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Sample records for unusual metallic particles

  1. Unusual metal-insulator transition in disordered ferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.; Wölfle, P.; Misra, R.; Hebard, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical interpretation of recent data on the conductance near and farther away from the metal-insulator transition in thin ferromagnetic Gd films of thickness b≈2-10 nm. For increasing sheet resistances a dimensional crossover takes place from d=2 to d=3 dimensions, since the large phase relaxation rate caused by scattering of quasiparticles off spin wave excitations renders the dephasing length L φ ≲b at strong disorder. The conductivity data in the various regimes obey fractional power-law or logarithmic temperature dependence. One observes weak localization and interaction induced corrections at weaker disorder. At strong disorder, near the metal-insulator transition, the data show scaling and collapse onto two scaling curves for the metallic and insulating regimes. We interpret this unusual behavior as proof of two distinctly different correlation length exponents on both sides of the transition.

  2. Evidence for Reduced, Carbon-rich Regions in the Solar Nebula from an Unusual Cometary Dust Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gregorio, Bradley T.; Stroud, Rhonda M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6366, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Nittler, Larry R. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Kilcoyne, A. L. David, E-mail: bradley.degregorio@nrl.navy.mil [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 7R0222, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Geochemical indicators in meteorites imply that most formed under relatively oxidizing conditions. However, some planetary materials, such as the enstatite chondrites, aubrite achondrites, and Mercury, were produced in reduced nebular environments. Because of large-scale radial nebular mixing, comets and other Kuiper Belt objects likely contain some primitive material related to these reduced planetary bodies. Here, we describe an unusual assemblage in a dust particle from comet 81P/Wild 2 captured in silica aerogel by the NASA Stardust spacecraft. The bulk of this ∼20 μ m particle is comprised of an aggregate of nanoparticulate Cr-rich magnetite, containing opaque sub-domains composed of poorly graphitized carbon (PGC). The PGC forms conformal shells around tiny 5–15 nm core grains of Fe carbide. The C, N, and O isotopic compositions of these components are identical within errors to terrestrial standards, indicating a formation inside the solar system. Magnetite compositions are consistent with oxidation of reduced metal, similar to that seen in enstatite chondrites. Similarly, the core–shell structure of the carbide + PGC inclusions suggests a formation via FTT reactions on the surface of metal or carbide grains in warm, reduced regions of the solar nebula. Together, the nanoscale assemblage in the cometary particle is most consistent with the alteration of primary solids condensed from a C-rich, reduced nebular gas. The nanoparticulate components in the cometary particle provide the first direct evidence from comets of reduced, carbon-rich regions that were present in the solar nebula.

  3. Unusual Metals in Galactic Center Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    Far from the galactic suburbs where the Sun resides, a cluster of stars in the nucleus of the Milky Way orbits a supermassive black hole. Can chemical abundance measurements help us understand the formation history of the galactic center nuclear star cluster?Studying Stellar PopulationsMetallicity distributions for stars in the inner two degrees of the Milky Way (blue) and the central parsec (orange). [Do et al. 2018]While many galaxies host nuclear star clusters, most are too distant for us to study in detail; only in the Milky Way can we resolve individual stars within one parsec of a supermassive black hole. The nucleus of our galaxy is an exotic and dangerous place, and its not yet clear how these stars came to be where they are were they siphoned off from other parts of the galaxy, or did they form in place, in an environment rocked by tidal forces?Studying the chemical abundances of stars provides a way to separate distinct stellar populations and discern when and where these stars formed. Previous studies using medium-resolution spectroscopy have revealed that many stars within the central parsec of our galaxy have very high metallicities possibly higher than any other region of the Milky Way. Can high-resolution spectroscopy tell us more about this unusual population of stars?Spectral Lines on DisplayTuan Do (University of California, Los Angeles, Galactic Center Group) and collaborators performed high-resolution spectroscopic observations of two late-type giant starslocated half a parsec from the Milky Ways supermassive black hole.Comparison of the observed spectra of the two galactic center stars (black) with synthetic spectra with low (blue) and high (orange) [Sc/Fe] values. Click to enlarge. [Do et al. 2018]In order to constrain the metallicities of these stars, Do and collaborators compared the observed spectra to a grid of synthetic spectra and used a spectral synthesis technique to determine the abundances of individual elements. They found that

  4. A unique metal-semiconductor interface and resultant electron transfer phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Taft, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    An unusual electron transfer phenomenon has been identified from an n-type semiconductor to Schottky metal particles, the result of a unique metal semiconductor interface that results when the metal particles are grown from the semiconductor substrate. The unique interface acts as a one-way (rectifying) open gateway and was first identified in reduced rutile polycrystalline titanium dioxide (an n-type semiconductor) to Group VIII (noble) metal particles. The interface significantly affects th...

  5. Magnetic field drift shell splitting: Cause of unusual dayside particle pitch angle distributions during storms and substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibeck, D.G.; McEntire, R.W.; Lui, A.T.Y.; Lopez, R.E.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    We present a magnetic field drift shell--splitting model for the unusual butterfly and head-and-shoulder energetic (E>25 keV) particle pitch angle distributions (PADs) which appear deep within the dayside magnetosphere during the course of storms and substorms. Drift shell splitting separates the high and low pitch angle particles in nightside injections as they move to the dayside magnetosphere, so that the higher pitch angle particles move radially away from Earth. Consequently, butterfly PADs with a surplus of low pitch angle particles form on the inner edge of the injection, but head-and-shoulder PADs with a surplus of high pitch angle particles from on the outer edge. A similar process removes high pitch angle particles from the inner dayside magnetosphere during storms, leaving the remaining lower pitch angle particles to form butterfly PADs on the inner edge of the ring current. A detailed case and statistical study of CCE/MEPA observations, as well as a review of previous work, shows most examples of unusual PADs to be consistent with the model. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  6. Radiation heredity: unusual structural-phase states and metallic crystals properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhov, V.D.; Skakov, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Some experimental results allowing to judge about possibilities of unusual structural phase states formation during use irradiation and high temperature treatment of metallic crystals are considered. During study of pure (99.99 %) and especially pure (99.999 %) aluminium it was established, that after heating of preliminary irradiated samples in reactor, and non-irradiated ones up to temperatures above melting point (660 deg C), but not higher than 820 deg C, and cooling an microstructure and substructure of both irradiated and non-irradiated metals have been essentially distinguished with each other. If first of them had typically polycrystal construction, that second one was monocrystal with good developed initial substructure. Radiation effects have been preserved even in liquid metal if it was not overheated higher critical point, which is determined by phase transition from quasi-liquid state to true liquid one. During study of irradiation and postradiation treatment of structure and properties of intermetallides Fe 3 Al it was revealed, that in initially irradiated regulated alloys the radiation effect is preserving at heating of above 0.85 T melt (that essentially exceed order-disorder transition temperature) (550 deg C) in non-irradiated alloys of prolonged exposure and hardening. At that, irradiated-hardened alloy distinguishing from not hardened one by lattice parameter (on 0.1 %), by configuration of nearest surrounding of iron atoms in elementary cell, by regulating extent of different kind of atoms in lattice knocks. It was revealed, that at fluence (5·10 24 n·m 2 ) an appearance of new phases, distinguishing from matrix by component content. It was shown, that irradiation and post-radiation treatment are methods for creation unusual structural-phase states and attach to metals and alloys new properties

  7. Controllable reductive method for synthesizing metal-containing particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Won; Jung, Hyunsung; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Duty, Chad E.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Joshi, Pooran Chandra; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Armstrong, Beth Louise; Smith, Sean Campbell; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Love, Lonnie J.

    2018-03-06

    The invention is directed to a method for producing metal-containing particles, the method comprising subjecting an aqueous solution comprising a metal salt, E.sub.h, lowering reducing agent, pH adjusting agent, and water to conditions that maintain the E.sub.h value of the solution within the bounds of an E.sub.h-pH stability field corresponding to the composition of the metal-containing particles to be produced, and producing said metal-containing particles in said aqueous solution at a selected E.sub.h value within the bounds of said E.sub.h-pH stability field. The invention is also directed to the resulting metal-containing particles as well as devices in which they are incorporated.

  8. The 'Invisible' Metal Particles in Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Muñoz-Paez, A.

    1997-01-01

    An easy, reliable and straightforward method to determine the sizes of small metal particles in supported metal catalyst which are invisible for most techniques (chemisorption, XRD, HRTEM) is presented. The technique we consider more appropriate is EXAFS, because it detects metal metal bonds even

  9. Modelling of non-metallic particles motion process in foundry alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Żak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of non-metallic particles in the selected composites was analysed, in the current study. The calculations of particles floating in liquids differing in viscosity were performed. Simulations based on the Stokes equation were made for spherical SiC particles and additionally the particle size influence on Reynolds number was analysed.The movement of the particles in the liquid metal matrix is strictly connected with the agglomerate formation problem.Some of collisions between non-metallic particles lead to a permanent connection between them. Creation of the two spherical particles and a metallic phase system generates the adhesion force. It was found that the adhesion force mainly depends on the surface tension of the liquid alloy and radius of non-metallic particles.

  10. Separating and recycling metals from mixed metallic particles of crushed electronic wastes by vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-09-15

    During the treatment of electronic wastes, a crushing process is usually used to strip metals from various base plates. Several methods have been applied to separate metals from nonmetals. However, mixed metallic particles obtained from these processes are still a mixture of various metals, including some toxic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. With emphasis on recovering copper and other precious metals, there have hitherto been no satisfactory methods to recover these toxic metals. In this paper, the criterion of separating metals from mixed metallic particles by vacuum metallurgy is built. The results show that the metals with high vapor pressure have been almost recovered completely, leading to a considerable reduction of environmental pollution. In addition, the purity of copper in mixed particles has been improved from about 80 wt % to over 98 wt %.

  11. States of light positive particles in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamt, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The states of light positively charged particles in metals are treated in tight-binding approximation. The polaron states of the particles are investigated. The 'molecular crystal model' and an interstitial model' are treated. Moreover, the particle-lattice coupling of excited particles is treated for fcc and bcc lattices. (BHO)

  12. A method for the separation of non-ferrous metal containing particles from a particle stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weijden, R.D.; Rem, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the recovery of non-ferrous metal-comprising particles from a particle stream. According to the invention, the particle stream is put onto a conveyor belt in the form of a monolayer such that with the aid of a liquid, at least the non-ferrous metal comprising

  13. Laser Pulse Heating of Spherical Metal Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Tribelsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the general problem of laser pulse heating of spherical metal particles with the sizes ranging from nanometers to millimeters. We employ the exact Mie solution of the diffraction problem and solve the heat-transfer equation to determine the maximum temperature rise at the particle surface as a function of optical and thermometric parameters of the problem. Primary attention is paid to the case when the thermal diffusivity of the particle is much larger than that of the environment, as it is in the case of metal particles in fluids. We show that, in this case, for any given duration of the laser pulse, the maximum temperature rise as a function of the particle size reaches a maximum at a certain finite size of the particle. We suggest simple approximate analytical expressions for this dependence, which cover the entire parameter range of the problem and agree well with direct numerical simulations.

  14. Characterization of typical metal particles during haze episodes in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Yang, Xin; Fu, Hongbo; Hu, Qingqing; Zhang, Liwu; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-08-01

    Aerosol particles were collected during three heavy haze episodes at Shanghai in the winter of 2013. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to study the morphology and speciation of typical metal particles at a single-particle level. In addition, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) was applied to identify the speciation of the Fe-containing particles. TEM analysis indicated that various metal-containing particles were hosted by sulfates, nitrates, and oxides. Fe-bearing particles mainly originated from vehicle emissions and/or steel production. Pb-, Zn-, and Sb-bearing particles were mainly contributed by anthropogenic sources. Fe-bearing particles were clustered into six groups by ATOFMS: Fe-Carbon, Fe-Inorganic, Fe-Trace metal, Fe-CN, Fe-PO 3, and Fe-NO 3 . ATOFMS data suggested that Fe-containing particles corresponded to different origins, including industrial activities, resuspension of dusts, and vehicle emissions. Fe-Carbon and Fe-CN particles displayed significant diurnal variation, and high levels were observed during the morning rush hours. Fe-Inorganic and Fe-Trace metal particle levels peaked at night. Furthermore, Fe-Carbon and Fe-PO 3 were mainly concentrated in the fine particles. Fe-CN, Fe-Inorganic, and Fe-Trace metal exhibited bimodal distribution. The mixing state of the particles revealed that all Fe-bearing particles tended to be mixed with sulfate and nitrate. The data presented herein is essential for elucidating the origin, evolution processes, and health effects of metal-bearing particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma polymer-functionalized silica particles for heavy metals removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Highly negatively charged particles were fabricated via an innovative plasma-assisted approach for the removal of heavy metal ions. Thiophene plasma polymerization was used to deposit sulfur-rich films onto silica particles followed by the introduction of oxidized sulfur functionalities, such as sulfonate and sulfonic acid, via water-plasma treatments. Surface chemistry analyses were conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Electrokinetic measurements quantified the zeta potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) of modified particles and indicated significant decreases of zeta potentials and IEPs upon plasma modification of particles. Plasma polymerized thiophene-coated particles treated with water plasma for 10 min exhibited an IEP of less than 3.5. The effectiveness of developed surfaces in the adsorption of heavy metal ions was demonstrated through copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal experiments. The removal of metal ions was examined through changing initial pH of solution, removal time, and mass of particles. Increasing the water plasma treatment time to 20 min significantly increased the metal removal efficiency (MRE) of modified particles, whereas further increasing the plasma treatment time reduced the MRE due to the influence of an ablation mechanism. The developed particulate surfaces were capable of removing more than 96.7% of both Cu and Zn ions in 1 h. The combination of plasma polymerization and oxidative plasma treatment is an effective method for the fabrication of new adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals.

  16. Presentation of an unusual metallic foreign body in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikiran Vernekar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of foreign object is a common problem with children. These foreign bodies (FBs can be in the respiratory tract of the aerodigestive tract. A 14-month-old male child presented to the emergency department of our hospital at 6.30 pm with irritability and continuous crying. On radiology, we found that the metallic body in the shape of a cycle was lodged in the upper esophagus. We decided to remove the FB endoscopically using an esophagoscope. We used meticulous and gentle manipulation around the edge of the metallic FB and did over a sufficient amount of time so as to dislodge the body from the impacted esophageal mucosa without causing any trauma or bleeding from the adjacent site. The child was placed under overnight observation in the hospital. The stay in the hospital was uneventful, and the child was discharged the next day. We would like to present this case due to unusual shape and nature of the FB and the difficulty encountered in clinical management of the patient.

  17. Porous metal oxide particles and their methods of synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Liu, Qiang

    2013-03-12

    Methods are generally disclosed for synthesis of porous particles from a solution formed from a leaving agent, a surfactant, and a soluble metal salt in a solvent. The surfactant congregates to form a nanoparticle core such that the metal salt forms about the nanoparticle core to form a plurality of nanoparticles. The solution is heated such that the leaving agent forms gas bubbles in the solution, and the plurality of nanoparticles congregate about the gas bubbles to form a porous particle. The porous particles are also generally disclosed and can include a particle shell formed about a core to define an average diameter from about 0.5 .mu.m to about 50 .mu.m. The particle shell can be formed from a plurality of nanoparticles having an average diameter of from about 1 nm to about 50 nm and defined by a metal salt formed about a surfactant core.

  18. Light quantum particles in a metallic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegad, P.

    1986-04-01

    The basic mechanism that limits the quantum behavior of light particles are fluctuations in the environment. We here develop a path integral formalism that accounts for the influence of the environment on the quantum motion of such particles. As our prime example we discuss a particle that moves in a tight binding band and interacts with an electron gas environment. This situation has received experimental attention recently in the case of muon diffusion in metals, and in the theoretical discussion of hydrogen on metal surfaces. It is shown that the adiabatic approximation, usually applied to such problems, does not apply. This has basically two consequences. At low temperatures we find that the particle moves in Bloch states with a renormalized (more narrow) band width. For higher temperatures (k B T > W ren ) the Bloch states acquire a lifetime that is shorter than K/W ren , which means a complete breakdown of the Bloch picture. (orig.)

  19. Depositing nanometer-sized particles of metals onto carbon allotropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Fallbach, Michael J. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Delozier, Donavon M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A process for depositing nanometer-sized metal particles onto a substrate in the absence of aqueous solvents, organic solvents, and reducing agents, and without any required pre-treatment of the substrate, includes preparing an admixture of a metal compound and a substrate by dry mixing a chosen amount of the metal compound with a chosen amount of the substrate; and supplying energy to the admixture in an amount sufficient to deposit zero valance metal particles onto the substrate. This process gives rise to a number of deposited metallic particle sizes which may be controlled. The compositions prepared by this process are used to produce polymer composites by combining them with readily available commodity and engineering plastics. The polymer composites are used as coatings, or they are used to fabricate articles, such as free-standing films, fibers, fabrics, foams, molded and laminated articles, tubes, adhesives, and fiber reinforced articles. These articles are well-suited for many applications requiring thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, antibacterial activity, catalytic activity, and combinations thereof.

  20. Electromechanical characterization of individual micron-sized metal coated polymer particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazilchuk, Molly; Kristiansen, Helge [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491 (Norway); Conpart AS, Skjetten 2013 (Norway); Pettersen, Sigurd Rolland; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying, E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491 (Norway)

    2016-06-28

    Micron-sized polymer particles with nanoscale metal coatings are essential in conductive adhesives for electronics assembly. The particles function in a compressed state in the adhesives. The link between mechanical properties and electrical conductivity is thus of the utmost importance in the formation of good electrical contact. A custom flat punch set-up based on nanoindentation has been developed to simultaneously deform and electrically probe individual particles. The set-up has a sufficiently low internal resistance to allow the measurement of sub-Ohm contact resistances. Additionally, the set-up can capture mechanical failure of the particles. Combining this data yields a fundamental understanding of contact behavior. We demonstrate that this method can clearly distinguish between particles of different sizes, with different thicknesses of metal coating, and different metallization schemes. The technique provides good repeatability and physical insight into the behavior of these particles that can guide adhesive design and the optimization of bonding processes.

  1. Electromechanical characterization of individual micron-sized metal coated polymer particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazilchuk, Molly; Kristiansen, Helge; Pettersen, Sigurd Rolland; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    Micron-sized polymer particles with nanoscale metal coatings are essential in conductive adhesives for electronics assembly. The particles function in a compressed state in the adhesives. The link between mechanical properties and electrical conductivity is thus of the utmost importance in the formation of good electrical contact. A custom flat punch set-up based on nanoindentation has been developed to simultaneously deform and electrically probe individual particles. The set-up has a sufficiently low internal resistance to allow the measurement of sub-Ohm contact resistances. Additionally, the set-up can capture mechanical failure of the particles. Combining this data yields a fundamental understanding of contact behavior. We demonstrate that this method can clearly distinguish between particles of different sizes, with different thicknesses of metal coating, and different metallization schemes. The technique provides good repeatability and physical insight into the behavior of these particles that can guide adhesive design and the optimization of bonding processes.

  2. Particle migration and gap healing around trabecular metal implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, O; Kold, S; Zippor, Berit

    2005-01-01

    Bone on-growth and peri-implant migration of polyethylene particles were studied in an experimental setting using trabecular metal and solid metal implants. Cylindrical implants of trabecular tantalum metal and solid titanium alloy implants with a glass bead blasted surface were inserted either i...

  3. Nano-size metallic oxide particle synthesis in Fe-Cr alloys by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Gentils, A.; Ribis, J.; Borodin, V. A.; Delauche, L.; Arnal, B.

    2017-10-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels reinforced with metal oxide nanoparticles are advanced structural materials for nuclear and thermonuclear reactors. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides can help in improving mechanical properties of ODS steels, with a strong impact for their commercialization. A perfect tool to study these mechanisms is ion implantation, where various precipitate synthesis parameters are under control. In the framework of this approach, high-purity Fe-10Cr alloy samples were consecutively implanted with Al and O ions at room temperature and demonstrated a number of unexpected features. For example, oxide particles of a few nm in diameter could be identified in the samples already after ion implantation at room temperature. This is very unusual for ion beam synthesis, which commonly requires post-implantation high-temperature annealing to launch precipitation. The observed particles were composed of aluminium and oxygen, but additionally contained one of the matrix elements (chromium). The crystal structure of aluminium oxide compound corresponds to non-equilibrium cubic γ-Al2O3 phase rather than to more common corundum. The obtained experimental results together with the existing literature data give insight into the physical mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides in ODS alloys.

  4. The Particle Distribution in Liquid Metal with Ceramic Particles Mould Filling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qi; Xing, Shu-ming

    2017-09-01

    Adding ceramic particles in the plate hammer is an effective method to increase the wear resistance of the hammer. The liquid phase method is based on the “with the flow of mixed liquid forging composite preparation of ZTA ceramic particle reinforced high chromium cast iron hammer. Preparation method for this system is using CFD simulation analysis the particles distribution of flow mixing and filling process. Taking the 30% volume fraction of ZTA ceramic composite of high chromium cast iron hammer as example, by changing the speed of liquid metal viscosity to control and make reasonable predictions of particles distribution before solidification.

  5. Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, B. M., E-mail: bmsmirnov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.

  6. Particle production in very-high-energy cosmic-ray emulsion chamber events: Usual and unusual events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C.G.S.; Halzen, F.; Salles, C.

    1995-01-01

    We show that a simple scaling model of very forward particle production, consistent with accelerator and air shower data, can describe the overall features of the very-high-energy interactions recorded with emulsion chambers. The rapidity and transverse momentum distribution of the secondaries are quantitatively reproduced. This is somewhat surprising after numerous claims that the same data implied large scaling violations or new dynamics. Interestingly, we cannot describe some of the Centauro events, suggesting that these events are anomalous independently of their well-advertised unusual features such as the absence of neutral secondaries

  7. Effect of sonication on particle dispersion, administered dose and metal release of non-functionalized, non-inert metal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Sulena; Hedberg, Jonas, E-mail: jhed@kth.se; Blomberg, Eva [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Department of Chemistry (Sweden); Wold, Susanna [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Applied Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry (Sweden); Odnevall Wallinder, Inger [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Department of Chemistry (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    In this study, we elucidate the effect of different sonication techniques to efficiently prepare particle dispersions from selected non-functionalized NPs (Cu, Al, Mn, ZnO), and corresponding consequences on the particle dose, surface charge and release of metals. Probe sonication was shown to be the preferred method for dispersing non-inert, non-functionalized metal NPs (Cu, Mn, Al). However, rapid sedimentation during sonication resulted in differences between the real and the administered doses in the order of 30–80 % when sonicating in 1 and 2.56 g/L NP stock solutions. After sonication, extensive agglomeration of the metal NPs resulted in rapid sedimentation of all particles. DLVO calculations supported these findings, showing the strong van der Waals forces of the metal NPs to result in significant NP agglomeration. Metal release from the metal NPs was slightly increased by increased sonication. The addition of a stabilizing agent (bovine serum albumin) had an accelerating effect on the release of metals in sonicated solutions. For Cu and Mn NPs, the extent of particle dissolution increased from <1.6 to ~5 % after sonication for 15 min. A prolonged sonication time (3–15 min) had negligible effects on the zeta potential of the studied NPs. In all, it is shown that it is of utmost importance to carefully investigate how sonication influences the physico-chemical properties of dispersed metal NPs. This should be considered in nanotoxicology investigations of metal NPs.Graphical Abstract.

  8. A Handy Liquid Metal Based Non-Invasive Electrophoretic Particle Microtrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Tian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A handy liquid metal based non-invasive particle microtrap was proposed and demonstrated in this work. This kind of microtrap can be easily designed and fabricated at any location of a microfluidic chip to perform precise particle trapping and releasing without disturbing the microchannel itself. The microsystem demonstrated in this work utilized silicon oil as the continuous phase and fluorescent particles (PE-Cy5, SPHEROTM Fluorescent Particles, BioLegend, San Diego, CA, USA, 10.5 μm as the target particles. To perform the particle trapping, the micro system utilized liquid-metal-filled microchannels as noncontact electrodes to generate different patterns of electric field inside the fluid channel. According to the experimental results, the target particle can be selectively trapped and released by switching the electric field patterns. For a better understanding the control mechanism, a numerical simulation of the electric field was performed to explain the trapping mechanism. In order to verify the model, additional experiments were performed and are discussed.

  9. THE VERY UNUSUAL INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTION OF 2012 JULY 23: A BLAST WAVE MEDIATED BY SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C. T. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Leske, R. A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mason, G. M. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Von Rosenvinge, T. T. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gomez-Herrero, R. [University of Alcala, E-28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Klassen, A. [Kiel University, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, K. D. C., E-mail: ctrussell@igpp.ucla.edu [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The giant, superfast, interplanetary coronal mass ejection, detected by STEREO A on 2012 July 23, well away from Earth, appears to have reached 1 AU with an unusual set of leading bow waves resembling in some ways a subsonic interaction, possibly due to the high pressures present in the very energetic particles produced in this event. Eventually, a front of record high-speed flow reached STEREO. The unusual behavior of this event is illustrated using the magnetic field, plasma, and energetic ion observations obtained by STEREO. Had the Earth been at the location of STEREO, the large southward-oriented magnetic field component in the event, combined with its high speed, would have produced a record storm.

  10. The magnetohydrodynamic force experienced by spherical iron particles in liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ščepanskis, Mihails; Jakovičs, Andris

    2016-01-01

    The paper contains a theoretical investigation of magnetohydrodynamic force experienced by iron particles (well-conducting and ferromagnetic) in well-conducting liquid. The investigation is performed by extending the Leenov and Kolin's theory to take into account the second-order effect. Therefore, the limits of the parent model are taken over to the present results. It is found that the effective conductivity of iron particles in liquid metal, which is important for practical application of the theoretically obtained force, is approximately equal to 1.5·10"6 S/m. The last result is obtained using a quasi-empirical approach – a comparison of experimental results with the results of the numerical simulation that was performed for various conductivities of the iron particles. - Highlights: • We found the expression of an MHD force experienced by a spherical iron particle in a liquid metal taking into account the second order effect additionally to Leenov & Kolin’s theoretical solution. • We found the effective conductivity of an iron particle in a liquid metal in quasi-empirical way equal to 1.5·10"6 S/m. • It is important to use the expression of an MHD force, which takes into account the second-order effect, as well as the correction for effective conductivity of a particle, to describe behaviour of iron particles in liquid metal flows, which are under influence or induced by the Lorentz force.

  11. Metal uptake by corn grown on media treated with particle-size fractionated biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weiping [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: chenweip@yahoo.com.cn; Chang, Andrew C.; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Zhang, Yongsong [School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 31009 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Particle-size of biosolids may affect plant uptake of heavy metals when the biosolids are land applied. In this study, corn (Zea mays L.) was grown on sand media treated with biosolids to study how particle-size of biosolids affected the plant uptake of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Two biosolids, the Nu-Earth biosolids and the Los Angeles biosolids, of dissimilar surface morphology were utilized. The former exhibited a porous and spongy structure and had considerably greater specific surface area than that of the latter, which was granular and blocky. The specific surface area of the Los Angeles biosolids was inversely proportional to its particle-size, while that of Nu-Earth biosolids did not change significantly with particle-size. For each biosolid, the metal concentrations were not affected by particle sizes. The biomass yields of plants grown on the treated media increased as the biosolid particle-size decreased, indicating that plant uptake of nutrients from biosolids was dependent on interactions at the root-biosolids interface. The effect of particle-size on a metal's availability to plants was element-specific. The uptake rate of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Ni was correlated with the surface area of the particles, i.e., smaller particles having higher specific area provided greater root-biosolids contact and resulted in enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn and slightly less increased uptake of Cu and Ni. The particle morphology of biosolids had limited influence on the plant tissue concentrations of Cr and Pb. For both types of biosolids, total metal uptake increased as biosolid particle-size decreased. Our research indicates that biosolid particle-size distribution plays a deciding role in plant uptake of heavy metals when they are land applied.

  12. Application of vacuum metallurgy to separate pure metal from mixed metallic particles of crushed waste printed circuit board scraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2008-10-15

    The principle of separating pure metal from mixed metallic particles (MMPs) byvacuum metallurgy is that the vapor pressures of various metals at the same temperature are different As a result, the metal with high vapor pressure and low boiling point can be separated from the mixed metals through distillation or sublimation, and then it can be recycled through condensation under a certain condition. The vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) of MMPs of crushed waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) has been studied in this paper. Theoretical analyses show that the MMPs (copper, zinc, bismuth, lead, and indium, for example) can be separated by vacuum metallurgy. The copper particles (0.15-0.20 mm) and zinc particles (<0.30 mm) were chosen to simulate the MMPs of crushed WPCBs. Experimental results show that the separated efficiency of zinc in the copper-rich particles achieves 96.19 wt % when the vacuum pressure is 0.01-0.10 Pa, the heating temperature is 1123 K, and the heating time is 105 min. Under this operation condition, the separated efficiency of zinc in the copper-rich particles from crushed WPCBs achieves 97.00 wt % and the copper purity increases from 90.68 to 99.84 wt %.

  13. A plasmonic spanner for metal particle manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Shi, W.; Shen, Z.; Man, Z.; Min, C.; Shen, J.; Zhu, S.; Urbach, H.P.; Yuan, X.

    2015-01-01

    Typically, metal particles are difficult to manipulate with conventional optical vortex (OV) tweezers, because of their strong absorption and scattering. However, it has been shown that the vortex field of surface plasmonic polaritons, called plasmonic vortex (PV), is capable of stable trapping and

  14. FDTD approach to optical forces of tightly focused vector beams on metal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian-Qi; Wang, Xi-Lin; Jia, Ding; Chen, Jing; Fan, Ya-Xian; Ding, Jianping; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2009-05-11

    We propose an improved FDTD method to calculate the optical forces of tightly focused beams on microscopic metal particles. Comparison study on different kinds of tightly focused beams indicates that trapping efficiency can be altered by adjusting the polarization of the incident field. The results also show the size-dependence of trapping forces exerted on metal particles. Transverse tapping forces produced by different illumination wavelengths are also evaluated. The numeric simulation demonstrates the possibility of trapping moderate-sized metal particles whose radii are comparable to wavelength.

  15. On airborne nano/micro-sized wear particles released from low-metallic automotive brakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukutschova, Jana; Moravec, Pavel; Tomasek, Vladimir; Matejka, Vlastimil; Smolik, Jiri; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Seidlerova, Jana; Safarova, Klara; Filip, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the wear particles released from commercially available 'low-metallic' automotive brake pads subjected to brake dynamometer tests. Particle size distribution was measured in situ and the generated particles were collected. The collected fractions and the original bulk material were analyzed using several chemical and microscopic techniques. The experiments demonstrated that airborne wear particles with sizes between 10 nm and 20 μm were released into the air. The numbers of nanoparticles (<100 nm) were by three orders of magnitude larger when compared to the microparticles. A significant release of nanoparticles was measured when the average temperature of the rotor reached 300 deg. C, the combustion initiation temperature of organics present in brakes. In contrast to particle size distribution data, the microscopic analysis revealed the presence of nanoparticles, mostly in the form of agglomerates, in all captured fractions. The majority of elements present in the bulk material were also detected in the ultra-fine fraction of the wear particles. - Research highlights: → Wear of low-metallic friction composite produces airborne nano-sized particles. → Nano-sized particles contain carbon black and metallic compounds. → Carbon black nano-sized particles are related to resin degradation. → Number of nanoparticles higher by three orders of magnitude than microparticles. - Braking of automobiles may contribute to nano-particulate air pollution caused by friction processes associated with wear of low-metallic brake pads.

  16. Synthesis of ultrasmall Li-Mn spinel oxides exhibiting unusual ion exchange, electrochemical, and catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumi; Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Uematsu, Tsubasa; Oshikawa, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Kosuke; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2015-10-01

    The efficient surface reaction and rapid ion diffusion of nanocrystalline metal oxides have prompted considerable research interest for the development of high functional materials. Herein, we present a novel low-temperature method to synthesize ultrasmall nanocrystalline spinel oxides by controlling the hydration of coexisting metal cations in an organic solvent. This method selectively led to Li-Mn spinel oxides by tuning the hydration of Li+ ions under mild reaction conditions (i.e., low temperature and short reaction time). These particles exhibited an ultrasmall crystallite size of 2.3 nm and a large specific surface area of 371 ± 15 m2 g-1. They exhibited unique properties such as unusual topotactic Li+/H+ ion exchange, high-rate discharge ability, and high catalytic performance for several aerobic oxidation reactions, by creating surface phenomena throughout the particles. These properties differed significantly from those of Li-Mn spinel oxides obtained by conventional solid-state methods.

  17. Synthesis of ultrasmall Li–Mn spinel oxides exhibiting unusual ion exchange, electrochemical, and catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumi; Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Uematsu, Tsubasa; Oshikawa, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Kosuke; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    The efficient surface reaction and rapid ion diffusion of nanocrystalline metal oxides have prompted considerable research interest for the development of high functional materials. Herein, we present a novel low-temperature method to synthesize ultrasmall nanocrystalline spinel oxides by controlling the hydration of coexisting metal cations in an organic solvent. This method selectively led to Li–Mn spinel oxides by tuning the hydration of Li+ ions under mild reaction conditions (i.e., low temperature and short reaction time). These particles exhibited an ultrasmall crystallite size of 2.3 nm and a large specific surface area of 371 ± 15 m2 g−1. They exhibited unique properties such as unusual topotactic Li+/H+ ion exchange, high-rate discharge ability, and high catalytic performance for several aerobic oxidation reactions, by creating surface phenomena throughout the particles. These properties differed significantly from those of Li–Mn spinel oxides obtained by conventional solid-state methods. PMID:26456216

  18. Surface Modification of α-Fe Metal Particles by Chemical Surface Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The structure of α-Fe metal magnetic recording particles coated with silane coupling agents have been studied by TEM, FT-IR, EXAFS, Mossbauer. The results show that a close, uniform, firm and ultra thin layer, which is beneficial to the magnetic and chemical stability, has been formed by the cross-linked chemical bond Si-O-Si. And the organic molecule has chemically bonded to the particle surface, which has greatly affected the surface Fe atom electronic structure. Furthermore, the covalent bond between metal particle surface and organic molecule has obvious effect on the near edge structure of the surface Fe atoms.

  19. Reactivity of surface of metal oxide particles: from adsorption of ions to deposition of colloidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    In this Accreditation to supervise research (HDR), the author proposes an overview of his research works in the field of chemistry. These works more particularly addressed the understanding of the surface reactivity of metal oxide particles and its implication on sorption and adherence processes. In a first part, he addresses the study of surface acidity-alkalinity: measurement of surface reactivity by acid-base titration, stability of metal oxides in suspension, effect of morphology on oxide-hydroxide reactivity. The second part addresses the study of sorption: reactivity of iron oxides with selenium species, sorption of sulphate ions on magnetite, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). Adherence effects are addressed in the third part: development of an experimental device to study adherence in massive substrates, deposition of particles under turbulent flow. The last part presents a research project on the effect of temperature on ion sorption at solids/solutions interfaces, and on the adherence of metal oxide particles. The author gives his detailed curriculum, and indicates his various publications, teaching activities, research and administrative responsibilities

  20. Spot Ignition of Natural Fuels by Hot Metal Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, James Linwood

    2017-01-01

    The spot ignition of combustible material by hot metal particles is an important pathway by which wildland and urban spot fires and smolders are started. Upon impact with a fuel, such as dry grass, duff, or saw dust, these particles can initiate spot fires by direct flaming or smoldering which can transition to a flame. These particles can be produced by processes such as welding, powerline interactions, fragments from bullet impacts, abrasive cutting, and pyrotechnics. There is little publi...

  1. Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-08-01

    The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O{sub 3}, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than {approx}8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals.

  2. Isolation and dispersion of reduced metal particles using the surface dipole moment of F-terminated diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Furuta, M. [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, School of Science, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Kondo, T. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Fujishima, A. [Kanagawa Advanced Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1, Sakato, Takastu-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Honda, K. [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, School of Science, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: khonda@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    2009-04-30

    Cu particles that have been reductively generated at the oxidized surface of a boron-doped diamond electrode (O-BDD) can be removed from the electrode's surface by the repulsive electrostatic force of the surface dipole moment during a potential cycle of a solution of Cu{sup 2+} ions. The objective of this study was to isolate various metal particles other than Cu by use of a fluorine-terminated BDD surface (F-BDD) with a stronger surface dipole moment than O-BDD, and to clarify the mechanism of the metal particles' separation from the electrode. During the potential cycle treatment of Cu{sup 2+} ions using F-BDD, the reionization of the reduced Cu could be suppressed in the presence of dissolved oxygen, and the Cu particles were separated from the electrode surface as CuO. A similar result was seen with O-BDD. The degree of separation of the Cu particles could be drastically enhanced by raising the upper potential limit in the potential cycle from +0.2 to +0.8 V. By setting the upper potential to a potential greater than the metal-metal oxide equilibrium line in the potential-pH equilibrium diagram of the Cu-water system (Pourbaix Diagram), oxidation of the reduced metal surface by reaction with dissolved oxygen could be accelerated and the surface of metal particles could be insulated. The Cu particles were forced from the BDD surface by the electrostatic repulsion from the surface dipole moment of F-BDD. Also, it turned out that the physical adsorption of chloride ions (Cl{sup -}) on the electrode surface intensified the electrostatic repulsive force between the F- or O-BDD surface and the metal particles, and thus increased the degree of the metal particles' separation. For Zn with a metal-metal oxide equilibrium potential of approximately -0.8 V at pH 7, complete separation of the Zn particles was achieved with F-BDD by setting the upper potential limit to +0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), decreasing the Zn{sup 2+} concentration (1/10 that of Cu{sup 2

  3. Numerical Simulations of Particle Deposition in Metal Foam Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Emilie; Saha, Suvash C.; Gu, Yuantong

    2013-01-01

    Australia is a high-potential country for geothermal power with reserves currently estimated in the tens of millions of petajoules, enough to power the nation for at least 1000 years at current usage. However, these resources are mainly located in isolated arid regions where water is scarce. Therefore, wet cooling systems for geothermal plants in Australia are the least attractive solution and thus air-cooled heat exchangers are preferred. In order to increase the efficiency of such heat exchangers, metal foams have been used. One issue raised by this solution is the fouling caused by dust deposition. In this case, the heat transfer characteristics of the metal foam heat exchanger can dramatically deteriorate. Exploring the particle deposition property in the metal foam exchanger becomes crucial. This paper is a numerical investigation aimed to address this issue. Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of a standard one-row tube bundle wrapped with metal foam in cross-flow are performed and highlight preferential particle deposition areas.

  4. Nanostructured films of metal particles obtained by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz-Miranda, M., E-mail: muniz@unifi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Gellini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giorgetti, E.; Margheri, G.; Marsili, P. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lascialfari, L.; Becucci, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Trigari, S. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giammanco, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    Colloidal dispersions of silver and gold nanoparticles were obtained in pure water by ablation with nanosecond pulsed laser. Then, by filtration of the metal particles on alumina, we fabricated nanostructured films, whose surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) after adsorption of adenine. - Highlights: • Ag and Au colloidal nanoparticles were obtained by laser ablation. • Nanostructured Ag and Au films were fabricated by filtration of metal nanoparticles. • Surface morphology of metal films was investigated by atomic force microscopy. • Surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of adenine on metal films were obtained. • SERS enhancements were related to the surface roughness of the metal films.

  5. Electrochemical method for synthesizing metal-containing particles and other objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinone, Adam Justin; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Smith, Sean Campbell; Liang, Chengdu; Hensley, Dale K.; Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2017-05-02

    The invention is directed to a method for producing metal-containing (e.g., non-oxide, oxide, or elemental) nano-objects, which may be nanoparticles or nanowires, the method comprising contacting an aqueous solution comprising a metal salt and water with an electrically powered electrode to form said metal-containing nano-objects dislodged from the electrode, wherein said electrode possesses a nanotextured surface that functions to confine the particle growth process to form said metal-containing nano-objects. The invention is also directed to the resulting metal-containing compositions as well as devices in which they are incorporated.

  6. In situ growth of metal particles on 3D urchin-like WO3 nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Guangcheng; Ye, Jinhua; Ma, Qiang; Su, Ning; Bai, Hua; Wang, Chao

    2012-04-18

    Metal/semiconductor hybrid materials of various sizes and morphologies have many applications in areas such as catalysis and sensing. Various organic agents are necessary to stabilize metal nanoparticles during synthesis, which leads to a layer of organic compounds present at the interfaces between the metal particles and the semiconductor supports. Generally, high-temperature oxidative treatment is used to remove the organics, which can extensively change the size and morphology of the particles, in turn altering their activity. Here we report a facile method for direct growth of noble-metal particles on WO(3) through an in situ redox reaction between weakly reductive WO(2.72) and oxidative metal salts in aqueous solution. This synthetic strategy has the advantages that it takes place in one step and requires no foreign reducing agents, stabilizing agents, or pretreatment of the precursors, making it a practical method for the controlled synthesis of metal/semiconductor hybrid nanomaterials. This synthetic method may open up a new way to develop metal-nanoparticle-loaded semiconductor composites. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  7. Tailoring the synthesis of supported Pd catalysts towards desired structure and size of metal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Gatla; Radnik, Jörg; Kalevaru, Venkata Narayana; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Schneider, Matthias; Lücke, Bernhard; Martin, Andreas; Madaan, Neetika; Brückner, Angelika

    2010-05-14

    In a systematic study, the influence of different preparation parameters on phase composition and size of metal crystallites and particles in Pd-Cu/TiO(2) and Pd-Sb/TiO(2) catalyst materials has been explored. Temperature and atmosphere of thermal pretreatment (pure He or 10% H(2)/He), nature of metal precursors (chlorides, nitrates or acetates) as well as of ammonium additives (ammonium sulfate, nitrate, carbonate) and urea were varied with the aim of tailoring the synthesis procedure for the preferential formation of metal particles with similar size and structure as observed recently in active catalysts after long-term equilibration under catalytic reaction conditions in acetoxylation of toluene to benzylacetate. Among the metal precursors and additives, the chloride metal precursors and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) were most suitable. Upon thermal pretreatment of Pd-Sb or Pd-Cu precursors, chloroamine complexes of Pd and Cu are formed, which decompose above 220 degrees C to metallic phases independent of the atmosphere. In He, metallic Pd particles were formed with both the co-components. In H(2)/He flow, Pd-Cu precursors were converted to core-shell particles with a Cu shell and a Pd core, while Sb(1)Pd(1) and Sb(7)Pd(20) alloy phases were formed in the presence of Sb. Metal crystallites of about 40 nm agglomerate to particles of up to 150 nm in He and to even larger size in H(2)/He.

  8. Control of Partial Coalescence of Self-Assembled Metal Nano-Particles across Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Templates towards Long Range Meso-Porous Metal Frameworks Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic F. Dumée

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of purely metallic meso-porous metal thin films by partial interface coalescence of self-assembled metal nano-particles across aqueous solutions of Pluronics triblock lyotropic liquid crystals is demonstrated for the first time. Small angle X-ray scattering was used to study the influence of the thin film composition and processing conditions on the ordered structures. The structural characteristics of the meso-structures formed demonstrated to primarily rely on the lyotropic liquid crystal properties while the nature of the metal nano-particles used as well as the their diameters were found to affect the ordered structure formation. The impact of the annealing temperature on the nano-particle coalescence and efficiency at removing the templating lyotropic liquid crystals was also analysed. It is demonstrated that the lyotropic liquid crystal is rendered slightly less thermally stable, upon mixing with metal nano-particles and that low annealing temperatures are sufficient to form purely metallic frameworks with average pore size distributions smaller than 500 nm and porosity around 45% with potential application in sensing, catalysis, nanoscale heat exchange, and molecular separation.

  9. Metal Particles – Hazard or Risk? Elaboration and Implementation of a Research Strategy from a Surface and Corrosion Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Midander, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Do metal particles (including particles of pure metals, alloys, metal oxides and compounds) pose a hazard or risk to human health? In the light of this question, this thesis summarizes results from research conducted on metal particles, and describes the elaboration and implementation of an in vitro test methodology to study metal release from particles through corrosion and dissolution processes in synthetic biological media relevant for human exposure through inhalation/ingestion and dermal...

  10. Individual metal-bearing particles in a regional haze caused by firecracker and firework emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weijun [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); State Key of Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Shi, Zongbo [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Yan, Chao; Yang, Lingxiao; Dong, Can; Wang, Wenxing [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Intensive firecracker/firework displays during Chinese New Year (CNY) release fine particles and gaseous pollutants into the atmosphere, which may lead to serious air pollution. We monitored ambient PM{sub 2.5} and black carbon (BC) concentrations at a regional background site in the Yellow River Delta region during the CNY in 2011. Our monitoring data and MOUDI images showed that there was a haze event during the CNY. Daily average PM{sub 2.5} concentration reached 183 μg m{sup −3} during the CNY, which was six times higher than that before and after the CNY. Similarly, the black carbon (BC) concentrations were elevated during the CNY. In order to confirm whether the firecracker/firework related emission is the main source of the haze particles, we further analyzed the morphology and chemical composition of individual airborne particles collected before, during and after the CNY by using transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM/EDS). We found that sulfate and organic-rich particles were dominant in the atmosphere before and after the CNY. In contrast, K-rich sulfates and other metal (e.g., Ba-rich, Al-rich, Mg-rich, and Fe-rich) particles were much more abundant than ammoniated sulfate particles during the CNY. These data suggest that it was the aerosol particles from the firecracker/firework emissions that induced the regional haze episode during the CNY. In individual organic and K-rich particles, we often found more than two types of nano-metal particles. These metal-bearing particles also contained abundant S but not Cl. In contrast, fresh metal-bearing particles from firecrackers generated in the laboratory contained abundant Cl with minor amounts of S. This indicates that the firecracker/firework emissions during the CNY significantly changed the atmospheric transformation pathway of SO{sub 2} to sulfate. - Highlights: ► TEM was used to observe the aged individual particles from firecrackers

  11. Individual metal-bearing particles in a regional haze caused by firecracker and firework emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weijun; Shi, Zongbo; Yan, Chao; Yang, Lingxiao; Dong, Can; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-01-01

    Intensive firecracker/firework displays during Chinese New Year (CNY) release fine particles and gaseous pollutants into the atmosphere, which may lead to serious air pollution. We monitored ambient PM 2.5 and black carbon (BC) concentrations at a regional background site in the Yellow River Delta region during the CNY in 2011. Our monitoring data and MOUDI images showed that there was a haze event during the CNY. Daily average PM 2.5 concentration reached 183 μg m −3 during the CNY, which was six times higher than that before and after the CNY. Similarly, the black carbon (BC) concentrations were elevated during the CNY. In order to confirm whether the firecracker/firework related emission is the main source of the haze particles, we further analyzed the morphology and chemical composition of individual airborne particles collected before, during and after the CNY by using transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM/EDS). We found that sulfate and organic-rich particles were dominant in the atmosphere before and after the CNY. In contrast, K-rich sulfates and other metal (e.g., Ba-rich, Al-rich, Mg-rich, and Fe-rich) particles were much more abundant than ammoniated sulfate particles during the CNY. These data suggest that it was the aerosol particles from the firecracker/firework emissions that induced the regional haze episode during the CNY. In individual organic and K-rich particles, we often found more than two types of nano-metal particles. These metal-bearing particles also contained abundant S but not Cl. In contrast, fresh metal-bearing particles from firecrackers generated in the laboratory contained abundant Cl with minor amounts of S. This indicates that the firecracker/firework emissions during the CNY significantly changed the atmospheric transformation pathway of SO 2 to sulfate. - Highlights: ► TEM was used to observe the aged individual particles from firecrackers/fireworks during the Chinese New

  12. Ranges of ions in metals for use in particle treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaekel, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    In proton and ion radiotherapy, the range of particles is calculated from x-ray computed tomography (CT) numbers. Due to the strong absorption of x-rays in a metal and a cut-off for large Hounsfield units (HU) in the software of most CT-scanners, a range calculation in metals cannot be based on the measured HU. This is of special importance when metal implants such as gold fillings or hip prostheses are close to the treatment volume. In order to overcome this problem in treatment planning for heavy charged particles, the correct ranges of ions in the metal relative to water have to be assigned in the CT data. Measurements and calculations of carbon ion ranges in various metals are presented that can be used in treatment planning to allow for a more accurate range calculation of carbon ion beams in titanium, steel, tungsten and gold. The suggested values for the relative water-equivalent range and their uncertainties are 3.13 (±3%) for titanium, 5.59 (±3%) for stainless steel and 10.25 (±4%) for gold. (note)

  13. Data on the histological and immune cell response in the popliteal lymph node in mice following exposure to metal particles and ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Winans

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hip implants containing cobalt–chromium (CoCr have been used for over 80 years. In patients with metal-on-metal (MoM hip implants, it has been suggested that wear debris particles may contribute to metal sensitization in some individuals, leading to adverse reactions. This article presents data from a study in which the popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA was used to assess immune responses in mice treated with chromium-oxide (Cr2O3 particles, metal salts (CoCl2, CrCl3, and NiCl2 or Cr2O3 particles with metal salts (“A preliminary evaluation of immune stimulation following exposure to metal particles and ions using the mouse popliteal lymph node assay” (B.E. Tvermoes, K.M. Unice, B. Winans, M. Kovochich, E.S. Fung, W.V. Christian, E. Donovan, B.L. Finley, B.L. Kimber, I. Kimber, D.J. Paustenbach, 2016 [1]. Data are presented on (1 the chemical characterization of TiO2 particles (used as a particle control, (2 clinical observations in mice treated with Cr2O3 particles, metal salts or Cr2O3 particles with metal salts, (3 PLN weight and weight index (WI in mice treated with Cr2O3 particles, metal salts or Cr2O3 particles with metal salts, (4 histological changes in PLNs of mice treated with Cr2O3 particles, metal salts or Cr2O3 particles with metal salts, (5 percentages of immune cells in the PLNs of mice treated with Cr2O3 particles, metal salts or Cr2O3 particles with metal salts, and (6 percentages of proliferating cells in the PLNs of mice treated with Cr2O3 particles, metal salts or Cr2O3 particles with metal salts.

  14. Role of particle size and composition in metal adsorption by solids deposited on urban road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-01-01

    Despite common knowledge that the metal content adsorbed by fine particles is relatively higher compared to coarser particles, the reasons for this phenomenon have gained little research attention. The research study discussed in the paper investigated the variations in metal content for different particle sizes of solids associated with pollutant build-up on urban road surfaces. Data analysis confirmed that parameters favourable for metal adsorption to solids such as specific surface area, organic carbon content, effective cation exchange capacity and clay forming minerals content decrease with the increase in particle size. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of solids was found to be the governing factor influencing the specific surface area and effective cation exchange capacity. There is high quartz content in particles >150 μm compared to particles <150 μm. As particle size reduces below 150 μm, the clay forming minerals content increases, providing favourable physical and chemical properties that influence adsorption. -- Highlights: • Physico-chemical parameters investigated in build-up samples from 32 road surfaces. • Mineralogical composition primarily governs the physico-chemical characteristics. • High clay forming mineral content in fine solids increases SSA and ECEC. • Characteristics influenced by quartz and amorphous content with particle size. • High quartz content in coarse particles contributes reduced metal adsorption. -- The mineralogical composition of solids is the governing factor influencing metal adsorption to solids in pollutant build-up on urban surfaces

  15. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  16. Experimental and numerical study on penetration of micro/nano diamond particle into metal by underwater shock wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tanaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop composite materials, new attempting was conducted. When an explosive is exploded in water, underwater shock wave is generated. Metal plate is accelerated by the underwater shock wave and collided with diamond particles at high velocity. In this paper, pure aluminum and magnesium alloy plates are used as matrix. Micro and nano sized diamond particles were used as reinforcement. Micro diamond particles were closely coated on metal surface. Some of micro diamond particles were penetrated into aluminum. Improvement of base metal property (wearing resistance was verified by wear test for recovering metal plate. In order to confirm the deformation of the aluminum plate during the collision with diamond particles, simplified numerical simulation was conducted by using LS-DYNA software. From the result of numerical simulation, large deformation of aluminum and process of particle penetration were verified.

  17. Tensile flow stress of ceramic particle-reinforced metal in the presence of particle cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rossoll, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: andreas.rossoll@epfl.ch; Weber, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bourke, M.A.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), LANSCE-12, P.O. Box 1663, MS H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dunand, D.C. [Northwestern University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Mortensen, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    A simplified model is proposed to quantify the effect of damage in the form of particle cracking on the elastic and plastic behaviour of particle-reinforced metal matrix composites under uniaxial tensile loading: cracked particles are simply replaced, in a mean-field model, with as much matrix. Pure aluminium reinforced with 44 vol.% alumina particles, tested in tension and unloaded at periodic plastic deformations, is analysed by neutron diffraction during each reloading elastic step, at 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of the tensile flow stress. The data give the evolution of the elastic matrix strains in the composite and also measure the progress of internal damage by particle cracking. The test gives (i) the evolution of the in situ matrix flow stress, and (ii) the evolution of load partitioning during elastic deformation with increasing composite damage. Predictions of the present model compare favourably with relevant results in the literature, and with results from the present neutron diffraction experiments.

  18. Tensile flow stress of ceramic particle-reinforced metal in the presence of particle cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.; Rossoll, A.; Weber, L.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Dunand, D.C.; Mortensen, A.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified model is proposed to quantify the effect of damage in the form of particle cracking on the elastic and plastic behaviour of particle-reinforced metal matrix composites under uniaxial tensile loading: cracked particles are simply replaced, in a mean-field model, with as much matrix. Pure aluminium reinforced with 44 vol.% alumina particles, tested in tension and unloaded at periodic plastic deformations, is analysed by neutron diffraction during each reloading elastic step, at 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of the tensile flow stress. The data give the evolution of the elastic matrix strains in the composite and also measure the progress of internal damage by particle cracking. The test gives (i) the evolution of the in situ matrix flow stress, and (ii) the evolution of load partitioning during elastic deformation with increasing composite damage. Predictions of the present model compare favourably with relevant results in the literature, and with results from the present neutron diffraction experiments

  19. Synthesis of nanosized metal particles from an aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles from the precursor solution of salts using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method was considered in this work. During the control of process parameters (surface tension and density, the concentration of solution, residence time of aerosol in the reactor, presence of additives, gas flow rate, decomposition temperature of aerosol, type of precursor and working atmosphere it is possible to guide the process in order to obtain powders with such a morphology which satisfies more complex requirements for the desired properties of advanced engineering materials.  Significant advance in the improvement of powder characteristics (lower particles sizes, better spheroidity, higher surface area was obtained by the application of the ultrasonic generator for the preparation of aerosols. Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is performed by the action of a powerful source of ultrasound on the corresponding precursor solution forming the aerosol with a constant droplet size, which depends on the characteristics of liquid and the frequency of ultrasound. The produced aerosols were transported into the hot reactor, which enables the reaction to occur in a very small volume of a particle and formation of  nanosized powder. Spherical, nanosized particles of metals (Cu, Ag, Au, Co were produced with new and improved physical and chemical characteristics at the IME, RWTH Aachen University. The high costs associated with small quantities of produced nanosized particles represent a limitation of the USP-method. Therefore, scale up of the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis was performed as a final target in the synthesis of nanosized powder.

  20. Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. E.

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal particles are described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF). The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. The BECNF theory is also a quantitative predictive physical theory. Experimental tests of the basic assumption and theoretical predictions are proposed. Potential application to energy generation by ignition at low temperatures is described. Generalized theory of BECNF is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recently reported experimental results for hydrogen-nickel system. (author)

  1. Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. E.

    2013-03-01

    Low-energy nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal particles are described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF). The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. The BECNF theory is also a quantitative predictive physical theory. Experimental tests of the basic assumption and theoretical predictions are proposed. Potential application to energy generation by ignition at low temperatures is described. Generalized theory of BECNF is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recently reported experimental results for hydrogen-nickel system.

  2. Impact of metal-ion contaminated silica particles on gate oxide integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Ingrid; Wali, F.; Knotter, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of metal-ion contamination (present on wafer surface before oxidation) on gate oxide integrity (GOI) is well known in literature, which is not the case for clean silica particles [1, 2]. However, it is known that particles present in ultra-pure water (UPW) decrease the random yield in

  3. Insights into metals in individual fine particles from municipal solid waste using synchrotron radiation-based micro-analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yumin; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2015-01-01

    Excessive inter-contamination with heavy metals hampers the application of biological treatment products derived from mixed or mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW). In this study, we investigated fine particles of heavy metal content, using bulk detection techniques. A total of 17 individual fine particles were evaluated using synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray diffraction. We also discussed the association, speciation and source apportionment of heavy metals. Metals were found to exist in a diffuse distribution with heterogeneous intensities and intense hot-spots of metals revealed the potential sources of fine particles from size-reduced waste fractions (such as scraps of organic wastes or ceramics) or from the importation of other particles. The diverse sources of heavy metal pollutants within the fine particles suggested that separate collection and treatment of the biodegradable waste fraction (such as food waste) is a preferable means of facilitating the beneficial utilization of the stabilized products. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. An approach to calculating metal particle detection in lubrication oil based on a micro inductive sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Zhang, Hongpeng

    2017-12-01

    A new microfluidic chip is presented to enhance the sensitivity of a micro inductive sensor, and an approach to coil inductance change calculation is introduced for metal particle detection in lubrication oil. Electromagnetic knowledge is used to establish a mathematical model of an inductive sensor for metal particle detection, and the analytic expression of coil inductance change is obtained by a magnetic vector potential. Experimental verification is carried out. The results show that copper particles 50-52 µm in diameter have been detected; the relative errors between the theoretical and experimental values are 7.68% and 10.02% at particle diameters of 108-110 µm and 50-52 µm, respectively. The approach presented here can provide a theoretical basis for an inductive sensor in metal particle detection in oil and other areas of application.

  5. NOTE: Ranges of ions in metals for use in particle treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Oliver

    2006-05-01

    In proton and ion radiotherapy, the range of particles is calculated from x-ray computed tomography (CT) numbers. Due to the strong absorption of x-rays in a metal and a cut-off for large Hounsfield units (HU) in the software of most CT-scanners, a range calculation in metals cannot be based on the measured HU. This is of special importance when metal implants such as gold fillings or hip prostheses are close to the treatment volume. In order to overcome this problem in treatment planning for heavy charged particles, the correct ranges of ions in the metal relative to water have to be assigned in the CT data. Measurements and calculations of carbon ion ranges in various metals are presented that can be used in treatment planning to allow for a more accurate range calculation of carbon ion beams in titanium, steel, tungsten and gold. The suggested values for the relative water-equivalent range and their uncertainties are 3.13 (±3%) for titanium, 5.59 (±3%) for stainless steel and 10.25 (±4%) for gold.

  6. Oxalate metal complexes in aerosol particles: implications for the hygroscopicity of oxalate-containing particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to weaken the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play an important role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is an important component of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected for this purpose using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid is hygroscopic and can thus increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, while complexes with various polyvalent metal ions such as Ca and Zn are not hygroscopic, which cannot contribute to the increase of the CCN activity of aerosols. Based on the concentrations of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not always increase the hygroscopicity of aerosols in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is advisable that the cooling effect of organic aerosols should be estimated by including the

  7. Rapid laser sintering of metal nano-particles inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermak, Oleg; Zenou, Michael; Toker, Gil Bernstein; Ankri, Jonathan; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Kotler, Zvi

    2016-09-23

    Fast sintering is of importance in additive metallization processes and especially on sensitive substrates. This work explores the mechanisms which set limits to the laser sintering rate of metal nano-particle inks. A comparison of sintering behavior of three different ink compositions with laser exposure times from micro-seconds to seconds reveals the dominant factor to be the organic content (OC) in the ink. With a low OC silver ink, of 2% only, sintering time falls below 100 μs with resistivity <×4 bulk silver. Still shorter exposure times result in line delamination and deformation with a similar outcome when the OC is increased.

  8. Leaching of metals from sewage sludge during one year and their relationship to particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, G.; Gustafsson, O.; Wedel, P.

    2006-01-01

    Leaching of metals from sewage sludge can lead to their accumulation in topsoil and can also contaminate groundwater. Our objectives were to document the metal leachates and the size distribution of leached particles from sewage sludge and to identify possible correlations with physical factors. Results from monthly lysimeter sampling showed an initial release followed by decline for most metals. Cadmium, Ca, Sr, Li, Mn, Ni and Zn showed a 'cyclic' behaviour. Filtration revealed that this 'cyclicity' had no correlation to the size of released particles, but Al, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ag and Pb were clearly related to release of coarser particles most of the year. Total metal amounts leached during one year, relative to original sludge content, had the order Na > Ca = Mg > Mn > Sr > Zn > K > Li = Ni > Cd > Co > Rb > Ag > Cr > Ba = Cu > Ga > Al = Pb = Fe. There were no simple correlations between monthly measured leachate concentrations and precipitation, temperature or pH of precipitation. Occasional leachate sampling might give misleading values for metals with 'cyclic' behaviour. - Cyclic leaching patterns of metals from sewage sludge deserve attention

  9. Refractory metal particles in refractory inclusions in the Allende meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, L.H.; Blander, M.

    1980-01-01

    An examination of refractory metal particles in five calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in the Allende meteorite indicates a complex variety of compositions and large departures from equilibrium. These particles appear to have been primordial condensates which were isolated from the nebula and from each other at different times by cocondensing oxides. Selective diffusion and/or oxidation of the more oxidizable metals (Mo, W, Fe and Ni), phase segregations into different alloy phases (fcc, bcc, hcp and perhaps ordered phases) and the formation of metastable condensates appears to have been involved in the modification of these materials to their present state. Only a small fraction of our observations cannot be reconciled with this picture because of a lack of knowledge of some of the phase equilibria which might have bee involved

  10. Cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured in vitro with metal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachinho, Sandra C P; Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A

    2013-04-01

    The failure of implanted medical devices can be associated with changes in the production of cytokines by cells of the immune system. Cytokines released by peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon contact with metal particles were quantified to understand their role in implantation intergration and their importance as messengers in the recruitment of T-lymphocytes at the implantation site. Opsonization was utilised to understand the influence of serum proteins on particle-induced cytokine production and release. Different metal compositions were used in the particulate format, Titanium (Ti), Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), and Stainless Steel 316L (SS), and were cultured in vitro with a mixed population of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes. The cells were also exposed to an exogenous stimulant mixture of phytohemagglutinin-P and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and opsonized particles with human serum. Interleukins, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as they are an indicator of the inflammation evoked by particulate metals. It has been experimentally evidenced that metal particles induced higher amounts of IL-6 and IL-1 but very low amounts of TNF-α. T-lymphocyte activation was evaluated by the quantification of IL-2 and IFN-γ levels. The results showed that nonopsonized and opsonized metal particles did not induce the release of increased levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. An Unusual Pseudo-Coordination Polymer of Dithia-18-Crown-6 with Heavy Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Gyeongchan; Park, Inhyeok; Lee, Shimsung

    2012-01-01

    The assembly reactions of 1,10-dithia-18-crown-6 (L) with mercury(II) and/or cadmium(II) salts provide metallosupramolecules with the unusual arrangement due to the formation of the mercury(II) halides (chloride and iodide) clusters which locate outside the macrocyclic cavity. In the reaction with mercury(II) chloride, we were able to isolate the 1D pseudo-coordination polymer 1 which resembles the ivy leaves. In 1, it is considered that the 1D zigzag array of Hg-Cl-Hg-Cl chain as a leaf-stem and the macrocyclic complexes as leaves. While, from the reaction of mercury(II) iodide and cadmium(II) iodide mixture, the discrete complex 2 with two macrocyclic cadmium(II) complex cation parts and one mercury(II) iodide cluster anion part was isolated. In both cases, each metal center is seven-coordinate, being bound to all the donors of L, with its seventh site being occupied by one halide atom, adopting a distorted monocapped trigonal prism

  12. An Unusual Pseudo-Coordination Polymer of Dithia-18-Crown-6 with Heavy Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Gyeongchan [Yeosu High School, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Inhyeok; Lee, Shimsung [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The assembly reactions of 1,10-dithia-18-crown-6 (L) with mercury(II) and/or cadmium(II) salts provide metallosupramolecules with the unusual arrangement due to the formation of the mercury(II) halides (chloride and iodide) clusters which locate outside the macrocyclic cavity. In the reaction with mercury(II) chloride, we were able to isolate the 1D pseudo-coordination polymer 1 which resembles the ivy leaves. In 1, it is considered that the 1D zigzag array of Hg-Cl-Hg-Cl chain as a leaf-stem and the macrocyclic complexes as leaves. While, from the reaction of mercury(II) iodide and cadmium(II) iodide mixture, the discrete complex 2 with two macrocyclic cadmium(II) complex cation parts and one mercury(II) iodide cluster anion part was isolated. In both cases, each metal center is seven-coordinate, being bound to all the donors of L, with its seventh site being occupied by one halide atom, adopting a distorted monocapped trigonal prism.

  13. The critical particle size for enhancing thermal conductivity in metal nanoparticle-polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zexi; Wang, Yan; Ruan, Xiulin

    2018-02-01

    Polymers used as thermal interface materials are often filled with high-thermal conductivity particles to enhance the thermal performance. Here, we have combined molecular dynamics and the two-temperature model in 1D to investigate the impact of the metal filler size on the overall thermal conductivity. A critical particle size has been identified above which thermal conductivity enhancement can be achieved, caused by the interplay between high particle thermal conductivity and the added electron-phonon and phonon-phonon thermal boundary resistance brought by the particle fillers. Calculations on the SAM/Au/SAM (self-assembly-monolayer) system show a critical thickness Lc of around 10.8 nm. Based on the results, we define an effective thermal conductivity and propose a new thermal circuit analysis approach for the sandwiched metal layer that can intuitively explain simulation and experimental data. The results show that when the metal layer thickness decreases to be much smaller than the electron-phonon cooling length (or as the "thin limit"), the effective thermal conductivity is just the phonon portion, and electrons do not participate in thermal transport. As the thickness increases to the "thick limit," the effective thermal conductivity recovers the metal bulk value. Several factors that could affect Lc are discussed, and it is discovered that the thermal conductivity, thermal boundary resistance, and the electron-phonon coupling factor are all important in controlling Lc.

  14. Chemodynamics of metal ion complexation by charged nanoparticles: a dimensionless rationale for soft, core-shell and hard particle types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L

    2017-05-17

    Soft nanoparticulate complexants are defined by a spatial confinement of reactive sites and electric charges inside their 3D body. In turn, their reactivity with metal ions differs significantly from that of simple molecular ligands. A revisited form of the Eigen mechanism recently elucidated the processes leading to metal/soft particle pair formation. Depending on e.g. particle size and metal ion nature, chemodynamics of nanoparticulate metal complexes is controlled by metal conductive diffusion to/from the particles, by intraparticulate complex formation/dissociation kinetics, or by both. In this study, a formalism is elaborated to achieve a comprehensive and systematic identification of the rate-limiting step governing the overall formation and dissociation of nanoparticulate metal complexes. The theory covers the different types of spherical particulate complexants, i.e. 3D soft/permeable and core-shell particles, and hard particles with reactive sites at the surface. The nature of the rate-limiting step is formulated by a dynamical criterion involving a power law function of the ratio between particle radius and an intraparticulate reaction layer thickness defined by the key electrostatic, diffusional and kinetic components of metal complex formation/dissociation. The analysis clarifies the intertwined contributions of particle properties (size, soft or hard type, charge, density or number of reactive sites) and aqueous metal ion dehydration kinetics in defining the chemodynamic behavior of nanoparticulate metal complexes. For that purpose, fully parameterized chemodynamic portraits involving the defining features of particulate ligand and metal ion as well as the physicochemical conditions in the local intraparticulate environment, are constructed and thoroughly discussed under conditions of practical interest.

  15. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges and Irradiated Metallic Uranium Fuel Particles Series III Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Elmore, Monte R.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2003-01-01

    The path forward for managing of Hanford K Basin sludge calls for it to be packaged, shipped, and stored at T Plant until final processing at a future date. An important consideration for the design and cost of retrieval, transportation, and storage systems is the potential for heat and gas generation through oxidation reactions between uranium metal and water. This report, the third in a series (Series III), describes work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess corrosion and gas generation from irradiated metallic uranium particles (fuel particles) with and without K Basin sludge addition. The testing described in this report consisted of 12 tests. In 10 of the tests, 4.3 to 26.4 g of fuel particles of selected size distribution were placed into 60- or 800-ml reaction vessels with 0 to 100 g settled sludge. In another test, a single 3.72-g fuel fragment (i.e., 7150-mm particle) was placed in a 60 ml reaction vessel with no added sludge. The twelfth test contained only sludge. The fuel particles were prepared by crushing archived coupons (samples) from an irradiated metallic uranium fuel element. After loading the sludge materials (whether fuel particles, mixtures of fuel particles and sludge, or sludge-only) into reaction vessels, the solids were covered with an excess of K Basin water, the vessels closed and connected to a gas measurement manifold, and the vessels back-flushed with inert neon cover gas. The vessels were then heated to a constant temperature. The gas pressures and temperatures were monitored continuously from the times the vessels were purged. Gas samples were collected at various times during the tests, and the samples analyzed by mass spectrometry. Data on the reaction rates of uranium metal fuel particles with water as a function of temperature and particle size were generated. The data were compared with published studies on metallic uranium corrosion kinetics. The effects of an intimate overlying sludge layer

  16. Persistence of Metal-rich Particles Downstream Zones of Acid Drainage Mixing in Andean Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten, P.; Montecinos, M.; Guerra, P. A.; Bonilla, C. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Dabrin, A.; Coquery, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Andes mountain range provides the setting for watersheds with high natural background of metals and for mining operations that enhance contaminant mobilization, notably in Northern and Central Chile. Dissolved and solid metal species are actively transported by streams to the Pacific Ocean from area and point sources, like acid drainage. We examine the response of metal rich particle suspensions downstream zones of mixing where shifts in the chemical environment occur. We propose a conceptual model which is used to analyze the fate of copper in the upper Mapocho watershed. The main source of copper is the Yerba Loca river, a naturally impacted stream with pH ranging from 3 to 7 and high concentrations of Cu (0.8 - 6.3 mg/L), Al (1.3 - 7.6 mg/L) and Fe (0.4 - 4.2 mg/L). Steep chemical shifts occur after the confluences with the San Francisco and the Molina rivers. We characterized stream chemistry, hydrological variables and suspended particles, including particle size distribution (PSD), turbidity, and total suspended solids. A marked seasonal behavior was observed, with a higher total Cu flux during smelting periods and a shift towards the dissolved phase during summer. When acid drainage is discharged into a receiving stream, incomplete mixing occurs thereby promoting the formation of a range of metal-rich solids with a characteristic PSD. Similarly, areas of chemical heterogeneity control the partition of metals associated to suspended geomaterials coming from bank and slope erosion. A highly dynamic process ensues where metastable phases shift to new equilibria as fully mixed conditions are reached. Depending on the reaction kinetics, some particles persist despite being exposed to thermodynamically unfavorable chemical environments. The persistence of metal-rich particles downstream zones of acid drainage mixing is important because it ultimately controls the flux of metals being delivered to the ocean by watersheds impacted by acid drainage. Funding from

  17. Study of conditions of production and characterization of noble metal micro-particles suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malabre, Catherine

    1983-01-01

    As the production and identification of metal micro-particle suspensions are some aspects of issues related to nuclear fuel reprocessing, this research thesis reports the use of ruthenium, molybdenum, niobium, palladium and rhodium (fission metals) to generate such micro-particles. They are produced by erosion of two electrodes between which occurs an electric arc discharge in aqueous media. Different analytic methods are developed to determine the characteristics of so-produced colloidal solutions. A granulometry study is performed by transmission electronic microscopy, light quasi-elastic scattering, and turbidimetry associated to centrifugation. This has lead to the production of steady micro-particle suspensions which have been used in a first set of industrial trials [fr

  18. SQUID sensor application for small metallic particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Saburo; Hatsukade, Yoshimi; Ohtani, Takeyoshi; Suzuki, Shuichi

    2009-01-01

    High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor. Since the performance of the SQUID is improved and stabilized, now it is ready for application. One strong candidate for application is a detection system of magnetic foreign matters in industrial products or beverages. There is a possibility that ultra-small metallic foreign matter has been accidentally mixed with industrial products such as lithium ion batteries. If this happens, the manufacturer of the product suffers a great loss recalling products. The outer dimension of metallic particles less than 100 μm cannot be detected by an X-ray imaging, which is commonly used for the inspection. Ionization of the material is also a big issue for beverages in the case of the X-ray imaging. Therefore a highly sensitive and safety detection system for small foreign matters is required. We developed detection systems based on high-Tc SQUID with a high-performance magnetic shield. We could successfully measure small iron particles of 100 μm on a belt conveyer and stainless steel balls of 300 μm in water. These detection levels were hard to be achieved by a conventional X-ray detection or other methods

  19. Insights into metals in individual fine particles from municipal solid waste using synchrotron radiation-based micro-analytical techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumin Zhu; Hua Zhang; Liming Shao; Pinjing He

    2015-01-01

    Excessive inter-contamination with heavy metals hampers the application of biological treatment products derived from mixed or mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW).In this study,we investigated fine particles of <2 mm,which are small fractions in MSW but constitute a significant component of the total heavy metal content,using bulk detection techniques.A total of 17 individual fine particles were evaluated using synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray diffraction.We also discussed the association,speciation and source apportionment of heavy metals.Metals were found to exist in a diffuse distribution with heterogeneous intensities and intense hot-spots of <10 μm within the fine particles.Zn-Cu,Pb-Fe and Fe-Mn-Cr had significant correlations in terms of spatial distribution.The overlapped enrichment,spatial association,and the mineral phases of metals revealed the potential sources of fine particles from size-reduced waste fractions (such as scraps of organic wastes or ceramics) or from the importation of other particles.The diverse sources of heavy metal pollutants within the fine particles suggested that separate collection and treatment of the biodegradable waste fraction (such as food waste) is a preferable means of facilitating the beneficial utilization of the stabilized products.

  20. Small metal particles and the ideal Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barma, Mustanpir

    1991-01-01

    Kubo's theoretical model of a small metal particle consists of a number of noninteraction electrons (an ideal Fermi gas) confined to a finite volume. By 'small' it meant that the size of the particle is intermediate between that of a few atoms cluster and the bulk solid, the radius of the particle being 5 to 50 Angstroms. The model is discussed and size dependence of various energy scales is studied. For a fermi gas confined in a sphere or a cube, two size-dependent energy scales are important. The inner scale δ is the mean spacing between successive energy levels. It governs the very low temperature behaviour. The outer scale Δ is associated with the shell structure when δ ≤T<Δ, thermodynamic properties show an oscillatory fluctuations around a smooth background as the size or energy is varied. (M.G.B.) 23 refs

  1. Weibull modeling of particle cracking in metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.A.; Withers, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation into the occurrence of reinforcement cracking within a particulate ZrO 2 /2618 Al alloy metal matrix composite under tensile plastic straining has been carried out, special attention being paid to the dependence of fracture on particle size and shape. The probability of particle cracking has been modeled using a Weibull approach, giving good agreement with the experimental data. Values for the Weibull modulus and the stress required to crack the particles were found to be within the range expected for the cracking of ceramic particles. Additional information regarding the fracture behavior of the particles was provided by in-situ neutron diffraction monitoring of the internal strains, measurement of the variation in the composite Young's modulus with straining and by direct observation of the cracked particles. The values of the particle stress required for the initiation of particle cracking deduced from these supplementary experiments were found to be in good agreement with each other and with the results from the Weibull analysis. Further, it is shown that while both the current experiments, as well as the previous work of others, can be well described by the Weibull approach, the exact values of the Weibull parameters do deduced are very sensitive to the approximations and the assumptions made in constructing the model

  2. Advances in Thermal Spray Deposition of Billets for Particle Reinforced Light Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzelburger, Martin; Zimmermann, Christian; Gadow, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Forming of light-metals in semi-solid state offers some advantages like low process temperatures, improved mould durability, good flow behavior and fine, globular microstructure of the final material. By the introduction of ceramic particles, increased elastic modulus and yield strength as well as wear resistance and creep behavior can be obtained. By semi-solid forging or semi-solid casting, particle reinforced metals (PRM) can be produced with improved matrix microstructure and beneficial forming process parameters compared to conventional MMC manufacturing techniques. The production of this kind of light metal matrix composites requires the supply of dense semi-finished parts with well defined volume fractions of homogeneously distributed particulate reinforcement. A manufacturing method for cylindrical light metal billets is described that applies thermal spraying as a build-up process for simultaneous deposition of matrix and reinforcement phase with cored wires as spraying material. Thermal spraying leads to small grain sizes and prevents dendrite formation. However, long process cycle times lead to billet heating and recrystallization of the matrix microstructure. In order to preserve small grain sizes that enable semi-solid forming, the thermal spraying process was analyzed by in-flight particle analysis and thermography. As a consequence, the deposition process was optimized by adaptation of the thermal spraying parameters and by application of additional cooling, leading to lower billet temperatures and finer PRM billet microstructure

  3. Living Colloidal Metal Particles from Solvated Metal Atoms. Clustering of Metal Atoms in Organic Media 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-23

    attributed to these solutions, especially toward heart disease. And in 1618 Antoni published Panacea Aurea : Auro Potabile 4 which centered on the...probably a slow process (discussed next under the electrophoresis section ). Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis, the movement of charged particles in...electrical properties. Experimental Section Preparation of a Typical Au-Acetone Colloid The metal atom reactor has been described previo sly. 3 9 ’ 5 9 ’ 6 0

  4. Super-solar Metallicity Stars in the Galactic Center Nuclear Star Cluster: Unusual Sc, V, and Y Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuan; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang; Konopacky, Quinn; Marcinik, Joseph M.; Ghez, Andrea; Lu, Jessica R.; Morris, Mark R.

    2018-03-01

    We present adaptive-optics assisted near-infrared high-spectral-resolution observations of late-type giants in the nuclear star cluster of the Milky Way. The metallicity and elemental abundance measurements of these stars offer us an opportunity to understand the formation and evolution of the nuclear star cluster. In addition, their proximity to the supermassive black hole (∼0.5 pc) offers a unique probe of the star formation and chemical enrichment in this extreme environment. We observed two stars identified by medium spectral-resolution observations as potentially having very high metallicities. We use spectral-template fitting with the PHOENIX grid and Bayesian inference to simultaneously constrain the overall metallicity, [M/H], alpha-element abundance [α/Fe], effective temperature, and surface gravity of these stars. We find that one of the stars has very high metallicity ([M/H] > 0.6) and the other is slightly above solar metallicity. Both Galactic center stars have lines from scandium (Sc), vanadium (V), and yttrium (Y) that are much stronger than allowed by the PHOENIX grid. We find, using the spectral synthesis code Spectroscopy Made Easy, that [Sc/Fe] may be an order of magnitude above solar. For comparison, we also observed an empirical calibrator in NGC 6791, the highest metallicity cluster known ([M/H] ∼ 0.4). Most lines are well matched between the calibrator and the Galactic center stars, except for Sc, V, and Y, which confirms that their abundances must be anomalously high in these stars. These unusual abundances, which may be a unique signature of nuclear star clusters, offer an opportunity to test models of chemical enrichment in this region.

  5. Bioaccessibility of micron-sized powder particles of molybdenum metal, iron metal, molybdenum oxides and ferromolybdenum--Importance of surface oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörsdorf, Alexander; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Yolanda

    2015-08-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, that are manufactured, imported or used in different products (substances or articles) are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Metals and alloys need hence to be investigated on their extent of released metals (bioaccessibility) in biologically relevant environments. Read-across from available studies may be used for similar materials. This study investigates the release of molybdenum and iron from powder particles of molybdenum metal (Mo), a ferromolybdenum alloy (FeMo), an iron metal powder (Fe), MoO2, and MoO3 in different synthetic body fluids of pH ranging from 1.5 to 7.4 and of different composition. Spectroscopic tools and cyclic voltammetry have been employed to characterize surface oxides, microscopy, light scattering and nitrogen absorption for particle characterization, and atomic absorption spectroscopy to quantify released amounts of metals. The release of molybdenum from the Mo powder generally increased with pH and was influenced by the fluid composition. The mixed iron and molybdenum surface oxide of the FeMo powder acted as a barrier both at acidic and weakly alkaline conditions. These findings underline the importance of the surface oxide characteristics for the bioaccessibility of metal alloys. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Unusual occurrences during LMFR operation. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Design of liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFRs) is still in evolution, and only a small number of LMFRs are in operation around the world. Specialists operating these LMFRs have gained valuable experience from incidents, failures, and other events that took place in the reactors. These unusual occurrences, lessons learned and measures undertaken to prevent recurrences are often either not reported in the literature, or reported only briefly and without sufficient detail. Hence there is a need for specialists designing and operating LMFRs to share their knowledge on unusual occurrences. Considerable experimental and theoretical knowledge in this field were collected by several Member states over the past decades. The needs in generalisation, review and documentation of fundamental knowledge in liquid metal cooled reactor technology were a major consideration in the recommendation by the International Working group on fast reactors for the IAEA to convene this Technical Committee meeting on the subject of unusual occurrences during LMFR operation and the consequences for reactor systems

  7. Metallic particles into mechanical and hydraulic systems in agricultural and construction machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jair Rosas da; Silva, Deise Paula da [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Agricola; Bormio, Marcos Roberto [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia

    2008-07-01

    The lubricant oil analysis are an indicator of the conditions how the lubricant is, may to allow the prevision of damages that occurred into machine due to the internal abrasion of hydraulic and mechanical components of the machines. The present study had the objective to determine the kind and quantity of the metallic particles that occurred into the lubricant oil of the mechanical and hydraulic compartments of the energy transmission systems of three kinds of machines: a tracked-tractor, a sugarcane harvester and a group of power-shovels. The metallic particles presents into these compartments were determined under laboratory tests and concerning to the following elements: iron, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, aluminum, silex, tin and molybdenum. About to the tracked-tractor, the metallic contaminators into to the oil charges surpasses the tolerate levels, considering the technical standards adopted in this evaluation. In the sugarcane harvester only a metallic element in excess was identified and, in a power-shovel group it was showed the need to correct air false entrances in the hydraulic or mechanical systems due the high presence of silex element. (author)

  8. A preliminary evaluation of immune stimulation following exposure to metal particles and ions using the mouse popliteal lymph node assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvermoes, Brooke E., E-mail: brooke.tvermoes@cardno.com [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 4940 Pearl East Circle Suite 100, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Unice, Kenneth M. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 20 Stanwix St. Suite 505, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 (United States); Winans, Bethany [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States); Kovochich, Michael [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 130 Vantis Suite 170, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656 (United States); Christian, Whitney V. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 20 Stanwix St. Suite 505, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 (United States); Donovan, Ellen [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States); Fung, Ernest S. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 130 Vantis Suite 170, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656 (United States); Finley, Brent L. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States); Kimber, Ian [University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Paustenbach, Dennis J. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the threshold for immune stimulation in mice following local exposure to metal particles and ions representative of normal-functioning cobalt-chromium (CoCr) metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants. The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) was used in this study to assess immune responses in BALB/c mice following treatment with chromium-oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles, metal salts (CoCl{sub 2}, CrCl{sub 3} and NiCl{sub 2}), or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles together with metal salts using single-dose exposures representing approximately 10 days (0.000114 mg), 19 years (0.0800 mg), and 40 years (0.171 mg) of normal implant wear. The immune response elicited following treatment with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles together with metal salts was also assessed at four additional doses equivalent to approximately 1.5 months (0.0005 mg), 0.6 years (0.0025 mg), 2.3 years (0.01 mg), and 9.3 years (0.04 mg) of normal implant wear. Mice were injected subcutaneously (50 μL) into the right hind foot with the test article, or with the relevant vehicle control. The proliferative response of the draining lymph node cells (LNC) was measured four days after treatment, and stimulation indices (SI) were derived relative to vehicle controls. The PLNA was negative (SI < 3) for all Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle doses, and was also negative at the lowest dose of the metal salt mixture, and the lowest four doses of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles with metal salt mixture. The PLNA was positive (SI > 3) at the highest two doses of the metal salt mixture and the highest three doses of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles with the metal salt mixture. The provisional NOAEL and LOAEL values identified in this study for immune activation corresponds to Co and Cr concentrations in the synovial fluid approximately 500 and 2000 times higher than that reported for normal-functioning MoM hip implants, respectively. Overall, these results indicate that normal wear

  9. The effects of beryllium metal particles on the viability and function of cultured rat alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Lowther, W.T.; Hoover, M.D.; Brooks, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were exposed in vitro to beryllium metal particles. The particles used were relatively large (Be-II) and small (Be-V) size fractions of beryllium metal obtained from an aerosol cyclone, and a beryllium metal aerosol generated by laser vaporization of beryllium metal in an argon atmosphere (Be-L). Glass beads (GB) were used as a negative control particle. The endpoints examined included cell killing (trypan blue dye exclusion) and phagocytic ability (sheep red blood cell uptake). Phagocytic ability was inhibited by beryllium particles at concentrations that did not cause appreciable cell killing. Results based on the mass concentration of particles in culture medium were transformed by the amount of specific surface area of the particles to permit expression of toxicity on the basis of amount of surface area of particles per unit volume of culture medium. On a mass concentration basis, the order of cytotoxicity was Be-L > Be-V ∼ Be-II > GB; for inhibition of phagacytosis, the cytotoxicity order was Be-L ∼ Be-V > Be-II > GB. On a surface area concentration basis, the order of toxicity for viability was altered to Be-II > Be-L ∼ Be-V (with GB indeterminant) and to Be-V > Be-II ∼ Be-L > GB for inhibition of phagocytosis. We conclude that there are factors in addition to specific surface area that influence the expression of toxic effects in cultured PAM. (author)

  10. Bioleaching of metals from spent refinery petroleum catalyst using moderately thermophilic bacteria: effect of particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichandan, Haragobinda; Singh, Sradhanjali; Pathak, Ashish; Kim, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seoung-Won; Heyes, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the leaching potential of moderately thermophilic bacteria in the recovery of metals from spent petroleum catalyst of varying particle sizes. The batch bioleaching experiments were conducted by employing a mixed consortium of moderate thermophilic bacteria at 45°C and by using five different particle sizes (from 45 to >2000 μm) of acetone-washed spent catalyst. The elemental mapping by FESEM confirmed the presence of Al, Ni, V and Mo along with sulfur in the spent catalyst. During bioleaching, Ni (92-97%) and V (81-91%) were leached in higher concentrations, whereas leaching yields of Al (23-38%) were found to be lowest in all particle sizes investigated. Decreasing the particle size from >2000 μm to 45-106 μm caused an increase in leaching yields of metals during initial hours. However, the final metals leaching yields were almost independent of particle sizes of catalyst. Leaching kinetics was observed to follow the diffusion-controlled model showing the linearity more close than the chemical control. The results of the present study suggested that bioleaching using moderate thermophilic bacteria was highly effective in removing the metals from spent catalyst. Moreover, bioleaching can be conducted using spent catalyst of higher particle size (>2000 μm), thus saving the grinding cost and making process attractive for larger scale application.

  11. Metallic nickel nano- and fine particles induce JB6 cell apoptosis through a caspase-8/AIF mediated cytochrome c-independent pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castranova Vincent

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinogenicity of nickel compounds has been well documented. However, the carcinogenic effect of metallic nickel is still unclear. The present study investigates metallic nickel nano- and fine particle-induced apoptosis and the signal pathways involved in this process in JB6 cells. The data obtained from this study will be of benefit for elucidating the pathological and carcinogenic potential of metallic nickel particles. Results Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, we found that metallic nickel nanoparticles exhibited higher cytotoxicity than fine particles. Both metallic nickel nano- and fine particles induced JB6 cell apoptosis. Metallic nickel nanoparticles produced higher apoptotic induction than fine particles. Western-blot analysis showed an activation of proapoptotic factors including Fas (CD95, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD, caspase-8, death receptor 3 (DR3 and BID in apoptotic cells induced by metallic nickel particles. Immunoprecipitation (IP western blot analysis demonstrated the formation of the Fas-related death-inducing signaling complex (DISC in the apoptotic process. Furthermore, lamin A and beta-actin were cleaved. Moreover, we found that apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF was up-regulated and released from mitochondria to cytoplasm. Interestingly, although an up-regulation of cytochrome c was detected in the mitochondria of metallic nickel particle-treated cells, no cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm was found. In addition, activation of antiapoptotic factors including phospho-Akt (protein kinase B and Bcl-2 was detected. Further studies demonstrated that metallic nickel particles caused no significant changes in the mitochondrial membrane permeability after 24 h treatment. Conclusion In this study, metallic nickel nanoparticles caused higher cytotoxicity and apoptotic induction than fine particles in JB6 cells. Apoptotic cell death

  12. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal--metal oxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinby, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Metal powders, metal oxide powders, and mixtures thereof of controlled particle size are provided by reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. Upon heating, urea reacts with water from the solution to leave a molten urea solution containing the metal values. The molten urea solution is heated to above about 180 0 C, whereupon metal values precipitate homogeneously as a powder. The powder is reduced to metal or calcined to form oxide particles. One or more metal oxides in a mixture can be selectively reduced to produce metal particles or a mixture of metal and metal oxide particles

  13. Adsorption of Cashew Allergens to Acid-Etched Zinc Metal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvanized metal surfaces are approved by the FDA for use in many food processing steps. Food allergens can cause severe reactions even in very small amounts, and surfaces contaminated with allergens could pose a serious threat. The binding of cashew allergens to zinc particles was evaluated. Whi...

  14. Nonlocality and particle-clustering effects on the optical response of composite materials with metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. W.; Chung, H. Y.; Chiang, H.-P.; Lu, J. Y.; Chang, R.; Tsai, D. P.; Leung, P. T.

    2010-10-01

    The optical properties of composites with metallic nanoparticles are studied, taking into account the effects due to the nonlocal dielectric response of the metal and the coalescing of the particles to form clusters. An approach based on various effective medium theories is followed, and the modeling results are compared with those from the cases with local response and particles randomly distributed through the host medium. Possible observations of our modeling results are illustrated via a calculation of the transmission of light through a thin film made of these materials. It is found that the nonlocal effects are particularly significant when the particles coalesce, leading to blue-shifted resonances and slightly lower values in the dielectric functions. The dependence of these effects on the volume fraction and fractal dimension of the metal clusters is studied in detail.

  15. Effect of particle size on thermal decomposition of alkali metal picrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Tonglai; Yang, Li; Zhou, Zunning

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The smaller-sized picrate has greater gas emission than do its larger counterpart. The small size effect reduces the thermal decomposition activation energy, accelerates the reaction rate, and promotes the reaction activity. - Highlights: • Picrates were prepared into three micron sizes by microemulsion synthesis. • Thermal decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics were studied by DPTA and DSC. • Smaller-sized picrate has higher activity and faster reaction rate. • Particle size effect on thermal decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics was revealed. - Abstract: Three alkali metal picrates, KPA, RbPA and CsPA, were prepared into three micron sizes by microemulsion synthesis, and their thermal decomposition behaviors were investigated by DPTA at different temperatures and by DSC at different heating rates. The smaller-sized picrate has greater gas emission and smaller kinetic and thermodynamic parameters than do its larger counterpart. It can be attributed to the decreasing particle size which leads to the high surface energy, the fast mass and heat transfer, and the increasing active sites on the reaction interface. The small size effect and surface effect cause the autocatalysis which reduces the activation energy and promotes the reaction activity. The particle size does not affect the reaction mechanism. However, the picrates with different central alkali metals exhibit different reaction mechanisms even though they are of the same size. This is because the central metal determines the bond energy and consequently affects the stability of picrate

  16. Effect of particle size on thermal decomposition of alkali metal picrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Tonglai, E-mail: ztlbit@bit.edu.cn; Yang, Li; Zhou, Zunning

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The smaller-sized picrate has greater gas emission than do its larger counterpart. The small size effect reduces the thermal decomposition activation energy, accelerates the reaction rate, and promotes the reaction activity. - Highlights: • Picrates were prepared into three micron sizes by microemulsion synthesis. • Thermal decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics were studied by DPTA and DSC. • Smaller-sized picrate has higher activity and faster reaction rate. • Particle size effect on thermal decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics was revealed. - Abstract: Three alkali metal picrates, KPA, RbPA and CsPA, were prepared into three micron sizes by microemulsion synthesis, and their thermal decomposition behaviors were investigated by DPTA at different temperatures and by DSC at different heating rates. The smaller-sized picrate has greater gas emission and smaller kinetic and thermodynamic parameters than do its larger counterpart. It can be attributed to the decreasing particle size which leads to the high surface energy, the fast mass and heat transfer, and the increasing active sites on the reaction interface. The small size effect and surface effect cause the autocatalysis which reduces the activation energy and promotes the reaction activity. The particle size does not affect the reaction mechanism. However, the picrates with different central alkali metals exhibit different reaction mechanisms even though they are of the same size. This is because the central metal determines the bond energy and consequently affects the stability of picrate.

  17. Improved field emission performance of carbon nanotube by introducing copper metallic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yiren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the field emission performance of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, a simple and low-cost method was adopted in this article. We introduced copper particles for decorating the CNTs so as to form copper particle-CNT composites. The composites were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition technique which produced copper metallic particles localized on the outer wall of CNTs and deposited them onto indium tin oxide (ITO electrode. The results showed that the conductivity increased from 10-5 to 4 × 10-5 S while the turn-on field was reduced from 3.4 to 2.2 V/μm. Moreover, the field emission current tended to be undiminished after continuous emission for 24 h. The reasons were summarized that introducing copper metallic particles to decorate CNTs could increase the surface roughness of the CNTs which was beneficial to field emission, restrain field emission current from saturating when the applied electric field was above the critical field. In addition, it could also improve the electrical contact by increasing the contact area between CNT and ITO electrode that was beneficial to the electron transport and avoided instable electron emission caused by thermal injury of CNTs.

  18. Searches with long-lived or unusual signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    We present recent ATLAS and CMS results from searches with long-lived and unusual signatures. They are based on analysis of LHC proton-proton collisions at center of mass energies at 7 and 8 TeV. Long-lived and heavy particles may cause peculiar signatures in the detectors, but are in several Standard Model extensions well motivated.

  19. Numerical and experimental validation of a particle Galerkin method for metal grinding simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. T.; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Wu, Youcai; Luo, Tzui-Liang; Wang, Morris; Liao, Chien-Chih; Chen, Pei-Yin; Lai, Yu-Sheng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a numerical approach with an experimental validation is introduced for modelling high-speed metal grinding processes in 6061-T6 aluminum alloys. The derivation of the present numerical method starts with an establishment of a stabilized particle Galerkin approximation. A non-residual penalty term from strain smoothing is introduced as a means of stabilizing the particle Galerkin method. Additionally, second-order strain gradients are introduced to the penalized functional for the regularization of damage-induced strain localization problem. To handle the severe deformation in metal grinding simulation, an adaptive anisotropic Lagrangian kernel is employed. Finally, the formulation incorporates a bond-based failure criterion to bypass the prospective spurious damage growth issues in material failure and cutting debris simulation. A three-dimensional metal grinding problem is analyzed and compared with the experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed numerical approach.

  20. Characterization of airborne particles generated from metal active gas welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, C; Gomes, J F; Carvalho, P; Santos, T J G; Miranda, R M; Albuquerque, P

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the characterization of particles emitted in the metal active gas welding of carbon steel using mixture of Ar + CO2, and intends to analyze which are the main process parameters that influence the emission itself. It was found that the amount of emitted particles (measured by particle number and alveolar deposited surface area) are clearly dependent on the distance to the welding front and also on the main welding parameters, namely the current intensity and heat input in the welding process. The emission of airborne fine particles seems to increase with the current intensity as fume-formation rate does. When comparing the tested gas mixtures, higher emissions are observed for more oxidant mixtures, that is, mixtures with higher CO2 content, which result in higher arc stability. These mixtures originate higher concentrations of fine particles (as measured by number of particles by cm(3) of air) and higher values of alveolar deposited surface area of particles, thus resulting in a more severe worker's exposure.

  1. Dynamics of spherical metallic particles in cylinder electrostatic separators/purifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-Zhou; Li, Jia; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhen-Ming

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamics of spherical metallic particles in electrostatic separators/purifiers (ESPs). The particle equations of motion are numerically solved in two dimensions using a computational algorithm. The ESPs consist of a pair of conductor cylinder electrodes. The upper cylinder is energized by HVdc, while the lower one is grounded and fixed horizontally on a revolvable axis. Some phenomena and aspects of separation process are explained and depicted including lifting off, impact, "motion collapse" and "sudden bouncing". The results reveal that the several phenomena depend on initial position, radius and density of the particle, curvature of the cylinder electrodes, distance between the electrodes and amplitude of the applied voltage. Optimization of the parameters is presented in order to get better separation/purification processes.

  2. Microstructure and property of WC particles ceramic-metal composite coatings by laser surface cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xiaoyan; Zhu Beidi; Tao Zengyi; Yang Shuguo; Cui Kun

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic-metal is widely used as a kind of good hardfacing material. The coarse WC particles ceramic-metal composite coatings with WC density of 67% it weight and the thickness of 1.6-2.0 mm have been cladded on 20Ni 4 Mo steel surface by a 2kw CO 2 laser. The sintered WC particles with the size of 600-1,000 μm are chosen as the main strengthening phase, Ni-base self-flux alloy as the binder in the composite coatings. The microstructure and micro-hardness of both WC particles and binder are analyzed. The rigid ball indention with acoustic emission technique is used to evaluate the brittleness of the coating. Finally, the abrasive wear resistance of the coatings are tested, Besides, the coatings with the same ratio and size of WC particles within low carbon steel tube were cladded on 20Ni 4 Mo steel by atomic hydrogen welding technique and analyzed by the same ways their result are compared

  3. A concentrated solar cavity absorber with direct heat transfer through recirculating metallic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, M. R. I., E-mail: islamrabiul@yahoo.com; Saha, Manabendra, E-mail: manabendra.saha@adelaide.edu.au, E-mail: manab04me@gmail.com; Beg, R. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi-6204 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    A recirculating flow solar particle cavity absorber (receiver) is modeled to investigate the flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics of a novel developing concept. It features a continuous recirculating flow of non-reacting metallic particles (black silicon carbide) with air which are used as a thermal enhancement medium. The aim of the present study is to numerically investigate the thermal behavior and flow characteristics of the proposed concept. The proposed solar particle receiver is modeled using two phase discrete particle model (DPM), RNG k-flow model and discrete ordinate (DO) radiation model. Numerical analysis is carried out considering a solar receiver with only air and the mixture of non-reacting particles and air as a heat transfer as well as heat carrying medium. The parametric investigation is conducted considering the incident solar flux on the receiver aperture and changing air flow rate and recirculation rate inside the receiver. A stand-alone feature of the recirculating flow solar particle receiver concept is that the particles are directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation monotonously through recirculating flow inside the receiver and results in efficient irradiation absorption and convective heat transfer to air that help to achieve high temperature air and consequently increase in thermal efficiency. This paper presents, results from the developed concept and highlights its flow behavior and potential to enhance the heat transfer from metallic particles to air by maximizing heat carrying capacity of the heat transfer medium. The imposed milestones for the present system will be helpful to understand the radiation absorption mechanism of the particles in a recirculating flow based receiver, the thermal transport between the particles, the air and the cavity, and the fluid dynamics of the air and particle in the cavity.

  4. Gas phase deposition of oxide and metal-oxide coatings on fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patokin, A.P.; Khrebtov, V.L.; Shirokov, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production processes and properties of oxide (Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) and metal-oxide (Mo-Al 2 O 3 , Mo-ZrO 2 , W-Al 2 O 3 , W-ZrO 2 ) coatings on molybdenum substrates and uranium dioxide fuel particles were investigated. It is shown that the main factors that have an effect on the deposition rate, density, microstructure and other properties of coatings are the deposition temperature, the ratio of H 2 and CO 2 flow rates, the total reactor pressure and the ratio of partial pressures of corresponding metal chlorides during formation of metal-oxide coatings

  5. Trace metals in antifouling paint particles and their heterogeneous contamination of coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nimisha; Turner, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Antifouling paint residues collected from the hard-standings of a marine leisure boat facility have been chemically characterised. Scanning electron microscopy revealed distinct layers, many containing oxidic particles of Cu and Zn. Quantitative analysis indicated concentrations of Cu and Zn averaging about 300 and 100 mg g -1 , respectively, and small proportions of these metals ( -1 , respectively. Estuarine sediment collected near a boatyard contained concentrations of Cu and Zn an order of magnitude greater than respective concentrations in 'background' sediment, and mass balance calculations suggested that the former sample was contaminated by about 1% by weight of paint particles. Clearly, antifouling residues represent a highly significant, heterogeneous source of metallic contamination in the marine environment where boating activities occur.

  6. Size-segregated emissions and metal content of vehicle-emitted particles as a function of mileage: Implications to population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M.; Zelinskaya, Elena V.; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Sarigiannis, Denis A.

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at investigating the characteristics (size distribution, active surface and metal content) of particles emitted by cars as a function of mileage using a novel methodology for characterizing particulate emissions captured by Exhaust Gas Suspension (EGS). EGS was obtained by passing the exhaust gases through a container of deionized water. EGS analysis was performed using laser granulometry, electron scanning microscopy, and high resolution mass spectrometry. Implications of the differences in key features of the emitted particles on population exposure were investigated using numerical simulation for estimating size-segregated PM deposition across human respiratory tract (HRT). It was found that vehicle mileage, age and the respective emissions class have almost no effect on the size distribution of the exhaust gas particulate released into the environment; about half of the examined vehicles with low mileage were found to release particles of aerodynamic diameter above 10 μm. The exhaust gas particulate detected in the EGS of all cars can be classified into three major size classes: (1) 0.1–5 µm – soot and ash particles, metals (Au, Pt, Pd, Ir); (2) 10–30 µm – metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zr, Ni) and ash particles; (3) 400–1,000 µm – metal (Fe, Cr, Pb) and ash particles. Newer vehicles with low mileage are substantial sources of soot and metal particles with median diameter of 200 nm with a higher surface area (up to 89,871.16 cm 2 /cm 3 ). These tend to deposit in the lower part of the human respiratory tract. - Highlights: • Car mileage has virtually no effect on the size of the solid particles released. • Newer diesel vehicles emit particles of lower aerodynamic diameter. • Particle active surface emitted by newer vehicles is on average 3 times higher. • Real-life emissions were translated into actual internal PM exposure.

  7. Size-segregated emissions and metal content of vehicle-emitted particles as a function of mileage: Implications to population exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M. [Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zelinskaya, Elena V. [National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M. [University of Crete, Medical School, Department of Toxicology and Forensic Science, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Karakitsios, Spyros P. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sarigiannis, Denis A., E-mail: denis@eng.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-10-15

    The study aims at investigating the characteristics (size distribution, active surface and metal content) of particles emitted by cars as a function of mileage using a novel methodology for characterizing particulate emissions captured by Exhaust Gas Suspension (EGS). EGS was obtained by passing the exhaust gases through a container of deionized water. EGS analysis was performed using laser granulometry, electron scanning microscopy, and high resolution mass spectrometry. Implications of the differences in key features of the emitted particles on population exposure were investigated using numerical simulation for estimating size-segregated PM deposition across human respiratory tract (HRT). It was found that vehicle mileage, age and the respective emissions class have almost no effect on the size distribution of the exhaust gas particulate released into the environment; about half of the examined vehicles with low mileage were found to release particles of aerodynamic diameter above 10 μm. The exhaust gas particulate detected in the EGS of all cars can be classified into three major size classes: (1) 0.1–5 µm – soot and ash particles, metals (Au, Pt, Pd, Ir); (2) 10–30 µm – metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zr, Ni) and ash particles; (3) 400–1,000 µm – metal (Fe, Cr, Pb) and ash particles. Newer vehicles with low mileage are substantial sources of soot and metal particles with median diameter of 200 nm with a higher surface area (up to 89,871.16 cm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}). These tend to deposit in the lower part of the human respiratory tract. - Highlights: • Car mileage has virtually no effect on the size of the solid particles released. • Newer diesel vehicles emit particles of lower aerodynamic diameter. • Particle active surface emitted by newer vehicles is on average 3 times higher. • Real-life emissions were translated into actual internal PM exposure.

  8. Is there a contraction of the interatomic distance in small metal particles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Bruno; Stoltze, Per; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is made of the bond lengths of small (100–1000 atoms) Cu particles at various temperatures. The interatomic interactions are calculated using the effective-medium theory and the finite-temperature properties obtained from a molecular-dynamics simulation. We find only very s...... small changes in bond length with particle size, but the motion in the small particles is very anharmonic. We use this observation to resolve the current experimental controversy about the existence of bond contraction for small metal particles.......A theoretical analysis is made of the bond lengths of small (100–1000 atoms) Cu particles at various temperatures. The interatomic interactions are calculated using the effective-medium theory and the finite-temperature properties obtained from a molecular-dynamics simulation. We find only very...

  9. Bioaccessibility of metals in soils and dusts contaminated by marine antifouling paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Singh, Nimisha; Richards, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Fragments of antifouling paint and environmental geosolids have been sampled from the island of Malta and analysed for total and bioaccessible metals. Total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn were two to three orders of magnitude higher in spent antifouling composites relative to respective values in background soils and road dusts. Paint fragments were visible in geosolids taken from the immediate vicinity of boat maintenance facilities and mass balance calculations, based on Ba as a paint tracer, suggested that the most contaminated soils, road dusts and boatyard dusts contained about 1%, 7% and 9%, respectively, of antifouling particles. Human bioaccessibilities of metals were evaluated in selected samples using a physiologically based extraction technique. Accessibilities of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the most contaminated solids were sufficient to be cause for concern for individuals working in the boat repair industry and to the wider, local community. - Geosolids near boat maintenance facilities are contaminated by antifouling paint particles containing high concentrations of bioaccessible metals.

  10. Bioaccessibility of metals in soils and dusts contaminated by marine antifouling paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Singh, Nimisha; Richards, Jonathan P. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Fragments of antifouling paint and environmental geosolids have been sampled from the island of Malta and analysed for total and bioaccessible metals. Total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn were two to three orders of magnitude higher in spent antifouling composites relative to respective values in background soils and road dusts. Paint fragments were visible in geosolids taken from the immediate vicinity of boat maintenance facilities and mass balance calculations, based on Ba as a paint tracer, suggested that the most contaminated soils, road dusts and boatyard dusts contained about 1%, 7% and 9%, respectively, of antifouling particles. Human bioaccessibilities of metals were evaluated in selected samples using a physiologically based extraction technique. Accessibilities of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the most contaminated solids were sufficient to be cause for concern for individuals working in the boat repair industry and to the wider, local community. - Geosolids near boat maintenance facilities are contaminated by antifouling paint particles containing high concentrations of bioaccessible metals.

  11. Aerosol formation of Sea-Urchin-like nanostructures of carbon nanotubes on bimetallic nanocomposite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Wang, C.; Zachariah, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    With the advantage of continuous production of pure carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a new simple aerosol process for the formation of CNTs was developed. A combination of conventional spray pyrolysis and thermal chemical vapor deposition enabled the formation unusual sea-urchin-like carbon nanostructures composed of multi-walled CNTs and metal composite nanoparticles. The CNTs formed were relatively untangled and uniform with a diameter of less than∼10 nm. The key to the formation of CNTs in this way was to create a substrate particle containing both a catalytic and non-catalytic component, which prevented coking. The density of the CNTs grown on the spherical metal nanoparticles could be controlled by perturbing the density of the metal catalysts (Fe) in the host non-catalytic metal particle matrix (Al). Mobility size measurement was identified as a useful technique to real-time characterization of either the catalytic formation of thin carbon layer or CNTs on the surface of the metal aerosol. These materials have shown unique properties in enhancing the thermal conductivity of fluids. Other potential advantages are that the as-produced material can be manipulated easily without the concern of high mobility of conventional nanowires, and then subsequently released at the desired time in an unagglomerated state.

  12. Slow waves in microchannel metal waveguides and application to particle acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Steinhauer

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional metal-wall waveguides support waveguide modes with phase velocities exceeding the speed of light. However, for infrared frequencies and guide dimensions of a fraction of a millimeter, one of the waveguide modes can have a phase velocity equal to or less than the speed of light. Such a metal microchannel then acts as a slow-wave structure. Furthermore, if it is a transverse magnetic mode, the electric field has a component along the direction of propagation. Therefore, a strong exchange of energy can occur between a beam of charged particles and this slow-waveguide mode. Moreover, the energy exchange can be sustained over a distance limited only by the natural damping of the wave. This makes the microchannel metal waveguide an attractive possibility for high-gradient electron laser acceleration because the wave can be directly energized by a long-wavelength laser. Indeed the frequency of CO_{2} lasers lies at a fortuitous wavelength that produces a strong laser-particle interaction in a channel of reasonable macroscopic size (e.g., ∼0.6  mm. The dispersion properties including phase velocity and damping for the slow wave are developed. The performance and other issues related to laser accelerator applications are discussed.

  13. Slow waves in microchannel metal waveguides and application to particle acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2003-06-01

    Conventional metal-wall waveguides support waveguide modes with phase velocities exceeding the speed of light. However, for infrared frequencies and guide dimensions of a fraction of a millimeter, one of the waveguide modes can have a phase velocity equal to or less than the speed of light. Such a metal microchannel then acts as a slow-wave structure. Furthermore, if it is a transverse magnetic mode, the electric field has a component along the direction of propagation. Therefore, a strong exchange of energy can occur between a beam of charged particles and this slow-waveguide mode. Moreover, the energy exchange can be sustained over a distance limited only by the natural damping of the wave. This makes the microchannel metal waveguide an attractive possibility for high-gradient electron laser acceleration because the wave can be directly energized by a long-wavelength laser. Indeed the frequency of CO2 lasers lies at a fortuitous wavelength that produces a strong laser-particle interaction in a channel of reasonable macroscopic size (e.g., ˜0.6 mm). The dispersion properties including phase velocity and damping for the slow wave are developed. The performance and other issues related to laser accelerator applications are discussed.

  14. Growth dynamics of carbon-metal particles and nanotubes synthesized by CO2 laser vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokai, F.; Takahashi, K.; Yudasaka, M.; Iijima, S.

    To study the growth of carbon-Co/Ni particles and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by 20 ms CO2 laser-pulse irradiation of a graphite-Co/Ni (1.2 at.%) target in an Ar gas atmosphere (600 Torr), we used emission imaging spectroscopy and shadowgraphy with a temporal resolution of 1.67 ms. Wavelength-selected emission images showed that C2 emission was strong in the region close to the target (within 2 cm), while for the same region the blackbody radiation from the large clusters or particles increased with increasing distance from the target. Shadowgraph images showed that the viscous flow of carbon and metal species formed a mushroom or a turbulent cloud spreading slowly into the Ar atmosphere, indicating that particles and SWNTs continued to grow as the ejected material cooled. In addition, emission imaging spectroscopy at 1200 °C showed that C2 and hot clusters and particles with higher emission intensities were distributed over much wider areas. We discuss the growth dynamics of the particles and SWNTs through the interaction of the ambient Ar with the carbon and metal species released from the target by the laser pulse.

  15. Effect of the relationship between particle size, inter-particle distance, and metal loading of carbon supported fuel cell catalysts on their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Patricia Gon; Pires, Felipe I.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Perez, Joelma; Antolini, Ermete

    2012-09-01

    The effect of the relationship between particle size ( d), inter-particle distance ( x i ), and metal loading ( y) of carbon supported fuel cell Pt or PtRu catalysts on their catalytic activity, based on the optimum d (2.5-3 nm) and x i / d (>5) values, was evaluated. It was found that for y fuel cell electrode than that using catalysts with y ethanol oxidation on PtRu/C catalysts with same particle size and same degree of alloying but different metal loading. Tests in direct ethanol fuel cells showed that, compared to 20 wt% PtRu/C, the negative effect of the lower x i / d on the catalytic activity of 30 and 40 wt% PtRu/C catalysts was superior to the positive effect of the thinner catalyst layer.

  16. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis: a case with unusual radiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşildağ, Ahmet; Senol, Altuğ; Köroğlu, Mert; Koçkar, Cem; Oyar, Orhan; Işler, Mehmet

    2010-12-01

    We report a case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis presenting with unusual radiological findings that have not been reported previously. Imaging studies revealed hepatic cystic pouches communicating with intrahepatic bile ducts. Snail-like, oval shaped and conglomerated echogenic particles with no acoustic shadowing, suggesting F. hepatica, were detected in these cystic pouches. In addition, secondary sclerosing cholangitis developed after fascioliasis.

  17. Introduction of Nickel Coated Silicon Carbide Particles in Aluminum Metal Matrix Hardfaced by MIG/TIG Processes on Precoated Flux Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kamburov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate an aluminium metal matrix surface layer hardfaced by shielded gas metal arc welding processes applying either metal inert gas (MIG or tungsten inert gas (TIG, with standard wire filler onto the precoated flux layer - a baked resistant film containing electroless nickel coated micro/nano SiC particles. During baking, the components of the flux (MgCl2, NaCl, KCl and Na3AlF6 form a low melting eutectic, which: protects the hardfaced surface from oxidation, provides electrical conductance and keeps the particles on the surface during welding, as well as facilitates particles wettability and their interfacial bonding with the molten metal into the weld puddle.

  18. Particle morphology and mineral structure of heavy metal-contaminated kaolin soil before and after electrokinetic remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Nicole; Reddy, Krishna R; Al-Hamdan, Ashraf Z

    2009-06-15

    This study aims to characterize the physical distribution of heavy metals in kaolin soil and the chemical and structural changes in kaolinite minerals that result from electrokinetic remediation. Three bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on kaolin that was spiked with Cr(VI) alone, Ni (II) alone, and a combination of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) under a constant electric potential of 1VDC/cm for a total duration of 4 days. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the soil samples before and after electrokinetic remediation. Results showed that the heavy metal contaminant distribution in the soil samples was not observable using TEM and EDX. EDX detected nickel and chromium on some kaolinite particles and titanium-rich, high-contrast particles, but no separate phases containing the metal contaminants were detected. Small amounts of heavy metal contaminants that were detected by EDX in the absence of a visible phase suggest that ions are adsorbed to kaolinite particle surfaces as a thin coating. There was also no clear correlation between semiquantitative analysis of EDX spectra and measured total metal concentrations, which may be attributed to low heavy metal concentrations and small size of samples used. X-ray diffraction analyses were aimed to detect any structural changes in kaolinite minerals resulting from EK. The diffraction patterns showed a decrease in peak height with decreasing soil pH value, which indicates possible dissolution of kaolinite minerals during electrokinetic remediation. Overall this study showed that the changes in particle morphology were found to be insignificant, but a relationship was found between the crystallinity of kaolin and the pH changes induced by the applied electric potential.

  19. Particle morphology and mineral structure of heavy metal-contaminated kaolin soil before and after electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Nicole; Reddy, Krishna R.; Al-Hamdan, Ashraf Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the physical distribution of heavy metals in kaolin soil and the chemical and structural changes in kaolinite minerals that result from electrokinetic remediation. Three bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on kaolin that was spiked with Cr(VI) alone, Ni (II) alone, and a combination of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) under a constant electric potential of 1 VDC/cm for a total duration of 4 days. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the soil samples before and after electrokinetic remediation. Results showed that the heavy metal contaminant distribution in the soil samples was not observable using TEM and EDX. EDX detected nickel and chromium on some kaolinite particles and titanium-rich, high-contrast particles, but no separate phases containing the metal contaminants were detected. Small amounts of heavy metal contaminants that were detected by EDX in the absence of a visible phase suggest that ions are adsorbed to kaolinite particle surfaces as a thin coating. There was also no clear correlation between semiquantitative analysis of EDX spectra and measured total metal concentrations, which may be attributed to low heavy metal concentrations and small size of samples used. X-ray diffraction analyses were aimed to detect any structural changes in kaolinite minerals resulting from EK. The diffraction patterns showed a decrease in peak height with decreasing soil pH value, which indicates possible dissolution of kaolinite minerals during electrokinetic remediation. Overall this study showed that the changes in particle morphology were found to be insignificant, but a relationship was found between the crystallinity of kaolin and the pH changes induced by the applied electric potential.

  20. On the estimation of threshold pressures in infiltration of liquid metals into particle preforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.M.; Prieto, R.; Duarte, M.; Narciso, J.; Louis, E.

    2008-01-01

    Threshold pressures for infiltration of different metals into preforms of ceramic particles of various nature and morphology were experimentally determined and the results compared with those estimated by using the specific particle surface areas derived from laser diffraction and gas adsorption. Whilst laser diffraction provides an under estimation of the areas involved in the infiltration experiments, and thus of threshold pressures, gas adsorption offers reasonable values for particles that are regular and free of nanostructured surfaces

  1. Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy on metals, oxides, and oxide-supported metal particles; Summenfrequenzerzeugungsspektroskopie an Metallen, Oxiden und oxidgetraegerten Metallpartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumer, Andreas

    2010-06-21

    This thesis focuses on 4 different model systems of surface science. The experimental techniques used for the measurements include sum frequency generation (SFG), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), infrared adsorption spectrosocopy (IRAS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). By using SFG, measurements could be performed up to a pressure of 50 mbar. The systems under investigation were: CO on Pt(111), water on Ag(001) and on MgO/Ag(001), CO on Au/MgO/Ag(001), and CO on Au-Pd/MgO/Ag(001). The system of CO on Pt(111) exhibits a two peak-pattern under certain pressure and temperature conditions which has not been studied so far. Various experiments helped to elucidate the origin of this distinct behaviour. The measurements of water on Ag(001) and MgO/Ag(001) show that on MgO, water first adsorbs as a monolayer with a following multilayer, whereas on Ag(001) it adsorbs as a multilayer from the beginning. The monolayer can be studied below the multilayer and some resonances can be identified. For the case of Au/MgO/Ag(001), STM shows that the growth mode of Au depends on the thickness of the supporting MgO film, which can not be seen with spectroscopic methods. For mixed Au-Pd particles on MgO/Ag(001) a clear difference in the adsorption behaviour between pure metal particles and mixed particles can be seen, which is explained by an interaction between these metals. Annealing the mixed particles to 600 K leads to a segregation of the metals, where the Au atoms diffuse to the shell and the Pd atoms make up the core. The results of all these measurements are discussed in the light of recent publications. (orig.)

  2. Interference effects in plasom excitation by particles reflected near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, C.D.; Gervasoni, J.L.; Barrachina, R.O.; Arista, N.R.; Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza

    1993-01-01

    Using the dielectric formalism and the specular reflection model, we evaluate the probability of surface and bulk plasmon excitation by particles reflected in the proximity of a metal surface. We obtain a strong oscillatory behaviour as a function of the penetration distance. (author)

  3. The heavy metal partition in size-fractions of the fine particles in agricultural soils contaminated by waste water and smelter dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haibo, E-mail: hbzhang@yic.ac.cn [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Luo, Yongming, E-mail: ymluo@yic.ac.cn [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Makino, Tomoyuki [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba 3058604 (Japan); Wu, Longhua [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Nanzyo, Masami [Tohoku University, Sendai 9808576 (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A continuous flow ultra-centrifugation method has been developed to obtain fine particles from polluted agricultural soil. ► Pollution source affected the heavy metal fractionation in size-fractions by changing soil particle properties. ► The iron oxides affected the distribution of lead species more than other metals in the smelter dust polluted particles. -- Abstract: The partitioning of pollutant in the size-fractions of fine particles is particularly important to its migration and bioavailability in soil environment. However, the impact of pollution sources on the partitioning was seldom addressed in the previous studies. In this study, the method of continuous flow ultra-centrifugation was developed to separate three size fractions (<1 μm, <0.6 μm and <0.2 μm) of the submicron particles from the soil polluted by wastewater and smelter dust respectively. The mineralogy and physicochemical properties of each size-fraction were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope etc. Total content of the polluted metals and their chemical speciation were measured. A higher enrichment factor of the metals in the fractions of <1 μm or less were observed in the soil contaminated by wastewater than by smelter dust. The organic substance in the wastewater and calcite from lime application were assumed to play an important role in the metal accumulation in the fine particles of the wastewater polluted soil. While the metal accumulation in the fine particles of the smelter dust polluted soil is mainly associated with Mn oxides. Cadmium speciation in both soils is dominated by dilute acid soluble form and lead speciation in the smelter dust polluted soil is dominated by reducible form in all particles. This implied that the polluted soils might be a high risk to human health and ecosystem due to the high bioaccessblity of the metals as well as the mobility of the fine particles in soil.

  4. The heavy metal partition in size-fractions of the fine particles in agricultural soils contaminated by waste water and smelter dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming; Makino, Tomoyuki; Wu, Longhua; Nanzyo, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A continuous flow ultra-centrifugation method has been developed to obtain fine particles from polluted agricultural soil. ► Pollution source affected the heavy metal fractionation in size-fractions by changing soil particle properties. ► The iron oxides affected the distribution of lead species more than other metals in the smelter dust polluted particles. -- Abstract: The partitioning of pollutant in the size-fractions of fine particles is particularly important to its migration and bioavailability in soil environment. However, the impact of pollution sources on the partitioning was seldom addressed in the previous studies. In this study, the method of continuous flow ultra-centrifugation was developed to separate three size fractions (<1 μm, <0.6 μm and <0.2 μm) of the submicron particles from the soil polluted by wastewater and smelter dust respectively. The mineralogy and physicochemical properties of each size-fraction were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope etc. Total content of the polluted metals and their chemical speciation were measured. A higher enrichment factor of the metals in the fractions of <1 μm or less were observed in the soil contaminated by wastewater than by smelter dust. The organic substance in the wastewater and calcite from lime application were assumed to play an important role in the metal accumulation in the fine particles of the wastewater polluted soil. While the metal accumulation in the fine particles of the smelter dust polluted soil is mainly associated with Mn oxides. Cadmium speciation in both soils is dominated by dilute acid soluble form and lead speciation in the smelter dust polluted soil is dominated by reducible form in all particles. This implied that the polluted soils might be a high risk to human health and ecosystem due to the high bioaccessblity of the metals as well as the mobility of the fine particles in soil

  5. Nanoparticles of noble metals in the supergene zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhmodik, S. M.; Kalinin, Yu. A.; Roslyakov, N. A.; Mironov, A. G.; Mikhlin, Yu. L.; Belyanin, D. K.; Nemirovskaya, N. A.; Spiridonov, A. M.; Nesterenko, G. V.; Airiyants, E. V.; Moroz, T. N.; Bul'bak, T. A.

    2012-04-01

    Formation of noble metal nanoparticles is related to various geological processes in the supergene zone. Dispersed mineral phases appear during weathering of rocks with active participation of microorganisms, formation of soil, in aqueous medium and atmosphere. Invisible gold and other noble metals are incorporated into oxides, hydroxides, and sulfides, as well as in dispersed organic and inorganic carbonic matter. Sulfide minerals that occur in bedrocks and ores unaltered by exogenic processes and in cementation zone are among the main concentrators of noble metal nanoparticles. The ability of gold particles to disaggregate is well-known and creates problems in technological and analytical practice. When Au and PGE nanoparticles and clusters occur, these problems are augmented because of their unusual reactions and physicochemical properties. The studied gold, magnetite, titanomagnetite and pyrite microspherules from cementation zone and clay minerals of laterites in Republic of Guinea widen the knowledge of their abundance and inferred formation conditions, in particular, in the contemporary supergene zone. Morphology and composition of micrometer-sized Au mineral spherules were studied with SEM and laser microprobe. The newly formed segregations of secondary gold on the surface of its residual grains were also an object of investigation. The character of such overgrowths is the most indicative for nanoparticles. The newly formed Au particles provide evidence for redistribution of ultradispersed gold during weathering. There are serious prerequisites to state that microorganisms substantially control unusual nano-sized microspherical morphology of gold particles in the supergene zone. This is supported by experiments indicating active absorption of gold by microorganisms and direct evidence for participation of Ralstonia metallidurans bacteria in the formation of peculiar corroded bacteriomorphic surface of gold grains. In addition, the areas enriched in carbon

  6. Tunable potential well for plasmonic trapping of metallic particles by bowtie nano-apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Du, Guangqing; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Bian, Hao; Yong, Jiale; Hou, Xun

    2016-09-26

    In this paper, the tunable optical trapping dependence on wavelength of incident beam is theoretically investigated based on numerical simulations. The Monte Carlo method is taken into account for exploring the trapping characteristics such as average deviation and number distribution histogram of nanoparticles. It is revealed that both the width and the depth of potential well for trapping particles can be flexibly adjusted by tuning the wavelength of the incident beam. In addition, incident wavelengths for the deepest potential well and for the strongest stiffness at bottom are separated. These phenomena are explained as the strong plasmon coupling between tweezers and metallic nanoparticles. In addition, required trapping fluence and particles' distributions show distinctive properties through carefully modifying the incident wavelengths from 1280 nm to 1300 nm. Trapping with lowest laser fluence can be realized with 1280 nm laser and trapping with highest precision can be realized with 1300 nm laser. This work will provide theoretical support for advancing the manipulation of metallic particles and related applications such as single-molecule fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao; Luo Fei; Long Hua; Hu Shaoliu; Li Bo; Wang Youqing

    2005-01-01

    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials

  8. Evaluating the capabilities of aerosol-to-liquid particle extraction system (ALPXS)/ICP-MS for monitoring trace metals in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, Innocent; Rasmussen, Pat E; Chenier, Marc; Gardner, H David

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the application of the Aerosol-to-Liquid Particle Extraction System (ALPXS), which uses wet electrostatic precipitation to collect airborne particles, for multi-element indoor stationary monitoring. Optimum conditions are determined for capturing airborne particles for metal determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), for measuring field blanks, and for calculating limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). Due to the relatively high flow rate (300 L min(-1)), a sampling duration of 1 hr to 2 hr was adequate to capture airborne particle-bound metals under the investigated experimental conditions. The performance of the ALPXS during a building renovation demonstrated signal-to-noise ratios appropriate for sampling airborne particles in environments with elevated metal concentrations, such as workplace settings. The ALPXS shows promise as a research tool for providing useful information on short-term variations (transient signals) and for trapping particles into aqueous solutions where needed for subsequent characterization. As the ALPXS does not provide size-specific samples, and its efficiency at different flow rates has yet to be quantified, the ALPXS would not replace standard filter-based protocols accepted for regulatory applications (e.g., exposure measurements), but rather would provide additional information if used in conjunction with filter based methods. Implications: This study investigates the capability of the Aerosol-to-Liquid Particle Extraction System (ALPXS) for stationary sampling of airborne metals in indoor workplace environments, with subsequent analysis by ICP-MS. The high flow rate (300 L/min) permits a short sampling duration (< 2 hr). Results indicated that the ALPXS was capable of monitoring short-term changes in metal emissions during a renovation activity. This portable instrument may prove to be advantageous in occupational settings as a qualitative indicator of elevated

  9. Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.Q.

    1989-12-01

    The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs

  10. High temperature tribological properties of plasma-sprayed metallic coatings containing ceramic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, S.; Legoux, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    For sealing a moving metal component with a dense silica-based ceramic pre-heated at 800 C, coatings with a low coefficient of friction and moderate wear loss are required. As reported previously, plasma-sprayed coatings containing solid lubricants could reduce sliding wear in high-temperature applications. Plasma-sprayed metal-based coatings containing ceramic particles have been considered for high temperature sealing. Selected metal powders (NiCoCrAlY, CuNi, CuNiIn, Ag, Cu) and ceramic particles (boron nitride, Zeta-B ceramic) were agglomerated to form suitable spray powders. Plasma-sprayed composite coatings and reference materials were tested in a modified pin-on-disc apparatus in which the stationary disc consisted of a dense silica-based ceramic piece initially heated at 800 C and allowed to cool down during tests. The influence of single exposure and repeated contacts with a dense silica-based ceramic material pre-heated to 800 C on the coefficient of friction, wear loss and damage to the ceramic piece was evaluated. Being submitted to a single exposure at high temperature, coatings containing malleable metals such as indium, silver and copper performed well. The outstanding tribological characteristics of the copper-Zeta-B ceramic coating was attributed to the formation of a glazed layer on the surface of this coating which lasted over exposures to high temperature. This glazed layer, composed of fine oxidation products, provided a smooth and polished surface and helped maintaining the coefficient of friction low

  11. Inflammatory pseudotumor causing deep vein thrombosis after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Memon, Adeel Rasool

    2013-01-01

    Metal-on-metal hip resurfacings have recently been associated with a variety of complications resulting from adverse reaction to metal debris. We report a case of extensive soft tissue necrosis associated with a huge pelvic mass causing extensive deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb secondary to mechanical compression of the iliac vein. This is a rare and unusual cause of deep vein thrombosis after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

  12. Lotus-like effect for metal filings recovery and particle removal on heated metal surfaces using Leidenfrost water droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Lin Clara; Sapiha, Kostantyn; Leong, Yoke Fun Hannah; Choi, Siwon; Anariba, Franklin; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald

    2015-07-21

    A "lotus-like" effect is applied to demonstrate the ability of the Leidenfrost water droplets to recover Cu particles on a heated Al substrate. Cu particles on the heated surface adhere to the rim of the Leidenfrost droplets and eventually coat the droplets' surface to form an aggregation. When Fe filings are added to the Cu particles, the aggregated mixture can then be collected using a strong rare earth magnet (NdFeB) upon evaporation of the water. We also show that the Leidenfrost effect can be effectively utilized to recover both hydrophobic (dust and activated carbon) and hydrophilic (SiO2 and MgO) particles from heated Al surfaces without any topographical modification or surfactant addition. Our results show that hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials can be collected with >92% and >96% effectiveness on grooved and smooth Al surfaces, respectively. Furthermore, we observed no significant differences in the amount of material collected above the Leidenfrost point within the tested temperature range (240 °C vs. 340 °C) as well as when the Al sheet was replaced with a Cu sheet as the substrate. However, we did observe that the Leidenfrost droplets were able to collect a greater amount of material when the working liquid was water than when it was ethanol. Our findings show promise in the development of an effective precious coinage metal filings recovery technology for application in the mint industry, as well as the self-cleaning of metallic and semiconductor surfaces where manual cleaning is not amenable.

  13. Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: Assessment of threat scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goix, Sylvaine [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Lévêque, Thibaut [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management), 20 Avenue du Grésillé, BP 90406, 49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Xiong, Tian-Tian [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Schreck, Eva [Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); and others

    2014-08-15

    This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO{sub 4}, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improve risk management. - Highlights: • Seven micro- and nano- monometallic characterized particles were studied as references. • Bioaccessibility, eco and cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential assays were performed. • According to calculated threat scores: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  14. Interaction mechanisms between ceramic particles and atomized metallic droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    1992-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide insight into the dynamic interactions that occur when ceramic particles are placed in intimate contact with a metallic matrix undergoing a phase change. To that effect, Al-4 wt pct Si/SiCp composite droplets were synthesized using a spray atomization and coinjection approach, and their solidification microstructures were studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. The present results show that SiC particles (SiCp) were incor- porated into the matrix and that the extent of incorporation depends on the solidification con- dition of the droplets at the moment of SiC particle injection. Two factors were found to affect the distribution and volume fraction of SiC particles in droplets: the penetration of particles into droplets and the entrapment and/or rejection of particles by the solidification front. First, during coinjection, particles collide with the atomized droplets with three possible results: they may penetrate the droplets, adhere to the droplet surface, or bounce back after impact. The extent of penetration of SiC particles into droplets was noted to depend on the kinetic energy of the particles and the magnitude of the surface energy change in the droplets that occurs upon impact. In liquid droplets, the extent of penetration of SiC particles was shown to depend on the changes in surface energy, ΔEs, experienced by the droplets. Accordingly, large SiC particles encoun- tered more resistance to penetration relative to small ones. In solid droplets, the penetration of SiC particles was correlated with the dynamic pressure exerted by the SiC particles on the droplets during impact and the depth of the ensuing crater. The results showed that no pene- tration was possible in such droplets. Second, once SiC particles have penetrated droplets, their final location in the microstructure is governed by their interactions with the solidification front. As a result of these interactions, both entrapment and rejection of

  15. Novel method to deposit metal particles on transition metal oxide films and its application in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qinmin; Wang Min; Wang Hongbo; Zhao Jianwei; Yin Geping

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to modify the surfaces of transition metal oxides (MO) film-electrode was proposed in this study. At first, a monolayer of terephthalic acid was covalently bonded to the surfaces of Cu 2 O films. Then silver (Ag) particles were electrodeposited on the monolayer-grafted films by a potential-step process. The resulting Ag-Cu 2 O films exhibited improved electrochemical performance as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries compared to the original Cu 2 O films. An increase in electrical contact between Cu 2 O particles was considered to be responsible for the improvement in the electrochemical properties

  16. Particle-size dependence on metal(loid) distributions in mine wastes: Implications for water contamination and human exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.S.; Wilson, K.M.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The mining and processing of metal-bearing ores has resulted in contamination issues where waste materials from abandoned mines remain in piles of untreated and unconsolidated material, posing the potential for waterborne and airborne transport of toxic elements. This study presents a systematic method of particle size separation, mass distribution, and bulk chemical analysis for mine tailings and adjacent background soil samples from the Rand historic mining district, California, in order to assess particle size distribution and related trends in metal(loid) concentration as a function of particle size. Mine tailings produced through stamp milling and leaching processes were found to have both a narrower and finer particle size distribution than background samples, with significant fractions of particles available in a size range (???250 ??m) that could be incidentally ingested. In both tailings and background samples, the majority of trace metal(loid)s display an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size, resulting in higher proportions of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in finer-sized fractions which are more susceptible to both water- and wind-borne transport as well as ingestion and/or inhalation. Established regulatory screening levels for such elements may, therefore, significantly underestimate potential exposure risk if relying solely on bulk sample concentrations to guide remediation decisions. Correlations in elemental concentration trends (such as between As and Fe) indicate relationships between elements that may be relevant to their chemical speciation. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Laser melt injection of ceramic particles in metals : Processing, microstructure and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelík, V.; De Hosson, J.Th.M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the possibilities of the laser melt injection (LMI) methodology to enhance the surface of light-weighted metals by adding hard ceramic particles in the top layer, with the aim to enhance the wear resistance and to increase the hardness. In

  18. The role of particle-size soil fractions in the adsorption of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandzhieva, Saglara; Minkina, Tatiana; Pinsky, David; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Kalinitchenko, Valeriy; Sushkova, Svetlana; Chaplygin, Viktor; Dikaev, Zaurbek; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin

    2014-05-01

    Ion-exchange adsorption phenomena are important in the immobilization of heavy metals (HMs) by soils. Numerous works are devoted to the study of this problem. However, the interaction features of different particle-size soil fractions and their role in the immobilization of HMs studied insufficiently. Therefore, the assessment of the effect of the particle-size distribution on the adsorption properties of soils is a vital task. The parameters of Cu2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ adsorption by chernozems of the south of Russia and their particle-size fractions were studied. In the particle-size fractions separated from the soils, the concentrations of Cu2+, Pb2+, and Zn2 decreased with the decreasing particle size. The parameters of the adsorption values of k (the constant of the affinity)and Cmax.(the maximum adsorption of the HMs) characterizing the adsorption of HMs by the southern chernozem and its particle-size fractions formed the following sequence: silt > clay > entire soil. The adsorption capacity of chernozems for Cu2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ depending on the particle-size distribution decreased in the following sequence: clay loamy ordinary chernozem clay loamy southern chernozem> loamy southern chernozem> loamy sandy southern chernozem. According to the parameters of the adsorption by the different particle-size fractions, the heavy metal cations form a sequence analogous to that obtained for the entire soils: Cu2+ ≥ Pb2+ > Zn2+. The parameters of the heavy metal adsorption by similar particle-size fractions separated from different soils decreased in the following order: clay loamy chernozem> loamy chernozem> loamy sandy chernozem. The analysis of the changes in the parameters of the Cu2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ adsorption by the studied soils and their particle-size fractions showed that the extensive adsorption characteristic - the maximum adsorption (Cmax.) - is a less sensitive parameter characterizing the adsorption capacity of the soils than the intensive characteristic of

  19. Electrostatics of spherical metallic particles in cylinder electrostatic separators/sizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongzhou; Li Jia; Guo Jie; Xu Zhenming

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamics of spherical metallic particles in electrostatic separators/sizers (ESSs). A computational algorithm is employed to depict the cylinder-type electrode arrangements applied in some electrostatic processes generating non-uniform electric fields. The ESS consists of a pair of conducting cylinders. The upper cylinder is energized by HVdc, while the lower one is grounded and mounted horizontally on a revolvable axis. The aim of this paper is to present a new electrode configuration and demonstrate the usefulness of numerical techniques for the evaluation of the particle's motion. A computer program was employed for analysing the behavior of spherical particles in a two-dimensional electrode arrangement that models the actual electric field configuration of cylinder-type electrostatic separators/sizers. The analysis is needed for the development of any new application of this cylinder-type electrode arrangement as an electrostatic separation method. The results reveal that the particle's motion depends on its radius and density and amplitude of the applied voltage. The actual granular mixtures with different specific mass and radius could be separated applying this cylinder-type electrostatic separation method; the lift voltage is an important parameter for separation. With a program for two-dimensional analysis of the electric field, the computational procedure presented in this paper could be employed for any particle shapes

  20. Magnetic response from a composite of metal-dielectric particles in the visible range: T-matrix simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhuromskyy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The optical response of a particle composed of a dielectric core surrounded by a densely packed shell of small metal spheres is simulated with the superposition Tmatrix method for realistic material parameters. In order to compute the electric and magnetic particle polarizabilities a single expansion T-matrix is derived from a particle centered T-matrix. Finally the permeability of a medium comprising such particles is found to deviate considerable from unity resulting in a noticeable optical response.

  1. Evaluation of atmospheric pollution in Kenitra city (MOROCCO) (Particles and Metals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zghaid, M.; Noack, Y.; Tahiri, M.; Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Benyaich, F

    2008-01-01

    Full text: All Recent epidemiological studies show that air pollution in general and especially particulate pollution have a strong influence on human health, particularly on the respiratory and cardio-vascular systems, but also affect the developing fetus. Like developed countries, countries under development are subject to significant air pollution both urban and industrial. The car park is often old, sometimes uncontrolled industrialization, the regulations of atmospheric emissions are infancy and the network monitoring rare. The aim of this work is to focus on the problem of particulate air pollution in Kenitra (50 km north of Rabat, Morocco) by characterizing the pollution in both quantity and quality, to assess the impact potential health and provide decision makers with reliable data. Initial results show that the OMS recommendations, along with European standards on sulfur dioxide as well as PM10 are largely outdated (80 ug / Nm 3 instead of 40 in average). This is also the case for some metals: Lead concentrations are approximately ten times greater than those encountered in urban sites in Europe; nickel is fifteen times higher than the European standard. The metals are mainly present in the thin fraction (particles below 2.5 um). The low proportion of thin particles in the total particles, show the influence of resuspension events and other natural inputs from arid or desert. The SO2 average concentrations are also quite important (60 ug / m 3 ). The concentrations near the site are much higher than those that can be measured on similar sites in Europe. It is more than probable that in this city, the health impacts are not negligible. We will look to continue this work in three aspects: Spatial distribution of particulate pollution in Kenitra; The health impact of air pollution in Kenitra; Cyto-and geno-toxicity of airborne particles in Kenitra [fr

  2. Biokinetics and internal dosimetry of inhaled metal tritide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng

    1998-12-01

    Metal tritides (MT), stable chemical compounds of tritium, are widely used in nuclear engineering facilities. MT particles can be released as aerosols. Inhaling MT particles is a potential occupational radiation hazard. Little information is available on their dissolution behavior, biokinetics, and dosimetry. The objectives of present dissertation are to estimate dissolution rates, to develop biokinetic models, to improve internal dosimetric considerations, and to classify MT materials. This study consisted of three phases: In vitro dissolution in a simulated lung fluid, In vivo rat experiments on retention and clearance, and biokinetic modeling and dosimetric evaluation. There was a supporting study on self- absorption of tritium beta in MT particles. MT materials used in this study were titanium (Ti) and zirconium (Zr) tritides. Results shows considerable self-absorption of beta particles and their energy, even for respirable MT particles smaller than 5 μm. The self-absorption factors should be required for counting MT particle samples and for estimating absorbed dose to tissues. In vitro and in vivo dissolution data indicate that Ti and Zr tritides are poorly soluble materials. Ti tritide belongs to the W class or M type while Zr tritide can be classified as Y class or S type. Due to long retention time of the MT particles, tritium betas directly from the particles contribute over 90% of the absorbed dose to lung. The lung dose contributes most of the effective dose to the whole body. Dissolved tritium including tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT) has less effect on the lung dose and effective dose. Results on the annual limit on intake (ALI) indicate that the current radiation protection guideline based on HTO is not adequate for inhalation exposure to MT particles and needs to be modified. The biokinetic models developed in this study have predictive powers to estimate the consequences of a human inhalation exposure to MT aerosols. The

  3. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  4. Removal of heavy metals using bentonite supported nano-zero valent iron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarime, Nur Aishah; Yaacob, Wan Zuhari Wan; Jamil, Habibah

    2018-04-01

    This study reports the composite nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) which was successfully synthesized using low cost natural clay (bentonite). Bentonite composite nZVI (B-nZVI) was introduced to reduce the agglomeration of nZVI particles, thus will used for heavy metals treatment. The synthesized material was analyzed using physical, mineralogy and morphology analysis such as Brunnaer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The batch adsorption test of Bentonite and B-nZVI with heavy metals solutions (Pb, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni and Zn) was also conducted to determine their effectiveness in removing heavy metals. Through Batch test, B-nZVI shows the highest adsorption capacity (qe= 50.25 mg/g) compared to bentonite (qe= 27.75 mg/g). This occurred because B-nZVI can reduce aggregation of nZVI, dispersed well in bentonite layers thus it can provide more sites for adsorbing heavy metals.

  5. Radiation crosslinking of polymers with segregated metallic particles. Final report, June 1, 1971--September 30, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corneliussen, R.D.; Kamel, I.; Kusy, R.P.

    1973-01-01

    Through the past four years of research, a new approach to fabricating conductive polymer/metal composites has been developed. This approach consists of compacting mixtures of polymer and metal powders and then stabilizing the composite through radiation-induced crosslinking. The result is a mechanically strong, conductive materials consisting of two intertwining networks. One is a massive network consisting of fused crosslinked, large (greater than 100 μ) polymer particles while the other is a fine network of small, metallic particles (greater than 10 μ). Nine different systems including crystalline, amorphous, and rubbery polymers were studied. Processing at this time is limited to compression molding in a closed die because of network stability problems. Costs for processing were estimated at about $6.00/lb compared to $50.00 and up for commercial material based on random networks. (U.S.)

  6. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles using ionizing radiation and developing their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramnani, S.P.; Sabharwal, S.

    2008-01-01

    Fine metal particles with nanometer scale dimensions are of current interest due to their unusual properties that are different from their corresponding bulk materials. They are being explored for potential applications in optics, electronics, magnetics, catalyst, chemical sensing and biomedicine. A variety of methods are available in the literature for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The soft solution method involving the reduction of metal ion in the solution using reducing agent such as sodium borohydride, formaldehyde, trisodium citrate etc, are the most widely used. The ability of ionizing radiation to bring about ionization and excitation in the medium through which they travel results in the formation of reactive species which can be utilized to reduce metal ions into metal atoms to generate metal nanoparticles. The difference between gamma radiation method and soft solution method is that in the former the reducing species are generated in-situ whereas in later the reducing agent are incorporated into the system from an external source. A particular advantage of radiolysis method is that the reduction rate can be controlled by the selected dose rate unlike chemical method where the local concentration of reducing species is very high and cannot be controlled

  7. Patellofemoral Joint Replacement and Nickel Allergy: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Syed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal allergy is an unusual complication of joint replacement that may cause aseptic loosening and necessitate joint revision surgery. We present the case of nickel allergy causing aseptic loosening following patellofemoral joint replacement (PFJR in a 54-year-old male. Joint revision surgery to a nickel-free total knee replacement was performed with good results. Our literature review shows that there is no evidence to guide the management of metal allergy in PFJR. The evidence from studies of total knee replacement is limited to retrospective case series and case reports and gives contradictory recommendations. The optimal management strategy for metal allergy in PFJR is not clear. We recommend allergy testing in patients with history of metal allergy and use of an allergen-free implant in those with positive tests. As there is no gold standard test to establish metal allergy, the choice of test should be guided by availability and recommendation from the local unit of dermatology and allergy testing. We recommend investigation for metal allergy in patients with implant loosening where other causes have been excluded.

  8. The role of soil's particle-size fractions in the adsorption of heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saglara Mandzhieva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of adsorption of Cu2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ cations by southern chernozem and their particle-size fractions were studied. The adsorption of metals by soils and the strength of their fixation on the surface of soil particles under both mono- and poly-element contamination decreased with the decreasing proportion of fine fractions in the soil. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the particle-size distribution and the silt and physical clay fractions on the adsorption of copper, lead, and zinc by chernozems. The objects of study included the upper humus horizons of different southern chernozems of the Rostov oblast. To study the ion-exchange adsorption of the Cu2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ cations, the soil in the natural ionic form was disaggregated using a pestle with a rubber head and sieved through a 1mm sieve. The soil samples were treated with solutions of Cu2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ nitrates and acetates at the separate and simultaneous presence of heavy metals (HMs. In the solutions with the simultaneous presence of HMs, their molar concentrations were similar. The concentrations of the initial solutions varied in the range from 0.05 to 1 mM/l. The soil: solution ratio was 1:10. The contents of HMs in the filtrates were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The contents of adsorbed HM cations were calculated from the difference between the metal concentrations in the initial and equilibrium solutions. The increase in the degree of dispersion of the particle-size fractions in similar soils resulted not only in an increase in the content of adsorbed HMs but also in an enhancement of their fixation on the surface of the fine particles. Therefore, the adsorption capacity of the Lower Don soils for Cu2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ decreased in the following sequence: clay loamy southern chernozem > loamy southern chernozem > loamy sandy southern chernozem. This was related to the qualitative differences in the mineralogy and chemistry of

  9. Nano- and microsized cubic gel particles from cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yuki; Ishiwata, Takumi; Sugikawa, Kouta; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2012-10-15

    Sweet cube o' mine: Bottom-up control of gel particles has been regarded as a great challenge. By employing internal cross-linking of cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks, cubic sugar gels were formed with sharp edges that reflect the shape of the crystals. This enabled the fabrication of shape- and size-controlled polymer gels from porous crystals (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Characterization of the Particle Size Fraction associated with Heavy Metals in Suspended Sediments of the Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhen Yao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the concentrations of particulate heavy metals and fluxes into the sea in the Yellow River were examined based on observational and measured data from January 2009 to December 2010. A custom-built water elutriation apparatus was used to separate suspended sediments into five size fractions. Clay and very fine silt is the dominant fraction in most of the suspended sediments, accounting for >40% of the samples. Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Fe and Mn are slightly affected by anthropogenic activities, while Cd is moderate affected. The concentrations of heavy metals increased with decrease in particle size. For suspended sediments in the Yellow River, on average 78%–82% of the total heavy metal loading accumulated in the <16 μm fraction. About 43% and 53% of heavy metal in 2009 and 2010 respectively, were readily transported to the Bohai Sea with “truly suspended” particles, which have potentially harmful effects on marine organisms.

  11. Enhanced Laser Cooling of Rare-Earth-Ion-Doped Glass Containing Nanometer-Sized Metallic Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Youhua; Zhong Biao; Yin Jianping

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced laser cooling performance of rare-earth-ions-doped glasses containing small particles is predicted. This is achieved by the enhancement of local field around rare earth ions, owing to the surface plasmon resonance of small metallic particles. The role of energy transfer between ions and the particle is theoretical discussed. Depending on the particle size and the ion emission quantum efficiency, the enhancement of the absorption and the fluorescence is predicted. Moreover, taking Yb 3+ -doped ZBLAN as example, the cooling power and heat-light converting efficiency are calculated. It is finally concluded that the absorption and the fluorescence are greatly enhanced in these composite materials, the cooling power is increased compared to the bulk material. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  12. Ultrastructural analysis of metal particles released from stainless steel and titanium miniplate components in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew, I R; Frame, J W

    1998-01-01

    Low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (Ivac SEM) was used to characterize the appearance of metal particles released from stressed and unstressed Champy miniplates placed in dogs and to study the relationship of the debris to the surrounding tissues. Under general endotracheal anesthesia, two Champy miniplates (titanium or stainless steel) were placed on the frontal bone in an animal model. One miniplate was bent to fit the curvature of the frontal bone (unstressed) and another miniplate of the same material was bent in a curve until the midpoint was raised 3 mm above the ends. The latter miniplate adapted to the skull curvature under tension during screw insertion (stressed). The miniplates and surrounding tissues were retrieved after intervals of 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Decalcified sections were prepared and examined by light microscopy and Ivac SEM. Under Ivac SEM examination, the titanium particles had a smooth, polygonal outline. Stainless steel particles were typically spherical, with numerous small projections on the surface. Most particles were 1 to 10 microns in diameter. The tissue response to the particles was variable; some particles were covered by fibrous connective tissue or enclosed by bone, and others were intracellular. The metal particles released from stressed or unstressed Champy miniplates were similar, and this was related to their source of origin and duration within the tissues. The tissue response to the particles appeared to depend on their location.

  13. Particle size studies to reveal crystallization mechanisms of the metal organic framework HKUST-1 during sonochemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Mitchell R; Senthilnathan, Sethuraman; Balzer, Christopher J; Shan, Bohan; Chen, Liang; Mu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Systematic studies of key operating parameters for the sonochemical synthesis of the metal organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1(also called CuBTC) were performed including reaction time, reactor volume, sonication amplitude, sonication tip size, solvent composition, and reactant concentrations analyzed through SEM particle size analysis. Trends in the particle size and size distributions show reproducible control of average particle sizes between 1 and 4μm. These results along with complementary studies in sonofragmentation and temperature control were conducted to compare these results to kinetic crystal growth models found in literature to develop a plausible hypothetical mechanism for ultrasound-assisted growth of metal-organic-frameworks composed of a competitive mechanism including constructive solid-on-solid (SOS) crystal growth and a deconstructive sonofragmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann

    2014-01-01

    The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl 2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. - Highlights: • Earthworm bioturbation increases phytoavailability of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu. • Earthworm activity influences soil structure and increases pH. • Plant metal uptake was not correlated with CaCl 2 , EDTA estimated phytoavailability. • Increased metal phytoavailability with bioturbation could increase human exposure. - Earthworm activities can increase metal phytoavailability and subsequent human exposure to metals in consumed vegetables

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF METALS IN PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS IN SOILS OF TWO FORESTED CATENAS (SMOLENSK-MOSCOW UPLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Samonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations and distribution of Fe, Ti, Zr, Mn, Cu. Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, and Zn associated with various particle size fractions have been analyzed in soils of two forested catenas located in the middle Protva River basin on the Smolensk-Moscow Upland. The results showed that concentration of metals in a particular size fraction was defined by a complex of factors: element chemical properties, soil type, genesis of a soil horizon, and position in the catena. A clearly defined relationship between the fraction size and metal concentrations was found for Ti and Zr. The highest levels of Ti were found in coarse and medium silt, while Zr had its highest values only in coarse silt and, in some cases, in fine sand. Such metals as Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Pb had high concentrations in sand, fine silt, and clay fractions depending on a soil type and a genetic horizon. The maximum load of Cr, Zn, and Ni (in the majority of cases was found in clay fraction. The minimum loads of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, and Ni were found in the coarse silt fraction. Variation in concentrations of heavy metals differed depending on particle size. For most metals, the variations were decreasing from coarser to finer fractions.Key words: soils, heavy metals, grain-size fractionation, vertical and lateral distribution patterns

  16. Anisotropic Metal Deposition on TiO2 Particles by Electric-Field-Induced Charge Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewcharoen, Supakit; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Lapeyre, Veronique; Garrigue, Patrick; Fourier, Lucas; Elissalde, Catherine; Buffière, Sonia; Legros, Philippe; Gayot, Marion; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2017-09-11

    Deposition of metals on TiO 2 semiconductor particles (M-TiO 2 ) results in hybrid Janus objects combining the properties of both materials. One of the techniques proposed to generate Janus particles is bipolar electrochemistry (BPE). The concept can be applied in a straightforward way for the site-selective modification of conducting particles, but is much less obvious to use for semiconductors. Herein we report the bulk synthesis of anisotropic M-TiO 2 particles based on the synergy of BPE and photochemistry, allowing the intrinsic limitations, when they are used separately, to be overcome. When applying electric fields during irradiation, electrons and holes can be efficiently separated, thus breaking the symmetry of particles by modifying them selectively and in a wireless way on one side with either gold or platinum. Such hybrid materials are an important first step towards high-performance designer catalyst particles, for example for photosplitting of water. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  18. Regional monitoring of metals in the Munich metropolitan area: Comparison of biomonitoring (standardized grass culture) with deposition and airborne particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietl, C.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Vierle, O.; Peichl, L.; Faus-Kessler, Th.

    2000-01-01

    In the Munich metropolitan area a close association of lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb) impacts with traffic was observed in 1992 and 1993. The intercorrelation of both metals was found by samples of standardised grass cultures and was reflected by deposition sampling, too. With respect to location-specific variations, however, both methods revealed differing gradients of Pb and Sb concentrations with increasing distance from traffic. It appeared that Sb variations according to traffic implications were particularly well indicated by means of biomonitoring, while Pb variations were not indicated adequately. As a result, a special qualification of grass to selectively collect metals on airborne dust according to particle sizes was suggested. Further investigations on the correlations between metal biomonitoring, metal deposition and airborne metals in 1994 - 1996 corroborated method-specific sampling features. They in turn showed that one interference is the individual prevalence of the metals on different particle sizes. (author)

  19. The influence of particle size distribution on the properties of metal-injection-moulded 17-4 PH stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seerane, Mandy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal injection moulding (MIM) is a near-net-shaping powder metallurgy technique suitable for the cost-effective mass production of small and complex components. In this paper, the effects of the metal powder particle size on the final properties...

  20. Influence of in situ formed ZrB2 particles on microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6061 metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinaharan, I.; Murugan, N.; Parameswaran, Siva

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In situ fabrication of aluminium metal matrix composite reinforced ZrB 2 particles. → Colour metallography of composites. → Improvement of matrix properties by ZrB 2 particles. → Sliding wear behaviour of in situ composites. - Abstract: Particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (PMMCs) have gained considerable amount of research emphasis and attention in the present era. Research is being carried out across the globe to produce new combination of PMMCs. PMMCs are prepared by adding a variety of ceramic particles with monolithic alloys using several techniques. An attempt has been made to produce aluminium metal matrix composites reinforced with zirconium boride (ZrB 2 ) particles by the in situ reaction of K 2 ZrF 6 and KBF 4 salts with molten aluminium. The influence of in situ formed ZrB 2 particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6061 alloy was studied in this work. The in situ formed ZrB 2 particles significantly refined the microstructure and enhanced the mechanical properties of AA6061 alloy. The weight percentage of ZrB 2 was varied from 0 to 10 in steps of 2.5. Improvement of hardness, ultimate tensile strength and wear resistance of AA6061 alloy was observed with the increase in ZrB 2 content.

  1. Usefulness of laser ablation ICP-MS for analysis of metallic particles released to oral mucosa after insertion of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajnóg, Adam; Hanć, Anetta; Koczorowski, Ryszard; Makuch, Krzysztof; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2018-03-01

    Despite the fact that titanium is considered highly biocompatible, its presence in the oral cavity (an environment of frequently changing pH and temperature) may result in the release of titanium from intraosseous implants into the oral mucosa, causing a range of reactions from the human body. Fragments of oral mucosa collected from patients after dental implant insertion were analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The study revealed an elevated content of elements (Ti, Al, V) which are components of the metal implants and temporary cover screws. Dynamic ablation of the tissue surface was used in order to obtain maps of the content and distribution of analyzed elements. The material consisted of 30 oral mucosa tissue fragments collected 3-5 months after implantation and 10 samples collected before implantation (control group). The application of optical microscope allowed for indication and confirmation of the location of metal particles prior to LA-ICP-MS analysis. The so-obtained map permitted location of regions containing metal particles. LA-ICP-MS analysis revealed groups of samples with similar properties of metal particles, thus confirming that those metal particles were the main source of the elevated content of metals (Ti, Al, V) in the tissue after implantation. A calibration strategy based on matrix matched solid standards with powdered egg white proteins as matrix material was applied with 34 S as an internal standard. The accuracy of the analytical method was verified by ablating pellets of certified reference material ERM-BB422 Fish muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of supported metallic nano-particles and their use in air depollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrault, J.; Valange, S.; Tatibouet, J.M.; Thollon, St.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Giraud, S.; Ruiz, J.Ch.; Bergaya, B.; Joulin, J.P.; Delbianco, N.; Gabelica, Z.; Daturi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of the 'NACACOMO' Consortium ('Nano-materials: Catalysts for the Conversion of organic Molecules. Uses in fine chemicals and environment protection ') consisted in generating novel catalysts composed of nanoparticles of metals (Pt, Pd, Ag...) and/or oxides (TiO 2 ...) stabilized and well distributed over the surface of a support (foams, ceramics), by monitoring both the particle size and the 'coating' process itself, using new technologies: CVD, plasma-spray, laser pyrolysis, supercritical preparation, which were compared to conventional soft chemistry recipes. The most accurate characterization of particle morphology, local structure, texture, spatial arrangement but also of their reactivity, were achieved by privileging the utilization of various in situ methods. Details on formation mechanisms of a solid nano-particle at the atomic level (nucleation, growth and particle (re)distribution over the support...) could be obtained in selected cases, with opportunities for scaling up and shaping. The (chemical) nature of the so-obtained nano-materials was monitored for selected catalytic applications involving the development of environmental friendly processes, such as oxidation of VOC, with a priority for aromatics and chlorinated compounds. (authors)

  3. Production of metal particles and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of producing novel metals or metal clusters in a low gravity environment was studied. The production of coordinately unsaturated metal carbonyls by thermolysis or photolysis of stable metal carbonyls has the potential to generate novel catalysts by this technique. Laser irradiation of available metal carbonyls was investigated. It is found that laser induced decomposition of metal carbonyls is feasible for producing a variety of coordinately unsaturated species. Formation of clustered species does occur but is hampered by weak metal-metal bonds.

  4. An unusual intracranial metallic foreign bodies and panhypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakouichmi, Mohammed; Baïzri, Hicham; Mouhsine, Abdelilah; Boukhira, Abderrahmane; Akhaddar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A 49 years old man, with a history of aggression at the age of 18 years by a pair of scissors, who consulted for unilateral migraine headaches look straight. Paraclinical explorations concluded that trauma to anterior pituitary by a metallic foreign body from the right nostril to the sella, responsible for panhypopituitarism and sinusitis. The headaches are frequent causes of consultation, often treated symptomatically but rarely explored. The direct trauma to the pituitary gland, by a metallic foreign body, is exceptional. We report the case of neglected panhypopituitarism, discovered 31 years after injury with a pair of scissors.

  5. Dimerization of eosin on nanostructured gold surfaces: Size regime dependence of the small metallic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Pal, Anjali; Nath, Sudip; Kundu, Subrata; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Pal, Tarasankar

    2005-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles of variable sizes have been exploited to study their influence on the absorption and emission spectral characteristics of eosin, a fluorescent dye. It has been found that smaller particles of gold stimulate J-aggregation of eosin on the surface of metal particles whereas larger particles cannot induce any kind of aggregation amongst the dye molecules. The size regime dependence of the gold nanoparticles has been attributed to the intercluster interactions induced by the dye molecules for smaller gold nanoparticles and consequently, close packing of the dye molecules around the gold surface engenders intermolecular interactions amongst the dye molecules leading to dimerization.

  6. Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, John D.

    2014-04-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.4×10{sup 6}–2.7×10{sup 10} VLP’s cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

  7. Effect of the relationship between particle size, inter-particle distance, and metal loading of carbon supported fuel cell catalysts on their catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gon Corradini, Patricia; Pires, Felipe I.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Perez, Joelma; Antolini, Ermete

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the relationship between particle size (d), inter-particle distance (x i ), and metal loading (y) of carbon supported fuel cell Pt or PtRu catalysts on their catalytic activity, based on the optimum d (2.5–3 nm) and x i /d (>5) values, was evaluated. It was found that for y i /d can be always obtained. For y ≥ 30 wt%, instead, the positive effect of a thinner catalyst layer of the fuel cell electrode than that using catalysts with y i /d compared to their optimum values, with in turns gives rise to a decrease in the catalytic activity. The effect of the x i /d ratio has been successfully verified by experimental results on ethanol oxidation on PtRu/C catalysts with same particle size and same degree of alloying but different metal loading. Tests in direct ethanol fuel cells showed that, compared to 20 wt% PtRu/C, the negative effect of the lower x i /d on the catalytic activity of 30 and 40 wt% PtRu/C catalysts was superior to the positive effect of the thinner catalyst layer.

  8. The effect of iron-ore particles on the metal content of the brown alga Padina gymnospora (Espirito Santo Bay, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, C.A.G.; Salgado, L.T.; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y.; Amado Filho, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Iron ore deposits mat be the source of metals found in the brown alga Padina gymnospora. - The iron-ore particles discharged by a pellet processing plant (Espirito Santo Bay, Brazil) cover the seabed of Camburi Beach and consequently, the epibenthic community. In order to determine the importance of the contribution of the iron-ore deposits to the metal concentration in macroalgae of Espirito Santo Bay, four methods of cleaning particulate material adhered to the surface of thalli were tested prior to metal tissue analysis (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) of Padina gymnospora. In addition, heavy metal concentrations were determined in individuals of P. gymnospora from a site (Frade Island) not affected by the iron-ore particles. The most efficient cleaning treatment, a combination of scraping and washing with an ethanol-seawater solution (NA+SC+ET) removed a number of particles on the surface of thalli 10 times higher than that observed in the control (C). Using this treatment, the total-metal concentrations were reduced by 78% for Fe and 50% for Al respect to the control. However, Fe, Al and Cu concentrations after treatment NA+SC+ET were significantly higher than those found at Frade Island. It is suggested that the iron-ore deposit might be a source for metal availability to macroalgae exposed to the dumped material at Espirito Santo Bay

  9. Magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.

  10. A review of the electrodeposition of metal matrix composite coatings by inclusion of particles in a metal layer: an established and diversifying technology

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, F.C.; Ponce de Leon, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Following a brief overview of their history, which dates back to the 1920s with marked developments during the 1960s and 1970s, the principles of composite coatings, achieved by including particles dispersed in a bath into a growing electrodeposited metal layer, are considered. The principles and role of electroplating compared to other techniques for realising such coatings, are considered. A good quality particle dispersion (often aided by a suitable type and concentration of surfactants) a...

  11. Cobalt-alloy implant debris induce HIF-1α hypoxia associated responses: a mechanism for metal-specific orthopedic implant failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauryn Samelko

    Full Text Available The historical success of orthopedic implants has been recently tempered by unexpected pathologies and early failures of some types of Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum alloy containing artificial hip implants. Hypoxia-associated responses to Cobalt-alloy metal debris were suspected as mediating this untoward reactivity at least in part. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α is a major transcription factor involved in hypoxia, and is a potent coping mechanism for cells to rapidly respond to changing metabolic demands. We measured signature hypoxia associated responses (i.e. HIF-1α, VEGF and TNF-α to Cobalt-alloy implant debris both in vitro (using a human THP-1 macrophage cell line and primary human monocytes/macrophages and in vivo. HIF-1α in peri-implant tissues of failed metal-on-metal implants were compared to similar tissues from people with metal-on-polymer hip arthroplasties, immunohistochemically. Increasing concentrations of cobalt ions significantly up-regulated HIF-1α with a maximal response at 0.3 mM. Cobalt-alloy particles (1 um-diameter, 10 particles/cell induced significantly elevated HIF-1α, VEGF, TNF-α and ROS expression in human primary macrophages whereas Titanium-alloy particles did not. Elevated expression of HIF-1α was found in peri-implant tissues and synovial fluid of people with failing Metal-on-Metal hips (n = 5 compared to failed Metal-on-Polymer articulating hip arthroplasties (n = 10. This evidence suggests that Cobalt-alloy, more than other metal implant debris (e.g. Titanium alloy, can elicit hypoxia-like responses that if unchecked can lead to unusual peri-implant pathologies, such as lymphocyte infiltration, necrosis and excessive fibrous tissue growths.

  12. Utility of Lithium in Rare-Earth Metal Reduction Reactions to Form Nontraditional Ln2+ Complexes and Unusual [Li(2.2.2-cryptand)]1+ Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Daniel N; Darago, Lucy E; Ziller, Joseph W; Evans, William J

    2018-02-19

    The utility of lithium compared to other alkali metals in generating Ln 2+ rare-earth metal complexes via reduction of Ln 3+ precursors in reactions abbreviated as LnA 3 /M (Ln = rare-earth metal; A = anionic ligand; M = alkali metal) is described. Lithium reduction of Cp' 3 Ln (Cp' = C 5 H 4 SiMe 3 ; Ln = Y, Tb, Dy, Ho) under Ar in the presence of 2.2.2-cryptand (crypt) forms new examples of crystallographically characterizable Ln 2+ complexes of these metals, [Li(crypt)][Cp' 3 Ln]. In each complex, lithium is found in an N 2 O 4 donor atom coordination geometry that is unusual for the cryptand ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data on these new examples of nontraditional divalent lanthanide complexes are consistent with 4f n 5d 1 electronic configurations. The Dy and Ho complexes have exceptionally high single-ion magnetic moments, 11.35 and 11.67 μ B , respectively. Lithium reduction of Cp' 3 Y under N 2 at -35 °C forms the Y 2+ complex (Cp' 3 Y) 1- , which reduces dinitrogen upon warming to room temperature to generate the (N 2 ) 2- complex [Cp' 2 Y(THF)] 2 (μ-η 2 :η 2 -N 2 ). These results provide insight on the factors that lead to reduced dinitrogen complexes and/or stable divalent lanthanide complexes as a function of the specific reducing agent and conditions.

  13. A Random-Walk-Model for heavy metal particles in natural waters; Ein Random-Walk-Modell fuer Schwermetallpartikel in natuerlichen Gewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollschlaeger, A.

    1996-12-31

    The presented particle tracking model is for the numerical calculation of heavy metal transport in natural waters. The Navier-Stokes-Equations are solved with the Finite-Element-Method. The advective movement of the particles is interpolated from the velocities on the discrete mesh. The influence of turbulence is simulated with a Random-Walk-Model where particles are distributed due to a given probability function. Both parts are added and lead to the new particle position. The characteristics of the heavy metals are assigned to the particules as their attributes. Dissolved heavy metals are transported only by the flow. Heavy metals which are bound to particulate matter have an additional settling velocity. The sorption and the remobilization processes are approximated through a probability law which maintains the proportionality ratio between dissolved heavy metals and those which are bound to particulate matter. At the bed heavy metals bound to particulate matter are subjected to deposition and erosion processes. The model treats these processes by considering the absorption intensity of the heavy metals to the bottom sediments. Calculations of the Weser estuary show that the particle tracking model allows the simulation of the heavy metal behaviour even under complex flow conditions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das vorgestellte Partikelmodell dient zur numerischen Berechnung des Schwermetalltransports in natuerlichen Gewaessern. Die Navier-Stokes-Gleichungen werden mit der Methode der Finiten Elemente geloest. Die advektive Bewegung der Teilchen ergibt sich aus der Interpolation der Geschwindigkeiten auf dem diskreten Netz. Der Einfluss der Turbulenz wird mit einem Random-Walk-Modell simuliert, bei dem sich die Partikel anhand einer vorgegebenen Wahrscheinlichkeitsfunktion verteilen. Beide Bewegungsanteile werden zusammengefasst und ergeben die neue Partikelposition. Die Eigenschaften der Schwermetalle werden den Partikeln als Attribute zugeordnet. Geloeste Schwermetalle

  14. Numerical simulation on single bubble rising behavior in liquid metal using moving particle semi-implicit method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Juanli; Tian Wenxi; Qiu Suizheng; Chen Ronghua; Su Guanghui

    2011-01-01

    The gas-lift pump in liquid metal cooling fast reactor (LMFR) is an innovational conceptual design to enhance the natural circulation ability of reactor core. The two-phase flow character of gas-liquid metal makes significant improvement of the natural circulation capacity and reactor safety. In present basic study, the rising behavior of a single nitrogen bubble in five kinds of liquid metals (lead bismuth alloy, liquid kalium, sodium, potassium sodium alloy and lithium lead alloy) was numerically simulated using moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. The whole growing process of single nitrogen bubble in liquid metal was captured. The bubble shape and rising speed of single nitrogen bubble in each liquid metal were compared. The comparison between simulation results using MPS method and Grace graphical correlation shows a good agreement. (authors)

  15. In situ ceramic layer growth on coated fuel particles dispersed in a zirconium metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, K. A.; Silva, C. M.; Kiggans, J. O.; Cai, Z.; Shin, D.; Snead, L. L.

    2013-06-01

    The extent and nature of the chemical interaction between the outermost coating layer of coated fuel particles embedded in zirconium metal during fabrication of metal matrix microencapsulated fuels were examined. Various particles with outermost coating layers of pyrocarbon, SiC, and ZrC have been investigated in this study. ZrC-Zr interaction was the least substantial, while the PyC-Zr reaction can be exploited to produce a ZrC layer at the interface in an in situ manner. The thickness of the ZrC layer in the latter case can be controlled by adjusting the time and temperature during processing. The kinetics of ZrC layer growth is significantly faster from what is predicted using literature carbon diffusivity data in ZrC. SiC-Zr interaction is more complex and results in formation of various chemical phases in a layered aggregate morphology at the interface.

  16. Heavy metal toxicity and bioavailability of dissolved nutrients to a bacterivorous flagellate are linked to suspended particle physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenigk, Jens; Wiedlroither, Anneliese; Pfandl, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Many dissolved substances attach easily to sediment particles. In the presence of suspended sediments bioavailability of dissolved substances is therefore, usually reduced and clays are even applied to 'wash' natural waters upon pollution. In organisms which feed on food organisms in the size range of these suspended sediment particles, however, bioavailability of such substances may even increase. For microorganisms the interaction with dissolved substances and suspended sediment particles so far has hardly been investigated. We specifically tested: (1) the importance of suspended particles as an uptake route for dissolved substances; and (2) the significance of particle surface properties, i.e. surface load and mineralogy. As a model system we used an axenically cultured strain of a widespread and often abundant flagellate ('Spumella-like' flagellate strain JBM10). We tested the toxicity of cadmium (II) and mercury (II) as well as availability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the absence as well as in the presence of different natural clays, i.e. a kaolinite, a montmorillonite, and a mixed clay, and of artificial silicate particles of different surface charge. When applied separately the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury as well as of suspended particles negatively affected the investigated flagellate but nutritive organics supported growth of the investigated flagellate. Toxic stress response comprises behavioral changes including enhanced swimming activity and stress egestion of ingested particles and was generally similar for a variety of different flagellate species. In combination with suspended particles, the respective effect of trace metals and nutritive substances decreased. Regarding the particle quality, cadmium toxicity increased with increasingly negative surface charge, i.e. increasing surface density of silanol groups (Pearson's product moment, P = 0.005). For mercury particle mineralogy still had a significant effect (P < 0

  17. Impact of sensor metal thickness on microwave spectroscopy sensitivity for individual particles and biological cells analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen , Wenli; Dubuc , David; Grenier , Katia

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper focuses on evaluating the impact of metal thickness of a microwave coplanar based sensor dedicated to the microwave dielectric spectroscopy of single particles and individual biological cells. A sensitivity study has therefore been achieved for metal thicknesses comprised between 0.3 and 20 µm. After the validation of electromagnetic simulations with measurements of 10 μm-diameter polystyrene bead, both capacitive and conductive contrasts have been defined f...

  18. Radiation chemical route for preparation of metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles show properties that are neither seen in the bulk or at atomic level. The unusual properties are governed by quantum size effect. Due to this various methodologies have been endeavored to control the size of the particles. In the present work we show the use of two complimentary techniques (radiation and photo) to synthesize and control the size of the metal particles. In-situ synthesis of fine silver, thallium and cadmium particles has been carried out by gamma-irradiation and electron pulse irradiation at room temperature in the pre-organized gel of polyacrylamide or cyclodextrin cavity. The role of generation of nuclei in high concentrations in stabilization of metal nanoparticles in hydrophobic cavity is shown. Similarly the importance of entrapment of metal ions in the polymer matrix during its formation is highlighted. The work is further extended to exploit the microemulsion droplets for stabilization of Cd nanoparticles. Utility of pulse radiolysis in probing the mechanism of the formation of metal nanoparticles is also shown. Ultrafast laser pulses were employed to control the morphology of the pre-prepared Pt nanoparticles. The changes in reduction of shape and size are considered to occur through melting and vaporization of the nanoparticles. Pt nanoparticles were coated on the inner walls of the tubular pyrex reactor and tested for their catalytic activity for oxidation of CO. It was observed that Pt nanoparticles prepared in the presence of a stabilizer (gelatin) showed a higher tendency to adhere to the inner walls of the pyrex reactor as compared to that prepared in the presence of silica nanoparticles. The catalyst was found to be active at ≥150 degree C giving CO 2 . Chemically reduced Pt nanoparticles stabilized on silica nanoparticles gave ∼7% CO conversion per hr. However, radiolytically prepared Pt nanoaprticles stabilized by gelatin gave ∼10% conversion per hr. The data indicates that catalytic oxidation of CO takes place

  19. Metal-directed topological diversity of three fluorescent metal-organic frameworks based on a new tetracarboxylate strut

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    Three d- or p-block metal ions based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were isolated by employing a new tetracarboxylate linker, featuring unusual flu, self-interpenetrated lvt and new (3,5)-c topological nets, respectively. Interesting photoluminescent properties of these solid-state materials were also observed. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Assessment of metal pollution sources by SEM/EDS analysis of solid particles in snow: a case study of Žerjav, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Miloš; Gosar, Mateja

    2013-12-01

    Solid particles in snow deposits, sampled in mining and Pb-processing area of Žerjav, Slovenia, have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Identified particles were classified as geogenic-anthropogenic, anthropogenic, and secondary weathering products. Geogenic-anthropogenic particles were represented by scarce Zn- and Pb-bearing ore minerals, originating from mine waste deposit. The most important anthropogenic metal-bearing particles in snow were Pb-, Sb- and Sn-bearing oxides and sulphides. The morphology of these particles showed that they formed at temperatures above their melting points. They were most abundant in snow sampled closest to the Pb-processing plant and least abundant in snow taken farthest from the plant, thus indicating that Pb processing was their predominant source between the last snowfall and the time of sampling. SEM/EDS analysis showed that Sb and Sn contents in these anthropogenic phases were higher and more variable than in natural Pb-bearing ore minerals. The most important secondary weathering products were Pb- and Zn-containing Fe-oxy-hydroxides whose elemental composition and morphology indicated that they mostly resulted from oxidation of metal-bearing sulphides emitted from the Pb-processing plant. This study demonstrated the importance of single particle analysis using SEM/EDS for differentiation between various sources of metals in the environment.

  1. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  2. Particle size distribution and characteristics of heavy metals in road-deposited sediments from Beijing Olympic Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Shi, Anbang; Zhang, Xiaoran

    2015-06-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, heavy metals in road-deposited sediments (RDSs) of parks are emitted into the terrestrial, atmospheric, and water environment, and have a severe impact on residents' and tourists' health. To identify the distribution and characteristic of heavy metals in RDS and to assess the road environmental quality in Chinese parks, samples were collected from Beijing Olympic Park in the present study. The results indicated that particles with small grain size (Pb>Cu>Zn. This study analyzed the mobility of heavy metals in sediments using partial sequential extraction with the Tessier procedure. The results revealed that the apparent mobility and potential metal bioavailability of heavy metals in the sediments, based on the exchangeable and carbonate fractions, decreased in the order: Cd>Zn≈Pb>Cu. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Hetero-Colloidal Metal Particle Multilayer Films Grown Using Electrostatic Interactions at the Air-water Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, Murali; Mayya, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of nanoparticle multilayer films by electrostatic immobilization of surface-modified colloidal particles at the air-water interface has been recently demonstrated by us. In this paper, we extend our study to show that multilayer assemblies consisting of metal particles of different chemical nature (hetero-colloidal particle superlattices) and size can be deposited by the versatile Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Multilayer films consisting of a different number of bilayers of gold and silver colloidal particles have been deposited and characterized using quartz crystal microgravimetry and UV-visible spectroscopy measurements. It is observed that while layer-by-layer deposition of the different colloidal particle assemblies is possible by this technique without a detectable variation in the cluster density in the different layers, a degree of post-deposition reorganization of the clusters occurs in the film. In addition to this aging behavior, the effect of different organic solvents on the reorganization process has also been studied

  4. Zirconium based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.K.; Neogy, S.; Savalia, R.T.; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; Banerjee, S.

    2006-01-01

    Metallic glasses have come into prominence in recent times because their nanocrystalline atomic arrangement imparts many useful and unusual properties to these metallic solids. In this study, bulk glasses have been obtained in Zr based multicomponent alloy by induction melting these alloys in silica crucibles and casting these in form of rods 3 and 6 mm in diameter in a copper mould

  5. The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, Jeffrey Alan

    Structural studies of the polymorphic cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have resulted in high resolution structures for two distinct icosahedral ribonucleoprotein particle conformations dependent upon whether acidic or basic pH conditions prevail. CCMV is stable below pH 6.5, however metal-free particles maintain a 10% increase in hydrodynamic volume at pH >=q 7.5. Identification of this swollen' form of CCMV, which can easily be disrupted with 1M NaCl, led to the first reassembly of an icosahedral virus in vitro from purified viral protein and RNA to form infectious particles, and its assembly has been the subject of biochemical and biophysical investigations for over twenty-five years. Under well defined conditions of pH, ionic strength and divalent metal ion concentration, CCMV capsid protein or capsid protein and RNA will reassemble to form icosahedral particles of various sizes, sheets, tubes, rosettes, and a variety of laminar structures which resemble virion structures from non-related virus families. Analysis of native particles at 3.2A resolution and swollen particles at 28A resolution has suggested that the chemical basis for the formation of polymorphic icosahedral and anisometric structures is: (i) hexamers formed of beta-barrel subunits stabilized by an unusual hexameric parallel beta structure made up of their N-termini, (ii) the location of protein-RNA interactions, (iii) divalent metal cation binding sites that regulate quasi-symmetrical subunit associations, (iv) charge repulsion across the same interfaces when lacking divalent metal ions at basic pH, which induces the formation of sixty 20A diameter portals for RNA release, and (v) a novel, C-terminal-based, subunit dimer assembly unit. The use of C- and N-terminal arms in CCMV has not been observed in other icosahedral RNA virus structures determined at near atomic resolution, however, their detailed interactions and roles in stabilizing the quaternary organization of CCMV are related to that found

  6. Numerical modelling of adsorption of metallic particles on graphite substrate via molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii-Tabar, H.

    1998-01-01

    A computer-based numerical modelling of the adsorption process of gas phase metallic particles on the surface of a graphite substrate has been performed via the application of molecular dynamics simulation method. The simulation related to an extensive STM-based experiment performed in this field, and reproduces part of the experimental results. Both two-body and many-body inter-atomic potentials have been employed. A Morse-type potential describing the metal-carbon interactions at the interface was specially formulated for this modelling. Intercalation of silver in graphite has been observed as well as the correct alignments of monomers, dimers and two-dimensional islands on the surface. (author)

  7. Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny, E-mail: eh@udsu.ru [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Kostenkov, Sergey [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law.

  8. Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny; Kostenkov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law

  9. Effect of the relationship between particle size, inter-particle distance, and metal loading of carbon supported fuel cell catalysts on their catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gon Corradini, Patricia; Pires, Felipe I.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Perez, Joelma, E-mail: jperez@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, USP (Brazil); Antolini, Ermete [Scuola di Scienza dei Materiali (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    The effect of the relationship between particle size (d), inter-particle distance (x{sub i}), and metal loading (y) of carbon supported fuel cell Pt or PtRu catalysts on their catalytic activity, based on the optimum d (2.5-3 nm) and x{sub i}/d (>5) values, was evaluated. It was found that for y < 30 wt%, the optimum values of both d and x{sub i}/d can be always obtained. For y {>=} 30 wt%, instead, the positive effect of a thinner catalyst layer of the fuel cell electrode than that using catalysts with y < 30 wt% is concomitant to a decrease of the effective catalyst surface area due to an increase of d and/or a decrease of x{sub i}/d compared to their optimum values, with in turns gives rise to a decrease in the catalytic activity. The effect of the x{sub i}/d ratio has been successfully verified by experimental results on ethanol oxidation on PtRu/C catalysts with same particle size and same degree of alloying but different metal loading. Tests in direct ethanol fuel cells showed that, compared to 20 wt% PtRu/C, the negative effect of the lower x{sub i}/d on the catalytic activity of 30 and 40 wt% PtRu/C catalysts was superior to the positive effect of the thinner catalyst layer.

  10. Formation of Ag2, Au2 and AgAu particles on MgO(1 0 0): DFT study on the role of support-induced charge transfer in metal-metal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, Silvia A.; Belelli, Patricia G.; Branda, Maria M.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of Ag 2 , Au 2 and AgAu particles oriented perpendicularly to the MgO(1 0 0) surface was studied using the density functional theory. While the support induces a slight enhancement of the Ag-Ag bond (by 0.3-0.4 eV), the Au-Au bond is strongly enhanced (by 0.8-1.1 eV). Concerning the bimetallic particle, the Ag-Au bond stabilization depends on the relative position of each atom. Thus, in general terms, the strength of the metal-metal bond is determined by the nature of the terminal atom; the bond is stronger in Au-terminal particles. The partial electronic charge transfer to the terminal Au atom and its ability to polarize this charge are responsible for this energetic stabilization.

  11. Enhanced Mechanical Properties of MgZnCa Bulk Metallic Glass Composites with Ti-Particle Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chun Wong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rod samples of Mg60Zn35Ca5 bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs dispersed with Ti particles have been successfully fabricated via injection casting. The glass forming ability (GFA and the mechanical properties of these Mg-based BMGCs have been systematically investigated as a function of the volume fraction (Vf of Ti particles. The results showed that the compressive ductility increased with Vf. The mechanical performance of these BMGCs, with up to 5.4% compressive failure strain and 1187 MPa fracture strength at room temperature, can be obtained for the Mg-based BMGCs with 50 vol % Ti particles, suggesting that these dispersed Ti particles can absorb the energy of the crack propagations and can induce branches of the primary shear band into multiple secondary shear bands. It follows that further propagation of the shear band is blocked, enhancing the overall plasticity.

  12. Mass production of polymer nano-wires filled with metal nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomadze, Nino; Kopyshev, Alexey; Bargheer, Matias; Wollgarten, Markus; Santer, Svetlana

    2017-08-17

    Despite the ongoing progress in nanotechnology and its applications, the development of strategies for connecting nano-scale systems to micro- or macroscale elements is hampered by the lack of structural components that have both, nano- and macroscale dimensions. The production of nano-scale wires with macroscale length is one of the most interesting challenges here. There are a lot of strategies to fabricate long nanoscopic stripes made of metals, polymers or ceramics but none is suitable for mass production of ordered and dense arrangements of wires at large numbers. In this paper, we report on a technique for producing arrays of ordered, flexible and free-standing polymer nano-wires filled with different types of nano-particles. The process utilizes the strong response of photosensitive polymer brushes to irradiation with UV-interference patterns, resulting in a substantial mass redistribution of the polymer material along with local rupturing of polymer chains. The chains can wind up in wires of nano-scale thickness and a length of up to several centimeters. When dispersing nano-particles within the film, the final arrangement is similar to a core-shell geometry with mainly nano-particles found in the core region and the polymer forming a dielectric jacket.

  13. Surface flow in severe plastic deformation of metals by sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahato, A; Yeung, H; Chandrasekar, S; Guo, Y

    2014-01-01

    An in situ study of flow in severe plastic deformation (SPD) of surfaces by sliding is described. The model system – a hard wedge sliding against a metal surface – is representative of surface conditioning processes typical of manufacturing, and sliding wear. By combining high speed imaging and image analysis, important characteristics of unconstrained plastic flow inherent to this system are highlighted. These characteristics include development of large plastic strains on the surface and in the subsurface by laminar type flow, unusual fluid-like flow with vortex formation and surface folding, and defect and particle generation. Preferred conditions, as well as undesirable regimes, for surface SPD are demarcated. Implications for surface conditioning in manufacturing, modeling of surface deformation and wear are discussed

  14. Low-level radioactive river sediment particles originating from the Chalk river nuclear site carry a mixture of radionuclides and metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Ole Christian; Cagno, Simone; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, Center of Excellence in Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Falkenberg, Gerald [Photon science, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Janssens, Koen; Nuyts, Gert; Vanmeert, Frederik [AXIL, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerpen (Belgium); Jaroszewicz, Jakub [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Priest, Nicholas D.; Audet, Marc [Nuclear Science Division, AECL Chalk River Laboratories (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Chalk River Laboratory of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., site is located on the Ottawa River approximately 200 km northwest of Ottawa, Canada. The site has two large research reactors: NRX, which operated from 1947 to 1991 and NRU, which continues to operate and is used to produce a significant fraction of the world's supply of medical isotopes. During the course of the operation of the NRX reactor small quantities of radioactive particles were discharged to the Ottawa River through a process sewer discharge pipe. These are now located in river bed sediments within a 0.08 km² area close to the discharge pipe. In the present study, selected particles were isolated from riverbed sediments. These were then characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive micro X-ray analysis (ESEM-EDX). This was undertaken to obtain information on particle size, structure and the distribution of elements across particle surfaces. Based on the results of ESEM-EDX, particles were selected for X-ray absorption nano-tomography analysis, which provides videos showing the 3D density distribution of the particles. Furthermore, 2D and 3D Synchrotron Radiation based X-ray techniques (micro-X-ray fluorescence; micro-XRF, micro-X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy; micro-XANES and micro-X-ray diffraction; micro-XRD) with submicron resolution (beam size 0.5 μm) were employed to investigate the elemental and phase composition (micro-XRF/XRD) and oxidation states (micro-XANES) of matrix elements with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. Results show that the particles investigated so far varied according to: 1) <~40 μm diameter sized U fuel particles similar in structure to particles observed from Chernobyl and Krasnoyarsk-26 and 2) larger particles with diameters up to several hundred μm. The larger particles comprised a matrix of low density, sediment material with high density inclusions that contained a range of metals including Cu, Cr, As

  15. Reinforced magnesium composites by metallic particles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahid, Alireza; Hodgson, Peter [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Li, Yuncang, E-mail: yuncang.li@rmit.edu.au [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)

    2017-02-08

    Pure magnesium (Mg) implants have unsatisfactory mechanical properties, particularly in loadbearing applications. Particulate-reinforced Mg composites are known as promising materials to provide higher strength implants compared to unreinforced metals. In the current work biocompatible niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) particles are selected as reinforcement, and Mg-Nb and Mg-Ta composites fabricated via a powder metallurgy process associated with the ball milling technique. The effect of Nb and Ta contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg matrix was investigated. There was a uniform distribution of reinforcements in the Mg matrix with reasonable integrity and no intermetallic formation. The compressive mechanical properties of composites vary with reinforcement contents. The optimal parameters to fabricate biocompatible Mg composites and the optimal composition with appropriate strength, hardness and ductility are recommended.

  16. Missed diagnosis of an unusual case of impacted esophageal foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Taiub Mohammed Mohiuddin Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental foreign body or food particle impaction in the esophagus causing partial or complete obstruction of the esophageal lumen is not uncommon. Most of this presents with remarkable history and acute or related symptoms that lead to diagnosis. Here, we present an unusual clinically misleading case of impacted food object in the esophageal lumen causing partial obstruction that mimic the diagnosis of esophageal and other associated pathologies.

  17. Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (EC deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because EC do not burn tobacco, they may be safer than conventional cigarettes. Their use is rapidly increasing worldwide with little prior testing of their aerosol.We tested the hypothesis that EC aerosol contains metals derived from various components in EC.Cartomizer contents and aerosols were analyzed using light and electron microscopy, cytotoxicity testing, x-ray microanalysis, particle counting, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.The filament, a nickel-chromium wire, was coupled to a thicker copper wire coated with silver. The silver coating was sometimes missing. Four tin solder joints attached the wires to each other and coupled the copper/silver wire to the air tube and mouthpiece. All cartomizers had evidence of use before packaging (burn spots on the fibers and electrophoretic movement of fluid in the fibers. Fibers in two cartomizers had green deposits that contained copper. Centrifugation of the fibers produced large pellets containing tin. Tin particles and tin whiskers were identified in cartridge fluid and outer fibers. Cartomizer fluid with tin particles was cytotoxic in assays using human pulmonary fibroblasts. The aerosol contained particles >1 µm comprised of tin, silver, iron, nickel, aluminum, and silicate and nanoparticles (<100 nm of tin, chromium and nickel. The concentrations of nine of eleven elements in EC aerosol were higher than or equal to the corresponding concentrations in conventional cigarette smoke. Many of the elements identified in EC aerosol are known to cause respiratory distress and disease.The presence of metal and silicate particles in cartomizer aerosol demonstrates the need for improved quality control in EC design and manufacture and studies on how EC aerosol impacts the health of users and bystanders.

  18. Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monique; Villarreal, Amanda; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Lin, Sabrina; Talbot, Prue

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC) deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because EC do not burn tobacco, they may be safer than conventional cigarettes. Their use is rapidly increasing worldwide with little prior testing of their aerosol. We tested the hypothesis that EC aerosol contains metals derived from various components in EC. Cartomizer contents and aerosols were analyzed using light and electron microscopy, cytotoxicity testing, x-ray microanalysis, particle counting, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The filament, a nickel-chromium wire, was coupled to a thicker copper wire coated with silver. The silver coating was sometimes missing. Four tin solder joints attached the wires to each other and coupled the copper/silver wire to the air tube and mouthpiece. All cartomizers had evidence of use before packaging (burn spots on the fibers and electrophoretic movement of fluid in the fibers). Fibers in two cartomizers had green deposits that contained copper. Centrifugation of the fibers produced large pellets containing tin. Tin particles and tin whiskers were identified in cartridge fluid and outer fibers. Cartomizer fluid with tin particles was cytotoxic in assays using human pulmonary fibroblasts. The aerosol contained particles >1 µm comprised of tin, silver, iron, nickel, aluminum, and silicate and nanoparticles (<100 nm) of tin, chromium and nickel. The concentrations of nine of eleven elements in EC aerosol were higher than or equal to the corresponding concentrations in conventional cigarette smoke. Many of the elements identified in EC aerosol are known to cause respiratory distress and disease. The presence of metal and silicate particles in cartomizer aerosol demonstrates the need for improved quality control in EC design and manufacture and studies on how EC aerosol impacts the health of users and bystanders.

  19. Size dependence of structural, magnetic, and electrical properties in corundum-type Ti2O3 nanoparticles showing insulator–metal transition

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiro Tsujimoto; Yoshitaka Matsushita; Shan Yu; Kazunari Yamaura; Tetsuo Uchikoshi

    2015-01-01

    Corundum-type Ti2O3 has been investigated over the last half century because it shows unusual insulator–metal (I-M) transition over a broad temperature range (420–550 K). In this work, we successfully synthesized Ti2O3 nanoparticles (20, 70, 300 nm in size) by the low-temperature reduction between precursors of rutile-type TiO2 and the reductant CaH2, in a non-topotactic manner. The reaction time required for obtaining the reduced phase increases with increasing the particle size. Synchrotron...

  20. The erosion performance of particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings produced by co-deposition cold gas dynamic spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on the erosion performance of three particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings, co-deposited with an aluminium binder via cold-gas dynamic spraying. The deposition of ceramic particles is difficult to achieve with typical cold spray techniques due to the absence of particle deformation. This issue has been overcome in the present study by simultaneously spraying the reinforcing particles with a ductile metallic binder which has led to an increased level of ceramic/cermet particles deposited on the substrate with thick (>400 μm) coatings produced. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the erosion performance of the co-deposited coatings within a slurry environment. The study also incorporated standard metallographic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of reinforcing particles within the aluminium matrix. All coatings exhibited poorer erosion performance than the uncoated material, both in terms of volume loss and mass loss. The Al2O3 reinforced coating sustained the greatest amount of damage following exposure to the slurry and recorded the greatest volume loss (approx. 2.8 mm3) out of all of the examined coatings. Despite the poor erosion performance, the WC-CoCr reinforced coating demonstrated a considerable hardness increase over the as-received AA5083 (approx. 400%) and also exhibited the smallest free space length between adjacent particles. The findings of this study reveal that the removal of the AA5083 matrix by the impinging silicon carbide particles acts as the primary wear mechanism leading to the degradation of the coating. Analysis of the wear scar has demonstrated that the damage to the soft matrix alloy takes the form of ploughing and scoring which subsequently exposes carbide/oxide particles to the impinging slurry.

  1. The Wondrous New World of Modern Particle Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Aksel; Hallman, Doug

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the frontiers of particle physics, physicists and engineers are building detectors and making measurements in unusual settings from outer space to far-flung regions of the Earth. In the past several decades, laboratories have been set up deep underground in working mines or mountain tunnels to look at subatomic particles from our…

  2. Artificial crystals with 3d metal and palladium particles subjected to high-temperature heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Nemytova, O. V.; Perov, D. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Kuznetsov, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    High-temperature heat treatment has valuable impact on the structure and physical properties of artificial crystals with 3d metal and palladium particles. Artificial crystals are obtained by means of introduction of particles into the interspherical voids of opal matrices. The magnetic properties are studied at the temperatures ranging from 2 to 300 K and in fields up to 350 kOe. Microwave properties are investigated in the millimeter frequency range. The complex dielectric permittivity of several nanocomposites is measured. The influence of heat treatment up to 960 °C on the structure of artificial crystals is clarified.

  3. In-situ ductile metal/bulk metallic glass matrix composites formed by chemical partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong Paul; Hays, Charles C.; Johnson, William L.

    2004-03-23

    A composite metal object comprises ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. An alloy is heated above its liquidus temperature. Upon cooling from the high temperature melt, the alloy chemically partitions, forming dendrites in the melt. Upon cooling the remaining liquid below the glass transition temperature it freezes to the amorphous state, producing a two-phase microstructure containing crystalline particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The ductile metal particles have a size in the range of from 0.1 to 15 micrometers and spacing in the range of from 0.1 to 20 micrometers. Preferably, the particle size is in the range of from 0.5 to 8 micrometers and spacing is in the range of from 1 to 10 micrometers. The volume proportion of particles is in the range of from 5 to 50% and preferably 15 to 35%. Differential cooling can produce oriented dendrites of ductile metal phase in an amorphous matrix. Examples are given in the Zr--Ti--Cu--Ni--Be alloy bulk glass forming system with added niobium.

  4. Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.

    1995-11-21

    A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

  5. Study of a ;hot; particle with a matrix of U-bearing metallic Zr: Clue to supercriticality during the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöml, P.; Burakov, B.

    2017-05-01

    This paper is dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the severe nuclear accident that occurred at the Chernobyl NPP on 26 April 1986. A detailed study on a Chernobyl "hot" particle collected from contaminated soil was performed. Optical and electron microscopy, as well as quantitative x-ray microbeam analysis methods were used to determine the properties of the sample. The results show that the particle (≈ 240 x 165 μm) consists of a metallic Zr matrix containing 2-3 wt. % U and bearing veins of an U,Nb admixture. The metallic Zr matrix contains two phases with different amounts of O with the atomic proportions (U,Zr,Nb)0.73O0.27 and (U,Zr,Nb)0.61O0.39. The results confirm the interaction between UO2 fuel and zircaloy cladding in the reactor core. To explain the process of formation of the particle, its properties are compared to laboratory experiments. Because of the metallic nature of the particle it is concluded that it must have formed during a very high temperature (> 2400∘C) process that lasted for only a very short time (few microseconds or less); otherwise the particle should have been oxidised. Such a rapid very high temperature process indicates that at least part of the reactor core could have been supercritical prior to an explosion as it was previously suggested in the literature.

  6. Radiation formation of colloidal metallic particles in aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba, Vaclav; Nemec, Mojmir; Gbur, Tomas; John, Jan; Pospisil, Milan; Mucka, Viliam

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiation and photochemical methods have been successfully utilized in various steps of nanoparticles preparation. Presented study deals with formation of silver nanoparticles in various aqueous solutions initiated by UV and gamma radiation. Silver nitrate and silver cyanide were used as precursors for radiation and/or photochemical reduction of Ag + ions to the metallic form. Influence of various parameters (dose of radiation, dose rate, exposition time) on nucleation and formation of colloid particles was studied. Attention was also focused on composition of irradiated solution. Aliphatic alcohols were used as scavengers of OH radicals and other oxidizing species. Various organic stabilizers of formed nanoparticles were used, among others ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid and polyvinyl alcohol. Irradiation effects were evaluated using UV/Vis absorption spectra in colloid solution, solid phase formed after long-term irradiation was analysed via X-ray structural analysis

  7. Interpretation of aerosol trace metal particle size distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, T.B.; Van Grieken, R.E.; Winchester, J.W.

    1974-01-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is capable of rapid routine determination of 10--15 elements present in amounts greater than or equal to 1 ng simultaneously in aerosol size fractions as collected by single orifice impactors over short periods of time. This enables detailed study of complex relationships between elements detected. Since absolute elemental concentrations may be strongly influenced by meteorological and topographical conditions, it is useful to normalize to a reference element. Comparison between the ratios of concentrations with aerosol and corresponding values for anticipated sources may lead to the identification of important sources for the elements. Further geochemical insights may be found through linear correlation coefficients, regression analysis, and cluster analysis. By calculating correlations for elemental pairs, an indication of the degree of covariance between the elements is obtained. Preliminary results indicate that correlations may be particle size dependent. A high degree of covariance may be caused either by a common source or may only reflect the conservative nature of the aerosol. In a regression analysis, by plotting elemental pairs and estimating the regression coefficients, we may be able to conclude if there is more than one source operating for a given element in a certain size range. Analysis of clustering of several elements, previously investigated for aerosol filter samples, can be applied to the analysis of aerosol size fractions. Careful statistical treatment of elemental concentrations as a function of aerosol particle size may thus yield significant information on the generation, transport and deposition of trace metals in the atmosphere

  8. Particle deformation during stirred media milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamey, Rhye Garrett

    Production of high aspect ratio metal flakes is an important part of the paint and coating industry. The United States Army also uses high aspect ratio metal flakes of a specific dimension in obscurant clouds to attenuate infrared radiation. The most common method for their production is by milling a metal powder. Ductile metal particles are initially flattened in the process increasing the aspect ratio. As the process continues, coldwelding of metal flakes can take place increasing the particle size and decreasing the aspect ratio. Extended milling times may also result in fracture leading to a further decrease in the particle size and aspect ratio. Both the coldwelding of the particles and the breakage of the particles are ultimately detrimental to the materials performance. This study utilized characterization techniques, such as, light scattering and image analysis to determine the change in particle size as a function of milling time and parameters. This study proved that a fundamental relationship between the milling parameters and particle deformation could be established by using Hertz's theory to calculate the stress acting on the aluminum particles. The study also demonstrated a method by which milling efficiency could be calculated, based on the amount of energy required to cause particle deformation. The study found that the particle deformation process could be an energy efficient process at short milling times with milling efficiency as high as 80%. Finally, statistical design of experiment was used to obtain a model that related particle deformation to milling parameters, such as, rotation rate and milling media size.

  9. A nonlinear auxetic structural vibration damper with metal rubber particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yanhong; Zhang, Dayi; Zhu, Bin; Chen, Lulu; Hong, Jie; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The work describes the mechanical performance of a metal rubber particles (MRP) damper design based on an auxetic (negative Poisson’s ratio) cellular configuration. The auxetic damper configuration is constituted by an anti-tetrachiral honeycomb, where the cylinders are filled with the MRP material. The MRP samples have been subjected to quasi-static loading to measure the stiffness and loss factor from the static hysteresis curve. A parametric experimental analysis has been carried out to investigate the effect of relative density and filling percentage on the static performance of the MRP, and to identify design guidelines for best use of MRP devices. An experimental assessment of the integrated auxetic-MRP damper concept has been provided through static and dynamic force response techniques. (paper)

  10. Morphology of ductile metals eroded by a jet of spherical particles impinging at normal incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadra Rao, P.; Young, S. G.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are used, together with surface profile measurements, in the present morphological study of the erosion of an aluminum alloy and copper by the normal impact of spherical glass erodent particles. The morphology of the damage pattern is a manifestation of the flow pattern of erodent particles, and yields insight into the mechanisms that may be active at different stages of erosion. The simultaneous appearance of radial cracks and concentric rings is reported, together with wave crests which contain an accumulation of metallic flakes. A preliminary analysis is advanced to explain the formation of the various damage patterns observed.

  11. Metals in particle-size fractions of the soils of five European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmone-Marsan, F.; Biasioli, M.; Kralj, T.; Grcman, H.; Davidson, C.M.; Hursthouse, A.S.; Madrid, L.; Rodrigues, S.

    2008-01-01

    Soils from Aveiro, Glasgow, Ljubljana, Sevilla and Torino have been investigated in view of their potential for translocation of potentially toxic elements (PTE) to the atmosphere. Soils were partitioned into five size fractions and Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the fractions and the whole soil. All PTE concentrated in the <10 μm fraction. Cr and Ni concentrated also in the coarse fraction, indicating a lithogenic contribution. An accumulation factor (AF) was calculated for the <2 and <10 μm fraction. The AF values indicate that the accumulation in the finer fractions is higher where the overall contamination is lower. AF for Cr and Ni are particularly low in Glasgow and Torino. An inverse relationship was found between the AF of some metals and the percentage of <10 μm particles that could be of use in risk assessment or remediation practices. - Metals in size fractions of urban soils

  12. Sequential Extractions and Toxicity Potential of Trace Metals Absorbed into Airborne Particles in an Urban Atmosphere of Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gbenga Olumayede

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the hypothesis that biotoxicities of trace metals depend not only on the concentration as expressed by the total amount, but also on their geochemical fractions and bioavailability. Airborne particles were collected using SKC Air Check XR 5000 high volume Sampler at a human breathing height of 1.5–2.0 meters, during the dry season months from November 2014 to March 2015 at different locations in Akure (7°10′N and 5°15′E. The geochemical-based sequential extractions were performed on the particles using a series of increasingly stringent solutions selected to extract metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Mn into four operational geochemical phases—exchangeable, reducible, organic, and residual—and then quantified using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed metals concentration of order Pb > Cr > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu > Mn. However, most metals in the samples exist in nonmobile fractions: exchangeable (6.43–16.2%, reducible (32.58–47.39%, organic (4.73–9.88%, and residual (18.28–27.53%. The pollution indices show ingestion as the leading route of metal exposure, with noncarcinogenic (HQ and cancer risk (HI for humans in the area being higher than 1.0 × 10−4, indicating a health threat.

  13. Recreational atmospheric pollution episodes: Inhalable metalliferous particles from firework displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Cruz Minguillón, Mari; Pey, Jorge; Rodriguez, Sergio; Vicente Miró, José; Felis, Carles; Gibbons, Wes

    The use of fireworks creates an unusual and distinctive anthropogenic atmospheric pollution event. We report on aerosol samples collected during Las Fallas in Valencia, a 6-day celebration famous for its firework displays, and add comparative data on firework- and bonfire-contaminated atmospheric aerosol samples collected from elsewhere in Spain (Barcelona, L'Alcora, and Borriana) and during the Guy Fawkes celebrations in London. Specific high-profile official firework events during Las Fallas included the afternoon Mascletà and the nightly aerial displays (especially in the climactic final 2 days of the fiesta) and were accompanied by pollution spikes in suspended particles, NO, SO 2, and the creation and dispersal of an aerosol cloud enriched in a range of metallic elements. Notable metal aerosol concentration increases recorded during Las Fallas were potassium (from 500 to 5900 ng m -3), aluminium (as Al 2O 3 from around 600 to 2200 ng m -3), titanium (from 200 to 700 ng m -3), magnesium (from 100 to 500 ng m -3), lead (from 17 to 379 ng m -3), barium (from 39 to 322 ng m -3), strontium (from 3 to 112 ng m -3), copper (from 12 to 71 ng m -3), and antimony (from 1 to 52 ng m -3). Firework-contaminated aerosols of similarly metalliferous composition were also identified at the other monitoring sites, although different sites show variations attributable to other sources such as bonfires and local industry. Unusual levels of the trace elements Ba, Sr and (to a lesser extent) Cu, always in proportions with Ba dominant, along with strongly enhanced K, Pb, and Sb, are identified as being particularly characteristic of firework aerosols. Although firework-related recreational pollution episodes are transient in nature, they are highly concentrated, contribute significantly to total annual metal emissions, and are on average fine enough to be easily inhaled and a health risk to susceptible individuals.

  14. Metal-insulator transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    1998-10-01

    Metal-insulator transitions are accompanied by huge resistivity changes, even over tens of orders of magnitude, and are widely observed in condensed-matter systems. This article presents the observations and current understanding of the metal-insulator transition with a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Especially important are the transitions driven by correlation effects associated with the electron-electron interaction. The insulating phase caused by the correlation effects is categorized as the Mott Insulator. Near the transition point the metallic state shows fluctuations and orderings in the spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom. The properties of these metals are frequently quite different from those of ordinary metals, as measured by transport, optical, and magnetic probes. The review first describes theoretical approaches to the unusual metallic states and to the metal-insulator transition. The Fermi-liquid theory treats the correlations that can be adiabatically connected with the noninteracting picture. Strong-coupling models that do not require Fermi-liquid behavior have also been developed. Much work has also been done on the scaling theory of the transition. A central issue for this review is the evaluation of these approaches in simple theoretical systems such as the Hubbard model and t-J models. Another key issue is strong competition among various orderings as in the interplay of spin and orbital fluctuations. Experimentally, the unusual properties of the metallic state near the insulating transition have been most extensively studied in d-electron systems. In particular, there is revived interest in transition-metal oxides, motivated by the epoch-making findings of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. The article reviews the rich phenomena of anomalous metallicity, taking as examples Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ru compounds. The diverse phenomena include strong spin and

  15. Study of the structural and magnetic properties of metallic iron-hematite particles for use in magnetorheological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio Ospina, Diana Marcela; Castro Navas, Irvin Jadway [Universidad del Valle, Escuela de Ingenieria de Materiales (Colombia); Perez Alcazar, German Antonio; Tabares, Jesus Anselmo, E-mail: jesus_tabares_8@hotmail.com [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia)

    2012-03-15

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are new iron-based materials, whose applications include brakes, dampers, clutches, shock absorbers systems and polishing of optical surfaces (lens and mirrors). They are dependent on the size and shape of particles as the magnetic properties. Interested in the possibility of using iron-rich powders, commonly used in nondestructive testing, ranging in size from a few {mu}m to about 200 {mu}m and lower cost than those commercially used for MR fluids, a study of the structural and magnetic properties of iron-rich metallic particles by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) at room temperature has been done. Powders, as received, were separated into particle sizes smaller than 20 {mu}m (sample A) and in the range of 20-38 {mu}m (sample B) because these are the sizes generally required for applications in MR fluids. The particles whose sizes exceed the above values were ground in a high energy planetary mill for 3 h, using different values of rotational speed/time: 200 rpm for one hour, a pause of 10 s, 140 rpm for one hour, pause 10 s and then 175 rpm during the last hour. These powders were sieved to obtain particles smaller than 20 {mu}m (sample C). According XRD results, in all samples, only {alpha}-Fe (lattice parameter a = 2,867(2) Angstrom-Sign ) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (lattice parameter a 5,037(1) Angstrom-Sign and c = 13,755(8) Angstrom-Sign ) were present. The Moessbauer spectra were fitted with two sextets. The hyperfine parameters values allowed us to assign the highest relative area spectrum (sextet) corresponding to {alpha}-Fe and the second one to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in accord to the XRD results. Thus, the preparation method using mechanical milling for diminishing the size of the metallic particles allowed us to get particles with size and magnetic properties that could lead to potentially MR fluids applications.

  16. Study of the structural and magnetic properties of metallic iron-hematite particles for use in magnetorheological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio Ospina, Diana Marcela; Castro Navas, Irvin Jadway; Pérez Alcázar, German Antonio; Tabares, Jesus Anselmo

    2012-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are new iron-based materials, whose applications include brakes, dampers, clutches, shock absorbers systems and polishing of optical surfaces (lens and mirrors). They are dependent on the size and shape of particles as the magnetic properties. Interested in the possibility of using iron-rich powders, commonly used in nondestructive testing, ranging in size from a few μm to about 200 μm and lower cost than those commercially used for MR fluids, a study of the structural and magnetic properties of iron-rich metallic particles by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) at room temperature has been done. Powders, as received, were separated into particle sizes smaller than 20 μm (sample A) and in the range of 20–38 μm (sample B) because these are the sizes generally required for applications in MR fluids. The particles whose sizes exceed the above values were ground in a high energy planetary mill for 3 h, using different values of rotational speed/time: 200 rpm for one hour, a pause of 10 s, 140 rpm for one hour, pause 10 s and then 175 rpm during the last hour. These powders were sieved to obtain particles smaller than 20 μm (sample C). According XRD results, in all samples, only α-Fe (lattice parameter a = 2,867(2) Å) and Fe 2 O 3 (lattice parameter a 5,037(1) Å and c = 13,755(8) Å) were present. The Mössbauer spectra were fitted with two sextets. The hyperfine parameters values allowed us to assign the highest relative area spectrum (sextet) corresponding to α-Fe and the second one to Fe 2 O 3 in accord to the XRD results. Thus, the preparation method using mechanical milling for diminishing the size of the metallic particles allowed us to get particles with size and magnetic properties that could lead to potentially MR fluids applications.

  17. Modified resistivity-strain behavior through the incorporation of metallic particles in conductive polymer composite fibers containing carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, L.; Deng, H.; Gao, X.; Zhang, S.M.; Bilotti, E.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Fu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Eutectic metal particles and carbon nanotubes are incorporated into a thermoplastic polyurethane matrix through a simple but efficient method, melt compounding, to tune the resistivity-strain behavior of conductive polymer composite (CPC) fibers. Such a combination of conductive fillers is rarely

  18. Analysis of a metal filling and liner formation mechanism of the blind via with nano-Ag particles for TSV (through silicon via) interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Y-H; Kim, D-P; Baek, K-H; Park, K-S; Do, L-M; Kwon, K-H

    2012-01-01

    We investigated a metal filling and liner formation mechanism with a nano-Ag particle for the blind Si via, which is used in the via first process of through silicon via (TSV) interconnection. Using the deep reactive ion etching process, we produced the blind Si via (which is called the blind via hole or via) with a nearly vertical profile. The diameter and depth of the blind Si via were about 10 and 71 µm, respectively. The blind via holes were filled with a nano-Ag particle solution to form a metal plug or a metal liner. At this time, the Ag filling properties were monitored as a function of the volatilization rate of the Ag particle solution in the evacuating chamber. In the fast volatilization of the nano-Ag particle solution, an Ag liner formed on the inner wall of via holes. Meanwhile, both an Ag liner at the sidewall and the Ag plug at the bottom were obtained by the slow volatilization process. Finally, blind via holes fully filled with nano-Ag particles were obtained using four repetitions of the slow volatilization filling process. The proposed TSV filling process can fill large-diameter via holes over 100 µm without a seed layer and chemical mechanical planarization for TSV interconnection at low temperature. This is a simple and cost-effective TSV filling process. (paper)

  19. The mechanism of diffusion and ionic transport of alkali metal ions in the particles of tin(IV) antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; El-Absy, M.A.; Aly, S.I.; Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of exchange Li + , Na + , K + and Cs + ions of tin(IV) antimonate with H + form was studied under particle-diffusion-control conditions at different temperatures. The value of activation energy, diffusion coefficient and entropy of activation increase with the ionic mobilities and radii, and decrease with the hydration energy of the alkali metal ions. On the basis of the kinetic parameters, the exchange of alkali metal ions occurs in the unhydrated form. (author). 29 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Cyclodextrin-based metal-organic frameworks particles as efficient carriers for lansoprazole: Study of morphology and chemical composition of individual particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Guo, Tao; Lachmanski, Laurent; Manoli, Francesco; Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Manet, Ilse; Guo, Zhen; Wu, Li; Zhang, Jiwen; Gref, Ruxandra

    2017-10-15

    Cyclodextrin-based metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) represent an environment-friendly and biocompatible class of MOFs drawing increasing attention in drug delivery. Lansoprazole (LPZ) is a proton-pump inhibitor used to reduce the production of acid in the stomach and recently identified as an antitubercular prodrug. Herein, LPZ loaded CD-MOFs were successfully synthesized upon the assembly with γ-CD in the presence of K + ions using an optimized co-crystallization method. They were characterized in terms of morphology, size and crystallinity, showing almost perfect cubic morphologies with monodispersed size distributions. The crystalline particles, loaded or not with LPZ, have mean diameters of around 6μm. The payloads reached 23.2±2.1% (wt) which corresponds to a molar ratio of 1:1 between LPZ and γ-CD. It was demonstrated that even after two years storage, the incorporated drug inside the CD-MOFs maintained its spectroscopic characteristics. Molecular modelling provided a deeper insight into the interaction between the LPZ and CD-MOFs. Raman spectra of individual particles were recorded, confirming the formation of inclusion complexes within the tridimensional CD-MOF structures. Of note, it was found that each individual particle had the same chemical composition. The LPZ-loaded particles had remarkable homogeneity in terms of both drug loading and size. These results pave the way towards the use of CD-MOFs for drug delivery purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The size effect in metal cutting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the shear stress and strain in metal cutting is unusually high, ... thus joining the transport of dislocations in accounting for the total slip of the shear plane. ... shear plane, and the important role compressive stress plays on the shear plane.

  2. Mobility of trace metals associated with urban particles exposed to natural waters of various salinities from the Gironde Estuary, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Joerg; Blanc, Gerard [Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). UMR 5805 EPOC; Norra, Stefan [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy and Geochemistry; Klein, Daniel [Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). UMR 5805 EPOC; Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    2009-08-15

    extracted by means of concentrated HNO{sub 3}, estuarine freshwaters and waters of two different salinities (S=15 and S=31). Analysis of trace elements was carried out by means of quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, single particles from road sediments were characterised with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: SEM analysis clearly showed that some particles contained fairly high concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Extractions of materials investigated by varying acidities and salinities documented that the potentially bioavailable fractions extracted by concentrated HNO{sub 3} may cover wide concentration ranges. Natural estuarine waters of various salinities (S=0.5; S=15; S=31) extracted high proportions of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd from urban particles, especially for high-salinity water (S=31). Extractions with freshwater revealed the lowest concentrations of desorbed trace elements. Particulate Mo, Pb and V showed similar or lower mobility in saline water compared with freshwater, depending on the sample type. Discussion: Trace element mobility in estuarine waters varied according to the type of urban particles and depended on salinity for Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd. This is of high importance for towns located directly at the coast or for cities like Bordeaux, where water courses crossing the agglomerations are connected to saline water masses. Since trace elements desorbed from particles in saline waters may become highly bioavailable, they bear a potential risk for organisms. Comprehensive studies on the behaviour of urban particles in estuarine waters and the related potential environmental impact are still missing. Conclusions: Saline waters mobilise relatively high amounts of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd from urban particles suggesting considerable metal fluxes from riverine urban systems into coastal waters. Although estimates of trace metal inputs by urban bulk deposition (urban dust) and other types of urban particles

  3. Influence of thermal residual stress on behaviour of metal matrix composites reinforced with particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, R. E.; Hernández Arroyo, E.

    2016-02-01

    The properties of a metallic matrix composites materials (MMC's) reinforced with particles can be affected by different events occurring within the material in a manufacturing process. The existence of residual stresses resulting from the manufacturing process of these materials (MMC's) can markedly differentiate the curves obtained in tensile tests obtained from compression tests. One of the themes developed in this work is the influence of residual stresses on the mechanical behaviour of these materials. The objective of this research work presented is numerically estimate the thermal residual stresses using a unit cell model for the Mg ZC71 alloy reinforced with SiC particles with volume fraction of 12% (hot-forging technology). The MMC's microstructure is represented as a three dimensional prismatic cube-shaped with a cylindrical reinforcing particle located in the centre of the prism. These cell models are widely used in predicting stress/strain behaviour of MMC's materials, in this analysis the uniaxial stress/strain response of the composite can be obtained through the calculation using the commercial finite-element code.

  4. Unusual manifestations of secondary urothelial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohui Lisa Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma regularly invades the bladder wall, adjacent prostate, seminal vesicles, ureters, vagina, rectum, retroperitoneum, and regional lymph nodes. In advanced stages, it may disseminate to the liver, lungs, and bone marrow. On rare occasions, unusual metastatic foci like skin have been reported. The incidence of urothelial carcinoma has increased with associated rise in variants of urothelial carcinoma and unusual metastatic foci. It is imperative that urologists and pathologists are aware of the unusual variants and unusual metastatic locations to expedite the diagnostic process. Hereby we report an unusual case of secondary involvement of spinal nerve by conventional urothelial carcinoma. Also a second case of rhabdoid variant of urothelial carcinoma showing synchronous involvement of bladder and subcutaneous tissue of upper extremity is presented.

  5. Unusual headache syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luiz P

    2013-01-01

    Some headache syndromes have few cases reported in the literature. Their clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, and treatment may have not been completely defined. They may not actually be uncommon but rather under-recognized and/or underreported. A literature review of unusual headache syndromes, searching PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, was performed. After deciding which disorders to study, relevant publications in scientific journals, including original articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, and letters or correspondences to the editors were searched. This paper reviewed the clinical characteristics, the pathogenesis, the diagnosis, and the treatment of five interesting and unusual headache syndromes: exploding head syndrome, red ear syndrome, neck-tongue syndrome, nummular headache, and cardiac cephalgia. Recognizing some unusual headaches, either primary or secondary, may be a challenge for many non-headache specialist physicians. It is important to study them because the correct diagnosis may result in specific treatments that may improve the quality of life of these patients, and this can even be life saving. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  6. Studies of Metal-Metal Bonded Compounds in Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, John F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2018-01-19

    The overall goals of this research are (1) to define the fundamental coordination chemistry underlying successful catalytic transformations promoted by metal-metal bonded compounds, and (2) to explore new chemical transformations that occur at metal-metal bonded sites that could lead to the discovery of new catalytic processes. Transformations of interest include metal-promoted reactions of carbene, nitrene, or nitrido species to yield products with new C–C and C–N bonds, respectively. The most promising suite of transition metal catalysts for these transformations is the set of metal-metal bonded coordination compounds of Ru and Rh of the general formula M2(ligand)4, where M = Ru or Rh and ligand = a monoanionic, bridging ligand such as acetate. Development of new catalysts and improvement of catalytic conditions have been stymied by a general lack of knowledge about the nature of highly reactive intermediates in these reactions, the knowledge that is to be supplied by this work. Our three specific objectives for this year have been (A) to trap, isolate, and characterize new reactive intermediates of general relevance to catalysis, (B) to explore the electronic structure and reactivity of these unusual species, and how these two properties are interrelated, and (C) to use our obtained mechanistic knowledge to design new catalysts with a focus on Earth-abundant first-row transition metal compounds.

  7. Influence of small metallic particles on the absorption and emission in amorphous materials doped with rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malta, O.L.; Santa Cruz, P.A.; Sa, G.F. de

    1987-01-01

    The influence of small metallic clusters on the absorption and emission processes in molecular species shows a great interest as well the fundamental as the pratical point of view. This subject, which has been recently developed, covers several aspects related to the kinetics of formation of these chusters and to theirs optical properties in amorphous media. A study of this problem developed by the first time for the case of one volumetric distribution of metallic particles is presented. With this aim, fluoborate glasses doped with Eu 3+ ion which fluorescence is well known in several materials are used. (L.C.) [pt

  8. A simulator study of adverse wear with metal and cement debris contamination in metal-on-metal hip bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, T; Clarke, I C; Burgett-Moreno, M D; Donaldson, T K; Savisaar, C; Bowsher, J G

    2014-03-01

    Third-body wear is believed to be one trigger for adverse results with metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings. Impingement and subluxation may release metal particles from MOM replacements. We therefore challenged MOM bearings with relevant debris types of cobalt-chrome alloy (CoCr), titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (PMMA). Cement flakes (PMMA), CoCr and Ti6Al4V particles (size range 5 µm to 400 µm) were run in a MOM wear simulation. Debris allotments (5 mg) were inserted at ten intervals during the five million cycle (5 Mc) test. In a clean test phase (0 Mc to 0.8 Mc), lubricants retained their yellow colour. Addition of metal particles at 0.8 Mc turned lubricants black within the first hour of the test and remained so for the duration, while PMMA particles did not change the colour of the lubricant. Rates of wear with PMMA, CoCr and Ti6Al4V debris averaged 0.3 mm(3)/Mc, 4.1 mm(3)/Mc and 6.4 mm(3)/Mc, respectively. Metal particles turned simulator lubricants black with rates of wear of MOM bearings an order of magnitude higher than with control PMMA particles. This appeared to model the findings of black, periarticular joint tissues and high CoCr wear in failed MOM replacements. The amount of wear debris produced during a 500 000-cycle interval of gait was 30 to 50 times greater than the weight of triggering particle allotment, indicating that MOM bearings were extremely sensitive to third-body wear. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:29-37. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. Process for the enhanced capture of heavy metal emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Pratim; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2001-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming a sorbent-metal complex. The process includes oxidizing a sorbent precursor and contacting the sorbent precursor with a metallic species. The process further includes chemically reacting the sorbent precursor and the metallic species, thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex. In one particular aspect of the invention, at least a portion of the sorbent precursor is transformed into sorbent particles during the oxidation step. These sorbent particles then are contacted with the metallic species and chemically reacted with the metallic species, thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex. Another aspect of the invention is directed to a process for forming a sorbent metal complex in a combustion system. The process includes introducing a sorbent precursor into a combustion system and subjecting the sorbent precursor to an elevated temperature sufficient to oxidize the sorbent precursor and transform the sorbent precursor into sorbent particles. The process further includes contacting the sorbent particles with a metallic species and exposing the sorbent particles and the metallic species to a complex-forming temperature whereby the metallic species reacts with the sorbent particles thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex under UV irradiation.

  10. Aerosol trace metals, particle morphology and total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere of Oxford, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M. L. I.; Meheran, N.; Mather, T. A.; de Hoog, J. C. M.; Pyle, D. M.

    2010-04-01

    An investigation of atmospheric trace metals was conducted in Oxford, UK, a small city ˜60 miles northwest of London, in 2007 and 2008. Concentrations of Sr, Mo, Cd, Pb, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn in aerosol were measured in bulk and size segregated samples. In addition, total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were monitored semi-continuously by cold vapour-atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Metal concentrations in Oxford were intermediate between previously reported levels of UK rural and urban areas for most metals studied and levels of Cd, Ni and Pb were within European guidelines. Metal concentrations appeared to be influenced by higher traffic volume on a timescale of hours. The influence of traffic on the aerosols was also suggested by the observation of carbonaceous particles via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Air mass back trajectories suggest air masses arriving in Oxford from London and mainland Europe contained the highest metal concentrations. Aerosol samples collected over Bonfire Weekend, a period of intense firework use and lighting of bonfires in the UK, showed metal concentrations 6-46 times higher than at other times. Strontium, a tracer of firework release, was present at higher concentrations and showed a change in its size distribution from the coarse to fine mode over Bonfire Weekend. The presence of an abundance of spherical Sr particles was also confirmed in SEM images. The average TGM concentration in Oxford was 3.17 ng m -3 (st. dev. 1.59) with values recorded between 1.32 and 23.2 ng m -3. This is a higher average value than reported from nearby rural locations, although during periods when air was arriving from the west, similar concentrations to these rural areas were seen in Oxford. Comparison to meteorological data suggests that TGM in Oxford's air is highest when wind is arriving from the east/southeast. This may be due to emissions from London/mainland Europe with a possible contribution from emissions from a local

  11. Glass particles produced by laser ablation for ICP-MSmeasurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.; Liu, C.; Wen, S.; Mao, X.; Russo, R.E.

    2007-06-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (266nm) was used to generate glass particles from two sets of standard reference materials using femtosecond (150fs) and nanosecond (4ns) laser pulses with identical fluences of 50 J cm{sup -2}. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the collected particles revealed that there are more and larger agglomerations of particles produced by nanosecond laser ablation. In contrast to the earlier findings for metal alloy samples, no correlation between the concentration of major elements and the median particle size was found. When the current data on glass were compared with the metal alloy data, there were clear differences in terms of particle size, crater depth, heat affected zone, and ICP-MS response. For example, glass particles were larger than metal alloy particles, the craters in glass were less deep than craters in metal alloys, and damage to the sample was less pronounced in glass compared to metal alloys samples. The femtosecond laser generated more intense ICP-MS signals compared to nanosecond laser ablation for both types of samples, although glass sample behavior was more similar between ns and fs-laser ablation than for metals alloys.

  12. Ceramic superconductor/metal composite materials employing the superconducting proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting composite materials having particles of superconducting material disposed in a metal matrix material with a high electron-boson coupling coefficient (.lambda.). The superconducting particles can comprise any type of superconductor including Laves phase materials, Chevrel phase materials, A15 compounds, and perovskite cuprate ceramics. The particles preferably have dimensions of about 10-500 nanometers. The particles preferably have dimensions larger than the superconducting coherence length of the superconducting material. The metal matrix material has a .lambda. greater than 0.2, preferably the .lambda. is much higher than 0.2. The metal matrix material is a good proximity superconductor due to its high .lambda.. When cooled, the superconductor particles cause the metal matrix material to become superconducting due to the proximity effect. In cases where the particles and the metal matrix material are chemically incompatible (i.e., reactive in a way that destroys superconductivity), the particles are provided with a thin protective metal coating. The coating is chemically compatible with the particles and metal matrix material. High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cuprate ceramic particles are reactive and therefore require a coating of a noble metal resistant to oxidation (e.g., silver, gold). The proximity effect extends through the metal coating. With certain superconductors, non-noble metals can be used for the coating.

  13. Bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi-Yim, H.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix were synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this letter, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Both ceramics and metals were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to a 30 vol% fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The glass transition of the amorphous matrix and the crystallization behavior of the composites were studied by calorimetric methods. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. Particle hygroscopicity during atmospheric new particle formation events: implications for the chemical species contributing to particle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the hygroscopicity of newly formed particles (diameters range 25–45 nm during two atmospheric new particle formation (NPF events in the German mid-level mountains during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 (HCCT-2010 field experiment. At the end of the NPF event involving clear particle growth, we measured an unusually high soluble particle fraction of 58.5% at 45 nm particle size. The particle growth rate contributed through sulfuric acid condensation only accounts for around 6.5% of the observed growth rate. Estimations showed that sulfuric acid condensation explained, however, only around 10% of that soluble particle fraction. Therefore, the formation of additional water-soluble matter appears imperative to explain the missing soluble fraction. Although direct evidence is missing, we consider water-soluble organics as candidates for this mechanism. For the case with clear growth process, the particle growth rate was determined by two alternative methods based on tracking the mode diameter of the nucleation mode. The mean particle growth rate obtained from the inter-site data comparison using Lagrangian consideration is 3.8 (± 2.6 nm h−1. During the same period, the growth rate calculated based on one site data is 5.0 nm h−1 using log-normal distribution function method. In light of the fact that considerable uncertainties could be involved in both methods, we consider both estimated growth rates consistent.

  15. Coated air-stable cobalt--rare earth alloy particles and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeggil, J.C.; Charles, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for producing novel air-stable coated particles of a magnetic transition metal-rare earth alloys. An organometallic compound which decomposes at a temperature below 500 0 C is heated to produce a metal vapor which is contacted with particles of a transition metal-rare earth alloy to deposit a metal coating on the particles. (U.S.)

  16. Unusual and highly tunable missing-linker defects in zirconium metal-organic framework UiO-66 and their important effects on gas adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Chua, Yong Shen; Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Chen, Ping; Yildirim, Taner; Zhou, Wei

    2013-07-17

    UiO-66 is a highly important prototypical zirconium metal-organic framework (MOF) compound because of its excellent stabilities not typically found in common porous MOFs. In its perfect crystal structure, each Zr metal center is fully coordinated by 12 organic linkers to form a highly connected framework. Using high-resolution neutron power diffraction technique, we found the first direct structural evidence showing that real UiO-66 material contains significant amount of missing-linker defects, an unusual phenomenon for MOFs. The concentration of the missing-linker defects is surprisingly high, ∼10% in our sample, effectively reducing the framework connection from 12 to ∼11. We show that by varying the concentration of the acetic acid modulator and the synthesis time, the linker vacancies can be tuned systematically, leading to dramatically enhanced porosity. We obtained samples with pore volumes ranging from 0.44 to 1.0 cm(3)/g and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas ranging from 1000 to 1600 m(2)/g, the largest values of which are ∼150% and ∼60% higher than the theoretical values of defect-free UiO-66 crystal, respectively. The linker vacancies also have profound effects on the gas adsorption behaviors of UiO-66, in particular CO2. Finally, comparing the gas adsorption of hydroxylated and dehydroxylated UiO-66, we found that the former performs systematically better than the latter (particularly for CO2) suggesting the beneficial effect of the -OH groups. This finding is of great importance because hydroxylated UiO-66 is the practically more relevant, non-air-sensitive form of this MOF. The preferred gas adsorption on the metal center was confirmed by neutron diffraction measurements, and the gas binding strength enhancement by the -OH group was further supported by our first-principles calculations.

  17. Synthesis of metal-metal oxide catalysts and electrocatalysts using a metal cation adsorption/reduction and adatom replacement by more noble ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2010-04-27

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen. The invention also relates to methods of making the metal-metal oxide composites.

  18. Synergistic effects of semiconductor substrate and noble metal nano-particles on SERS effect both theoretical and experimental aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Liang, Pei; Tang, Lisha; Zhou, Yongfeng; Cao, Yanting; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, De; Dong, Qianmin; Huang, Jie; He, Peng

    2018-04-01

    As a means of chemical identification and analysis, Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), with the advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity, non-destructive, high repeatability and in situ detection etc., has important significance in the field of composition detection, environmental science, biological medicine etc. Physical model of coupling effect between different semiconductor substrates and noble metal particles were investigated by using 3D-FDTD method. Mechanism and the effects of excitation wavelength, particle spacing and semiconductor substrate types on the SERS effect were discussed. The results showed that the optimal excitation wavelengths of three noble metals of Ag, Au, Cu, were located at 510, 600 and 630 nm, respectively; SERS effect of Ag, Au, Cu increases with the decreasing of the inter distance of particles, while the distance of the NPs reaches the critical value of 3 nm, the strength of SERS effect will be greatly enhanced. For the four different types of substrate of Ge, Si, SiO2 (glass) and Al2O3, the SERS effect of Ag on SiO2 > Ge > Al2O3 > Si. For Au and Cu nanoparticles, the SERS effect of them on oxide substrate is stronger than that on non-oxide substrate. In order to verify FDTD simulations, taking silver nanoparticles as an example, and silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical method were spinning coating on the four different substrates with R6G as probe molecules. The results show that the experimental results are consistent with FDTD theoretical simulations, and the SERS enhancement effect of Ag-SiO2 substrate is best. The results of this study have important theoretical significance to explain the variations of SERS enhancement on different noble metals, which is also an important guide for the preparation of SERS substrates, especially for the microfluidics. The better Raman effect can be realized by choosing proper substrate type, particle spacing and excitation wavelength, result in expanding the depth and width

  19. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

  20. 48 CFR 32.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.114 Unusual contract financing. Any contract financing arrangement that deviates from this part is unusual contract financing...

  1. Diverse transformations of liquid metals between different morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2014-09-10

    Transformation from a film into a sphere, rapid merging of separate objects, controlled self-rotation, and planar locomotion are the very unusual phenomena observed in liquid metals under application of an electric field to a liquid metal immersed in or sprayed with water. A mechanism for these effects is suggested and potential applications - for example the recovery of liquid metal previously injected into the body for therapeutic purposes - are outlined. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Functional memory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The field of shape memory phenomena in metals and alloys has developed in a sporadic fashion from a scientific curiosity to a vigorously growing niche industry, over a period close to a full working lifetime. Memory metal research and development is replete with scientist and engineer 'true believers', who can finally feel content that their longstanding confidence in the potential of these unusual functional materials has not been misplaced. This paper reviews the current range of medical and non-medical systems and devices which are based on memory metals and attempts to predict trends in applications over the next decade. The market is dominated by Ni Ti alloys which have proved to exhibit the best and most reproducible properties for application in a wide range of medical and non-medical devices

  3. Transition metal carbide and boride abrasive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdsaar, H.

    1978-01-01

    Abrasive particles and their preparation are discussed. The particles consist essentially of a matrix of titanium carbide and zirconium carbide, at least partially in solid solution form, and grains of crystalline titanium diboride dispersed throughout the carbide matrix. These abrasive particles are particularly useful as components of grinding wheels for abrading steel. 1 figure, 6 tables

  4. DETAILED CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF FOUR STARS IN THE UNUSUAL GLOBULAR CLUSTER PALOMAR 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakari, Charli M.; Venn, Kim A.; Irwin, Mike; Aoki, Wako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Dotter, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical abundances for 21 elements are presented for four red giants in the anomalous outer halo globular cluster Palomar 1 (R GC = 17.2 kpc, Z = 3.6 kpc) using high-resolution (R = 36, 000) spectra from the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope. Pal 1 has long been considered unusual because of its low surface brightness, sparse red giant branch, young age, and its possible association with two extragalactic streams of stars. This paper shows that its chemistry further confirms its unusual nature. The mean metallicity of the four stars, [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.01, is high for a globular cluster so far from the Galactic center, but is low for a typical open cluster. The [α/Fe] ratios, though in agreement with the Galactic stars within the 1σ errors, agree best with the lower values in dwarf galaxies. No signs of the Na/O anticorrelation are detected in Pal 1, though Na appears to be marginally high in all four stars. Pal 1's neutron-capture elements are also unusual: its high [Ba/Y] ratio agrees best with dwarf galaxies, implying an excess of second-peak over first-peak s-process elements, while its [Eu/α] and [Ba/Eu] ratios show that Pal 1's contributions from the r-process must have differed in some way from normal Galactic stars. Therefore, Pal 1 is unusual chemically, as well in its other properties. Pal 1 shares some of its unusual abundance characteristics with the young clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy remnant and the intermediate-age LMC clusters, and could be chemically associated with the Canis Majoris overdensity; however, it does not seem to be similar to the Monoceros/Galactic Anticenter Stellar Stream.

  5. 48 CFR 432.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 432.114 Unusual contract financing. The HCA is authorized to approve unusual contract financing. The signed determination and finding...

  6. 48 CFR 1332.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 1332.114 Unusual contract financing. The designee authorized to approve unusual contract financing arrangements is set forth in CAM...

  7. Method and apparatus for dissociating metals from metal compounds extracted into supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Hunt, Fred H.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    2000-01-01

    A method for dissociating metal-ligand complexes in a supercritical fluid by treating the metal-ligand complex with heat and/or reducing or oxidizing agents is described. Once the metal-ligand complex is dissociated, the resulting metal and/or metal oxide form fine particles of substantially uniform size. In preferred embodiments, the solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the ligand is a .beta.-diketone such as hexafluoroacetylacetone or dibutyldiacetate. In other preferred embodiments, the metals in the metal-ligand complex are copper, silver, gold, tungsten, titanium, tantalum, tin, or mixtures thereof. In preferred embodiments, the reducing agent is hydrogen. The method provides an efficient process for dissociating metal-ligand complexes and produces easily-collected metal particles free from hydrocarbon solvent impurities. The ligand and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated to provide an economic, efficient process.

  8. Formation mechanisms of metal colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaciuga, Ionel

    Highly dispersed uniform metallic particles are widely used in various areas of technology and medicine and are likely to be incorporated into many other applications in the future. It is commonly accepted that size, shape and composition of the particles represent critical factors in most applications. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of formation of metal particles and the ways to control the physical (e.g. shape, size) and chemical (e.g. composition) properties is of great importance. In the current research, the formation of uniform silver spheres is investigated experimentally. The parameters that influence the formation of silver particles when concentrated iso-ascorbic acid and silver-polyamine complex solutions are rapidly mixed were studied in the absence of dispersants. We found that by varying the nature of the amine, temperature, concentration of reactants, silver/amine molar ratio, and the nature of the silver salt, the size of the resulting silver particles can be varied in a wide range (0.08--1.5 microm). The silver particles were formed by aggregation of nanosize subunits as substantiated by both electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques and by the vivid rapid color changes during the chemical precipitation process. From the practical standpoint, the goal of this research was to prepare well dispersed spherical silver particles having a relatively smooth surface and a diameter of about 1 microm to satisfy the demands of the current electronic materials market. A two stage particle growth model previously developed to explain the narrow size distribution occurring in synthesis of gold spheres was applied to the present experimental system, and the parameters that control the size distribution characteristics were identified. The kinetic parameter required to match the final particle size was found to be in agreement with the one used previously in modeling formation of gold spheres, suggesting that similar kinetics governs the

  9. Scattering of light by colloidal aluminosilicate particles produces the unusual sky-blue color of Río Celeste (Tenorio volcano complex, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Castellón

    Full Text Available Río Celeste (Sky-Blue River in Tenorio National Park (Costa Rica, a river that derives from the confluence and mixing of two colorless streams--Río Buenavista (Buenavista River and Quebrada Agria (Sour Creek--is renowned in Costa Rica because it presents an atypical intense sky-blue color. Although various explanations have been proposed for this unusual hue of Río Celeste, no exhaustive tests have been undertaken; the reasons hence remain unclear. To understand this color phenomenon, we examined the physico-chemical properties of Río Celeste and of the two streams from which it is derived. Chemical analysis of those streams with ion-exchange chromatography (IC and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES made us discard the hypothesis that the origin of the hue is due to colored chemical species. Our tests revealed that the origin of this coloration phenomenon is physical, due to suspended aluminosilicate particles (with diameters distributed around 566 nm according to a lognormal distribution that produce Mie scattering. The color originates after mixing of two colorless streams because of the enlargement (by aggregation of suspended aluminosilicate particles in the Río Buenavista stream due to a decrease of pH on mixing with the acidic Quebrada Agria. We postulate a chemical mechanism for this process, supported by experimental evidence of dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy-dispersive spectra (EDS. Theoretical modeling of the Mie scattering yielded a strong coincidence between the observed color and the simulated one.

  10. A new method for soldering particle-reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jinbin; Mu, Yunchao [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Luo, Xiangwei [Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Niu, Jitai, E-mail: niujitai@163.com [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soldering of 55% SiCp/Al composite and Kovar is first achieved in the world. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nickel plating is required on the surface of the composites before soldering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low welding temperature is set to avoid overheating of the matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical and metallurgical bonding of composites and Kovar is carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High tension strength of 225 MPa in soldering seam has been obtained. - Abstract: Soldering of aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-SiC) to other structural materials, or even to themselves, has proved unsuccessful mainly due to the poor wetting of these composites by conventional soldering alloys. This paper reports a new approach, which improves the wetting properties of these composites by molting solder alloys to promote stronger bonds. The new approach relies on nickel-plating of the composite's faying surface prior to application of a solder alloy. Based on this approach, an aluminum metal matrix composite containing 55 vol.% SiC particles is successfully soldered to a Fe-Ni-Co alloy (commercially known as Kovar 4J29). The solder material is a zinc-based alloy (Zn-Cd-Ag-Cu) with a melting point of about 400 Degree-Sign C. Microscopic examinations of the aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs)-Kovar interfaces show that the nickel-plating, prior to soldering, could noticeably enhance the reaction between the molten solder and composites. The fractography of the shear-tested samples revealed that fracture occurs within the composite (i.e. cohesive failure), indicating a good adhesion between the solder alloy and the Al-SiC composite.

  11. A new method for soldering particle-reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jinbin; Mu, Yunchao; Luo, Xiangwei; Niu, Jitai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soldering of 55% SiCp/Al composite and Kovar is first achieved in the world. ► The nickel plating is required on the surface of the composites before soldering. ► Low welding temperature is set to avoid overheating of the matrix. ► Chemical and metallurgical bonding of composites and Kovar is carried out. ► High tension strength of 225 MPa in soldering seam has been obtained. - Abstract: Soldering of aluminum metal matrix composites (Al–SiC) to other structural materials, or even to themselves, has proved unsuccessful mainly due to the poor wetting of these composites by conventional soldering alloys. This paper reports a new approach, which improves the wetting properties of these composites by molting solder alloys to promote stronger bonds. The new approach relies on nickel-plating of the composite's faying surface prior to application of a solder alloy. Based on this approach, an aluminum metal matrix composite containing 55 vol.% SiC particles is successfully soldered to a Fe–Ni–Co alloy (commercially known as Kovar 4J29). The solder material is a zinc-based alloy (Zn–Cd–Ag–Cu) with a melting point of about 400 °C. Microscopic examinations of the aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs)–Kovar interfaces show that the nickel-plating, prior to soldering, could noticeably enhance the reaction between the molten solder and composites. The fractography of the shear-tested samples revealed that fracture occurs within the composite (i.e. cohesive failure), indicating a good adhesion between the solder alloy and the Al–SiC composite.

  12. Structural characterization and gas reactions of small metal particles by high resolution in-situ TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and TED (Transmission Electron Diffraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, K.

    1987-01-01

    The detection and size analysis of small metal particles supported on amorphous substrates becomes increasingly difficult when the particle size approaches that of the phase contrast background structures of the support. An approach of digital image analysis, involving Fourier transformation of the original image, filtering, and image reconstruction was studied with respect to the likelihood of unambiguously detecting particles of less than 1 nm diameter on amorphous substrates from a single electron micrograph.

  13. Plastic fluctuations in empty crystals formed by cubic wireframe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John M.; Avendaño, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    We present a computer simulation study of the phase behavior of colloidal hard cubic frames, i.e., particles with nonconvex cubic wireframe geometry interacting purely by excluded volume. Despite the propensity of cubic wireframe particles to form cubic phases akin to their convex counterparts, these particles exhibit unusual plastic fluctuations in which a random and dynamic fraction of particles rotate around their lattice positions in the crystal lattice while the remainder of the particles remains fully ordered. We argue that this unexpected effect stems from the nonconvex geometry of the particles in which the faces of a particle can be penetrated by the vertices of the nearest neighbors even at high number densities.

  14. The simulation of condensation removal of a heavy metal from exhaust gases onto sorbent particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Hall, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    A numerical model BAEROSOL for solving the general dynamic equation (GDE) of aerosols is presented. The goal was to model the capture of volatilized metals by sorbents under incinerator-like conditions. The model is based on algorithms presented by Jacobson and Turco [Aerosol Science and Technology 22 (1995) 73]. A hybrid size bin was used to model growth and formation of particles from the continuum phase and the coagulation of existing particles. Condensation and evaporation growth were calculated in a moving size bin approach, where coagulation and nucleation was modeled in the fixed size bin model of the hybrid grid. To account for the thermodynamic equilibrium in the gas phase, a thermodynamic equilibrium code CET89 was implemented. The particle size distribution (PSD) calculated with the model was then compared to analytical solutions provided for growth, coagulation and both combined. Finally, experimental findings by Rodriguez and Hall [Waste Management 21 (2001) 589-607] were compared to the PSD predicted by the developed model and the applicability of the model under incineration conditions is discussed

  15. Corrosion resistant amorphous metals and methods of forming corrosion resistant amorphous metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Wong, Frank M. G. [Livermore, CA; Haslam, Jeffery J [Livermore, CA; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Lavernia, Enrique J [Davis, CA; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Graeve, Olivia A [Reno, NV; Bayles, Robert [Annandale, VA; Perepezko, John H [Madison, WI; Kaufman, Larry [Brookline, MA; Schoenung, Julie [Davis, CA; Ajdelsztajn, Leo [Walnut Creek, CA

    2009-11-17

    A system for coating a surface comprises providing a source of amorphous metal, providing ceramic particles, and applying the amorphous metal and the ceramic particles to the surface by a spray. The coating comprises a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains one or more of the following elements in the specified range of composition: yttrium (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), chromium (14 to 18 atomic %), molybdenum (.gtoreq.7 atomic %), tungsten (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), boron (.ltoreq.5 atomic %), or carbon (.gtoreq.4 atomic %).

  16. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  17. Internal Friction Angle of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Zegzulka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal powders are components with multidisciplinary usage as their application is very broad. Their consistent characterization across all disciplines is important for ensuring repeatable and trouble-free processes. Ten metal powders were tested in the study. In all cases, the particle size distribution and morphology (scanning electron microscope—SEM photos were determined. The aim of this work was to inspect the flow behavior of metal powders through another measured characteristic, namely the angle of internal friction. The measured values of the effective internal friction angle in the range 28.6–32.9°, together with the spherical particle shape and the particle size distribution, revealed the likely dominant mode of the metal particle transfer mechanism for stainless steel 316L, zinc and aluminum powder. This third piston flow mechanism is described and illustrated in detail. The angle of internal friction is mentioned as another suitable parameter for the characterization of metal powders, not only for the relative simplicity of the determination but also for gaining insight into the method of the movement of individual particles during the flow.

  18. Activation volume and interaction of metal particulate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsukawa, Hiroki [Sony Corporation, 6-7-35 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (Japan)]. E-mail: tetsukaw@arc.sony.co.jp; Kondo, Hirofumi [Sony Corporation, 6-7-35 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (Japan)

    2005-09-15

    We have investigated the activation volume (V{sub ac}) and magnetostatic interaction of metal particulate (MP) media. The activation volume of MP media decreases with the decrease of physical volume (V{sub phy}) of metal particles. The activation volume and the ratio of V{sub phy}/V{sub ac} of advanced metal particles are 6x10{sup -24}m{sup 3} and 1.5, respectively. It can be predicted that the physical volume of metal particle is about 3x10{sup -24}m{sup 3} when the physical volume is equal to the activation volume. This value is agreement with the practical lower limit of physical volume of metal particle predicted by Sharrock. The negative interaction (demagnetization effect) in MP media decreases with low saturation magnetization of the metal particles, a thin magnetic layer, a high orientation of MP media, and a low packing fraction of metal particles in the MP media. The activation volume of the MP media decreased as the negative interactions decreased. In advanced MP media with low M{sub r}.t (M{sub r}=remanent magnetization and t=thickness), the influence of interaction on the activation volume is reduced.

  19. Activation volume and interaction of metal particulate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsukawa, Hiroki; Kondo, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the activation volume (V ac ) and magnetostatic interaction of metal particulate (MP) media. The activation volume of MP media decreases with the decrease of physical volume (V phy ) of metal particles. The activation volume and the ratio of V phy /V ac of advanced metal particles are 6x10 -24 m 3 and 1.5, respectively. It can be predicted that the physical volume of metal particle is about 3x10 -24 m 3 when the physical volume is equal to the activation volume. This value is agreement with the practical lower limit of physical volume of metal particle predicted by Sharrock. The negative interaction (demagnetization effect) in MP media decreases with low saturation magnetization of the metal particles, a thin magnetic layer, a high orientation of MP media, and a low packing fraction of metal particles in the MP media. The activation volume of the MP media decreased as the negative interactions decreased. In advanced MP media with low M r .t (M r =remanent magnetization and t=thickness), the influence of interaction on the activation volume is reduced

  20. Numerical study of melted particles crush metallic substrates and the interaction between particles and a plasma beam in the thermal projection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriba, Ilhem; Djebaili, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma spray processes have been widely used to produce high performance coatings of a wide range of materials (metallic, non-metallic, and ceramics), offering protection from, e.g. wear, extreme temperature, chemical attack and environmental corrosion. To obtain good quality coatings, spray parameters must be carefully selected. Due to the large variety in process parameters, it is difficult to optimize the process for each specific coating and substrate combinations. Furthermore modelling the spray process allows a better understanding of the process sequences during thermal spraying. The simulation of coating formation to estimate the process parameters is an important tool to develop new coating structures with defined properties. In this work, the process of plasma sprayed coating has been analyzed by numerical simulation. Commercial code is used to predict the plasma jet characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and coating formation. Using this model we can obtain coating microstructure and characteristics which form a foundation for further improvement of an advanced ceramic coating build up model

  1. Optical characterization of metallic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenbo; Lin Bing

    2006-01-01

    Airborne metallic particulates from industry and urban sources are highly conducting aerosols. The characterization of these pollutant particles is important for environment monitoring and protection. Because these metallic particulates are highly reflective, their effect on local weather or regional radiation budget may also need to be studied. In this work, light scattering characteristics of these metallic aerosols are studied using exact solutions on perfectly conducting spherical and cylindrical particles. It is found that for perfectly conducting spheres and cylinders, when scattering angle is larger than ∼90 o the linear polarization degree of the scattered light is very close to zero. This light scattering characteristics of perfectly conducting particles is significantly different from that of other aerosols. When these perfectly conducting particles are immersed in an absorbing medium, this light scattering characteristics does not show significant change. Therefore, measuring the linear polarization of scattered lights at backward scattering angles can detect and distinguish metallic particulates from other aerosols. This result provides a great potential of metallic aerosol detection and monitoring for environmental protection

  2. Characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 and associated heavy metals at the crossroads and urban background site in Zabrze, Upper Silesia, Poland, during the smog episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszka, Jozef S; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira

    2010-09-01

    The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Pb) associated with PM10 and PM2.5 at the crossroads and the background sites have been studied in Zabrze, Poland, during smog episodes. Although the background level was unusually elevated due to both high particulate emission from the industrial and municipal sources and smog favorable meteorological conditions, significant increase of the concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 as well as associated heavy metals in the roadside air compared to the urban background has been documented. The average daily difference between the roadside and corresponding urban background aerosol concentration was equal to 39.5 microg m(-3) for PM10 and 41.2 microg m(-3) for PM2.5. The highest levels of the studied metals in Zabrze appeared for iron carried by PM10 particles: 1,706 (background) and 28,557 ng m(-3) (crossroads). The lowest concentration level (in PM10) has been found for cadmium: 7 and 77 ng m(-3) in the background and crossroads site, respectively. Also the concentrations of heavy metals carried by the fine particles (PM2.5) were very high in Zabrze during the smog episodes. Concentrations of all studied metals associated with PM10 increased at the roadside compared to the background about ten times (one order) while metals contained in PM2.5 showed two to three times elevated concentrations (except Fe-five times and Cr-no increase).

  3. Seasonal variations of total suspended particles (TSP) and heavy metals under tropical conditions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Trindade, H.A.; Costa-Ribeiro, C.; Londres, H.; Oliveira, A.E.

    The total suspended particle (TSP) and heavy metal concentrations are studied in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 1974 until 1981. The principal aims are to determine how these things vary in two different areas and how meteorological parameters responsible for the transport and dilution of atmospheric pollutants affect these areas. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Bacterial metal resistance genes and metal bioavailability in contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Wattiez, Ruddy; Prygiel, Emilie; Lesven, Ludovic; Billon, Gabriel; Gillan, David C.

    2014-01-01

    In bacteria a metal may be defined as bioavailable if it crosses the cytoplasmic membrane to reach the cytoplasm. Once inside the cell, specific metal resistance systems may be triggered. In this research, specific metal resistance genes were used to estimate metal bioavailability in sediment microbial communities. Gene levels were measured by quantitative PCR and correlated to metals in sediments using five different protocols to estimate dissolved, particle-adsorbed and occluded metals. The best correlations were obtained with czcA (a Cd/Zn/Co efflux pump) and Cd/Zn adsorbed or occluded in particles. Only adsorbed Co was correlated to czcA levels. We concluded that the measurement of czcA gene levels by quantitative PCR is a promising tool which may complement the classical approaches used to estimate Cd/Zn/Co bioavailability in sediment compartments. - Highlights: • Metal resistance genes were used to estimate metal bioavailability in sediments. • Gene levels were correlated to metals using 5 different metal extraction protocols. • CzcA gene levels determined by quantitative PCR is a promising tool for Cd/Zn/Co. - Capsule Bacterial czcA is a potential biomarker of Cd, Zn and Co bioavailability in aquatic sediments as shown by quantitative PCR and sequential metal extraction

  5. Annealed coated air-stable cobalt--rare earth alloy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeggil, J.C.; Charles, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for producing novel air-stable coated particles of a magnetic transition metal-rare earth alloy. An organometallic compound which decomposes at a temperature below 500 0 C is heated to produce a metal vapor which is contacted with particles of a transition metal-rare earth alloy to deposit a metal coating thereon. The coated particles are heated at a temperature ranging from 50 to 200 0 C for a period of time sufficient to increase their intrinsic coercive force by at least 10 percent. (U.S.)

  6. Noble Metal/Ceramic Composites in Flame Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Heiko; Madler, Lutz; Strobel, Reto

    conditions influence the resulting noble metal particles size in those systems [1]. For every specific application the particle size and the metal/metal oxide interaction affect the performance of these nano-composite materials [2]. Recently, aerosol processes have been successfully used to produce platinum...

  7. Recent Developments in Half-Metallic Magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, R.A. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The compound PtMnSb is a half-metallic ferromagnet and its unusual band structure is intimately connected with the high Magneto Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE). In this paper it will be discussed how various types of substitutions can modify this band structure and lead to possible enhancement of the

  8. Thermal expansion in small metallic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    An anomalously low thermal expansion observable in small particles is attributed to extending effect of the shell. It is shown that the coefficient of thermal expansion of the oxide-film-coated aluminium particles calculated using elastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of massive materials agres well with those measured experimentally. The linear dilatation of the shell, its stress to rupture and the values of the structural tension are estimated vs the temperature

  9. Electrical memory features of ferromagnetic CoFeAlSi nano-particles embedded in metal-oxide-semiconductor matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ja Bin; Kim, Ki Woong; Lee, Jun Seok; An, Gwang Guk; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Half-metallic Heusler material Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (CFAS) nano-particles (NPs) embedded in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures with thin HfO 2 tunneling and MgO control oxides were investigated. The CFAS NPs were prepared by rapid thermal annealing. The formation of well-controlled CFAS NPs on thin HfO 2 tunneling oxide was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Memory characteristics of CFAS NPs in MOS devices exhibited a large memory window of 4.65 V, as well as good retention and endurance times of 10 5 cycles and 10 9 s, respectively, demonstrating the potential of CFAS NPs as promising candidates for use in charge storage.

  10. Entrapment of dye molecules within submicron silver particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yosef, Itzik; Avnir, David, E-mail: david@chem.ch.huji.ac.il [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Chemistry (Israel)

    2011-09-15

    We describe a method for the preparation of metal-organic composites submicron particles. Specifically, the preparation of silver particle-clusters 150-200 nm in size, doped with an organic dye Congo-red, is reported. The use of sodium citrate coupled with sodium hypophosphite facilitated the formation of these particle-clusters, which were fully characterized by TEM analysis, Zeta potential and size measurements, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis. The latter reveals a catalytic action of the metal on the thermal oxidative decomposition of the entrapped dye. The use of these particles to obtain dense thin metallic films was demonstrated by the coating of ITO glass.

  11. Unusual presentation of failed metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty with features of neoplastic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Runner, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA is associated with increased incidence of failure from metallosis, adverse tissue reactions, and the formation of pseudotumors. This case highlights a 53-year-old female with an enlarging painful thigh mass 12 years status post MoM THA. Radiographs and advanced imaging revealed an atypical mass with cortical bone destruction and spiculation, concerning for periprosthetic malignancy. Open frozen section biopsy was performed before undergoing revision THA in a single episode of care. This case illustrates that massive pseudotumors can be locally aggressive causing significant femoral bone destruction and may mimic malignancy. It is important that orthopaedic surgeons, radiologists and pathologists understand the relative infrequency of periprosthetic malignancy in MoM THA to mitigate patient concerns, misdiagnosis, and allow for an evidence based discussion when treating massive pseudotumors.

  12. Metal transformation as a strategy for bacterial detoxification of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ashraf M M; Al Abboud, Mohamed A; Khatib, Sayeed I

    2018-01-01

    Microorganisms can modify the chemical and physical characters of metals leading to an alteration in their speciation, mobility, and toxicity. Aqueous heavy metals solutions (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, and Zn) were treated with the volatile metabolic products (VMPs) of Escherichia coli Z3 for 24 h using aerobic bioreactor. The effect of the metals treated with VMPs in comparison to the untreated metals on the growth of E. coli S1 and Staphylococcus aureus S2 (local isolates) was examined. Moreover, the toxic properties of the treated and untreated metals were monitored using minimum inhibitory concentration assay. A marked reduction of the treated metals toxicity was recorded in comparison to the untreated metals. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the formation of metal particles in the treated metal solutions. In addition to heavy metals at variable ratios, these particles consisted of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen elements. The inhibition of metal toxicity was attributed to the existence of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide in the VMPs of E. coli Z3 culture that might responsible for the transformation of soluble metal ions into metal complexes. This study clarified the capability of E. coli Z3 for indirect detoxification of heavy metals via the immobilization of metal ions into biologically unavailable species. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ceramic/metal and A15/metal superconducting composite materials exploiting the superconducting proximity effect and method of making the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A composite superconducting material made of coated particles of ceramic superconducting material and a metal matrix material is disclosed. The metal matrix material fills the regions between the coated particles. The coating material is a material that is chemically nonreactive with the ceramic. Preferably, it is silver. The coating serves to chemically insulate the ceramic from the metal matrix material. The metal matrix material is a metal that is susceptible to the superconducting proximity effect. Preferably, it is a NbTi alloy. The metal matrix material is induced to become superconducting by the superconducting proximity effect when the temperature of the material goes below the critical temperature of the ceramic. The material has the improved mechanical properties of the metal matrix material. Preferably, the material consists of approximately 10% NbTi, 90% coated ceramic particles (by volume). Certain aspects of the material and method will depend upon the particular ceramic superconductor employed. An alternative embodiment of the invention utilizes A15 compound superconducting particles in a metal matrix material which is preferably a NbTi alloy

  14. Ceramic/metal and A15/metal superconducting composite materials exploiting the superconducting proximity effect and method of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.

    1999-01-01

    A composite superconducting material made of coated particles of ceramic superconducting material and a metal matrix material. The metal matrix material fills the regions between the coated particles. The coating material is a material that is chemically nonreactive with the ceramic. Preferably, it is silver. The coating serves to chemically insulate the ceramic from the metal matrix material. The metal matrix material is a metal that is susceptible to the superconducting proximity effect. Preferably, it is a NbTi alloy. The metal matrix material is induced to become superconducting by the superconducting proximity effect when the temperature of the material goes below the critical temperature of the ceramic. The material has the improved mechanical properties of the metal matrix material. Preferably, the material consists of approximately 10% NbTi, 90% coated ceramic particles (by volume). Certain aspects of the material and method will depend upon the particular ceramic superconductor employed. An alternative embodiment of the invention utilizes A15 compound superconducting particles in a metal matrix material which is preferably a NbTi alloy.

  15. Magnetic Properties of Nanometer-sized Crystalline and Amorphous Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Bødker, Franz; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    1997-01-01

    Amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloy particles can be prepared by chemical preparation techniques. We discuss the preparation of transition metal-boron and iron-carbon particles and their magnetic properties. Nanometer-sized particles of both crystalline and amorphous magnetic materials...... are superparamagnetic at finite temperatures. The temperature dependence of the superparamagnetic relaxation time and the influence of inter-particle interactions is discussed. Finally, some examples of studies of surface magnetization of alpha-Fe particles are presented....

  16. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedan, Jeffrey S., E-mail: jsf2@cdc.gov; Thompson, Janet A.; Meighan, Terence G.; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Antonini, James M.

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167–166.7 μg/cm{sup 2}) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18 h transepithelial potential difference (V{sub t}), resistance (R{sub t}), and short circuit current (I{sub sc}) were measured. Particle effects on Na{sup +} and Cl¯ channels and the Na{sup +},K{sup +},2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167–16.7 μg/cm{sup 2}) increased basal V{sub t}. Only 16.7 μg/cm{sup 2} GMA-MS increased basal V{sub t} significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated I{sub sc} responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on R{sub t} were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in V{sub t}, R{sub t}, and I{sub sc} at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na{sup +} transport and Na{sup +},K{sup +},2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na{sup +} absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. - Highlights: • Welding fume particle toxicity was investigated in human bronchial

  17. The one-particle scenario for the metal-insulator transition in two-dimensional systems at T = 0

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasov, Y V

    2003-01-01

    The conductance of bounded disordered electron systems is calculated by reducing the original dynamic problem of arbitrary dimensionality to a set of strictly one-dimensional problems for one-particle mode propagators. The metallic ground state of a two-dimensional conductor, which is considered as a limiting case of three-dimensional quantum waveguide, is shown to result from its multi-modeness. As the waveguide thickness is reduced, e.g., by applying a 'pressing' potential, the electron system undergoes a set of continuous phase transitions related to discrete variations of the number of extended modes. The closing of the last current carrying mode is regarded as a phase transition of the electron system from metallic to dielectric state. The obtained results agree qualitatively with the observed 'anomalies' of resistivity of different two-dimensional electron and hole systems.

  18. In situ TEM observations of unusual nanocrystallization in a Ti-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, M.; Wang, D.J.; Shen, J.; Qian, M.

    2011-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to witness the nanocrystallization of amorphous Ti 42.5 Cu 40 Zr 10 Ni 5 Sn 2.5 . A crystallization front exists to separate the TEM sample into two parts with different thermal stabilities. The number density of the crystallization products varies significantly, with the precipitate sizes ranging from a few nanometres to ∼100 nm. Detailed TEM analysis suggests that oxygen is the most likely reason for realizing the unusual nanocrystallization. External thermal analysis also indicates that oxygen affects the crystallization.

  19. Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leske, R. A., E-mail: ral@srl.caltech.edu; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wiedenbeck, M. E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.

  20. Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von

    2016-03-01

    As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.

  1. Assessing the Dietary Bioavailability of Metals Associated with Natural Particles: Extending the Use of the Reverse Labeling Approach to Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Cain, Daniel J; Fuller, Christopher C

    2017-03-07

    We extend the use of a novel tracing technique to quantify the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) associated with natural particles using snails enriched with a less common Zn stable isotope. Lymnaea stagnalis is a model species that has relatively fast Zn uptake rates from the dissolved phase, enabling their rapid enrichment in 67 Zn during the initial phase of labeling. Isotopically enriched snails were subsequently exposed to algae mixed with increasing amounts of metal-rich particles collected from two acid mine drainage impacted rivers. Zinc bioavailability from the natural particles was inferred from calculations of 66 Zn assimilation into the snail's soft tissues. Zinc assimilation efficiency (AE) varied from 28% for the Animas River particles to 45% for the Snake River particles, indicating that particle-bound, or sorbed Zn, was bioavailable from acid mine drainage wastes. The relative binding strength of Zn sorption to the natural particles was inversely related to Zn bioavailability; a finding that would not have been possible without using the reverse labeling approach. Differences in the chemical composition of the particles suggest that their geochemical properties may influence the extent of Zn bioavailability.

  2. Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

    2013-12-17

    Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (1-5 μm, exceptionally 13 μm), rarely engine wear and escape into the atmosphere.

  3. Plasma metallization of refractory carbide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroleva, E.B.; Klinskaya, N.A.; Rybalko, O.F.; Ugol'nikova, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of treatment conditions in plasma on properties of produced metallized powders of titanium, tungsten and chromium carbides with the main particle size of 40-80 μm is considered. It is shown that plasma treatment permits to produce metallized powders of carbide materials with the 40-80 μm particle size. The degree of metallization, spheroidization, chemical and phase composition of metallized carbide powders are controlled by dispersivity of the treated material, concentration of a metal component in the treated mixtures, rate of plasma flow and preliminary spheroidization procedure

  4. Determination of particle size and content of metals in the atmosphere of ZMCM (Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.; Flores M, J.; Diaz, R.V.; Garcia G, R.

    1994-01-01

    Inside the breathable fraction of the atmosphere of Mexico City, the presence of metals in suspended particles, is determined and quantified. The detection was carry out simultaneously in three places of the city, using collectors of the type stacking filter unit (SFU) which allow the separation of particles according to its size. The SFU detectors allow the separation in two size: 'Gross' mass from 2.5 to 1.5 μm and 'fine' mass for particles smallest than 2.5 μm. The analysis of the samples was fulfilled by means of PIXE method. Samples were irradiated with a proton beam, and based in the X-ray spectra the elements were identified and quantified, which allow to establish the temporal behavior of the concentrations per element for gross mass and fine mass in each one of the places of sampling. (Author)

  5. Composite of ceramic-coated magnetic alloy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2000-01-01

    A composite structure and method for manufacturing same, the composite structure being comprised of metal particles and an inorganic bonding media. The method comprises the steps of coating particles of a metal powder with a thin layer of an inorganic bonding media selected from the group of powders consisting of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. The particles are assembled in a cavity and heat, with or without the addition of pressure, is thereafter applied to the particles until the layer of inorganic bonding media forms a strong bond with the particles and with the layer of inorganic bonding media on adjacent particles. The resulting composite structure is strong and remains cohesive at high temperatures.

  6. Characterization of road runoff with regard to seasonal variations, particle size distribution and the correlation of fine particles and pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliges, R; Endres, M; Tiffert, A; Brenner, E; Marks, T

    2017-03-01

    Urban runoff is known to transport a significant pollutant load consisting of e.g. heavy metals, salts and hydrocarbons. Interactions between solid and dissolved compounds, proper understanding of particle size distribution, dissolved pollutant fractions and seasonal variations is crucial for the selection and development of appropriate road runoff treatment devices. Road runoff at an arterial road in Augsburg, Germany, has been studied for 3.5 years. A strong seasonal variation was observed, with increased heavy metal concentrations with doubled and tripled median concentrations for heavy metals during the cold season. Correlation analysis showed that de-icing salt is not the only factor responsible for increased pollutant concentrations in winter. During the cold period, the fraction of dissolved metals was lower compared to the warm season. In road dust, the highest metal concentrations were measured for fine particles. Metals in road runoff were found to show a significant correlation to fine particles SS63 (removal rates.

  7. Massive production of heavy metals in the Ganga (Hooghly) River estuary, India: Global importance of solute-particle interaction and enhanced metal fluxes to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Saumik; Dalai, Tarun K.

    2018-05-01

    The Ganga River System is a major contributor to the global sediment and water discharge to the oceans. The estuary of Ganga (Hooghly) River in India is under increasing influence of anthropogenic contributions via discharge of the industrial and urban effluents. Here we document, based on the investigation of water and suspended sediment samples collected during six periods over two years, that there is extensive production of heavy metals (Co, Ni and Cu) in the estuary such that the annual dissolved fluxes of metals from the Hooghly River are enhanced by up to 230-1770%. Furthermore, the estuarine dissolved metal fluxes, when normalized with water fluxes, are the highest among estuaries of the major rivers in the world. Our simultaneous data on the dissolved, suspended particulate and exchangeable phases allow us to identify the ion-exchange process (coupled adsorption and desorption) as the dominant contributor to the generation of heavy metals in the middle and lower estuary where the estimated anthropogenic contribution is negligible. The estimated contributions from the groundwater are also insufficient to explain the measured metal concentrations in the estuary. A strong positive correlation that is observed between the dissolved heavy metal fluxes and the suspended particulate matter (SPM) fluxes, after normalizing them with the water fluxes, for estuaries of the major global rivers imply that the solute-particle interaction is a globally significant process in the estuarine production of metals. Based on this correlation that is observed for major estuaries around the world, we demonstrate that the South Asian Rivers which supply only ∼9% of the global river water discharge but carry elevated SPM load, contribute a far more significant proportion (∼40 ± 2% Ni and 15 ± 1% Cu) to the global supply of the dissolved metals from the rivers.

  8. Wave-particle interactions in rotating mirrorsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-05-01

    Wave-particle interactions in E ×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  9. Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-01-11

    Wave-particle interactions in E×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  10. Wave-particle interactions in rotating mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Wave-particle interactions in ExB rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  11. Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Wave-particle interactions in E-B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  12. Theoretical Framework for Anomalous Heat Without High-Energy Particles from Deuteron Fusion in Deuterium-Transition Metal Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott R. Chubb; Talbot A. Chubb

    2000-01-01

    In cold fusion, two conflicting intuitive pictures have caused confusion. A local picture, involving particle-particle interaction, has been dominant for most physicists. However, we suggest that a second, nonlocal, 'counter-intuitive' picture is more appropriate because it places greater emphasis on the behavior of matter distributions and their interaction with the associated environment. This picture is relevant in solids because when charged particles possess large DeBroglie wavelengths, they frequently interact coherently, in a wavelike fashion, in which momentum is conserved globally but not locally. These wavelike effects can become important in periodically ordered solids since they may lead to large momentum transfer from an isolated location to many locations at once. The local picture fails to incorporate these kinds of effects. How hydrogen (H) nuclei can become delocalized is illustrated by anomalies in the diffusivity and vibrational behavior of H in transition metals. Also, it is well-known that in many-body systems, discontinuities in the local momentum (wave function cusps) can explain how near-perfect overlap between charged particles can occur at close separation (which may explain how the Coulomb barrier can be circumvented). We explore implications of these effects on cold fusion

  13. Particles, contacts, bulk behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan; Tomas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Granular matter consists of discrete “particles”. These can be separate sand-grains, agglomerates (made of many primary particles), or solid materials like rock, composites, or metal-alloys—all with particulate inhomogeneous, possibly anisotropic micro-structure. Particles can be as small as

  14. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedan, Jeffrey S; Thompson, Janet A; Meighan, Terence G; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Antonini, James M

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167-166.7μg/cm 2 ) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18h transepithelial potential difference (V t ), resistance (R t ), and short circuit current (I sc ) were measured. Particle effects on Na + and Cl¯ channels and the Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167-16.7μg/cm 2 ) increased basal V t . Only 16.7μg/cm 2 GMA-MS increased basal V t significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated I sc responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on R t were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in V t , R t , and I sc at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na + transport and Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na + absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Unusual plasticity and strength of metals at ultra-short load durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanel, G. I.; Zaretsky, E. B.; Razorenov, S. V.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Fortov, V. E.

    2017-08-01

    This paper briefly reviews recent experimental results on the temperature-rate dependences of flow and fracture stresses in metals under high strain rate conditions for pulsed shock-wave loads with durations from tens of picoseconds up to microseconds. In the experiments, ultimate (‘ideal’) values of the shear and tensile strengths have been approached and anomalous growth of the yield stress with temperature at high strain rates has been confirmed for some metals. New evidence is obtained for the intense dislocation multiplication immediately originating in the elastic precursor of a compression shock wave. It is found that under these conditions inclusions and other strengthening factors may have a softening effect. Novel and unexpected features are observed in the evolution of elastoplastic compression shock waves.

  16. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  17. Particle porosity at plasma are spraying of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrunichev, V.A.; Koroleva, E.B.; Pushilin, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative dependences of porosity and character of pore distribution in particles of different materials on particle size and composition of atmosphere in a working chamber are studied experimentally as applied to the process of plasma wire sputtering. Wires 1.2 mm in diameter made of tungsten, molybdenum, Kh20N80 alloy, and zirconium served as sputtering materials. It is shown that pore size and character of their distribution in particles of powders obtained by the method of plasma wire sputtering are dependent on sizes of forming particles and determined by conditions of their cooling. Intensive porosity formation is characteristic of wire sputtering in argon plasma with nitrogen additions, but there are critical values of nitrogen concentration in plasma, above which intensive porosity formation in forming particles stops

  18. Removal of heavy metals in wastewater by using zeolite nano-particles impregnated polysulfone membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurekli, Yilmaz, E-mail: yilmazyurekli@gmail.com

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • NaX addition significantly enhanced water hydraulic permeability of the membrane. • Metal exchange capacity of the membrane increased with the NaX content. • Hybrid membrane was efficient for the solutions with low metal concentrations - Abstract: In this study, the adsorption and the filtration processes were coupled by a zeolite nanoparticle impregnated polysulfone (PSf) membrane which was used to remove the lead and the nickel cations from synthetically prepared solutions. The results obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated that the synthesized zeolite nanoparticles, using conventional hydrothermal method, produced a pure NaX with ultrafine and uniform particles. The performance of the hybrid membrane was determined under dynamic conditions. The results also revealed that the sorption capacity as well as the water hydraulic permeability of the membranes could both be improved by simply tuning the membrane fabricating conditions such as evaporation period of the casting film and NaX loading. The maximum sorption capacity of the hybrid membrane for the lead and nickel ions was measured as 682 and 122 mg/g respectively at the end of 60 min of filtration, under 1 bar of transmembrane pressure. The coupling process suggested that the membrane architecture could be efficiently used for treating metal solutions with low concentrations and transmembrane pressures.

  19. Structural characterizaiton and gas reactions of small metal particles by high-resolution, in-situ TEM and TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The existing in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) facility was improved by adding a separately pumped mini-specimen chamber. The chamber contains wire-evaporation sources for three metals and a specimen heater for moderate substrate temperatures. A sample introduction device was constructed, installed, and tested, facilitating rapid introduction of a specimen into the mini-chamber while maintaining the background pressure in that chamber in the 10(-9) millibar range. Small particles and clusters of Pd, grown by deposition from the vapor phase in an in-situ TEM facility on amorphous and crystalline support films of alumina and on ultra-thin carbon films, were analyzed by conventional high-resolution TEM and image analysis in terms of detectability, number density, and size distribution. The smallest particles that could be detected and counted contained no more than 6 atoms; size determinations could be made for particles 1 nm in diameter. The influence of various oxygen plasma treatments, annealing treatments, and of increasing the substrate temperature during deposition was investigated. The TEM technique was employed to demonstrate that under otherwise identica l conditions the lattice parameter of Pd particles in the 1 to 2 nm size range and supported in random orientation on ex-situ prepared mica films is expanded by some 3% when compared to 5 nm size particles. It is believed that this expansion is neither a small-particle diffraction effect nor due to pseudomorphism, but that it is due to a annealing-induced transformation of the small as-deposited particles with predominantly composite crystal structures into larger particles with true f.c.c. structure and thus inherently smaller lattice parameter.

  20. CoCr wear particles generated from CoCr alloy metal-on-metal hip replacements, and cobalt ions stimulate apoptosis and expression of general toxicology-related genes in monocyte-like U937 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posada, Olga M., E-mail: O.M.PosadaEstefan@leeds.ac.uk [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Gilmour, Denise [Pure and Applied Chemistry Department, University of Strathclyde, Thomas Graham Building, Glasgow G1 1XL (United Kingdom); Tate, Rothwelle J., E-mail: r.j.tate@strath.ac.uk [Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Grant, M. Helen [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) particles in the nanometre size range and their concomitant release of Co and Cr ions into the patients' circulation are produced by wear at the articulating surfaces of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. This process is associated with inflammation, bone loss and implant loosening and led to the withdrawal from the market of the DePuy ASR™ MoM hip replacements in 2010. Ions released from CoCr particles derived from a resurfacing implant in vitro and their subsequent cellular up-take were measured by ICP-MS. Moreover, the ability of such metal debris and Co ions to induce both apoptosis was evaluated with both FACS and immunoblotting. qRT-PCR was used to assess the effects on the expression of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG1), nitric oxide synthase 2 inducible (NOS2), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha (GADD45A). ICP-MS showed that the wear debris released significant (p < 0.05) amounts of Co and Cr ions into the culture medium, and significant (p < 0.05) cellular uptake of both ions. There was also an increase (p < 0.05) in apoptosis after a 48 h exposure to wear debris. Analysis of qRT-PCR results found significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) particularly of NOS2 and BAG1 in Co pre-treated cells which were subsequently exposed to Co ions + debris. Metal debris was more effective as an inducer of apoptosis and gene expression when cells had been pre-treated with Co ions. This suggests that if a patient receives sequential bilateral CoCr implants, the second implant may be more likely to produce adverse effects than the first one. - Highlights: • Effects of CoCr nanoparticles and Co ions on U937 cells were investigated. • Ions released from wear debris play an important role in cellular response, • Toxicity of Co ions could be related to NO metabolic processes and apoptosis. • CoCr particles were a more effective inducer of apoptosis after cell

  1. Trace metal analysis in sea grasses from Mexican Caribbean Coast by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Issac O, K.; Martinez, A.; Lavoisier, E.; Martinez, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The growing urban and tourist activity in the Mexican Caribbean coasts has resulted in an increase of chemical substances, metals in particular, discharged to the coastal waters. In order to reach an adequate management and conservation of these marine ecosystems it is necessary to perform an inventory of the actual conditions that reflect the vulnerability and the level of damage. Sea-grasses are considered good biological indicators of heavy metal contamination in marine systems. The goal of this preliminary work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb in Thalassia testudinum, a very common sea-grass in the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Samples were collected from several locations in the coasts of the Yucatan Peninsula: Holbox, Blanquizal and Punta Allen, areas virtually uninfluenced by anthropogenic activities. Trace elements in different part plants were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This is a very suitable technique since it offers a fast, accurate and multi-element analysis. Also, the analysis by PIXE can be performed directly on powdered leaves without a laborious sample preparation. The trace metal concentration determined in sea-grasses growing in Caribbean generally fall in the range of the lowest valuables reported for sea grasses from the Gulf of Mexico. The results indicate that the studied areas do not present contamination by heavy metals. (Author)

  2. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermont, G.; Bergeron, M.; Richer-Lafleche, M.; Mercier, G.

    2010-01-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions > 250 μm. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor > 2.5), and volume reduction (> 80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles ( 5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 μm) showed the best flotation selectivity.

  3. Microstructures and properties of ceramic particle-reinforced metal matrix composite layers produced by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingmao; He, Jingjiang; Liu, Wenjin; Zhong, Minlin

    2005-01-01

    Different weight ratio of titanium, zirconium, WC and Fe-based alloy powders were mixed, and cladded onto a medium carbon steel substrate using a 3kW continuous wave CO2 laser, aiming at producing Ceramic particles- reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) layers. The microstructures of the layers are typical hypoeutectic, and the major phases are Ni3Si2, TiSi2, Fe3C, FeNi, MC, Fe7Mo3, Fe3B, γ(residual austenite) and M(martensite). The microstructure morphologies of MMCs layers are dendrites/cells. The MC-type reinforcements are in situ synthesis Carbides which main compositions consist of transition elements Zr, Ti, W. The MC-type particles distributed within dendrite and interdendritic regions with different volume fractions for single and overlapping clad layers. The MMCs layers are dense and free of cracks with a good metallurgical bonding between the layer and substrate. The addition ratio of WC in the mixtures has the remarkable effect on the microhardness of clad layers.

  4. Computer predictions on Rh-based double perovskites with unusual electronic and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Anita; Nafday, Dhani; Sanyal, Prabuddha; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri

    2018-03-01

    In search for new magnetic materials, we make computer prediction of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of yet-to-be synthesized Rh-based double perovskite compounds, Sr(Ca)2BRhO6 (B=Cr, Mn, Fe). We use combination of evolutionary algorithm, density functional theory, and statistical-mechanical tool for this purpose. We find that the unusual valence of Rh5+ may be stabilized in these compounds through formation of oxygen ligand hole. Interestingly, while the Cr-Rh and Mn-Rh compounds are predicted to be ferromagnetic half-metals, the Fe-Rh compounds are found to be rare examples of antiferromagnetic and metallic transition-metal oxide with three-dimensional electronic structure. The computed magnetic transition temperatures of the predicted compounds, obtained from finite temperature Monte Carlo study of the first principles-derived model Hamiltonian, are found to be reasonably high. The prediction of favorable growth condition of the compounds, reported in our study, obtained through extensive thermodynamic analysis should be useful for future synthesize of this interesting class of materials with intriguing properties.

  5. Synthesis of nano-composite surfaces via the co-deposition of metallic salts and nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, J.W.; Tesh, S.J.; Crane, R.A.; Hallam, K.R.; Scott, T.B.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Nanofaceted surfaces are prepared by a low current density (<0.1 A cm{sup 2}) electrodeposition method. • Surfaces are formed of nanoparticles anchored to a conductive (carbon) substrate. • Formed surfaces show a high nano-reactivity and surface area. • Demonstration of INP/FeCl{sub 3} nanocomposite for water filtration effectively removing BTEX contamination. -- Abstract: A novel, low energy method for coating different nano-particles via electro-deposition to a recyclable carbon glass supporting structure is demonstrated. In the resulting composite, the nano-material is bound to the substrate surface, thereby removing the potential for causing harmful interactions with the environment. Nano-particles were suspended in a salt solution and deposited at low current densities (<0.1 A cm{sup −2}) producing thin (<100 nm), uniform nano-faceted surfaces. A co-deposition mechanism of nano-particles and cations from the salt solution is proposed and explored. This has been successfully demonstrated for iron, sliver, titanium in the current work. Furthermore, the removal of the surface coatings can be achieved via a reversed current applied over the system, allowing for the recovery of surface bound metal contaminants. The demonstrated applicability of this coating method to different nano-particle types, is useful in many areas within the catalysis and water treatment industries. One such example, is demonstrated, for the treatment of BTEX contamination and show a greatly improved efficiency to current leading remediation agents.

  6. Highly reusability surface loaded metal particles magnetic catalyst microspheres (MCM-MPs) for treatment of dye-contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Kun; Yin, Xiaoshuang; Yang, Wenzhong; Zhu, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The metal-deposited magnetic catalyst microspheres (MCM-MPs) were successfully synthesized by one facile, high yield and controllable approach. Here, the bare magnetic microspheres were firstly synthesized according to the solvothermal method. Then silica shell were coated on the surface of the magnetic microspheres via sol–gel method, and subsequently with surface modifying with amino in the purpose to form SiO_2–NH_2 shell. Thus, metal particles were easily adsorbed into the SiO_2–NH_2 shell and in-situ reduced by NaBH_4 solution. All the obtained products (MCM-Cu, MCM-Ag, MCM-Pd) which were monodisperse and constitutionally stable were exhibited high magnetization and excellent catalytic activity towards dyes solution reduction. The catalytic rate ratio of MCM-Pd: MCM-Cu: MCM-Ag could be 10:3:1. Besides, some special coordination compound Cu_2(OH)_3Br had been generated in the in-situ reduced process of MCM-Cu, which produced superior cyclical stability (>20 times) than that of MCM-Ag and MCM-Pd. In all, those highly reusability and great catalytic efficiency of MCM-MPs show promising and great potential for treatment of dye-contaminated water. - Graphical abstract: Surface loaded metal particles magnetic catalyst microspheres MCM-MPs for rapid decolorizing dye-contaminated water: Synthesis, characterization and possible mechanisms. - Highlights: • A simple and high yield synthetic method for fabricate multi MCM-MPs is proposed with adequately optimize. • The highest reusability of MCM-Cu is attribute to the coordination compounds Cu_2(OH)_3Br. • MCM-MPs show excellent catalytic properties under different situations for various dyes • The catalytic mechanism of MCM-MPs is presented.

  7. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polvorinos del Rio, A.; Castaing, J.; Aucouturier, M.

    2006-01-01

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics

  8. Casimir Repulsion between Metallic Objects in Vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Michael; McCauley, Alexander P.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Reid, M. T. Homer; Johnson, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    We give an example of a geometry in which two metallic objects in vacuum experience a repulsive Casimir force. The geometry consists of an elongated metal particle centered above a metal plate with a hole. We prove that this geometry has a repulsive regime using a symmetry argument and confirm it with numerical calculations for both perfect and realistic metals. The system does not support stable levitation, as the particle is unstable to displacements away from the symmetry axis.

  9. Scaling of cluster growth for coagulating active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Peet; Löwen, Hartmut

    2014-02-01

    Cluster growth in a coagulating system of active particles (such as microswimmers in a solvent) is studied by theory and simulation. In contrast to passive systems, the net velocity of a cluster can have various scalings dependent on the propulsion mechanism and alignment of individual particles. Additionally, the persistence length of the cluster trajectory typically increases with size. As a consequence, a growing cluster collects neighboring particles in a very efficient way and thus amplifies its growth further. This results in unusual large growth exponents for the scaling of the cluster size with time and, for certain conditions, even leads to "explosive" cluster growth where the cluster becomes macroscopic in a finite amount of time.

  10. Cast bulk metallic glass alloys: prospects as wear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Shiflet, Gary J. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA)

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are single phase materials with unusual physical and mechanical properties. One intriguing area of possible use is as a wear material. Usually, pure metals and single phase dilute alloys do not perform well in tribological conditions. When the metal or alloy is lightweight, it is usually soft leading to galling in sliding situations. For the harder metals and alloys, their density is usually high, so there is an energy penalty when using these materials in wear situations. However, bulk metallic glasses at the same density are usually harder than corresponding metals and dilute single phase alloys, and so could offer better wear resistance. This work will discuss preliminary wear results for metallic glasses with densities in the range of 4.5 to 7.9 g/cc. The wear behavior of these materials will be compared to similar metals and alloys.

  11. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H 2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  12. Particle physics 2009: licence to smile

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Julie Peasley is the keeper of a very unusual zoo, a colourful set of hand-made plushies that represent the particles of the Standard Model and beyond. Her passion for physics and her art degree combine to give particles their personalities. She visited CERN on 25 May and met the CERNois in the library. Scientists consider that they have ‘seen’ a particle when their detectors send an electronic signal and a spot appears on their computer screen. The American artist Julie Peasley has gone much further than that and has started sewing toys so that we can not just ‘see’ what particles look like but even play with them! "When I started," says Julie, "my plushies weren’t smiling, they were just a face. Later on, I realised that I wanted them to all be happy and to appear like they are having fun. Except for the neutron, which insists on remaining ne...

  13. Epitaxial growth of unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures on 4H Au nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi; Chen, Ye; Zhu, Yihan; Wang, Jie; Li, Bing; Zong, Yun; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanomaterials normally adopt the same crystal structure as their bulk counterparts. Herein, for the first time, the unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures have been synthesized on 4H Au nanoribbons (NRBs) via solution-phase epitaxial growth under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the 4H Au NRBs undergo partial phase transformation from 4H to face-centered cubic (fcc) structures after the metal coating. As a result, a series of polytypic 4H/fcc bimetallic Au@M (M = Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu) core-shell NRBs has been obtained. We believe that the rational crystal structure-controlled synthesis of metal nanomaterials will bring new opportunities for exploring their phase-dependent physicochemical properties and promising applications.

  14. Epitaxial growth of unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures on 4H Au nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi

    2016-09-12

    Metal nanomaterials normally adopt the same crystal structure as their bulk counterparts. Herein, for the first time, the unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures have been synthesized on 4H Au nanoribbons (NRBs) via solution-phase epitaxial growth under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the 4H Au NRBs undergo partial phase transformation from 4H to face-centered cubic (fcc) structures after the metal coating. As a result, a series of polytypic 4H/fcc bimetallic Au@M (M = Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu) core-shell NRBs has been obtained. We believe that the rational crystal structure-controlled synthesis of metal nanomaterials will bring new opportunities for exploring their phase-dependent physicochemical properties and promising applications.

  15. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, functional groups at the surface of retained particle complex iron available in the cell. In response to a reduction in concentrations of requisite iron, a functional deficiency can result intracellularly. Superoxide production by the cell exposed to a particle increases ferrireduction which facilitates import of iron with the objective being the reversal of the metal deficiency. Failure to resolve the functional iron deficiency following cell exposure to particles activates kinases and transcription factors resulting in a release of inflammatory mediators and inflammation. Tissue injury is the end product of this disruption in iron homeostasis initiated by the particle exposure. Elevation of available iron to the cell precludes deficiency of the metal and either diminishes or eliminates biological effects.General Significance: Recognition of the pathway for biological effects after particle exposure to involve a functional deficiency of iron suggests novel therapies such as metal supplementation (e.g. inhaled and oral). In addition, the demonstration of a shared mechanism of biological effects allows understanding the common clinical, physiological, and pathological presentation fol

  16. Particle beam experiments for the analysis of reactive sputtering processes in metals and polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbella, Carles; Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Kreiter, Oliver; Arcos, Teresa de los; Benedikt, Jan; Keudell, Achim von [RD Plasmas with Complex Interactions, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    A beam experiment is presented to study heterogeneous reactions relevant to plasma-surface interactions in reactive sputtering applications. Atom and ion sources are focused onto the sample to expose it to quantified beams of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, noble gas ions, and metal vapor. The heterogeneous surface processes are monitored in situ by means of a quartz crystal microbalance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Two examples illustrate the capabilities of the particle beam setup: oxidation and nitriding of aluminum as a model of target poisoning during reactive magnetron sputtering, and plasma pre-treatment of polymers (PET, PP)

  17. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermont, G., E-mail: dermonge@gmail.com [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bergeron, M.; Richer-Lafleche, M.; Mercier, G. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2010-02-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions > 250 {mu}m. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor > 2.5), and volume reduction (> 80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles (< 20 {mu}m) caused a flotation selectivity drop, especially with a long flotation time (> 5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 {mu}m) showed the best flotation selectivity.

  18. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermont, G; Bergeron, M; Richer-Laflèche, M; Mercier, G

    2010-02-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions >250microm. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor>2.5), and volume reduction (>80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles (flotation selectivity drop, especially with a long flotation time (>5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 microm) showed the best flotation selectivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Unusual Fears in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Aggarwal, Richa; Baker, Courtney; Mathapati, Santosh; Molitoris, Sarah; Mayes, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Unusual fears have long been recognized as common in autism, but little research exists. In our sample of 1033 children with autism, unusual fears were reported by parents of 421 (41%) of the children, representing 92 different fears. Many additional children had common childhood fears (e.g., dogs, bugs, and the dark). More than half of children…

  20. Metal dusting of low alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabke, H.J. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)); Bracho-Troconis, C.B. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)); Mueller-Lorenz, E.M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany))

    1994-04-01

    The metal dusting of two low alloy steels was investigated at 475 C in flowing CO-H[sub 2]-H[sub 2]O mixtures at atmospheric pressure with a[sub C] > 1. The reaction sequence comprises: (1) oversaturation with C, formation of cementite and its decomposition to metal particles and carbon, and (2) additional carbon deposition on the metal particles from the atmosphere. The metal wastage rate r[sub 1] was determined by analysis of the corrosion product after exposures, this rate is constant with time and virtually independent of the environment. The carbon deposition from the atmosphere was determined by thermogravimetry, its rate r[sub 2] increases linearly with time, which can be explained by the catalytic action of the metal particles - periodic changes are superposed. The rate of carbon deposition r[sub 2] is proportional to the carbon activity in the atmosphere. The metal dusting could not be suppressed by increasing the oxygen activity or preoxidation, even if magnetite should be stable. Addition of H[sub 2]S, however, effectively suppresses the attack. (orig.)

  1. Unusual radiological findings of adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Sue Hyun

    1987-01-01

    Usual chest radiographic findings in pulmonary tuberculosis are well described in radiologic literatures for both primary and postprimary phases of disease. During the last decade, many authors have enumerated the unusual manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult population. These unusual findings usually have been involved in the frequent failure of both radiologist and clinician to recognize that tuberculosis could be the cause of a abnormal chest radiograph in patients who are finally and surprisingly proven to have tuberculosis. Authors have evaluated 249 patients who were admitted and newly proven to have adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis at Chung-Ang University Hospital from January, 1985 to December, 1986. Unusual findings were noted in 76 (30.5%) of the 249 patients with adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis. These unusual findings most frequently could be seen in 3rd decades and showed no sex difference in incidence. A broad spectrum of abnormal findings including usual and unusual abnormalities were procedure by adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis. The unusual radiographic findings were arbitrarily classified. Pleural effusion without parenchymal disease (10.0%), unusual location of infiltrate (5.6%) and atelectasis (3.2%) were relatively common. Hilar and / or mediastinal lymphnode enlargement (1.6%), cavity without parenchymal infiltrates (1.6%), septic lung-like infiltrates (1.6%), completely clear lungs (1.2%), miliary infiltrates (1.2%), fibrocalcific scar-like infiltrates (1.2%), masslike density (1.2%) and rheumatoid lung-like infiltrates (1.2%) were occasionally noted. Pneumothorax without parenchymal disease (0.4%) and bron chocutaneous fistula (0.4%) are. The recognition of these unusual findings could further improve the detection and diagnosis of adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis

  2. Myasthenia Gravis: Unusual Presentations and Diagnostic Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolico, Carmelo; Parisi, Daniela; Portaro, Simona; Biasini, Fiammetta; Sinicropi, Stefano; Ciranni, Annamaria; Toscano, Antonio; Messina, Sonia; Musumeci, Olimpia; Vita, Giuseppe; Girlanda, Paolo

    2016-08-30

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder presenting with fluctuating, fatigable muscle weakness. Initial symptoms classically involve ocular and proximal limb muscles. Rarely, MG may onset with unusual features, so it can be misdiagnosed with other neuromuscular diseases. To describe unusual and atypical presentations of MG in a large cohort of patients, considering and discussing diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls. We report on 21 out of 508 MG patients, coming to our department in the last 27 years and presenting with atypical or unusual features. The diagnosis was achieved performing a careful clinical examination, a proper neurophysiological assessment, the neostigmine test, the AChR and MuSK antibodies assay and chest CT-scan. Patients with atypical/unusual MG onset were the 4.4% of all MG patients population. We describe seven different clinical categories: asymmetric distal upper limbs weakness, foot drop, isolated triceps brachii weakness and foot drop, post exertional axial weakness with dropped head, acute facial dyplegia, limb-girdle MG and MG with sudden lower limbs weakness and recurrent falls. Atypical and unusual presentations may increase the risk to misdiagnose or delay MG diagnosis. Isolated limb-girdle presentation is the most frequent atypical form in our series.

  3. Unusual equilibration of a particle in a potential with a thermal wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Deepak; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Kundu, Anupam; Dhar, Abhishek

    2017-11-01

    We consider a particle in a one-dimensional box of length L, with a Maxwell bath at one end and a reflecting wall at the other end. Using a renewal approach, as well as directly solving the master equation, we show that the system exhibits a slow power law relaxation, with a logarithmic correction, towards the final equilibrium state. We extend the renewal approach to a class of confining potentials of the form U(x) \\propto x^α , x>0 , where we find that the relaxation is ∼ t-(α+2)/(α-2) for α >2 , with a logarithmic correction when (α+2)/(α-2) is an integer. For α <2 the relaxation is exponential. Interestingly for α=2 (harmonic potential) the localised bath cannot equilibrate the particle.

  4. Analysis of heavy metals in road-deposited sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herngren, Lars; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2006-07-07

    Road-deposited sediments were analysed for heavy metal concentrations at three different landuses (residential, industrial, commercial) in Queensland State, Australia. The sediments were collected using a domestic vacuum cleaner which was proven to be highly efficient in collecting sub-micron particles. Five particle sizes were analysed separately for eight heavy metal elements (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Al and Mn). At all sites, the maximum concentration of the heavy metals occurred in the 0.45-75 microm particle size range, which conventional street cleaning services do not remove efficiently. Multicriteria decision making methods (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA, were employed in the data analysis. PROMETHEE, a non-parametric ranking analysis procedure, was used to rank the metal contents of the sediments sampled at each site. The most polluted site and particle size range were the industrial site and the 0.45-75 microm range, respectively. Although the industrial site displayed the highest metal concentrations, the highest heavy metal loading coincided with the highest sediment load, which occurred at the commercial site. GAIA, a special form of principal component analysis, was applied to determine correlations between the heavy metals and particle size ranges and also to assess possible correlation with total organic carbon (TOC). The GAIA-planes revealed that irrespective of the site, most of the heavy metals are adsorbed to sediments below 150 microm. A weak correlation was found between Zn, Mn and TOC at the commercial site. This could lead to higher bioavailability of these metals through complexation reactions with the organic species in the sediments.

  5. Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry of coal combustion particles associated with high lung cancer rates in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Senlin; Tan, Zhengying; Liu, Pinwei; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Dingyu; Yu, Shang; Cheng, Ping; Win, Myat Sandar; Hu, Jiwen; Tian, Linwei; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2017-11-01

    Coal combustion particles (CCPs) are linked to the high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei and in Fuyuan, China, but studies on the chemical composition of the CCPs are still limited. Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was recently developed to measure the chemical composition and size of single particles in real-time. In this study, SPAMS was used to measure individual combustion particles emitted from Xuanwei and Fuyuan coal samples and the results were compared with those by ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The total of 38,372 particles mass-analyzed by SPAMS can be divided into 9 groups based on their chemical composition and their number percentages: carbonaceous, Na-rich, K-rich, Al-rich, Fe-rich, Si-rich, Ca-rich, heavy metal-bearing, and PAH-bearing particles. The carbonaceous and PAH-bearing particles are enriched in the size range below 0.56 μm, Fe-bearing particles range from 0.56 to 1.0 μm in size, and heavy metals such as Ti, V, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb have diameters below 1 μm. The TEM results show that the particles from Xuanwei and Fuyuan coal combustion can be classified into soot aggregates, Fe-rich particles, heavy metal containing particles, and mineral particles. Non-volatile particles detected by SPAMS could also be observed with TEM. The number percentages by SPAMS also correlate with the mass concentrations measured by ICP-MS. Our results could provide valuable insight for understanding high lung cancer incidence in the area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of lung tissue particles among silicosis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Case

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Lung tissue samples of several miners, millers, sandblaster, welders andconstruction workers with historical exposure to mineral particles were analyzed. These subjectshad significant respiratory exposure to silica particles and demanded compensation foroccupational lung diseases.Method: Lung tissue samples were observed under an Electron microscope with 10000Xmagnification. Mineral particles were sized and analyzed by EDS detector based on X-rayspectrophotometry.Results: The results have indicated that the lung particle burden of the subjects was closelyrelated to their occupational history. The highest level of mineral silica particles were found in thelungs of miners and sandblasters. The highest concentration of metallic particles was found in thelungs of welders and miners in ferric mining industry. Severity of lung fibrosis was directlyrelated to the lung free silica concentration. However, no association was found between particlediameter and severity of fibrosis. In addition, lung particle burden of silicotic cases with lungcancer contained a much higher concentration of metallic particles and asbestos fibres that thelung of those subject with silicosis only.Conclusion: Although workers in mining and construction may be predominantly exposed tosilica particles including quartz, the role of other mineral particles including asbestos fibres,metallic fibres and other minerals should be taken into account in the genesis of occupational lungdisease in particular lung cancer. Lung tissue sample analysis can provide valuable informationto assess the legal and compensation cases.

  7. Combustion and smoke formation following exposure of actinide metals to explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Church, H.W.; Elrick, R.M.; Parker, D.R.; Nelson, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Results from the plutonium aerosol generation experiment (PAGE) program studies indicate that: (1) Significant quantities of metal-bearing aerosols are likely to be formed in an accidental high explosive detonation of a nuclear weapon. Although the explosive charge-to-metal ratio has been reduced in modern weapons, considerable inhalation hazard is still expected due to increased shrapnel formation and streamer combustion. (2) Close-in shrapnel particle sizes and velocities can be estimated by impact sampling techniques. (3) Uranium droplets are a very accurate simulant of plutonium droplets from the standpoint of combustion-related phenomena but do not seem to simulate either the total quantity of aerosol formed from plutonium droplets or its time-dependent generation pattern very well. This is due primarily to the large effect of the explosion of the burning uranium droplets on total aerosol formation which is not observed in the case of plutonium, even though more aerosol is produced per unit time during the actual combustion itself. (4) The formation of chain-like plutonium aerosols from the droplets produced during streamer combustion is expected to produce an unusually active material from the standpoint of inhalation into the lung and ultimate translocation in the body. 16 figures

  8. Identification of metals into fine particles (PM2.5) during the dry cold season in the Toluca City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez P, A. A.; Aldape U, F.

    2008-01-01

    To know the elemental content of fine particles PM 2.5 that can affect people in the Toluca City, such as metals and another, it was made a campaign collection of fine particles during dry-cold ( November 2006-March 2007). The aerosol samples were collected on Teflon filters with an equipment BGI model PQ200 mark authorized by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), every other day with a time resolution of 24 h. The determination of the elemental composition of the samples was performed by means of the technique Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). The results of the analysis showed consistently 13 elements S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, as, throughout the collection period. We calculated the enrich factor that separates the elements of the natural component of the anthropogenic component. The correlation matrix shows the pairs of elements that are contained in the same air mass as Vanadium and Nickel. From the results it is concluded that the sources that gave rise to these particles are the burning of fossil fuels in motor vehicles, lubricants, additives and burning tires wear of automotive vehicles, besides the products used in agricultural activities. (Author)

  9. Compact particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2017-08-29

    A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.

  10. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  11. Internal and Surface Phenomena in Heterogenous Metal Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, Edward L.

    1997-01-01

    The phenomenon of gas dissolution in burning metals was observed in recent metal combustion studies, but it could not be adequately explained by the traditional metal combustion models. The research reported here addresses heterogeneous metal combustion with emphasis on the processes of oxygen penetration inside burning metal and its influence on the metal combustion rate, temperature history, and disruptive burning. The unique feature of this work is the combination of the microgravity environment with a novel micro-arc generator of monodispersed metal droplets, ensuring repeatable formation and ignition of uniform metal droplets with a controllable initial temperature and velocity. Burning droplet temperature is measured in real time with a three wavelength pyrometer. In addition, particles are rapidly quenched at different combustion times, cross-sectioned, and examined using SEM-based techniques to retrieve the internal composition history of burning metal particles. When the initial velocity of a spherical particle is nearly zero, the microgravity environment makes it possible to study the flame structure, the development of flame nonsymmetry, and correlation of the flame shape with the heterogeneous combustion processes.

  12. Highly reusability surface loaded metal particles magnetic catalyst microspheres (MCM-MPs) for treatment of dye-contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Kun, E-mail: kun4219@njtech.edu.cn; Yin, Xiaoshuang; Yang, Wenzhong; Zhu, Hongjun

    2016-04-01

    The metal-deposited magnetic catalyst microspheres (MCM-MPs) were successfully synthesized by one facile, high yield and controllable approach. Here, the bare magnetic microspheres were firstly synthesized according to the solvothermal method. Then silica shell were coated on the surface of the magnetic microspheres via sol–gel method, and subsequently with surface modifying with amino in the purpose to form SiO{sub 2}–NH{sub 2} shell. Thus, metal particles were easily adsorbed into the SiO{sub 2}–NH{sub 2} shell and in-situ reduced by NaBH{sub 4} solution. All the obtained products (MCM-Cu, MCM-Ag, MCM-Pd) which were monodisperse and constitutionally stable were exhibited high magnetization and excellent catalytic activity towards dyes solution reduction. The catalytic rate ratio of MCM-Pd: MCM-Cu: MCM-Ag could be 10:3:1. Besides, some special coordination compound Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Br had been generated in the in-situ reduced process of MCM-Cu, which produced superior cyclical stability (>20 times) than that of MCM-Ag and MCM-Pd. In all, those highly reusability and great catalytic efficiency of MCM-MPs show promising and great potential for treatment of dye-contaminated water. - Graphical abstract: Surface loaded metal particles magnetic catalyst microspheres MCM-MPs for rapid decolorizing dye-contaminated water: Synthesis, characterization and possible mechanisms. - Highlights: • A simple and high yield synthetic method for fabricate multi MCM-MPs is proposed with adequately optimize. • The highest reusability of MCM-Cu is attribute to the coordination compounds Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Br. • MCM-MPs show excellent catalytic properties under different situations for various dyes • The catalytic mechanism of MCM-MPs is presented.

  13. Seasonal and spatial variation of trace elements and metals in quasi-ultrafine (PM0.25) particles in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and characterization of their sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffari, Arian; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    Year-long sampling campaign of quasi-ultrafine particles (PM 0.25 ) was conducted at 10 distinct locations across the Los Angeles south coast air basin and concentrations of trace elements and metals were quantified at each site using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry. In order to characterize sources of trace elements and metals, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the dataset. The major sources were identified as road dust (influenced by vehicular emissions as well as re-suspended soil), vehicular abrasion, residual oil combustion, cadmium sources and metal plating. These sources altogether accounted for approximately 85% of the total variance of quasi-ultrafine elemental content. The concentrations of elements originating from source and urban locations generally displayed a decline as we proceeded from the coast to the inland. Occasional concentration peaks in the rural receptor sites were also observed, driven by the dominant westerly/southwesterly wind transporting the particles to the receptor areas. -- Highlights: •We collected quasi-ultrafine samples at 10 locations across the Los Angeles Basin. •The concentration of trace elements and metals at each site were quantified. •Distinct temporal and spatial variability was observed across the basin. •Principal component analysis was applied to the data to characterize the sources. •Five major sources were identified for quasi-ultrafine elemental content. -- Characterization of sources of trace elements and metals in quasi-ultrafine particles in the Los Angeles south coast air basin and explaining their seasonal and spatial variability

  14. Cryochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Gleb B.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of metal atoms, clusters and nanoparticles with different organic and inorganic substances were studied at low temperature (10-40K). Combination of matrix isolation technique and preparative cryochemistry was applied for the investigation of activity and selectivity of metal particles of different size. Encapsulation of metal nanoparticles in polymers was studied. The metal-polymer films thus obtained exhibited satisfactory sensitivity to ammonia

  15. Cryochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, Gleb B. [Moscow State University, Laboratory of Low Temperature Chemistry, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gbs@kinet.chem.msu.ru

    2003-12-15

    The interaction of metal atoms, clusters and nanoparticles with different organic and inorganic substances were studied at low temperature (10-40K). Combination of matrix isolation technique and preparative cryochemistry was applied for the investigation of activity and selectivity of metal particles of different size. Encapsulation of metal nanoparticles in polymers was studied. The metal-polymer films thus obtained exhibited satisfactory sensitivity to ammonia.

  16. Cryochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Gleb B.

    2003-12-01

    The interaction of metal atoms, clusters and nanoparticles with different organic and inorganic substances were studied at low temperature (10-40K). Combination of matrix isolation technique and preparative cryochemistry was applied for the investigation of activity and selectivity of metal particles of different size. Encapsulation of metal nanoparticles in polymers was studied. The metal-polymer films thus obtained exhibited satisfactory sensitivity to ammonia.

  17. 48 CFR 632.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing. 632.114 Section 632.114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 632.114 Unusual contract financing. The...

  18. 48 CFR 2432.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Unusual contract financing... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 2432.114 Unusual contract financing. The Senior Procurement Executive is the agency head for the purpose of...

  19. The acting wear mechanisms on metal-on-metal hip joint bearings: in-vitro results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmer, M.A.; Loos, J.; Nassutt, R.; Heitkemper, M.; Fischer, A.

    2001-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joint bearings are currently under discussion as alternatives to metal-on-polymer (MOP) bearings. Some criteria under scrutiny are the wear resistance, the influence of wear particles on the surrounding tissue, as well as the frictional torque. In order to understand and

  20. Novel Glucose-1-Phosphatase with High Phytase Activity and Unusual Metal Ion Activation from Soil Bacterium Pantoea sp. Strain 3.5.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimanova, Aliya D; Beinhauer, Astrid; Valeeva, Liia R; Chastukhina, Inna B; Balaban, Nelly P; Shakirov, Eugene V; Greiner, Ralf; Sharipova, Margarita R

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an important macronutrient, but its availability in soil is limited. Many soil microorganisms improve the bioavailability of phosphate by releasing it from various organic compounds, including phytate. To investigate the diversity of phytate-hydrolyzing bacteria in soil, we sampled soils of various ecological habitats, including forest, private homesteads, large agricultural complexes, and urban landscapes. Bacterial isolate Pantoea sp. strain 3.5.1 with the highest level of phytase activity was isolated from forest soil and investigated further. The Pantoea sp. 3.5.1 agpP gene encoding a novel glucose-1-phosphatase with high phytase activity was identified, and the corresponding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity, sequenced by mass spectroscopy, and biochemically characterized. The AgpP enzyme exhibits maximum activity and stability at pH 4.5 and at 37°C. The enzyme belongs to a group of histidine acid phosphatases and has the lowest Km values toward phytate, glucose-6-phosphate, and glucose-1-phosphate. Unexpectedly, stimulation of enzymatic activity by several divalent metal ions was observed for the AgpP enzyme. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-performance ion chromatography (HPIC) analyses of phytate hydrolysis products identify dl-myo-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate as the final product of the reaction, indicating that the Pantoea sp. AgpP glucose-1-phosphatase can be classified as a 3-phytase. The identification of the Pantoea sp. AgpP phytase and its unusual regulation by metal ions highlight the remarkable diversity of phosphorus metabolism regulation in soil bacteria. Furthermore, our data indicate that natural forest soils harbor rich reservoirs of novel phytate-hydrolyzing enzymes with unique biochemical features. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Characterization of compositional modifications in metal-organic frameworks using carbon and alpha particle microbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneta, V.; Fluch, U.; Petersson, P.; Ott, S.; Primetzhofer, D.

    2017-08-01

    Zirconium-oxide based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were grown on p-type Si wafers. A modified linker molecule containing iodine was introduced by post synthetic exchange (PSE). Samples have been studied using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques, employing the 5 MV 15SDH-2 Pelletron Tandem accelerator at the Ångström laboratory. The degree of post synthetic uptake of the iodine-containing linker has been investigated with both a broad beam and a focused beam of carbon and alpha particles targeting different kind of MOF crystals which were of ∼1-10 μm in size, depending on the linker used. Iodine concentrations in MOF crystallites were also measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) and are compared to the RBS results. In parallel to the ion beam studies, samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to quantify possible crystallite clustering, develop optimum sample preparation routines and to characterize the potential ion beam induced sample damage and its dependence on different parameters. Based on these results the reliability and accuracy of ion beam data is assessed.

  2. Applying electric field to charged and polar particles between metallic plates: extension of the Ewald method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira

    2013-09-28

    We develop an efficient Ewald method of molecular dynamics simulation for calculating the electrostatic interactions among charged and polar particles between parallel metallic plates, where we may apply an electric field with an arbitrary size. We use the fact that the potential from the surface charges is equivalent to the sum of those from image charges and dipoles located outside the cell. We present simulation results on boundary effects of charged and polar fluids, formation of ionic crystals, and formation of dipole chains, where the applied field and the image interaction are crucial. For polar fluids, we find a large deviation of the classical Lorentz-field relation between the local field and the applied field due to pair correlations along the applied field. As general aspects, we clarify the difference between the potential-fixed and the charge-fixed boundary conditions and examine the relationship between the discrete particle description and the continuum electrostatics.

  3. Unusual event report from Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The title of the report was intended to reflect the cause of the shutdown and the report to be regarded as a summary of the deficiencies that had been revealed and remedied. No single deficiency was regarded as reportable as an unusual event, but taken together the identified deficiencies deviated from the assumed safety level to the extent that it should be reported. The unusual event report refers to two main documents presenting measures taken to return to reported safety level, one concerning technical and one organizational measures

  4. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidation of Group 8 transition-Metal Hydrides and Ionic Hydrogenation of Ketones and Aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kjell-Tore

    1996-08-01

    Transition-metal hydrides have received considerable attention during the last decades because of their unusual reactivity and their potential as homogeneous catalysts for hydrogenation and other reactions of organic substrates. An important class of catalytic processes where transition-metal hydrides are involved is the homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes, alkynes, ketones, aldehydes, arenes and nitro compounds. This thesis studies the oxidation of Group 8 transition-metal hydrides and the ionic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes.

  6. 48 CFR 2832.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Unusual contract financing... Contracting Requirements CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 2832.114 Unusual contract financing. The HCA, or designee at a level not lower than the BPC, is the official authorized to approve...

  7. Thermally stable sintered porous metal articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombach, A.L.; Thellmann, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A sintered porous metal article is provided which is essentially thermally stable at elevated temperatures. In addition, a method for producing such an article is also provided which method comprises preparing a blend of base metal particles and active dispersoid particles, forming the mixture into an article of the desired shape, and heating the so-formed article at sintering temperatures

  8. A singular position-dependent mass particle in an infinite potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Omar; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

    2009-01-01

    An unusual singular position-dependent-mass particle in an infinite potential well is considered. The corresponding Hamiltonian is mapped through a point-canonical-transformation and an explicit correspondence between the target Hamiltonian and a Poeschl-Teller type reference Hamiltonian is obtained. New ordering ambiguity parametric setting are suggested

  9. Origin of unusual bandgap shift and dual emission in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, M Ibrahim; Jacopin, Gwénolé; Meloni, Simone; Mattoni, Alessandro; Arora, Neha; Boziki, Ariadni; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Emission characteristics of metal halide perovskites play a key role in the current widespread investigations into their potential uses in optoelectronics and photonics. However, a fundamental understanding of the molecular origin of the unusual blueshift of the bandgap and dual emission in perovskites is still lacking. In this direction, we investigated the extraordinary photoluminescence behavior of three representatives of this important class of photonic materials, that is, CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 , CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 , and CH(NH 2 ) 2 PbBr 3 , which emerged from our thorough studies of the effects of temperature on their bandgap and emission decay dynamics using time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature (photoluminescence of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 reveals two distinct emission peaks, whereas that of CH(NH 2 ) 2 PbBr 3 shows a single emission peak. Furthermore, irrespective of perovskite composition, the bandgap exhibits an unusual blueshift by raising the temperature from 15 to 300 K. Density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics simulations allow for assigning the additional photoluminescence peak to the presence of molecularly disordered orthorhombic domains and also rationalize that the unusual blueshift of the bandgap with increasing temperature is due to the stabilization of the valence band maximum. Our findings provide new insights into the salient emission properties of perovskite materials, which define their performance in solar cells and light-emitting devices.

  10. Cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramic particles of different sizes and shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiko; Honma, Rieko; Sumita, Masae; Hanawa, Takao

    2004-02-01

    When artificial hip or knee joints are implanted in the human body, they release metallic, ceramic, and polymeric debris into the surrounding tissues. The toxicity of the released particles is of two types: chemical, caused by the released soluble ions and monomers, and mechanical, a result of mechanical stimulation produced by the insoluble particles. In this study, the cytotoxicity of particles of TiO2, Al2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4, and SiC for murine fibroblasts and macrophages were examined to evaluate just their mechanical toxicity because these particles are not expected to release soluble metal ions. Different sizes and shapes of TiO2 particles were used to evaluate the effect of size and shape on particle cytotoxicity. The results suggest that the cytotoxicity of ceramic particles does not depend on their chemical species. Cytotoxicity levels were lower than those of corresponding metal ions, indicating that the mechanical toxicity of particles is lower than the chemical toxicity of released soluble ions and monomers. The differences in size did not affect the mechanical toxicity of these particles. The dendritic particles had a higher cytotoxicity level for macrophages than did spindle and spheric particles. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 68A: 244-256, 2004

  11. Hydrogen evolution by a metal-free electrocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao

    2014-04-28

    Electrocatalytic reduction of water to molecular hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction may provide a sustainable energy supply for the future, but its commercial application is hampered by the use of precious platinum catalysts. All alternatives to platinum thus far are based on nonprecious metals, and, to our knowledge, there is no report about a catalyst for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution beyond metals. Here we couple graphitic-carbon nitride with nitrogen-doped graphene to produce a metal-free hybrid catalyst, which shows an unexpected hydrogen evolution reaction activity with comparable overpotential and Tafel slope to some of well-developed metallic catalysts. Experimental observations in combination with density functional theory calculations reveal that its unusual electrocatalytic properties originate from an intrinsic chemical and electronic coupling that synergistically promotes the proton adsorption and reduction kinetics. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Method for the preparation of metal colloids in inverse micelles and product preferred by the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcoxon, Jess P.

    1992-01-01

    A method is provided for preparing catalytic elemental metal colloidal particles (e.g. gold, palladium, silver, rhodium, iridium, nickel, iron, platinum, molybdenum) or colloidal alloy particles (silver/iridium or platinum/gold). A homogeneous inverse micelle solution of a metal salt is first formed in a metal-salt solvent comprised of a surfactant (e.g. a nonionic or cationic surfactant) and an organic solvent. The size and number of inverse micelles is controlled by the proportions of the surfactant and the solvent. Then, the metal salt is reduced (by chemical reduction or by a pulsed or continuous wave UV laser) to colloidal particles of elemental metal. After their formation, the colloidal metal particles can be stabilized by reaction with materials that permanently add surface stabilizing groups to the surface of the colloidal metal particles. The sizes of the colloidal elemental metal particles and their size distribution is determined by the size and number of the inverse micelles. A second salt can be added with further reduction to form the colloidal alloy particles. After the colloidal elemental metal particles are formed, the homogeneous solution distributes to two phases, one phase rich in colloidal elemental metal particles and the other phase rich in surfactant. The colloidal elemental metal particles from one phase can be dried to form a powder useful as a catalyst. Surfactant can be recovered and recycled from the phase rich in surfactant.

  13. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  14. Internal and surface phenomena in metal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Molodetsky, Irina E.; Law, Chung K.

    1995-01-01

    Combustion of metals has been widely studied in the past, primarily because of their high oxidation enthalpies. A general understanding of metal combustion has been developed based on the recognition of the existence of both vapor-phase and surface reactions and involvement of the reaction products in the ensuing heterogeneous combustion. However, distinct features often observed in metal particle combustion, such as brightness oscillations and jumps (spearpoints), disruptive burning, and non-symmetric flames are not currently understood. Recent metal combustion experiments using uniform high-temperature metal droplets produced by a novel micro-arc technique have indicated that oxygen dissolves in the interior of burning particles of certain metals and that the subsequent transformations of the metal-oxygen solutions into stoichiometric oxides are accompanied with sufficient heat release to cause observed brightness and temperature jumps. Similar oxygen dissolution has been observed in recent experiments on bulk iron combustion but has not been associated with such dramatic effects. This research addresses heterogeneous metal droplet combustion, specifically focusing on oxygen penetration into the burning metal droplets, and its influence on the metal combustion rate, temperature history, and disruptive burning. A unique feature of the experimental approach is the combination of the microgravity environment with a novel micro-arc Generator of Monodispersed Metal Droplets (GEMMED), ensuring repeatable formation and ignition of uniform metal droplets with controllable initial temperature and velocity. The droplet initial temperatures can be adjusted within a wide range from just above the metal melting point, which provides means to ignite droplets instantly upon entering an oxygen containing environment. Initial droplet velocity will be set equal to zero allowing one to organize metal combustion microgravity experiments in a fashion similar to usual microgravity

  15. Metals separation using solvent extractants on magnetic microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Pourfarzaneh, M.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation program was initially funded by DOE EM-50 to develop processes for the efficient separation of radionuclides and other hazardous metals. This process has simulated the partnership between industry and ANL for many applications related to hazardous metal problems in industry. In-tank or near-tank hazardous metals separation using magnetic particles promises simple, compact processing at very low costs and employs mature chemical separations technologies to remove and recover hazardous metals from aqueous solutions. The selective chemical extractants are attached to inexpensive magnetic carrier particles. Surfaces of small particles composed of rare earths or ferromagnetic materials are treated to retain chemical extractants (e.g., TBP, CMPO, quaternary amines, carboxylic acid). After selective partitioning of contaminants to the surface layer, magnets are used to collect the loaded particles from the tank. The particles can be regenerated by stripping the contaminants and the selective metals can be recovered and recycled from the strip solution. This process and its related equipment are simple enough to be used for recovery/recycling and waste minimization activities at many industrial sites. Both the development of the process for hazardous and radioactive waste and the transfer of the technology will be discussed

  16. Activation and discharge kinetics of metal hydride electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Stein Egil

    2003-07-01

    Potential step chronoamperometry and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (eis) measurements were performed on single metal hydride particles. For the {alpha}-phase, the bulk diffusion coefficient and the absorption/adsorption rate parameters were determined. Materials produced by atomisation, melt spinning and conventional casting were investigated. The melt spun and conventional cast materials were identical and the atomised material similar in composition. The particles from the cast and the melt spun material were shaped like parallelepipeds. A corresponding equation, for this geometry, for diffusion coupled to an absorption/adsorption reaction was developed. It was found that materials produced by melt spinning exhibited lower bulk diffusion (1.7E-14 m2/s) and absorption/adsorption reaction rate (1.0E-8 m/s), compared to materials produced by conventionally casting (1.1E-13 m2/s and 5.5E-8 m/s respectively). In addition, the influence of particle active surface and relative diffusion length were discussed. It was concluded that there are uncertainties connected to these properties, which may explain the large distribution in the kinetic parameters measured on metal hydride particles. Activation of metal hydride forming materials has been studied and an activation procedure, for porous electrodes, was investigated. Cathodic polarisation of the electrode during a hot alkaline surface treatment gave the maximum discharge capacity on the first discharge of the electrode. The studied materials were produced by gas atomisation and the spherical shape was retained during the activation. Both an AB{sub 5} and an AB{sub 2} alloy was successfully activated and discharge rate properties determined. The AB{sub 2} material showed a higher maximum discharge capacity, but poor rate properties, compared to the AB{sub 5} material. Reduction of surface oxides, and at the same time protection against corrosion of active metallic nickel, can explain the satisfying results of

  17. Inert anode containing base metal and noble metal useful for the electrolytic production of aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua

    2000-01-01

    An inert anode for production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a base metal selected from Cu and Ag, and at least one noble metal selected from Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os. The inert anode may optionally be formed of sintered particles having interior portions containing more base metal than noble metal and exterior portions containing more noble metal than base metal. In a preferred embodiment, the base metal comprises Cu, and the noble metal comprises Ag, Pd or a combination thereof.

  18. Dissolution rate and radiation dosimetry of metal tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1993-01-01

    Metal tritides including titanium tritide (Ti 3 H x ) and erbium tritide (Er 3 H x ) have been used as components of neutron generators. These compounds can be released to the air as aerosols during fabrication, assembling and testing of components or in accidental or fugitive releases. As a result, workers could be exposed to these compounds by inhalation. A joint research project between SNL and ITRI (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute) was initiated last fall to investigate the solubility of metal tritides, retention and translocation of inhaled particles and internal dosimetry of metal tritides. The current understanding of metal tritides and their radiation dosimetry for internal exposure are very limited. There is no provision in the ICRP-30 for tritium dosimetry in metal tritide form. However, a few papers in the literature suggested that the solubility of metal tritide could be low. The current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritide particles are based on the assumption that the biological behavior is similar to tritiated water which behaves like body fluid with a relative short biological half life (10 days). If the solubility of metal tritide is low, the biological half life of metal tritide particles and the dosimetry of inhalation exposure to these particles could be quite different from tritiated water. This would have major implications in current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritides Including annual limits of intakes and derived air concentrations. The preliminary results of metal tritide dissolution study at ITRI indicate that the solubility of titanium tritide is low. The outlines of the project, the preliminary results and future work will be discussed in presentation

  19. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  20. Metal deposition by electroless plating on polydopamine functionalized micro- and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondin, Giovanni; Wisser, Florian M; Leifert, Annika; Mohamed-Noriega, Nasser; Grothe, Julia; Dörfler, Susanne; Kaskel, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    A novel approach for the fabrication of metal coated micro- and nanoparticles by functionalization with a thin polydopamine layer followed by electroless plating is reported. The particles are initially coated with polydopamine via self-polymerization. The resulting polydopamine coated particles have a surface rich in catechols and amino groups, resulting in a high affinity toward metal ions. Thus, they provide an effective platform for selective electroless metal deposition without further activation and sensitization steps. The combination of a polydopamine-based functionalization with electroless plating ensures a simple, scalable, and cost-effective metal coating strategy. Silver-plated tungsten carbide microparticles, copper-plated tungsten carbide microparticles, and copper-plated alumina nanoparticles were successfully fabricated, showing also the high versatility of the method, since the polymerization of dopamine leads to the formation of an adherent polydopamine layer on the surface of particles of any material and size. The metal coated particles produced with this process are particularly well suited for the production of metal matrix composites, since the metal coating increases the wettability of the particles by the metal, promoting their integration within the matrix. Such composite materials are used in a variety of applications including electrical contacts, components for the automotive industries, magnets, and electromagnetic interference shielding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of fission products (noble metal particles) in spent fuel corrosion process in a failed container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L., E-mail: lwu59@uwo.ca [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Western Ontario, Surface Science Western, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The corrosion/dissolution of simulated spent fuel has been studied electrochemically. Fission products within the UO{sub 2} matrix are found to have significant effect on the anodic dissolution behaviour of the fuel. It is observed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}oxidation is accelerated on the surfaces of doped noble metal (ε) particles existing in the fuel matrix. It is concluded that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition rather than UO{sub 2} corrosion should be the dominant reaction under high H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations. (author)

  2. Genotoxicity of metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Mason, Michael M; Wise, John Pierce

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently used in industry, medicine, and military applications, as well as in more than 300 commercial products. Yet, the same properties that make these particles exciting for technology also make them daunting public health concerns because their toxicity is unknown and relatively unexplored. Increased attention is being placed on the study of metal particle genotoxicity; however, a lot of unknowns remain about their effects and the mechanisms. In this article, we highlight some metal and metal oxide nanoparticles of interest and discuss the current in vivo and in vitro studies of genotoxic effects. Many metal nanoparticles were found to cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA damage, and mutations. Inconsistencies are found in the literature, however, thus drawing conclusions is difficult due to a variety of factors. Therefore, the areas requiring further attention are highlighted and recommendations to improve our understanding of the genotoxic potential are addressed.

  3. On the observation of the need for an unusually high concentration of cysteine and homocysteine to induce aggregation of polymer-stabilized gold nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K., E-mail: sreeni@sctimst.ac.in [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Laboratory for Polymer Analysis, Biomedical Technology Wing (India)

    2013-02-15

    This study reports the interaction of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CH-AuNPs) with cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcys) in aqueous media at pH 1.4. Since the polymer precipitates at higher pH, and the amino acids Cys and HCys are soluble at acidic pH, we kept the pH around 1.4 for stabilizing the particles. Zeta potential of CH-AuNPs was found to be positive and it is reasonable to assume that +ve Cys or Hcys at pH 1.4 will experience repulsive force. However, TEM images and absorption spectra indicated formation of aggregates including rod-like assembly. An interesting observation was the need for unusually high concentration of analytes (Cys and Hcys) to induce the assembly of CH-AuNPs. We also found time bound variation of the optical properties probably indicating the interaction is kinetically controlled and only a fraction of the analyte molecules having sufficient energy can bind onto the particles. We observed that at elevated temperature, the reaction was faster with a lower concentration of Cys or Hcys. These observations were supported by the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory which describes the interparticle interaction and the colloidal stability in solution. Only molecules possessing enough energy to cross this force barrier can cause the aggregation. We also noted a time lag between Cys and Hcys to influence optical properties reflecting the possibility of using this simple approach to discriminate these two clinically relevant molecules. Our observation shows that simple sensing as well as generation of novel nanostructures could be manipulated by a judicious choice of conditions such as stabilizing agents, pH, etc.Graphical AbstractMore energetic ones cross the barrier to induce aggregation.

  4. On the observation of the need for an unusually high concentration of cysteine and homocysteine to induce aggregation of polymer-stabilized gold nano particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the interaction of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CH-AuNPs) with cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcys) in aqueous media at pH 1.4. Since the polymer precipitates at higher pH, and the amino acids Cys and HCys are soluble at acidic pH, we kept the pH around 1.4 for stabilizing the particles. Zeta potential of CH-AuNPs was found to be positive and it is reasonable to assume that +ve Cys or Hcys at pH 1.4 will experience repulsive force. However, TEM images and absorption spectra indicated formation of aggregates including rod-like assembly. An interesting observation was the need for unusually high concentration of analytes (Cys and Hcys) to induce the assembly of CH-AuNPs. We also found time bound variation of the optical properties probably indicating the interaction is kinetically controlled and only a fraction of the analyte molecules having sufficient energy can bind onto the particles. We observed that at elevated temperature, the reaction was faster with a lower concentration of Cys or Hcys. These observations were supported by the classical Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory which describes the interparticle interaction and the colloidal stability in solution. Only molecules possessing enough energy to cross this force barrier can cause the aggregation. We also noted a time lag between Cys and Hcys to influence optical properties reflecting the possibility of using this simple approach to discriminate these two clinically relevant molecules. Our observation shows that simple sensing as well as generation of novel nanostructures could be manipulated by a judicious choice of conditions such as stabilizing agents, pH, etc.Graphical AbstractMore energetic ones cross the barrier to induce aggregation.

  5. Number size distribution of fine and ultrafine fume particles from various welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Peter; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Studies in the field of environmental epidemiology indicate that for the adverse effect of inhaled particles not only particle mass is crucial but also particle size is. Ultrafine particles with diameters below 100 nm are of special interest since these particles have high surface area to mass ratio and have properties which differ from those of larger particles. In this paper, particle size distributions of various welding and joining techniques were measured close to the welding process using a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). It turned out that welding processes with high mass emission rates (manual metal arc welding, metal active gas welding, metal inert gas welding, metal inert gas soldering, and laser welding) show mainly agglomerated particles with diameters above 100 nm and only few particles in the size range below 50 nm (10 to 15%). Welding processes with low mass emission rates (tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding) emit predominantly ultrafine particles with diameters well below 100 nm. This finding can be explained by considerably faster agglomeration processes in welding processes with high mass emission rates. Although mass emission is low for tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding, due to the low particle size of the fume, these processes cannot be labeled as toxicologically irrelevant and should be further investigated.

  6. Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced by Nano-Particles—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Casati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composites reinforced by nano-particles are very promising materials, suitable for a large number of applications. These composites consist of a metal matrix filled with nano-particles featuring physical and mechanical properties very different from those of the matrix. The nano-particles can improve the base material in terms of wear resistance, damping properties and mechanical strength. Different kinds of metals, predominantly Al, Mg and Cu, have been employed for the production of composites reinforced by nano-ceramic particles such as carbides, nitrides, oxides as well as carbon nanotubes. The main issue of concern for the synthesis of these materials consists in the low wettability of the reinforcement phase by the molten metal, which does not allow the synthesis by conventional casting methods. Several alternative routes have been presented in literature for the production of nano-composites. This work is aimed at reviewing the most important manufacturing techniques used for the synthesis of bulk metal matrix nanocomposites. Moreover, the strengthening mechanisms responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of nano-reinforced metal matrix composites have been reviewed and the main potential applications of this new class of materials are envisaged.

  7. An Unusual Bone Loss Around Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Rokn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPre-implant disease is an inflammatory process, which can affect the surrounding tissues of a functional Osseointegrated implant that is usually as a result of a disequilibrium between the micro-flora and the body defense system.This case reports a 57 years old male with unusual bone loss around dental implants.This was an unusual case of peri-implantitis which occurred only in the implants on one side of the mouth although they all were unloaded implants.

  8. Mechanical and Tribological Characteristics of TIG Hardfaced Dispersive Layer by Reinforced with Particles Extruded Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dimitrova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the implemented technology for generation of hardfaced dispersive layers obtained by additive material containing reinforcing phase of non-metal particles. The wear resistant coatings are deposited on pure aluminium metal matrix by shielded gas metal-arc welding applying tungsten inert gas (TIG with extruded aluminium wire reinforced by particles as additive material. Wire filler is produced by extrusion of a pack containing metalized and plated by flux micro/nano SiC particles. The metalized particles implanting in the metal matrix and its dispersive hardfacing are realized by solid-state welding under conditions of hot plastic deformation. Tribological characteristics are studied of the hardfaced layers of dispersive reinforced material on pure aluminium metal matrix with and without flux. Hardness profiles of the hardfaced layers are determined by nanoindentation. The surface layers are studied by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. Increase by 15-31 % of the wear resistance of the hardfaced layers and 30-40 % of their hardness was found, which is due to the implanted in the layer reinforcing phase of metalized micro/nano SiC particles.

  9. EFFICIENCY OF METAL SCRAP SEPARATION IN EDDY CURRENT SEPARATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Bedeković

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Eddy-current separation is most often method used for the recovery of non-ferrous metals (Al, Cu, Zn, Pb from solid wastes and also for separating non-ferrous metals from each other. The feed material comes to rotary drum and magnetic field by belt conveyer. The changing magnetic field induce eddy currents in conductive (metallic particles. Because interaction between this currents and the magnetic field electrodynamic forces will act on conductive particles. Therefore the trajectories of conductive particles will be different from the trajectories of the non-conductive ones. Separation is a result of the combined actions of several forces (electrodynamic, gravitational and frictional. The paper presents results of aluminium recovery from mixture of metallic particles in eddy current separator. Testing were conducted under field condition. Results shows that is possible achieve recovery of 99 % and concentrate quality of 89 % of aluminium (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Size-separated particle fractions of stainless steel welding fume particles - A multi-analytical characterization focusing on surface oxide speciation and release of hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, N; Belleville, L; Cha, Y; Olofsson, U; Odnevall Wallinder, I; Persson, K-A; Hedberg, Y S

    2018-01-15

    Welding fume of stainless steels is potentially health hazardous. The aim of this study was to investigate the manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr) speciation of welding fume particles and their extent of metal release relevant for an inhalation scenario, as a function of particle size, welding method (manual metal arc welding, metal arc welding using an active shielding gas), different electrodes (solid wires and flux-cored wires) and shielding gases, and base alloy (austenitic AISI 304L and duplex stainless steel LDX2101). Metal release investigations were performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.3, 37°, 24h. The particles were characterized by means of microscopic, spectroscopic, and electroanalytical methods. Cr was predominantly released from particles of the welding fume when exposed in PBS [3-96% of the total amount of Cr, of which up to 70% as Cr(VI)], followed by Mn, nickel, and iron. Duplex stainless steel welded with a flux-cored wire generated a welding fume that released most Cr(VI). Nano-sized particles released a significantly higher amount of nickel compared with micron-sized particle fractions. The welding fume did not contain any solitary known chromate compounds, but multi-elemental highly oxidized oxide(s) (iron, Cr, and Mn, possibly bismuth and silicon). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast milk metal ion levels in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelis, Raymond; de Waal Malefijt, Jan; Gosens, Taco

    2013-01-01

    Metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip has been used increasingly over the last 10 years in younger active patients. The dissolution of the metal wear particles results in measurable increases in cobalt and chromium ions in the serum and urine of patients with a metal-on-metal bearing. We measured the cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum ion levels in urine; serum; and breast milk in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis after a pathologic fracture of the femoral neck. Metal-on-metal hip prosthesis leads to increasing levels of molybdenum in breast milk in the short-term follow-up. There are no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt ions in breast milk. Besides the already known elevated concentrations in serum of chromium and cobalt after implantation of a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis, we found no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt in urine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of anthropogenic sediment particles after a transboundary water pollution of river Tisza using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osan, Janos E-mail: osan@sunserv.kfki.hu; Toeroek, Szabina; Alfoeldy, Balint; Falkenberg, Gerald

    2004-05-21

    At the beginning of 2000, a major mining accident occurred in the Romanian part of the Tisza catchment area due to tailings dam failure releasing huge amounts of heavy metals to the river. Sediment samples were taken from the main riverbed at six sites in Hungary, on March 16, 2000. The objective of this work was to characterize the anthropogenic particles in river sediment previously selected by single-particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The trace element composition, heterogeneity and heavy metal speciation of individual particles was studied using synchrotron radiation-based microbeam X-ray emission and absorption methods. Particles were selected only from samples regarded as polluted sediment. White-beam micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) allowed the quantitative determination of heavy metals such as cadmium in individual particles. The maximum observed concentration of cadmium (>700 {mu}g/g) indicates that this highly toxic heavy metal is concentrated in individual anthropogenic particles. Using the combination of micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure and target-transformation principle component analysis, quantitative chemical speciation of copper and zinc was feasible on individual sediment particles. Heavy metals in most of the particles released from the pollution site remained in the sulfide form resulting in a limited mobility of these metals. Based on the information obtained using microanalytical methods, the estimation of the environmental mobility of heavy metals connected to microparticles becomes possible.

  13. Physicochemical and Electrophysical Properties of Metal/Semiconductor Containing Nanostructured Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, G. N.; Gromov, V. F.; Trakhtenberg, L. I.

    2018-06-01

    The properties of nanostructured composites based on metal oxides and metal-polymer materials are analyzed, along with ways of preparing them. The effect the interaction between metal and semiconductor nanoparticles has on the conductivity, photoconductivity, catalytic activity, and magnetic, dielectric, and sensor properties of nanocomposites is discussed. It is shown that as a result of this interaction, a material can acquire properties that do not exist in systems of isolated particles. The transfer of electrons between metal particles of different sizes in polymeric matrices leads to specific dielectric losses, and to an increase in the rate and a change in the direction of chemical reactions catalyzed by these particles. The interaction between metal-oxide semiconductor particles results in the electronic and chemical sensitization of sensor effects in nanostructured composite materials. Studies on creating molecular machines (Brownian motors), devices for magnetic recording of information, and high-temperature superconductors based on nanostructured systems are reviewed.

  14. Unusual temperature evolution of superconductivity in LiFeAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, Pranab Kumar; Schlegel, Ronny; Baumann, Danny; Grafe, Hans-Joachim; Beck, Robert [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, IFW Dresden (Germany); Wurmehl, Sabine [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, IFW Dresden (Germany); Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Dresden (Germany); Buechner, Bernd [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, IFW Dresden (Germany); Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Dresden (Germany); Center for Transport and Devices, TU Dresden (Germany); Hess, Christian [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, IFW Dresden (Germany); Center for Transport and Devices, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We have performed temperature dependent scanning tunneling spectroscopy on an impurity-free surface area of a LiFeAs single crystal. Our data reveal a highly unusual temperature evolution of superconductivity: at T{sub c}{sup *}=18 K a partial superconducting gap opens, as is evidenced by subtle, yet clear features in the tunneling spectra, i.e. particle-hole symmetric coherence peaks and dip-hump structures. At T{sub c}=16 K, these features substantiate dramatically and become characteristic of full superconductivity. Remarkably, this is accompanied by an almost jump-like increase of the gap energy at T{sub c} to about 87% of its low-temperature gap value. The energy of the dip as measured by its distance to the coherence peak remains practically constant in the whole temperature regime T ≤ T{sub c}{sup *}. We compare these findings with established experimental and theoretical results.

  15. Analyses of cavitation instabilities in ductile metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    Cavitation instabilities have been predicted for a single void in a ductile metal stressed under high triaxiality conditions. In experiments for a ceramic reinforced by metal particles a single dominant void has been observed on the fracture surface of some of the metal particles bridging a crack......, and also tests for a thin ductile metal layer bonding two ceramic blocks have indicated rapid void growth. Analyses for these material configurations are discussed here. When the void radius is very small, a nonlocal plasticity model is needed to account for observed size-effects, and recent analyses......, while the surrounding voids are represented by a porous ductile material model in terms of a field quantity that specifies the variation of the void volume fraction in the surrounding metal....

  16. Training manuals for nondestructive testing using magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Training manuals containing the fundamentals of nondestructive testing using magnetic particle as detection media are used by metal parts inspectors and quality assurance specialists. Magnetic particle testing involves magnetization of the test specimen, application of the magnetic particle and interpretation of the patterns formed.

  17. Preparation of minute particle using supercritical fluid; Chorinkai ryutai wo mochiita biryushi no chosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajiri, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-03-05

    The metal oxide minute particle synthesis method according to the water-heat reaction in supercritical water was described. Metal salt liquid solution was subjected to hydrolysis when heated to become metal hydroxide but dehydration reaction was generated at a high temperature to generate metal oxide minute particle. Metal salt aqueous solution was supplied to a circulation system unit to contact heated water and was rapidly heated to supercritical state and then was subjected to hydrolysis/dehydration reaction, thus continuously collecting metal oxide minute particles. The hydrolysis speed was in first order for the metal ion concentration and the reaction speed was accelerated by several tens of times when entering supercritical region from subcritical region. When the temperature was rapidly increased to the supercritical state, a radical hydrolysis was generated and a high saturation was instantly reached and minute particles tended to be generated easily since the dissolution force of supercritical water for a product was small. A minute particle with a crystallizability of 5 nm was obtained by synthesizing ceria super-minute particle which was the abrasive of an optical glass material. A single phase of a high magnetization characteristic was synthesized continuously and quickly (faster than a conventional method by two orders or more) in the continuous synthesis of Ba ferrite as a magnetic recording material. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Space-charge Effect on Electroresistance in Metal-Ferroelectric-Metal capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bo Bo; Liu, Yang; Chen, Liu Fang; Wang, Jian Lu; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Sun, Jing Lan; Yuan, Guo Liang; Fusil, Stéphane; Garcia, Vincent; Dkhil, Brahim; Meng, Xiang Jian; Chu, Jun Hao

    2015-12-01

    Resistive switching through electroresistance (ER) effect in metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitors has attracted increasing interest due to its potential applications as memories and logic devices. However, the detailed electronic mechanisms resulting in large ER when polarisation switching occurs in the ferroelectric barrier are still not well understood. Here, ER effect up to 1000% at room temperature is demonstrated in C-MOS compatible MFM nanocapacitors with a 8.8 nm-thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymer ferroelectric, which is very promising for silicon industry integration. Most remarkably, using theory developed for metal-semiconductor rectifying contacts, we derive an analytical expression for the variation of interfacial barrier heights due to space-charge effect that can interpret the observed ER response. We extend this space-charge model, related to the release of trapped charges by defects, to MFM structures made of ferroelectric oxides. This space-charge model provides a simple and straightforward tool to understand recent unusual reports. Finally, this work suggests that defect-engineering could be an original and efficient route for tuning the space-charge effect and thus the ER performances in future electronic devices.

  19. Dissolution and clearance of titanium tritide particles in the lungs of F344/Crl rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Snipes, M.B.; Wang, Yansheng

    1995-12-01

    Metal tritides are compounds in which the radioactive isotope tritium, following adsorption onto the metal, forms a stable chemical compound with the metal. When particles of tritiated metals become airborne, they can be inhaled by workers. Because the particles may be retained in the lung for extended periods, the resulting dose will be greater than doses following exposure to tritium gas or tritium oxide (HTO). Particles of triated metals may be dispersed into the air during routine handling, disruption of contaminated metals, or as a result of spontaneous radioactive decay processes. Unlike metal hydrides and deuterides, tritides are radioactive, and the decay of the tritium atoms affects the metal. Because helium is a product of the decay, helium bubbles form within the metal tritide matrix. The pressure from these bubbles leads to respirable particles breaking off from the tritide surface. Our results show that a substantial amount of titanium tritide remains in the rat lung 10 d after intratracheal instillation, confirming results previously obtain in an in vitro dissolution study.

  20. The influence of Co-Cr and UHMWPE particles on infection persistence : An in vivo study in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, Anton H.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Sjollema, Jelmer; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Neut, Danielle

    Wear of metal-on-metal (cobaltchromium, CoCr particles) and metal-on-polyethylene (ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, UHMWPE particles) bearing surfaces in hip prostheses is a major problem in orthopedics. This study aimed to compare the influence of CoCr and UHMWPE particles on the

  1. Th-Based Endohedral Metallofullerenes: Anomalous Metal Position and Significant Metal-Cage Covalent Interactions with the Involvement of Th 5f Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Yang, Le; Liu, Chang; Hou, Qinghua; Jin, Peng; Lu, Xing

    2018-05-29

    Endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) containing actinides are rather intriguing due to potential 5f-orbital participation in the metal-metal or metal-cage bonding. In this work, density functional theory calculations first characterized the structure of recently synthesized ThC 74 as Th@ D 3 h (14246)-C 74 . We found that the thorium atom adopts an unusual off-axis position inside cage due to small metal ion size and the requirement of large coordination number, which phenomenon was further extended to other Th-based EMFs. Significantly, besides the strong metal-cage electrostatic attractions, topological and orbital analysis revealed that all the investigated Th-based EMFs exhibit obvious covalent interactions between metal and cage with substantial contribution from the Th 5f orbitals. The encapsulation by fullerenes is thus proposed as a practical pathway toward the f-orbital covalency for thorium. Interestingly, the anomalous internal position of Th led to a novel three-dimensional metal trajectory at elevated temperatures in the D 3 h -C 74 cavity, as elucidated by the static computations and molecular dynamic simulations.

  2. Morphological Evolution of Block Copolymer Particles: Effect of Solvent Evaporation Rate on Particle Shape and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Man; Kim, YongJoo; Yun, Hongseok; Yi, Gi-Ra; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2017-02-28

    Shape and morphology of polymeric particles are of great importance in controlling their optical properties or self-assembly into unusual superstructures. Confinement of block copolymers (BCPs) in evaporative emulsions affords particles with diverse structures, including prolate ellipsoids, onion-like spheres, oblate ellipsoids, and others. Herein, we report that the evaporation rate of solvent from emulsions encapsulating symmetric polystyrene-b-polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) determines the shape and internal nanostructure of micron-sized BCP particles. A distinct morphological transition from the ellipsoids with striped lamellae to the onion-like spheres was observed with decreasing evaporation rate. Experiments and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations showed that the evaporation rate affected the organization of BCPs at the particle surface, which determined the final shape and internal nanostructure of the particles. Differences in the solvent diffusion rates in PS and PB at rapid evaporation rates induced alignment of both domains perpendicular to the particle surface, resulting in ellipsoids with axial lamellar stripes. Slower evaporation rates provided sufficient time for BCP organization into onion-like structures with PB as the outermost layer, owing to the preferential interaction of PB with the surroundings. BCP molecular weight was found to influence the critical evaporation rate corresponding to the morphological transition from ellipsoid to onion-like particles, as well as the ellipsoid aspect ratio. DPD simulations produced morphologies similar to those obtained from experiments and thus elucidated the mechanism and driving forces responsible for the evaporation-induced assembly of BCPs into particles with well-defined shapes and morphologies.

  3. Wigner function for a free particle in two dimensions: A tale of interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleich, W. P.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Varro, S.

    2010-01-01

    The familiar wave function for a free particle in two dimensions and in a state with definite values of energy and angular momentum shows some unusual effects. We identify the origin of these subtleties as interference in two-dimensional space where Huygens' principle breaks down. Our arguments...

  4. Contact dermatitis to cobalt chloride with an unusual mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Sevket; Aksan, Serkan; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2015-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. A suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Therefore, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance because the patch testing is important to find out which allergen/material causes the complaints. Metallic allergens such as cobalt are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis, but frequencies of contact dermatitis to these allergens may vary in different skin areas. Here, we report an unusual case of cobalt allergy on the skin contact with the prosthetic leg of a 30-year-old female patient. The patient developed maculopapular and vesicular lesions on her contact region of residual limb to prosthetic leg. She underwent standard patch testing, which resulted in a strong positive reaction to cobalt chloride. This case report may serve to remind doctors to be aware of potential allergic reactions to prostheses and to enable them to recognize a metal allergy if it appears. Prosthetists should also be reminded of potential allergic reactions. Cobalt can be used as an accelerator in making a prosthetic socket. Several cases have been reported concerning allergies to components of the prosthetic socket. This is the first report of sensitization to cobalt which is used in making a prosthetic leg. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  5. Unusual metal coordination chemistry from an amino-amide derivative of 4-nitrophenol, a surprising ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinley, John; McKee, Vickie; Toftlund, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The simple ligand N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzamide () exhibits several coordination modes depending on the reaction conditions, acting as a zwitterion on its own or being ionic in the presence of acid and depending on the concentration of metal present in a reaction, it can coordinate...... to the metal in either a 1:1 or a 1:2 metal:ligand mode. Furthermore, the role of solvent plays an important role in these complexation reactions with both four and six coordinate copper complexes being obtained using water as solvent but only six coordinate copper complexes obtained using acetonitrile...

  6. Geometrical characterization of perlite-metal syntactic foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovinšek, Matej, E-mail: matej.borovinsek@um.si [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Taherishargh, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.taherishargh@newcastle.edu.au [The University of Newcastle, School of Engineering, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Vesenjak, Matej, E-mail: matej.vesenjak@um.si [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Ren, Zoran, E-mail: zoran.ren@um.si [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Fiedler, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.fiedler@newcastle.edu.au [The University of Newcastle, School of Engineering, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    This paper introduces an improved method for the detailed geometrical characterization of perlite-metal syntactic foam. This novel metallic foam is created by infiltrating a packed bed of expanded perlite particles with liquid aluminium alloy. The geometry of the solidified metal is thus defined by the perlite particle shape, size and morphology. The method is based on a segmented micro-computed tomography data and allows for automated determination of the distributions of pore size, sphericity, orientation and location. The pore (i.e. particle) size distribution and pore orientation is determined by a multi-criteria k-nearest neighbour algorithm for pore identification. The results indicate a weak density gradient parallel to the casting direction and a slight preference of particle orientation perpendicular to the casting direction. - Highlights: •A new method for identification of pores in porous materials was developed. •It was applied on perlite-metal syntactic foam samples. •A porosity decrease in the axial direction of the samples was determined. •Pore shape analysis showed a high percentage of spherical pores. •Orientation analysis showed that more pores are oriented in the radial direction.

  7. The sensitivity of particle pH to NH3: Can high NH3 cause London Fog conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R. J.; Guo, H.; Nenes, A.

    2017-12-01

    High ammonia emissions from agriculture or other sources have been suggested to elevate ambient particle pH levels to near neutral acidity (pH=7), a condition that promotes rapid SO2 oxidation by NO2 to form aerosol sulfate concentration consistent with "London fog" levels. This mechanism has been used to explain pollution haze events in China. Predicted pH for locations in the US and Europe show fine particles are highly acidic with pH typically less than 2. The results are consistent with measured ammonia and nitric acid gas-particle partitioning, validating predicted pH levels. Using these data sets from representative sites around the world we conduct a thermodynamic analysis of aerosol pH and its sensitivity to ammonia levels. We find that particle pH, regardless of ammonia levels, is always acidic even for the unusually high ammonia levels found in highly polluted Asian cities, Beijing (pH=4.5) and Xi'an (pH=5), locations where sulfate production from NOx is proposed. These results indicate that sulfur dioxide oxidation through a NO2-mediated pathway is not likely in China, nor any other region of the world (e.g., US, Mediterranean) since the fine aerosol is consistently acidic. The mildly acidic conditions would, however, permit rapid oxidation of sulfur dioxide through transition metal chemistry. The limited alkalinity from the carbonate buffer in dust and seasalt can provide the only likely set of conditions where NO2-mediated oxidation of SO2 outcompetes with other well-established pathways.

  8. Quantum-size colloid metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldugin, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    In the review dealing with quantum-dimensional metallic colloid systems the methods of preparation, electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties of metal nanoparticles and thin films are considered, the effect of ionizing radiation on stability of silver colloid sols and existence of a threshold radiation dose affecting loss of stability being discussed. It is shown that sol stability loss stems from particles charge neutralization due to reduction of sorbed silver ions induced by radiation, which results in destruction of double electric layer on colloid particles boundary [ru

  9. Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particle residuals sampled by three different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worringen, A.; Kandler, K.; Benker, N.; Dirsch, T.; Mertes, S.; Schenk, L.; Kästner, U.; Frank, F.; Nillius, B.; Bundke, U.; Rose, D.; Curtius, J.; Kupiszewski, P.; Weingartner, E.; Vochezer, P.; Schneider, J.; Schmidt, S.; Weinbruch, S.; Ebert, M.

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, three different techniques to separate ice-nucleating particles (INPs) as well as ice particle residuals (IPRs) from non-ice-active particles are compared. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI) and the Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) sample ice particles from mixed-phase clouds and allow after evaporation in the instrument for the analysis of the residuals. The Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) coupled with the Ice Nuclei Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor (IN-PCVI) provides ice-activating conditions to aerosol particles and extracts the activated particles for analysis. The instruments were run during a joint field campaign which took place in January and February 2013 at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland). INPs and IPRs were analyzed offline by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine their size, chemical composition and mixing state. Online analysis of the size and chemical composition of INP activated in FINCH was performed by laser ablation mass spectrometry. With all three INP/IPR separation techniques high abundances (median 20-70%) of instrumental contamination artifacts were observed (ISI: Si-O spheres, probably calibration aerosol; Ice-CVI: Al-O particles; FINCH + IN-PCVI: steel particles). After removal of the instrumental contamination particles, silicates, Ca-rich particles, carbonaceous material and metal oxides were the major INP/IPR particle types obtained by all three techniques. In addition, considerable amounts (median abundance mostly a few percent) of soluble material (e.g., sea salt, sulfates) were observed. As these soluble particles are often not expected to act as INP/IPR, we consider them as potential measurement artifacts. Minor types of INP/IPR include soot and Pb-bearing particles. The Pb-bearing particles are mainly present as an internal mixture with other particle types. Most samples showed a maximum of the INP/IPR size distribution at 200

  10. Anomalous separation of homogeneous particle-fluid mixtures: Further observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, H. S.; Hussain, F.; Goldshtik, M.

    1995-11-01

    Previously, we reported the puzzling phenomenon of separation of components from an initially uniform mixture (air and smoke) in a rotating flow device (a cylindrical can with a rotating end disk). Here we summarize further studies of this phenomenon through experiments, analysis of particle forces, and direct numerical simulation (DNS). Separation of spherical polystyrene particles when immersed in water or pure alcohol lends further credence to the phenomenon. We have studied the dependence of the particle-free column size and its establishment time on particle size, particle concentration, disk and cylinder Reynolds numbers, and fluid composition. The evolution of passive markers in DNS shows segregation similar to that observed in experiments, supporting our kinematic separation hypothesis. However, kinematic action, though important, is inadequate to explain the ``antidiffusion'' phenomenon. Although estimates show that known particle forces cannot account for the particle separation, experimental results suggest the action of a yet unknown lift force whose effect is magnified kinematically in our apparatus. At high particle concentrations or when a small amount of solute (e.g. sugar, salt, or alcohol) is added to water polystyrene particle mixtures, the flow within the column becomes unstable and the particle-free column loses its axial symmetry; this unusual behavior is not yet clearly understood.

  11. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc

  12. Air-stable compact of cobalt-rare earth alloy particles and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeggil, J.C.; Charles, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for producing novel air-stable magnetic products. An organometallic compound which decomposes at a temperature below 500 0 C is mixed with particles of a transition metal-rare earth alloy. The resulting mixture is pressed to form a green body, which is then heated to decompose the organometallic compound to produce a metal vapor that deposits an interconnecting metal coating on the exposed surfaces of the pressed particles. (U.S.)

  13. Metal extraction by solid-liquid agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Dissolved metal values are extracted from a liquid e.g. uranium from phosphoric acid by contacting the liquid with agglomerates for a time to load the agglomerate with the metal value, separating the loaded agglomerates from the liquid phase and stripping the metal value from the loaded agglomerate. The agglomerate may be made by combining finely divided solid particles with a binding liquid to form a paste, adding a suspending liquid to form a mixture, the suspending liquid and binding liquid being immiscible in each other and the solid particles being insoluble in the suspending liquid and shearing the mixture to form the agglomerate. (author)

  14. Linear particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A linear particle accelerator which provides a pulsed beam of charged particles of uniform energy is described. The accelerator is in the form of an evacuated dielectric tube, inside of which a particle source is located at one end of the tube, with a target or window located at the other end of the dielectric tube. Along the length of the tube are externally located pairs of metal plates, each insulated from each other in an insulated housing. Each of the plates of a pair are connected to an electrical source of voltage of opposed polarity, with the polarity of the voltage of the plates oriented so that the plate of a pair, nearer to the particle source, is of the opposed polarity to the charge of the particle emitted by the source. Thus, a first plate about the tube located nearest the particle source, attracts a particle which as it passes through the tube past the first plate is then repelled by the reverse polarity of the second plate of the pair to continue moving towards the target

  15. PRODUCTION OF METAL CHEMICAL WELDING ADDITIVE WITH NANODISPERSED PARTICLES OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLDYREV Alexander Mikhaylovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When welding bridge structures automatic welding under a gumboil layer with metal chemical additive (MCA is widely applied in the modern bridge building. MCA consists of a chopped welding wire (granulated material, which is powdered by modifying chemical additive of titanium dioxide (TiO₂ in the cylindrical mixer «drunk cask». Chemical composition of all welding materials including welding wire, gumboil, electrodes, are strictly normalized and controlled. However, the existing technology of producing MCA doesn’t allow precise controlling of its structure under working conditions and that causes an impact on the stability of welded connections properties. Therefore the aim of this work is to develop a technology to produce stable MCA structure. The paper compares the existing and proposed manufacturing techniques of the metal chemical additive (MCA which is applied in automatic welding of butt connections for bridge structures. It is shown that production of MCA in a high-energy planetary mill provides more stable structure of the additive introduced into a welded joint. The granulometric analysis of the powder TiO₂ showed that when processing MCA in a planetary mill TiO₂ particles are crashed to nanodimensional order. This process is accompanied by crushing of granulated material too. The proposed method for production of MCA in a planetary mill provides stronger cohesion of dioxide with the granulate surface and, as a consequence, more stable MCA chemical structure. Application of MCA which has been mechanical intensified in a planetary mill, increases stability of mechanical properties, if compare with applied technology, in single-order by breaking point and almost twice by impact viscosity.

  16. Removal of bisphenol A and some heavy metal ions by polydivinylbenzene magnetic latex particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzougui, Zied; Chaabouni, Amel; Elleuch, Boubaker; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-08-01

    In this study, magnetic polydivinylbenzene latex particles MPDVB with a core-shell structure were tested for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), copper Cu(II), lead Pb(II), and zinc Zn(II) from aqueous solutions by a batch-adsorption technique. The effect of different parameters, such as initial concentration of pollutant, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial pH solution on the adsorption of the different adsorbates considered was investigated. The adsorption of BPA, Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) was found to be fast, and the equilibrium was achieved within 30 min. The pH 5-5.5 was found to be the most suitable pH for metal removal. The presence of electrolytes and their increasing concentration reduced the metal adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. Whereas, the optimal pH for BPA adsorption was found 7, both hydrogen bonds and π-π interaction were thought responsible for the adsorption of BPA on MPDVB. The adsorption kinetics of BPA, Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) were found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Equilibrium data for BPA, Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) adsorption were fitted well by the Langmuir isotherm model. Furthermore, the desorption and regeneration studies have proven that MPDVB can be employed repeatedly without impacting its adsorption capacity.

  17. Characterizing exposures to airborne metals and nanoparticle emissions in a refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela L; Hintz, Patrick; Habjan, Matt

    2010-07-01

    An air quality survey was conducted at a precious metals refinery in order to evaluate worker exposures to airborne metals and to provide detailed characterization of the aerosols. Two areas within the refinery were characterized: a furnace room and an electro-refining area. In line with standard survey practices, both personal and area air filter samples were collected on 37-mm filters and analyzed for metals by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. In addition to the standard sampling, measurements were conducted using other tools, designed to provide enhanced characterization of the workplace aerosols. The number concentration and number-weighted particle size distribution of airborne particles were measured with a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). Custom-designed software was used to correlate particle concentration data with spatial location data to generate contour maps of particle number concentrations in the work areas. Short-term samples were collected in areas of localized high concentrations and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine particle morphology and elemental chemistry. Analysis of filter samples indicated that all of the workers were exposed to levels of silver above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 0.01 mg m(-3) even though the localized ventilation was functioning. Measurements with the FMPS indicated that particle number concentrations near the furnace increased up to 1000-fold above the baseline during the pouring of molten metal. Spatial mapping revealed localized elevated particle concentrations near the furnaces and plumes of particles rising into the stairwells and traveling to the upper work areas. Results of TEM/EDS analyses confirmed the high number of nanoparticles measured by the FMPS and indicated the aerosols were rich in metals including silver, lead, antimony, selenium, and zinc. Results of

  18. Unusual radiological characteristics of teratoid/rhabdoid brain tumor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of atypical teratoid rhabdoid brain tumor for 4 months old male child, who presented with unusual radiological findings, that can be confused with other brain tumors ,so we high light these unusual imaging features to aid in making correct diagnosis. Keywords: atypical teratoid–rhabdoid tumor, brain tumor, ...

  19. The testis: the unusual, the rare and the bizarre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, V.R.; Sidhu, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound is the preferred technique when imaging the scrotal contents. Although appearances of many of the more common abnormalities present the examiner with no diagnostic difficulty, the more unusual conditions may present a considerable challenge. Many normal variants, unusual and rare abnormalities may be instantly recognized once seen. The current review highlights the more unusual and rare conditions affecting the scrotal contents in order to allow the reader the opportunity to gain knowledge of their existence and to aid future interpretation of the difficult examination

  20. 48 CFR 235.070 - Indemnification against unusually hazardous risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indemnification against unusually hazardous risks. 235.070 Section 235.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.070 Indemnification against unusually hazardous risks. ...

  1. High Purity Tungsten Spherical Particle Preparation From WC-Co Spent Hard Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was recycled to obtain high purity spherical tungsten powder by a combined hydrometallurgy and physical metallurgy pathway. Selective leaching of tungsten element from hard metal scrap occurs at solid / liquid interface and therefore enlargement of effective surface area is advantageous. Linear oxidation behavior of Tungsten carbide-cobalt and the oxidized scrap is friable to be pulverized by milling process. In this regard, isothermally oxidized Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was mechanically broken into particles and then tungsten trioxide particle was recovered by hydrometallurgical method. Recovered tungsten trioxide was reduced to tungsten particle in a hydrogen environment. After that, tungsten particle was melted and solidified to make a spherical one by RF (Ratio Frequency thermal plasma process. Well spherical tungsten micro-particle was successfully obtained from spent scrap. In addition to the morphological change, thermal plasma process showed an advantage for the purification of feedstock particle.

  2. Occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in indoor settled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed widespread heavy metals contamination especially Fe and Zn, which were present as the highest concentration while Cd was the lowest in the settled particles (dust). The order of occurrence of heavy metals in settled particles (dust) collected indoor in 2007 and 2008 respectively were as follows, ...

  3. Intense particle beam and multiple applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.; Machida, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Multiple Application Intense Particle Beam project is an experiment in which an injector of high energy neutral or ionized particles will be used to diagnose high density and high temperature plasmas. The acceleration of the particles will be carried out feeding a diode with a high voltage pulse produced by a Marx generator. Other apllications of intense particle beam generated by this injector that could be explored in the future include: heating and stabilization of compact toroids, treatment of metallic surfaces and ion implantation. (author) [pt

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from metal and transition metal nano-caped arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huanhuan; Gao, Renxian; Zhu, Aonan; Hua, Zhong; Chen, Lei; Wang, Yaxin; Zhang, Yongjun

    2018-03-01

    The metal and transition metal cap-shaped arrays on polystyrene colloidal particle (PSCP) templates were fabricated to study the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. We obtained the Ag and Fe complex film by a co-sputtering deposition method. The size of the deposited Fe particle was changed by the sputtering power. We also study the SERS enhancement mechanism by decorating the PATP probe molecule on the different films. The SERS signals increased firstly, and then decreased as the size of Fe particles grows gradually. The finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation and experimental Raman results manifest that SERS enhancement was mainly attributed to surface plasma resonance (SPR) between Ag and Ag nanoparticles. The SERS signals of PATP molecule were enhanced to reach a lowest detectable concentration of 10-8 mol/L. The research demonstrates that the SERS substrates with Ag-Fe cap-shaped arrays have a high sensitivity.

  5. Adsorption of heavy metals by road deposited solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    The research study discussed in the paper investigated the adsorption/desorption behaviour of heavy metals commonly deposited on urban road surfaces, namely, Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb, for different particle size ranges of solids. The study outcomes, based on field studies and batch experiments, confirmed that road deposited solids particles contain a significantly high amount of vacant charge sites with the potential to adsorb additional heavy metals. Kinetic studies and adsorption experiments indicated that Cr is the most preferred metal element to associate with solids due to the relatively high electronegativity and high charge density of trivalent cation (Cr(3+)). However, the relatively low availability of Cr in the urban road environment could influence this behaviour. Comparing total adsorbed metals present in solids particles, it was found that Zn has the highest capacity for adsorption to solids. Desorption experiments confirmed that a low concentration of Cu, Cr and Pb in solids was present in water-soluble and exchangeable form, whilst a significant fraction of adsorbed Zn has a high likelihood of being released back into solution. Among heavy metals, Zn is considered to be the most commonly available metal among road surface pollutants.

  6. Fundamentals of radiation materials science metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Was, Gary S

    2017-01-01

    The revised second edition of this established text offers readers a significantly expanded introduction to the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. It describes the various processes that occur when energetic particles strike a solid, inducing changes to the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Specifically it covers particle interaction with the metals and alloys used in nuclear reactor cores and hence subject to intense radiation fields. It describes the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting radiation damage, the physical effects of irradiation and the changes in mechanical behavior of irradiated metals and alloys. Updated throughout, some major enhancements for the new edition include improved treatment of low- and intermediate-energy elastic collisions and stopping power, expanded sections on molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methodologies describing collision cascade evolution, new treatment of t...

  7. Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zongmin; Li, Zhonggen; Bi, Xiangyang; Han, Zhixuan; Yu, Genhua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Elevated magnetic particles and heavy metals coexist in dust. ► Morphology and mineralogy of magnetic particles were studied by SEM-EDX and XRD. ► Magnetic minerals in the dust consist of magnetite, hematite, and metallic iron. ► Impact of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants was notable. -- Abstract: Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. κ–T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants

  8. Unusual computed tomography findings and complications in acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Glaucia Andrade e Silva; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe and illustrate unusual computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with acute appendicitis. We reviewed the charts of 200 patients with clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis who were submitted to abdominal CT before surgery. Patients with unusual presentation or complications were selected for illustrating the main CT findings. Unusual complications of acute appendicitis were related to anomalous position of the appendix, contiguity to intraperitoneal organs such as the liver, gall bladder, annexes and the bladder and continuous use of anti inflammatory or antibiotics during the diagnostic process. We concluded that CT is a useful diagnostic tool in patients with complicated or unusual presentation acute appendicitis. The first step towards diagnosis in these cases i to have in mind the hypothesis of appendicitis in patients with acute abdominal pain. (author)

  9. Spatial distribution and potential sources of trace metals in insoluble particles of snow from Urumqi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Jiang, Fengqing; Wang, Shaoping; Turdi, Muyesser; Zhang, Zhaoyong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize trace elements in snow in urban-suburb gradient over Urumqi city, China. The spatial distribution patterns of 11 trace metals in insoluble particulate matters of snow were revealed by using 102 snow samples collected in and around urban areas of Urumqi, a city suffering from severe wintertime air pollution in China. Similar spatial distribution for Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb was found and their two significant high-value areas located in the west and east, respectively, and a high-value area in the south, which were correlated with factory emissions, traffic activities, and construction fugitive dust. The high-value areas of Cr, Ni, and V occurred in the northeast corner and along main traffic paths, which were linked to oil refinery and vehicular emissions. High value of Be presented in the west of the city. The high-value area of Co in the northeast could be related to local soil. Cd and U displayed relatively even spatial patterns in the urban area. In view of distance from the urban center, e.g., from the first circular belt to the fourth circular belt, except Be, V, Cd, and U, the contents of other metals generally decreased from the first circular belt to the forth circular belt, implying the effect of human activity clearly. Additionally, prevailing northwesterly winds and occasionally southeasterly winds in winter were associated with decreased, generally, concentrations of trace metal in snow from the urban center to the southern suburb along a northwest and southeast transect. The information on concentrations and spatial distributions of these metals in insoluble particles of snow in winter will be valuable for further environmental protection and planning.

  10. Modelling the fine and coarse fraction of heavy metals in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vivanco, Marta; González, M. Angeles

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, lead, nickel, arsenic, copper, chrome, zinc and selenium, are present in the air due to natural and anthropogenic emissions, normally joined to particles. These metals can affect life organisms via inhalation or ingestion, causing damages in human health and ecosystems. Small particles are inhaled and embebed in lungs and alveolus more easily than coarse particles. The CHIMERE model is a eulerian air quality model extensively used in air quality modelling. Metals have been recently included in this model in a special version developed in the CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) modelling group. Vivanco et al. (2011) and González et al. (2012) showed the model performance for some metals in Spain and Europe. However, in these studies, metals were considered as fine particles. Some studies based on observed heavy metals air concentration indicate the presence of metals also in the coarse fraction, in special for Cu and Zn. For this reason, a new attempt of modelling metals considering a fine (Arsenic, Lead, Cadmium and Nickel Ambient Air Concentrations in Spain, 2011. Proceedings of the 11 th International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications (ICCSA 11) 243-246 - González, Ma Vivanco, Marta; Palomino, Inmaculada; Garrido, Juan; Santiago, Manuel; Bessagnet, Bertrand Modelling Some Heavy Metals Air Concentration in Europe. // Water, Air & Soil Pollution;Sep2012, Vol. 223 Issue 8, p5227

  11. Microfocus study of metal distribution and speciation in tissue extracted from revised metal on metal hip implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Alister J [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Imperial College and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, Fulham Palace Rd, London W6 8RF (United Kingdom); Sandison, Ann [Department of Histopathology, Imperial College and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, Fulham Palace Rd, London W6 8RF (United Kingdom); Quinn, Paul; Mosselmans, J Frederick W [Science Division, Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Sampson, Barry [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Imperial College and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, Fulham Palace Rd, London W6 8RF (United Kingdom); Atkinson, Kirk D [8 Nuclear Department Defence Academy College of Management and Technology HMS Sultan Military Road Gosport PO12 3BY (United Kingdom); Skinner, John A [Department of Orthopaedics, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Goode, Angela [Dept of Materials, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Powell, Jonathan J, E-mail: Paul.Quinn@diamond.ac.u [Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research Centre, Cambridge CB1 9NL (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Unexplained tissue inflammation in metal-on-metal hip replacements is suspected to be caused by implant-derived nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of the metal particles in tissue surrounding metal-on-metal (MOM) hips that has been extracted during revision. Mapping of tissue surrounding the failed MOM hips was performed using microfocus X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). This revealed mainly Cr which was localized to the cellular regions. There was co-localisation of Co, were present, to areas of high Cr abundance. XANES of the tissue and appropriate standards revealed that the most common species were Cr(III) and Co(II). EXAFS analysis of the tissue and various metal standards revealed that the most abundant implant-related species was Cr(III) phosphate. Different tissue preparation methods, including frozen sectioning, were examined but were found not to affect the distribution or speciation of the metals in the tissue.

  12. Microfocus study of metal distribution and speciation in tissue extracted from revised metal on metal hip implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Alister J; Sandison, Ann; Quinn, Paul; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Sampson, Barry; Atkinson, Kirk D; Skinner, John A; Goode, Angela; Powell, Jonathan J

    2009-01-01

    Unexplained tissue inflammation in metal-on-metal hip replacements is suspected to be caused by implant-derived nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of the metal particles in tissue surrounding metal-on-metal (MOM) hips that has been extracted during revision. Mapping of tissue surrounding the failed MOM hips was performed using microfocus X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). This revealed mainly Cr which was localized to the cellular regions. There was co-localisation of Co, were present, to areas of high Cr abundance. XANES of the tissue and appropriate standards revealed that the most common species were Cr(III) and Co(II). EXAFS analysis of the tissue and various metal standards revealed that the most abundant implant-related species was Cr(III) phosphate. Different tissue preparation methods, including frozen sectioning, were examined but were found not to affect the distribution or speciation of the metals in the tissue.

  13. Decoration of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes by Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    tures inside the nanotubes to increase the available surface for catalysis6 or in ... most common method to decorate CNTs by metal nanoparticles and metal oxides due .... 2.6 Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes, Metal Nano- particles and ...

  14. The tribology of metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A

    2006-02-01

    Total hip surgery is an effective way of alleviating the pain and discomfort caused by diseased or damaged joints. However, in the majority of cases, these joints have a finite life. The main reason for failure is osteolysis (bone resorption). It is well documented that an important cause of osteolysis, and therefore the subsequent loosening and failure of conventional metal- or ceramic-on-ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene joints, is the body's immunological response to the polyethylene wear particles. To avoid this, interest has been renewed in metal-on-metal joints. The intention of this paper is to review the studies that have taken place within different laboratories to determine the tribological performance of new-generation metal-on-metal total hip replacements. These types of joint offer a potential solution to enhance the longevity of prosthetic hip systems; however, problems may arise owing to the effects of metal ion release, which are, as yet, not fully understood.

  15. Biotic and abiotic retention, recycling and remineralization of metals in the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Ellwood, Michael J.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Twining , Benjamin S. (ANU); (Liverpool); (Tasmania); (Bigelow)

    2017-03-01

    Trace metals shape both the biogeochemical functioning and biological structure of oceanic provinces. Trace metal biogeochemistry has primarily focused on modes of external supply of metals from aeolian, hydrothermal, sedimentary and other sources. However, metals also undergo internal transformations such as abiotic and biotic retention, recycling and remineralization. The role of these internal transformations in metal biogeochemical cycling is now coming into focus. First, the retention of metals by biota in the surface ocean for days, weeks or months depends on taxon-specific metal requirements of phytoplankton, and on their ultimate fate: that is, viral lysis, senescence, grazing and/or export to depth. Rapid recycling of metals in the surface ocean can extend seasonal productivity by maintaining higher levels of metal bioavailability compared to the influence of external metal input alone. As metal-containing organic particles are exported from the surface ocean, different metals exhibit distinct patterns of remineralization with depth. These patterns are mediated by a wide range of physicochemical and microbial processes such as the ability of particles to sorb metals, and are influenced by the mineral and organic characteristics of sinking particles. We conclude that internal metal transformations play an essential role in controlling metal bioavailability, phytoplankton distributions and the subsurface resupply of metals.

  16. Mesoporous activated carbons with metal-oxide particles prepared from Morwell coal; Morwell tan wo genryo to shita kinzoku sankabutsu tanji kasseitan no saiko kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, N.; Yamada, Y.; Shiraishi, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Kojima, S.; Tamai, H.; Yasuda, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The metal dependence of mesoporous activated carbons with various metal acetylacetonate (acac) particles prepared from Morwell coal was studied. In experiment, the mixture of Morwell coal and acac metal complexes were dissipated into tetrahydrofuran, and after agitation in Ar atmosphere, the solvent was removed by vacuum distillation. Coal specimens with Fe(acac)3, Ni(acac)2 and Co(acac)2 as acac complexes were activated by exchanging flow gas with water vapor after heat treatment in N2 gas flow at 900{degree}C. The pore sizes of the specimens were obtained from N2 adsorption isotherms by BET method and BJH method. Conditions of pores and metals in the specimens were examined by XRD measurement and TEM observation. The relation between the above conditions and pore characteristics obtained from adsorption experiment was also examined. As a result, the difference in mesopore ratio between the specimens and blank specimens was larger in the order of Fe, Co and Ni, and the effect of added metal complexes was also larger in this order. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Disintegration of liquid metals by low pressure water blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of disintegrating metals by a low cost system and subsequently incorporating them into grout mixtures has been demonstrated. A low pressure water blasting technique consisting of multiple nozzles and a converging-line jet stream was developed to disintegrate liquid metals and produce coarse metal powder and shot. Molten iron resulted in spherical shot, while copper, aluminum, and tin produced irregular shaped particles. The particle size was between 0.05 and 3 mm (0.002 and 0.1 in.), and about half the particles were smaller than 1 mm (0.04 in.) in all cases. The water consumption was rather low, while the production rate was relatively high. The method proved to be simple and reliable. The coarse metal powders were suspendable in grout fluids, indicating that they are probably disposable by the shale hydrofracture technique

  18. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  19. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  20. Cation colloidal particles in alkaline-earth halides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcala, R; Orera, V M [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Facultad da Ciencias

    1976-01-01

    The formation of calcium, strontium and barium colloids both in heavily electron irradiated samples and in additively colored crystals of CaF/sub 2/, SrF/sub 2/ and BaF/sub 2/ has been investigated. Detailed data on the temperature dependence of the efficiency of colloid formation by irradiation have been obained. The growth of metallic particles in additively colored samples containing F and M centers has been studied for different color center concentrations and annealing temperatures. The optical absorption bands due to metallic colloids have been calculated using the theory of Mie. To take account of the pressure exerted by the matrix on the metallic particles several corrections to the optical constants of the metals have been introduced. A good agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results has been obtained. The evolution of colloids along several thermal annealing experiments has also been investigated. A diffusion-limited model has been used which accounts for the dependence of the colloid radii with the annealing time.

  1. What limits production of unusual monoenoic fatty acids in transgenic plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mi Chung; Schultz, David J; Ohlrogge, John B

    2002-08-01

    Unusual monounsaturated fatty acids are major constituents (greater than 80%) in seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) and Thunbergia alata Bojer, as well as in glandular trichomes (greater than 80% derived products) of Pelargonium x hortorum (geranium). These diverged fatty acid structures are produced via distinct plastidial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases. When expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. under strong seed-specific promoters the unusual acyl-ACP desaturases resulted in accumulation of unusual monoene fatty acids at 1-15% of seed fatty acid mass. In this study, we have examined several factors that potentially limit higher production of unusual monoenes in transgenic oilseeds. (i) Immunoblots indicated that the introduced desaturases were expressed at levels equivalent to or higher than the endogenous delta9 18:0-ACP desaturase. However, the level of unusual fatty acid produced in transgenic plants was not correlated with the level of desaturase expression. (ii) The unusual desaturases were expressed in several backgrounds, including antisense 18:0-ACP desaturase plants, in fab1 mutants, and co-expressed with specialized ACP or ferredoxin isoforms. None of these experiments led to high production of expected products. (iii) No evidence was found for degradation of the unusual fatty acids during seed development. (iv) Petroselinic acid added to developing seeds was incorporated into triacylglycerol as readily as oleic acid, suggesting no major barriers to its metabolism by enzymes of glycerolipid assembly. (v) In vitro and in situ assay of acyl-ACP desaturases revealed a large discrepancy of activity when comparing unusual acyl-ACP desaturases with the endogenous delta9 18:0-ACP desaturase. The combined results, coupled with the sensitivity of acyl-ACP desaturase activity to centrifugation and low salt or detergent suggests low production of unusual monoenes in transgenic plants may be due to the lack of, or incorrect assemble of

  2. Cleft lip and palate: series of unusual clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranaíba, Lívia Máris Ribeiro; Miranda, Roseli Teixeira de; Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Almeida, Hudson de; Orsi Júnior, Julian Miranda; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face, corresponding to approximately 65% of all malformations of the craniofacial region. to describe unusual clinical cases of non-syndromic CL/P (CL/PNS), diagnosed in a reference service in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and correlate these alterations with possible risk factors. we carried out a retrospective study, between the years of 1992 and the 1st half of 2009, from medical records. Among the 778 cases of CL/PNS diagnosed in the period of 17 years, 5 (0.64%) were unusual CL/PNS, and all patients were male. It was found that among the 5 patients, 2 had incomplete right cleft lip with incomplete cleft palate, 2 were affected by left incomplete cleft lip and incomplete cleft palate, and 1 had a cleft lip and palate associated with complete right cleft palate. Risk factors such as consanguinity, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption, medication usage during pregnancy, history of abortion and/or stillbirths and maternal diseases were not associated with unusual CL/PNS. This study described 5 unusual cases of CL/PNS in a Brazilian population; no associations with the risk factors analyzed were seen. It also confirmed the unusualness of the prevalence of such alterations.

  3. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Byers, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  4. Magnetic Properties and Phase Composition of Metamaterials Based on an Opal Matrix with 3 d-Transition Metal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Korolev, A. V.; Samoilovich, M. I.; Perov, D. V.; Nemytova, O. V.

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic properties of metamaterials based on an opal matrix with transition-metal (iron, nickel, cobalt) particles have been studied. Magnetization curves and magnetic hysteresis loops have been measured and the dependences of real and imaginary parts of magnetization have been determined using the dynamic ac susceptibility measuring procedure. Structural studies of metamaterials have been performed. The saturation magnetization and coercive force of the studied metamaterials have been found to depend weakly on the temperature. The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility at a temperature above 30 K can be described adequately by Curie-Weiss law and, at lower temperature, deviates from the law.

  5. Unusual MRI findings in grey matter heteropia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Leclerc, X.; Pruvo, J.P.; Houlette, C.; Godefroy, O.

    1998-01-01

    We report unusual MRI patterns in patients with grey matter heterotopia. Standard T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo and inversion-recovery sequences were used in 22 patients presenting with seizures or developmental delay. The images were reviewed for signal change surrounding white matter and for atypical size, morphology or topography. We found 10 cases of subependymal heterotopias 11 of focal subcortical heterotopia and of diffuse subcortical heterotopia. On clinical or MRI grounds, 8 cases were considered unusual: 2 of the subependymal type, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with white matter abnormalities, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with no clinicoradiological correlation 1 of extensive hemispheric subcortical heterotopia and 1 of diffuse subcortical heterotopia confined to the frontal lobe. The classical classification of heterotopia enables easy radiological diagnosis even in cases with unusual patterns. In some cases, heterogeneity and high signal in surrounding white matter can be found. Cortical dysplasia is the most frequent associated malformation. (orig.)

  6. Synthesis and functionalisation of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    Mundell, VJ

    2013-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles including calcium oxide, gold, and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) were synthesised using a range of techniques including reduction, co-precipitation and spinning disc technology. SPIOs were primarily synthesised via a co-precipitation method using iron (II) chloride, iron (III) chloride and ammonia; a spinning disc reactor and gaseous ammonia were trialled successfully for scale up, producing spherical particles of 10-40 nm in diameter a...

  7. An unusual recurrence of pruritic creeping eruption after treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-13

    Aug 13, 2015 ... However, an unusual recurrence of the disease in a Ghanaian male after standard treatment was observed ... dog or cat hookworm is not an unusual disease. However ... mistaken for fungal infections or inflammatory skin disorders. Indeed .... drug include dizziness, nausea, vomiting and intestinal cramps.

  8. Brittle-to-Ductile Transition in Metallic Glass Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şopu, D; Foroughi, A; Stoica, M; Eckert, J

    2016-07-13

    When reducing the size of metallic glass samples down to the nanoscale regime, experimental studies on the plasticity under uniaxial tension show a wide range of failure modes ranging from brittle to ductile ones. Simulations on the deformation behavior of nanoscaled metallic glasses report an unusual extended strain softening and are not able to reproduce the brittle-like fracture deformation as found in experiments. Using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations we provide an atomistic understanding of the deformation mechanisms of metallic glass nanowires and differentiate the extrinsic size effects and aspect ratio contribution to plasticity. A model for predicting the critical nanowire aspect ratio for the ductile-to-brittle transition is developed. Furthermore, the structure of brittle nanowires can be tuned to a softer phase characterized by a defective short-range order and an excess free volume upon systematic structural rejuvenation, leading to enhanced tensile ductility. The presented results shed light on the fundamental deformation mechanisms of nanoscaled metallic glasses and demarcate ductile and catastrophic failure.

  9. Cantilever-based micro-particle filter with simultaneous single particle detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Currently, separation of whole blood samples on lab-on-a-chip systems is achieved via filters followed by analysis of the filtered matter such as counting of blood cells. Here, a micro-chip based on cantilever technology is developed, which enables simultaneous filtration and counting of micro-particles...... from a liquid. A hole-array is integrated into a micro-cantilever, which is inserted into a microfluidic channel perpendicular to the flow. A metal pad at the apex of the cantilever enables an optical read-out of the deflection of the cantilever. When a micro-particle is too large to pass a hole...

  10. Subway particles are more genotoxic than street particles and induce oxidative stress in cultured human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna L; Nilsson, Lennart; Möller, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between airborne particles and a wide range of adverse health effects. The mechanisms behind these effects include oxidative stress and inflammation. Even though traffic gives rise to high levels of particles in the urban air, people are exposed to even higher levels in the subway. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how particles from different urban subenvironments differ in toxicity. The main aim of the present study was to compare the ability of particles from a subway station and a nearby very busy urban street, respectively, to damage DNA and to induce oxidative stress. Cultured human lung cells (A549) were exposed to particles, DNA damage was analyzed using single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay), and the ability to induce oxidative stress was measured as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation in lung cell DNA. We found that the subway particles were approximately eight times more genotoxic and four times more likely to cause oxidative stress in the lung cells. When the particles, water extracts from the particles, or particles treated with the metal chelator deferoxamine mesylate were incubated with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 8-oxodG was analyzed, we found that the oxidative capacity of the subway particles was due to redox active solid metals. Furthermore, analysis of the atomic composition showed that the subway particles to a dominating degree (atomic %) consisted of iron, mainly in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4). By using electron microscopy, the interaction between the particles and the lung cells was shown. The in vitro reactivity of the subway particles in combination with the high particle levels in subway systems give cause of concern due to the high number of people that are exposed to subway particles on a daily basis. To what extent the subway particles cause health effects in humans needs to be further evaluated.

  11. Unusual anatomy of maxillary central incisor with two roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Ashwini Shivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for successful endodontic therapy. Failure to recognize unusual root canal anatomy may lead to unsuccessful endodontic treatment. Case Report: This case report describes the successful endodontic treatment of the maxillary central incisor with unusual anatomy of two roots and two root canals. A 23-year-old male patient was referred for dental consultation with discoloration of the maxillary right central incisor with periapical lesion, which revealed unusual anatomy of root on radiographic examination, and was confirmed upon exploration. Discussion: As described by Vertucci, the maxillary central incisor presents a single root and single root canal in 100% of the cases. However, few cases of maxillary central incisors with two canals were reported in the literature, most of which were associated with developmental anomalies like fusion, germination or dens invaginatus. Clinician should be aware of the unusual anatomical variations that should be detected by the different diagnostic resources available.

  12. Compositions of airborne plutonium-bearing particles from a plutonium finishing operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.M. Jr.

    1976-11-01

    The elemental composition of 111 plutonium-bearing particles was determined (using an electron microprobe) as part of a program to investigate the origin and behavior of the long-lived transuranic radionuclides released from fuel reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant. These particles, collected from wet-cabinet and room-air exhausts from the plutonium finishing operation (JB-Line), were between 0.4 and 36 μm in diameter. Ninety-nine of the particles were found to be aggregates of various minerals and metals, six were quartz, and six were small (less than 2-μm-diameter) pieces of iron oxide. Collectively, these particles contained less minerals and more metals than natural dusts contain. The metallic constituents included elements normally not found in dusts, e.g., chromium, nickel, copper, and zinc. Concentrations of aluminum and iron exceeded those normally found in minerals. Elemental concentrations in individual particles covered a wide range: one 2-μm-diameter particle contained 97 percent NiO, a 9-μm-diameter particle contained 72 percent Cr 2 O 3 . Although the particles were selected because they produced plutonium fission tracks, the plutonium concentration was too low to be estimated by microprobe analysis in all but a 1-μm-diameter particle. This plutonium-bearing particle contained 73 percent PuO 2 by weight in combination with Fe 2 O 3 and mica; its activity was estimated at 0.17 pCi of 239 Pu

  13. Post-synthesis amine borane functionalization of metal-organic framework and its unusual chemical hydrogen release phenomenon

    KAUST Repository

    Berke, Heinz

    2017-05-11

    We report a novel strategy for post-synthesis amine borane functionalization of MOFs under gas-solid phase transformation utilizing gaseous diborane. The covalently confined amine borane derivative decorated on the framework backbone is stable when preserved at low temperature, but spontaneously liberates soft chemical hydrogen at room temperature leading to the development of an unusual borenium type species (-NH=BH2+) ion-paired with hydroborate anion. Furthermore, the unsaturated amino borane (-NH=BH2) and the -iminodiborane ((--NHB2H5) were detected as final products. A combination of DFT based molecular dynamics simulations and solid state NMR spectroscopy, utilizing isotopically enriched materials, were undertaken to unequivocally elucidate the mechanistic pathways for H2 liberation.

  14. When VSEPR fails: experimental and theoretical investigations of the behavior of alkaline-earth-metal acetylides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guino-o, Marites A; Alexander, Jacob S; McKee, Michael L; Hope, Håkon; Englich, Ulrich B; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin

    2009-11-09

    The synthesis, structural, and spectral characterization as well as a theoretical study of a family of alkaline-earth-metal acetylides provides insights into synthetic access and the structural and bonding characteristics of this group of highly reactive compounds. Based on our earlier communication that reported unusual geometry for a family of triphenylsilyl-substituted alkaline-earth-metal acetylides, we herein present our studies on an expanded family of target derivatives, providing experimental and theoretical data to offer new insights into the intensively debated theme of structural chemistry in heavy alkaline-earth-metal chemistry.

  15. Correlations of particle number concentrations and metals with nitrogen oxides and other traffic-related air pollutants in Glasgow and London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; Heal, Mathew R.; Beverland, Iain J.

    2012-07-01

    Particle number concentration (PNC) and transition metal content are implicated in the health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) but they are difficult to measure so consequently their temporal and spatial variations are not well characterized. Daily concentrations of PNC and particle-bound water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were measured at background and kerbside sites in Glasgow and London to examine if other metrics of air pollution such as optical darkness (absorbance) of collected filter samples of PM, gravimetric PM, and NO, NO2 and CO gas concentrations, can be used as surrogates for the temporal and spatial variations of the former. NO2 and NOx exhibited a high degree of within-site correlation and with PNC and water-soluble metals (Fe, Cu, As, Cd, Pb) at background sites in both cities. There is therefore potential to use NO2 and NOx as surrogates for PNC and water-soluble metal at background sites. However, correlation was weaker in complex street canyon environments where pollutant concentrations are strongly affected by local sources and the small-scale variations in pollutant dispersion induced by the wind regimes within street canyons. The corollary of the high correlation between NO2 and PNC and water-soluble metals at the background sites is that the latter pollutants may act as confounders for health effects attributed to NO2 from such sites. Concentrations of CO cannot be used as a surrogate for PNC. Increments in daily NOx and NO2 concentrations between trafficked and background sites were shown to be a simple and novel surrogate for daily spatial variation of PNC; for example, increments in NOx explained 78-79% of the variance in PNC at the paired sites in both Glasgow and London, but relationships were city specific. The increments in NOx also explained 70% of the spatial variation in Cu and Ni in Glasgow but not in London. Weekly NO2 measurements derived from passive diffusion tubes were also shown to

  16. Nanoparticular metal oxide/anatase catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalyst precursors comprising combustible crystallization seeds upon which...... the catalyst metai oxide is co-precipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step. The present invention also concerns processes wherein the nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts of the invention are used, such as SCR (deNOx) reactions...

  17. Elemental compositions of suspended particles released in glass manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuro, T; Mizohata, A; Kubota, T [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1980-03-01

    Suspended particles released in glass manufacture were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Suspended particles emitted from glass manufacture generally consist of both particles emitted from glass fusion and those produced through fuel combustion (mainly oil combustion). Elemental compositions of suspended particles emitted from glass fusion were found to be strongly dependent on the kind and recipe of raw materials and additives. Of the various metallic elements involved in suspended particles emitted from glass fusion, the elements, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Pb and so on are regarded to produce the most serious air pollution. The amount of emission of these elements to the environment is, howerer, quite varied from manufacturer to manufacturer. The replacement of electric furnace by oil combustion in opal glass manufacture remarkably reduced the emission of metallic elements to the environment.

  18. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  19. Adsorbent for metal ions and method of making and using

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L.R.; Lundquist, S.H.

    1999-08-10

    A method comprises the step of spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising (alkali metal or ammonium) (metal) hexacyanoferrate particles in a liquid, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers, said particles being active towards Cs ions. The particles, which can be of a single salt or a combination of salts, can be used free flowing, in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove Cs ions from aqueous solutions. 2 figs.

  20. Facile synthesis of gold nanomaterials with unusual crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhanxi; Huang, Xiao; Chen, Ye; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2017-11-01

    Gold (Au) nanomaterials have attracted wide research attention, owing to their high chemical stability, promising catalytic properties, excellent biocompatibility, unique electronic structure and outstanding localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption properties; all of which are closely related to their size and shape. Recently, crystal-phase-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanomaterials has emerged as a promising strategy to tune their physicochemical properties. This protocol describes the detailed experimental procedures for the crystal-phase-controlled syntheses of Au nanomaterials with unusual crystal structures under mild conditions. Briefly, pure hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Au square sheets (AuSSs) with a thickness of ∼2.4 nm are synthesized using a graphene-oxide-assisted method in which HAuCl 4 is reduced by oleylamine in a mixture of hexane and ethanol. By using pure hexane as the solvent, well-dispersed ultrathin hcp/face-centered cubic (fcc) Au nanowires with a diameter of ∼1.6 nm on graphene oxide can be obtained. Meanwhile, hcp/fcc Au square-like plates with a side length of 200-400 nm are prepared via the secondary growth of Au on the hcp AuSSs. Remarkably, hexagonal (4H) Au nanoribbons with a thickness of 2.0-6.0 nm can be synthesized with a one-pot colloidal method in which HAuCl 4 is reduced by oleylamine in a mixed solvent of hexane and 1,2-dichloropropane. It takes 17-37 h for the synthesis of these Au nanomaterials with unusual crystal structures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to characterize the resultant Au nanomaterials, which could have many promising applications, such as biosensing, near-IR photothermal therapy, catalysis and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

  1. Nanotoxicity: oxidative stress mediated toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Ghosh, Manoranjan; Sil, Parames Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are often used as industrial catalysts or to improve product's functional properties. Recent advanced nanotechnology have been expected to be used in various fields, ranging from sensors, environmental remediation to biomedicine, medical biology and imaging, etc. However, the growing use of nanoparticles has led to their release into environment and increased levels of these particles at nearby sites or the surroundings of their manufacturing factories become obvious. The toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on humans, animals, and certainly to the environment has become a major concern to our community. However, controversies still remain with respect to the toxic effects and the mechanisms of these nanoparticles. The scientific community now feels that an understanding of the toxic effects is necessary to handle these nanoparticles and their use. A new discipline, named nanotoxicology, has therefore been developed that basically refers to the study of the interactions of nanoparticles with biological systems and also measures the toxicity level related to human health. Nanoparticles usually generate reactive oxygen species to a greater extent than micro-sized particles resulting in increased pro-inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress via intracellular signaling pathways. In this review, we mainly focus on the routes of exposure of some metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and how these nanoparticles affect us or broadly the cells of our organs. We would also like to discuss the responsible mechanism(s) of the nanoparticle-induced reactive oxygen species mediated organ pathophysiology. A brief introduction of the characterization and application of these nanoparticles has also been included in the article.

  2. Facile solid-state synthesis of oxidation-resistant metal nanoparticles at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Hyung; Jung, Hyuk Joon; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyungtae; Lee, Byeongno; Nam, Dohyun; Kim, Chung Man; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Hur, Nam Hwi

    2018-05-01

    A simple and scalable method for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in the solid-state was developed, which can produce nanoparticles in the absence of solvents. Nanoparticles of coinage metals were synthesized by grinding solid hydrazine and the metal precursors in their acetates and oxides at 25 °C. The silver and gold acetates converted completely within 6 min into Ag and Au nanoparticles, respectively, while complete conversion of the copper acetate to the Cu sub-micrometer particles took about 2 h. Metal oxide precursors were also converted into metal nanoparticles by grinding alone. The resulting particles exhibit distinctive crystalline lattice fringes, indicating the formation of highly crystalline phases. The Cu sub-micrometer particles are better resistant to oxidation and exhibit higher conductivity compared to conventional Cu nanoparticles. This solid-state method was also applied for the synthesis of platinum group metals and intermetallic Cu3Au, which can be further extended to synthesize other metal nanoparticles.

  3. Effects of metallic Ti particles on the aging behavior and the influenced mechanical properties of squeeze-cast (SiCp+Ti)/7075Al hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yixiong; Chen, Weiping; Yang, Chao; Zhu, Dezhi; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of metallic Ti particles on the aging behavior of squeeze-cast (SiC p +Ti)/7075Al hybrid composites and the mechanical properties of the aging treated composites were investigated. Results shown that the precipitation hardening of the hybrid composites during aging processes was delayed due to the segregation of solute Mg atoms in the vicinity of the Ti particles even though the activation energy of the η′ precipitates in the hybrid composites was reduced when compared with the Ti particle-free composites. The segregation of the solute Mg atoms was facilitated as a result of the high diffusivity paths formed by the generated dislocations in the matrix induced by the thermal misfit between the SiC particle and the matrix. The smaller activation energy for the hybrid composite may attribute to a significant reduction in the nucleation rate of the dislocation nucleated η′ precipitates compared with the Ti particle-free composite. After aging treated under the optimum aging conditions, the tensile strength of both composites was improved because of the precipitation hardening of the matrix alloy. In contrast with the reduced ductility of the traditional Ti particle-free composites after aging treatment, the ductility of the Ti particle-containing composites was improved as a result of the strengthened interfaces between the Ti particles and the matrix alloy

  4. Preparation of Highly Dispersed Copper Particles in Zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Shuji; Matsumoto, Hiroshige

    1986-01-01

    Temperature programmed reduction and desorption techniques have been used to investigate the reduction process of CuY. The reduction of Cu^2+ ions in zeolite with H_2 occurs via a two-step mechanism in which Cu^+ is first formed and then reduced to metal. In the first step of reduction NH_3 was used as the reducing agent instead of H_2. Cu particles in the reduced CuY with NH_3 pretreatment were uniformly dispersed compared with those of CuY without one. The average particle size of Cu metal ...

  5. Modeling Correlation Effects in Nickelates with Slave Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Alexandru Bogdan; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    Nickelate interfaces display interesting electronic properties including orbital ordering similar to that of cuprate superconductors and thickness dependent metal-insulator transitions. One-particle band theory calculations do not include dynamic localized correlation effects on the nickel sites and thus often incorrectly predict metallic systems or incorrect ARPES spectra. Building on two previous successful slave-particle treatments of local correlations, we present a generalized slave-particle method that includes prior models and allows us to produce new intermediate models. The computational efficiency of these slave-boson methods means that one can readily study correlation effects in complex heterostructures. We show some predictions of these methods for the electronic structure of bulk and thin film nickelates. Work supported by NSF Grant MRSEC DMR-1119826.

  6. Size-dependent nonlocal effects in plasmonic semiconductor particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Localized surface plasmons (LSP) in semiconductor particles are expected to exhibit spatial nonlocal response effects as the geometry enters the nanometer scale. To investigate these nonlocal effects, we apply the hydrodynamic model to nanospheres of two different semiconductor materials: intrinsic...... InSb and n-doped GaAs. Our results show that the semiconductors indeed display nonlocal effects, and that these effects are even more pronounced than in metals. In a 150 nm InSb particle at 300 K, the LSP frequency is blueshifted 35%, which is orders of magnitude larger than the blueshift in a metal...... particle of the same size. This property, together with their tunability, makes semiconductors a promising platform for experiments in nonlocal effects. Copyright (C)EPLA, 2017...

  7. Distribution of lead in single atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D. M.; Hudson, P. K.; Cziczo, D. J.; Gallavardin, S.; Froyd, K. D.; Johnston, M. V.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Reinard, M. S.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Wexler, A. S.

    2007-06-01

    Three independent single particle mass spectrometers measured Pb in individual aerosol particles. These data provide unprecedented sensitivity and statistical significance for the measurement of Pb in single particles. This paper explores the reasons for the frequency of Pb in fine particles now that most gasoline is unleaded. Trace amounts of Pb were found in 5 to 25% of 250 to 3000 nm diameter particles sampled by both aircraft and surface instruments in the eastern and western United States. Over 5% of particles at a mountain site in Switzerland contained Pb. Particles smaller than 100 nm with high Pb content were also observed by an instrument that was only operated in urban areas. Lead was found on all types of particles, including Pb present on biomass burning particles from remote fires. Less common particles with high Pb contents contributed a majority of the total amount of Pb. Single particles with high Pb content often also contained alkali metals, Zn, Cu, Sn, As, and Sb. The association of Pb with Zn and other metals is also found in IMPROVE network filter data from surface sites. Sources of airborne Pb in the United States are reviewed for consistency with these data. The frequent appearance of trace Pb is consistent with widespread emissions of fine Pb particles from combustion sources followed by coagulation with larger particles during long-range transport. Industrial sources that directly emit Pb-rich particles also contribute to the observations. Clean regions of the western United States show some transport of Pb from Asia but most Pb over the United States comes from North American sources. Resuspension of Pb from soil contaminated by the years of leaded gasoline was not directly apparent.

  8. Distribution of lead in single atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Murphy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Three independent single particle mass spectrometers measured Pb in individual aerosol particles. These data provide unprecedented sensitivity and statistical significance for the measurement of Pb in single particles. This paper explores the reasons for the frequency of Pb in fine particles now that most gasoline is unleaded. Trace amounts of Pb were found in 5 to 25% of 250 to 3000 nm diameter particles sampled by both aircraft and surface instruments in the eastern and western United States. Over 5% of particles at a mountain site in Switzerland contained Pb. Particles smaller than 100 nm with high Pb content were also observed by an instrument that was only operated in urban areas. Lead was found on all types of particles, including Pb present on biomass burning particles from remote fires. Less common particles with high Pb contents contributed a majority of the total amount of Pb. Single particles with high Pb content often also contained alkali metals, Zn, Cu, Sn, As, and Sb. The association of Pb with Zn and other metals is also found in IMPROVE network filter data from surface sites. Sources of airborne Pb in the United States are reviewed for consistency with these data. The frequent appearance of trace Pb is consistent with widespread emissions of fine Pb particles from combustion sources followed by coagulation with larger particles during long-range transport. Industrial sources that directly emit Pb-rich particles also contribute to the observations. Clean regions of the western United States show some transport of Pb from Asia but most Pb over the United States comes from North American sources. Resuspension of Pb from soil contaminated by the years of leaded gasoline was not directly apparent.

  9. Friction stir processed Al - Metal oxide surface composites: Anodization and optical appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Canulescu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate metal oxide (TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2) particles into the surface of an Aluminium alloy. The surface composites were then anodized in a sulphuric acid electrolyte. The effect of anodizing parameters on the resulting optical...... dark to greyish white. This is attributed to the localized microstructural and morphological differences around the metal oxide particles incorporated into the anodic alumina matrix. The metal oxide particles in the FSP zone electrochemically shadowed the underlying Al matrix and modified the local...

  10. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

    1992-06-16

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

  11. Peculiarities of structural transformations in metal nanoparticles at high speed collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, K. P.; Kryzhevich, D. S.; Korchuganov, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of nanosized particle collision under the electrical explosion of metal wires of different types was conducted. Interatomic interactions were described on the base of the embedded atom method. Used potentials allowed describing with high accuracy many mechanical and physical properties which are very important for the simulations of nanoparticle collisions with high velocities. The dynamics of the nanosized particle formation at the electric pulse explosion of metal wires of different types was studied. Features of particle collisions on the example of nanoscale particles of copper and nickel, whose velocities varied from 50 to 1500 m/s were investigated. The peculiarities of structural transformations in the colliding particles depending on the velocity of collision were determined. The intervals of collision velocities in which interaction between particles is elastic or leads to the formation of structural defects or melting were calculated. The analysis of the structure and distribution of chemical elements over the cross section of the particles which were synthesized under simultaneous explosions of different metal wires was carried out.

  12. Particle Engulfment and Pushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    As a liquefied metal solidifies, particles dispersed in the liquid are either pushed ahead of or engulfed by the moving solidification front. Similar effects can be seen when the ground freezes and pushes large particles out of the soil. The Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP) experiment, conducted aboard the fourth U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP-4) mission in 1997, used a glass and plastic beads suspended in a transparent liquid. The liquid was then frozen, trapping or pushing the particles as the solidifying front moved. This simulated the formation of advanced alloys and composite materials. Such studies help scientists to understand how to improve the processes for making advanced materials on Earth. The principal investigator is Dr. Doru Stefanescu of the University of Alabama. This image is from a video downlink.

  13. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedi, D.G.; Shaw, M.T.

    1986-08-01

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm.

  14. An unusual oral habit presenting as Dentin Hypersensitivity | Afolabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the case of a 30-year-old man with an unusual oral habit- office pin chewing and filing of the front tooth which resulted in dentine hypersensitivity. Clinical relevance: The role of daily oral habits and techniques of cessation were suggested in the management of dentine hypersensitivity. Keywords: Unusual oral ...

  15. Synthesis of Carbon–Metal Multi-Strand Nanocomposites by Discharges in Heptane Between Two Metallic Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2017-04-26

    We studied composite wires assembled from electric field-driven nanoparticles in a dielectric liquid (heptane) to elucidate the exact processes and controlling factors involved in the synthesis of the multi-phase nanocomposites. Filamentary wires are synthesized by a two-step process: (1) abundant nanoparticle production, mostly of carbonaceous types, from heptane decomposition by spark discharge and of metal nanoparticles by electrode erosion and (2) assembly of hydrogenated amorphous carbonaceous nano-clusters with incorporated metal nanoparticles forming wires by dielectrophoretic transport while maintaining a high electric field between electrodes kept sufficiently separated to avoid breakdown. Four types of nanocomposites products are identified to form at different steps in distinctive zones of the setup. The black carbonaceous agglomerates with metal spherules made by electrode erosion represent the pyrolytic residues of heptane decomposition by spark discharge during step 1. The filamentary wires grown in the interelectrode gap during step 2 get assembled by dielectrophoretic transport and chaining forces. Their great stability is shown to express the concurrent effect of polymerization favoured by the abundance of metal catalysts. The nature, abundance, and transformation of solid particles from the source materials versus discharge conditions control the morphological and compositional diversity of the wires. The production of mineral and metal nano-particles traces the efficiency of dielectrophoresis to separate compound particle mixtures by size and to co-synthesize nanostructured microcrystals and nanocomposites. The link between impurities and the variability from nano- to micro-scales of the synthesized products provides an innovative contribution to the knowledge of nanocomposite synthesis triggered by electric field.

  16. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) an....../ppb. INTERPRETATION: Circulating T-lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions-particularly cobalt-may have a general depressive effect on T- and B-lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA....... RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect...

  17. Composite material reinforced with atomized quasicrystalline particles and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biner, S.B.; Sordelet, D.J.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1998-12-22

    A composite material comprises an aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix having generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy reinforcement particles disposed in the matrix to improve mechanical properties. A composite article can be made by consolidating generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy particles and aluminum or aluminum alloy particles to form a body that is cold and/or hot reduced to form composite products, such as composite plate or sheet, with interfacial bonding between the quasicrystalline particles and the aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix without damage (e.g. cracking or shape change) of the reinforcement particles. The cold and/or hot worked composite exhibits substantially improved yield strength, tensile strength, Young`s modulus (stiffness). 3 figs.

  18. Characterization of As and trace metals embedded in PM10 particles in Puebla City, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-García, S S; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Jonathan, M P; Navarrete-López, M; Herrera-García, M A; Muñoz-Sevilla, N P

    2014-01-01

    Forty-eight air-filter samples (PM10) were analysed to identify the concentration level of partially leached metals (PLMs; As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and V) from Puebla City, México. Samples were collected during 2008 from four monitoring sites: (1) Tecnológico (TEC), (2) Ninfas (NIN), (3) Hermanos Serdán (HS) and (4) Agua Santa (AS). The results indicate that in TEC, As (avg. 424 ng m(-3)), V (avg. 19.2 ng m(-3)), Fe (avg. 1,202 ng m(-3)), Cu (avg. 86.6 ng m(-3)), Cr (41.9 ng m(-3)) and Ni (18.6 ng m(-3)) are on the higher side than other populated regions around the world. The enrichment of PLMs is due to the industrial complexes generating huge dust particles involving various operations. The results are supported by the correlation of metals (Mn, Cd and Co) with Fe indicating its anthropogenic origin and likewise, As with Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Pb and V. The separate cluster of As, Fe and Mn clearly signifies that it is due to continuous eruption of fumaroles from the active volcano Popocatépetl in the region.

  19. Effective High-Frequency Permeability of Compacted Metal Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovskaya, I. I.; Semenov, V. E.; Rybakov, K. I.

    2018-03-01

    We propose a model for determination of the effective complex permeability of compacted metal-powder media. It is based on the equality of the magnetic moment in a given volume of the media with the desired effective permeability to the total magnetic moment of metal particles in the external high-frequency magnetic field, which arises due to excitation of electric eddy currents in the particles. Calculations within the framework of the proposed model allow us to refine the values of the real and imaginary components of the permeability of metal powder compacts in the microwave band. The conditions of applicability of the proposed model are formulated, and their fulfillment is verified for metal powder compacts in the microwave and millimeter wavelength bands.

  20. Microscopic evaluation of trace metals in cloud droplets in an acid precipitation region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Wang, Yan; Collett, Jeffrey L; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-05-07

    Mass concentrations of soluble trace metals and size, number, and mixing properties of nanometal particles in clouds determine their toxicity to ecosystems. Cloud water was found to be acidic, with a pH of 3.52, at Mt. Lu (elevation 1,165 m) in an acid precipitation region in South China. A combination of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for the first time demonstrates that the soluble metal concentrations and solid metal particle number are surprisingly high in acid clouds at Mt. Lu, where daily concentrations of SO2, NO2, and PM10 are 18 μg m(-3), 7 μg m(-3), and 22 μg m(-3). The soluble metals in cloudwater with the highest concentrations were zinc (Zn, 200 μg L(-1)), iron (Fe, 88 μg L(-1)), and lead (Pb, 77 μg L(-1)). TEM reveals that 76% of cloud residues include metal particles that range from 50 nm to 1 μm diameter with a median diameter of 250 nm. Four major metal-associated particle types are Pb-rich (35%), fly ash (27%), Fe-rich (23%), and Zn-rich (15%). Elemental mapping shows that minor soluble metals are distributed within sulfates of cloud residues. Emissions of fine metal particles from large, nonferrous industries and coal-fired power plants with tall stacks were transported upward to this high elevation. Our results suggest that the abundant trace metals in clouds aggravate the impacts of acid clouds or associated precipitation on the ecosystem and human health.

  1. Detection of metal residues on bone using SEM-EDS. Part I: Blunt force injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechníková, Markéta; Porta, Davide; Mazzarelli, Debora; Rizzi, Agostino; Drozdová, Eva; Gibelli, Daniele; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2012-11-30

    Previous studies have indicated that metal particles remain on bone after sharp force injury or gunshot and that their detection by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) could greatly help in tool identification. However, the presence of metal particles on bone surfaces in the context of blunt force trauma has never been assessed experimentally. For this reason the present paper represents an experimental study of the behaviour of metal residues on bone following blunt force injury. Ten fresh sub-adult bovine metatarsal bones were manually cleaned of soft tissues. They were then struck by metal bars (copper, iron or aluminium) on the external surface of the mid-diaphysis. All blunt metal instruments used in this study left a sign in the form of single particles, a smear or a powder-like deposit on the bone surface. The residues of all three metal implements were detected on the bone surface, 0.3-10 mm from the fracture border. The presence of metal particles was confirmed in all samples struck with iron and copper and in two of six aluminium samples; no particles were detected on the negative control. Chemical composition of residues highly corresponded with the composition of applied bars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using a Neural Network Approach to Find Unusual Butterfly Pitch Angle Distribution Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, C.; Sibeck, D. G.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Vieira, L.; Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    A special kind of neural network referred to as a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) was previously adopted to identify, in pitch angle-resolved relativistic electron flux data provided by the REPT instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes, three major types of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs), namely 90o-peaked, butterfly and flattop (Souza et al., 2016), following the classification scheme employed by Gannon et al. (2007). Previous studies show that butterfly distribution can be found in more than one shape. They usually exhibit an intense decrease near 90° pitch angles compared to the peaks usually around 30° and 150°. Sometimes unusual butterfly PAD shapes with peaks near 45° and 135° pitch angles can be observed. These could be correlated with different physical processes that govern the production and loss of energetic particles in the Van Allen radiation belt. A neural network approach allows the distinction of different kinds of butterfly PADs which were not analyzed in detail by Souza et al. (2016). This study uses SOM methodology to find these unusual butterfly PAD shape during the interval between January 1, 2014 and October 1, 2015, during which Van Allen Probes orbit covered all MLT. The spatial and temporal occurrence of these events were investigated as well as their solar wind and magnetospheric drivers.

  3. The dispersal of metal mining wastes in the catchment of the river Geul (Belgium - The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaers, H.

    1989-01-01

    The metal mining industry has caused large quantities of heavy metals to enter countless river systems. The consequent spread of heavy metals is determined largely by how these metals bind with silt and soil particles and the transport pathways of these particles in the alluvial parts of river

  4. From the top-quark to the Higgs-Boson: the search for the heaviest particles of nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.

    2001-01-01

    According to our present knowledge the fundamental constituents of matter are quarks and leptons ordered by their mass into three particle families. With the discovery of the top quark about six years age our periodic table of elementary particles has been completed but the origin of its unusually high mass and, more general, of the mass of all particles, still needs to be established. The Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik in Karlsruhe, who researches on the top quark and its properties, also takes part in the world-wide race for the discovery of the widely believed mediator of mass, the Higgs boson. (orig.)

  5. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedi, D.G.; Shaw, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm. (orig.)

  6. Preparation of surface imprinted core-shell particles via a metal chelating strategy: specific recognition of porcine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qinran; Li, Senwu; Liu, Lukuan; Yang, Kaiguang; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of molecularly imprinted core-shell microparticles via a metal chelating strategy that assists in the creation of selective recognition sites for albumin. Porcine serum albumin (PSA) was immobilized on silica beads via copper(II) chelation interaction. A solution containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid as the monomers was mixed with the above particles, and free radical polymerization was performed at 25 °C. Copper ion and template were then removed to obtain PSA-imprinted core-shell particles (MIPs) with a typical diameter of 5 μm. The binding capacity of such MIP was 8.9 mg protein per gram of MIPs, and the adsorption equilibrium was established within <20 min. The imprinting factor for PSA reached 2.6 when the binding capacity was 7.7 mg protein per gram of MIPs. The use of such MIPs enabled PSA to be selectively recognized even in presence of the competitive proteins ribonuclease B, cytochrome c, and myoglobin. The results indicate that this imprinting strategy for protein may become a promising method to prepare MIPs for protein recognition. (author)

  7. High-temperature deformation and processing maps of Zr-4 metal matrix with dispersed coated surrogate nuclear fuel particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Huiqun; Zhang, Ruiqian; Li, Gang; Yi, Danqing; Lin, Gaoyong; Guo, Zhen; Liu, Shaoqiang

    2018-06-01

    High-temperature compression deformation of a Zr-4 metal matrix with dispersed coated surrogate nuclear fuel particles was investigated at 750 °C-950 °C with a strain rate of 0.01-1.0 s-1 and height reduction of 20%. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to investigate the influence of the deformation conditions on the microstructure of the composite and damage to the coated surrogate fuel particles. The results indicated that the flow stress of the composite increased with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. The true stress-strain curves showed obvious serrated oscillation characteristics. There were stable deformation ranges at the initial deformation stage with low true strain at strain rate 0.01 s-1 for all measured temperatures. Additionally, the coating on the surface of the surrogate nuclear fuel particles was damaged when the Zr-4 matrix was deformed at conditions of high strain rate and low temperature. The deformation stability was obtained from the processing maps and microstructural characterization. The high-temperature deformation activation energy was 354.22, 407.68, and 433.81 kJ/mol at true strains of 0.02, 0.08, and 0.15, respectively. The optimum deformation parameters for the composite were 900-950 °C and 0.01 s-1. These results are expected to provide guidance for subsequent determination of possible hot working processes for this composite.

  8. Direct observation and analysis of yolk-shell materials using low-voltage high-resolution scanning electron microscopy: Nanometal-particles encapsulated in metal-oxide, carbon, and polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, Shunsuke; Suga, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Hideyuki [JEOL Ltd., SM Business Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Young Jeong, Hu [Graduate School of EEWS, WCU/BK21+, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Galeano, Carolina; Schüth, Ferdi [Department of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Mülheim (Germany); Terasaki, Osamu, E-mail: terasaki@mmk.su.se, E-mail: terasaki@kaist.ac.kr [Graduate School of EEWS, WCU/BK21+, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Berzelii Centre EXSELENT on Porous Materials, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    Nanometal particles show characteristic features in chemical and physical properties depending on their sizes and shapes. For keeping and further enhancing their features, the particles should be protected from coalescence or degradation. One approach is to encapsulate the nanometal particles inside pores with chemically inert or functional materials, such as carbon, polymer, and metal oxides, which contain mesopores to allow permeation of only chemicals not the nanometal particles. Recently developed low-voltage high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was applied to the study of structural, chemical, and electron state of both nanometal particles and encapsulating materials in yolk-shell materials of Au@C, Ru/Pt@C, Au@TiO{sub 2}, and Pt@Polymer. Progresses in the following categories were shown for the yolk-shell materials: (i) resolution of topographic image contrast by secondary electrons, of atomic-number contrast by back-scattered electrons, and of elemental mapping by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy; (ii) sample preparation for observing internal structures; and (iii) X-ray spectroscopy such as soft X-ray emission spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was also used for characterization of Au@C.

  9. Ion-induced effects on metallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimmer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the ion-irradiation of metallic nanoparticles in combination with various substrates. Particle diameters were systematically varied within the range of 2.5-14 nm, inter-particle distances range from 30-120 nm. Irradiations were performed with various inert gas ions with energies of 200 keV, resulting in an average ion range larger than the particle dimensions and therefore the effects of irradiation are mainly due to creation of structural defects within the particles and the underlying substrate as well. The main part of this work deals with ion-induced burrowing of metallic nanoparticles into the underlying substrate. The use of micellar nanoparticles with sharp size distribution combined with AFM and TEM analysis allows a much more detailed look at this effect than other works on that topic so far. With respect to the particle properties also a detailed look on the effect of irradiation on the particle structure would be interesting, which might lead to a deliberate influence on magnetic properties, for example. Within the context of this work, first successful experiments were performed on FePt particles, showing a significant reduction of the ordering temperature leading to the magnetically interesting, ordered L1 0 phase. (orig.)

  10. Influence of particle size of wear metal on the spectrometric oil analysis programme (SOAP), demonstrated by the determination of iron by AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaegler, S.H.; Jantzen, E.

    1982-02-01

    The possibility that there might be a relation between particle size of wear metal and spectrometric determination, (e.g. of the iron content in used lubricating oils) has been examined. In this connection it had to be clarified from which particle size of the iron wear the Fe content determined by direct AAS (solution of the oil sample) is in agreement with the true value in the used oil. The determination of the absolute iron content was performed by a colorimetric method preceded by an incineration of the used oil. Contrary to other publications, in which work is based on spherical iron particles as a simulated wear, the test described here relates to true wear particles. To obtain the total iron wear from a gear oil it was filtered off from the used oil and afterwards separated into defined particle size ranges by a procedure specially developed for this purpose. The different groups of scaly particles, which were collected in this way, were then mixed homogeneously into fresh luboil samples according to their sizes. The determination of the iron content from these newly mixed luboil samples was carried out 1. by direct AAS, 2. by AAS after incineration of the oil samples and 3. by a colorimetric method (to obtain the absolute value of the iron content). The results showed a recovery of the iron of only 50% if the wear particles were bigger than about 2 ..mu..m. That means that the true value of the iron content in a used lubricating oil is found by direct AAS only if the particle size is <=1 ..mu..m.

  11. Metallic composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frommeyer, G.

    1987-01-01

    The structure and properties of metallic composite materials and composite materials with metallic matrix are considered. In agreement with the morphology of constituent phases the following types of composite materials are described: dispersion-strengthened composite materials; particle-reinforced composite materials; fibrous composite materials; laminar composite materials. Data on strength and electric properties of the above-mentioned materials, as well as effect of the amount, location and geometric shape of the second phase on them, are presented

  12. Unusual Crystallization Behavior Close to the Glass Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2018-03-01

    Using molecular simulations, we shed light on the mechanism underlying crystal nucleation in metal alloys and unravel the interplay between crystal nucleation and glass transition, as the conditions of crystallization lie close to this transition. While decreasing the temperature of crystallization usually results in a lower free energy barrier, we find an unexpected reversal of behavior for glass-forming alloys as the temperature of crystallization approaches the glass transition. For this purpose, we simulate the crystallization process in two glass-forming Copper alloys, Ag6 Cu4 , which has a positive heat of mixing, and CuZr, characterized by a large negative heat of mixing. Our results allow us to identify this unusual behavior as directly correlated with a nonmonotonic temperature dependence for the formation energy of connected icosahedral structures, which are incompatible with crystalline order and impede the development of the crystal nucleus, leading to an unexpectedly larger free energy barrier at low temperature. This, in turn, promotes the formation of a predominantly closed-packed critical nucleus, with fewer defects, thereby suggesting a new way to control the structure of the crystal nucleus, which is of key importance in catalysis.

  13. Hot beta particles in the lung: Results from dogs exposed to fission product radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident resulted in the release of uranium dioxide fuel and fission product radionuclides into the environment with the fallout of respirable, highly radioactive particles that have been termed {open_quotes}hot beta particles.{close_quotes} There is concern that these hot beta particles (containing an average of 150-20,000 Bq/particle), when inhaled and deposited in the lung, may present an extraordinary hazard for the induction of lung cancer. We reviewed data from a group of studies in dogs exposed to different quantities of beta-emitting radionuclides with varied physical half-lives to determine if those that inhaled hot beta particles were at unusual risk for lung cancer. This analysis indicates that the average dose to the lung is adequate to predict biologic effects of lung cancer for inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides in the range of 5-50 Gy to the lung and with particle activities in the range of 0.10-50 Bq/particle.

  14. Method of electrolytic decontamination of contaminated metal materials for radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yoshio; Ishibashi, Masaru; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To electrolytically eliminate radioactive materials from metal materials contaminated with radioactive materials, as well as efficiently remove metal ions leached out in an electrolyte. Method: In the case of anodic dissolution of metal materials contaminated with radioactivity in an electrolyte to eliminate radioactive contaminating materials on the surface of the metal materials, a portion of an electrolytic cell is defined with partition membranes capable of permeating metal ions therethrough. A cathode connected to a different power source is disposed to the inside of the partition membranes and fine particle of metals are suspended and floated in the electrolyte. By supplying an electric current between an insoluble anode disposed outside of the partition membranes and the cathode, metal ions permeating from the outside of the partition membranes are deposited on the fine metal particles. Accordingly, since metal ions in the electrolyte are removed, the electrolyte can always be kept clean. (Yoshihara, H.)

  15. IWTS metal-water reaction rate evaluation (Fauske and Associates report 99-26)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-07-29

    The report presents a thermal stability analysis of partially metallic particulate in two IWTS components, the knock out pot and settlers. Particulate in the knock out pot is thermally stable for combinations of average particle size and metal mass fraction which appear realistic. Particulate in the settlers is thermally stable when a realistic account of particle reactions over time, metal fraction, and size distribution is considered.

  16. Method and electrochemical cell for synthesis and treatment of metal monolayer electrocatalysts metal, carbon, and oxide nanoparticles ion batch, or in continuous fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2015-04-28

    An apparatus and method for synthesis and treatment of electrocatalyst particles in batch or continuous fashion is provided. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a sonication bath and a two-compartment chamber submerged in the sonication bath. The upper and lower compartments are separated by a microporous material surface. The upper compartment comprises a cover and a working electrode (WE) connected to a Pt foil contact, with the foil contact connected to the microporous material. The upper chamber further comprises reference counter electrodes. The lower compartment comprises an electrochemical cell containing a solution of metal ions. In one embodiment, the method for synthesis of electrocatalysts comprises introducing a plurality of particles into the apparatus and applying sonication and an electrical potential to the microporous material connected to the WE. After the non-noble metal ions are deposited onto the particles, the non-noble metal ions are displaced by noble-metal ions by galvanic displacement.

  17. Heavy Metals in Air Nanoparticles in the Moravian-Silesian Region (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Sýkorová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Moravian-Silesian Region is one of the most polluted sites by dust particles in the Czech Republic. Therefore, atmospheric concentrations of heavy metals as cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, antimony, thallium, manganese, iron and zinc, were monitored at 10 localities in the region during summer of 2014. Heavy metals were monitored in 10 particle size classes from 18.3 nm to 9.93 mm. The percentage of the amount of heavy metals in the sum PM at all localities ranged from 0.2 to 2.5 %. It was found that chromium, manganese, iron and zinc were mostly accumulated in dust particles with diameter greater than 1.6 µm. Lead, cadmium and antimony occur mainly in the class below 0.949 µm. These metals are more dangerous for human health, and can have potential carcinogenic effect. The influence of metallurgical industry evaluated on the basis of heavy metals in the individual particle size classes in the air within the Moravian-Silesian Region has not been unequivocally demonstrated.

  18. STAR FORMATION AT VERY LOW METALLICITY. V. THE GREATER IMPORTANCE OF INITIAL CONDITIONS COMPARED TO METALLICITY THRESHOLDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jappsen, Anne-Katharina; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Kitsionas, Spyridon

    2009-01-01

    The formation of the first stars out of metal-free gas appears to result in stars at least an order of magnitude more massive than in the present-day case. We here consider what controls the transition from a primordial to a modern initial mass function. It has been proposed that this occurs when effective metal line cooling occurs at a metallicity threshold of Z/Z sun > 10 -3.5 . We study the influence of low levels of metal enrichment on the cooling and collapse of initially ionized gas in small protogalactic halos using three-dimensional, smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with particle splitting. Our initial conditions represent protogalaxies forming within a previously ionized H II region that has not yet had time to cool and recombine. These differ considerably from those used in simulations predicting a metallicity threshold, where the gas was initially cold and only partially ionized. In the centrally condensed potential that we study here, a wide variety of initial conditions for the gas yields a monolithic central collapse. Our models show no fragmentation during collapse to number densities as high as 10 5 cm -3 , for metallicities reaching as high as 10 -1 Z sun , far above the threshold suggested by previous work. Rotation allows for the formation of gravitationally stable gas disks over large fractions of the local Hubble time. Turbulence slows the growth of the central density slightly, but both spherically symmetric and turbulent initial conditions collapse and form a single sink particle. We therefore argue that fragmentation at moderate density depends on the initial conditions for star formation more than on the metal abundances present. The actual initial conditions to be considered still need to be determined in detail by observation and modeling of galaxy formation. Metal abundance may still drive fragmentation at very high densities due to dust cooling, perhaps giving an alternative metallicity threshold.

  19. Formation and alteration of airborne particles in the subway environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, T; Querol, X; Martins, V; Minguillón, M C; Reche, C; Ku, L H; Eun, H R; Ahn, K H; Capdevila, M; de Miguel, E

    2017-01-25

    Most particles in the rail subway environment are sub-micron sized ferruginous flakes and splinters generated mechanically by frictional wear of brake pads, wheels and rails. To better understand the mechanisms of formation and the alteration processes affecting inhalable particles in subways, PM samples (1-2.5 μm and 2.5-10 μm) were collected in the Barcelona Metro and then studied under a scanning electron microscope. Most particles in these samples are hematitic (up to 88%), with relatively minor amounts of mineral matter (up to 9%) and sulphates (up to 5%). Detailed microscopy (using back scattered and TEM-DRX imaging) reveals how many of the metallic particles comprise the metallic Fe nucleus surrounded by hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and a coating of sulphate and chloride salts mixed with mineral matter (including Ca-carbonates, clay minerals and quartz). These observations record the emission of fine to ultrafine FePM by frictional wear at elevated temperatures that promote rapid partial (or complete) oxidation of the native metal. Water condensing on the PM surface during cooling leads to the adsorption of inorganic mineral particles that coat the iron oxide. The distinctively layered polymineralic structure that results from these processes is peculiar to particles generated in the subway environment and very different from PM typically inhaled outdoors.

  20. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  1. A detection method of negative pionlike particles from a H2 gas discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin.

    1996-02-01

    The negative pionlike particles π - penetrate a metal (or insulator) plate if positive ions produced secondarily by H - ions, diffuse to the back of the plate. Thus, the π - particles are not detected by a usual beam collector of mass analyzer using a metal plate. In order to detect the π - particles, we must interrupt the diffusion of the positive ions to the back of the beam collector while the π - particles are confined inside the beam collector and changed into a multiplied electron current. (author)

  2. Physical and chemical characterization of airborne particles from welding operations in automotive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasch, Jean; D'Arcy, James

    2008-07-01

    Airborne particles were characterized from six welding operations in three automotive plants, including resistance spot welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of aluminum and resistance spot welding, MIG welding and weld-through sealer of galvanized steel. Particle levels were measured throughout the process area to select a sampling location, followed by intensive particle sampling over one working shift. Temporal trends were measured, and particles were collected on filters to characterize their size and chemistry. In all cases, the particles fell into a bimodal size distribution with very large particles >20 mum in diameter, possibly emitted as spatter or metal expulsions, and very small particles about 1 mum in diameter, possibly formed from condensation of vaporized metal. The mass median aerodynamic diameter was about 1 mum, with only about 7% of the particle mass present as ultrafine particles welding particles could be accounted for by chemical analysis, with the remainder possibly present as oxygen. Predominant species were organic carbon, elemental carbon, iron, and aluminum. More than 80% of the particle mass could be accounted for from steel welding, primarily present as iron, organic carbon, zinc, and copper. Particle concentrations and elemental concentrations were compared with allowable concentrations as recommended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. In all cases, workplace levels were at least 11 times lower than recommended levels.

  3. Electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) method for modeling the formation of metal surface structures induced by femtosecond laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouder, M. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Lamrous, O., E-mail: omarlamrous@mail.ummto.dz [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Mitiche, M.D. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Itina, T.E. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR CNRS 5516/Université Jean Monnet, 18 rue de Professeur Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Zemirli, M. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2013-09-01

    The particle in cell (PIC) method coupled to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to model the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) at the early stage of femtosecond laser irradiation of smooth metal surface. The theoretical results were analyzed and compared with experimental data taken from the literature. It was shown that the optical properties of the target are not homogeneous and the ejection of electrons is such that ripples in the electron density were obtained. The Coulomb explosion mechanism was proposed to explain the ripples formation under the considered conditions.

  4. Electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) method for modeling the formation of metal surface structures induced by femtosecond laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouder, M.; Lamrous, O.; Mitiche, M.D.; Itina, T.E.; Zemirli, M.

    2013-01-01

    The particle in cell (PIC) method coupled to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to model the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) at the early stage of femtosecond laser irradiation of smooth metal surface. The theoretical results were analyzed and compared with experimental data taken from the literature. It was shown that the optical properties of the target are not homogeneous and the ejection of electrons is such that ripples in the electron density were obtained. The Coulomb explosion mechanism was proposed to explain the ripples formation under the considered conditions.

  5. Methods for surface treating metals, ceramics, and plastics before adhesive bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althouse, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for pretreating the surfaces of metals, ceramics, and plastics before they are coated with adhesive and used in assembly are described. The treatments recommended have been used successfully in the laboratory at LLL. Many are used in the assembly of nuclear devices. However, an unusual alloy or complex configuration may require trials before a specific surface treatment is chosen

  6. Assessment of Electromagnetic Stirrer Agitated Liquid Metal Flows by Dynamic Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ščepanskis, Mihails; Sarma, Mārtiņš; Vontobel, Peter; Trtik, Pavel; Thomsen, Knud; Jakovičs, Andris; Beinerts, Toms

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents qualitative and quantitative characterization of two-phase liquid metal flows agitated by the stirrer on rotating permanent magnets. The stirrer was designed to fulfill various eddy flows, which may have different rates of solid particle entrapment from the liquid surface and their homogenization. The flow was characterized by visualization of the tailored tracer particles by means of dynamic neutron radiography, an experimental method well suited for liquid metal flows due to low opacity of some metals for neutrons. The rather high temporal resolution of the image acquisition (32 Hz image acquisition rate) allows for the quantitative investigation of the flows up to 30 cm/s using neutron particle image velocimetry. In situ visualization of the two-phase liquid metal flow is also demonstrated.

  7. Structural peculiarities in magnetic small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneda, K.; Morrish, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    Nanostructured magnetic materials, consisting of nanometer-sized crystallites, are currently a developing subject. Evidence has been accumulating that they possess properties that can differ substantially from those of bulk materials. This paper illustrates how Moessbauer spectroscopy can yield useful information on the structural peculiarities associated with these small particles. As illustrations, metallic iron and iron-oxide systems are considered in detail. The subjects discussed include: (1) Phase stabilities in small particles, (2) deformed or nonsymmetric atomic arrangements in small particles, and (3) peculiar magnetic structures or non-collinear spin arrangements in small magnetic oxide particles that are correlated with lower specific magnetizations as compared to the bulk values. (orig.)

  8. Parallel and Perpendicular Alignment of Anisotropic Particles in Free Liquid Microjets and Emerging Microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenk, Mathias; Hofmann, Eddie; Seibt, Susanne; Rosenfeldt, Sabine; Schrack, Lukas; Drechsler, Markus; Rothkirch, Andre; Ohm, Wiebke; Breu, Josef; Gekle, Stephan; Förster, Stephan

    2018-04-24

    Liquid microjets play a key role in fiber spinning, inkjet printing, and coating processes. In all of these applications, the liquid jets carry dispersed particles whose spatial and orientational distributions within the jet critically influence the properties of the fabricated structures. Despite its importance, there is currently no knowledge about the orientational distribution of particles within microjets and droplets. Here, we demonstrate a microfluidic device that allows to determine the local particle distribution and orientation by X-ray scattering. Using this methodology, we discovered unexpected changes in the particle orientation upon exiting the nozzle to form a free jet, and upon jet break-up into droplets, causing an unusual biaxial particle orientation. We show how flow and aspect ratio determine the flow orientation of anisotropic particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the observed phenomena are a general characteristic of anisotropic particles. Our findings greatly enhance our understanding of particle orientation in free jets and droplets and provide a rationale for controlling particle alignment in liquid jet-based fabrication methodologies.

  9. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has been hypothesized that these unusual properties result from fast diffusion of the nanostructures in the host polymer, which facilitates polymer chain relaxation by constraint release and other processes. In this study, the effects of addition of sterically stabilized inorganic nanoparticles to entangled cis-1,4-polyisoprene and polydimethylsiloxane on the overall rheology of nanocomposites are discussed. In addition, insights about the relaxation of the host polymer chains and transport properties of nanoparticles in entangled polymer nanocomposites are presented. The nanoparticles are found to act as effective plasticizers for their entangled linear hosts, and below a critical, chemistry and molecular-weight dependent particle volume fraction, lead to reduced viscosity, glass transition temperature, number of entanglements, and polymer relaxation time. We also find that the particle motions in the polymer host are hyperdiffusive and at the nanoparticle length scale, the polymer host acts like a simple, ideal fluid and the composites\\' viscosity rises with increasing particle concentration. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. The Metal-Enriched Environments of Galaxies Near Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, George

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between galaxies and extended metal-enriched gas offers a powerful diagnostic of the feedback processes that shape galaxy growth. Over 0 6; to date, however, little work on the galaxy-absorber connection at these redshifts has been done due to the high cost of identifying the galaxies. To overcome this obstacle, we propose to obtain deep ACS and WFC3 imaging-building on archival data-in the field of a single z=7 quasar whose spectrum contains an unusually high number of intervening absorbers over 5.5 systems systems simultaneously, offering a high multiplexing advantage for follow-up spectroscopy. The extent to which z 6 galaxies are (or are not) associated with these metal lines, and the relationship between absorber and galaxy properties will deliver much needed insights into the mechanisms that drive galaxy growth and metal enrichment during the reionization epoch.

  11. Behaviour of TEM metal grids during in-situ heating experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaoli; Su, Dangsheng

    2009-05-01

    The stability of Ni, Cu, Mo and Au transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids coated with ultra-thin amorphous carbon (alpha-C) or silicon monoxide film is examined by in-situ heating up to a temperature in the range 500-850 degrees C in a transmission electron microscope. It is demonstrated that some grids can generate nano-particles either due to the surface diffusion of metal atoms on amorphous film or due to the metal evaporation/redeposition. The emergence of nano-particles can complicate experimental observations, particularly in in-situ heating studies of dynamic behaviours of nano-materials in TEM. The most widely used Cu grid covered with amorphous carbon is unstable, and numerous Cu nano-particles start to form once the heating temperature reaches 600 degrees C. In the case of Ni grid covered with alpha-C film, a large number of Ni nano-crystals occur immediately when the temperature approaches 600 degrees C, accompanied by the graphitization of amorphous carbon. In contrast, both Mo and Au grids covered with alpha-C film exhibit good stability at elevated temperature, for instance, up to 680 and 850 degrees C for Mo and Au, respectively, and any other metal nano-particles are detected. Cu grid covered Si monoxide thin film is stable up to 550 degrees C, but Si nano-crystals appear under intensive electron beam. The generated nano-particles are well characterized by spectroscopic techniques (EDXS/EELS) and high-resolution TEM. The mechanism of nano-particle formation is addressed based on the interactions between the metal grid and the amorphous carbon film and on the sublimation of metal.

  12. Ultrafast Dynamics of Metallo-Dielectric Core-Shell Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, X.

    2008-01-01

    Optical properties of metallic nano-structures have attracted a lot of attention in the past decades. In this thesis, we focus on nano-sized silica-core gold-shell particles, study the linear, nonlinear and acoustic vibrations of the particles. The linear optical properties in the visible range of

  13. Nano-socketed nickel particles with enhanced coking resistance grown in situ by redox exsolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, Dragos; Oh, Tae-Sik; Miller, David N.; Ménard, Hervé; Bukhari, Syed M.; Gamble, Stephen R.; Gorte, Raymond J.; Vohs, John M.; Irvine, John T. S.

    2015-09-01

    Metal particles supported on oxide surfaces are used as catalysts for a wide variety of processes in the chemical and energy conversion industries. For catalytic applications, metal particles are generally formed on an oxide support by physical or chemical deposition, or less commonly by exsolution from it. Although fundamentally different, both methods might be assumed to produce morphologically and functionally similar particles. Here we show that unlike nickel particles deposited on perovskite oxides, exsolved analogues are socketed into the parent perovskite, leading to enhanced stability and a significant decrease in the propensity for hydrocarbon coking, indicative of a stronger metal-oxide interface. In addition, we reveal key surface effects and defect interactions critical for future design of exsolution-based perovskite materials for catalytic and other functionalities. This study provides a new dimension for tailoring particle-substrate interactions in the context of increasing interest for emergent interfacial phenomena.