates that our waveguide-resonator system performs a plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic systems, as is confirmed by numerical experiments. The plasmonic EIT-like response enables the realization of nanoscale bandpass filters with multiple channels. Additionally, the operating wavelengths and bandwidths of our filters can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the geometric parameters such as the lengths of stub waveguides and the coupling distances between the cavities and stub waveguides. The ultracompact configurations contribute to the achievement of wavelength division multiplexing systems for optical computing and communications in highly integrated optical circuits. (paper)

  5. Determining the bio-based content of bio-plastics used in Thailand by radiocarbon analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploykrathok, T.; Chanyotha, S.

    2017-06-01

    Presently, there is an increased interest in the development of bio-plastic products from agricultural materials which are biodegradable in order to reduce the problem of waste disposal. Since the amount of modern carbon in bio-plastics can indicate how much the amount of agricultural materials are contained in the bio-plastic products, this research aims to determine the modern carbon in bio-plastic using the carbon dioxide absorption method. The radioactivity of carbon-14 contained in the sample is measured by liquid scintillation counter (Tri-carb 3110 TR, PerkinElmer). The percentages of bio-based content in the samples were determined by comparing the observed modern carbon content with the values contained in agricultural raw materials. The experimental results show that only poly(lactic acid) samples have the modern carbon content of 97.4%, which is close to the agricultural materials while other bio-plastics types are found to have less than 50% of the modern carbon content. In other words, most of these bio-plastic samples were mixed with other materials which are not agriculturally originated.

  6. Determining the bio-based content of bio-plastics used in Thailand by radiocarbon analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploykrathok, T; Chanyotha, S

    2017-01-01

    Presently, there is an increased interest in the development of bio-plastic products from agricultural materials which are biodegradable in order to reduce the problem of waste disposal. Since the amount of modern carbon in bio-plastics can indicate how much the amount of agricultural materials are contained in the bio-plastic products, this research aims to determine the modern carbon in bio-plastic using the carbon dioxide absorption method. The radioactivity of carbon-14 contained in the sample is measured by liquid scintillation counter (Tri-carb 3110 TR, PerkinElmer). The percentages of bio-based content in the samples were determined by comparing the observed modern carbon content with the values contained in agricultural raw materials. The experimental results show that only poly(lactic acid) samples have the modern carbon content of 97.4%, which is close to the agricultural materials while other bio-plastics types are found to have less than 50% of the modern carbon content. In other words, most of these bio-plastic samples were mixed with other materials which are not agriculturally originated. (paper)

  7. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Hicks, Kevin B. [Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lima, Isabel M. [Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Laird, David A. [National Soil Tilth Laboratory, U.S. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2110 University Blvd., Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are {proportional_to}20 MJ kg{sup -1}, and densities >1.0 Mg m{sup -3}) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, {proportional_to}20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed ''farm scale'' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields. (author)

  8. III-V-on-Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Spectroscopic Sensing in the 2-4 μm Wavelength Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruijun; Vasiliev, Anton; Muneeb, Muhammad; Malik, Aditya; Sprengel, Stephan; Boehm, Gerhard; Amann, Markus-Christian; Šimonytė, Ieva; Vizbaras, Augustinas; Vizbaras, Kristijonas; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther

    2017-08-04

    The availability of silicon photonic integrated circuits (ICs) in the 2-4 μm wavelength range enables miniature optical sensors for trace gas and bio-molecule detection. In this paper, we review our recent work on III-V-on-silicon waveguide circuits for spectroscopic sensing in this wavelength range. We first present results on the heterogeneous integration of 2.3 μm wavelength III-V laser sources and photodetectors on silicon photonic ICs for fully integrated optical sensors. Then a compact 2 μm wavelength widely tunable external cavity laser using a silicon photonic IC for the wavelength selective feedback is shown. High-performance silicon arrayed waveguide grating spectrometers are also presented. Further we show an on-chip photothermal transducer using a suspended silicon-on-insulator microring resonator used for mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy.

  9. Design and Analysis of a Micromachined LC Low Pass Filter For 2.4GHz Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Samruddhi R.; Rathee, Vishal R.; Pande, Rajesh S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports design and analysis of a passive low pass filter with cut-off frequency of 2.4 GHz using MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology. The passive components such as suspended spiral inductors and metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor are arranged in T network form to implement LC low pass filter design. This design employs a simple approach of suspension thereby reducing parasitic losses to eliminate the performance degrading effects caused by integrating an off-chip inductor in the filter circuit proposed to be developed on a low cost silicon substrate using RF-MEMS components. The filter occupies only 2.1 mm x 0.66 mm die area and is designed using micro-strip transmission line placed on a silicon substrate. The design is implemented in High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) software and fabrication flow is proposed for its implementation. The simulated results show that the design has an insertion loss of -4.98 dB and return loss of -2.60dB.

  10. Filter materials for metal removal from mine drainage--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westholm, Lena Johansson; Repo, Eveliina; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    A large number of filter materials, organic and inorganic, for removal of heavy metals in mine drainage have been reviewed. Bark, chitin, chitosan, commercial ion exchangers, dairy manure compost, lignite, peat, rice husks, vegetal compost, and yeast are examples of organic materials, while bio-carbons, calcareous shale, dolomite, fly ash, limestone, olivine, steel slag materials and zeolites are examples of inorganic materials. The majority of these filter materials have been investigated in laboratory studies, based on various experimental set-ups (batch and/or column tests) and different conditions. A few materials, for instance steel slag materials, have also been subjects to field investigations under real-life conditions. The results from these investigations show that steel slag materials have the potential to remove heavy metals under different conditions. Ion exchange has been suggested as the major metal removal mechanisms not only for steel slag but also for lignite. Other suggested removal mechanisms have also been identified. Adsorption has been suggested important for activated carbon, precipitation for chitosan and sulphate reduction for olivine. General findings indicate that the results with regard to metal removal vary due to experimental set ups, composition of mine drainage and properties of filter materials and the discrepancies between studies renders normalisation of data difficult. However, the literature reveals that Fe, Zn, Pb, Hg and Al are removed to a large extent. Further investigations, especially under real-life conditions, are however necessary in order to find suitable filter materials for treatment of mine drainage.

  11. Synthetic biology routes to bio-artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Alexey; Saka, Yasushi; Romano, M. Carmen; Giuraniuc, Claudiu V.; Kanakov, Oleg; Laptyeva, Tetyana

    2016-01-01

    The design of synthetic gene networks (SGNs) has advanced to the extent that novel genetic circuits are now being tested for their ability to recapitulate archetypal learning behaviours first defined in the fields of machine and animal learning. Here, we discuss the biological implementation of a perceptron algorithm for linear classification of input data. An expansion of this biological design that encompasses cellular ‘teachers’ and ‘students’ is also examined. We also discuss implementation of Pavlovian associative learning using SGNs and present an example of such a scheme and in silico simulation of its performance. In addition to designed SGNs, we also consider the option to establish conditions in which a population of SGNs can evolve diversity in order to better contend with complex input data. Finally, we compare recent ethical concerns in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) and the future challenges raised by bio-artificial intelligence (BI). PMID:27903825

  12. BioHack*Kolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle

    Short Abstract BioHack*Kolding explores the potential of do-it-together biology to support community building in a town that lacks strong science representation, assisting participants to reflect on the bio-potential of their personal, social and political ecologies and to translate their ideas...... into action. Long Abstract Organisations that support lay people to practice bioscience alongside experts are proliferating. They enable interested people to join the global discussion on Bio Engineering by supporting them to gain the necessary knowledge and skills to do it themselves. Such organisations play...... an important role in facilitating informed debate around the biological sciences. Yet they cannot reach everyone. BioHack*Kolding asks how community-focused biology initiatives can reach people in smaller towns that lack science representation, so that they too can join the debate and ensure that its...

  13. Dynamic performance of maximum power point tracking circuits using sinusoidal extremum seeking control for photovoltaic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, R.; Artillan, P.; Cabal, C.; Estibals, B.; Alonso, C.

    2011-04-01

    The article studies the dynamic performance of a family of maximum power point tracking circuits used for photovoltaic generation. It revisits the sinusoidal extremum seeking control (ESC) technique which can be considered as a particular subgroup of the Perturb and Observe algorithms. The sinusoidal ESC technique consists of adding a small sinusoidal disturbance to the input and processing the perturbed output to drive the operating point at its maximum. The output processing involves a synchronous multiplication and a filtering stage. The filter instance determines the dynamic performance of the MPPT based on sinusoidal ESC principle. The approach uses the well-known root-locus method to give insight about damping degree and settlement time of maximum-seeking waveforms. This article shows the transient waveforms in three different filter instances to illustrate the approach. Finally, an experimental prototype corroborates the dynamic analysis.

  14. Design and test results of a low-noise readout integrated circuit for high-energy particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingming; Chen Zhongjian; Zhang Yacong; Lu Wengao; Ji Lijiu

    2010-01-01

    A low-noise readout integrated circuit for high-energy particle detector is presented. The noise of charge sensitive amplifier was suppressed by using single-side amplifier and resistors as source degeneration. Continuous-time semi-Gaussian filter is chosen to avoid switch noise. The peaking time of pulse shaper and the gain can be programmed to satisfy multi-application. The readout integrated circuit has been designed and fabricated using a 0.35 μm double-poly triple-metal CMOS technology. Test results show the functions of the readout integrated circuit are correct. The equivalent noise charge with no detector connected is 500-700 e in the typical mode, the gain is tunable within 13-130 mV/fC and the peaking time varies from 0.7 to 1.6 μs, in which the average gain is about 20.5 mV/fC, and the linearity reaches 99.2%. (authors)

  15. The problem of bio-concepts: biopolitics, bio-economy and the political economy of nothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Kean

    2017-12-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies—and no doubt other fields—have increasingly drawn on Michel Foucault's concept of biopolitics to theorize a variety of new `bio-concepts'. While there might be some theoretical value in such exercises, many of these bio-concepts have simply replaced more rigorous—and therefore time-consuming—analytical work. This article provides a (sympathetic) critique of these various bio-concepts, especially as they are applied to the emerging `bio-economy'. In so doing, the article seeks to show that the analysis of the bio-economy could be better framed as a political economy of nothing. This has several implications for science education, which are raised in the article.

  16. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  17. Design of Chebychev’s Low Pass Filters Using Nonuniform Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Attamimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transmission lines are utilized in many applications to convey energy as well as information. Nonuniform transmission lines (NTLs are obtained through variation of the characteristic quantities along the axial direction. Such NTLs can be used to design network elements, like matching circuits, delay equalizers, filters, VLSI interconnections, etc. In this work, NTLs were analyzed with a numerical method based on the implementation of method of moment. In order to approximate the voltage and current distribution along the transmission line, a sum of basis functions with unknown amplitudes was introduced. As basis function, a constant function was used. In this work, we observed several cases such as lossless and lossy uniform transmission lines with matching and arbitrary load. These cases verified the algorithm developed in this work. The second example consists of nonuniform transmission lines in the form of abruptly changing transmission lines. This structure was used to design a Chebychev’s low pass filter. The calculated reflection and transmission factors of the filters showed some coincidences with the measurements.

  18. Integrated circuit amplifiers for multi-electrode intracortical recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Thomas; Denison, Timothy; Wolf, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    Significant progress has been made in systems that interpret the electrical signals of the brain in order to control an actuator. One version of these systems senses neuronal extracellular action potentials with an array of up to 100 miniature probes inserted into the cortex. The impedance of each probe is high, so environmental electrical noise is readily coupled to the neuronal signal. To minimize this noise, an amplifier is placed close to each probe. Thus, the need has arisen for many amplifiers to be placed near the cortex. Commercially available integrated circuits do not satisfy the area, power and noise requirements of this application, so researchers have designed custom integrated-circuit amplifiers. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the neural amplifiers described in publications prior to 2008. Methods to achieve high input impedance, low noise and a large time-constant high-pass filter are reviewed. A tutorial on the biological, electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic phenomena that influence amplifier design is provided. Areas for additional research, including sub-nanoampere electrolysis and chronic cortical heating, are discussed. Unresolved design concerns, including teraohm circuitry, electrical overstress and component failure, are identified.

  19. Basic Guidelines for Application of Performance Standards to Commissioning of DCS Digital Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    V6Z2J7 Canada Gustavo A. Cubas E. 1 Engineered Systems, Inc 2 Seccion De Transmission ATTN: Mr. David Gilfillan Direccion De Ingenieria Y Proyectos 14775...buffering, and and filter delay (for a voice circuit). Propagation delay is independent of data rate, while buffering delay is inversely proportional to...Complexe Des Jardins, 15th Fl. 171 N. Covington Drive 75 Rene Levesque West Bloomingdale, IL 60108 Montreal, PG H2Z Canada DISTRIBUTION LIST Department

  20. Comparison of carbon dioxide emissions with fluid upflow, chemistry, and geologic structures at the Rotorua geothermal system, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Cynthia; Cardellini, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    During 2002 and 2003, carbon dioxide fluxes were measured across the Rotorua geothermal system in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand. The results of a 956-measurement survey and of modeling studies show that CO 2 fluxes could be used to determine the main hot fluid upflow areas in Rotorua, and perhaps in undeveloped geothermal regions. Elevated degassing was observed along inferred fault traces and structures, lending confidence to their existence at depth. Degassing was also observed along lineaments that were consistent with the alignment of basement faulting in the TVZ. Areas where elevated degassing was spatially extensive typically overlapped with known regions of hot ground; however, elevated CO 2 fluxes were also observed in isolated patches of non-thermal ground. The total emission rate calculated from sequential Gaussian simulation modeling of CO 2 fluxes across the geothermal system was 620td -1 from an 8.9-km 2 area. However, because approximately one-third of the geothermal system is known to extend beneath Lake Rotorua, we expect the emissions could be minimally on the order of 1000td -1 . Comparing the emission rate with geochemical analyses of geothermal fluids and estimated upflows suggests that the majority of deep carbon reaches the surface in the form of carbon dioxide gas, and that less than one tenth of the CO 2 emissions is dissolved in, or released from, the fluids at depth. Thus, the geothermal reservoir exerts very little control on deep degassing of CO 2 . Carbon isotopic analyses of soil gases suggest a primarily magmatic source for the origin of the CO 2 . The total Rotorua emission rate is comparable to those from active volcanoes such as at White Island, New Zealand, and, when normalized by geothermal area, is comparable to other volcanic and hydrothermal regions worldwide. (author)