WorldWideScience

Sample records for untreated soil samples

  1. Bacterial Community Dynamics and Biodegradation Rates in Untreated and Oily Soils During PAH Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    The approach taken in this study represents an attempt to address the possible selective effects of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on the bacterial community structure of an untreated garden soil (S) and a chronically contaminated oily soil (CS). Untreated and chronically hydrocarbon polluted soils, collected from Egypt were enriched in shaking flasks containing 50 mg/l anthracene as a sole source of carbon over a period of 15 days. Bacterial communities in each soil were profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR amplified 16 S r DNA gene fragments after 0, 5, 10, and 15 days. Culture able biodegrading bacterial counts on minerals- Silica gel- Oil (MSD) plates as well as anthracene degradation for both soils were followed up at the same time intervals. Nine bacterial species were found to be dominant in the pristine soil before enrichment with the model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), eight of them disappeared after live days of enrichment with the domination of one new species. It stayed dominant in soil until 15 days - exposure to anthracene. Therefore it can be used as a bio marker for PAH pollution. The chronically contaminated soil revealed a remarkable increase in the diversity directly after 5 days exposure to PAH HPLC analysis of the extracted anthracene remained in the biodegradation flasks after different degradation periods revealed that a higher biodegradation rates were accomplished by the oily soil consortium rather than by the pristine one. Before exposure to PAH, counts of culture able biodegrading bacteria were found to be higher in the untreated soil rather than in the oily one. After exposure the situation has been a bit altered as the counts in the untreated soil revealed a temporary suppression with a prolongation of the time required for growth as a result of the hydrocarbon stress

  2. Effect of untreated and treated sewage wastewater by chloride or irradiation on growth of some plants and soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Khalifa, K.

    2003-12-01

    Pot experiments were conducted at Deir-Alhajar research station, about 40 km. south east of Damascus during 2000. Corn. eggplant and parsley were planted in plastic pots capacity 8 kg soil to study the effect of irrigation of corn, eggplant and parsley by untreated and treated sewage water (by Chloride or Irradiation) on growth and effect of irrigation on soil characteristics and accumulation of some heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, Co, Hg, and Zn, Cu in plant and soil which irrigated with treated and untreated sewage water compared with irrigated with fresh water (well water). The results showed that no negative effect was observed for untreated and treated sewage water on growth of plants (corn, eggplant and parsley). Also, no significant effect due to irrigation with treated and untreated sewage water was observed in accumulation of some trace elopements (heavy metals) such as Cr, Pb, Hg, and Zn and Cu in plants irrigated with treated and untreated sewage water to critical toxic point. This point needed more studies and longer period to confirm these results before using by farmers on large scale. Irradiation of sewage water had a positive effect on reducing the transfer of some heavy toxic metals such as Pb and Cr form waste water to soil. (author)

  3. Quantitative analysis of untreated bio-samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Matsuda, K.

    1999-01-01

    A standard-free method of quantitative analysis for untreated samples has been developed. For hair samples, measurements were performed by irradiating with a proton beam a few hairs as they are, and quantitative analysis was carried out by means of a standard-free method developed by ourselves. First, quantitative values of concentration of zinc were derived, then concentration of other elements was obtained by regarding zinc as an internal standard. As the result, values of concentration of sulphur for 40 samples agree well with the average value for a typical Japanese and also with each other within 20%, and validity of the present method could be confirmed. Accuracy was confirmed by comparing the results with those obtained by the usual internal standard method, too. For the purpose of a surface analysis of a bone sample, a very small incidence angle of the proton beam was used, so that both energy loss of the projectile and self-absorption of X-rays become negligible. As the result, consistent values of concentration for many elements were obtained by the standard-free method

  4. Risk assessment applications for determining cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.Q.; Layton, D.W.; Rutz, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium-contaminated soils are present at various locations across the US where uranium was processed for nuclear fuels or atomic weapons. Important issues relative to such contamination include the assessment of potential health risks associated with human exposures to the residual uranium and the determination of safe levels of uranium in soils that have been treated by a given technology. This paper discusses various risk assessment considerations that must be dealt with when developing cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils. Key issues addressed include alternative land use scenarios, potential exposure pathways, characterization of the bioavailability of uranium compounds in food and water, a brief overview of health risks associated with uranium and its daughter products as well as a summary of considerations for development of risk-based cleanup limits for uranium in soils

  5. Sensitivity of screening-level toxicity tests using soils from a former petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, S.; Bureau, J.; Roy, Y.; Allen, B.; Robidoux, P.Y.; Soucy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors tested five composite soil samples from a former refinery. The samples included a reference soil (Mineral Oil and Grease, MO and G < 40 ppm), thermally-treated soil, biotreated soil, and two untreated soils. They evaluated toxicity using the earthworm E. foetida, lettuce, cress, barley, Microtox, green algae, fathead minnow, and D. magna. The endpoints measured were lethality, seed germination, root elongation, growth, and bioluminescence. Toxicity, as measured by the number of positive responses, increased as follows: biotreated soil < untreated soil No. 1 < reference soil < thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2. The biotreated soil generated only one positive response, whereas the thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2 generated five positive responses. The most sensitive and discriminant terrestrial endpoint was lettuce root elongation which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was barley seed germination for which no toxicity was detected. The most sensitive and discriminant aquatic endpoint was green algae growth which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was D. magna for which no toxicity was detected. Overall, soil and aqueous extract toxicity was spotty and no consistent patterns emerged to differentiate the five soils. Biotreatment significantly reduced the effects of the contamination. Aqueous toxicity was measured in the reference soil, probably because of the presence of unknown dissolved compounds in the aqueous extract. Finally, clear differences in sensitivity existed among the test species

  6. Contrasting effects of untreated textile wastewater onto the soil available nitrogen-phosphorus and enzymatic activities in aridisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Riaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Buttler, Alexandre; Garcıa-Gil, Juan Carlos; Roohi, Mahnaz; Rasool, Akhtar

    2016-02-01

    Water shortage and soil qualitative degradation are significant environmental problems in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The increasing demand for water in agriculture and industry has resulted in the emergence of wastewater use as an alternative in these areas. Textile wastewater is produced in surplus amounts which poses threat to the environment as well as associated flora and fauna. A 60-day incubation study was performed to assess the effects of untreated textile wastewater at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% dilution levels on the physico-chemical and some microbial and enzymatic properties of an aridisol soil. The addition of textile wastewater provoked a significant change in soil pH and electrical conductivity and soil dehydrogenase and urease activities compared to the distilled-water treated control soil. Moreover, compared to the control treatment, soil phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly increased from 25 to 75% application rates, but decreased at 100% textile wastewater application rate. Total and available soil N contents increased significantly in response to application of textile wastewater. Despite significant increases in the soil total P contents after the addition of textile wastewater, soil available P content decreased with increasing concentration of wastewater. Changes in soil nutrient contents and related enzymatic activities suggested a dynamic match between substrate availability and soil N and P contents. Aridisols have high fixation and low P availability, application of textile wastewater to such soils should be considered only after careful assessment.

  7. Distribution coefficients of caesium, chlorine, iodine, niobium, selenium and technetium on Olkiluoto soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederlund, M.; Lusa, M.; Virtanen, S.; Vaelimaa, I.; Hakanen, M.; Lehto, J.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2014-02-01

    Retention of caesium, chlorine, iodine, niobium, selenium and technetium was investigated on soil samples from Olkiluoto using laboratory batch sorption experiments. Distribution coefficients were measured for both dried and sieved and untreated (wet, not sieved) mineral soil and humus in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Mineralogical composition of the samples was determined by XRD-analysis. Caesium was sorbed efficiently on mineral soil samples and less efficiently on humus. Sorption decreased with decreasing cation exchange capacity and clay fraction content. The effect of competing cations decreased in the order Cs + >NH 4 + >K + >Ca 2+ >Na + . Chlorine was not retained by mineral soil samples, and the sorption was weak on humus. The sorption of iodine was the strongest on humus and the weakest on the untreated mineral soil samples in the anaerobic conditions. In the mineral soil samples, the sorption decreased with decreasing organic matter content and increasing pH. The retention of niobium on soil samples was the most efficient among the studied elements. The retention was high regardless of the aeration conditions. Sorption on humus was smaller. Selenium was retained efficiently on humus. Sorption on mineral soil samples was stronger in aerobic conditions. Sorption increased with time. Technetium was sorbed well on humus and anaerobic, untreated mineral soil samples. Sorption increased with increasing organic matter content and decreasing redox potential. The results from the sorption experiments are used in the site specific radionuclide migration modelling. (orig.)

  8. Soil sampling in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de; Ramos Junior, Anthenor Costa

    1997-01-01

    The soil sampling methods used in Goiania's accident (1987) by the environmental team of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) are described. The development of this method of soil sampling to a emergency sampling method used in a Nuclear Emergency Exercise in Angra dos Reis Reactor Site (1991) is presented. A new method for soil sampling based on a Chernobyl environmental monitoring experience (1995) is suggested. (author)

  9. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  10. Does duration of untreated psychosis bias study samples of first-episode psychosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, S; Melle, I; Larsen, T K

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While findings are contradictory, many studies report that long Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) correlates with poorer outcome in first episode psychosis. In an outcome study of first-episode psychosis, we compared the patients who refused to participate in a follow-along with th......OBJECTIVE: While findings are contradictory, many studies report that long Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) correlates with poorer outcome in first episode psychosis. In an outcome study of first-episode psychosis, we compared the patients who refused to participate in a follow......-along with those who consented to estimate the importance of this factor in sample recruitment bias. Our questions were: (i) What is the percentage of refusers? (ii) Are there systematic differences between refusers and consenters on DUP and/or other admission variables? (iii) What is the risk of refusal...... for different values of DUP? METHOD: In an unselected group of consecutively admitted patients we compared follow-along refusers and consenters on the following admission variables: sex, age, diagnostic group, substance abuse, being in-patient, coming from an early detection site and DUP. We conducted...

  11. Metal tolerance potential of filamentous fungi isolated from soils irrigated with untreated municipal effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Akhtar, Muhammad Mahmood-ul-Hassan, Rizwan Ahmad, Vishandas Suthor and Muhammad Yasin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of filamentous fungi for bioremediation of wastewater and contaminated soils, this study was planned to investigate the metal tolerance potential of indigenous filamentous fungi. Nineteen fungal strains were isolated from soils irrigated with untreated municipal/industrial effluent using dilution technique and 10 prominent isolates were used for metal tolerance. The isolated fungal isolates were screened for metal tolerance index (MTI at I mM cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni and copper (Cu concentrations and for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and metal tolerance by growing on potato dextrose agar plates amended with varying amounts of Cd, Cu and Ni. Seven out of 10 isolated fungi belonged to the genera Aspergillus and three belonged to Curvularia, Acrimonium and Pithyum. The results revealed that the order of tolerance of isolates for metals was Cd > Cu > Ni and Aspergillus sp. were more tolerant than other fungi. Tolerance ranged from 900 – 9218 mg L-1 for Cd, followed by 381 - 1780 mg L-1 for Cu and 293-1580 mg L-1for Ni. The isolated fungi exhibiting great tolerance to metals (Cd, Cu and Ni can be used successfully for bioremediation of metals from contaminated soil and wastewaters.

  12. A Comparison of Soil-Water Sampling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Figueroa-Johnson, M.; Friedel, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The representativeness of soil pore water extracted by suction lysimeters in ground-water monitoring studies is a problem that often confounds interpretation of measured data. Current soil water sampling techniques cannot identify the soil volume from which a pore water sample is extracted, neither macroscopic, microscopic, or preferential flowpath. This research was undertaken to compare values of extracted suction lysimeters samples from intact soil cores with samples obtained by the direct extraction methods to determine what portion of soil pore water is sampled by each method. Intact soil cores (30 centimeter (cm) diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites - a sandy soil near Altamonte Springs, Florida and a clayey soil near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. Isotopically labeled water (O18? - analyzed by mass spectrometry) and bromide concentrations (KBr- - measured using ion chromatography) from water samples taken by suction lysimeters was compared with samples obtained by direct extraction methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Water samples collected by direct extraction were about 0.25 ? more negative (depleted) than that collected by suction lysimeter values from a sandy soil and about 2-7 ? more negative from a well structured clayey soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well-structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced previous pore water, suction lysimeters will collect a representative sample of soil pore water from the sampled depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeter should be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The data also indicate that each extraction method be use to sample a different

  13. Effects of Low-Temperature Plasma-Sterilization on Mars Analog Soil Samples Mixed with Deinococcus radiodurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janosch Schirmack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We used Ar plasma-sterilization at a temperature below 80 °C to examine its effects on the viability of microorganisms when intermixed with tested soil. Due to a relatively low temperature, this method is not thought to affect the properties of a soil, particularly its organic component, to a significant degree. The method has previously been shown to work well on spacecraft parts. The selected microorganism for this test was Deinococcus radiodurans R1, which is known for its remarkable resistance to radiation effects. Our results showed a reduction in microbial counts after applying a low temperature plasma, but not to a degree suitable for a sterilization of the soil. Even an increase of the treatment duration from 1.5 to 45 min did not achieve satisfying results, but only resulted in in a mean cell reduction rate of 75% compared to the untreated control samples.

  14. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described

  15. Sorption of water vapour by the Na+-exchanged clay-sized fractions of some tropical soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yormah, T.B.R.; Hayes, M.H.B.

    1993-09-01

    Water vapour sorption isotherms at 299K for the Na + -exchanged clay-sized (≤ 2μm e.s.d.) fraction of two sets of samples taken at three different depths from a tropical soil profile have been studied. One set of samples was treated (with H 2 O 2 ) for the removal of much of the organic matter (OM); the other set (of the same samples) was not so treated. The isotherms obtained were all of type II and analyses by the BET method yielded values for the Specific Surface Areas (SSA) and for the average energy of adsorption of the first layer of adsorbate (E a ). OM content and SSA for the untreated samples were found to decrease with depth. Whereas removal of organic matter made negligible difference to the SSA of the top/surface soil, the same treatment produced a significant increase in the SSA of the samples taken from the middle and from the lower depths in the profile; the resulting increase was more pronounced for the subsoil. It has been deduced from these results that OM in the surface soil was less involved with the inorganic soil colloids than that in the subsoil. The increase in surface area which resulted from the removal of OM from the subsoil was most probably due to disaggregation. Values of E a obtained show that for all the samples the adsorption of water vapour became more energetic after the oxidative removal of organic matter; the resulting ΔE a also increased with depth. This suggests that in the dry state, the ''cleaned'' surface of the inorganic soil colloids was more energetic than the ''organic-matter-coater surface''. These data provide strong support for the deduction that OM in the subsoil was in a more ''combined'' state than that in the surface soil. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis of Soil Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Haseeb, S.M.A.; Hussein, Tanvir; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.H. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron moderation effects were measured in bulk soil samples through prompt gamma ray measurements from water and benzene contaminated soil samples using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering. The prompt gamma rays were measured using a cylindrical 76 mm x 76 mm (diameter x height) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. Since neutron moderation effects strongly depend upon hydrogen concentration of the sample, for comparison purposes, moderation effects were studied from samples containing different hydrogen concentrations. The soil samples with different hydrogen concentration were prepared by mixing soil with water as well as benzene in different weight proportions. Then, the effects of increasing water and benzene concentrations on the yields of hydrogen, carbon and silicon prompt gamma rays were measured. Moderation effects are more pronounced in soil samples mixed with water as compared to those from soil samples mixed with benzene. This is due to the fact that benzene contaminated soil samples have about 30% less hydrogen concentration by weight than the water contaminated soil samples. Results of the study will be presented. (authors)

  17. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  18. Oligotyping reveals stronger relationship of organic soil bacterial community structure with N-amendments and soil chemistry in comparison to that of mineral soil at Harvard Forest, MA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi A. Turlapati; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Jordan Ramsdell; Subhash C. Minocha

    2015-01-01

    The impact of chronic nitrogen amendments on bacterial communities was evaluated at Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, USA. Thirty soil samples (3 treatments × 2 soil horizons × 5 subplots) were collected in 2009 from untreated (control), low nitrogen-amended (LN; 50 kg NH4NO3ha-1yr

  19. Impact of repeated pesticide applications on the binding and release of 14C-methamidophos to soil matrices under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Altaf; Iqbal, Zafar; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Chaudhry, Jamil Anwar

    2001-01-01

    The dissipation of 14 C-methamidophos was monitored in the absence or presence of other pesticides using in situ soil columns in cotton fields. Samples were taken randomly in duplicate at 0, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The soils were analyzed for total, extractable and bound residues. The dissipation of 14 C-methamidophos was rapid in the field environment; 3 hours after application, 12% was of the radioactivity lost due to volatilization and 88% was found in the 0-15 cm soil layer. With the passage of time bound residues in treated soil were less (11.52%) compared to those in untreated soil (13.47%). In general bound residues gradually increased with time and binding was higher in untreated soil at every sampling stage. The estimated time required for loss of 50% of radiocarbon was 73 days. In untreated samples the parent compound and three unknown spots were seen on TLC plates whereas four unknown spots with the parent chemical were found in the treated samples. (author)

  20. Stabilization treatment of soft subgrade soil by sewage sludge ash and cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Lin, Deng-Fong

    2009-02-15

    In this study, incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is mixed with cement in a fixed ratio of 4:1 for use as a stabilizer to improve the strength of soft, cohesive, subgrade soil. Five different ratios (in wt%: 0%, 2%, 4%, 8%, and 16%) of ISSA/cement admixture are mixed with cohesive soil to make soil samples. In order to understand the influences of admixtures on the soil properties, tests of the pH value, Atterberg limits, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR), unconfined compressive strength, and triaxial compression were performed on those samples. The study shows that the unconfined compressive strength of specimens with the ISSA/cement addition was improved to approximately 3-7 times better than that of the untreated soil; furthermore, the swelling behavior was also effectively reduced as much as 10-60% for those samples. In some samples, the ISSA/cement additive improved the CBR values by up to 30 times that of untreated soil. This suggests that ISSA/cement has many potential applications in the field of geotechnical engineering.

  1. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  2. Bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a hazard to life. The remediation of such sites can be done using physical, chemical, and biological treatment methods or a combination of them. It is of interest to study the decontamination of soil using bioremediation. The experiments were conducted using Acinetobacter (ATCC 31012) at room temperature without pH or temperature control. In the first series of experiments, contaminated soil samples obtained from Alberta Research Council were analyzed to determine the toxic contaminant and their composition in the soil. These samples were then treated using aerobic fermentation and removal efficiency for each contaminant was determined. In the second series of experiments, a single contaminant was used to prepare a synthetic soil sample. This sample of known composition was then treated using aerobic fermentation in continuously stirred flasks. In one set of flasks, contaminant was the only carbon source and in the other set, starch was an additional carbon source. In the third series of experiments, the synthetic contaminated soil sample was treated in continuously stirred flasks in the first set and in fixed bed in the second set and the removal efficiencies were compared. The removal efficiencies obtained indicated the extent of biodegradation for various contaminants, the effect of additional carbon source, and performance in fixed bed without external aeration

  3. Response of soil aggregate stability to storage time of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Roessner, H.

    1993-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the well known phenomenon of changing aggregate stability values as result of soil sample storage. In order to evaluate the impact of soil microbial activity, the soil sample was split into three subsamples. Two samples were sterilized by means of chloroform fumigation and gamma irradiation, respectively. However, the aggregate stability measurements at three different dates were not correlated with the microbial activity (dehydrogenase activity). The moisture content of the aggregate samples seems to be of higher significance. Samples with lower moisture content (range: 0.4 to 1.9%) exhibited higher aggregate stabilities. Thus, airdried aggregate samples without further treatment don't seem to be suitable for standardized stability measurements. (authors)

  4. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  5. Determination of Pu in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres C, C. O.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Vega C, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The irreversible consequences of accidents occurring in nuclear plants and in nuclear fuel reprocessing sites are mainly the distribution of different radionuclides in different matrices such as the soil. The distribution in the superficial soil is related to the internal and external exposure to the radiation of the affected population. The internal contamination with radionuclides such as Pu is of great relevance to the nuclear forensic science, where is important to know the chemical and isotopic compositions of nuclear materials. The objective of this work is to optimize the radiochemical separation of plutonium (Pu) from soil samples and to determine their concentration. The soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwave; purification of Pu was carried out with AG1X8 resin using ion exchange chromatography. Pu isotopes were measured using ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of "2"3"8UH "+ in the samples, a solvent removal system (Apex) was used. In addition, the limit of detection and quantification of Pu was determined. It was found that the recovery efficiency of Pu in soil samples ranges from 70 to 93%. (Author)

  6. Myco-Flora of a Kerosene-Polluted Soil in Nigeria | WEMEDO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The myco-flora of a Kerosene-polluted soil was investigated. Soil samples collected from a fallow patch of land were polluted with 90 ml, 180 ml, and 270 ml concentrations of kerosene. The 0 ml (untreated soil) served as control. Cultivation of the organisms was done on potato dextrose agar (PDA) after 2 days, 7 days and ...

  7. Sampling depth confounds soil acidification outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the northern Great Plains (NGP) of North America, surface sampling depths of 0-15 or 0-20 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near the soil surface. Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements an...

  8. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Sampsa; Geng, Xiaoyuan; He, Juanxia

    2017-04-01

    Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping. Sampsa Hamalainen, Xiaoyuan Geng, and Juanxia, He. AAFC - Agriculture and Agr-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada. The Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) approach to assist with Digital Soil Mapping has been developed for some time now, however the purpose of this work was to complement LHS with use of multiple spatial resolutions of covariate datasets and variability in the range of sampling points produced. This allowed for specific sets of LHS points to be produced to fulfil the needs of various partners from multiple projects working in the Ontario and Prince Edward Island provinces of Canada. Secondary soil and environmental attributes are critical inputs that are required in the development of sampling points by LHS. These include a required Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and subsequent covariate datasets produced as a result of a Digital Terrain Analysis performed on the DEM. These additional covariates often include but are not limited to Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Length-Slope (LS) Factor, and Slope which are continuous data. The range of specific points created in LHS included 50 - 200 depending on the size of the watershed and more importantly the number of soil types found within. The spatial resolution of covariates included within the work ranged from 5 - 30 m. The iterations within the LHS sampling were run at an optimal level so the LHS model provided a good spatial representation of the environmental attributes within the watershed. Also, additional covariates were included in the Latin Hypercube Sampling approach which is categorical in nature such as external Surficial Geology data. Some initial results of the work include using a 1000 iteration variable within the LHS model. 1000 iterations was consistently a reasonable value used to produce sampling points that provided a good spatial representation of the environmental

  9. Variation in herbaceous vegetation and soil moisture under treated and untreated oneseed juniper trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector Ramirez; Alexander Fernald; Andres Cibils; Michelle Morris; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Clearing oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) may make more water available for aquifer recharge or herbaceous vegetation growth, but the effects of tree treatment on soil moisture dynamics are not fully understood. This study investigated juniper treatment effects on understory herbaceous vegetation concurrently with soil moisture dynamics using vegetation sampling...

  10. Including Below Detection Limit Samples in Post Decommissioning Soil Sample Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To meet the required standards the site owner has to show that the soil at the facility has been sufficiently cleaned up. To do this one must know the contamination of the soil at the site prior to clean up. This involves sampling that soil to identify the degree of contamination. However there is a technical difficulty in determining how much decontamination should be done. The problem arises when measured samples are below the detection limit. Regulatory guidelines for site reuse after decommissioning are commonly challenged because the majority of the activity in the soil at or below the limit of detection. Using additional statistical analyses of contaminated soil after decommissioning is expected to have the following advantages: a better and more reliable probabilistic exposure assessment, better economics (lower project costs) and improved communication with the public. This research will develop an approach that defines an acceptable method for demonstrating compliance of decommissioned NPP sites and validates that compliance. Soil samples from NPP often contain censored data. Conventional methods for dealing with censored data sets are statistically biased and limited in their usefulness.

  11. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PESTICIDE TRANSFORMATION RATE AND MICROBIAL RESPIRATION ACTIVITY IN SOIL OF DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil sandy loam soils (ultisol) from forest (coniferous and deciduous), pasture, and arable ecosystems were sampled (0-10 cm) in the vicinity of Athens, GA, USA. Soil from each site was subdivided into three portions, consisting of untreated soil (control) as well as live and s...

  12. Validated sampling strategy for assessing contaminants in soil stockpiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lame, Frank; Honders, Ton; Derksen, Giljam; Gadella, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    Dutch legislation on the reuse of soil requires a sampling strategy to determine the degree of contamination. This sampling strategy was developed in three stages. Its main aim is to obtain a single analytical result, representative of the true mean concentration of the soil stockpile. The development process started with an investigation into how sample pre-treatment could be used to obtain representative results from composite samples of heterogeneous soil stockpiles. Combining a large number of random increments allows stockpile heterogeneity to be fully represented in the sample. The resulting pre-treatment method was then combined with a theoretical approach to determine the necessary number of increments per composite sample. At the second stage, the sampling strategy was evaluated using computerised models of contaminant heterogeneity in soil stockpiles. The now theoretically based sampling strategy was implemented by the Netherlands Centre for Soil Treatment in 1995. It was applied to all types of soil stockpiles, ranging from clean to heavily contaminated, over a period of four years. This resulted in a database containing the analytical results of 2570 soil stockpiles. At the final stage these results were used for a thorough validation of the sampling strategy. It was concluded that the model approach has indeed resulted in a sampling strategy that achieves analytical results representative of the mean concentration of soil stockpiles. - A sampling strategy that ensures analytical results representative of the mean concentration in soil stockpiles is presented and validated

  13. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  14. Soil Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  15. Sampling soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  16. Determination of strontium-90 in soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C C

    1976-06-01

    The determination of /sup 90/Sr in soil by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is often interfered with iron which is always present in soil sample. Based on the method given by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, HClO/sub 4/ is added to remove iron ions while the soil sample is analyzed with TBP. The effect of different concentrations of HClO/sub 4/ on extraction yield of iron and chemical yield of yttrium is investigated. The experimental results show that 2N HClO/sub 4/ is the optimum concentration. The chemical yield of yttrium can reach about 60 percent, and all iron ions can be removed. This method has successfully been applied to analyze the soil samples taken from the site of the nuclear power plant in North Taiwan.

  17. Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry H [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-16

    A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

  18. Sampling for validation of digital soil maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Kempen, B.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The increase in digital soil mapping around the world means that appropriate and efficient sampling strategies are needed for validation. Data used for calibrating a digital soil mapping model typically are non-random samples. In such a case we recommend collection of additional independent data and

  19. A soil sampling intercomparison exercise for the ALMERA network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Maria [Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: maria.belli@apat.it; Zorzi, Paolo de [Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@isprambiente.it; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: u.sansone@iaea.org; Shakhashiro, Abduhlghani [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.shakhashiro@iaea.org; Gondin da Fonseca, Adelaide [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.gondin-da-fonseca-azeredo@iaea.org; Trinkl, Alexander [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.trinkl@iaea.org; Benesch, Thomas [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: t.benesch@iaea.org

    2009-11-15

    Soil sampling and analysis for radionuclides after an accidental or routine release is a key factor for the dose calculation to members of the public, and for the establishment of possible countermeasures. The IAEA organized for selected laboratories of the ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) network a Soil Sampling Intercomparison Exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) with the objective of comparing soil sampling procedures used by different laboratories. The ALMERA network is a world-wide network of analytical laboratories located in IAEA member states capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. Ten ALMERA laboratories were selected to participate in the sampling exercise. The soil sampling intercomparison exercise took place in November 2005 in an agricultural area qualified as a 'reference site', aimed at assessing the uncertainties associated with soil sampling in agricultural, semi-natural, urban and contaminated environments and suitable for performing sampling intercomparison. In this paper, the laboratories sampling performance were evaluated.

  20. A soil sampling intercomparison exercise for the ALMERA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, Maria; Zorzi, Paolo de; Sansone, Umberto; Shakhashiro, Abduhlghani; Gondin da Fonseca, Adelaide; Trinkl, Alexander; Benesch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Soil sampling and analysis for radionuclides after an accidental or routine release is a key factor for the dose calculation to members of the public, and for the establishment of possible countermeasures. The IAEA organized for selected laboratories of the ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) network a Soil Sampling Intercomparison Exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) with the objective of comparing soil sampling procedures used by different laboratories. The ALMERA network is a world-wide network of analytical laboratories located in IAEA member states capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. Ten ALMERA laboratories were selected to participate in the sampling exercise. The soil sampling intercomparison exercise took place in November 2005 in an agricultural area qualified as a 'reference site', aimed at assessing the uncertainties associated with soil sampling in agricultural, semi-natural, urban and contaminated environments and suitable for performing sampling intercomparison. In this paper, the laboratories sampling performance were evaluated.

  1. Impact of long term pesticide usage on soil microbial activities and 14C-monocrotophos degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayaputch, N.; Pimpan, P.; Phaikaew, Y.; Chukiatwatana, L.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of long term pesticide usage on soil microbial activities and degradation of 14 C-monocrotophos was observed under cotton field conditions. The experimental field was divided into treated and untreated plots. Pesticides were applied to treated plots at weekly intervals as in common practice in Thailand. The total numbers of applications were 11, 16 and 16 for first, second and third crop seasons, during the three years from 1996 to 1998. Soil samples at depths of 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm were sampled before and after pesticide application for the first two crops, while in the third crop season only the surface layer of soil was taken. The samples were assessed for CO 2 from respiration, soil microbial population, iron reduction capacity, and rates of nitrification. Soil biomass and microbial activities as measured from respiration and iron reduction decreased in the treated plots at both depths after each pesticide application over the three crop seasons, whereas samples from untreated plots at both depths did not show decreases. Repeated application of pesticides did not show any effect on nitrification rates of the first crop but there was inhibition in the second and third crops. Soil columns, treated with 14 C-monocrotophos one week after last pesticide application, were harvested after 0, 3, 6, 9, 18, 24 and 30 months. Extractable residues of 14 C were found only in the 0-15 cm layer. In treated and untreated plots, residues declined from 80.17 and 85.68 to 0.44% of the applied 14 C within 6 months. The long term usage of pesticides did not affect the half-life of 14 C-monocrotophos. Bound residues of 14 C were found at the highest concentrations, 18.94 and 12.58% of that applied, at 6 months in treated and untreated plots, thereafter the binding decreased to 4.68 and 2.74% within 30 months. (author)

  2. Soil sampling strategies: Evaluation of different approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e Protezione dell' Ambiente del Veneto, ARPA Veneto, U.O. Centro Qualita Dati, Via Spalato, 14-36045 Vicenza (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2{sigma}, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies.

  3. Soil sampling strategies: Evaluation of different approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia

    2008-01-01

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2σ, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies

  4. Soil sampling strategies: evaluation of different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia

    2008-11-01

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2sigma, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies.

  5. Sampling soils for 137Cs using various field-sampling volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Schofield, T.G.; White, G.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1981-10-01

    The sediments from a liquid effluent receiving area at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and soils from intensive study area in the fallout pathway of Trinity were sampled for 137 Cs using 25-, 500-, 2500-, and 12 500-cm 3 field sampling volumes. A highly replicated sampling program was used to determine mean concentrations and inventories of 137 Cs at each site, as well as estimates of spatial, aliquoting, and counting variance components of the radionuclide data. The sampling methods were also analyzed as a function of soil size fractions collected in each field sampling volume and of the total cost of the program for a given variation in the radionuclide survey results. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 137 Cs inventory estimates ranged from 0.063 to 0.14 for Mortandad Canyon sediments, where CV values for Trinity soils were observed from 0.38 to 0.57. Spatial variance components of 137 Cs concentration data were usually found to be larger than either the aliquoting or counting variance estimates and were inversely related to field sampling volume at the Trinity intensive site. Subsequent optimization studies of the sampling schemes demonstrated that each aliquot should be counted once, and that only 2 to 4 aliquots out of an many as 30 collected need be assayed for 137 Cs. The optimization studies showed that as sample costs increased to 45 man-hours of labor per sample, the variance of the mean 137 Cs concentration decreased dramatically, but decreased very little with additional labor

  6. Diffusion probe for gas sampling in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O

    2014-01-01

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of trace gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are determined by complex interactions between biological activity and soil conditions. Soil gas concentration profiles may, in combination with other information about soil conditions, help to understand emission...... controls. This note describes a simple and robust diffusion probe for soil gas sampling as part of flux monitoring programs. It can be deployed with minimum disturbance of in-situ conditions, also at sites with a high or fluctuating water table. Separate probes are used for each sampling depth...... on peat soils used for grazing showed soil gas concentrations of CH4 and N2O as influenced by topography, site conditions, and season. The applicability of the diffusion probe for trace gas monitoring is discussed....

  7. Analysis of soil samples from OMRE decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, O.D.; Chapin, J.A.; Hine, R.E.; Mandler, J.W.; Orme, M.P.; Soli, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    In order to establish that the present Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) site does not exceed the criteria for radioactive contamination, samples obtained from the remainder of the facility that was not removed such as soil, concrete pads, various structural materials, and the leach pond area were analyzed to determine their radioactive content. The results of the analyses performed on soil samples are presented. Results of this study indicate that the activity at the OMRE decommissioned area is confined to localized areas (i.e., the leach pond area and reactor area). Comparisons of radionuclide concentrations measured in soil taken from the lip of the leach pond with concentrations in soil obtained outside the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site boundaries indicate that the concentration in the soil at the edge of the leach pond is at background levels. The vertical augering technique was determined to be the best approach for obtaining shallow soil samples at the INEL. Selection of this technique was based on ease of operation and analytical results. Less area is disturbed per sample than with the horizontal trenching and coring techniques. The radionuclide analysis of the samples shows the existence of a few regions in the reactor and leach pond areas that were still above INEL release criteria. These regions have been or are being further decontaminated

  8. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; Perk, Marcel van der

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations

  9. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, Vienna A-1400 (Austria); Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, TC Utrecht 3508 (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  10. A soil sampling reference site: the challenge in defining reference material for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; van der Perk, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  11. Sample sizes to control error estimates in determining soil bulk density in California forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youzhi Han; Jianwei Zhang; Kim G. Mattson; Weidong Zhang; Thomas A. Weber

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing forest soil properties with high variability is challenging, sometimes requiring large numbers of soil samples. Soil bulk density is a standard variable needed along with element concentrations to calculate nutrient pools. This study aimed to determine the optimal sample size, the number of observation (n), for predicting the soil bulk density with a...

  12. Method for spiking soil samples with organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Ulla C; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2002-01-01

    We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either...... higher than in control soil, probably due mainly to release of predation from indigenous protozoa. In order to minimize solvent effects on indigenous soil microorganisms when spiking native soil samples with compounds having a low water solubility, we propose a common protocol in which the contaminant...... tagged with luxAB::Tn5. For both solvents, application to the whole sample resulted in severe side effects on both indigenous protozoa and bacteria. Application of dichloromethane to the whole soil volume immediately reduced the number of protozoa to below the detection limit. In one of the soils...

  13. Sampling of soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  14. Soil Gas Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  15. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuk, Nil; Cakir, Merve; Tumsavas, Zeynal

    2013-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μ s ) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137 Cs and 60 Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ x 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137 Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and the effective electron densities (N eff ) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μ s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Z eff and N eff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. (author)

  16. Shrinkage Module of Soil Samples with Different Cement Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Sabry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences in soil's body mass during shrinkage over time have changes in soil physical properties which provide an important reason to check the design of underground foundations in expansive soils. In this paper, a state-of-art of the soil heat stress-strain relationship prediction methods is checked using soil engineering laboratory experiments and Matlab R2013b numerical modelling. The shrinkage of soils with different cement content of (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% with the same water content of 20 percent in room temperature for 24 hours, are critically reviewed in terms of their predictive shrinkage along with their strengths and flexural behaviour. The review highlights the prediction methods present to determine the effect of heat stress on the shrinkage of soil samples with different cement content after classifying the soils into clay, silt and sand depending on their particle size using sieve and hydrometer experiments. The results of the soil engineering laboratory experiments showed that as the cement content increases, the shrinkage of soil decreases as a result of increased elasticity in soil. The numerical analysis using finite element method in Matlab R2013b shows that as the cement content increases the displacement in the soil sample decreases and that the soil sample with 8% cement content has more resistance to shrinkage and less displacement than the soil with 6% cement, which has less resistance to heat stresses and more displacement.

  17. Elemental contents in soil samples in Wad Hamid, River Nile State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Khansaa Elawad Elhag

    2016-03-01

    In the present study a total of 30 samples were collected from Wad Hamid River Nile State. Sampling area of (two feddan) of agricultural soil. The sampling area was divided in two locations (fertile and non fertile soil). The samples were analyzed for their content of 13 elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np). 10 samples from location 1 (non-fertile soil) and 20 samples from location 2 (fertile soil). X-ray fluorescence (X RF) Spectrometer (system used based on 1"0"9"Cd excitation 1"0"9"Cd source which has an average energy of 22.6 kev and able to excite the elements from Z = 13 to 92 using K and L lines) used to identify the elemental concentration in soil samples. The reliability of X RF technique as multi elements detecting method for measuring elements concentration in soil sample , (IAEA-SOIL-7) standard reference material was used. Measured values found in agreement with the certified values. The average elemental concentration of K,Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np in location 1 were 878, 29690, 13400, 983, 70380, 10.07, 19.07, 40.92,261.4, 23.59,294.8, 47.82, while the average elemental concentration in location 2 were 9848, 27780, 13076,13076,989, 68135, 9.6, 96.3 19.86, 43.7, 225.5, 22.49, 284.75, 46.15, respectively. comparison between the average elemental concentration in fertile soil and non-fertile was done correlations between element were performed Cluster analyses of element in soil samples were obtained comparison between this study and data from literature were done. The elemental concentration in location 1 (non- fertile soil) are higher than location 2 ( fertile soil) because the plant absorbed fertilizer of soil and transfer most elements in soil to plant. (Author)

  18. Plutonium mobility studies in soil sediment decontaminated by means of a soil-washing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, M.C.; Orlandini, K.A.; Swift, N.; Carfagno, D.

    1995-01-01

    The ACT*DE*CON SM process extracts plutonium from contaminated soils/sediments by means of a series of washings with a blend of chemicals, that includes a chelating agent, an oxidant, and carbonates. At the end of the process, the Pu level in the soil is lowered to 25-30 pCi/g from an initial contamination level averaging 500 pCi/g. The radionuclide still present in the soil at the end of the treatment must be strongly immobilized in or onto the soil particles to minimize the risk of its percolation to the aquifer and/or uptake by vegetation. This paper reports the investigation of residual Pu mobility as K d (distribution coefficient) in the treated soil/sediment. Six batches of contaminated soil were treated simultaneously by means of the ACT*DE*CON SM process. Some batches of the treated soil were amended with a standard fertilizer treatment of compost and nutrient and brought to pH 8.5. The treated soil, treated and fertilized soil, and the untreated controls were then incubated at 18 degrees C for 90 days. At four different times, a small aliquot of soil was retrieved from each of the batches and contacted with rainwater for six days to determine the Pu solid/liquid distribution and K d . Results indicated that a higher total amount of Pu was leached from the untreated soil, probably as a consequence of the higher content of available/exchangeable Pu in this soil compared with the treated ones. Treated/fertilized soils showed Pu leaching at intermediate levels between those for treated and untreated soils, at least for the first 30 days of incubation. K d values at the beginning of the incubation period were significantly lower in the untreated and treated/fertilized soils compared with those for the treated-only, but at 90 days, these values were substantially equal among the three different soils. Traces of the chelant were detectable only in treated, unfertilized soil

  19. Distribution of pesticide residues in soil and uncertainty of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszter, Gabriela K; Ambrus, Árpád

    2017-08-03

    Pesticide residues were determined in about 120 soil cores taken randomly from the top 15 cm layer of two sunflower fields about 30 days after preemergence herbicide treatments. Samples were extracted with acetone-ethyl acetate mixture and the residues were determined with GC-TSD. Residues of dimethenamid, pendimethalin, and prometryn ranged from 0.005 to 2.97 mg/kg. Their relative standard deviations (CV) were between 0.66 and 1.13. The relative frequency distributions of residues in soil cores were very similar to those observed in root and tuber vegetables grown in pesticide treated soils. Based on all available information, a typical CV of 1.00 was estimated for pesticide residues in primary soil samples (soil cores). The corresponding expectable relative uncertainty of sampling is 20% when composite samples of size 25 are taken. To obtain a reliable estimate of the average residues in the top 15 cm layer of soil of a field up to 8 independent replicate random samples should be taken. To obtain better estimate of the actual residue level of the sampled filed would be marginal if larger number of samples were taken.

  20. Impact of commonly used agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, J A; Tetteh, W; Bello, M

    2009-09-01

    The effects of three selected agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soil have been studied. The selected agrochemicals are Cerox (an insecticide), Ceresate and Paraquat (both herbicides). The effect on bacterial population was studied by looking at the total heterotrophic bacteria presence and the effect of the agrochemicals on some selected soil microbes. The soil type used was loamy with pH of 6.0-7.0. The soil was placed in opaque pots and bambara bean (Vigna subterranean) seeds cultivated in them. The agrochemicals were applied two weeks after germination of seeds at concentrations based on manufacturer's recommendation. Plant growth was assessed by weekly measurement of plant height, foliage appearance and number of nodules formed after one month. The results indicated that the diversity index (Di) among the bacteria populations in untreated soil and that of Cerox-treated soils were high with mean diversity index above 0.95. Mean Di for Ceresate-treated soil was 0.88, and that for Paraquattreated soil was 0.85 indicating low bacterial populations in these treatment-type soils. The study also showed that application of the agrochemicals caused reduction in the number of total heterotrophic bacteria population sizes in the soil. Ceresate caused 82.50% reduction in bacteria number from a mean of 40 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) of soil sample to 70 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Paraquat-treated soil showed 92.86% reduction, from a mean of 56 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) to 40 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Application of Cerox to the soil did not have any remarkable reduction in bacterial population number. Total viable cell count studies using Congo red yeast-extract mannitol agar indicated reduction in the number of Rhizobium spp. after application of the agrochemicals. Mean number of Rhizobium population numbers per gram of soil was 180 × 10(4) for the untreated soil. Cerox-treated soil recorded mean number of 138 × 10(4) rhizobial cfu g(-1) of soil, a 23.33% reduction. Ceresate- and

  1. 105-DR Large sodium fire facility soil sampling data evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the soil sampling activities, soil sample analysis, and soil sample data associated with the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements for meeting clean closure. The report concludes that there is no soil contamination from the waste treatment activities

  2. Sampling design for use by the soil decontamination project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, D.W.; Stevens, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    This report proposes a general approach to the problem and discusses sampling of soil to map the contaminated area and to provide samples for characterizaton of soil components and contamination. Basic concepts in sample design are reviewed with reference to environmental transuranic studies. Common designs are reviewed and evaluated for use with specific objectives that might be required by the soil decontamination project. Examples of a hierarchial design pilot study and a combined hierarchial and grid study are proposed for the Rocky Flats 903 pad area

  3. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  4. Determination of trace and heavy metals in paprika and soil by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian-Teherani, D; Altmann, H; Wallisch, G [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf G.m.b.H. Inst. fuer Biologie; Kiss, I [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary); Kapeller, K [Zoeldsegtermesztesi Kutatointezet, Kalocsa (Hungary). Paprikakutato Allomas

    1983-01-01

    Various samples of Hungarian spice paprika plant (treated with Wuxal) and corresponding soils were analyzed for their Fe, Cr, Zn, Co, Br, As, K, Mn and La (only in soil samples) and Hg contents. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the trace element contents between most cultivars and soils. There is a higher amount of trace elements in samples treated with Wuxal than in controls with the exception of As. Mostly the same situation is observed in samples of soil as in paprika. The only exception is the non-significant difference in the case of Fe and Co. Differences in mercury content of treated and untreated paprika samples were not significant.

  5. Genotyping of Toxoplasma Gondii Isolates from Soil Samples in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavalla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect any warm blooded nucleated cells. One of the ways for human infection is ingestion of oocysts directly from soil or via infected fruits or vegetables. To survey the potential role of T. gondii oocyst in soil samples, the present study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran.Methods: A total of 150 soil samples were collected around rubbish dumps, children's play ground, parks and public places. Oocysts recovery was performed by sodium nitrate flotation method on soil samples. For molecular detection, PCR reaction targeting B1 gene was performed and then, the posi­tive results were confirmed using repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in other PCR reaction. Finally, the positive samples were genotyped at the SAG2 locus.Results: Toxoplasma DNA was found in 13 soil samples. After genotyping and RFLP analysis in SAG2 locus, nine positive samples were revealed type III, one positive sample was type I whereas three samples revealed mixed infection (type, I & III.Conclusion: The predominant genotype in Tehran soil samples is type III.

  6. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod, L [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  7. Post-fire interactions between soil water repellency, soil fertility and plant growth in soil collected from a burned piñon-juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernelius, Kaitlynn J.; Madsen, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Bryan G.; Bansal, Sheel; Anderson, Val J.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Roundy, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment can increase nutrient resources in the plant-mound zone. After a fire, this zone is often found to be water repellent. This study aimed to understand the effects of post-fire water repellency on soil water and inorganic nitrogen and their effects on plant growth of the introduced annual Bromus tectorum and native bunchgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata. Plots centered on burned Juniperus osteosperma trees were either left untreated or treated with surfactant to ameliorate water repellency. After two years, we excavated soil from the untreated and treated plots and placed it in zerotension lysimeter pots. In the greenhouse, half of the pots received an additional surfactant treatment. Pots were seeded separately with B. tectorum or P. spicata. Untreated soils had high runoff, decreased soilwater content, and elevated NO3eN in comparison to surfactant treated soils. The two plant species typically responded similar to the treatments. Above-ground biomass and microbial activity (estimated through soil CO2 gas emissions) was 16.8-fold and 9.5-fold higher in the surfactant-treated soils than repellent soils, respectably. This study demonstrates that water repellency can influence site recovery by decreasing soil water content, promoting inorganic N retention, and impairing plant growth and microbial activity.

  8. Distinguishing HIV-1 drug resistance, accessory, and viral fitness mutations using conditional selection pressure analysis of treated versus untreated patient samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Christopher

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV can evolve drug resistance rapidly in response to new drug treatments, often through a combination of multiple mutations 123. It would be useful to develop automated analyses of HIV sequence polymorphism that are able to predict drug resistance mutations, and to distinguish different types of functional roles among such mutations, for example, those that directly cause drug resistance, versus those that play an accessory role. Detecting functional interactions between mutations is essential for this classification. We have adapted a well-known measure of evolutionary selection pressure (Ka/Ks and developed a conditional Ka/Ks approach to detect important interactions. Results We have applied this analysis to four independent HIV protease sequencing datasets: 50,000 clinical samples sequenced by Specialty Laboratories, Inc.; 1800 samples from patients treated with protease inhibitors; 2600 samples from untreated patients; 400 samples from untreated African patients. We have identified 428 mutation interactions in Specialty dataset with statistical significance and we were able to distinguish primary vs. accessory mutations for many well-studied examples. Amino acid interactions identified by conditional Ka/Ks matched 80 of 92 pair wise interactions found by a completely independent study of HIV protease (p-value for this match is significant: 10-70. Furthermore, Ka/Ks selection pressure results were highly reproducible among these independent datasets, both qualitatively and quantitatively, suggesting that they are detecting real drug-resistance and viral fitness mutations in the wild HIV-1 population. Conclusion Conditional Ka/Ks analysis can detect mutation interactions and distinguish primary vs. accessory mutations in HIV-1. Ka/Ks analysis of treated vs. untreated patient data can distinguish drug-resistance vs. viral fitness mutations. Verification of these results would require longitudinal studies. The result

  9. The Impact of Including Below Detection Limit Samples in Post Decommissioning Soil Sample Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To meet the required standards the site owner has to show that the soil at the facility has been sufficiently cleaned up. To do this one must know the contamination of the soil at the site prior to clean up. This involves sampling that soil to identify the degree of contamination. However there is a technical difficulty in determining how much decontamination should be done. The problem arises when measured samples are below the detection limit. Regulatory guidelines for site reuse after decommissioning are commonly challenged because the majority of the activity in the soil at or below the limit of detection. Using additional statistical analyses of contaminated soil after decommissioning is expected to have the following advantages: a better and more reliable probabilistic exposure assessment, better economics (lower project costs) and improved communication with the public. This research will develop an approach that defines an acceptable method for demonstrating compliance of decommissioned NPP sites and validates that compliance. Soil samples from NPP often contain censored data. Conventional methods for dealing with censored data sets are statistically biased and limited in their usefulness. In this research, additional methods are performed using real data from a monazite manufacturing factory.

  10. SEAMIST trademark soil sampling for tritiated water: First year's results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.; Martins, S.A.; Houpis, J.L.; Lowry, W.; Cremer, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    SEAMIST trademark is a recently developed sampling system that enables one to measure various soil parameters by means of an inverted, removable, impermeable membrane tube inserted in a borehole. This membrane tube can have various measuring devices installed on it, such as gas ports, adsorbent pads, and electrical sensors. These membrane tubes are made of a laminated polymer. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, has installed two of these systems to monitor tritium in soil resulting from a leak in an underground storage tank. One tube is equipped with gas ports to sample soil vapor and the other with adsorbent pads to sample soil moisture. Borehole stability was maintained using either sand-filled or air-inflated tubes. Both system implementations yielded concentrations or activities that compared well with the measured concentrations of tritium in the soil taken during borehole construction. In addition, an analysis of the data suggest that both systems prevented the vertical migration of tritium in the boreholes. Also, a neutron probe was successfully used in a blank membrane inserted in one of the boreholes to monitor the moisture in the soil without exposing the probe to the tritium. The neutron log showed excellent agreement with the soil moisture content measured in soil samples taken during borehole construction. This paper describes the two SEAMIST trademark systems used and presents sampling results and comparisons

  11. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Kocaeli basin, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakelle, B.; Oeztuerk, N.; Erkol, A.Y.; Koese, A.; Varinlioglu, A.; Yilmaz, F.

    2002-01-01

    The city of Kocaeli is in the western part of Anatolia in Turkey and has a population of approximately 1.000.000. There is no information about radioactivity in the Kocaeli soils samples so far. For this reason, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in soil samples from 27 different sampling stations in Kocaeli Basin and its surroundings have been determined. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country's soils. The typical concentrations of 137 Cs, 238 U, 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th found in surface soil samples ranged from 2 ± 0.6 to 25 ± 6 Bq/kg, from 11 ± 4 to 49 ± 10 Bq/kg, from 161 ± 30 to 964 ± 127 Bq/kg, from 10 ± 4 to 58 ± 11 Bq/kg, and from 11 ± 3 to 65 ± 13 Bq/kg, respectively. (author)

  12. Legacy effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation on soil bacterial community composition and production of pathogen-suppressing volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike evan Agtmaal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that microbial volatiles (VOCs play an important role in natural suppression of soil-borne diseases, but little is known on the factors that influence production of suppressing VOCs. In the current study we examined whether a stress-induced change in soil microbial community composition would affect the production by soils of VOCs suppressing the plant-pathogenic oomycete Pythium. Using pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal gene fragments we compared the composition of bacterial communities in sandy soils that had been exposed to anaerobic disinfestation (AD, a treatment used to kill harmful soil organisms, with the composition in untreated soils. Three months after the AD treatment had been finished, there was still a clear legacy effect of the former anaerobic stress on bacterial community composition with a strong increase in relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes and a significant decrease of the phyla Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Nitrospirae, Chloroflexi and Chlorobi. This change in bacterial community composition coincided with loss of production of Pythium suppressing soil volatiles (VOCs and of suppression of Pythium impacts on Hyacinth root development. One year later, the composition of the bacterial community in the AD soils was reflecting that of the untreated soils. In addition, both production of Pythium-suppressing VOCs and suppression of Pythium in Hyacinth bioassays had returned to the levels of the untreated soil. GC/MS analysis identified several VOCs, among which compounds known to be antifungal, that were produced in the untreated soils but not in the AD soils. These compounds were again produced 15 months after the AD treatment. Our data indicate that soils exposed to a drastic stress can temporarily lose pathogen suppressive characteristics and that both loss and return of these suppressive characteristics coincides with shifts in the soil bacterial community composition. Our data are

  13. Stability of mercury concentration measurements in archived soil and peat samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Burns, Douglas; Nováková, Tereza; Kaňa, Jiří; Rohovec, Jan; Roll, Michal; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2018-01-01

    Archived soil samples can provide important information on the history of environmental contamination and by comparison with recently collected samples, temporal trends can be inferred. Little previous work has addressed whether mercury (Hg) concentrations in soil samples are stable with long-term storage under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we have re-analyzed using cold vapor atomic adsorption spectroscopy a set of archived soil samples that ranged from relatively pristine mountainous sites to a polluted site near a non-ferrous metal smelter with a wide range of Hg concentrations (6 - 6485 µg kg-1). Samples included organic and mineral soils and peats with a carbon content that ranged from 0.2 to 47.7%. Soil samples were stored in polyethylene bags or bottles and held in laboratory rooms where temperature was not kept to a constant value. Mercury concentrations in four subsets of samples were originally measured in 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2007, and re-analyzed in 2017, i.e. after 17, 12, 11 and 10 years of storage. Statistical analyses of either separated or lumped data yielded no significant differences between the original and current Hg concentrations. Based on these analyses, we show that archived soil and peat samples can be used to evaluate historical soil mercury contamination.

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  15. Research on Wetting-Drying Cycles’ Effect on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Expansive Soil Improved by OTAC-KCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-tian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansive soil experiences periodic swelling and shrinkage during the alternate wet and dry environments, which will result in severe damage to the slope stability. In this study, a promising modifier OTAC-KCl is introduced, which has a good diffusivity and is soluble in water or other solvents easily. Firstly, a reasonable combination of ameliorant 0.3% STAC and 3% KCl is chosen referring to the free swell test. Then, the best curing period, 14 days, is gotten from UCS tests. The effect of wetting and drying cycles on engineering properties of expansive soil improved by OTAC-KCl admixtures after 14-day curing is also studied accordingly. Both treated and untreated expansive soil samples are prepared for the cyclic wetting-drying tests which mainly include cyclic swelling potential and cyclic strength tests. Experimental results show that the swelling potential of expansive soil samples stabilized with OTAC-KCl is suppressed efficiently, and the untreated soil specimens will collapse when immersed in water while the treated specimens keep in good conditions. Moreover, expansive soil samples modified with 0.3% OTAC + 3% KCl show enough durability on the swelling ability, shear strength, and unconfined compressive strength, which means, that both the physical and the mechanical properties of stabilized expansive soil have been improved effectively.

  16. Optimizing Soil Moisture Sampling Locations for Validation Networks for SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, E.; Berg, A. A.; Lindsay, J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) is scheduled for launch on Oct 2014. Global efforts are underway for establishment of soil moisture monitoring networks for both the pre- and post-launch validation and calibration of the SMAP products. In 2012 the SMAP Validation Experiment, SMAPVEX12, took place near Carman Manitoba, Canada where nearly 60 fields were sampled continuously over a 6 week period for soil moisture and several other parameters simultaneous to remotely sensed images of the sampling region. The locations of these sampling sites were mainly selected on the basis of accessibility, soil texture, and vegetation cover. Although these criteria are necessary to consider during sampling site selection, they do not guarantee optimal site placement to provide the most efficient representation of the studied area. In this analysis a method for optimization of sampling locations is presented which combines the state-of-art multi-objective optimization engine (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II), with the kriging interpolation technique to minimize the number of sampling sites while simultaneously minimizing the differences between the soil moisture map resulted from the kriging interpolation and soil moisture map from radar imaging. The algorithm is implemented in Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools, which is a multi-platform open-source GIS. The optimization framework is subject to the following three constraints:. A) sampling sites should be accessible to the crew on the ground, B) the number of sites located in a specific soil texture should be greater than or equal to a minimum value, and finally C) the number of sampling sites with a specific vegetation cover should be greater than or equal to a minimum constraint. The first constraint is implemented into the proposed model to keep the practicality of the approach. The second and third constraints are considered to guarantee that the collected samples from each soil texture categories

  17. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanisich, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP

  18. How to Perform Precise Soil and Sediment Sampling? One solution: The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabit, L.; Toloza, A. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, IAEA, Seibersdorf (Austria); Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C. [Environmental Geosciences, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Iurian, A-R. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Owens, P. N. [Environmental Science Program and Quesnel River Research Centre, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agrienvironmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling to perform detailed analysis of physical, geochemical and biological properties of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC), developed by the SWMCN Laboratory, allows much greater precision in incremental soil/sediment sampling. It facilitates the easy recovery of collected material by using a simple screw-thread extraction system (see Figure 1). The FISC has been designed specifically to enable standardized scientific investigation of shallow soil/sediment samples. In particular, applications have been developed in two IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs): CRP D1.20.11 on “Integrated Isotopic Approaches for an Area-wide Precision Conservation to Control the Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Land Degradation and Soil Erosion” and CRP D1.50.15 on “Response to Nuclear Emergencies Affecting Food and Agriculture.”.

  19. How to Perform Precise Soil and Sediment Sampling? One solution: The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabit, L.; Toloza, A.; Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C.; Iurian, A-R.; Owens, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agrienvironmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling to perform detailed analysis of physical, geochemical and biological properties of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC), developed by the SWMCN Laboratory, allows much greater precision in incremental soil/sediment sampling. It facilitates the easy recovery of collected material by using a simple screw-thread extraction system (see Figure 1). The FISC has been designed specifically to enable standardized scientific investigation of shallow soil/sediment samples. In particular, applications have been developed in two IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs): CRP D1.20.11 on “Integrated Isotopic Approaches for an Area-wide Precision Conservation to Control the Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Land Degradation and Soil Erosion” and CRP D1.50.15 on “Response to Nuclear Emergencies Affecting Food and Agriculture.”

  20. Saturation and porosity measurements of different soil samples by gamma ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbal, S.; Filiz Baytas, A.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray transmission methods have been used accurately for the study of the properties of soil samples. In this study, the soil samples were collected from various regions of Turkey and a Nal (TI) detector measured the attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam (from Cs-137) through soil samples. The water saturation and porosity were therefore calculated from the transmission measurements for each soil sample. (authors)

  1. Sample size choices for XRCT scanning of highly unsaturated soil mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jonathan C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly unsaturated soil mixtures (clay, sand and gravel are used as building materials in many parts of the world, and there is increasing interest in understanding their mechanical and hydraulic behaviour. In the laboratory, x-ray computed tomography (XRCT is becoming more widely used to investigate the microstructures of soils, however a crucial issue for such investigations is the choice of sample size, especially concerning the scanning of soil mixtures where there will be a range of particle and void sizes. In this paper we present a discussion (centred around a new set of XRCT scans on sample sizing for scanning of samples comprising soil mixtures, where a balance has to be made between realistic representation of the soil components and the desire for high resolution scanning, We also comment on the appropriateness of differing sample sizes in comparison to sample sizes used for other geotechnical testing. Void size distributions for the samples are presented and from these some hypotheses are made as to the roles of inter- and intra-aggregate voids in the mechanical behaviour of highly unsaturated soils.

  2. PCR detection of Burkholderia multivorans in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Charlotte; Daenekindt, Stijn; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-08-12

    Although semi-selective growth media have been developed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria from the environment, thus far Burkholderia multivorans has rarely been isolated from such samples. Because environmental B. multivorans isolates mainly originate from water samples, we hypothesized that water rather than soil is its most likely environmental niche. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of B. multivorans in water samples from Flanders (Belgium) using a fast, culture-independent PCR assay. A nested PCR approach was used to achieve high sensitivity, and specificity was confirmed by sequencing the resulting amplicons. B. multivorans was detected in 11 % of the water samples (n = 112) and 92 % of the soil samples (n = 25) tested. The percentage of false positives was higher for water samples compared to soil samples, showing that the presently available B. multivorans recA primers lack specificity when applied to the analysis of water samples. The results of the present study demonstrate that B. multivorans DNA is commonly present in soil samples and to a lesser extent in water samples in Flanders (Belgium).

  3. Sampling Design of Soil Physical Properties in a Conilon Coffee Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Oliveira de Jesus Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Establishing the number of samples required to determine values of soil physical properties ultimately results in optimization of labor and allows better representation of such attributes. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of soil physical properties in a Conilon coffee field and propose a soil sampling method better attuned to conditions of the management system. The experiment was performed in a Conilon coffee field in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, under a 3.0 × 2.0 × 1.0 m (4,000 plants ha-1 double spacing design. An irregular grid, with dimensions of 107 × 95.7 m and 65 sampling points, was set up. Soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.20 m depth from each sampling point. Data were analyzed under descriptive statistical and geostatistical methods. Using statistical parameters, the adequate number of samples for analyzing the attributes under study was established, which ranged from 1 to 11 sampling points. With the exception of particle density, all soil physical properties showed a spatial dependence structure best fitted to the spherical model. Establishment of the number of samples and spatial variability for the physical properties of soils may be useful in developing sampling strategies that minimize costs for farmers within a tolerable and predictable level of error.

  4. Degradation of aldrin im samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    14 C-aldrin degradation was studied in the laboratory, in samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils, during a period of 240 days. Recovery of radiocarbon decreased with time, although radiocarbon was not incorporated to the soil organic matter as show by soil combustion. In both soils 14 C-aldrin degraded to dieldrin and another compound that showed caracteristics of a hydrosoluble derivative of aldrin 14 C-aldrin was more persistent in sandy soil but amendment of this soil with nutrients or fertilizers did not enhanced aldrin degradation in this soil. (Author) [pt

  5. Using Environmental Variables for Studying of the Quality of Sampling in Soil Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jafari; Norair Toomanian; R. Taghizadeh Mehrjerdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Methods of soil survey are generally empirical and based on the mental development of the surveyor, correlating soil with underlying geology, landforms, vegetation and air-photo interpretation. Since there are no statistical criteria for traditional soil sampling; this may lead to bias in the areas being sampled. In digital soil mapping, soil samples may be used to elaborate quantitative relationships or models between soil attributes and soil covariates. Because the relationshi...

  6. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil - Part 2: Guidance for the selection of the sampling strategy, sampling and pre-treatment of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This part of ISO 18589 specifies the general requirements, based on ISO 11074 and ISO/IEC 17025, for all steps in the planning (desk study and area reconnaissance) of the sampling and the preparation of samples for testing. It includes the selection of the sampling strategy, the outline of the sampling plan, the presentation of general sampling methods and equipment, as well as the methodology of the pre-treatment of samples adapted to the measurements of the activity of radionuclides in soil. This part of ISO 18589 is addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soil for the purpose of radiation protection. It is applicable to soil from gardens, farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. This part of ISO 18589 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the range of the testing performed. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this part of ISO 18589, such as planning, sampling or testing, the corresponding requirements do not apply. Information is provided on scope, normative references, terms and definitions and symbols, principle, sampling strategy, sampling plan, sampling process, pre-treatment of samples and recorded information. Five annexes inform about selection of the sampling strategy according to the objectives and the radiological characterization of the site and sampling areas, diagram of the evolution of the sample characteristics from the sampling site to the laboratory, example of sampling plan for a site divided in three sampling areas, example of a sampling record for a single/composite sample and example for a sample record for a soil profile with soil description. A bibliography is provided

  7. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for {sup 99}Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the {sup 99}Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The {sup 99}Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for {sup 99}Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  8. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99 Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99 Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99 Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for 99 Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  9. Uranium determination in soil samples using Eichrom resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marabini, S.; Serdeiro, Nelidad H.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, the radiochemical methods for uranium activity determination in soil samples by alpha spectrometry, use some techniques like solvent extraction, precipitation and ion exchange in the separation and purification stages. In the last years, some new materials have been developed for using in extraction chromatography, specific for actinides determinations. In the present method the long and tedious stages were eliminated, and the reagents consumption and concentration were minimised. This new procedure was applied to soils since it is one of the most complex matrices. In order to reduce time and chemical reagents, the soil samples up to 0,5 g were leached with nitric, hydrofluoric and perchloric acids in hermetic sealed recipients of Teflon at 150 C degrees during 5 hours. UTEVA Eichrom resin was used for uranium separation and purification. The uranium activity concentration was determined by alpha spectrometry. Several standard samples were analysed and the results are presented. (author)

  10. High-throughput diagnosis of potato cyst nematodes in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex; Evans, Fiona; Mulholland, Vincent; Cole, Yvonne; Pickup, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is a damaging soilborne pest of potatoes which can cause major crop losses. In 2010, a new European Union directive (2007/33/EC) on the control of PCN came into force. Under the new directive, seed potatoes can only be planted on land which has been found to be free from PCN infestation following an official soil test. A major consequence of the new directive was the introduction of a new harmonized soil sampling rate resulting in a threefold increase in the number of samples requiring testing. To manage this increase with the same staffing resources, we have replaced the traditional diagnostic methods. A system has been developed for the processing of soil samples, extraction of DNA from float material, and detection of PCN by high-throughput real-time PCR. Approximately 17,000 samples are analyzed each year using this method. This chapter describes the high-throughput processes for the production of float material from soil samples, DNA extraction from the entire float, and subsequent detection and identification of PCN within these samples.

  11. Studies and further needed investigations on radioactive contaminants in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belivermis, M.; Kilic, O.; Topcuoglu, S.; Cotuk, Y.; Kalayci, G.; Pestreli, D.

    2009-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the radionuclides were deposited on the marine and terrestrial environments of Turkey and other countries as wet and / or dry fallout. It is well known that, the soil is the main reservoir at the terrestrial environment. The geographic distribution of the Chernobyl radionuclides per unit area is significantly different. Many countries have drawn radiation maps using the radionuclide data of the soil samples. The radioecological monitoring study in the soil samples are also investigated in the our country. However, the exist data is limited for whole region of Turkey. In general, the type study, that make, in uncultivated soil sample use of different soil layers (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm). In our previous studies, the activity concentration of gamma emitting radionuclides were determined in soil samples (0-5 cm) from the Thrace (73 sites) and East and South Marmara (100 sites) regions. Moreover, the mean values of the annual effective dose equivalent were also calculated. In literature, numerous studies have been published concerning vertical migration of 1 37Cs in uncultivated soil samples use of different soil types. However, we have not enough data on this subject. On the other hand, we want to present a previously published data on the vertical distribution of 1 37Cs radionuclide in an uncultivated site in the eastern Black Sea region. It is well known that the determination of soil to plant transfer factors of radiocesium that take account all economically crops on the soil varieties is a need to support dose assessment or countermeasure studies. Previously published IAEA reports, we determined transfer factors for some crops of 1 37Cs radionuclides in cultivated soil samples (0-20 cm depth) in the eastern Black Sea region. At the same time, we have given a new project to IAEA for the determination of transfer factor of radiocesium from soil to some crops for Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant site.

  12. Curiosity analyzes Martian soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has conducted its first analysis of Martian soil samples using multiple instruments, the agency announced at a 3 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. "These results are an unprecedented look at the chemical diversity in the area," said NASA's Michael Meyer, program scientist for Curiosity.

  13. An evaluation of soil sampling for 137Cs using various field-sampling volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, J W; White, G C; Schofield, T G; Trujillo, G

    1983-05-01

    The sediments from a liquid effluent receiving area at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and soils from an intensive study area in the fallout pathway of Trinity were sampled for 137Cs using 25-, 500-, 2500- and 12,500-cm3 field sampling volumes. A highly replicated sampling program was used to determine mean concentrations and inventories of 137Cs at each site, as well as estimates of spatial, aliquoting, and counting variance components of the radionuclide data. The sampling methods were also analyzed as a function of soil size fractions collected in each field sampling volume and of the total cost of the program for a given variation in the radionuclide survey results. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 137Cs inventory estimates ranged from 0.063 to 0.14 for Mortandad Canyon sediments, whereas CV values for Trinity soils were observed from 0.38 to 0.57. Spatial variance components of 137Cs concentration data were usually found to be larger than either the aliquoting or counting variance estimates and were inversely related to field sampling volume at the Trinity intensive site. Subsequent optimization studies of the sampling schemes demonstrated that each aliquot should be counted once, and that only 2-4 aliquots out of as many as 30 collected need be assayed for 137Cs. The optimization studies showed that as sample costs increased to 45 man-hours of labor per sample, the variance of the mean 137Cs concentration decreased dramatically, but decreased very little with additional labor.

  14. Aluminium, extractable from soil samples by the acid ammonium acetate soil-testing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Mäkitie

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available The extractant, 0.5 M acetic acid –0.5 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.65, which is used in soil-testing, extracts relatively high amounts of aluminium from acid soils. The mean values of acetate-extractable aluminium at pH 4.65, 1.75 meq Al/100 g of soil, and of exchangeable aluminium (M KCI extraction, 0.41 meq Al were obtained from a material of 30 samples of acid soils (Table 2. Several other acetic acid ammonium acetate extractants, from M acetic acid to M ammonium acetate solution were also used for studying the extractability of soil aluminium. The soil-testing extractant can be used for the estimation of the soluble amounts of aluminium in acid soils, however, further studies are needed for a better interpretation of the ammonium acetate extractable (at pH 4.65 aluminium in our soils.

  15. Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

  16. Towards quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet, B.; Sirven, J.-B.; Canioni, L.

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of chromium in soil samples is presented. Different emission lines related to chromium are studied in order to select the best one for quantitative features. Important matrix effects are demonstrated from one soil to the other, preventing any prediction of concentration in different soils on the basis of a univariate calibration curve. Finally, a classification of the LIBS data based on a series of Principal Component Analyses (PCA) is applied to a reduced dataset of selected spectral lines related to the major chemical elements in the soils. LIBS data of heterogeneous soils appear to be widely dispersed, which leads to a reconsideration of the sampling step in the analysis process

  17. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura

    2018-05-31

    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils.From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls.Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  18. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Marasco, Ramona; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur; Fava, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils.From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls.Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  19. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Marasco, Ramona; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur; Fava, Fabio

    2018-05-31

    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils. From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls. Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  20. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • There are radioactively contaminated soils having a radioactive cesium transfer of 0.01. • Micro-PIXE analysis has revealed an existence of phosphorus in a contaminated soil. • Radioactive cesium captured by phosphorus compound would be due to radioactive transfer. -- Abstract: Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ∼0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds

  1. Statistical sampling strategies for survey of soil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews methods for selecting sampling locations in contaminated soils for three situations. In the first situation a global estimate of the soil contamination in an area is required. The result of the surey is a number or a series of numbers per contaminant, e.g. the estimated mean

  2. Soil sampling in emergency situations; Amostragem de solos em situacoes de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ramos Junior, Anthenor Costa [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Licenciamento e Controle

    1997-12-31

    The soil sampling methods used in Goiania`s accident (1987) by the environmental team of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) are described. The development of this method of soil sampling to a emergency sampling method used in a Nuclear Emergency Exercise in Angra dos Reis Reactor Site (1991) is presented. A new method for soil sampling based on a Chernobyl environmental monitoring experience (1995) is suggested. (author) 15 refs.

  3. Assessment of soil sample quality used for density evaluations through computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Bacchi, Osny O.S.

    2005-01-01

    There are several methods to measure soil bulk density (ρ s ) like the paraffin sealed clod (PS), the volumetric ring (VR), the computed tomography (CT), and the neutron-gamma surface gauge (SG). In order to evaluate by a non-destructive way the possible modifications in soil structure caused by sampling for the PS and VR methods of ρ s evaluation we proposed to use the gamma ray CT method. A first generation tomograph was used having a 241 Am source and a 3 in x 3 in NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Results confirm the effect of soil sampler devices on the structure of soil samples, and that the compaction caused during sampling causes significant alterations of soil bulk density. Through the use of CT it was possible to determine the level of compaction and to make a detailed analysis of the soil bulk density distribution within the soil sample. (author)

  4. Activity Concentration for Surface Soil Samples Collected from Arrant, Qena, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Salahel Din, K.; Abbady, A.; Moustafa, M.

    2010-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from four regions from Armant area. Qena, Upper Egypt for measure their natural radioactivity concentrations due to Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 radionuclides. Thirty-Four surface soil samples were analyzed by using low-level gamma-spectrometric analysis. The average activity concentration for Ra-226 in (Bq/kg) in the collected soil samples were found to be 27.3 ±3.2, 11.4±1.09, 10.6±1.2, and 11.4±1.02 while the average value for Th-232 were 15.1±1.4, 11.1±0.77, 10.8 ± 0.72 and 11.1 ± 0.8 (Bq/kg) for soil samples from North, South, West and East. The corresponding average values for K-40 were 521.4±16.8, 463±14.8, 488.9±15.6 and 344.5±10.7 (Bq/kg), respectively. Based on radionuclides concentration in surface soil samples the radiological effects can be assessed

  5. Soil classification basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanjun; Zhang, Xiaokang; Zhang, Xinle

    2016-04-01

    Soil taxonomy plays an important role in soil utility and management, but China has only course soil map created based on 1980s data. New technology, e.g. spectroscopy, could simplify soil classification. The study try to classify soils basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples. 148 topsoil samples of typical soils, including Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow soil, were collected from Songnen plain, Northeast China, and the room spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared region (400-2500 nm) were processed with weighted moving average, resampling technique, and continuum removal. Spectral indices were extracted from soil spectral characteristics, including the second absorption positions of spectral curve, the first absorption vale's area, and slope of spectral curve at 500-600 nm and 1340-1360 nm. Then K-means clustering and decision tree were used respectively to build soil classification model. The results indicated that 1) the second absorption positions of Black soil and Chernozem were located at 610 nm and 650 nm respectively; 2) the spectral curve of the meadow is similar to its adjacent soil, which could be due to soil erosion; 3) decision tree model showed higher classification accuracy, and accuracy of Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow are 100%, 88%, 97%, 50% respectively, and the accuracy of Blown soil could be increased to 100% by adding one more spectral index (the first two vole's area) to the model, which showed that the model could be used for soil classification and soil map in near future.

  6. Characterisation of a reference site for quantifying uncertainties related to soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbizzi, Sabrina; Zorzi, Paolo de; Belli, Maria; Pati, Alessandra; Sansone, Umberto; Stellato, Luisa; Barbina, Maria; Deluisa, Andrea; Menegon, Sandro; Coletti, Valter

    2004-01-01

    An integrated approach to quality assurance in soil sampling remains to be accomplished. - The paper reports a methodology adopted to face problems related to quality assurance in soil sampling. The SOILSAMP project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT), is aimed at (i) establishing protocols for soil sampling in different environments; (ii) assessing uncertainties associated with different soil sampling methods in order to select the 'fit-for-purpose' method; (iii) qualifying, in term of trace elements spatial variability, a reference site for national and international inter-comparison exercises. Preliminary results and considerations are illustrated

  7. Decision support tool for soil sampling of heterogeneous pesticide (chlordecone) pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostre, Florence; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphaël; Letourmy, Philippe; Cabidoche, Yves-Marie; Cattan, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    When field pollution is heterogeneous due to localized pesticide application, as is the case of chlordecone (CLD), the mean level of pollution is difficult to assess. Our objective was to design a decision support tool to optimize soil sampling. We analyzed the CLD heterogeneity of soil content at 0-30- and 30-60-cm depth. This was done within and between nine plots (0.4 to 1.8 ha) on andosol and ferralsol. We determined that 20 pooled subsamples per plot were a satisfactory compromise with respect to both cost and accuracy. Globally, CLD content was greater for andosols and the upper soil horizon (0-30 cm). Soil organic carbon cannot account for CLD intra-field variability. Cropping systems and tillage practices influence the CLD content and distribution; that is CLD pollution was higher under intensive banana cropping systems and, while upper soil horizon was more polluted than the lower one with shallow tillage (pollution in the soil profile. The decision tool we proposed compiles and organizes these results to better assess CLD soil pollution in terms of sampling depth, distance, and unit at field scale. It accounts for sampling objectives, farming practices (cropping system, tillage), type of soil, and topographical characteristics (slope) to design a relevant sampling plan. This decision support tool is also adaptable to other types of heterogeneous agricultural pollution at field level.

  8. Study of Organochlorinated Pesticide Residues and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vlora Gashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the data obtained for organochlorinated pesticides and their residues in the soil samples of agricultural areas. Soil contamination is one of most important factors influencing the quality of agricultural products. Usage of heavy farm equipment, the land drainage, an exces­sive application of agrochemicals, emissions originating from mining, metallurgical, and chemical and coal power plants and transport, all generate a number of undesired substances (nitric and sulphur oxides, PAHs, heavy metals, pesticides, which after deposition in soil may influence crop quality. Thus, input of these contaminants into the environment should be carefully monitored. Levels of organochlorinated pesticides contamination were evaluated in agriculture areas that are in use. 10 soil samples were taken in agricultural areas  Plane of  Dugagjini , Kosovo. Representa­tive soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm top layer of the soil. In the analytical method we combined ultrasonic bath extraction and a Florisil column for samples clean-up. The analysis of the organochlorinated pesticides in soil samples was performed by gas chromatography technique using electron capture detector (GC/ECD. Optima-5 (low/mid polarity, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane 60 m x 0.33 mm x 0.25μm film capillary column was used for isolation and determination of organochlorinated pesticides. Low concentrations of organochlorinated pesticide and their metabolites were found in the studied samples. The presence of organochlorinated pesticides and their residues is probably resulting of their previous uses for agricultural purposes.

  9. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  10. Adsorption and desorption of Am(III) on calcareous soil and its parent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weijuan; Zhang Fuming; Tao Zuyi

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of Am(III) on a calcareous soil (sierozem) and its parent material (loess) were studied by batch technique. The molarities of the Am(III) aqueous solutions were less than 5 x 10 -9 mol/l. High adsorbability was found of Am(III) on the calcareous soil and its parent material. In order to decrease the adsorption and, hence, to investigate the adsorption characteristics properly, stable Eu 3+ as hold back carrier and analogue was added to the aqueous solution. The relative contributions of CaCO 3 , organic matter (OM) to the Am(III) adsorption on calcareous soil and its parent material were investigated. The adsorption and desorption isotherms of Am(III) on untreated soil and loess and the three kinds of treated soils and three kinds of treated loesses to remove CaCO 3 , OM and both CaCO 3 and OM were determined, respectively. It was found that all isotherms were linear, the average distribution coefficients (K d ) for the untreated soil and for the untreated loess were almost equal, while there was an obvious difference between the values of the average distribution coefficients (K d ) for the treated soil and the treated loess to remove CaCO 3 or OM. The adsorption-desorption hysteresis on the untreated and treated soils and loesses actually occurred and there was an obvious difference between the hysteresis coefficients on both the corresponding treated soil and loess. It can be concluded that the adsorbability of Am(III) on calcareous soil is similar to that on its parent material, and that the contributions of CaCO 3 and OM to the Am(III) adsorption by the untreated soil are different from those by the untreated parent material. (author)

  11. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara M. de Andréa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

  12. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami; Uchida; Hamilton; Robison

    2000-07-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 (99Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (MI) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g(-1) dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for 99Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g(-1) dw under standard operating conditions.

  13. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99 Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99 Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99 Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g -1 dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for 99 Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g -1 dw under standard operating conditions

  14. How much will afforestation of former cropland influence soil C stocks? A synthesis of paired sampling, chronosequence sampling and repeated sampling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Hansen, K.; Stupak, I.; Don, Axel; Poeplau, C.; Leifeld, Jens; van Wesemael, Bas

    2010-05-01

    The need for documentation of land-use change effects on soil C is high on the agenda in most signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol. Large land areas in Europe have experienced land-use change from cropland to forest since 1990 by direct afforestation as well as abandonment and regrowth of marginally productive cropland. Soil C dynamics following land-use change remain highly uncertain due to a limited number of available studies and due to influence of interacting factors such as land use history, soil type, and climate. Common approaches for estimation of potential soil C changes following land-use change are i) paired sampling of plots with a long legacy of different land uses, ii) chronosequence studies of land-use change, and lastly iii) repeated sampling of plots subject to changed land use. This paper will synthesize the quantitative effects of cropland afforestation on soil C sequestration based on all three approaches and will report on related work within Cost 639. Paired plots of forest and cropland were used to study the general differences between soil C stocks in the two land uses. At 27 sites in Denmark distributed among different regions and soil types forest floor and mineral soil were sampled in and around soil pits. Soil C stocks were higher in forest than cropland (mean difference 22 Mg C ha-1 to 1 m depth). This difference was caused solely by the presence of a forest floor in forests; mineral soil C stocks were similar (108 vs. 109 Mg C ha-1) in the two land uses regardless of soil type and the soil layers considered. The chronosequence approach was employed in the AFFOREST project for evaluation of C sequestration in biomass and soils following afforestation of cropland. Two oak (Quercus robur) and four Norway spruce (Picea abies) afforestation chronosequences (age range 1 to 90 years) were studied in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands. Forest floor and mineral soil (0-25 cm) C contents were as a minimum unchanged and in most cases there

  15. Changes in microbial and soil organic matter following amendment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The amendment of the soil with untreated OMW improved the soil carbon content (2.18 ... Total solids (g l-1). 52 ± 2.98 ... Untreated olive mill wastewater was taken from a three-phase discontinuous extraction factory located in Sfax, Tunisia. ..... Effect of bioaugmentation of activated sludge with white-rot fungi on olive mill.

  16. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian France

    Full Text Available Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling. Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation.

  17. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  18. A generalized transmission method for gamma-efficiency determinations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a generalization of the γ-ray transmission method which is useful for measurements on soil samples, for example, is presented. The correction factor, f, is given, which is a function of the apparent density of the soil and the γ-ray energy. With this method, the need for individual determinations of f, for each energy and apparent soil density is avoided. Although the method has been developed for soils, the general philosophy can be applied to other sample matrices, such as water or vegetables for example. (author)

  19. Use of passive sampling devices to determine soil contaminant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.A. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)]|[Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Hooper, M.J. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); Weisskopf, C.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The effective remediation of contaminated sites requires accurate identification of chemical distributions. A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDs) can provide a thorough site assessment. We have been pursuing their application in terrestrial systems and have found that they increase the ease and speed of analysis, decrease solvent usage and overall cost, and minimize the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a higher sampling frequency than is generally the case using traditional methods. PSDs have been used in the field in soils of varying physical properties and have been successful in estimating soil concentrations ranging from 1 {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) to greater than 200 mg/kg (parts per million). They were also helpful in identifying hot spots within the sites. Passive sampling devices show extreme promise as an analytical tool to rapidly characterize contaminant distributions in soil. There are substantial time and cost savings in laboratory personnel and supplies. By selectively excluding common interferences that require sample cleanup, PSDs can be retrieved from the field and processed rapidly (one technician can process approximately 90 PSDs in an 8-h work day). The results of our studies indicate that PSDs can be used to accurately estimate soil contaminant concentrations and provide lower detection limits. Further, time and cost savings will allow a more thorough and detailed characterization of contaminant distributions. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Statistical sampling approaches for soil monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes three statistical sampling approaches for regional soil monitoring, a design-based, a model-based and a hybrid approach. In the model-based approach a space-time model is exploited to predict global statistical parameters of interest such as the space-time mean. In the hybrid

  1. Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.

    1993-04-01

    This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is a 30.1 year half-life man-made radionuclide produced in the past by atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Natural radioactivity was determined by measuring some radionuclides belonging to Th-232 and U-238 natural radioactive families, and of K-40 concentrations. Several types of soils from Southern Brazil; and soil samples, marine sediments, lichens, mosses and algae collected at King George and other nearby islands (South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica) were analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure radioactivity levels of the collected samples and its overall characteristics are analyzed in this work. (author)

  2. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

  3. Using Environmental Variables for Studying of the Quality of Sampling in Soil Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methods of soil survey are generally empirical and based on the mental development of the surveyor, correlating soil with underlying geology, landforms, vegetation and air-photo interpretation. Since there are no statistical criteria for traditional soil sampling; this may lead to bias in the areas being sampled. In digital soil mapping, soil samples may be used to elaborate quantitative relationships or models between soil attributes and soil covariates. Because the relationships are based on the soil observations, the quality of the resulting soil map depends also on the soil observation quality. An appropriate sampling design for digital soil mapping depends on how much data is available and where the data is located. Some statistical methods have been developed for optimizing data sampling for soil surveys. Some of these methods deal with the use of ancillary information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of sampling of existing data. Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the central basin of the Iranian plateau (Figure 1. The geologic infrastructure of the area is mainly Cretaceous limestone, Mesozoic shale and sandstone. Air photo interpretation (API was used to differentiate geomorphic patterns based on their formation processes, general structure and morphometry. The patterns were differentiated through a nested geomorphic hierarchy (Fig. 2. A four-level geomorphic hierarchy is used to breakdown the complexity of different landscapes of the study area. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the geomorphic surfaces, which were formed by a unique process during a specific geologic time, were defined. A stratified sampling scheme was designed based on geomorphic mapping. In the stratified simple random sampling, the area was divided into sub-areas referred to as strata based on geomorphic surfaces, and within each stratum, sampling locations were randomly selected (Figure 2. This resulted in 191

  4. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, K. E-mail: k_tagami@nirs.go.jp; Uchida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W

    2000-07-15

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for {sup 99}Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the {sup 99}Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The {sup 99}Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g{sup -1} dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for {sup 99}Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g{sup -1} dw under standard operating conditions.

  5. Removal of fission products from waste solutions using 16 different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, M.A.; Hanif, J.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the nuclear sites use pits in the surrounding soils for the storage/disposal of low active waste (LAW) solutions. The characteristics of the soil if not suitable for the fixation or adsorption of the radioactive nuclides, may cause migration of these nuclides to hydrosphere. The phenomenon has the risk of radio toxic pollution for the living bodies therefore minerals composing the soil and their adsorption properties need to be investigated. For this purpose 16 different soil samples were collected from all over Pakistan. Mineralogical composition of the soils was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that most of the samples contained clay minerals, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. Studies for the removal of fission products like, /sup 137/Cs. /sup 60/Sr and activation product /sup 60/CO from solution were carried out on these samples. The sorption experiments were performed by batch technique using radioactive as tracers. Distribution co-efficient were determined by mixing he element solution at pH 3 with the soil at soil solution ratios of 1 to 20. It is revealed from the experimental data that efficient removal of fission products from solutions is achieved by soil samples containing clay mineral montmorillonite, followed by little and kaolinite. These soils thus can be effectively used for the disposal of low level radioactive waste solutions without causing any environmental hazard. (author)

  6. Degradation of hydrocarbons in soil samples analyzed within accepted analytical holding times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.; Thomey, N.; Dietlein, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    Samples which are collected in conjunction with subsurface investigations at leaking petroleum storage tank sites and petroleum refineries are routinely analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Water samples are preserved by the addition of hydrochloric acid and maintained at four degrees centigrade prior to analysis. This is done to prevent bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons. Chemical preservation is not presently performed on soil samples. Instead, the samples are cooled and maintained at four degrees centigrade. This study was done to measure the degree of degradation of hydrocarbons in soil samples which are analyzed within accepted holding times. Soil samples were collected and representative subsamples were prepared from the initial sample. Subsamples were analyzed in triplicate for BTEX and TPH throughout the length of the approved holding times to measure the extent of sample constituent degradation prior to analysis. Findings imply that for sandy soils, BTEX and TPH concentrations can be highly dependent upon the length of time which elapses between sample collection and analysis

  7. Improvement of poor subgrade soils using cement kiln dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mancy Mosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction of pavements layers on subgrade with excellent to good properties reduces the thickness of the layers and consequently reduces the initial and maintenance cost of highways and vice versa. However, construction of pavements on poor subgrade is unavoidable due to several constrains. Improvement of subgrade properties using traditional additives such as lime and Portland cement adds supplementary costs. Therefore, using by-products in this domain involves technical, economic, and environmental advantages. Cement kiln dust (CKD is generated in huge quantities as a by-product material in Portland cement plants. Therefore, it can be considered as an excellent alternative in this domain. In Iraq, Portland cement plants generate about 350000 tons of CKD annually which is available for free. Therefore, Iraq can be adopted as a case study. This paper covers using CKD to improve the properties of poor subgrade soils based on series of California Bearing Ration (CBR tests on sets of untreated samples and samples treated with different doses of CKD in combination with different curing periods to investigate their effects on soil properties. The results exhibited that adding 20% of CKD with curing for 14 days increases the CBR value from 3.4% for untreated soil to 48% for treated soil; it, also, decreases the swelling ratio. To determine the effects of using this dose under the mentioned curing period on the designed thicknesses of pavements layers, a case study was adopted. The case study results exhibited that treatment of the subgrade soil by 20% of CKD with curing for 14 days reduces the cost of the pavements by $25.875 per square meter.

  8. The standardization of an apparatus for the mixing of soil samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative determination of nematode populations in soils frequently necessitates the mixing of representative soil samples to form a homogeneous, compound sample from which the nematodes are extracted. A mixing apparatus was developed and standardized with the aid of a spectrophotometric technique by which ...

  9. Sorption of radioiodine in organo-clays and -soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bors, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of investigations on the sorption of radioiodine to natural and artificially altered soil components, a number of clay minerals and natural soils were treated with quaternary alkylammonium ions to replace the exchangeable metal cations. With help of batch experiments the resulting organo-clays were tested with respect to their sorption capability of radioiodine quantified by the distribution ratio (R D -value). Treatment of bentonite, vermiculite and cretaceous clay as well as of samples from natural horizons of chernozem soil with hexadecylpyridinium (HDPY + ) and benzethonium (BE + ) exhibited sorptions rates and amounts, which are several orders of magnitude higher than those of the respective untreated samples. Moderate increases of the R D -values were found after cation exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA + ), while the applications of trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA + ) and tetramethylammonium (TMA + ) were ineffective. Considerable sorption of radioiodine was observed with the commercially available Bentone. (orig.)

  10. Soil map disaggregation improved by soil-landscape relationships, area-proportional sampling and random forest implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Malone, Brendan P.; Odgers, Nathan

    implementation generally improved the algorithm’s ability to predict the correct soil class. The implementation of soil-landscape relationships and area-proportional sampling generally increased the calculation time, while the random forest implementation reduced the calculation time. In the most successful......Detailed soil information is often needed to support agricultural practices, environmental protection and policy decisions. Several digital approaches can be used to map soil properties based on field observations. When soil observations are sparse or missing, an alternative approach...... is to disaggregate existing conventional soil maps. At present, the DSMART algorithm represents the most sophisticated approach for disaggregating conventional soil maps (Odgers et al., 2014). The algorithm relies on classification trees trained from resampled points, which are assigned classes according...

  11. Specification for soil multisensor and soil sampling cone penetrometer probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatate, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Specification requirements for engineering, fabrication, and performance of cone penetrometer (CP) soil multisensor and sampling probes (CP-probes) which are required to support contract procurement for services are presented. The specification provides a documented technical basis of quality assurance that is required to use the probes in an operating Hanford tank farm. The documentation cited in this specification will be incorporated into an operational fielding plan that will address all activities associated with the use of the CP-probes. The probes discussed in this specification support the Hanford Tanks Initiative AX-104 Tank Plume Characterization Sub-task. The probes will be used to interrogate soils and vadose zone surrounding tank AX-104

  12. Geotechnical properties of Egyptian collapsible soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled E. Gaaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of constructing structures on collapsible soils presents significant challenges to geotechnical engineers due to sudden reduction in volume upon wetting. Identifying collapsible soils when encountered in the field and taking the needed precautions should substantially reduce the risk of such problems usually reported in buildings and highways. Collapsible soils are those unsaturated soils that can withstand relatively high pressure without showing significant change in volume, however upon wetting; they are susceptible to a large and sudden reduction in volume. Collapsible soils cover significant areas around the world. In Egypt, collapsible soils were observed within the northern portion of the western desert including Borg El-Arab region, and around the city of Cairo in Six-of-October plateau, and Tenth-of-Ramadan city. Settlements associated with development on untreated collapsible soils usually lead to expensive repairs. One method for treating collapsible soils is to densify their structure by compaction. The ongoing study presents the effect of compaction on the geotechnical properties of the collapsible soils. Undisturbed block samples were recovered from test pits at four sites in Borg El-Arab district, located at about 20 km west of the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The samples were tested in both unsoaked and soaked conditions. Influence of water inundation on the geotechnical properties of collapsible soils was demonstrated. A comparative study between natural undisturbed and compacted samples of collapsible soils was performed. An attempt was made to relate the collapse potential to the initial moisture content. An empirical correlation between California Bearing Ratio of the compacted collapsible soils and liquid limit was adopted. The presented simple relationships should enable the geotechnical engineers to estimate the complex parameters of collapsible soils using simple laboratory tests with a reasonable accuracy.

  13. Microbiological evaluation on toxicity amelioration of soil samples contaminated with petroleum-based products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Pauline Liew Woan Ying; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Abdul Khalik Wood; Muhamat Omar

    2004-01-01

    Samples of soil materials from oil sludge landfarm in Melaka and petroleum sludge ready for disposal were analysed on their potentially toxic elements and compounds and their microbial population. These were compared against uncontaminated soil samples from agricultural plots and fresh crude petroleum samples obtained from an oil refinery in Kerteh, Terengganu. Enumeration and isolation of culturable microbial populations in the above samples were conducted using standard plate counts and screening methods. Populations of microorganisms from uncontaminated soils were tested on its potential to degrade petroleum derived products on contaminated soil samples and crude petroleum samples in a laboratory experiment. Microorganisms with great potential to degrade petroleum sludge will be further screened in further bioremediation studies in the field. (Author)

  14. Determination of metals in scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris) needles and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludborzs, A.; Viksna, A.

    2000-01-01

    Current report is the finding to apply two modern and powerful methods of microanalysis - Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry - for the analysis of biological and geological materials. For some of the measurements Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used as an arbitrary method. The goal of the research project is to find possible relationships between metals content in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles and the soil samples, which have been taken under the trees. The objectives of the work are analysis of both needles and soils, pH measurements of the soil samples, and handling of a simplified metal speciation analysis in the soil samples. For statistical reliability of the project, seven pine trees from different locations in Latvia have been chosen as the analysis objects. Samples of 20 different age class needles have been collected from the trees and 21 soil sample has been sampled under the trees. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb, and Cd content have been analysed in both samples of the needles and the soils. The obtained measurement data have been processed according to the aim of the project. Relevant questions about causal differences of metal concentrations in different age classes of needles, about subtle working principles of the plant's root system, about the role of some elements in the plant's living processes still remain unanswered. (author)

  15. Sample collection and sample analysis plan in support of the 105-C/190-C concrete and soil sampling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1996-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan describes the sample collection and sample analysis in support of the 105-C water tunnels and 190-C main pumphouse concrete and soil sampling activities. These analytical data will be used to identify the radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials to support the decontamination and disposal activities

  16. Research on self-absorption corrections for laboratory γ spectral analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zining; Jia Mingyan; Li Huibin; Cheng Ziwei; Ju Lingjun; Shen Maoquan; Yang Xiaoyan; Yan Ling; Fen Tiancheng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the calibration results of the point sources,dimensions of HPGe crystal were characterized.Linear attenuation coefficients and detection efficiencies of all kinds of samples were calculated,and the function F(μ) of φ75 mm x 25 mm sample was established. Standard surface source was used to simulate the source of different heights in the soil sample. And the function ε(h) which reflect the relationship between detection efficiencies and heights of the surface sources was determined. The detection efficiency of calibration source can be obtained by integration, F(μ) functions of soil samples established is consistent with the result of MCNP calculation code. Several φ75 mm x 25 mm soil samples were measured by the HPGe spectrometer,and the function F(μ) was used to correct the self absorption. F(μ) functions of soil samples of various dimensions can be calculated by MCNP calculation code established, and self absorption correction can be done. To verify the efficiency of calculation results, φ75 mm x 75 mm soil samples were measured. Several φ75 mm x 25 mm soil samples from aerosphere nuclear testing field was measured by the HPGe spectrometer,and the function F(μ) was used to correct the self absorption. The function F(m) was established, and the technical method which is used to correct the soil samples of unknown area is also given. The correction method of surface source greatly improves the gamma spectrum's metrical accuracy, and it will be widely applied to environmental radioactive investigation. (authors)

  17. X-ray spectrometry and X-ray microtomography techniques for soil and geological samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Dziadowicz, M.; Kopeć, E.; Majewska, U.; Mazurek, M.; Pajek, M.; Sobisz, M.; Stabrawa, I.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Góźdź, S.

    2015-01-01

    A particular subject of X-ray fluorescence analysis is its application in studies of the multielemental sample of composition in a wide range of concentrations, samples with different matrices, also inhomogeneous ones and those characterized with different grain size. Typical examples of these kinds of samples are soil or geological samples for which XRF elemental analysis may be difficult due to XRF disturbing effects. In this paper the WDXRF technique was applied in elemental analysis concerning different soil and geological samples (therapeutic mud, floral soil, brown soil, sandy soil, calcium aluminum cement). The sample morphology was analyzed using X-ray microtomography technique. The paper discusses the differences between the composition of samples, the influence of procedures with respect to the preparation of samples as regards their morphology and, finally, a quantitative analysis. The results of the studies were statistically tested (one-way ANOVA and correlation coefficients). For lead concentration determination in samples of sandy soil and cement-like matrix, the WDXRF spectrometer calibration was performed. The elemental analysis of the samples was complemented with knowledge of chemical composition obtained by X-ray powder diffraction.

  18. X-ray spectrometry and X-ray microtomography techniques for soil and geological samples analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Dziadowicz, M.; Kopeć, E. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Majewska, U. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Mazurek, M.; Pajek, M.; Sobisz, M.; Stabrawa, I. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Wudarczyk-Moćko, J. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Góźdź, S. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Institute of Public Health, Jan Kochanowski University, IX Wieków Kielc 19, 25-317 Kielce (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    A particular subject of X-ray fluorescence analysis is its application in studies of the multielemental sample of composition in a wide range of concentrations, samples with different matrices, also inhomogeneous ones and those characterized with different grain size. Typical examples of these kinds of samples are soil or geological samples for which XRF elemental analysis may be difficult due to XRF disturbing effects. In this paper the WDXRF technique was applied in elemental analysis concerning different soil and geological samples (therapeutic mud, floral soil, brown soil, sandy soil, calcium aluminum cement). The sample morphology was analyzed using X-ray microtomography technique. The paper discusses the differences between the composition of samples, the influence of procedures with respect to the preparation of samples as regards their morphology and, finally, a quantitative analysis. The results of the studies were statistically tested (one-way ANOVA and correlation coefficients). For lead concentration determination in samples of sandy soil and cement-like matrix, the WDXRF spectrometer calibration was performed. The elemental analysis of the samples was complemented with knowledge of chemical composition obtained by X-ray powder diffraction.

  19. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  20. Comparison of in situ gamma soil analysis and soil sampling data for mapping 241Am and 239Pu soil concentrations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, J.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Phelps, P.L.; Huckabay, G.W.; Markwell, F.; Barnes, M.

    1976-01-01

    Soil sampling and in situ 241 Am-gamma counting with an array of four high purity, planar, Ge detectors are compared as means of determining soil concentration contours of plutonium and their associated uncertainties. Results of this survey, which covered an area of approximately 300,000 m 2 , indicate that with one-third the number of sampling locations, the in situ gamma survey provided soil concentration contours with confidence intervals that were about one-third as wide as those obtained with soil sampling. The methods of the survey are described and a discussion of advantages and limitations of both methods is given

  1. Comparison of in situ gamma soil analysis and soil sampling data for mapping 241Am and 239Pu soil concentrations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, J.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Phelps, P.L.; Huckabay, G.W.; Markwell, F.R.; Barnes, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    Soil sampling and in situ 241 Am-gamma counting with an array of four high-purity, planar, Ge detectors are compared as means of determining soil concentration contours of plutonium and their associated uncertainties. Results of this survey, which covered an area of approximately 300,000 m 2 , indicate that with one-third the number of sampling locations, the in situ gamma survey provided soil concentration contours with confidence intervals that were about one-third as wide as those obtained with soil sampling. The methods of the survey are described and a discussion of advantages and limitations of both methods is given

  2. The feasible research with measuring radon for taking the soils sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Bing, Ge Liangquan; Liu Hefan; Li Yeqiang; Zhang Jinzhao; Song Xiao'an

    2010-01-01

    It explains the mechanism of the separation of soil's radon. Through the designed experiment, it confirms the feasibility of measuring radon for taking the soil's sample. It determines the content of the radon and its sub field with indoor and outside through ways of the activated charcoal adsorption, the initiative suction and the diameter mark etching, also the 226 Ra. The paper indicates: it is feasible with measuring radon for taking the soil's sample, and the stability of data is that indoor data are better than outside's. The temperature, the humidity, the rainfall amount, the intensity and so on are the serious influence of the data. If you want to take a soil's sample, you must avoid the rain as far as possible, and avoid the fault zone, the belt of folded strata and complex geologic structure region, and so on. (authors)

  3. Occurrence and species distribution of pathogenic Mucorales in unselected soil samples from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, B; Costa, J M; Arné, P; Guillot, J; Chermette, R; Botterel, F; Dannaoui, E

    2018-04-01

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal disease that affects a variety of patient groups. Although Mucorales are mostly opportunistic pathogens originating from soil or decaying vegetation, there are currently few data on prevalence of this group of fungi in the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and diversity of species of Mucorales from soil samples collected in France. Two grams of soil were homogenized in sterile saline and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and RPMI agar supplemented with itraconazole or voriconazole. Both media contained chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The plates were incubated at 35 ± 2 °C and checked daily for fungal growth for a maximum of 7 d. Mucorales were subcultured for purity. Each isolate was identified phenotypically and molecular identification was performed by ITS sequencing. A total of 170 soil samples were analyzed. Forty-one isolates of Mucorales were retrieved from 38 culture-positive samples. Among the recovered isolates, 27 Rhizopus arrhizus, 11 Mucor circinelloides, one Lichtheimia corymbifera, one Rhizopus microsporus and one Cunninghamella bertholletiae were found. Positive soil samples came from cultivated fields but also from other types of soil such as flower beds. Mucorales were retrieved from samples obtained in different geographical regions of France. Voriconazole-containing medium improved the recovery of Mucorales compared with other media. The present study showed that pathogenic Mucorales are frequently recovered from soil samples in France. Species diversity should be further analyzed on a larger number of soil samples from different geographic areas in France and in other countries.

  4. Study on natural radioactive elements in soil and rock samples around Mandya district, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumara, B.C.; Paramesh, L.; Shashikumar, T.S.; Chandrashekara, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The soil is a complex mixture of different compounds and rocks. In the natural environment, it is an important source of exposure to radiation due to naturally occurring, gamma emitting radionuclides which include 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K present in the soil. The study of distribution of these radionuclides in soil and rock is of great importance for radiation protection and measurements. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in soil and rock samples collected in Mandya District, Karnataka state, India have been measured by gamma ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K (Bq/kg) are found to be 40.2, 62.3, and 317.5 Bq/kg, respectively, in soil samples and 30.5, 34.4, and 700.2 Bq/kg, respectively, in rock samples. The concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples are found to higher than in rock samples. The concentrations of radionuclides in soil and rock samples in the study area are slightly higher than Indian average and world average values. (author)

  5. Inter comparison of 90Sr and 137Cs contents in biologic samples and natural U in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfen; Zeng Guangjian; Lu Xuequan

    2001-01-01

    The results of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in biologic samples and the natural U in soil samples obtained in a joint effort by fourteen environmental radiation laboratories in the Chinese environmental protection system were analyzed and compared. Two kinds of biologic samples and one kind of soil samples were used for inter comparison. Of which, one kind of biologic samples (biologic powder samples) and the soil samples came from the IAEA samples were environmental and the reference values were known. The another kind of biologic samples were environmental tea-leaf that were taken from a tea garden near Hangzhou. The mean values obtained by all the joined laboratories was used as the reference. The inter comparison results were expressed in terms of the deviation from the reference value. It was found that the deviation of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents of biologic powder samples ranged from -15.4% to 26.5% and -15.0% to 0.4%, respectively. The deviation of the natural U content ranged from -25.5% to 7.3% for the soil samples. For the tea-leaf, the 90 Sr deviation was -22.7% to 19.1%, and the 137 Cs data had a relative large scatter with a ratio of the maximum and the minimum values being about 7. It was pointed out that the analysis results offered by different laboratories might have involved system errors

  6. Substitution of lucerne hay by untreated, urea-enriched and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat straw was left untreated (WS), enriched with 1.5% urea (UWS), or ammoniated with 5.5% urea in a stack for 8 .... nitrogen concentration for maximal microbial synthesis is in ... faeces and urine samples were taken daily and pooled for.

  7. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  8. Measurements of Plutonium and Americium in Soil Samples from Project 57 using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John L. Bowen; Rowena Gonzalez; David S. Shafer

    2001-01-01

    As part of the preliminary site characterization conducted for Project 57, soils samples were collected for separation into several size-fractions using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS). Soil samples were collected specifically for separation by the SSPSS at three general locations in the deposited Project 57 plume, the projected radioactivity of which ranged from 100 to 600 pCi/g. The primary purpose in focusing on samples with this level of activity is that it would represent anticipated residual soil contamination levels at the site after corrective actions are completed. Consequently, the results of the SSPSS analysis can contribute to dose calculation and corrective action-level determinations for future land-use scenarios at the site

  9. Sorption of radioiodine in organo-clays and -soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bors, J. (Niedersaechsisches Inst. fuer Radiooekologie, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of investigations on the sorption of radioiodine to natural and artificially altered soil components, a number of clay minerals and natural soils were treated with quaternary alkylammonium ions to replace the exchangeable metal cations. With help of batch experiments the resulting organo-clays were tested with respect to their sorption capability of radioiodine quantified by the distribution ratio (R{sub D}-value). Treatment of bentonite, vermiculite and cretaceous clay as well as of samples from natural horizons of chernozem soil with hexadecylpyridinium (HDPY{sup +}) and benzethonium (BE{sup +}) exhibited sorptions rates and amounts, which are several orders of magnitude higher than those of the respective untreated samples. Moderate increases of the R{sub D}-values were found after cation exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA{sup +}), while the applications of trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA{sup +}) and tetramethylammonium (TMA{sup +}) were ineffective. Considerable sorption of radioiodine was observed with the commercially available Bentone. (orig.).

  10. Preparation and application of radioactive soil samples for intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zequan; Li Zhou; Li Pengxiang; Wang Ruijun; Ren Xiaona

    2014-01-01

    This article summarized the preparation process and intercomparison results of the simulated environmental radioactive soil samples. The components of the matrix were: SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, CaO, NaCl, KCl and TiO 2 . All of the components were milled, oven-dried, sieved and then blended together. The homogeneity test was according to GB 15000. 5-1994, and no significant differences were observed. The 3 H analysis soils were spiked natural soils with the moisture content of 15%. Eight laboratories attended this intercomparison. The results proves that the preparation of the simulated soils were suitable for the inter-laboratories comparison. (authors)

  11. Long-term application of winery wastewater - Effect on soil microbial populations and soil chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Kim; Patti, Antonio; Smernik, Ron; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    The ability to reuse winery wastewater (WWW) has potential benefits both with respect to treatment of a waste stream, as well as providing a beneficial water resource in water limited regions such as south-eastern Australia, California and South Africa. Over an extended time period, this practice leads to changes in soil chemistry, and potentially, also to soil microbial populations. In this study, we compared the short term effects of WWW (both treated and untreated) application on soil biology and chemistry in two adjacent paired sites with the same soil type, one of which had received WWW for approximately 30 years, and the other which had not. The paired sites were treated with an industrially relevant quantity of WWW, and the soil microbial activity (measured as soil CO2 efflux) and common soil physicochemical properties were monitored over a 16-day period. In addition, Solid State 13C NMR was employed on whole soil samples from the two sites, to measure and compare the chemical nature of the soil organic matter at the paired sites. The acclimatised soil showed a high level of organic matter and a greater spike in microbial activity following WWW addition, in comparison with the non-acclimatised soil, suggesting differences in soil chemistry and soil microbial communities between the two sites. Soil nitrate and phosphorus levels showed significant differences between WWW treatments; these differences likely to be microbially mediated.

  12. Optimization of sampling for the determination of the mean Radium-226 concentration in surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.R.; Leggett, R.W.; Espegren, M.L.; Little, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes a field experiment that identifies an optimal method for determination of compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Ra-226 guidelines for soil. The primary goals were to establish practical levels of accuracy and precision in estimating the mean Ra-226 concentration of surface soil in a small contaminated region; to obtain empirical information on composite vs. individual soil sampling and on random vs. uniformly spaced sampling; and to examine the practicality of using gamma measurements in predicting the average surface radium concentration and in estimating the number of soil samples required to obtain a given level of accuracy and precision. Numerous soil samples were collected on each six sites known to be contaminated with uranium mill tailings. Three types of samples were collected on each site: 10-composite samples, 20-composite samples, and individual or post hole samples; 10-composite sampling is the method of choice because it yields a given level of accuracy and precision for the least cost. Gamma measurements can be used to reduce surface soil sampling on some sites. 2 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

    2014-12-01

    The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon® + vacuum tube and Rhizon® + diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite + SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand + clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon® + syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil.

  14. Chemical and geotechnical analyses of soil samples from Olkiluoto for studies on sorption in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusa, M.; Aemmaelae, K.; Hakanen, M.; Lehto, J.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2009-05-01

    The safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel will include an estimate on the behavior of nuclear waste nuclides in the biosphere. As a part of this estimate also the transfer of nuclear waste nuclides in the soil and sediments is to be considered. In this study soil samples were collected from three excavator pits in Olkiluoto and the geotechnical and chemical characteristics of the samples were determined. In later stage these results will be used in sorption tests. Aim of these tests is to determine the Kd-values for Cs, Tc and I and later for Mo, Nb and Cl. Results of these sorption tests will be reported later. The geotechnical characteristics studied included dry weight and organic matter content as well as grain size distribution and mineralogy analyses. Selective extractions were carried out to study the sorption of cations into different mineral types. The extractions included five steps in which the cations bound to exchangeable, carbonate, oxides of Fe and Mn, organic matter and residual fractions were determined. For all fractions ICPMS analyses were carried out. In these analyses Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs and Pb were determined. In addition six profiles were taken from the surroundings of two excavator pits for the 137 Cs determination. Besides the samples taken for the characterization of soil, supplement samples were taken from the same layers for the separation of soil water. From the soil water pH, DOC, anions (F, Cl, NO 3 , SO 4 ) and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, S, Cd, Cs, Pb, U) were determined. (orig.)

  15. Effects of soil water saturation on sampling equilibrium and kinetics of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil-Gon; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Yongseok; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Passive sampling can be applied for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in soil pore water. When using passive samplers under field conditions, however, there are factors that might affect passive sampling equilibrium and kinetics, such as soil water saturation. To determine the effects of soil water saturation on passive sampling, the equilibrium and kinetics of passive sampling were evaluated by observing changes in the distribution coefficient between sampler and soil (K sampler/soil ) and the uptake rate constant (k u ) at various soil water saturations. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) passive samplers were deployed into artificial soils spiked with seven selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In dry soil (0% water saturation), both K sampler/soil and k u values were much lower than those in wet soils likely due to the contribution of adsorption of PAHs onto soil mineral surfaces and the conformational changes in soil organic matter. For high molecular weight PAHs (chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), both K sampler/soil and k u values increased with increasing soil water saturation, whereas they decreased with increasing soil water saturation for low molecular weight PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Changes in the sorption capacity of soil organic matter with soil water content would be the main cause of the changes in passive sampling equilibrium. Henry's law constant could explain the different behaviors in uptake kinetics of the selected PAHs. The results of this study would be helpful when passive samplers are deployed under various soil water saturations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Forensic Comparison of Soil Samples Using Nondestructive Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Stefan; Wiarda, Wim; Donders, Timme; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-07-01

    Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (C llr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model. Examples of the spatial resolution of the method in crime scenes are shown for three locations, and sampling strategy is discussed. Twelve test cases were analyzed, and results showed that the method is applicable. The study shows how the combination of an analysis technique, a database, and a discriminative model can be used to compare multiple soil samples quickly. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Analysis on soil compressibility changes of samples stabilized with lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea CALARASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage and control the stability of buildings located on difficult foundation soils, several techniques of soil stabilization were developed and applied worldwide. Taking into account the major significance of soil compressibility on construction durability and safety, the soil stabilization with a binder like lime is considered one of the most used and traditional methods. The present paper aims to assess the effect of lime content on soil geotechnical parameters, especially on compressibility ones, based on laboratory experimental tests, for several soil categories in admixture with different lime dosages. The results of this study indicate a significant improvement of stabilized soil parameters, such as compressibility and plasticity, in comparison with natural samples. The effect of lime stabilization is related to an increase of soil structure stability by increasing the bearing capacity.

  18. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences

  19. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  20. Effect of the grain size of the soil on the measured activity and variation in activity in surface and subsurface soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiti, H.A.; Rega, P.H.; Bradley, D.; Dahan, N.A.; Mugren, K.A.; Dosari, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Correlation between grain size and activity concentrations of soils and concentrations of various radionuclides in surface and subsurface soils has been measured for samples taken in the State of Qatar by gamma-spectroscopy using a high purity germanium detector. From the obtained gamma-ray spectra, the activity concentrations of the 238U (226Ra) and /sup 232/ Th (/sup 228/ Ac) natural decay series, the long-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K and the fission product radionuclide 137CS have been determined. Gamma dose rate, radium equivalent, radiation hazard index and annual effective dose rates have also been estimated from these data. In order to observe the effect of grain size on the radioactivity of soil, three grain sizes were used i.e., smaller than 0.5 mm; smaller than 1 mm and greater than 0.5 mm; and smaller than 2 mm and greater than 1 mm. The weighted activity concentrations of the 238U series nuclides in 0.5-2 mm grain size of sample numbers was found to vary from 2.5:f:0.2 to 28.5+-0.5 Bq/kg, whereas, the weighted activity concentration of 4 degree K varied from 21+-4 to 188+-10 Bq/kg. The weighted activity concentrations of 238U series and 4 degree K have been found to be higher in the finest grain size. However, for the 232Th series, the activity concentrations in the 1-2 mm grain size of one sample were found to be higher than in the 0.5-1 mm grain size. In the study of surface and subsurface soil samples, the activity concentration levels of 238 U series have been found to range from 15.9+-0.3 to 24.1+-0.9 Bq/kg, in the surface soil samples (0-5 cm) and 14.5+-0.3 to 23.6+-0.5 Bq/kg in the subsurface soil samples (5-25 cm). The activity concentrations of 232Th series have been found to lie in the range 5.7+-0.2 to 13.7+-0.5 Bq/kg, in the surface soil samples (0-5 cm)and 4.1+-0.2 to 15.6+-0.3 Bq/kg in the subsurface soil samples (5-25 cm). The activity concentrations of 4 degree K were in the range 150+-8 to 290+-17 Bq/kg, in the surface

  1. Dielectrophoretic sample preparation for environmental monitoring of microorganisms: Soil particle removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Henry O; McDonnell, Martin C; Hughes, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    Detection of pathogens from environmental samples is often hampered by sensors interacting with environmental particles such as soot, pollen, or environmental dust such as soil or clay. These particles may be of similar size to the target bacterium, preventing removal by filtration, but may non-specifically bind to sensor surfaces, fouling them and causing artefactual results. In this paper, we report the selective manipulation of soil particles using an AC electrokinetic microfluidic system. Four heterogeneous soil samples (smectic clay, kaolinitic clay, peaty loam, and sandy loam) were characterised using dielectrophoresis to identify the electrical difference to a target organism. A flow-cell device was then constructed to evaluate dielectrophoretic separation of bacteria and clay in a continous flow through mode. The average separation efficiency of the system across all soil types was found to be 68.7% with a maximal separation efficiency for kaolinitic clay at 87.6%. This represents the first attempt to separate soil particles from bacteria using dielectrophoresis and indicate that the technique shows significant promise; with appropriate system optimisation, we believe that this preliminary study represents an opportunity to develop a simple yet highly effective sample processing system.

  2. Analysis of PAH in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeufel, J.; Weisweiler, W.

    1994-01-01

    The supercritical fluid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from soil samples is described. Carbon dioxide mixed with a small amount of methanol is used for solvent. The results are compared with those obtained by a classical extraction method (that means with the use of organic liquids). The extracted PAH from both procedures can be separated by HPLC and analyzed with UV- and fluorescence detection. (orig.) [de

  3. Kinetics of exchange of a tracer in soil and clay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti, J C; Facetti, J F [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1971-01-01

    The kinetics of exchange of a Na tracer in soil and clay samples, provides with a reliable and convenient method for the determination of the different soil fraction ahd their CEC values, In addition, the analysis of the exchanges curves can be used for the identification of the clay present in the soil.

  4. Kinetics of exchange of a tracer in soil and clay samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti, J.C.; Facetti, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    The kinetics of exchange of a Na tracer in soil and clay samples, provides with a reliable and convenient method for the determination of the different soil fraction ahd their CEC values, In addition, the analysis of the exchanges curves can be used for the identification of the clay present in the soil

  5. Pore water sampling in acid sulfate soils: a new peeper method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Scott G; Burton, Edward D; Keene, Annabelle F; Bush, Richard T; Sullivan, Leigh A; Isaacson, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the design, deployment, and application of a modified equilibration dialysis device (peeper) optimized for sampling pore waters in acid sulfate soils (ASS). The modified design overcomes the limitations of traditional-style peepers, when sampling firm ASS materials over relatively large depth intervals. The new peeper device uses removable, individual cells of 25 mL volume housed in a 1.5 m long rigid, high-density polyethylene rod. The rigid housing structure allows the device to be inserted directly into relatively firm soils without requiring a supporting frame. The use of removable cells eliminates the need for a large glove-box after peeper retrieval, thus simplifying physical handling. Removable cells are easily maintained in an inert atmosphere during sample processing and the 25-mL sample volume is sufficient for undertaking multiple analyses. A field evaluation of equilibration times indicates that 32 to 38 d of deployment was necessary. Overall, the modified method is simple and effective and well suited to acquisition and processing of redox-sensitive pore water profiles>1 m deep in acid sulfate soil or any other firm wetland soils.

  6. Chelating agent-assisted electrokinetic removal of cadmium, lead and copper from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Nikolaou, Aris; Pentari, Despina; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    An integrated experimental program was conducted to remove Cd, Pb and Cu from contaminated soil. The chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) were used as washing solutions under different pH conditions and concentrations. Results showed that the extraction efficiency for Cd in decreasing order was NTA > EGTA > DTPA, while for Pb and Cu it was DTPA > NTA > EGTA. The use of higher chelate concentrations did not necessarily result in greater extraction efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation was applied by conditioning anolyte-catholyte pH to neutral values in order to avoid any potential alterations to the physicochemical soil properties. The removal efficiency for Cd was 65-95%, for Cu 15-60%, but for Pb was less than 20%. The phytotoxicity of the treated soil showed that the soil samples from the anode section were less phytotoxic than the untreated soil, but the phytotoxicity was increased in the samples from the cathode section. - Cadmium, lead and copper were extracted from contaminated soil by integrated electrokinetic and soil washing studies.

  7. Chelating agent-assisted electrokinetic removal of cadmium, lead and copper from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.giannis@enveng.tuc.g [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Nikolaou, Aris [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Pentari, Despina [Laboratory of Inorganic and Organic Geochemistry and Organic Petrography, Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.g [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    An integrated experimental program was conducted to remove Cd, Pb and Cu from contaminated soil. The chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) were used as washing solutions under different pH conditions and concentrations. Results showed that the extraction efficiency for Cd in decreasing order was NTA > EGTA > DTPA, while for Pb and Cu it was DTPA > NTA > EGTA. The use of higher chelate concentrations did not necessarily result in greater extraction efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation was applied by conditioning anolyte-catholyte pH to neutral values in order to avoid any potential alterations to the physicochemical soil properties. The removal efficiency for Cd was 65-95%, for Cu 15-60%, but for Pb was less than 20%. The phytotoxicity of the treated soil showed that the soil samples from the anode section were less phytotoxic than the untreated soil, but the phytotoxicity was increased in the samples from the cathode section. - Cadmium, lead and copper were extracted from contaminated soil by integrated electrokinetic and soil washing studies.

  8. The use of gamma ray computed tomography to investigate soil compaction due to core sampling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Correchel, Vladia; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus; Brasil, Rene P. Camponez do

    2004-01-01

    Compaction processes can influence soil physical properties such as soil density, porosity, pore size distribution, and processes like soil water and nutrient movements, root system distribution, and others. Soil porosity modification has important consequences like alterations in results of soil water retention curves. These alterations may cause differences in soil water storage calculations and matrix potential values, which are utilized in irrigation management systems. Because of this, soil-sampling techniques should avoid alterations of sample structure. In this work soil sample compaction caused by core sampling devices was investigated using the gamma ray computed tomography technique. A first generation tomograph with fixed source-detector arrangement and translation/rotational movements of the sample was utilized to obtain the images. The radioactive source is 241 Am, with an activity of 3.7 GBq, and the detector consists of a 3 in. x 3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Soil samples were taken from an experimental field utilizing cylinders 4.0 cm high and 2.6 cm in diameter. Based on image analyses it was possible to detect compacted regions in all samples next to the cylinder wall due to the sampling system. Tomographic unit profiles of the sample permitted to identify higher values of soil density for deeper regions of the sample, and it was possible to determine the average densities and thickness of these layers. Tomographic analyses showed to be a very useful tool for soil compaction characterization and presented many advantages in relation to traditional methods. (author)

  9. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Regina C L; Rosado, Alexandre S; da Mota, Fabio F; Cavalcante, Maria A S; Eulálio, Kelsen D; Filho, Antônio D; Martins, Liline M S; Lazéra, Márcia S; Wanke, Bodo

    2011-05-16

    Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25%) soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100%) were positive by the molecular tool. This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR.

  10. 76 FR 11334 - Safety Zone; Soil Sampling; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the North Branch of the Chicago River near Chicago, Illinois. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the North Branch of the Chicago River due to soil sampling in this area. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the soil sampling efforts.

  11. Isolation of antimicrobial producing Actinobacteria from soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbendary, Afaf Ahmed; Hessain, Ashgan Mohamed; El-Hariri, Mahmoud Darderi; Seida, Ahmed Adel; Moussa, Ihab Mohamed; Mubarak, Ayman Salem; Kabli, Saleh A; Hemeg, Hassan A; El Jakee, Jakeen Kamal

    2018-01-01

    Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has made the search for novel bioactive compounds from natural and unexplored habitats a necessity. Actinobacteria have important bioactive substances. The present study investigated antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria isolated from soil samples of Egypt. One hundred samples were collected from agricultural farming soil of different governorates. Twelve isolates have produced activity against the tested microorganisms ( S. aureus , Bacillus cereus , E. coli , K. pneumoniae , P. aeruginosa , S. Typhi, C. albicans , A. niger and A. flavus ). By VITEK 2 system version: 07.01 the 12 isolates were identified as Kocuria kristinae , Kocuria rosea , Streptomyces griseus , Streptomyces flaveolus and Actinobacteria . Using ethyl acetate extraction method the isolates culture's supernatants were tested by diffusion method against indicator microorganisms. These results indicate that Actinobacteria isolated from Egypt farms could be sources of antimicrobial bioactive substances.

  12. Predictors of untreated dental decay among 15-34-year-old Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lisa M; Mejía, Gloria C; Slade, Gary D; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F

    2009-02-01

    To determine predictors of untreated dental decay among 15-34-year-olds in Australia. Data were from Australia's National Survey of Adult Oral Health, a representative survey that utilized a three-stage, stratified clustered sampling design. Models representing demographic, socioeconomic, dental service utilization and oral health perception variables were tested using multivariable logistic regression to produce odds ratios. An estimated 25.8% (95% CI 22.4-29.5) of 15-34-year-old Australians had untreated dental decay. After controlling for other covariates, those who lived in a location other than a capital city had 2.0 times the odds of having untreated dental decay than their capital city-dwelling counterparts (95% CI 1.29-3.06). Similarly, those whose highest level of education was not a university degree had 2.1 times the odds of experiencing untreated dental decay (95% CI 1.35-3.31). Perceived need of extractions or restorations predicted untreated coronal decay, with 2.9 times the odds for those who perceived a treatment need over those with no such treatment need perception (95% CI 1.84-4.53). Participants who experienced dental fear had 2.2 times the odds of having untreated dental decay (95% CI 1.38-3.41), while those who reported experiencing toothache, orofacial pain or food avoidance in the last 12 months had 1.9 times the odds of having untreated dental decay than their counterparts with no such oral health-related quality-of-life impact (95% CI 1.20-2.92). The multivariate model achieved a 'useful' level of accuracy in predicting untreated decay (area under the ROC curve = 0.74; sensitivity = 0.63; specificity = 0.73). In the Australian young adult population, residential location, education level, perceived need for dental care, dental fear, toothache, orofacial pain or food avoidance together were predictors of untreated dental decay. The prediction model had acceptable specificity, indicating that it may be useful as part of a triage system for

  13. Exchangeable phosphorus and others parameters in soil samples from Sapucai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti, J.F.; Zanotti, J.F.

    1972-01-01

    Soils samples from the alkaline rocks area at Sapucai were studied. The total amount of P in the soils shows to be high, as well as the E value for the 32 P exclangeable phosphorus. Other parameters like V values, TEC, etc., and their relationschip also were analyzed

  14. Exchangeable phosphorus and others parameters in soil samples from Sapucai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti, J F; Zanotti, J F [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    Soils samples from the alkaline rocks area at Sapucai were studied. The total amount of P in the soils shows to be high, as well as the E value for the 32 P exclangeable phosphorus. Other parameters like V values, TEC, etc., and their relationschip also were analyzed.

  15. Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, Z.; Cupr, P.; Zlevorova-Zlamalikova V.; Komarek, J.; Dusek, L.; Holoubek, I.

    2003-01-01

    Total concentration is not a reliable indicator of metal mobility or bioavailability in soils. The physicochemical form determines the behavior of metals in soils and hence the toxicity toward terrestrial biota. The main objectives of this study were the application and comparison of three approaches for the evaluation of cadmium behavior in soil samples. The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in five selected soil samples were evaluated using equilibrium speciation (Windermere humic aqueous mode (WHAM)), extraction procedures (Milli-Q water, DMSO, and DTPA), and a number of bioassays (Microtox, growth inhibition test, contact toxicity test, and respiration). The mobility, represented by the water-extractable fraction corresponded well with the amount of cadmium in the soil solution, calculate using the WHAM (r 2 =0.96, P<0.001). The results of the ecotoxicologica evaluation, which represent the bioavailable fraction of cadmium, correlated well with DTPA extractability and also with the concentration of free cadmium ion, which is recognized as the most bioavailable metal form. The results of the WHAM as well as the results of extraction experiments showed a strong binding of cadmium to organic matter and a weak sorption of cadmium to clay minerals

  16. Determination of pyridine in soil and water samples of a polluted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van

    1994-01-01

    A method for the analyses of pyridine in environmental samples is described. For soil samples a distillation procedure followed by an extraction, an acidic extraction or a Soxhlet extraction can be used. For water samples a distillation procedure followed by extraction can be employed. Deuterated pyridine is used as an internal standard and the extracts are analyzed by GC-MS. The recoveries of the methods are higher than 80%; the detection limits for pyridine are 0.01 mg/kg for soil samples and 0.2 μg/l for water samples. (orig.)

  17. An Open-source Low-cost Portable Apparatus for Soil Fauna Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Wagner, Karl; Grillakis, Manolis; Apostolakis, Antonios; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    A low-cost apparatus for the extraction of living soil animals from soil or litter samples is presented. The main unit consists of a modular bank system with three horizontal shelves designed to accommodate lamps and soil samples over funnel and jar systems for animal collection, thus serving as a practical and standardized modification of the well-documented Berlese-Tullgren funnel. Shelves are vertically adjustable, sliding on 5 mm threaded rods and securing with wing nuts for easy assembly/disassembly and stability. Shelf material is 4 mm plywood (or similar), laser-cut (or similar) to accommodate lamp sockets, tubes and funnels at respective levels. Soil samples are inserted in 10 cm tubes from standard Ø50 mm PVC piping that can also function as direct collection corers for softer soils. Tubes are fitted in the tube bank shelf, each directly under a 25 W reflector lamp and over a funnel and jar system. Lamps are located 25 mm over the tubes' top creating a relatively constant 10 oC temperature gradient that drives soil animals away from heat and light, and towards the bottom end of the tube which is fitted with a suitable fabric mesh. Standard 106 ml panelled jars, filled with a safe-to-handle preservative (e.g. propylene glycol) to the lower end of the funnel fitted in them, trap and preserve soil organisms until identification. The apparatus offers flat-pack portability and scalability using low-cost standard material. Design specifications and Drawing eXchange Format (dxf) files for apparatus reproduction are provided.

  18. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuiqing; Zhu, Zhengyuan; Wang, Li; Liu, Baoyuan; Xie, Yun; Wang, Guannan; Li, Yishan

    2018-03-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds) with the areas of 0.2-3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE). Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST) method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs) in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope steepness factor (S), and slope length factor (L) derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME) being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data

  19. Radioactivity in Soil Samples Collected in Southern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the attack on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the focus effect was of Kosovo and Metohija and southern Serbia) in 1999, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. Cleaning action of depleted uranium was performed by Radiation and Environmental Protection Department of the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, during 2002?2007 at locations: Pljackovica, Bratoselce, Borovac and Reljan. At all locations underwent detailed dosimetric screening and decontamination was performed. Because of the loose soil, DU projectils were found to a depth of 1 m. Found missiles, contaminated soil and radioactive material has been collected and stored on radioactive waste. After cleaning the ground is leveled and another dosimetric prospecting was performed. Monitoring of radioactivity in southern Serbia included determination of gamma emitters as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activities in soil, water and plant. Sampling was carried out at Pljackovica, Borovac, Bratoselce and Reljan in July 2011. This paper presents only the results of measurement of gamma emitters in soil samples and showed the presence of natural radionuclides: 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). Also, the ratio between the 235U and 238U is given. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma-absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index have been calculated. (author)

  20. Sampling and analysis of alien materials in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liphard, K G

    1987-02-01

    For the determination of alien materials in soil, sampling is the decisive step. After minute planning, samples can be obtained by probing, boring or abrasion. Some types of substances can be verified by advance sampling, partly already in the field. Inorganic substances present as anions or cations are eluted and determined with water, heavy metals are determined after preparing a number of solutions by spectroscopic methods. Organic alien substances are extracted with solvents and, as a rule, analysed by chromatography.

  1. Bioavailability of coated and uncoated ZnO nanoparticles to cucumber in soil with or without organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Sahar; Fotovat, Amir; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Karimzadeh, F; Khazaei, Hamid Reza; Khorassani, Reza

    2017-10-01

    There is a gap of knowledge for the fate, effects and bioavailability of coated and uncoated ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in soil. Moreover, little is known about the effects of soil properties on effects of NPs on plants. In this study, the availability ZnO NPs in two soils with different organic matter content (one treated with cow manure (CM) and the other as untreated) was compared with their bulk particles. Results showed that coated and uncoated ZnO NPs can be more bioaccessible than their bulk counterpart and despite their more positive effects at low concentration (soil untreated with CM. The concentration of 1000mgkg -1 of ZnO NPs, decreased shoot dry biomass (52%) in the soil untreated with CM but increased shoot dry biomass (35%) in CM-treated soil compared to their bulk counterpart. In general, plants in the CM-treated soil showed higher Zn concentration in their tissues compared with those in untreated soil. The difference in shoot Zn concentration between CM-treated and untreated soil for NPs treatments was more than bulk particles treatment. This different percentage at 100mgkg -1 of bulk particles was 20.6% and for coated and uncoated NPs were 37% and 32%, respectively. Generally, the distribution of ZnO among Zn fractions in soil (exchangeable, the metal bound to carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides, organic matter and silicate minerals and the residual fraction) changed based on applied Zn concentration, Zn source and soil organic matter content. The root tip deformation under high concentration of NPs (1000mgkg -1 treatment ) was observed by light microscopy in plants at the soil untreated with CM. It seems that root tip deformation is one of the specific effects of NPs which in turn inhibits plant growth and nutrients uptake by root. The transmission electron microcopy image showed the aggregation of NPs inside the plant cytoplasm and their accumulation adjacent to the cell membrane. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Analysis of arsenic and calcium in soil samples by laser ablation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccaglia, Ana M.; Rinaldi, Carlos A.; Ferrero, Juan C.

    2006-01-01

    We present an analytical procedure based on laser ablation mass spectrometry (LAMS) in order to detect and quantify arsenic and calcium in soil samples and we analyze the diverse factors that influence the precision of LAMS, such as laser fluence and matrix effect. The results indicate that a Zn matrix is a good choice for the analysis of those metals in soil samples. This work also provides a method for the direct determination of As in soil samples whose concentrations are lower than 100 ppm with a 70 ppm minimum detection limits (MDL)

  3. Extraction and analysis of 14C-carbofuran radioactivity in soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maizatul Akmam Mhd Nasir; Nashriyah Mat

    2005-01-01

    Carbofuran insecticide or nematicide sprayed onto soil in the agroecosystem will be taken up by plant. Carbofuran residue will pollute the environment and organisms in the food chain. Extraction and analysis of 14 C-carbofuran in soil from lysimeter were carried out. The Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was used to measure radioactivity of 14 C-carbofuran in soil sample. (Author)

  4. Isolation of antimicrobial producing Actinobacteria from soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Ahmed Elbendary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has made the search for novel bioactive compounds from natural and unexplored habitats a necessity. Actinobacteria have important bioactive substances. The present study investigated antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria isolated from soil samples of Egypt. One hundred samples were collected from agricultural farming soil of different governorates. Twelve isolates have produced activity against the tested microorganisms (S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. Typhi, C. albicans, A. niger and A. flavus. By VITEK 2 system version: 07.01 the 12 isolates were identified as Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria rosea, Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces flaveolus and Actinobacteria. Using ethyl acetate extraction method the isolates culture’s supernatants were tested by diffusion method against indicator microorganisms. These results indicate that Actinobacteria isolated from Egypt farms could be sources of antimicrobial bioactive substances.

  5. In Situ Evaluation of Crop Productivity and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Paddy Soils after Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Woong; Chae, Yooeun; Moon, Jongmin; Kim, Dokyung; Cui, Rongxue; An, Gyeonghyeon; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-02-15

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals have been reused for agricultural, building, and industrial uses following remediation. This study assesses plant growth and bioaccumulation of heavy metals following remediation of industrially contaminated soil. The soil was collected from a field site near a nonferrous smelter and was subjected to laboratory- and field-scale studies. Soil from the contaminated site was remediated by washing with acid or mixed with soil taken from a distant uncontaminated site. The activities of various soil exoenzymes, the rate of plant growth, and the bioaccumulations of six heavy metals were measured to assess the efficacy of these bioremediation techniques. Growth of rice (Oryza sativa) was unaffected in acid-washed soil or the amended soil compared to untreated soil from the contaminated site. The levels of heavy metals in the rice kernels remained within safe limits in treated and untreated soils. Rice, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivated in the same soils in the laboratory showed similar growth rates. Soil exoenzyme activities and crop productivity were not affected by soil treatment in field experiments. In conclusion, treatment of industrially contaminated soil by acid washing or amendment did not adversely affect plant productivity or lead to increased bioaccumulation of heavy metals in rice.

  6. Effect of soil and water conservation on rehabilitation of degraded lands and crop productivity in Maego watershed, North Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremariam Yaebiyo Dimtsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many soil and water conservation (SWC measures were undertaken to decrease land degradation in Ethiopia. However, evaluation of their performance is essential to understand their success or failure and readjusting accordingly in the future planning.  Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of SWC measures in rehabilitation of degraded watershed and increase crop productivity in Maego watershed, Ethiopia. Seventy six sample plots were randomly taken from treated and untreated sub-watersheds for woody species and soil sampling. Crops yield was measured on top side, middle zone and below side of SWC structures. There were significantly higher woody species density and diversity, total nitrogen (TN, soil organic matter (SOM and soil moisture in the treated uncultivated land than the untreated one. The highest tree and sapling species density and diversity, TN and SOM were recorded on the exclosure part of the treated sub-watershed. Landscape position affected soil fertility, but has no effect on woody species density and diversity. The highest barley and wheat yield was measured on top side of SWC structures. Therefore, physical SWC structures should be integrated with exclosure to enhance rehabilitation of degraded watersheds/landscapes. Integration of biological SWC measures that improve soil fertility are essential on the cultivated land of the watershed. Most of the existing SWC structures, especially the old ones are filled with accumulated sediment, so maintenance is needed.

  7. A New Approach To Soil Sampling For Risk Assessment Of Nutrient Mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Barber, N.; Benskin, C.; Reaney, S. M.; Haygarth, P.; Quinn, P. F.; Barker, P. A.; Aftab, A.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Surridge, B.; Perks, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, risks of nutrient and sediment losses from soils are assessed through a combination of field soil nutrient values on soil samples taken over the whole field and the proximity of the field to water courses. The field average nutrient concentration of the soil is used by farmers to determine fertiliser needs. These data are often used by scientists to assess the risk of nutrient losses to water course, though are not really `fit' for this purpose. The Eden Demonstration Test Catchment (http://www.edendtc.org.uk/) is a research project based in the River Eden catchment, NW UK, with the aim of cost effectively mitigating diffuse pollution from agriculture whilst maintaining agricultural productivity. Three instrumented focus catchments have been monitored since 2011, providing high resolution in-stream chemistry and ecological data, alongside some spatial data on soils, land use and nutrient inputs. An approach to mitigation was demonstrated in a small sub-catchment, where surface runoff was identified as the key drivers of nutrient losses, using a suite of runoff attenuation features. Other issues identified were management of hard- standings and soil compaction. A new approach for evaluating nutrient losses from soils is assessed in the Eden DTC project. The Sensitive Catchment Integrated Modelling and Prediction (SCIMAP) model is a risk-mapping framework designed to identify where in the landscape diffuse pollution is most likely to be originating (http://www.scimap.org.uk) and was used to look at the spatial pattern of erosion potential. The aim of this work was to assess if erosion potential identified through the model could be used to inform a new soil sampling strategy, to better assess risk of erosion and risk of transport of sediment-bound phosphorus. Soil samples were taken from areas with different erosion potential. The chemical analysis of these targeted samples are compared to those obtained using more traditional sampling approaches

  8. Prevalence, species differentiation, haemolytic activity, and antibiotic susceptibility of aeromonads in untreated well water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of untreated water for drinking and other activities have been associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans due to Aeromonas species. In the present study aeromonads were isolated from 48.7% of 1,000 water samples obtained from wells and other miscellaneous sources. Aeromonas species were detected in 45% of samples tested in spring, 34.5% in summer, 48% in autumn and 60% of samples tested in winter. Speciation of 382 strains resulted in 225 (59% being A. hydrophila, 103 (27% A. caviae, 42 (11% A. sobria and 11 (3% atypical aeromonads. Of 171 Aeromonas strains tested for their haemolytic activity, 53%, 49%, 40% and 37% were positive in this assay using human, horse, sheep and camel erythrocytes respectively. The results obtained indicate that potentially enteropathogenic Aeromonas species are commonly present in untreated drinking water obtained from wells in Libya (this may also apply to other neighbouring countries which may pose a health problem to users of such water supplies. In addition, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are suitable drugs that can be used in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated infections, particularly in the immunocompromised, resulting from contact with untreated sources of water.

  9. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho Antônio D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25% soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100% were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR

  10. Cohesive Soil Stabilized Using Sewage Sludge Ash/Cement and Nano Aluminum Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Lin Luo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve soft soil strength, a mixture of incinerated sewage sludge ash (SSA and cement was applied as a soil stabilizer. The intended mix ratio for SSA and cement was 3:1. A-6 clay was selected as the untreated soil. In this study, 15% of clay soil was replaced by SSA/cement to produce the treated soil specimens. Then, four different volumes, namely 0, 1, 2, and 3%, of nano-Al2O3 were mixed with the treated soil as an additive. Tests such as compaction, pH values, Atterberg limits, unconfined compressive strength (UCS, swell potential, California bearing ratio (CBR, and permeability were performed. The results indicate that both UCSs and CBR values of untreated soil were greatly improved by the use of 15% SSA/cement. Moreover, a 1% addition of nano-Al2O3 enhanced the treated soil in terms of both UCS and CBR values. Furthermore, the swell potential was effectively reduced by the use of 15% SSA/cement as compared with untreated soil and the 1% nano-Al2O3 additive fraction offered the best performance. From this study, we conclude that 15% of SSA/cement replacement could effectively stabilize A-6 clay soil, and 1% of nano-Al2O3 additive may be the optimum amount to add to the soil.

  11. Quantitative analysis of untreated human nails for monitoring human exposure to heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Koichiro; Futatsugawa, Shouji; Murao, Satoshi; Clemente, E.

    2002-01-01

    In order to address global environmental issues, a standard-free method developed by ourselves has been successfully applied to various kinds of bio-samples. Especially, a method for untreated hairs has been applied in many polluted areas to study human exposure to toxic elements. In addition to hair, nail is expected to give us valuable information about human exposure to toxic elements. However, the analysis requires relatively large amounts of samples and laborious sample preparation techniques which necessitate internal standards. In this work, we have developed a quantitative method for untreated human-nail analysis based on the standard-free method. It requires neither large amounts of nails nor complicated target preparation procedure. Furthermore, it is perfectly free from any ambiguity in target preparation such as volatilization of certain elements and contamination of the sample during chemical ashing. The optimum conditions of irradiating nail samples are established, and accuracy and reproducibility of the present method are confirmed. It is found that ultrasonic washing in distilled water is effective for many nail samples preventing the loss of elements from the sample. It is also found that elemental concentration in nails strongly depends on their sampling positions. (author)

  12. Analysis of soil samples from Gebeng area using NAA technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Wo, Yii Mei; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Azman, Muhamad Azfar; Hashim, Azian

    2017-01-01

    Rapid development and urbanization will increase number of residence and industrial area. Without proper management and control of pollution, these will give an adverse effect to environment and human life. The objective of this study to identify and quantify key contaminants into the environment of the Gebeng area as a result of industrial and human activities. Gebeng area was gazetted as one of the industrial estate in Pahang state. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Gebeng area base on level of concentration, enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. The enrichment factors (EFs) were determined by the elemental rationing method, whilst the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) by comparing of current to continental crustal average concentration of element. Twenty-seven of soil samples were collected from Gebeng area. Soil samples were analysed by using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The obtained data showed higher concentration of iron (Fe) due to abundance in soil compared to other elements. The results of enrichment factor showed that Gebeng area have enrich with elements of As, Br, Hf, Sb, Th and U. Base on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) classification, the soil quality of Gebeng area can be classified as class 0, (uncontaminated) to Class 3, (moderately to heavily contaminated).

  13. Accumulation of oil and grease in soils irrigated with greywater and their potential role in soil water repellency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Micheal J; Weisbrod, Noam; Gross, Amit

    2008-05-01

    The potential impact of oil and grease (O and G) to soils irrigated with greywater (GW) was investigated. Greywater streams were sampled and analyzed for O and G content, along with corresponding GW-irrigated soils. Untreated kitchen GW averaged 200 mg L(-1) O and G, over an order of magnitude more than other GW streams. GW-irrigated soils showed O and G accumulation of up to 200 mg kg(-l) within the first 20-cm of depth. To determine the potential effects of such O and G accumulation on water movement in soil, capillary rise and water drop penetration time (WDPT) experiments were conducted. The results showed up to 60% decrease in capillary rise when sand containing 250 mg kg(-1) O and G was used. Interestingly, no additional reduction in capillary rise was observed at concentrations above 250 mg kg(-1). WDPT was observed to increase linearly with increased O and G content, up to 1000 mg kg(-1). This work demonstrated that O and G in GW used for irrigation can accumulate in soil and may lead to a significant reduction in the soils ability to transmit water.

  14. Poly-use multi-level sampling system for soil-gas transport analysis in the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Philipp A; Chiri, Eleonora; Schroth, Martin H

    2013-10-01

    Soil-gas turnover is important in the global cycling of greenhouse gases. The analysis of soil-gas profiles provides quantitative information on below-ground turnover and fluxes. We developed a poly-use multi-level sampling system (PMLS) for soil-gas sampling, water-content and temperature measurement with high depth resolution and minimal soil disturbance. It is based on perforated access tubes (ATs) permanently installed in the soil. A multi-level sampler allows extraction of soil-gas samples from 20 locations within 1 m depth, while a capacitance probe is used to measure volumetric water contents. During idle times, the ATs are sealed and can be equipped with temperature sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments in a field lysimeter showed good agreement of soil-gas samples and water-content measurements compared with conventional techniques, while a successfully performed gas-tracer test demonstrated the feasibility of the PMLS to determine soil-gas diffusion coefficients in situ. A field application of the PMLS to quantify oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in a field lysimeter and in the forefield of a receding glacier yielded activity coefficients and soil-atmosphere fluxes well in agreement with previous studies. With numerous options for customization, the presented tool extends the methodological choices to investigate soil-gas transport in the vadose zone.

  15. GEMAS: Colours of dry and moist agricultural soil samples of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Martin; Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    High resolution HDR colour images of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey were acquired using a GeoTek Linescan camera. Three measurements of dry and wet samples with increasing exposure time and increasing illumination settings produced a set of colour images at 50μm resolution. Automated image processing was used to calibrate the six images per sample with respect to the synchronously measured X-Rite colorchecker chart. The calibrated images were then fit to Munsell soil colours that were measured in the same way. The results provide overview maps of dry and moist European soil colours. Because colour is closely linked to iron mineralogy, carbonate, silicate and organic carbon content the results can be correlated to magnetic, mineralogical, and geochemical properties. In combination with the full GEMAS chemical and physical measurements, this yields a valuable data set for calibration and interpretation of visible satellite colour data with respect to chemical composition and geological background, soil moisture, and soil degradation. This data set will help to develop new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soils which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment. It furthermore enables the scientific community and governmental authorities to monitor consequences of climatic change, to plan and administrate economic and ecological land use, and to use the data set for forensic applications.

  16. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: kapo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil); Siqueira, Maria Celia, E-mail: mc.ufscar@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires, E-mail: eleonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.b [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Gestao de Residuos Solidos; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de, E-mail: davidf.agro@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2009-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific {sup 226}Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  17. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes; Siqueira, Maria Celia; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific 226 Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg -1 ) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg -1 for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  18. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  19. Colloid mobilization and heavy metal transport in the sampling of soil solution from Duckum soil in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seyong; Ko, Il-Won; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2018-03-24

    Colloid mobilization is a significant process governing colloid-associated transport of heavy metals in subsurface environments. It has been studied for the last three decades to understand this process. However, colloid mobilization and heavy metal transport in soil solutions have rarely been studied using soils in South Korea. We investigated the colloid mobilization in a variety of flow rates during sampling soil solutions in sand columns. The colloid concentrations were increased at low flow rates and in saturated regimes. Colloid concentrations increased 1000-fold higher at pH 9.2 than at pH 7.3 in the absence of 10 mM NaCl solution. In addition, those were fourfold higher in the absence than in the presence of the NaCl solution at pH 9.2. It was suggested that the mobility of colloids should be enhanced in porous media under the basic conditions and the low ionic strength. In real field soils, the concentrations of As, Cr, and Pb in soil solutions increased with the increase in colloid concentrations at initial momentarily changed soil water pressure, whereas the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Al, and Co lagged behind the colloid release. Therefore, physicochemical changes and heavy metal characteristics have important implications for colloid-facilitated transport during sampling soil solutions.

  20. Determination of Pu in soil samples; Determinacion de Pu en muestras de suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres C, C. O.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: carioli_32907@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The irreversible consequences of accidents occurring in nuclear plants and in nuclear fuel reprocessing sites are mainly the distribution of different radionuclides in different matrices such as the soil. The distribution in the superficial soil is related to the internal and external exposure to the radiation of the affected population. The internal contamination with radionuclides such as Pu is of great relevance to the nuclear forensic science, where is important to know the chemical and isotopic compositions of nuclear materials. The objective of this work is to optimize the radiochemical separation of plutonium (Pu) from soil samples and to determine their concentration. The soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwave; purification of Pu was carried out with AG1X8 resin using ion exchange chromatography. Pu isotopes were measured using ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of {sup 238}UH {sup +} in the samples, a solvent removal system (Apex) was used. In addition, the limit of detection and quantification of Pu was determined. It was found that the recovery efficiency of Pu in soil samples ranges from 70 to 93%. (Author)

  1. Radiation hazard indices of soil and water samples in Northern Malaysian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almayahi, B A; Tajuddin, A A; Jaafar, M S

    2012-11-01

    The radioactivity quantity and quality were determined in soil and water samples in Northern Malaysian Peninsula (NMP) using HPGe spectroscopy and GR-135 spectrometer. The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K concentrations in soil samples are 57±2, 68±4 and 427±17 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas in water samples were found to be 2.86±0.79, 3.78±1.73 and 152±12 Bq l(-1), respectively. These concentrations are within those reported from literature in other countries in the world. The radiological hazard indices of the samples were also calculated. The mean values obtained from soil samples are 186 Bq kg(-1), 88 nGy h(-1), 108 μSv y(-1), 0.50 and 0.65 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Ra(eq)), Absorbed Dose Rates (D(R)), Annual Effective Dose Rates (ED), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively, whereas, for water samples were found to be 20, 10, 13, 0.05 and 0.06, respectively. All the health hazard indices are well below their recommended limits, except in two soil sampling sites which were found to be (*)025 (1.1 H(ex)) and (*)026 (1.1 H(ex), 1.6 H(in)). The calculated and the measured gamma dose rates had a good correlation coefficient, R=0.88. Moreover, the average value radon is 20 (in the range of 7-64) Bq m(-3), a positive correlation (R=0.81) was observed between the (222)Rn and (226)Ra concentrations in samples measured by the SNC continuous radon monitor (model 1029, Sun Nuclear Corporation) and HPGe detector, respectively. Some soils in this study with H(in) and H(ex)samples, therefore, water after processing and filtration is safe and suitable for use in household and industrial purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of Surface and Deep Soil Samples Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Ali, M.; Daud, M.

    2015-01-01

    A statistical analysis was made of the activity concentrations measured in surface and deep soil samples for natural and anthropogenic gamma-emitting radionuclides. Soil samples were obtained from 48 different locations in Gilgit, Pakistan covering about 50 km/sup 2/ areas at an average altitude of 1550 m above sea level. From each location two samples were collected: one from the top soil (2-6 cm) and another from a depth of 6-10 cm. Four radionuclides including /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, /sup 40/K and /sup 137/Cs were quantified. The data was analyzed using t-test to find out activity concentration difference between the surface and depth samples. At the surface, the median activity concentrations were 23.7, 29.1, 4.6 and 115 Bq kg/sup -1/ for 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K respectively. For the same radionuclides, the activity concentrations were respectively 25.5, 26.2, 2.9 and 191 Bq kg/sup -1/ for the depth samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore patterns within the data. A positive significant correlation was observed between the radionuclides /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th. The data from PCA was further utilized in linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the classification of surface and depth samples. LDA classified surface and depth samples with good predictability. (author)

  3. Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  4. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds with the areas of 0.2–3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE. Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R, soil erodibility factor (K, slope steepness factor (S, and slope length factor (L derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  5. Procedure for plutonium analysis of large (100g) soil and sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.T.; Schweiger, J.S.; Mendoza, B.; Stone, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method for the complete dissolution of large soil or sediment samples is described. This method is in routine usage at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the analysis of fall-out levels of Pu in soils and sediments. Intercomparison with partial dissolution (leach) techniques shows the complete dissolution method to be superior for the determination of plutonium in a wide variety of environmental samples. (author)

  6. Influence of nano-material on the expansive and shrinkage soil behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Taha, Omer Muhie Eldeen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study performed on four types of soils mixed with three types of nano-material of different percentages. The expansion and shrinkage tests were conducted to investigate the effect of three type of nano-materials (nano-clay, nano-alumina, and nano-copper) additive on repressing strains in compacted residual soil mixed with different ratios of bentonite (S1 = 0 % bentonite, S2 = 5 % bentonite, S3 = 10 % bentonite, and S4 = 20 % bentonite). The soil specimens were compacted under the condition of maximum dry unit weight and optimum water content (w opt ) using standard compaction test. The physical and mechanical results of the treated samples were determined. The untreated soil values were used as control points for comparison purposes. It was found that with the addition of optimum percentage of nano-material, both the swell strain and shrinkage strain reduced. The results show that nano-material decreases the development of desiccation cracks on the surface of compacted samples without decrease in the hydraulic conductivity.

  7. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol....... These are separated and identified using High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HP-GPC) with fluorescence detection. As an additional detection method Infra Red spectrometry (IR) is employed for selected samples. The methods have been used on aerosol, soil and other samples....

  8. Spatial Variation of Soil Lead in an Urban Community Garden: Implications for Risk-Based Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugdalski, Lauren; Lemke, Lawrence D; McElmurry, Shawn P

    2014-01-01

    Soil lead pollution is a recalcitrant problem in urban areas resulting from a combination of historical residential, industrial, and transportation practices. The emergence of urban gardening movements in postindustrial cities necessitates accurate assessment of soil lead levels to ensure safe gardening. In this study, we examined small-scale spatial variability of soil lead within a 15 × 30 m urban garden plot established on two adjacent residential lots located in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Eighty samples collected using a variably spaced sampling grid were analyzed for total, fine fraction (less than 250 μm), and bioaccessible soil lead. Measured concentrations varied at sampling scales of 1-10 m and a hot spot exceeding 400 ppm total soil lead was identified in the northwest portion of the site. An interpolated map of total lead was treated as an exhaustive data set, and random sampling was simulated to generate Monte Carlo distributions and evaluate alternative sampling strategies intended to estimate the average soil lead concentration or detect hot spots. Increasing the number of individual samples decreases the probability of overlooking the hot spot (type II error). However, the practice of compositing and averaging samples decreased the probability of overestimating the mean concentration (type I error) at the expense of increasing the chance for type II error. The results reported here suggest a need to reconsider U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampling objectives and consequent guidelines for reclaimed city lots where soil lead distributions are expected to be nonuniform. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Using Water Glass and Aluminum Sulfate to Treat Complications in High Liquid Limit Soil Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using water glass and aluminum sulfate to treat high liquid limit soil subgrade diseases is studied through laboratory experiments, and the following results were observed. After improving the high liquid limit clay with water glass and aluminum sulfate, the liquid limit decreases, the plastic limit increases, and the plasticity index decreases. Compared with untreated soil, the clay content of the improved soil decreases, while the silt and coarse contents increase. The absolute and relative expansion rates of the improved soil are both lower than those of the untreated soil. With the same number of dry and wet cycles, the decreased degrees of cohesion and internal friction angle of the improved soil are, respectively, one-half and one-third of those of the untreated soil. After three dry and wet cycles, the California bearing ratio (CBR of the untreated soil does not meet the requirements of specifications. However, after being cured for seven days and being subjected to three dry and wet cycles, the CBR of the improved soil, with 4% water glass solution and 0.4% aluminum sulfate, meets the requirements of specifications.

  10. Steam-treatment-based soil remediation promotes heat-tolerant, potentially pathogenic microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Bender, Mikkel; Ekelund, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    We investigated microbiota in surface and subsurface soil from a site, above steam-treated deep sub-soil originally contaminated with chlorinated solvents. During the steam treatment, the surface soil reached temperatures c. 30°C higher than the temperature in untreated soil; whereas the subsurfa...

  11. Results of Soil Vapor Sampling at SA 6, McClellan Air Force Base, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination in site soil. The soil vapor sampling event was performed in accordance with the Final Sampling and Analysis Plan to Support Recommendation for No Further Investigation at SA 6 (Parsons ES, 1998...

  12. The impact of mesotrione on several microbiological activity of chernozem soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radivojevic, L; Gasic, S; Krsmanovic, M Saric; Marisavljevic, D; Santric, L; Pavlovic, D; Umiljendic, J Gajic

    2013-01-01

    The effect of mesotrione on microbiological activity in soil was investigated. Trials were set up in laboratory on chernozem soil (pH 7.0, organic matter 3.5%, sand 26%, silt 45%, clay 29%) at Surcin, Serbia. Mesotrione was added at rates 0.5 (field rate), 5, 25 i 50 mg/kg soil. Untreated soil served as control. Samples were collected for analysis 5, 20, 40 and 60 days after mesotrione application. The effects were assessed on bacteria abundance, fungi abundance, and dehydrogenase activity. Mesotrione was found to cause different effects on the soil microbial activity in soil and its influence depended on the rate of application and duration of activity. Mesotrione applied at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg soil did not have any effect on microbial activity. The higher herbicide doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) induced increasing activity from the 5th to 60th day. These experimental data indicated that mesotrione affected soil microbial activity, but the effects were only detected at higher doses far exceeding the recommended field rate.

  13. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Sudhir; Asha Rani; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells having depths ranging from 50 to 600 feet. All the soil gas measurements have been carried out at 100 cm depth. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l -1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l -1 . Only in one water sample radon concentration is found to be higher than the safe limit of 11 Bq l -1 recommended US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991). The measured value of radon concentration in all ground water samples is within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l -1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008). The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60 μSV y -1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y -1 . The total annual effective dose from all locations of our studied area is found to be well within the safe limit 0.1 mSv y -1 recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (ED, 1998). Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10050 Bq m -3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m -3 , The radon concentration observed from the soil samples from our study area lies within the range reported by other investigators. Moreover a positive correlation of radon concentration in water with soil samples has been observed. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard. (author)

  14. Random sampling or geostatistical modelling? Choosing between design-based and model-based sampling strategies for soil (with discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Classical sampling theory has been repeatedly identified with classical statistics which assumes that data are identically and independently distributed. This explains the switch of many soil scientists from design-based sampling strategies, based on classical sampling theory, to the model-based

  15. Rapid separation method for {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L., E-mail: sherrod.maxwell@srs.go [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Culligan, Brian K.; Noyes, Gary W. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  16. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples in the Region Vranje (Bratoselce Village) for the period 2001-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremic-savkovic, M.; Pantelic, G.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vuletic, V.; Javorina, L.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic examination of radioactive contamination of soil samples was established at the Institute for Occupational and Radiological Health. With the bombing of our country (Spring 1999) the monitoring of radioactivity has changed. We also measured the activities of uranium and it descendants. This paper presents the results of radioactivity monitoring of the soil in small area 700 m near village Bratoselce in region Vranje during the period 2001 - 2004. From 2001 to 2004, we collected different samples from this fenced area as well as outside this area assuming not to be contaminated, before, during and after decontamination. Some soil samples were made as a mix of small samples from a large area of location. Other samples were taken at the points formerly designated as contaminated or from shell-craters seen on the fenced area surface. All samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and measurements of alpha and beta activity. On the basis of measurements of soil activities, analysis of 238 U and 235 U, as well as in comparison with natural activity ratio being 21.4, it may be concluded that depleted uranium contamination was present both in the fenced area and outside it, because this ratio in the samples of soil was found to be 34 to 73. Natural activity in soil samples was slightly higher in relation to mean soil activity in Serbia. (authors)

  17. Can The Pore Scale Geometry Explain Soil Sample Scale Hydrodynamic Properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Smet

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the development of new visualization techniques has brought incredible insights into our understanding of how soil structure affects soil function. X-ray microtomography is a technique often used by soil scientists but challenges remain with the implementation of the procedure, including how well the samples represent the uniqueness of the pore network and structure and the systemic compromise between sample size and resolution. We, therefore, chose to study soil samples from two perspectives: a macroscopic scale with hydrodynamic characterization and a microscopic scale with structural characterization through the use of X-ray microtomography (X-ray μCT at a voxel size of 21.53 μm3 (resampled at 433 μm3. The objective of this paper is to unravel the relationships between macroscopic soil properties and microscopic soil structure. The 24 samples came from an agricultural field (Cutanic Luvisol and the macroscopic hydrodynamic properties were determined using laboratory measurements of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, air permeability (ka, and retention curves (SWRC. The X-ray μCT images were segmented using a global method and multiple microscopic measurements were calculated. We used Bayesian statistics to report the credible correlation coefficients and linear regressions models between macro- and microscopic measurements. Due to the small voxel size, we observed unprecedented relationships, such as positive correlations between log(Ks and a μCT global connectivity indicator, the fractal dimension of the μCT images or the μCT degree of anisotropy. The air permeability measured at a water matric potential of −70 kPa was correlated to the average coordination number and the X-ray μCT porosity, but was best explained by the average pore volume of the smallest pores. Continuous SWRC were better predicted near saturation when the pore-size distributions calculated on the X-ray μCT images were used as model input. We

  18. Assessing NIR & MIR Spectral Analysis as a Method for Soil C Estimation Across a Network of Sampling Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S.; Ogle, S.; Borch, T.; Rock, B.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring soil C stocks is critical to assess the impact of future climate and land use change on carbon sinks and sources in agricultural lands. A benchmark network for soil carbon monitoring of stock changes is being designed for US agricultural lands with 3000-5000 sites anticipated and re-sampling on a 5- to10-year basis. Approximately 1000 sites would be sampled per year producing around 15,000 soil samples to be processed for total, organic, and inorganic carbon, as well as bulk density and nitrogen. Laboratory processing of soil samples is cost and time intensive, therefore we are testing the efficacy of using near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectral methods for estimating soil carbon. As part of an initial implementation of national soil carbon monitoring, we collected over 1800 soil samples from 45 cropland sites in the mid-continental region of the U.S. Samples were processed using standard laboratory methods to determine the variables above. Carbon and nitrogen were determined by dry combustion and inorganic carbon was estimated with an acid-pressure test. 600 samples are being scanned using a bench- top NIR reflectance spectrometer (30 g of 2 mm oven-dried soil and 30 g of 8 mm air-dried soil) and 500 samples using a MIR Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) with a DRIFT reflectance accessory (0.2 g oven-dried ground soil). Lab-measured carbon will be compared to spectrally-estimated carbon contents using Partial Least Squares (PLS) multivariate statistical approach. PLS attempts to develop a soil C predictive model that can then be used to estimate C in soil samples not lab-processed. The spectral analysis of soil samples either whole or partially processed can potentially save both funding resources and time to process samples. This is particularly relevant for the implementation of a national monitoring network for soil carbon. This poster will discuss our methods, initial results and potential for using NIR and MIR spectral

  19. Portable Automation of Static Chamber Sample Collection for Quantifying Soil Gas Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Morgan P.; Groh, Tyler A.; Parkin, Timothy B.; Williams, Ryan J.; Isenhart, Thomas M.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2018-01-01

    Quantification of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. An automated system for collecting gas samples from chambers in the field would eliminate the need for personnel to return to the chamber during a flux measurement period and would allow a single technician to sample multiple chambers simultaneously. This study describes Chamber Automated Sampling Equipment (FluxCASE) to collect and store chamber headspace gas samples at assigned time points for the measurement of soil gas flux. The FluxCASE design and operation is described, and the accuracy and precision of the FluxCASE system is evaluated. In laboratory measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) concentrations of a standardized gas mixture, coefficients of variation associated with automated and manual sample collection were comparable, indicating no loss of precision. In the field, soil gas fluxes measured from FluxCASEs were in agreement with manual sampling for both N2O and CO2. Slopes of regression equations were 1.01 for CO2 and 0.97 for N2O. The 95% confidence limits of the slopes of the regression lines included the value of one, indicating no bias. Additionally, an expense analysis found a cost recovery ranging from 0.6 to 2.2 yr. Implementing the FluxCASE system is an alternative to improve the efficiency of the static chamber method for measuring soil gas flux while maintaining the accuracy and precision of manual sampling.

  20. Determination of uranium and thorium isotopes in soil samples by coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Quang Huy; Trinh Thi Bich; Nguyen Van Suc

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a procedure to prepare soil samples for U and Th isotope measurement by alpha-spectrometry after coprecipitation with LaF 3 . In this procedure the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was performed by Zn metal in 4M HCl solution. The recoveries of chemical separation equal to ε U-chemistry = 78±4% for uranium and ε Th-chemistry = 82±4% for thorium. Canberra alpha-spectrometer was used with PIPS detectors of A-1200-37-AM Model of 1200 mm 2 active area. The counting efficiency of the measuring system equals to ε counting = 18% and the total efficiencies were ε U = ε counting - ε U-chemistry = 14.0 ± 0.7% for uranium and ε Th = ε counting - ε Th-chemistry = 14.7 ± 0.7% for thorium. The recoveries of chemical separation were rather high (about 80%), that leads to the use of a small weight of soil sample (about 0.5 g). The efficiencies were also stable, that allows analyzing the soil sample without using radiotracers. They are advantages of the sample preparation procedure of this work. (author)

  1. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples of Ayranci, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Osman; Eke, Canel; Boztosun, Ismail; Emin Korkmaz, M.

    2015-04-01

    The specific activity, radiation hazard index and the annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radioactive elements (238U, 232Th and 40K) were determined in soil samples collected from 12 different locations in Ayranci region by using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. The measured activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in studied soil samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries and the internationally reported values. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  2. Monitoring of Lead (Pb) Pollution in Soils and Plants Irrigated with Untreated Sewage Water in Some Industrialized Cities of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, R; Nayyar, V K

    2016-04-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from sewage and tubewell irrigated sites from three industrially different cities of Punjab (India) viz. Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla. The extent of lead (Pb) pollution was assessed with respect to background concentration of tubewell irrigation. In sewage irrigated surface soil layer (0-15 cm), the extent of Pb accumulation was 4.61, 4.20 and 2.26 times higher than those receiving tubewell irrigation sites in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that soil pH, organic carbon, calcium carbonate and clay were significant soil parameters explaining the variation in available soil Pb. The mean Pb content in plants receiving sewage irrigation was 4.56, 5.48 and 2.72 times higher than tubewell irrigation in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. The content of Pb in plants receiving sewage irrigation revealed that, assuming a weekly consumption of 500-1000 g of vegetables grown on sewage irrigated soils by an adult of 70 kg body weight, the Pb intake may far exceed the World Health Organization proposed tolerable weekly intake of Pb.

  3. Treatment of PAH-contaminated soil using cement-activated persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Bin; Peng, Changsheng; Li, Ning; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel method for the treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon -contaminated soil using cement-activated persulfate was developed. The removal of PAHs in soil rose with increasing initial persulfate concentration, initial Portland cement (PC) concentration, and oxidation reaction time. At an initial persulfate and PC concentration of 19.20 mmol/kg and 10% of soil weight and a reaction time of 2 h, the removal rate of PAHs reached 57.3%. Residual PAHs were mainly adsorbed within the soil granules and thus became less available. The mechanism of PC facilitating the oxidation reaction was that PC addition can increase the pH and temperature of the system. When the soil was stabilized/solidified by 10% of PC, the leaching concentration of PAHs and TOC was significantly higher than that leached from untreated soil. Persulfate oxidation decreased the leaching concentration of PAHs but increased the leaching concentration of TOC in solidification/stabilization products. The addition of activated carbon can decrease the leaching concentrations of both PAHs and TOC. Freeze-thaw durability tests revealed that the leachability of PAHs was not affected by freeze-thaw cycles. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of treated soil samples after 12 freeze-thaw cycles was only 49.0% of that curing for 52 days, but the UCS was still > 1 MPa. The treated soil samples can resist disintegration during the process of freeze-thaw cycles.

  4. Association between duration of untreated bipolar disorder and clinical outcome: data from a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Medeiros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD is often left untreated for long periods, and this delay in treatment correlates with unfavorable prognosis. The present study sought to assess the magnitude of duration of untreated bipolar disorder (DUB in Brazil. We hypothesized that DUB would be longer in Brazil than in developed countries, and would be associated with poor clinical outcomes. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two psychiatric outpatients were evaluated for BD diagnosis, demographics, DUB, and clinical outcomes. Results: The mean age and mean DUB were, respectively, 38.9±10.8 and 10.4±9.8 years. An extended DUB was associated with early onset of BD (p < 0.001, depression as first mood episode (p = 0.04, and presence of BD in a first-degree relative (p = 0.012. Additionally, a longer DUB was associated with poorer clinical outcomes, such as elevated rates of rapid cycling (p = 0.004 and anxiety disorders (p = 0.016, as well as lower levels of current full remission (p = 0.021. Conclusion: As DUB may be a modifiable variable, better medical education regarding mental health, more structured medical services, and population-wide psychoeducation might reduce the time between onset and proper management of BD, thus improving outcome.

  5. A study for natural radioactivity levels in some soil samples using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Yousif Hassab El Rasoul

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a few selected soil samples and to study their natural radioactivity using gamma spectrometry. The first sample was a rock phosphate from Nuba mountains region which is being considered as a low cost fertilizer. Another sample came from Miri lake area (Nuba mountains) which is known to have elevated natural radioactivity level. The other four samples came from different other regions in Sudan for comparison. The idea was to identify the radioactive nuclides present in these soil samples, to trace their sources and to determine the activity present in them. (Author)

  6. Guidance for Soil Sampling for Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    studies have measured the persistence of HE in the field. Radtke et al. (2002) sampled surface soils at an explosives testing area that had not been...in Eagle River Flats, Alaska: The Role of Munitions Residues. CRREL Report CR-92-5. Radtke C. W., D. Gianotto, and F. F. Roberto. 2002. Effects of

  7. Integration of electromagnetic induction sensor data in soil sampling scheme optimization using simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, E; Castrignanò, A; Buttafuoco, G; De Benedetto, D; Passarella, G

    2015-07-01

    Soil survey is generally time-consuming, labor-intensive, and costly. Optimization of sampling scheme allows one to reduce the number of sampling points without decreasing or even increasing the accuracy of investigated attribute. Maps of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC a ) recorded with electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors could be effectively used to direct soil sampling design for assessing spatial variability of soil moisture. A protocol, using a field-scale bulk EC a survey, has been applied in an agricultural field in Apulia region (southeastern Italy). Spatial simulated annealing was used as a method to optimize spatial soil sampling scheme taking into account sampling constraints, field boundaries, and preliminary observations. Three optimization criteria were used. the first criterion (minimization of mean of the shortest distances, MMSD) optimizes the spreading of the point observations over the entire field by minimizing the expectation of the distance between an arbitrarily chosen point and its nearest observation; the second criterion (minimization of weighted mean of the shortest distances, MWMSD) is a weighted version of the MMSD, which uses the digital gradient of the grid EC a data as weighting function; and the third criterion (mean of average ordinary kriging variance, MAOKV) minimizes mean kriging estimation variance of the target variable. The last criterion utilizes the variogram model of soil water content estimated in a previous trial. The procedures, or a combination of them, were tested and compared in a real case. Simulated annealing was implemented by the software MSANOS able to define or redesign any sampling scheme by increasing or decreasing the original sampling locations. The output consists of the computed sampling scheme, the convergence time, and the cooling law, which can be an invaluable support to the process of sampling design. The proposed approach has found the optimal solution in a reasonable computation time. The

  8. Phosphatase activity in Antarctica soil samples as a biosignature of extant life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shuji; Itoh, Yuki; Takano, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei

    Microbial activities have been detected in such extreme terrestrial environments as deep lithosphere, a submarine hydrothermal systems, stratosphere, and Antarctica. Microorganisms have adapted to such harsh environments by evolving their biomolecules. Some of these biomolecules such as enzymes might have different characteristics from those of organisms in ordinary environments. Many biosignatures (or biomarkers) have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments. A number of techniques are proposed to evaluate biological activities in extreme environments including cultivation methods, assay of metabolism, and analysis of bioorganic compounds like amino acids and DNA. Enzyme activities are useful signature of extant life in extreme environments. Among many enzymes, phosphatase could be a good indicator of biological activities, since phosphate esters are essential for all the living terrestrial organisms. In addition, alkaline phosphatase is known as a typical zinc-containing metalloenzyme and quite stable in environments. We analyzed phosphatase activities in Antarctica soil samples to see whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. In addition, we characterized phosphatases extracted from the Antarctica soil samples, and compared with those obtained from other types of environments. Antarctica surface environments are quite severe environments for life since it is extremely cold and dry and exposed to strong UV and cosmic rays. We tried to evaluate biological activities in Antarctica by measuring phosphatase activities. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are measured spectrophotometrically after mixing the powdered sample and p-nitrophenyl phosphate solution (pH 6.5 for ACP, pH 8.0 for ALP). ALP was characterized after extraction from soils with

  9. Soil Characterization by Large Scale Sampling of Soil Mixed with Buried Construction Debris at a Former Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, A.J.; Lamantia, L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent soil excavation activities on a site identified the presence of buried uranium contaminated building construction debris. The site previously was the location of a low enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. This resulted in the collection of excavated materials from the two locations where contaminated subsurface debris was identified. The excavated material was temporarily stored in two piles on the site until a determination could be made as to the appropriate disposition of the material. Characterization of the excavated material was undertaken in a manner that involved the collection of large scale samples of the excavated material in 1 cubic meter Super Sacks. Twenty bags were filled with excavated material that consisted of the mixture of both the construction debris and the associated soil. In order to obtain information on the level of activity associated with the construction debris, ten additional bags were filled with construction debris that had been separated, to the extent possible, from the associated soil. Radiological surveys were conducted of the resulting bags of collected materials and the soil associated with the waste mixture. The 30 large samples, collected as bags, were counted using an In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) unit to determine the average concentration of U-235 present in each bag. The soil fraction was sampled by the collection of 40 samples of soil for analysis in an on-site laboratory. A fraction of these samples were also sent to an off-site laboratory for additional analysis. This project provided the necessary soil characterization information to allow consideration of alternate options for disposition of the material. The identified contaminant was verified to be low enriched uranium. Concentrations of uranium in the waste were found to be lower than the calculated site specific derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) but higher than the NRC's screening values. The methods and results are presented

  10. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME in Determination of Pesticide Residues in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Đurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles and application possibilities of the methods based on solid phase microextraction (SPME in the analysis of pesticide residues in soil samples are presented in the paper. The most important experimental parameters which affect SPME efficacy inpesticide determination (type and thickness of microextraction fiber, duration of microextraction,temperature at which it is conducted, effect of addition of salts (the effect of efflorescence,temperature and time of desorption, the choice of optimal solvent for pesticide exctraction from the soil and the optimal number of extraction steps, as well as general guidelines for their optimization are also shown. In the end, current applications of SPMEmethods in the analysis of pesticide residues in soil samples are presented.

  11. Immobilization remediation of Cd-polluted soil with different water condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianrui; Xu, Yingming

    2017-05-15

    To demonstrate effects of water management on soil Cd immobilization using palygorskite, the investigation evaluated impacts of palygorskite on uptake of Cd present in soils with different water condition by rice plant. Pot experiment results showed that, pH, available Fe and P in untreated soils were higher in continuous flooding than in traditional irrigation and wetting irrigation, which were reasons for lower soil exchangeable Cd and plant Cd in continuous flooding. In control group (untreated soils), compared to traditional irrigation, continuous flooding reduced brown rice Cd by 37.9%, that in wetting irrigation increased by 31.0%. At palygorskite concentrations of 5 g kg -1 , 10 g kg -1 and 15 g kg -1 , brown rice Cd reduced by 16.7%, 44.4% and 55.6% under continuous flooding, 13.8%, 34.5% and 44.8% under traditional irrigation, 13.1%, 36.8% and 47.3% under wetting irrigation (p soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  13. Environmental monitoring of fluoride emissions using precipitation, dust, plant and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzaring, J.; Hrenn, H.; Schumm, C.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    2006-01-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in precipitation, plants and soils sampled at different locations around a fluoride producing chemical plant in Germany. In all samples the influence of emissions was discernible up to a distance of 500 m from the plant. However, fluoride concentrations in plant bioindicators (leaves of birch and black berry) and in bulk precipitation showed a more pronounced relationship with the distance from the source than fluoride concentrations in soil. Vegetables sampled in the vicinity of the plant also had elevated concentrations of fluoride, but only the consumption of larger quantities of this material would lead to exceedances of recommended daily F-intake. The present study did not indicate the existence of low phytotoxicity thresholds for fluoride in the plant species used in the study. Even at very high fluoride concentrations in leaf tissue (963 ppm) plants did not show injury due to HF. Dust sampling downwind of the chemical plant confirmed that particulate fluoride was of minor importance in the study area. - A pronounced pollution gradient was observed in precipitation, plants and soils sampled at different locations around a fluoride emitting chemical plant in Germany

  14. Determination of thorium and uranium contents in soil samples ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using CR-39 and LR-115-II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). ... standard soil samples have been determined and compared with its known values. ... measure α-tracks activity [1], where SSNTDs have been used in geology [2–6] ...

  15. Bioavailability and mobility of organic contaminants in soil: new three-step ecotoxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Zbyněk; Nečasová, Anežka; Klánová, Jana; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach was developed for rapid assessment of bioavailability and potential mobility of contaminants in soil. The response of the same test organism to the organic extract, water extract and solid phase of soil was recorded and compared. This approach was designed to give an initial estimate of the total organic toxicity (response to organic extractable fraction), as well as the mobile (response to water extract) and bioavailable fraction (response to solid phase) of soil samples. Eighteen soil samples with different levels of pollution and content of organic carbon were selected to validate the novel three-step ecotoxicological evaluation approach. All samples were chemically analysed for priority contaminants, including aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The ecotoxicological evaluation involved determination of toxicity of the organic, mobile and bioavailable fractions of soil to the test organism, bacterium Bacillus cereus. We found a good correlation between the chemical analysis and the toxicity of organic extract. The low toxicity of water extracts indicated low water solubility, and thus, low potential mobility of toxic contaminants present in the soil samples. The toxicity of the bioavailable fraction was significantly greater than the toxicity of water-soluble (mobile) fraction of the contaminants as deduced from comparing untreated samples and water extracts. The bioavailability of the contaminants decreased with increasing concentrations of organic carbon in evaluated soil samples. In conclusion, the three-step ecotoxicological evaluation utilised in this study can give a quick insight into soil contamination in context with bioavailability and mobility of the contaminants present. This information can be useful for hazard identification and risk assessment of soil-associated contaminants. Graphical Abstract New three-step ecotoxicological

  16. Gamma spectroscopy analysis of archived Marshall Island soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, S.; Hoffman, K.; Lavelle, K.; Trauth, A.; Glover, S.E.; Connick, W.; Spitz, H.; LaMont, S.P.; Hamilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    Four samples of archival Marshall Islands soil were subjected to non-destructive, broad energy (17 keV-2.61 MeV) gamma-ray spectrometry analysis using a series of different high-resolution germanium detectors. These archival samples were collected in 1967 from different locations on Bikini Atoll and were contaminated with a range of fission and activation products, and other nuclear material from multiple weapons tests. Unlike samples collected recently, these samples have been stored in sealed containers and have been unaffected by approximately 50 years of weathering. Initial results show that the samples contained measurable but proportionally different concentrations of plutonium, 241 Am, and 137 Cs, and 60 Co. (author)

  17. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Rare Earth Elements Pattern in Weathered Japanese Soil Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Hosoda, M.; Takahashi, H.; Sorimachi, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Tokonami, S.; Uchida, S.

    2011-01-01

    From the viewpoint of radiation protection, determination of natural radionuclides e.g. thorium and uranium in soil samples are important. Accurate methods for determination of Th and U is gaining importance. The geochemical behavior of Th, U and rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively close to one another while compared to other elements in geological environment. Radioactive elements like 232 Th and 238 U along with their decay products (e.g. 226 Ra) are present in most of the environmental matrices and can be transferred to living bodies by different pathways that can lead to sources of exposure of man. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor these natural radionuclides in weathered soil samples to assess the possible hazards. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K in soils have been measured using a g γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The thorium, uranium and REEs were determined from the same sample using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Granitic rocks contain higher amounts of Th, U and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils, as soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water and gases. In this paper, we have discussed about distribution pattern of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite and ryolite) collected from two prefectures in Japan: 1. Gifu and 2. Okinawa. (author)

  18. Determination method for 129I in soil samples by MIP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uezu, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masanao; Fujita, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Maruo, Yoshihiro

    2001-01-01

    The radioactive iodine-129 ( 129 I) is an important radionuclide for environmental assessment because it has a long half-life and is accumulated in the thyroid gland in humans. A new analytical technique by Microwave Induced Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MIP-MS) was applied to the determination of 129 I in soil samples. In environmental samples, a large amount of matrix elements are present. Therefore, the matrix elements were eliminated by ashing at 1000degC, and iodine isotopes were trapped by an activated charcoal and finally extracted by 10% tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The concentration of 129 I in a soil samples were compared between results of neutron activation analysis and MIP-MS method. The results showed an excellent agreement. (author)

  19. Soil sample moisture content as a function of time during oven drying for gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, R.R.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    In routine gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of collected soil samples, procedure often calls to remove soil moisture by oven drying overnight at a temperature of 100 deg. C . Oven drying not only minimizes the gamma-ray self-attenuation of soil samples due to the absence of water during the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis, but also allows for a straightforward calculation of the specific activity of radionuclides in soil, historically based on the sample dry weight. Because radon exhalation is strongly dependent on moisture , knowledge of the oven-drying time dependence of the soil moisture content, combined with radon exhalation measurements during oven drying and at room temperature for varying soil moisture contents, would allow conclusions to be made on how the oven-drying radon exhalation rate depends on soil moisture content. Determinations of the oven-drying radon exhalation from soil samples allow corrections to be made for the immediate laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy of radionuclides in the natural uranium decay chain. This paper presents the results of soil moisture content measurements during oven drying and suggests useful empirical fits to the moisture data

  20. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  1. Environmental radiation in coal and soil samples from Savannah area (Chatham County, GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, D.; Ghuman, G.S.; Chandra, K.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation measurements were made in coal and fly ash samples from Savannah Electric ampersand Power Company (SEPCO) plant on the Savannah River and the soil core samples from three sites along the flow gradient of Savannah State University Campus Creek. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of natural radiation due to radon and potassium in the Savannah area and possible effect of external factors such as the operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). The instrument used for this purpose was Geiger Counter Model 500 (Tennelec/Nucleus, Inc.) which was standardized with known samples of Sr-90 (0.1 μCi t 1/2 = 28.6 yrs., beta radiation) and Co-60 (1.0 μCi t 1/2 = 5.27 yrs., gamma radiation). Beta and gamma radiations in the samples were differentiated with the help of polyethylene and lead absorbers. Results showed quite low radioactivity in bituminous coal from SEPCO plant and it reduced by a factor of 0.5 and 0.25 in fly ash and weathered fly ash, respectively. Radioactivity of soil samples was slightly greater in the top soil (0-3 cm) of two sites and it decreased markedly with depth (20 cm). Site III soil samples containing lime shells had a negligible radioactivity because carbonate rocks developed from calcareous skeletal matter have low radioactivity from their beginning. Radioactivity appeared to be mainly associated with the fine textured top soil of two sites (high clay content) and it exhibited very little leaching downward into lower layers. Clay particles with greater radioactivity, are formed from the decomposition of feldspars and micas which contain a large fraction of earth's potassium fraction. Measurements with the use of absorbers indicated that the observed radiation in all the samples was mainly due to the gamma rays. A comparison with the radioactivity in coal dust and fly ash samples from SRS revealed that the Savannah samples contained extremely low radiation, which may be due only to the natural sources

  2. Fluoride concentrations in soils, vegetation samples and soil fauna in the direct vicinity of a pollution source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.; Ottow, J.C.G.; Breimer, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Fluoride analyses CF t = total F; F w = water soluble F and F HCI HCI-extractable F) of different soils, vegetation samples and soil fauna (Helix pomatia, Lumbricus spp., arthropodes) in a locally polluted area (for nearly 65 years) clearly revealed an F-accumulation in top soil, vegetation and animals. Based on 1N HCI-extractable fluoride, two contamination zones around the emitting industry could be identified. In the calcareous soils, leaching of fluoride seems to be insignificant because of a strong immobilization as CaF 2 . A highly significant correlation between the F HCI content of soils and Lumbricus spp. (with and without gut content) or Helix pomatia shells was found. Fluoride concentrations in washed leaves of Hedera helix and in decaying grass reached levels of 306 and 997 μgF/g respectively. Saprophagous soil arthropods contained high fluoride levels, up to 732 μgF/g in Armadillidium vulgare. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Panel Influenced by Treated and Untreated Coconut Fiber Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Alida; Jamaludin, Shamsul Baharin; Anwar, Mohamed Iylia; Noor, Mazlee Mohd; Hussin, Kamarudin

    This project was conducted to produce a cement panel with the addition of treated and untreated coconut fiber in cement panel. Coconut fiber was added to replace coarse aggregate (sand) in this cement panel. In this project, the ratios used to design the mixture were 1:1:0, 1:0.97:0.03, 1:0.94:0.06, 1:0.91:0.09 (cement: sand: coconut fiber). The water cement ratio was constant at 0.55. The sizes of sample tested were, 160 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm for compression test, and 100 mm x 100 mm x 40 mm for density, moisture content and water absorption tests. After curing samples for 28 days, it was found that the addition of coconut fiber, further increase in compressive strength of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber. Moisture content of cement panel with treated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber whereas water absorption of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber. The density of cement panel decreased with the addition of untreated and treated coconut fiber.

  4. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  5. Reducing the bioavailability of cadmium in contaminated soil by dithiocarbamate chitosan as a new remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zheng; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Zhen; Qiu, Dong

    2015-07-01

    Dithiocarbamate chitosan (DTC-CTS) was used as a new amendment for remediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils to reduce the Cd bioavailability. Arabidopsis thaliana was chosen as a model plant to evaluate its efficiency. It was found that DTC-CTS could effectively improve the growth of A. thaliana. The amount of Cd up-taken by A. thaliana could be decreased by as much as 50% compared with that grown in untreated Cd-contaminated soil samples. The chlorophyll content and the aerial biomass of Arabidopsis also increased substantially and eventually returned to a level comparable to plants grown in non-contaminated soils, with the addition of DTC-CTS. These findings suggested that DTC-CTS amendment could be effective in immobilizing Cd and mitigating its accumulation in plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils, with potential application as an in situ remediation of Cd-polluted soils.

  6. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-01-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the μ determination. It consists of the μ determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of μ was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  7. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  8. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  9. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  10. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile. - Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a polluted soil can be realistically interpreted by in-situ soil pore water sampling.

  11. Sampling season affects conclusions on soil arthropod community structure responses to metal pollution in Mediterranean urban soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santorufo, L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Maisto, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if the period of sampling affected conclusions on the responses of arthropod community structure to metal pollution in urban soils in the Mediterranean area. Higher temperature and lower precipitation were detected in autumn than in spring. In both samplings, the most

  12. Influence of soil surface structure on simulated infiltration and subsequent evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verplancke, H.; Hartmann, R.; Boodt, M. de

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory rainfall and evaporation experiment was conducted to study the effectiveness of the soil surface structure on infiltration and subsequent evaporation. The stability of the surface layer was improved through the application of synthetic additives such as bituminous emulsion and a prepolymer of polyurea (Uresol). The soil column where the soil surface was treated with a bituminous emulsion shows a decrease in depth of wetting owing to the water repellency of that additive, and consequently an increased runoff. However, the application of Uresol to the surface layer improved the infiltration. The main reason for these differences is that in the untreated soils there is a greater clogging of macropores originating from aggregate breakdown under raindrop impact in the top layer. The evaporation experiment started after all columns were wetted to a similar soil-water content and was carried out in a controlled environmental tunnel. Soil-water content profiles were established during evaporation by means of a fully automatic γ-ray scanner. It appears that in both treatments the cumulative evaporation was less than in the untreated soil. This was due to the effect of an aggregated and stabilized surface layer. Under a treated soil surface the evaporation remains constant during the whole experiment. However, under an untreated soil surface different evaporation stages were recorded. From these experiments the impression is gained that the effect of aggregating the soil surface is an increase of the saturated hydraulic conductivity under conditions near saturation. On the other hand, a finely structured layer exhibits a greater hydraulic conductivity during evaporation in the lower soil-water potential range than a coarsely aggregated layer. So it may be concluded that, to obtain the maximum benefit from the available water - optimal water conservation - much attention must be given to the aggregation of the top soil and its stability. (author)

  13. Determination of total organic phosphorus in samples of mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some observations on the estimation of organic phosphorus in mineral soils are reported. The fact is emphasized that the accuracy of all the methods available is relatively poor. Usually, there are no reasons to pay attention to differences less than about 20 ppm. of organic P. Analyses performed on 345 samples of Finnish mineral soils by the extraction method of MEHTA et. al. (10 and by a simple procedure adopted by the author (successive extractions with 4 N H2SO4 and 0.5 N NaOH at room temperature in the ratio of 1 to 100 gave, on the average, equal results. It seemed to be likely that the MEHTA method removed the organic phosphorus more completely than did the less vigorous method, but in the former the partial hydrolysis of organic phosphorus compounds tends to be higher than in the latter. An attempt was made to find out whether the differences between the respective values for organic phosphorus obtained by an ignition method and the simple extraction method could be connected with any characteristics of the soil. No correlation or only a low correlation coefficient could be calculated between the difference in the results of these two methods and e. g. the pH-value, the content of clay, organic carbon, aluminium and iron soluble in Tamm’s acid oxalate, the indicator of the phosphate sorption capacity, or the »Fe-bound» inorganic phosphorus, respectively. The absolute difference tended to increase with an increase in the content of organic phosphorus. For the 250 samples of surface soils analyzed, the ignition method gave values which were, on the average, about 50 ppm. higher than the results obtained by the extraction procedure. The corresponding difference for the 120 samples from deeper layers was about 20 ppm of organic P. The author recommends, for the present, the determination of the total soil organic phosphorus as an average of the results obtained by the ignition method and the extraction method.

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for Mount Plant D ampersand D soils packages, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    There are currently 682 containers of soils in storage at Mound Plant, generated between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program sites. These areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building area. The soils from these areas are part of Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The sealed waste packages, constructed of either wood or metal, are currently being stored in Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound facility. At a meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada on October, 26, 1990, DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE-NV) and NTS representatives requested that the Mound Plant D ampersand D soils proposed for shipment to NTS be sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents. On December 14, 1990, DOE-NV also requested that additional analyses be performed on the soils from one of the soils boxes for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), particle size distribution, and free liquids. The purpose of this plan is to document the proposed sampling and analyses of the packages of D ampersand D soils produced prior to October 31, 1990. In order to provide a thorough description of the soils excavated from the WTS and SM areas, sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide historical Information concerning the D ampersand D soils, including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data

  16. Review of sample preparation techniques for the analysis of pesticide residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, José L; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Albero, Beatriz; García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the sample preparation techniques used for the analysis of pesticides in soil. The present status and recent advances made during the last 5 years in these methods are discussed. The analysis of pesticide residues in soil requires the extraction of analytes from this matrix, followed by a cleanup procedure, when necessary, prior to their instrumental determination. The optimization of sample preparation is a very important part of the method development that can reduce the analysis time, the amount of solvent, and the size of samples. This review considers all aspects of sample preparation, including extraction and cleanup. Classical extraction techniques, such as shaking, Soxhlet, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and modern techniques like pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) are reviewed. The different cleanup strategies applied for the purification of soil extracts are also discussed. In addition, the application of these techniques to environmental studies is considered.

  17. 14CO2 analysis of soil gas: Evaluation of sample size limits and sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotte, Anja; Wischhöfer, Philipp; Wacker, Lukas; Rethemeyer, Janet

    2017-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of CO2 respired from soils or sediments is a valuable tool to identify different carbon sources. The collection and processing of the CO2, however, is challenging and prone to contamination. We thus continuously improve our handling procedures and present a refined method for the collection of even small amounts of CO2 in molecular sieve cartridges (MSCs) for accelerator mass spectrometry 14C analysis. Using a modified vacuum rig and an improved desorption procedure, we were able to increase the CO2 recovery from the MSC (95%) as well as the sample throughput compared to our previous study. By processing series of different sample size, we show that our MSCs can be used for CO2 samples of as small as 50 μg C. The contamination by exogenous carbon determined in these laboratory tests, was less than 2.0 μg C from fossil and less than 3.0 μg C from modern sources. Additionally, we tested two sampling devices for the collection of CO2 samples released from soils or sediments, including a respiration chamber and a depth sampler, which are connected to the MSC. We obtained a very promising, low process blank for the entire CO2 sampling and purification procedure of ∼0.004 F14C (equal to 44,000 yrs BP) and ∼0.003 F14C (equal to 47,000 yrs BP). In contrast to previous studies, we observed no isotopic fractionation towards lighter δ13C values during the passive sampling with the depth samplers.

  18. Mapping of depleted uranium with in situ spectrometry and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebell, P.; Reginatto, M.; Monetti, M.; Faller, S.; Davis, L.

    1999-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been developed in the past two decades as a highly effective material for armor penetrating rounds and vehicle shielding. There is now a growing interest in the defense community to determine the presence and extent of DU contamination quickly and with a minimum amount of intrusive sampling. We report on a new approach using deconvolution techniques to quantitatively map DU contamination in surface soil. This approach combines data from soil samples with data from in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements to produce an accurate and detailed map of DU contamination. Results of a field survey at the Aberdeen Proving Ground are presented. (author)

  19. Soil fauna and organic amendment interactions affect soil carbon and crop performance in semi-arid West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ouédraogo, E.; Brussaard, L.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Kaibo in southern Burkina Faso on an Eutric Cambisol during the 2000 rainy season to assess the interaction of organic amendment quality and soil fauna, affecting soil organic carbon and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) performance. Plots were treated with the pesticides Dursban and Endosulfan to exclude soil fauna or left untreated. Sub-treatments consisted of surface-placed maize straw ( C/N ratio= 58), Andropogon straw ( C/N ratio= 153), cattle dung ...

  20. Field sampling of soil pore water to evaluate trace element mobility and associated environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.moreno@uam.es [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beesley, Luke [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, PO Box 84 (New Zealand); Hartley, William [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Monitoring soil pollution is a key aspect in sustainable management of contaminated land but there is often debate over what should be monitored to assess ecological risk. Soil pore water, containing the most labile pollutant fraction in soils, can be easily collected in situ offering a routine way to monitor this risk. We present a compilation of data on concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil pore water collected in field conditions from a range of polluted and non-polluted soils in Spain and the UK during single and repeated monitoring, and propose a simple eco-toxicity test using this media. Sufficient pore water could be extracted for analysis both under semi-arid and temperate conditions, and eco-toxicity comparisons could be effectively made between polluted and non-polluted soils. We propose that in-situ pore water extraction could enhance the realism of risk assessment at some contaminated sites. - Highlights: > In situ pore water sampling successfully evaluates trace elements mobility in soils. > Field sampling proved robust for different soils, sites and climatic regimes. > Measurements may be directly related to ecotoxicological assays. > Both short and long-term monitoring of polluted lands may be achieved. > This method complements other widely used assays for environmental risk assessment. - In situ pore water sampling from a wide variety of soils proves to be a beneficial application to monitor the stability of pollutants in soils and subsequent risk through mobility.

  1. Microbial diversity in firework chemical exposed soil and water samples collected in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasarathan, P; Theriappan, P; Ashokraja, C

    2010-03-01

    Microbial diversity of soil and water samples collected from pyrochemicals exposed areas of Virdhunagar district (Tamil Nadu, India) was studied. Soil and water samples from cultivable area, waste land and city area of the same region were also studied for a comparative acount. There is a remarkable reduction in total heterotrophic bacterial population (THB) in pyrochemicals exposed soil and water samples (42 × 10(4) CFU/g and 5.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml respectively), compared to the THB of cultivable area soil and water samples (98 × 10(7) CFU/g and 38.6 × 10(7) CFU/ml). The generic composition the THB of the pyrochemicals exposed samples too exhibited considerable change compared to other samples. Pseudomonas sp. was the predominant one (41.6%) followed by Achromobacter sp. (25%) in pyrochemical exposed soil and Pseudomonas sp. was the predominant one (25%) in pyrochemical exposed water samples followed by Bacillus sp. (25%) and Micrococcus sp. (16.6%). It was observed that Cornybacterium sp. and Micrococcus sp. were absent completely in pyrochemical exposed soil and Achromobacter sp. was missing in the pyrochemical exposed water samples, which were present in the other samples. The outcome of this study clearly demonstrates that pollutants such as chemicals used in pyrotechniques affect the microbial biodiversity and suitable measures have to be taken to control the pollution level and to save biodiversity.

  2. Critical evaluation of distillation procedure for the determination of methylmercury in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pablo A; Hintelman, Holger; Quiroz, Waldo; Bravo, Manuel A

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the efficiency of distillation process for extracting monomethylmercury (MMHg) from soil samples was studied and optimized using an experimental design methodology. The influence of soil composition on MMHg extraction was evaluated by testing of four soil samples with different geochemical characteristics. Optimization suggested that the acid concentration and the duration of the distillation process were most significant and the most favorable conditions, established as a compromise for the studied soils, were determined to be a 70 min distillation using an 0.2 M acid. Corresponding limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.21 and 0.7 pg absolute, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied with satisfactory results to soil samples and was compared to a reference methodology based on isotopic dilution analysis followed by gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IDA-GC-ICP-MS). Using the optimized conditions, recoveries ranged from 82 to 98%, which is an increase of 9-34% relative to the previously used standard operating procedure. Finally, the validated methodology was applied to quantify MMHg in soils collected from different sites impacted by coal fired power plants in the north-central zone of Chile, measuring MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.091 to 2.8 ng g -1 . These data are to the best of our knowledge the first MMHg measurements reported for Chile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rimsulfuron in Soil: Effects on Microbiological Properties under Varying Soil Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rimsulfuron a sulfonylurea herbicide on the growth and activity of soil microorganisms under laboratory conditions was investigated in two soils. The application rates were: 0.2, 2.0 and 20.0 mg a.i kg-1 soil. The lowest concentration tested was the label rate (0.2 mg a.i kg-1, and the other two were ten and hundred timeshigher. No adverse effects on microbiological processes were observed for the label rate. Decrease in microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity, fungi and bacteria in comparison with untreated control, were found at higher rates. The magnitude of these effects were generally slight and transitory.

  4. Atomic absorption determination of metals in soils using ultrasonic sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmilenko, F.A.; Smityuk, N.M.; Baklanov, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    It was shown that ultrasonic treatment accelerates sample preparation of soil extracts from chernozem into different solvents by a factor of 6 to 60. These extracts are used for the atomic absorption determination of soluble species of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The optimum ultrasound parameters (frequency, intensity, and treatment time) were found for preparing soil extracts containing analytes in concentrations required in agrochemical procedures. Different extractants used to extract soluble heavy metals from soils of an ordinary chernozem type in agrochemical procedures using ultrasonic treatment were classified in accordance with the element nature [ru

  5. Estimation of radioactivity in some sand and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, R.P.; Garg, Ajay; Kumar, Sushil; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radioactivity is composed of the cosmogenic and primordial radionuclides. It is common in the rocks and soil that make up our planet, water and oceans, and in our building materials and homes. Natural radioactivity in sand and soils comes from 238 U and 232 Th series and natural 40 K. Radon is formed from the decay of radium which in turn is formed from uranium. The gaseous radioactive isotope of radon from natural sources has a significant share in the total quantum of natural sources exposure to the human bwings. Gamma radiation from 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K represents the main external source of irradiation of the human body. In the present study, the activity for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K is found to vary from 45 ± 1.2 to 97 ± 4.9 Bq/kg, 63 ± 2.0 to 132 ± 3.2 Bq/kg and 492 ± 5.9 to 1110 ± 10.5 Bq/kg, respectively in the soil samples while the variations have been observed from 63 ± 3.8 to 65 ± 3.7 Bq/kg, 86 ±2.5 to 96 ± 2.6 Bq/kg and 751 ± 7.7 to 824 ± 8.2 Bq/kg, respectively in the sand samples. (author)

  6. Quantitative Field Testing Rotylenchulus reniformis DNA from Metagenomic Samples Isolated Directly from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showmaker, Kurt; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the β-tubulin gene determined the number of Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira 1940 in metagenomic DNA samples isolated from soil. Of note, this outcome was in the presence of other soil-dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including its sister genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from soil. PMID:22194958

  7. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation

  8. Dentofacial growth changes in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion from late puberty through young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to compare dentofacial growth changes in untreated subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with those in subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from late puberty through young adulthood. The Class II Division 1 sample consisted of 23 subjects (10 male, 13 female). The Class I sample included 30 subjects (13 male, 17 female). The lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups were analyzed at 2 consecutive stages of development: T1, postpubertal observation (cervical vertebral maturation stage 6), and T2, young adulthood stage. The average time between T1 and T2 was 3.5 years. The statistical comparisons of the growth changes in the 2 groups were performed with Mann-Whitney U tests. From late puberty through young adulthood, dentofacial growth in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion does not show significant differences when compared with that observed in untreated subjects with normal occlusion. These findings show that Class II dentoskeletal disharmony does not exhibit significant growth change from late puberty through young adulthood.

  9. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: A North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Ivan J. Fernandez; Daniel D. Richter; Donald S. Ross; Paul W. Hazlett; Scott W. Bailey; Rock Ouimet; Richard A. F. Warby; Arthur H. Johnson; Henry Lin; James M. Kaste; Andrew G. Lapenis; Timothy J. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest...

  10. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  11. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C

  12. Planning spatial sampling of the soil from an uncertain reconnaissance variogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. Murray; Hamilton, Elliott M.; Kaninga, Belinda; Maseka, Kakoma K.; Mutondo, Moola; Sakala, Godfrey M.; Watts, Michael J.

    2017-12-01

    An estimated variogram of a soil property can be used to support a rational choice of sampling intensity for geostatistical mapping. However, it is known that estimated variograms are subject to uncertainty. In this paper we address two practical questions. First, how can we make a robust decision on sampling intensity, given the uncertainty in the variogram? Second, what are the costs incurred in terms of oversampling because of uncertainty in the variogram model used to plan sampling? To achieve this we show how samples of the posterior distribution of variogram parameters, from a computational Bayesian analysis, can be used to characterize the effects of variogram parameter uncertainty on sampling decisions. We show how one can select a sample intensity so that a target value of the kriging variance is not exceeded with some specified probability. This will lead to oversampling, relative to the sampling intensity that would be specified if there were no uncertainty in the variogram parameters. One can estimate the magnitude of this oversampling by treating the tolerable grid spacing for the final sample as a random variable, given the target kriging variance and the posterior sample values. We illustrate these concepts with some data on total uranium content in a relatively sparse sample of soil from agricultural land near mine tailings in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia.

  13. On the effect of the ionizing radiation of soil and 15N-labelled slurry of respiration and N-dynamic of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, H.; Markgraf, G.; Feist, A.; Kiok, K.

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiation on a sandy soil with a dose of 25 kGy shows no effect opposite untreated soil in view to the soil respiration. Besides, the nitrifying bacteria has been inpaired for a long time and the nitrificid efficiency has kept for 44 days. There was no influences of slurry of cow treated with γ-rays (25 and 10 kGy) on the CO 2 exhalation, ammonification and nitrification in 3 tested soils. (orig.) [de

  14. Optimization of deconvolution software used in the study of spectra of soil samples from Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDRIAMADY NARIMANANA, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to perform the deconvolution of gamma spectra by using the deconvolution peak program. Synthetic spectra, reference materials and ten soil samples with various U-238 activities from three regions of Madagascar were used. This work concerns : soil sample spectra with low activities of about (47±2) Bq.kg -1 from Ankatso, soil sample spectra with average activities of about (125±2)Bq.kg -1 from Antsirabe and soil sample spectra with high activities of about (21100± 120) Bq.kg -1 from Vinaninkarena. Singlet and multiplet peaks with various intensities were found in each soil spectrum. Interactive Peak Fit (IPF) program in Genie-PC from Canberra Industries allows to deconvoluate many multiplet regions : quartet within 235 keV-242 keV, Pb-214 and Pb-212 within 294 keV -301 keV; Th-232 daughters within 582 keV - 584 keV; Ac-228 within 904 keV -911 keV and within 964 keV-970 keV and Bi-214 within 1401 keV - 1408 keV. Those peaks were used to quantify considered radionuclides. However, IPF cannot resolve Ra-226 peak at 186,1 keV. [fr

  15. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg-1 h-1 with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg-1 h-1. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg-1 with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg-1. The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg-1 h-1 (granite) with a mean value of 59.94 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  16. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements concentration in weathered Japanese soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kamagata, Sadatoshi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    The geochemical behavior of thorium, uranium and rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively close to one another while compared to other elements in a geological environment. Radioactive elements like 232 Th and 238 U along with their decay products (e.g. 226 Ra) are present in most environmental matrices and can be transferred to living bodies by different pathways which can lead to the sources of exposure to man. For these reasons, it has been necessary to monitor those natural radionuclides in weathered soil samples to assess the possible hazards. It has been observed that granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. To better understand the interaction between REEs and soils, the nature of soils must be considered. In this paper, we discussed the distribution pattern of 232 Th and 238 U along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite and ryolite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: (1) Kobe city in Hyogo prefecture and (2) Mutsu city and Higashidori village in Aomori prefecture. (author)

  17. Radioactivity Levels And Gamma Dose Rate In Soil Samples From Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deljkic, D.; Kadic, I.; Ilic, Z.; Vidic, A.

    2015-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in soil samples collected from different regions of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides are compared with the reported data from different other countries and it is found that measured activity concentrations are comparable with the worldwide measured average values reported by the UNSCEAR. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma - ray spectrometry analysis system at Institute for Public Health FBiH (Radiation Protection Center). The measuring time of all soil samples was 86000 seconds. It was found that the soil specific activity ranges from 24.59 to 161.20 Bq/kg for 226Ra, from 17.60 to 66.45 Bq/kg for 232Th, from 179.50 to 598.04 Bq kg-1 for 40K and from 11.13 to 108.69 Bq/kg for 137Cs with the mean values of 62.34; 46.97; 392.76 and 51.49 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in all the soil samples is lower than the safe limit (370 Bq/kg), ranges from 63.58 to 287.03 Bq/kg with the mean value of 159.71 Bq/kg. Man-made radionuclide 137Cs is also present in detectable amount in all soil samples. Presence of 137Cs indicates that the samples in this area also receive some fallout from nuclear accident in Chernobyl power plant in 1986. The value of external radiation hazard indices is found to be less than unity (mean value of 0.43). Absorbed dose rates and effective dose equivalents are also determined for the samples. The concentration of radionuclides found in the soil samples during the present study does not pose any potential health hazard to the general public. (author).

  18. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Harrison, Obed Akwaa; Vuvor, Frederick; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was processed clay soil samples. Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms including Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Shigella and Enterobacterspp were isolated from the clay samples. Samples from the Kaneshie market in Accra recorded the highest total viable counts 6.5 Log cfu/g and Staphylococcal count 5.8 Log cfu/g. For fecal coliforms, Madina market samples had the highest count 6.5 Log cfu/g and also recorded the highest levels of yeast and mould. For Koforidua, total viable count was highest in the samples from the Zongo market 6.3 Log cfu/g. Central market samples had the highest count of fecal coliforms 4.6 Log cfu/g and yeasts and moulds 6.5 Log cfu/g. "Small" market recorded the highest staphylococcal count 6.2 Log cfu/g. The water activity of the clay samples were low, and ranged between 0.65±0.01 and 0.66±0.00 for samples collected from Koforidua and Accra respectively. The clay samples were found to contain Klebsiella spp. Escherichia, Enterobacter, Shigella spp. staphylococcus spp., yeast and mould. These have health implications when consumed.

  19. Oligotyping reveals stronger relationship of organic soil bacterial community structure with N-amendments and soil chemistry in comparison to that of mineral soil at Harvard Forest, MA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlapati, Swathi A; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Ramsdell, Jordan; Minocha, Subhash C

    2015-01-01

    The impact of chronic nitrogen amendments on bacterial communities was evaluated at Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, USA. Thirty soil samples (3 treatments × 2 soil horizons × 5 subplots) were collected in 2009 from untreated (control), low nitrogen-amended (LN; 50 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) yr(-1)) and high nitrogen-amended (HN; 150 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) yr(-1)) plots. PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA gene sequences made from soil DNA were subjected to pyrosequencing (Turlapati et al., 2013) and analyses using oligotyping. The parameters M (the minimum count of the most abundant unique sequence in an oligotype) and s (the minimum number of samples in which an oligotype is expected to be present) had to be optimized for forest soils because of high diversity and the presence of rare organisms. Comparative analyses of the pyrosequencing data by oligotyping and operational taxonomic unit clustering tools indicated that the former yields more refined units of taxonomy with sequence similarity of ≥99.5%. Sequences affiliated with four new phyla and 73 genera were identified in the present study as compared to 27 genera reported earlier from the same data (Turlapati et al., 2013). Significant rearrangements in the bacterial community structure were observed with N-amendments revealing the presence of additional genera in N-amended plots with the absence of some that were present in the control plots. Permutational MANOVA analyses indicated significant variation associated with soil horizon and N treatment for a majority of the phyla. In most cases soil horizon partitioned more variation relative to treatment and treatment effects were more evident for the organic (Org) horizon. Mantel test results for Org soil showed significant positive correlations between bacterial communities and most soil parameters including NH4 and NO3. In mineral soil, correlations were seen only with pH, NH4, and NO3. Regardless of the pipeline used, a major hindrance for such a study remains to be the lack

  20. Determination of elemental in soil samples from Gebeng area using NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Suhaimi Elias; Wo, Y.M.; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development and urbanization will increase number of residence and industrial area. Without proper management and control of pollution, these will give an adverse effect to environment and human life. The objective of this study to identify and quantify key contaminants into the environment of the Gebeng area as a result of industrial and human activities. Gebeng area was gazetted as one of the industrial estate in Pahang state. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Gebeng area base on level of concentration, enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. The enrichment factors (EFs) were determined by the elemental rationing method, whilst the geo-accumulation index (I_g_e_o) by comparing of current to continental crustal average concentration of element. Twenty-seven of soil samples were collected from Gebeng area. Soil samples were analysed by using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The obtained data showed higher concentration of iron (Fe) due to abundance in soil compared to other elements. The results of enrichment factor showed that Gebeng area have enrich with elements of As, Br, Hf, Sb, Th and U. Base on the geo-accumulation index (I_g_e_o) classification, the soil quality of Gebeng area can be classified as class 0, (uncontaminated) to Class 3, (moderately to heavily contaminated). (author)

  1. Fertilizer phosphorus in some Finnish soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper it is tried to trace the fate of fertilizer phosphorus in soil by comparing the analyses of soils from treated and untreated plots of field trials. This indirect approach cannot be expected to provide exact values, but it is likely to give an approximate answer. The results reported above do not in any marked degree change our present conception of the forms in which fertilizer phosphorus accumulates in soils. In the acid soils studied (pH 4—6.4 in 0.02 N CaCl2 superphosphate tended to increase the fractions which were extracted by NH4F or NaOH. Hyperphosphate phosphorus was mostly found in the acid-soluble fraction. During a longer period of dressing with phosphate an increase in the organic phosphorus content of a peat soil could be detected. In the incubation experiments the mineralization of organic phosphorus occurred at a higher rate in the samples from the plots treated with superphosphate than in those from the untreated one. It might be supposed that the organic phosphorus mineralized mainly originated from the plant residues. It seems that the fractionation method developed by CHANG and JACKSON (4 for the estimation of discrete forms of soil phosphorus is not quite satisfactory for tracing the fertilizer phosphorus in soils recently dressed with phosphates. In particular, it may be fallacious to conclude that the fraction extracted by NH4F would only represent phosphorus bound to aluminium and its compounds. At least in the absence of soil, a large part of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate dihydrate falls into this fraction, and also a small amount of hyperphosphate phosphorus may be found in it. The test values for »available» phosphorus showed the effect of fertilizers in accordance with previous observations (9, 13. Acetic acid soluble P revealed the treatment with hyperphosphate, but only slightly the application of superphosphate. The test value for the sorbed P of BRAY and KURTZ (2, or phosphorus

  2. Multiresidual determination of pesticides in agricultural soil sample using Quechers extraction methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Garcia, Consuelo del Pilar

    2011-01-01

    To achieve a sustainable agricultural production there are used different organic and inorganic products, among them we found the fertilizers and pesticides. When they are applied most of the product falls to the ground, generating significant sources of pollution in the areas near the application and depending on the mobility of the pesticide, it can reach more remote areas. That is why it is important to determine the pesticide residues in soil after their application, being the selection of the extraction method crucial for the subsequent traces detection. In the present work there was evaluated the QUECHERS extraction technique, a method used in food but modified for a different and complex matrix like soil in order to achieve acceptable efficiencies multi-residue extraction of 20 pesticides and their subsequent determination by gas chromatography with electron capture and mass detection. The method was applied for the determination of pesticides in three soil samples from an agricultural site with different slopes between them. The Results indicated that 75% of the pesticides tested had acceptable efficiencies, thus meeting the objective of achieving multiresidue determination of pesticides in agricultural soil samples by extraction methodology QUECHERS. Besides, the presence of the fungicide penconazole was only detected in the three samples, being the highest concentration of pesticide found in the area with less slope (V_A_B_A_J_O) (author)

  3. Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2011-07-01

    A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was LIBS limits of detection were LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization.

  4. Action of smoke acids on soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieler, A

    1924-01-01

    Experiments were performed over a 14 year period to determine the effects of sulfur dioxide on plants. Conifers, deciduous trees and herbs were grown on two types of soil. One type was treated by applying lime and the other soil was left to be contaminated with sulfur dioxide. Results indicate that plants grew well on the lime treated soil. However, plants did not grow on the untreated soil and they soon died. It has been determined that plants which do not require much calcium survive longer under the effects of sulfur dioxide. The author concludes that the effects of sulfur dioxide is due to the decalcification of the soil.

  5. Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2014-06-01

    Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to the extracted fulvic acid fraction in soil in comparison with other organic matter fractions and to the whole soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenxin; Xu, Shanshan; Xing, Baoshan; Pan, Bo; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fractions of soil organic matter in a natural soil were extracted and sorption (or binding) characteristics of phenanthrene on each fraction and to the whole sample were investigated. The organic carbon normalized single point sorption (or binding) coefficient followed lipid > humin (HM) > humic acid (HA) > fulvic acid (FA) > whole soil sample, while the nonlinear exponent exhibited lipid > FA > HA > whole soil sample > HM. FA showed nonlinear binding of phenanthrene as it often does with other fractions. HM and HA contributed the majority of organic carbon in the soil. The calculated sorption coefficients of the whole soil were about two times greater than the measured values at different equilibrium phenanthrene concentrations. As for phenanthrene, the sorption capacity and nonlinearity of the physically mixed HA-HM mixtures were stronger as compared to the chemically reconstituted HA-HM composite. This was attributed to (besides the conditioning effect of the organic solvents) interactions between HA and HM and acid-base additions during fractionation. - Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to fulvic acid extracted from soil organic matter was found.

  7. Misrepresentation of hydro-erosional processes in rainfall simulations using disturbed soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Pereira, Adalberto A.

    2017-06-01

    Interrill erosion is a primary soil erosion process which consists of soil detachment by raindrop impact and particle transport by shallow flow. Interill erosion affects other soil erosion sub-processes, e.g., water infiltration, sealing, crusting, and rill initiation. Interrill erosion has been widely studied in laboratories, and the use of a sieved soil, i.e., disturbed soil, has become a standard method in laboratory experiments. The aims of our study are to evaluate the hydro-erosional response of undisturbed and disturbed soils in a laboratory experiment, and to quantify the extent to which hydraulic variables change during a rainstorm. We used a splash pan of 0.3 m width, 0.45 m length, and 0.1 m depth. A rainfall simulation of 58 mm h- 1 lasting for 30 min was conducted on seven replicates of undisturbed and disturbed soils. During the experiment, several hydro-physical parameters were measured, including splashed sediment, mean particle size, runoff, water infiltration, and soil moisture. We conclude that use of disturbed soil samples results in overestimation of interrill processes. Of the nine assessed parameters, four displayed greater responses in the undisturbed soil: infiltration, topsoil shear strength, mean particle size of eroded particles, and soil moisture. In the disturbed soil, five assessed parameters displayed greater responses: wash sediment, final runoff coefficient, runoff, splash, and sediment yield. Therefore, contextual soil properties are most suitable for understanding soil erosion, as well as for defining soil erodibility.

  8. Si(Li)-NaI(Tl) sandwich detector array for measurements of trace radionuclides in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.G.; Sherman, I.S.; Roche, C.T.; Pehl, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    An ultra-sensitive X/γ-ray detector system for assaying trace radioactivity in actinide contaminated soil and ash samples has been developed. The new system consists of an array of 6 large Si(Li) X-ray detectors sensitive on both faces and mounted on edge in a paddle-shaped cryostat with a 14 cm diameter Be window on each side. The paddle, with a sample of the soil placed at each window, is sandwiched between 2 large NaI(Tl) scintillators which suppress the γ background. With X-rays being measured simultaneously from soil in 2 sample holders and background reduced by 50% using anticoincidence, the sensitivity of this detector is 4 times higher than that of conventionally mounted Si(Li) detectors. A soil sample containing 50 pCi/g 239 Pu was measured in 5 min with an uncertainty of 1 and NpLsub(β1) X-ray peaks are resolved thus permitting measurement of trace Pu in the presence of 241 Am. This is the most sensitive and selective detector known for nondestructive assay of radioactivity in soil and other samples. (orig.)

  9. [Toxocara canis eggs as bait for soil fungus in a subtropical city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María Viviana; Sarmiento, María Mercedes; Giusiano, Gustavo; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Basualdo, Juan Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The use of different isolation techniques allows the recovery of fungi based on their ability to use selective substrates. The sprinkle method is a technique for the recovery of nematophagous fungi in the soil. These fungi are natural predators of nematodes and are widely distributed in nature. To detect possible fungi with nematophagous ability in the soil of city parks in Corrientes (Argentina). The soil samples were taken from an area of ground between two trees and to no more than 2cm deep. The isolation was performed according to the sprinkle method with Toxocara canis eggs as bait. Eighteen soil samples were collected, and 6 genera and 8 species of fungi were isolated. The sprinkle method, simple and efficient, has the advantage of using a small amount of untreated soil for the isolation of fungi that can grow on the eggs of geohelminths. The genera Bipolaris, Fusarium, Purpureocillium, Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium were isolated in this study. No other studies describing the interaction between the genera Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium with nematode eggs have been found in the literature, thus more studies are required to determine what is their real action on these eggs. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterizing Changes of Heavy Metals in the Soils from Different Urban Location of Borujerd, Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Solgi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As more people live in cities and urban areas, evaluation of urban environmental quality is nowadays an unavoidable necessity. Urbanization gives off heavy metals into urban soils and threatens the human health. In this study, urban soil samples were acquired from different locations (Public parks, streets, and squares from Borujerd, Iran. The levels of Cd and Pb in the soils, along with soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and particle size distribution (texture, were analyzed. Kriging method by Surfer software was employed to create the spatial distribution maps of Cd, Pb, and geoaccumulation index (Igeo. The average Cd and Pb concentrations in the surface soil samples were 2.50±1.14, and 50.37±34.77 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The highest mean concentration of Cd was found in street soils and as for Pb in square soils. The interpolation maps illustrated the same behavior for Cd and Pb with elevated concentrations located in the southeast. The mean values of geoaccumulation index (Igeo showed that soils are moderately/strongly contaminated with Cd and moderately contaminated with Pb. In this study, traffic emission, textile industries and probably released untreated municipal wastewater into the soil are anthropogenic sources of Pb and Cd.

  11. Comparison of mild extraction procedures for determination of plant-available arsenic compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakova, Jirina; Tlustos, Pavel; Pavlikova, Daniela; Balik, Jiri [Czech University of Agriculture, Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Prague (Czech Republic); Goessler, Walter; Schlagenhaufen, Claudia [Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Institute of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Graz (Austria)

    2005-05-01

    In this work three mild extraction agents for determination of plant-available fractions of elements in soil were evaluated for arsenic speciation in soil samples. Pepper (Capsicum annum, L.) var. California Wonder was cultivated in pots, and aqueous solutions of arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, at a concentration of 15 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, were added at the beginning of the experiment. Control pots (untreated) were also included. Deionized water, 0.01 mol L{sup -1} CaCl{sub 2}, and 0.05 mol L{sup -1} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} were used to extract the plant-available fraction of the arsenic compounds in soil samples collected during the vegetation period of the plants. Whereas in control samples the extractable arsenic fraction did not exceed 1% of total arsenic content, soil amendment by arsenic compounds resulted in extraction of larger amounts, which varied between 1.4 and 8.1% of total arsenic content, depending on soil treatment and on the extracting agent applied. Among arsenic compounds determined by HPLC-ICPMS arsenate was predominant, followed by small amounts of arsenite, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, depending on the individual soil treatment. In all the experiments in which methylarsonic acid was added to the soil methylarsonous acid was detected in the extracts, suggesting that the soil bacteria are capable of reducing methylarsonic acid before a further methylation occurs. No significant differences were observed between analytical data obtained by using different extraction procedures. (orig.)

  12. Effect of different mulch materials on the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in an organic pepper crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Peco, Jesús; Campos, Juan; Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The use biodegradable materials (biopolymers of different composition and papers) as an alternative to conventional mulches has increased considerably during the last years mainly for environmental reason. In order to assess the effect of these materials on the soil microbial activity during the season of a pepper crop organically grown in Central Spain, the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was measured in laboratory. The mulch materials tested were: 1) black polyethylene (PE, 15 μm); black biopolymers (15 μm): 2) Mater-Bi® (corn starch based), 3) Sphere 4® (potato starch based), 4) Sphere 6® (potato starch based), 5) Bioflex® (polylactic acid based), 6) Ecovio® (polylactic acid based), 7) Mimgreen® (black paper, 85 g/m2). A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted. The crop was drip irrigated following the water demand of each treatment. Soil samples (5-10 cm depth) under the different mulches were taken at different dates (at the beginning of the crop cycle and at different dates throughout the crop season). Additionally, samples of bare soil in a manual weeding and in an untreated control were taken. The results obtained show the negative effect of black PE on the DHA activity, mainly as result of the higher temperature reached under the mulch and the reduction in the gas interchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The values corresponding to the biodegradable materials were variable, although highlighting the low DHA activity observed under Bioflex®. In general, the uncovered treatments showed higher values than those reached under mulches, especially in the untreated control. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, dehydrogenase activity (DHA). Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  13. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  14. Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples at South Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poojitha, C.G.; Pranesha, T.S.; Ganesh, K.E.; Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples collected from different locations of South Bengaluru city were measured using scintillation based Smart radon thoron monitor (RnDuo). It has been observed that the mass exhalation rate estimated due to presence of radon concentration in soil samples ranges from 39.18 - 265.58 mBq/kg/h with an average value of 115.64 mBq/kg/h. Finally we compare our results with similar investigation from different parts of India. (author)

  15. Suitability of untreated wood ash for recycling; Qualitaet und Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten von Holzaschen aus naturbelassenen Hoelzern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, E. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik, UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Doetsch, P. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Abfallwirtschaft

    2008-10-15

    Background, aim and scope: The increasing use of wood for generating heat and electricity requires that more and more fuels be obtained directly or indirectly from the forest. Sound, sustainable recycling management calls for the return of any generated wood ash back to the forest to make use of the nutrients it contains. Similarly, recycling this ash in other locations such as agricultural land or private gardens can serve equally well as fertilizer. At the same time, it is critical that no accumulated pollutants be introduced into the nutrient loop. Wood ash that is heavily laden with such pollutants must not be considered for recycling. As part of this research project, commissioned by the Ministry for the Environment and Conservation, Agriculture and Consumer Protection of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany (MUNLV), ash samples of 209 woodfired appliances generating between 10 and 4000 kW of heat performance were taken from throughout the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Untreated wood, either forested or scrap, was used as the sole fuel for these appliances. Materials and methods: All course ash and fly ash samples were analyzed to determine their composition of main nutrients, heavy metals, and the elements Fe, Cl, Si, Al and Na. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the suitability of this wood ash for reintroduction to forest soils or as fertilizer in other types of soil. Results: The majority of the wood ash samples in this study contained sufficiently high amounts of nutrients to match the requirement for stand-alone fertilizers (PK-fertilizer, potash fertilizer). However, the heavy metal content was highly variable, with a mean content high enough to prohibit them from being classified per se as PK- or potash fertilizer for agricultural land. Due to the high quantities of cadmium, application of this ash to garden soils would likewise be ill-advised. Discussion: On forest soils German law permits application of a mixture of

  16. Sr-90 determination in aqueous and soils samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Sintas, Maria F.; Cerchietti, Maria L.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the method for Sr-90 determination in aqueous sample and soils. Area and Personal Dosimetry laboratory (DPA) determines the presence of Sr-90 by Liquid Scintillation (LSC) by applying method of the double window and corresponding adjustments. Calibration is performed by standard solutions of 90 Sr/ 90 Y, where spectral 90 Sr and 90 Y zones are optimized. The initial treatment of the liquid samples includes the concentration for evaporation, while the solid ones dissolve for microwave and acidic digestion. The separation of the analyte involves a selective chromatographic extraction. An average efficiency for 90 Sr of 77 ± 1 % was obtained; the factor a/b was 0,85 ± 0,01 and recovery of 82 ± 8 %. The resultant MAD was 0,10 Bq/L in aqueous samples and 0,10 Bq/g in solid samples. (author)

  17. Reduction in uptake by rice and soybean of aromatic arsenicals from diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil amended with activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arao, Tomohito; Maejima, Yuji; Baba, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendment has been suggested as a promising method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments with rice and soybean grown in agricultural soil polluted by aromatic arsenicals (AAs). The most abundant AA in rice grains and soybean seeds was methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA). MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 2% and 3% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil in the first year of rice cultivation. In the second year, MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 15% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was significantly reduced to 44% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. AC amendment was effective in reducing AAs in rice and soybean. - Highlights: → Pot experiments using agricultural soil contaminated with aromatic arsenicals (AAs). → Methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA) was the most abundant AA in rice and soybean. → MPAA concentration in rice grains was dramatically reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. → MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was also reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. → AC amendment effectively reduced AAs in rice and soybean. - Activated charcoal amendment to soil contaminated with diphenylarsinic acid reduced aromatic arsenicals in rice and soybean.

  18. Reduction in uptake by rice and soybean of aromatic arsenicals from diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil amended with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arao, Tomohito, E-mail: arao@affrc.go.jp [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Maejima, Yuji; Baba, Koji [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendment has been suggested as a promising method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments with rice and soybean grown in agricultural soil polluted by aromatic arsenicals (AAs). The most abundant AA in rice grains and soybean seeds was methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA). MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 2% and 3% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil in the first year of rice cultivation. In the second year, MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 15% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was significantly reduced to 44% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. AC amendment was effective in reducing AAs in rice and soybean. - Highlights: > Pot experiments using agricultural soil contaminated with aromatic arsenicals (AAs). > Methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA) was the most abundant AA in rice and soybean. > MPAA concentration in rice grains was dramatically reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was also reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > AC amendment effectively reduced AAs in rice and soybean. - Activated charcoal amendment to soil contaminated with diphenylarsinic acid reduced aromatic arsenicals in rice and soybean.

  19. A quantitative method to detect explosives and selected semivolatiles in soil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Dermirgian, J.; Robitaille, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that can be used to rapidly screen soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Samples are heated in a thermal desorption unit and the resultant vapors are collected and analyzed in a long-path gas cell mounted in a FTIR. Laboratory analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. This method has been developed to identify and quantify microgram concentrations of explosives in soil samples and is directly applicable to the detection of selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides

  20. Solving mercury (Hg) speciation in soil samples by synchrotron X-ray microspectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, Roberto; Santoro, Anna; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Vekemans, Bart; Medici, Luca; Janssens, Koen; Göttlicher, Jörg; Denecke, Melissa A; Mangold, Stefan; Ruggiero, Pacifico

    2010-08-01

    Direct mercury (Hg) speciation was assessed for soil samples with a Hg concentration ranging from 7 up to 240 mg kg(-1). Hg chemical forms were identified and quantified by sequential extractions and bulk- and micro-analytical techniques exploiting synchrotron generated X-rays. In particular, microspectroscopic techniques such as mu-XRF, mu-XRD and mu-XANES were necessary to solve bulk Hg speciation, in both soil fractions soil samples were metacinnabar (beta-HgS), cinnabar (alpha-HgS), corderoite (Hg(3)S(2)Cl(2)), and an amorphous phase containing Hg bound to chlorine and sulfur. The amount of metacinnabar and amorphous phases increased in the fraction soil components was observed. All the observed Hg-species originated from the slow weathering of an inert Hg-containing waste material (K106, U.S. EPA) dumped in the area several years ago, which is changing into a relatively more dangerous source of pollution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physicochemical and microbiological effects of long- and short-term winery wastewater application to soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosse, K.P.M., E-mail: kim.mosse@monash.edu [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia); Centre for Green Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Patti, A.F. [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia); Centre for Green Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Smernik, R.J. [School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Urrbrae SA 5064 (Australia); Christen, E.W. [CSIRO Land and Water PMB No. 3, Griffith, NSW, 2680 (Australia); Cavagnaro, T.R. [School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Australian Centre for Biodiversity, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2012-01-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of winery wastewater to soils increased soil respiration and nitrogen cycling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Untreated and treated winery wastewaters affected microbial community composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term application to soils impacted only minimally on soil OM composition. - Abstract: Application of winery wastewaters to soils for irrigation of various crops or landscapes is a common practice in the wine industry. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of this practice, by comparing the physicochemical and microbiological soil properties in paired sites that differed in having had a history of winery waste application or not. We also compared the effects of a single application of untreated winery wastewater, to application of treated winery wastewater (sequencing batch reactor) and pure water to eliminate the effects of wetting alone. Long-term application of winery wastes was found to have significant impacts on soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, as well as on many physicochemical properties including pH, EC, and cation concentrations. {sup 13}C NMR revealed only slight differences in the nature of the carbon present at each of the paired sites. A single application of untreated winery wastewater was shown to have significant impacts upon soil respiration, nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, but the treated wastewater application showed no significant differences to wetting alone. Results are discussed in the context of sustainable winery wastewater disposal.

  2. Physicochemical and microbiological effects of long- and short-term winery wastewater application to soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, K.P.M.; Patti, A.F.; Smernik, R.J.; Christen, E.W.; Cavagnaro, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Application of winery wastewater to soils increased soil respiration and nitrogen cycling. ► Untreated and treated winery wastewaters affected microbial community composition. ► Long-term application to soils impacted only minimally on soil OM composition. - Abstract: Application of winery wastewaters to soils for irrigation of various crops or landscapes is a common practice in the wine industry. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of this practice, by comparing the physicochemical and microbiological soil properties in paired sites that differed in having had a history of winery waste application or not. We also compared the effects of a single application of untreated winery wastewater, to application of treated winery wastewater (sequencing batch reactor) and pure water to eliminate the effects of wetting alone. Long-term application of winery wastes was found to have significant impacts on soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, as well as on many physicochemical properties including pH, EC, and cation concentrations. 13 C NMR revealed only slight differences in the nature of the carbon present at each of the paired sites. A single application of untreated winery wastewater was shown to have significant impacts upon soil respiration, nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, but the treated wastewater application showed no significant differences to wetting alone. Results are discussed in the context of sustainable winery wastewater disposal.

  3. Soil sample preparation using microwave digestion for uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Preston, Rose; Akbarzadeh, Mansoor; Bakthiar, Steven

    2000-01-01

    A new sample preparation procedure has been developed for digestion of soil samples for uranium analysis. The technique employs a microwave oven digestion system to digest the sample and to prepare it for separation chemistry and analysis. The method significantly reduces the volume of acids used, eliminates a large fraction of acid vapor emissions, and speeds up the analysis time. The samples are analyzed by four separate techniques: Gamma Spectrometry, Alpha Spectroscopy using the open digestion method, Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) using open digestion, and KPA by Microwave digestion technique. The results for various analytical methods are compared and used to confirm the validity of the new procedure. The details of the preparation technique along with its benefits are discussed

  4. Untreated urban waste contaminates Indian river sediments with resistance genes to last resort antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket P; Pal, Chandan; Gaikwad, Swapnil S; Jonsson, Viktor; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-11-01

    Efficient sewage treatment is critical for limiting environmental transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In many low and middle income countries, however, large proportions of sewage are still released untreated into receiving water bodies. In-depth knowledge of how such discharges of untreated urban waste influences the environmental resistome is largely lacking. Here, we highlight the impact of uncontrolled discharge of partially treated and/or untreated wastewater on the structure of bacterial communities and resistome of sediments collected from Mutha river flowing through Pune city in India. Using shotgun metagenomics, we found a wide array (n = 175) of horizontally transferable antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) including carbapenemases such as NDM, VIM, KPC, OXA-48 and IMP types. The relative abundance of total ARGs was 30-fold higher in river sediments within the city compared to upstream sites. Forty four ARGs, including the tet(X) gene conferring resistance to tigecycline, OXA-58 and GES type carbapenemases, were significantly more abundant in city sediments, while two ARGs were more common at upstream sites. The recently identified mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was detected only in one of the upstream samples, but not in city samples. In addition to ARGs, higher abundances of various mobile genetic elements were found in city samples, including integron-associated integrases and ISCR transposases, as well as some biocide/metal resistance genes. Virulence toxin genes as well as bacterial genera comprising many pathogens were more abundant here; the genus Acinetobacter, which is often associated with multidrug resistance and nosocomial infections, comprised up to 29% of the 16S rRNA reads, which to our best knowledge is unmatched in any other deeply sequenced metagenome. There was a strong correlation between the abundance of Acinetobacter and the OXA-58 carbapenemase gene. Our study shows that uncontrolled discharge of untreated urban

  5. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Bello-López, Juan M.; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Rodríguez-Valentín, Analine; Luna-Guido, Marco L.; Dendooven, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826)) accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485) inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100%) > earthworms applied (92%) > organic material applied (77%) > untreated soil (57%) > surfactant applied (34%) after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes), Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes) and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil, but the

  6. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado-Balbuena

    Full Text Available Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485 inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100% > earthworms applied (92% > organic material applied (77% > untreated soil (57% > surfactant applied (34% after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil

  7. EG ampersand G Mount Plant, December 1990 and January 1991, D ampersand D soil box sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    Six hundred eighty-two (682) containers of soil were generated at Mound Plant between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of the excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program sites; these areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building Area. The soils from these areas are part of the Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. These containers of soil are currently in storage at Mound Plant. The purpose of this sampling and analysis was to demonstrate that the D ampersand D soils comply with the waste acceptance requirements of the NTS, as presented In Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements (DOE 1988). The sealed waste packages, constructed of wood or metal, are currently being stored In Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound Plant. For additional historical information concerning the D ampersand D soils, Including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data see the Sampling and Analysis Plan for Mound Plant D ampersand D Soils Packages (EG ampersand G 1991)

  8. Natural radioactivity measurements in soil samples from Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surinder; Singh, Baldev; Kumar, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    Radium, thorium and potassium analysis have been made in soil samples collected from some villages of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India using gamma ray spectrometry. The work has been undertaken keeping in view the health hazard effects of these radioelements in the environment. The results for radium activity are also compared using track etch technique employing radon alpha method developed by Somogyi (Technical reports series no. 310, vol. 1, IAEA, Vienna, 1990, p. 229). The measurements have been taken using 5''x4'' NaI(Tl) detector. The gamma ray lines of 1.46, 1.76 and 2.62 MeV were employed for potassium, radium and thorium analysis. The results for radium content in soil obtained by gamma ray spectrometry agrees with that determined by the track etch technique. The radium activity in soil samples of Hamirpur district is found to be within the safe limits

  9. Arsenic transfer and impacts on snails exposed to stabilized and untreated As-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeurdassier, M.; Scheifler, R.; Mench, M.; Crini, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Vaufleury, A. de

    2010-01-01

    An As-contaminated soil (Unt) was amended with either iron grit (Z), a coal fly ash (beringite, B) or B + Z (BZ) and placed in lysimeters in 1997. An uncontaminated soil (R) was also studied. In summer and autumn 2003, lettuces were cultivated in the lysimeters and snails were caged for one month. Lettuce As concentrations were higher during the summer, while no differences occurred in snails between seasons. Snail As concentrations (μg g -1 DW) ranged from 2.5 to 7.0 in B, Z and BZ, and peaked at 17.5 in Unt. In summer, snail survival was affected in Unt and Z compared to R and B while no mortality was noticed in autumn. Snail growth decreased only in B, BZ and Unt in autumn. Snail As concentrations suggest a risk for their predators even on the remediated soils. - The addition of beringite along with iron grit into an As-contaminated soil decreases As transfer to and impacts on snails.

  10. Oligotyping reveals stronger relationship of organic soil bacterial community structure with N-amendments and soil chemistry in comparison to that of mineral soil at Harvard Forest, MA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Anuradha Turlapati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of chronic nitrogen amendments on bacterial communities was evaluated at Harvard Forest, Petersham MA. Thirty soil samples (3 treatments x 2 soil horizons x 5 subplots were collected in 2009 from untreated (control, low nitrogen-amended (LN; 50 kg NH4NO3 ha-1 yr-1 and high nitrogen-amended (HN; 150 kg NH4NO3 ha-1 yr-1 plots. PCR-amplified partial 16S rDNA sequences made from soil DNA were subjected to pyrosequencing (Turlapati et al., 2013 and analyses using oligotyping. The parameters M (the minimum count of the most abundant unique sequence in an oligotype and s (minimum number of samples in which an oligotype is expected to be present had to be optimized for forest soils because of high diversity and the presence of rare organisms. Comparative analyses of the pyrosequencing data by oligotyping and OTU (Operational Taxonomic Unit clustering tools indicated that the former yields more refined units of taxonomy with sequence similarity of ≥99.5%. Sequences affiliated with 4 new phyla and 73 genera were identified in the present study as compared to 27 genera reported earlier from the same data (Turlapati et al., 2013. Significant rearrangements in the bacterial community structure were observed with N-amendments revealing the presence of additional genera in N-amended plots with the absence of some that were present in the control plots. Permutational MANOVA analyses indicated significant variation associated with soil horizon and N treatment for a majority of the phyla. In most cases soil horizon partitioned more variation relative to treatment and treatment effects were more evident for the organic horizon. Mantel test results for organic soil showed significant positive correlations between bacterial communities and most soil parameters including NH4 and NO3. In mineral soil, correlations were seen only with pH, NH4 and NO3. Regardless of the pipeline used, a major hindrance for such a study remains to be the lack of reference

  11. Untreated pain, narcotics regulation, and global health ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas B; Fraser, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    Pain management is marginalized or ignored, with millions of people worldwide unnecessarily living with untreated pain. Reducing global inequalities in untreated pain requires a concerted global effort, say Veronique Fraser and colleagues, which must attend to the complexity of pain and promote multimodal, multidisciplinary pain management.

  12. Geochemical soil sampling for deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, K.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northwestern Arizona; some host high-grade uranium deposits. The mineralized pipes are enriched in Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. These breccia pipes formed as sedimentary strata collapsed into solution caverns within the underlying Mississippian Redwall Limestone. A typical pipe is approximately 100 m (300 ft) in diameter and extends upward from the Redwall Limestone as much as 1000 m (3000 ft). Unmineralized gypsum and limestone collapses rooted in the Lower Permian Kaibab Limestone or Toroweap Formation also occur throughout this area. Hence, development of geochemical tools that can distinguish these unmineralized collapse structures, as well as unmineralized breccia pipes, from mineralized breccia pipes could significantly reduce drilling costs for these orebodies commonly buried 300-360 m (1000-1200 ft) below the plateau surface. Design and interpretation of soil sampling surveys over breccia pipes are plagued with several complications. (1) The plateau-capping Kaibab Limestone and Moenkopi Formation are made up of diverse lithologies. Thus, because different breccia pipes are capped by different lithologies, each pipe needs to be treated as a separate geochemical survey with its own background samples. (2) Ascertaining true background is difficult because of uncertainties in locations of poorly-exposed collapse cones and ring fracture zones that surround the pipes. Soil geochemical surveys were completed on 50 collapse structures, three of which are known mineralized breccia pipes. Each collapse structure was treated as an independent geochemical survey. Geochemical data from each collapse feature were plotted on single-element geochemical maps and processed by multivariate factor analysis. To contrast the results between geochemical surveys (collapse structures), a means of quantifying the anomalousness of elements at each site was developed. This

  13. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.vanderperk@geo.uu.nl; De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Laboratori, Misure ed Attivita di Campo, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jeran, Zvonka; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-15

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  14. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Perk, Marcel; de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto; Jeran, Zvonka; Jaćimović, Radojko

    2008-11-01

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  15. Application of instrument neutron-activation analysis in a comparative investigation of soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, D. (Institute po Kriminalistika i Kriminologiya, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative measurement of the contents of 17 chemical elements in soil samples, collected using the existing network from the surface of five cultivated areas in Bulgaria has been carried out. The values obtained have been used to calculate the evaluations psub(i) of the dispersions and for the ordering of the chemical elements according to their importance in criminology. The possibility for criminological comparison of single soil samples using the contents of the five most important elements - Th, Fe, Sc, Ce and Mn has been shown.

  16. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling. Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

    1997-09-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area

  17. Causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, W X; Meng, X W

    2000-05-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients (mean (SD) 46 (11) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism and anorexia and 29 patients (35 (9) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism without anorexia were studied. The study was conducted at the thyroid clinic of the PUMC Hospital, Beijing, China from March to August 1997. The patients' ages, serum free calcium, liver function and emotional state, specifically the level of anxiety (using the self anxiety scale, Chinese version), were compared before and/or after antithyroid drug treatment in the two groups. This prospective study suggested that the causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism are complicated. Older age, abnormal liver function, and the level of anxiety are significantly related to anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism, but hypercalcaemia was not confirmed to be related to anorexia in the study.

  18. [Application of simulated annealing method and neural network on optimizing soil sampling schemes based on road distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zong-wei; Huang, Wei; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Chun-di; Qi, Da-cheng

    2015-03-01

    Taking the soil organic matter in eastern Zhongxiang County, Hubei Province, as a research object, thirteen sample sets from different regions were arranged surrounding the road network, the spatial configuration of which was optimized by the simulated annealing approach. The topographic factors of these thirteen sample sets, including slope, plane curvature, profile curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index and sediment transport index, were extracted by the terrain analysis. Based on the results of optimization, a multiple linear regression model with topographic factors as independent variables was built. At the same time, a multilayer perception model on the basis of neural network approach was implemented. The comparison between these two models was carried out then. The results revealed that the proposed approach was practicable in optimizing soil sampling scheme. The optimal configuration was capable of gaining soil-landscape knowledge exactly, and the accuracy of optimal configuration was better than that of original samples. This study designed a sampling configuration to study the soil attribute distribution by referring to the spatial layout of road network, historical samples, and digital elevation data, which provided an effective means as well as a theoretical basis for determining the sampling configuration and displaying spatial distribution of soil organic matter with low cost and high efficiency.

  19. Study of lead pollution in air, soil and water samples of Quetta city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khan, G.M.; Akbar, S.; Panezai, M.A.; Haq, Z.U.

    2011-01-01

    This study briefly presents the collected data of lead pollution in the environment of Quetta City in Balochistan, Pakistan. The samples were collected from different sites. The analysis of lead was carried out in underground water samples, the exhaust of different vehicles, roadside and sewage soils from selected points of Quetta City. The average discharge resulted in deposition by motorcycles (29.12 g/h), cars (44.47 g/h), wagons (176.54 g/h) and buses (141.52 g/h). The maximum deposition was 222.96 g/h from auto-rickshaws. The value for lead in smoke of different vehicles seems quite high when extrapolated to the large number of such vehicles for a longer time. The concentration of lead in roadside soil varied from 73.3 mg/kg (T and T closed colony) to 731.9 mg/kg (Sirki road bus-stop). The average content of lead in sewage soil of City Nala is 1250.6 mg/kg. The level of lead was more than WHO standards for such soils. The lead quantity in all 24 tube- well water samples, was slightly above the WHO standards (10 macro g/L).The results of this study were comparable to similar study in twin cities of Rawalpindi and islamabad. (author)

  20. Sampling and analysis of soil from the old F-Area effluent ditch and its surrounding wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.L.

    1994-06-01

    Four surface soil samples were collected from the wetlands at the old F-Area effluent ditch. All samples were collected near shallow well point locations except FHB012, which was collected from the effluent ditch stream sediment. Samples were analyzed for metals, Target Compound List volatile organic compounds, and gross radiological indicators. Barium, beryllium, and zinc were detected in all four samples and antimony was detected in three of four samples. These metals occur naturally in the wetland soils at the SRS. Comparisons of metals concentrations were male to concentration ranges taken from background wetland soil samples. These comparison, showed that barium and beryllium concentrations were within expected ranges while zinc and antimony concentrations were elevated above expected concentration ranges. Volatile organic compounds were detected in all four samples. Detected compounds included acetone, 2-butanone, chloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and toluene. The only radionuclide detected in a significant quantities was tritium which was detected in all four samples

  1. Soil sampling and analytical strategies for mapping fallout in nuclear emergencies based on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshio; Nguyen, Minh-Long

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the environment via deposited radionuclides such as radiocesium and 131 I. Evaluating the extent and level of environmental contamination is critical to protecting citizens in affected areas and to planning decontamination efforts. However, a standardized soil sampling protocol is needed in such emergencies to facilitate the collection of large, tractable samples for measuring gamma-emitting radionuclides. In this study, we developed an emergency soil sampling protocol based on preliminary sampling from the FDNPP accident-affected area. We also present the results of a preliminary experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of various procedures (e.g., mixing, number of samples) on measured radioactivity. Results show that sample mixing strongly affects measured radioactivity in soil samples. Furthermore, for homogenization, shaking the plastic sample container at least 150 times or disaggregating soil by hand-rolling in a disposable plastic bag is required. Finally, we determined that five soil samples within a 3 m × 3-m area are the minimum number required for reducing measurement uncertainty in the emergency soil sampling protocol proposed here. - Highlights: • Emergency soil sampling protocol was proposed for nuclear hazards. • Various sampling procedures were tested and evaluated in Fukushima area. • Soil sample mixing procedure was of key importance for measured radioactivity. • Minimum number of sampling was determined for reducing measurement uncertainty

  2. Radon exhalation rates from soil and sand samples collected from the vicinity of Yamuna river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.K.; Sushil Kumar; Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Soil, sand and stones are the most popular building materials for Indian dwellings. Radon is released into ambient air from these materials due to ubiquitous uranium and radium in them, thus increasing the airborne radon concentration. The radioactivity in sand and soils is related to radioactivity in the rocks from which they are formed. These materials contain varying amount of uranium. In the present investigation, the radon emanated from soil and sand samples from different locations in the vicinity of Yamuna river has been estimated. The samples have been collected from different locations near the Yamuna river. The samples collecting sites are from Yamunanagar in Haryana to Delhi. The radon concentration in different samples has been calculated, based upon the data, the mass and the surface exhalation rates of radon emanated from them have also been calculated

  3. Application of instrument neutron-activation analysis in a comparative investigation of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative measurement of the contents of 17 chemical elements in soil samples, collected using the existing network from the surface of five cultivated areas in Bulgaria has been carried out. The values obtained have been used to calculate the evaluations psub(i) of the dispersions and for the ordering of the chemical elements according to their importance in criminology. The possibility for criminological comparison of single soil samples using the contents of the five most important elements - Th, Fe, Sc, Ce and Mn has been shown. (author)

  4. Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.; Holmes, R.G.G.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations

  5. Heavy metal accumulation in different varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soil amended with domestic sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, Muhammad K.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Arain, Muhammad B.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Jalbani, Nusrat; Kandhro, Ghulam A.; Shah, Abdul Q.; Baig, Jameel A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) in plants served to indicate the metal contamination status of the site, and also revealed the abilities of various plant species to take up and accumulate them from the soil dressed with sewage sludge. A study to comprehend the mobility and transport of HMs from soil and soil amended with untreated sewage sludge to different newly breaded varieties of wheat (Anmol, TJ-83, Abadgar and Mehran-89) in Pakistan. A pot-culture experiment was conducted to study the transfer of HMs to wheat grains, grown in soil (control) and soil amended with sewage sludge (test samples). The total and ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA)-extractable HMs in agricultural soil and soil amended with domestic sewage sludge (SDWS) and wheat grains were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer, prior to microwave-assisted wet acid digestion method. The edible part of wheat plants (grains) from test samples presented high concentration of all HMs understudy (mg kg -1 ). Significant correlations were found between metals in exchangeable fractions of soil and SDWS, with total metals in control and test samples of wheat grains. The bio-concentration factors of all HMs were high in grains of two wheat varieties, TJ-83 and Mehran-89, as compared to other varieties, Anmol and Abadgar grown in the same agricultural plots.

  6. Uranium, radium and radon exhalation study in some soil samples using track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmanjit, Singh; Joga, Singh; Surinder, Singh; Bajwa, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Uranium, radium concentration and radon exhalation rates have been determined in the soil samples collected from some areas of Punjab using the L.R.-115 nuclear track detectors. Radium concentration in these samples has been found to be varying from 0.80 to 5.34 Bq Kg-1. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to be varying from 0.99 to 6.60 mBq Kg -1 h -1 (32.82 to 218.49 mBqm -2 h -1 ). A good correlation has been observed between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration observed in the soil samples. The uranium concentration in all these samples is being carried out and the other correlations will also be established. (authors)

  7. Metal immobilization and phosphorus leaching after stabilization of pyrite ash contaminated soil by phosphate amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Marija; Lavrič, Simona; Bukovec, Peter

    2012-02-01

    In this study we would like to show the importance of a holistic approach to evaluation of chemical stabilization using phosphate amendments. An extensive evaluation of metal stabilization in contaminated soil and an evaluation of the leaching of phosphorus induced after treatment were performed. The soil was highly contaminated with Cu (2894 mg kg(-1)), Zn (3884 mg kg(-1)), As (247 mg kg(-1)), Cd (12.6 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (3154 mg kg(-1)). To immobilize the metals, mixtures of soil with phosphate (from H(3)PO(4) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with varying ratios) were prepared with a constant Pb : P molar ratio of 1: 10. The acetic acid extractable concentration of Pb in the mixture with the highest amount of added phosphoric acid (n(H(3)PO(4)) : n(HA) = 3 : 1) was reduced to 1.9% (0.62 mg L(-1)) of the extractable Pb concentration in the untreated soil, but the content of water extractable phosphorus in the samples increased from 0.04 mg L(-1) in the untreated soil sample up to 14.3 mg L(-1) in the same n(H(3)PO(4)) : n(HA) = 3 : 1 mixture. The high increase in arsenic mobility was also observed after phosphate addition. The PBET test showed phosphate induced reduction in Pb bioavailability. In attempting to stabilize Pb in the soil with the minimum treatment-induced leaching of phosphorus, it was found that a mixture of soil with phosphate addition in the molar ratio of H(3)PO(4) : HA of 0.75 : 1 showed the most promising results, with an acetic acid extractable Pb concentration of 1.35 mg L(-1) and a water extractable phosphorus concentration of 1.76 mg L(-1). The time-dependent leaching characteristics of metals and phosphorus for this mixture were evaluated by a column experiment, where irrigation of the soil mixture with the average annual amount of precipitation in Slovenia (1000 mm) was simulated. The phosphorus concentration in the leachates decreased from 2.60 mg L(-1) at the beginning of irrigation to 1.00 mg L(-1) at the end.

  8. Calculation of coincidence summing corrections for a specific small soil sample geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmer, R.G.; Gehrke, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Previously, a system was developed at the INEL for measuring the {gamma}-ray emitting nuclides in small soil samples for the purpose of environmental monitoring. These samples were counted close to a {approx}20% Ge detector and, therefore, it was necessary to take into account the coincidence summing that occurs for some nuclides. In order to improve the technical basis for the coincidence summing corrections, the authors have carried out a study of the variation in the coincidence summing probability with position within the sample volume. A Monte Carlo electron and photon transport code (CYLTRAN) was used to compute peak and total efficiencies for various photon energies from 30 to 2,000 keV at 30 points throughout the sample volume. The geometry for these calculations included the various components of the detector and source along with the shielding. The associated coincidence summing corrections were computed at these 30 positions in the sample volume and then averaged for the whole source. The influence of the soil and the detector shielding on the efficiencies was investigated.

  9. Miniaturized Sample Preparation and Rapid Detection of Arsenite in Contaminated Soil Using a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farhan Siddiqui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for analyzing heavy metal contamination in soil and water generally require laboratory equipped instruments, complex procedures, skilled personnel and a significant amount of time. With the advancement in computing and multitasking performances, smartphone-based sensors potentially allow the transition of the laboratory-based analytical processes to field applicable, simple methods. In the present work, we demonstrate the novel miniaturized setup for simultaneous sample preparation and smartphone-based optical sensing of arsenic As(III in the contaminated soil. Colorimetric detection protocol utilizing aptamers, gold nanoparticles and NaCl have been optimized and tested on the PDMS-chip to obtain the high sensitivity with the limit of detection of 0.71 ppm (in the sample and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. The performance of the device is further demonstrated through the comparative analysis of arsenic-spiked soil samples with standard laboratory method, and a good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.9917 and the average difference of 0.37 ppm, are experimentally achieved. With the android application on the device to run the experiment, the whole process from sample preparation to detection is completed within 3 hours without the necessity of skilled personnel. The approximate cost of setup is estimated around 1 USD, weight 55 g. Therefore, the presented method offers the simple, rapid, portable and cost-effective means for onsite sensing of arsenic in soil. Combined with the geometric information inside the smartphones, the system will allow the monitoring of the contamination status of soils in a nation-wide manner.

  10. Miniaturized Sample Preparation and Rapid Detection of Arsenite in Contaminated Soil Using a Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohd Farhan; Kim, Soocheol; Jeon, Hyoil; Kim, Taeho; Joo, Chulmin; Park, Seungkyung

    2018-03-04

    Conventional methods for analyzing heavy metal contamination in soil and water generally require laboratory equipped instruments, complex procedures, skilled personnel and a significant amount of time. With the advancement in computing and multitasking performances, smartphone-based sensors potentially allow the transition of the laboratory-based analytical processes to field applicable, simple methods. In the present work, we demonstrate the novel miniaturized setup for simultaneous sample preparation and smartphone-based optical sensing of arsenic As(III) in the contaminated soil. Colorimetric detection protocol utilizing aptamers, gold nanoparticles and NaCl have been optimized and tested on the PDMS-chip to obtain the high sensitivity with the limit of detection of 0.71 ppm (in the sample) and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. The performance of the device is further demonstrated through the comparative analysis of arsenic-spiked soil samples with standard laboratory method, and a good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.9917 and the average difference of 0.37 ppm, are experimentally achieved. With the android application on the device to run the experiment, the whole process from sample preparation to detection is completed within 3 hours without the necessity of skilled personnel. The approximate cost of setup is estimated around 1 USD, weight 55 g. Therefore, the presented method offers the simple, rapid, portable and cost-effective means for onsite sensing of arsenic in soil. Combined with the geometric information inside the smartphones, the system will allow the monitoring of the contamination status of soils in a nation-wide manner.

  11. An intercomparison of sampling techniques among five European laboratories for measurements of radiocaesium in upland pasture and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Aarkrog, A.; Colgan, P.A.; McGee, E.; Synnott, H.J.; Johansson, K.J.; Horrill, A.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; Barbayiannis, N.

    1992-02-01

    An intercomparison of sampling procedures used by five European laboratories for the determination of radiocaesium in vegetation and peaty soil was carried out at two locations in Cumbria. The soil sampling procedures included th ecollection of depth profiles in order to obtain information on the vertical distribution of radiocaesium in addition to the total deposition. The number of samples taken by each laboratory varied from one to five. The multiple sampling has given information on the homogeneity of the parameters studied at each location. The parameters comprise soil bulk densities, total deposition of 137 Cs, deposition of 137 Cs in three soil layers, biomass densities, concentrations of 137 Cs in pasture, and activity ratios ( 134 Cs/ 137 Cs) in soil and vegetation. The determination of total deposition of 137 Cs gave no indication of differences between the laboratories. The total depositions of 134 Cs and 137 Cs observed at one site were compared with levels obtained from another study and the two sets of data were found to be in good agreement. The results from the soil profiles do indicate significant differences between laboratories. This covers the vertical distributions of 137 Cs deposition including the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs-activity ratios as well as the soil bulk densities. One laboratory using a coring technique observed difficulties during sampling due to compression of the soil. The coring technique should thus be avoided or applied with extreme care for the sampling of depth profiles in peaty soil. The results from the sampling of pasture show no indication of differences between the laboratories. For the parameters studied the observed variabilities across soil depths and locations range from 10% to 82% in terms of relative standard deviations. A comparison across all results at the two locations indicate a 50% higher field variability at one of the sites relative to the other. (au) (24 tabs., 9 ills., 3 refs.)

  12. Soil sampling and extraction methods with possible application to pear thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Bater

    1991-01-01

    Techniques are described for the sampling and extraction of microarthropods from soil and the potential of these methods to extract the larval stages of the pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), from soil cores taken in sugar maple stands. Also described is a design for an emergence trap that could be used to estimate adult thrips...

  13. Assessment the effect of homogenized soil on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohawesh, O.; Janssen, M.; Maaitah, O.; Lennartz, B.

    2017-09-01

    Soil hydraulic properties play a crucial role in simulating water flow and contaminant transport. Soil hydraulic properties are commonly measured using homogenized soil samples. However, soil structure has a significant effect on the soil ability to retain and to conduct water, particularly in aggregated soils. In order to determine the effect of soil homogenization on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport, undisturbed soil samples were carefully collected. Five different soil structures were identified: Angular-blocky, Crumble, Angular-blocky (different soil texture), Granular, and subangular-blocky. The soil hydraulic properties were determined for undisturbed and homogenized soil samples for each soil structure. The soil hydraulic properties were used to model soil water transport using HYDRUS-1D.The homogenized soil samples showed a significant increase in wide pores (wCP) and a decrease in narrow pores (nCP). The wCP increased by 95.6, 141.2, 391.6, 3.9, 261.3%, and nCP decreased by 69.5, 10.5, 33.8, 72.7, and 39.3% for homogenized soil samples compared to undisturbed soil samples. The soil water retention curves exhibited a significant decrease in water holding capacity for homogenized soil samples compared with the undisturbed soil samples. The homogenized soil samples showed also a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. The simulated results showed that water movement and distribution were affected by soil homogenizing. Moreover, soil homogenizing affected soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport. However, field studies are being needed to find the effect of these differences on water, chemical, and pollutant transport under several scenarios.

  14. Study of Cs/sup 137/ contamination in soil and food samples of Jhangar valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Z.S.; Khan, H.M.; Aslam, M.; Iqbal, S.; Orfi, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Chernobyl accident has been the main source of artificial radioactive contamination throughout the world and its effects have been found in Pakistan as well. In the present study, activities of an important anthropogenic radionuclide, Cs/sup 137/ in soil and food samples of Jhangar Valley of Pakistan have been determined using PC based gamma spectrometer. Soil-375 from IAEA was used as reference material. The soil samples were collected from the agricultural fields of the selected area while food samples, grown in the selected area, were collected from the fields or from local market. After proper treatment, the samples were analyzed using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The following values for average specific activity of Cs/sup 137/ were found: soil (range 1.3-46.8 Bq/kg) (12.0 Bq/kg), wheat (0.9 +- 0.05 Bq/kg), millet (1.5 +- 0.06 Bq/kg), lentils (2.0 +- 0.1 Bq/kg), potato (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg) and cauliflower (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg). The results have been discussed and compared with other data available in the literature. (author)

  15. Use of X-ray diffraction technique and chemometrics to aid soil sampling strategies in traceability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Lucia; Durante, Caterina; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Silvestri, Michele; Cocchi, Marina

    2012-08-30

    Aim of this work is to assess the potentialities of the X-ray powder diffraction technique as fingerprinting technique, i.e. as a preliminary tool to assess soil samples variability, in terms of geochemical features, in the context of food geographical traceability. A correct approach to sampling procedure is always a critical issue in scientific investigation. In particular, in food geographical traceability studies, where the cause-effect relations between the soil of origin and the final foodstuff is sought, a representative sampling of the territory under investigation is certainly an imperative. This research concerns a pilot study to investigate the field homogeneity with respect to both field extension and sampling depth, taking also into account the seasonal variability. Four Lambrusco production sites of the Modena district were considered. The X-Ray diffraction spectra, collected on the powder of each soil sample, were treated as fingerprint profiles to be deciphered by multivariate and multi-way data analysis, namely PCA and PARAFAC. The differentiation pattern observed in soil samples, as obtained by this fast and non-destructive analytical approach, well matches with the results obtained by characterization with other costly analytical techniques, such as ICP/MS, GFAAS, FAAS, etc. Thus, the proposed approach furnishes a rational basis to reduce the number of soil samples to be collected for further analytical characterization, i.e. metals content, isotopic ratio of radiogenic element, etc., while maintaining an exhaustive description of the investigated production areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. MMRP Guidance Document for Soil Sampling of Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    studies have measured the persistence of HE in the field. Radtke et al. (2002) sampled surface soils at an explosives testing area that had not been...Munitions Residues. CRREL Report CR-92-5. Radtke C. W., D. Gianotto, and F. F. Roberto. 2002. Effects of particulate explosives on estimating

  17. Analysis of Mars Analogue Soil Samples Using Solid-Phase Microextraction, Organic Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g(sup -1). The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100% silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

  18. Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

    2012-09-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 μg g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 μg g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization

  19. Differences on soil organic carbon stock estimation according to sampling type in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Consequently, the scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems. In this line, soil organic matter configuration plays an important role in the Soil System (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014). Internationally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. In this sense, many soil researchers have studied this parameter (SOC). However, many of these studies were carried out arbitrarily using entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons or soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness). As a result, the indiscriminate use of both methodologies implies differences with respect to SOC stock (SOCS) quantification. This scenario has been indicated and warned for different researchers (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in the Cardeña and Montoro Natural Park (Spain). This nature reserve is a forested area with 385 km2 in southern Spain. Thirty-seven sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The results obtained show an overestimation of SOCS when SCS sampling approach is used compared to ESP. This supports that methodology selection is very important to SOCS quantification. This research is an assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., 2014

  20. 1996 Phase 2 soil sampling at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report consolidates 1996 soil sampling data collected from the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin Site. This report is intended to be a data reference and does not make comparisons or conclusions regarding specific regulatory criteria. Chemical and radiological data were collected to support cleanup activities at the Hanford Site; soil sampling occurred beneath and next to the former basin structures. The 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, which consisted of four adjoining concrete basins, were located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, north of the retired 105-H Reactor. Originally, the basins were built as part of the 100-H water treatment structures. The four basins were inactive from the mid-1960's until 1973 when radioactive and dangerous (mixed) waste from the 300 Area Fuel Fabrication Facility was shipped to the basins for storage and treatment. The basins were used for solar evaporation of the waste. The last shipment of waste to the 183-H Basins took place in November 1985. Decontamination of the cement structure took place in 1995. The structure has subsequently been dismantled and disposed. Chapters 2.0 through 4.0 present summary information about sampling (1) beneath the loading ramp and berm piles, (2) in shallow soils beneath the former basin floor, and (3) deep vadose soils. Detailed data are provided in the appendices

  1. Estimation of radioecological parameters of soil samples from a phosphatic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb Shaaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for a set of 31 agricultural soil samples from the Nile River banks in the area of El-Sebaiya city, Aswan Governorate, Egypt were measured by gamma-spectrometry. The study revealed that the average activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 23.2 ± 2.8Bq/kg, 21.1 ± 2.8 Bq/kg, and 218.6 ± 3.7 Bq/kg, respectively. The obtained results of the activity concentrations are within the range of values reported for neighbouring areas in Egypt. The values obtained for the hazard indices and the representative level index in all sampling sites were lower than unity, showing that there is no significant risk arising from the exposure to the soil in the studied area. The absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose in air outdoors and indoors were calculated from 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil, the average values being 32.64 nGy/h, 40.06 µSv, and 160.25 µSv, respectively. The absorbed dose rate at the eastof El-Sebaiya city is higher than that obtained for the west because of higher concentrations of tri-calcium phosphate in the soil. The studied area is not significantly affected by the industrial activities, except for a few isolated spots.

  2. Combined effects of climate, restoration measures and slope position in change in soil chemical properties and nutrient loss across lands affected by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongming; Deng, Haojun; Du, Kun; Rafay, Loretta; Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Li, Jian; Chen, Can; Wu, Chengzhen; Lin, Han; Yu, Wei; Fan, Hailan; Ge, Yonggang

    2017-10-15

    The MS 8.0Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008 caused huge damage to land cover in the northwest of China's Sichuan province. In order to determine the nutrient loss and short term characteristics of change in soil chemical properties, we established an experiment with three treatments ('undestroyed', 'destroyed and treated', and 'destroyed and untreated'), two climate types (semi-arid hot climate and subtropical monsoon climate), and three slope positions (upslope, mid-slope, and bottom-slope) in 2011. Ten soil properties-including pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium-were measured in surface soil samples in December 2014. Analyses were performed to compare the characteristics of 3-year change in soil chemical properties in two climate zones. This study revealed that soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, Ca 2+ content, alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium were significantly higher in subtropical monsoon climate zones than in semi-arid hot climate zones. However, subtropical monsoon climate zones had a higher decrease in soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen in 'destroyed and untreated' sites than in semi-arid hot climate zones. Most soil chemical properties exhibited significant interactions, indicating that they may degrade or develop concomitantly. 'Destroyed and treated' sites in both climate types had lower C:P and N:P ratios than 'destroyed and untreated' sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first, second, and third principal components explained 76.53% of the variation and might be interpreted as structural integrity, nutrient supply availability, and efficiency of soil; the difference of soil parent material; as well as weathering and leaching effects. Our study indicated that the characteristics of short term

  3. A stratified two-stage sampling design for digital soil mapping in a Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    The quality of environmental modelling results often depends on reliable soil information. In order to obtain soil data in an efficient manner, several sampling strategies are at hand depending on the level of prior knowledge and the overall objective of the planned survey. This study focuses on the collection of soil samples considering available continuous secondary information in an undulating, 16 km²-sized river catchment near Ussana in southern Sardinia (Italy). A design-based, stratified, two-stage sampling design has been applied aiming at the spatial prediction of soil property values at individual locations. The stratification based on quantiles from density functions of two land-surface parameters - topographic wetness index and potential incoming solar radiation - derived from a digital elevation model. Combined with four main geological units, the applied procedure led to 30 different classes in the given test site. Up to six polygons of each available class were selected randomly excluding those areas smaller than 1ha to avoid incorrect location of the points in the field. Further exclusion rules were applied before polygon selection masking out roads and buildings using a 20m buffer. The selection procedure was repeated ten times and the set of polygons with the best geographical spread were chosen. Finally, exact point locations were selected randomly from inside the chosen polygon features. A second selection based on the same stratification and following the same methodology (selecting one polygon instead of six) was made in order to create an appropriate validation set. Supplementary samples were obtained during a second survey focusing on polygons that have either not been considered during the first phase at all or were not adequately represented with respect to feature size. In total, both field campaigns produced an interpolation set of 156 samples and a validation set of 41 points. The selection of sample point locations has been done using

  4. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of transuranic contaminated soils for uranium soil integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1994-10-01

    DOE has initiated the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) project. The objective of the USID project is to develop a remediation strategy that can be adopted for use at other DOE sites requiring remediation. Four major task groups within the USID project were formed, namely the Characterization Task Group (CTG), the Treatability Task Group (TTG), the Secondary Waste Treatment and Disposal Task Group (SWTDTG), and the Risk and Performance Assessment Task Group (RPATG). The CTG is responsible for determining the nature of the uranium contamination in both untreated and treated soil. The TTG is responsible for the selective removal of uranium from these soils in such a manner that the leaching does not seriously degrade the soil's physicochemical characteristics or generate a secondary waste form that is difficult to manage and/or dispose. The SWTDTG is responsible for developing strategies for the removal of uranium from all wastewaters generated by the TTGs. Finally the RPATG is responsible for developing the human health and environmental risk assessment of the untreated and treated soils. Because of the enormity of the work required to successfully remediate uranium-contaminated soils, an integrated approach was designed to avoid needless repetition of activities among the various participants in the USID project. Researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were assigned characterization and/or treatability duties in their areas of specialization. All tasks groups are involved in the integrated approach; however, the thrust of this report concentrates on the utility of the integrated approach among the various members of the CTG. This report illustrates the use of the integrated approach for the overall CTG and to provide the results generated specifically by the CTG or ORNL from FY1993 to the present

  5. Maximum possible age of a petrel breeding colony near Punakaiki (South Island, New Zealand) from radiocarbon and stable isotope analysis of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The lifetime of individual petrel colonies is poorly known. This study used radiocarbon, 13 C, and 15 N analysis of soil to determine the maximum possible age of a colony presently occupied by Westland petrels. A sample of Ap horizon soil in lithic contact was selected for analysis, as soil least likely to have been redistributed by petrel burrowing. Chemical removal of mobile organic matter decreased δ 15 N from 14.0 permille (typical of breeding colony soils) to 6.1 permille (within the range of temperate forest soils without sea-bird breeding). δ 13 C values changed little, from -27.1 permille (untreated soil) to -28.4 permille (treated soil), and were typical of forest soil with with C 3 vegetation and no incorporation of marine C. Duplicate AMS radiocarbon analysis of treated sample yielded a combined conventional radiocarbon age of 864 ± 32 BP, indicating that sea-bird breeding could not have occurred at the site for more than 740-960 calendar years. Initial colony occupation may have occurred much later than this, and not been continuous. Sea bird species other than Westland petrels may also have used the site. (author). 30 refs., 2 figs

  6. Selenium speciation in acidic environmental samples: application to acid rain-soil interaction at Mount Etna volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor, Geerke H; Iglesías, Mònica; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lenz, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Speciation plays a crucial role in elemental mobility. However, trace level selenium (Se) speciation analyses in aqueous samples from acidic environments are hampered due to adsorption of the analytes (i.e. selenate, selenite) on precipitates. Such solid phases can form during pH adaptation up till now necessary for chromatographic separation. Thermodynamic calculations in this study predicted that a pHpH eluent that matches the natural sample pH of acid rain-soil interaction samples from Etna volcano was developed. With a mobile phase containing 20mM ammonium citrate at pH 3, selenate and selenite could be separated in different acidic media (spiked water, rain, soil leachates) in rain-soil interaction using synthetic rain based on H(2)SO(4) and soil samples collected at the flanks of Etna volcano demonstrated the dominance of selenate over selenite in leachates from samples collected close to the volcanic craters. This suggests that competitive behavior with sulfate present in acid rain might be a key factor in Se mobilization. The developed speciation method can significantly contribute to understand Se cycling in acidic, Al/Fe rich environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    This study compares three extraction methods for PAHs in coal tar polluted soil: 3-times repeated shaking of the soil with dichloromethane-methanol (1:1), Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol....... The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol...

  8. Isotope ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in soil samples from different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Shinnosuke

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soil samples from Japan and other areas in the world (including IAEA standard reference materials) were determined by ICP-MS. The range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios observed in 21 Japanese soil samples was 0.155 - 0.194 and the average was 0.180 ± 0.011, which is comparable to the global fallout value. A low ratio of about 0.05, which is derived from Pu-bomb, was found in samples from Nishiyama (Nagasaki) and Mururoa Atoll (IAEA-368), while a high ratio of about 0.31 was found in a sample from Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands). The ratio for Irish Sea sediment (IAEA-135) was 0.21, which was higher than the global fallout value, suggesting the influence by the contamination from the Sellafield facility. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soils from the Chernobyl area were determined, and the ratio was found to be very high (about 0.4), indicating the high burn-up grade of the reactor fuel. These results show that the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio can be used as a finger print to identify the source of the contamination. (author)

  9. Multielemental analysis of soil samples from the Assin District of Central Region in Ghana using nuclear and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyemang, O.

    2008-06-01

    Macronutrients, micronutrients, pH, salinity and moisture content were determined in soil samples from six farms in two farming towns in Assin North District in the Central Region of Ghana namely Assin Akonfudi and Assin Bereku. Soil samples were taken from cocoa farms, orange farms and palm oil plantations at three different depths. The nutrients determined were Primary macronutrients that was K, Secondary macronutrients that were Ca, Mg and Micronutrients that were, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, Na and Se and Neutron Activation method and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry were used for the elemental analysis. The pHs were within the acidic range, ranging from 4.50-6.44. The top soil (0-5cm) had the higher pH followed by soil at the depth of 5-30cm and then soil at the depth of 30-40cm that is the pH decreased with depth. The salinity rather increased with depth ranging from 0.3l-2.98dS/m and the moisture content also ranged from 0.5-2.04%. For the soil samples taken from the cocoa farms, K recorded the highest concentration and Mo recorded the lowest concentration in the soil. For soil samples taken from orange farms, Ca recorded the highest concentration and Se recorded the lowest concentration in the soil and for soil samples taken from the palm oil plantations, Fe recorded the highest concentration and Mo recorded the lowest concentration in soil. The macronutrients ranged from 28591.19-6.49 mg/kg and the micronutrients ranged from <0.0004-20344.50 mg/kg. Soils in the cocoa farms were found to be more rich in nutrients and the soils in the palm oil plantations were found to be least rich in nutrients

  10. Standard guide for high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of soil samples

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the identification and quantitative determination of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in soil samples by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. It is applicable to nuclides emitting gamma rays with an approximate energy range of 20 to 2000 keV. For typical gamma-ray spectrometry systems and sample types, activity levels of about 5 Bq (135 pCi) are measured easily for most nuclides, and activity levels as low as 0.1 Bq (2.7 pCi) can be measured for many nuclides. It is not applicable to radionuclides that emit no gamma rays such as the pure beta-emitting radionuclides hydrogen-3, carbon-14, strontium-90, and becquerel quantities of most transuranics. This guide does not address the in situ measurement techniques, where soil is analyzed in place without sampling. Guidance for in situ techniques can be found in Ref (1) and (2). This guide also does not discuss methods for determining lower limits of detection. Such discussions can be found in Refs (3), (4), (5), and (6). 1.2 This guide can be us...

  11. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood.......Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  12. Analysis of ground water and soil samples from severely arsenic affected blocks of Murshidabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Biswas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of groundwater and soil by arsenic is a serious threat to existence of mankind on the globe. Arsenic contaminates soil and groundwater by natural biogeochemical cycles. However, due to anthropogenic activities like indiscriminant use of arsenic in disinfectants, weedicides, medicines and fertilizers, arsenic toxicity is a severe environmental issue, both at national and global level. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization prescribed the permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water to be 10 µg/l. Exposure to arsenic at higher levels over a considerable period of time leads to skin lesions and cancer, disorders of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and renal systems. Murshidabad is one of the severely arsenic affected districts of West Bengal. We have analyzed soil and groundwater samples from some of the highly arsenic affected blocks of Murshidabad district. Both the soil and groundwater samples have an alkaline pH, a characteristic of the presence of arsenic in the tested samples. Unfortunately, the socio-economic conditions of these villages force the residents to use groundwater as the source of drinking water. Presence of considerably high amount of total dissolved solids in water samples make them further unfit for consumption. High amount of phosphate and iron present in some of the water samples takes a toll on the detoxification and excretory system of the body, if those water samples are consumed on a regular manner. Contamination of soil by the aforesaid contaminants results in biomagnification of these pollutants in the food chain. We could also isolate certain potentially arsenic resistant bacteria from the contaminated soil and water samples. At the next level we have surveyed an arsenic affected village to analyze the clinical manifestation of arsenic poisoning. In this village subjects developed rampant skin lesions throughout the body due to exposure to arsenic

  13. Improved or Unimproved Urban Areas Effect on Soil and Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Logsdon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction in urban areas usually results in compacted soil, which restricts plant growth and infiltration. Nutrients may be lost in storm runoff water and sediment. The purpose of this study was to determine if existing lawns benefit from aeration and surface compost additions without the negative impact of nutrient loss in runoff. Four sets of lawns were compared, with or without compost plus aeration, as a paired comparison. Surface bulk density was significantly reduced in the treated lawns (1.32 versus 1.42 Mg·m−3. Visual evaluation of soil structure showed improvement in the treated lawns. Of fifteen measurement dates over four years, four dates showed significantly higher surface soil water contents in the treated lawns compared with the untreated lawns. When compared over time, three of the four treated lawns had significantly higher soil water content than the untreated lawns. Nutrient concentrations in rainfall simulator runoff were not significantly different between treated and control lawns, which showed that compost did not negatively impact water quality. Compost and aeration helped restore soil quality for urban soils of recent construction.

  14. Measurement of radioactive nuclides present in soil samples of district Ganderbal of Kashmir Province for radiation safety purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroz A. Mir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of radioactive elements in the residential area is very important from different points of view especially for human health. The aim of present survey was focused on determining the current radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from some areas of the Ganderbal district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. “Can technique” has been employed for the measurement of radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from under study areas. The Uranium concentration in these soil samples where estimated by using the fission track registration technique (using LR-115 plastic track detectors.The uranium concentration was found to varies between 2.03 and 3.52 ppm. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to vary from 5.05 to 21.89 m Bq kg−1 h−1. Radium concentration in soil samples varies from 6.43 to 18.89 Bq kg−1. The calculated values of Uranium concentration in these soil/rock samples are quite lower than the risk level. Radon and radium values found in these samples are also lower than that of optimum value. Hence these areas can be considered as risk free zones from human health point of view.

  15. IN SITU NON-INVASIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLE SIZE AND GEOSTATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIELOPOLSKI, L.

    2005-04-01

    I discuss a new approach for quantitative carbon analysis in soil based on INS. Although this INS method is not simple, it offers critical advantages not available with other newly emerging modalities. The key advantages of the INS system include the following: (1) It is a non-destructive method, i.e., no samples of any kind are taken. A neutron generator placed above the ground irradiates the soil, stimulating carbon characteristic gamma-ray emission that is counted by a detection system also placed above the ground. (2) The INS system can undertake multielemental analysis, so expanding its usefulness. (3) It can be used either in static or scanning modes. (4) The volume sampled by the INS method is large with a large footprint; when operating in a scanning mode, the sampled volume is continuous. (5) Except for a moderate initial cost of about $100,000 for the system, no additional expenses are required for its operation over two to three years after which a NG has to be replenished with a new tube at an approximate cost of $10,000, this regardless of the number of sites analyzed. In light of these characteristics, the INS system appears invaluable for monitoring changes in the carbon content in the field. For this purpose no calibration is required; by establishing a carbon index, changes in carbon yield can be followed with time in exactly the same location, thus giving a percent change. On the other hand, with calibration, it can be used to determine the carbon stock in the ground, thus estimating the soil's carbon inventory. However, this requires revising the standard practices for deciding upon the number of sites required to attain a given confidence level, in particular for the purposes of upward scaling. Then, geostatistical considerations should be incorporated in considering properly the averaging effects of the large volumes sampled by the INS system that would require revising standard practices in the field for determining the number of spots to

  16. Field sampling of residual aviation gasoline in sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Hinlein, E.S.; Yuefeng, Xie; Leach, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two complementary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured field extrusion of core barrels into pint-size Mason jars, while the second consisted of laboratory partitioning of intact stainless steel core sleeves. Soil samples removed from the Mason jars (in the field) and sleeve segments (in the laboratory) were subjected to methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatographic analysis to compare their aviation gasoline content. The barrel extrusion sampling method yielded a vertical profile with 0.10m resolution over an essentially continuous 5.0m interval from the ground surface to the water table. The sleeve segment alternative yielded a more resolved 0.03m vertical profile over a shorter 0.8m interval through the capillary fringe. The two methods delivered precise estimates of the vertically integrated mass of aviation gasoline at a given horizontal location, and a consistent view of the vertical profile as well. In the latter regard, a 0.2m thick lens of maximum contamination was found in the center of the capillary fringe, where moisture filled all voids smaller than the mean pore size. The maximum peak was resolved by the core sleeve data, but was partially obscured by the barrel extrusion observations, so that replicate barrels or a half-pint Mason jar size should be considered for data supporting vertical transport analyses in the absence of sleeve partitions

  17. Sorption and desorption studies of some radionuclides by soil samples. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, H A; Ezz El-Din, M R; Abd El-Gawad, A S [Hot Laborities Center, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation control, Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The different factors influencing the sorption/desorption of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 60} Co, {sup 241} Am and {sup (152+154)}Eu by soil samples of Inshas area were investigated. Mineralogical analysis of the soil samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram soil (X/m) increased as the carrier concentration [C] increased from (10{sup -9} to 10{sup -}1 mol) following a freundlich type isotherm. The distribution coefficient [K d] of the radionuclides was found to be affected by pH. The presence of K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Fe{sup 3+} as competing ions decreases the sorption capacity of the radioisotopes studied. The presence of complexing agents has a significant effect on the mobility of these radioisotopes. On the basis of the results obtained an attempt is being carried out to calculate different transport rates of the relevant isotopes in the investigated media. The mathematical model for the dispersion of the radioisotopes investigated in the groundwater environment was also elucidated. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Analysis of natural radionuclides in soil samples of Purola area of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manjulata; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Prasad, Mukesh; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2015-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are widely spread in the earth's environment, being distributed in soil, rocks, water, air, plants and even within the human body. All of these sources have contributed to an increase in the levels of environmental radioactivity and population radiation doses. This paper presents the activity level due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples of Purola area in Garhwal Himalaya region. The measured activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in collected soil samples of Purola was found to vary from 13±10 to 55±10 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 31±2 Bq kg(-1), 13±10 to 101±13 Bq kg(-1) with an average 30±3 Bq kg(-1) and 150±81 to 1310±154 Bq kg(-1) with an average 583±30 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity in collected soil samples was found to vary from 47 to 221 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 115 Bq kg(-1). The total absorbed gamma dose rate in this area was found to vary from 22 to 93 nGy h(-1) with an average of 55 nGy h(-1). The distribution of these radionuclides in the soil of study area is discussed in details. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Modifier free supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from sintered UO2, soil and ore samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Acharya, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    Direct extraction of uranium from different samples viz. sintered UO 2 , soil and ores was carried out by modifier free supercritical fluid using tri-n-butyl phosphate-nitric acid (TBP-HNO 3 ) adduct as extractant. These studies showed that pre-equilibration with more concentrated nitric acid helps in better dissolution and extraction of uranium from sintered UO 2 samples. Modifier free supercritical fluid extraction appears attractive with respect to minimization of secondary wastes. This method resulted 80-100% extraction of uranium from different soil/ore samples. The results were confirmed by performing neutron activation analysis of original (before extraction) and residue (after extraction) samples. (author)

  20. Determining uranium speciation in contaminated soils by molecular spectroscopic methods: Examples from the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.G.; Berg, J.M.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Conradson, S.D.; Donohoe, R.J.; Morris, D.E.; Musgrave, J.A.; Tait, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's former uranium production facility located at Fernald, OH (18 mi NW of Cincinnati) is the host site for an Integrated Demonstration for remediation of uranium-contaminated soils. A wide variety of source terms for uranium contamination have been identified reflecting the diversity of operations at the facility. Most of the uranium contamination is contained in the top ∼1/2 m of soil, but uranium has been found in perched waters indicating substantial migration. In support of the development of remediation technologies and risk assessment, we are conducting uranium speciation studies on untreated and treated soils using molecular spectroscopies. Untreated soils from five discrete sites have been analyzed. We have found that ∼80--90% of the uranium exists as hexavalent UO 2 2+ species even though many source terms consisted of tetravalent uranium species such as UO 2 . Much of the uranium exists as microcrystalline precipitates (secondary minerals). There is also clear evidence for variations in uranium species from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale. However, similarities in speciation at sites having different source terms suggest that soil and groundwater chemistry may be as important as source term in defining the uranium speciation in these soils. Characterization of treated soils has focused on materials from two sites that have undergone leaching using conventional extractants (e.g., carbonate, citrate) or novel chelators such as Tiron. Redox reagents have also been used to facilitate the leaching process. Three different classes of treated soils have been identified based on the speciation of uranium remaining in the soils. In general, the effective treatments decrease the total uranium while increasing the ratio of U(IV) to U(VI) species

  1. Optimal sample size of signs for classification of radiational and oily soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babayev, M.P.; Iskenderov, S.M.; Aghayev, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : This article tells about classification of radiational and oily soils that should be in essence a compact intelligence system which contains maximum information on classes of soil objects in the accepted feature space. The stored experience shows that the volume of the most informative soil signs can make up maximum 7-8 indexes. More correct approach to our opinion for a sample of the most informative (most important) indexes is the method of testing and mistakes, that is the experimental method, allowing to make use a wide experience and intuition of the researcher, or group of the researchers, engaged for many years in the field of soil science. At this operational stage of the formal device of soils classification, to say more concrete, the assessment section of selfdescriptiveness of soil signs of this formal device, in our opinion, is purely mathematized and in some cases even not reflect the true picture. In this case it will be calculated 21 pair of correlative elements between the selected soil signs as a measure of the linear communication. The volume of the correlative row will be equal to 6, as the increase in volume of the correlative row can sharply increase the volume calculation. Pertinently to note that, it is the first time an attempt is made to create correlative matrixes of the most important signs of radiation and oily soils

  2. Determination of radiostrontium in soil samples using a crown ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajda, N; Ghods-Esphahani, A; Danesi, P R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Chemistry Unit, PCI Laboratory, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1995-07-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the separation and successive determination of total radiostrontium in soil. The method consists of three basic steps: oxalate precipitation to remove bulk potassium, chromatographic separation of strontium from most inactive and radioactive interferences utilizing a crown ether (Sr. Spec, EIChroM Industries, II. USA), oxalate precipitation of strontium to evaluate the chemical yield. Radiostrontium is then determined by liquid scintillation counting of the dissolved precipitate. When 10 g samples of soil are used the sensitivity of the method is about 10 Bq/kg. The chemical yield is about 80%. The separation and determination of radiostrontium can be carried out in about 8 hours. (author)

  3. Determination of radiostrontium in soil samples using a crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Ghods-Esphahani, A.; Danesi, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the separation and successive determination of total radiostrontium in soil. The method consists of three basic steps: oxalate precipitation to remove bulk potassium, chromatographic separation of strontium from most inactive and radioactive interferences utilizing a crown ether (Sr. Spec, EIChroM Industries, II. USA), oxalate precipitation of strontium to evaluate the chemical yield. Radiostrontium is then determined by liquid scintillation counting of the dissolved precipitate. When 10 g samples of soil are used the sensitivity of the method is about 10 Bq/kg. The chemical yield is about 80%. The separation and determination of radiostrontium can be carried out in about 8 hours. (author)

  4. The Effect of Sample Size and Data Numbering on Precision of Calibration Model to predict Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohamadi Monavar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Precision agriculture (PA is a technology that measures and manages within-field variability, such as physical and chemical properties of soil. The nondestructive and rapid VIS-NIR technology detected a significant correlation between reflectance spectra and the physical and chemical properties of soil. On the other hand, quantitatively predict of soil factors such as nitrogen, carbon, cation exchange capacity and the amount of clay in precision farming is very important. The emphasis of this paper is comparing different techniques of choosing calibration samples such as randomly selected method, chemical data and also based on PCA. Since increasing the number of samples is usually time-consuming and costly, then in this study, the best sampling way -in available methods- was predicted for calibration models. In addition, the effect of sample size on the accuracy of the calibration and validation models was analyzed. Materials and Methods Two hundred and ten soil samples were collected from cultivated farm located in Avarzaman in Hamedan province, Iran. The crop rotation was mostly potato and wheat. Samples were collected from a depth of 20 cm above ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve and air dried at room temperature. Chemical analysis was performed in the soil science laboratory, faculty of agriculture engineering, Bu-ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran. Two Spectrometer (AvaSpec-ULS 2048- UV-VIS and (FT-NIR100N were used to measure the spectral bands which cover the UV-Vis and NIR region (220-2200 nm. Each soil sample was uniformly tiled in a petri dish and was scanned 20 times. Then the pre-processing methods of multivariate scatter correction (MSC and base line correction (BC were applied on the raw signals using Unscrambler software. The samples were divided into two groups: one group for calibration 105 and the second group was used for validation. Each time, 15 samples were selected randomly and tested the accuracy of

  5. Arsenic transfer and impacts on snails exposed to stabilized and untreated As-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeurdassier, M.; Scheifler, R.; Mench, M.; Crini, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; de Vaufleury, A. [Universite de Franche-Comte, Besancon (France)

    2010-06-15

    An As-contaminated soil (Unt) was amended with either iron grit (Z), a coal fly ash (beringite, B) or B + Z (BZ) and placed in lysimeters in 1997. An uncontaminated soil (R) was also studied. In summer and autumn 2003, lettuces were cultivated in the lysimeters and snails were caged for one month. Lettuce As concentrations were higher during the summer, while no differences occurred in snails between seasons. Snail As concentrations ({mu} g g{sup -1} DW) ranged from 2.5 to 7.0 in B, Z and BZ, and peaked at 17.5 in Unt. In summer, snail survival was affected in Unt and Z compared to R and B while no mortality was noticed in autumn. Snail growth decreased only in B, BZ and Unt in autumn. Snail As concentrations suggest a risk for their predators even on the remediated soils.

  6. Health services determinants of the duration of untreated psychosis among African-American first-episode patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Ramsay, Claire E; Shim, Ruth S; Goulding, Sandra M; Gordon, Tynessa L; Weiss, Paul S; Druss, Benjamin G

    2009-11-01

    The duration of untreated psychosis is associated with poor outcomes in multiple domains in the early course of nonaffective psychotic disorders, although relatively little is known about determinants of this critical period, particularly health services-level determinants. This study examined three hypothesized predictors of duration of untreated psychosis (lack of insurance, financial problems, and broader barriers) among urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged African Americans, while controlling for the effects of three patient-level predictors (mode of onset of psychosis, living with family versus alone or with others before hospitalization, and living above versus below the federally defined poverty level). Analyses included data from 42 patient-family member dyads from a larger sample of 109 patients with a first episode of nonaffective psychosis. The duration of untreated psychosis and all other variables were measured in a rigorous, standardized fashion in a study designed specifically to examine determinants of treatment delay. Survival analyses and Cox regression assessed the effects of the independent predictors on time from onset of psychosis to hospital admission for initial evaluation and treatment. The median duration of untreated psychosis was 24.5 weeks. When the analyses controlled for the three patient-level covariates, patients without health insurance, with financial problems, or with barriers to seeking help had a significantly longer duration of untreated psychosis. Health services-related factors, such as lack of insurance, are predictive of longer treatment delay. Efforts to eliminate uninsurance and underinsurance, as well as minimize barriers to treatment, would be beneficial for improving the prognosis of young patients with emerging nonaffective psychotic disorders.

  7. The contribution of microbial biomass to the adsorption of radioiodide in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bors, J.; Martens, R.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of soil microbial biomass to the sorption and migration of radiodide in soil has been investigated. In two arable soils, a chernozem and a podzol, the numbers of microorganisms were either reduced by biocidal treatment or increased by addition of nutrient sources. Radioiodide ( 125 I - ) adsorption by the pretreated soils was measured, relative to untreated soil samples, in aqueous suspensions containing iodide by estimating the distribution coefficient (K d ) after eight days of incubation. A reduction of biomass to about 10% of its original level drastically decreased adsorption. Elevated levels of microbial biomass (up to 126%) increased adsorption but the increase was not always correlated with biomass level. A closer correlation between soil biomass and adsorption was observed when the concentration of radioiodide in the suspension was increased by several orders of magnitude. Conditions such as anarobiosis and elevated temperatures which are known to influence the activity and survival of microorganisms also exerted an effect on radioiodide sorption. In accordance with the relationship described here between radioiodide adsorption and microbial biomass, migration in water saturated soil columns was influenced by the quantity of microorganisms present. However, high biomass contents obviously caused anaerobic conditions in the system, leading to increased leaching of radioiodide. (author)

  8. The contribution of microbial biomass to the adsorption of radioiodide in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bors, J. (Niedersaechsisches Inst. fuer Radiooekologie, Hannover (Germany)); Martens, R. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie des Bodens)

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of soil microbial biomass to the sorption and migration of radiodide in soil has been investigated. In two arable soils, a chernozem and a podzol, the numbers of microorganisms were either reduced by biocidal treatment or increased by addition of nutrient sources. Radioiodide ({sup 125}I{sup -}) adsorption by the pretreated soils was measured, relative to untreated soil samples, in aqueous suspensions containing iodide by estimating the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) after eight days of incubation. A reduction of biomass to about 10% of its original level drastically decreased adsorption. Elevated levels of microbial biomass (up to 126%) increased adsorption but the increase was not always correlated with biomass level. A closer correlation between soil biomass and adsorption was observed when the concentration of radioiodide in the suspension was increased by several orders of magnitude. Conditions such as anarobiosis and elevated temperatures which are known to influence the activity and survival of microorganisms also exerted an effect on radioiodide sorption. In accordance with the relationship described here between radioiodide adsorption and microbial biomass, migration in water saturated soil columns was influenced by the quantity of microorganisms present. However, high biomass contents obviously caused anaerobic conditions in the system, leading to increased leaching of radioiodide. (author).

  9. Effect of Lime Stabilization on Vertical Deformation of Laterite Halmahera Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saing, Zubair; Djainal, Herry

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the study was conducted to determine the lime effect on vertical deformation of road base physical model of laterite Halmahera soil. The samples of laterite soil were obtained from Halmahera Island, North Maluku Province, Indonesia. Soil characteristics were obtained from laboratory testing, according to American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM), consists of physical, mechanical, minerals, and chemical. The base layer of physical model testing with the dimension; 2m of length, 2m of width, and 1.5m of height. The addition of lime with variations of 3, 5, 7, an 10%, based on maximum dry density of standard Proctor test results and cured for 28 days. The model of lime treated laterite Halmahera soil with 0,1m thickness placed on subgrade layer with 1,5m thickness. Furthermore, the physical model was given static vertical loading. Some dial gauge is placed on the lime treated soil surface with distance interval 20cm, to read the vertical deformation that occurs during loading. The experimentals data was analyzed and validated with numerical analysis using finite element method. The results showed that the vertical deformation reduced significantly on 10% lime content (three times less than untreated soil), and qualify for maximum deflection (standard requirement L/240) on 7-10% lime content.

  10. Thermal-treated soil for mercury removal: Soil and phytotoxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Y.; Edwards, N.T.; Lee, S.Y.; Stiles, C.A.; Armes, S.; Foss, J.E.

    2000-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of soils and sediments is one of many environmental problems at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. Mercury-contaminated soil from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Reservation was treated thermally to reduce Hg concentration to a below target level (20 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) as a pilot scale thermal treatment demonstration. As a part of performance evaluation, the soil characteristics and plant growth response of the untreated and treated soil were examined. The soil treated at 350 C retained most of its original soil properties, but the soil treated at 600 C exhibited considerable changes in mineralogical composition and physicochemical characteristics. Growth and physiological response of the three plant species radish (Raphanus sativus L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) indicated adverse effects of the thermal treatment. The addition of N fertilizer had beneficial effects in the 350 C treated soil, but had little beneficial effect in the 600 C treated soil. Some changes of soil characteristics induced by thermal treatment cannot be avoided. Soil characteristics and phytotoxicity test results strongly suggest that changes occurring following the 350 C treatment do not limit the use of the treated soil to refill the excavated site for full-scale remediation. The only problem with the 350 C treatment is that small amounts of Hg compounds (<15 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) remain in the soil and a processing cost of $45/Mg.

  11. A sampling strategy for estimating plot average annual fluxes of chemical elements from forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.; Vries, de W.

    2010-01-01

    A sampling strategy for estimating spatially averaged annual element leaching fluxes from forest soils is presented and tested in three Dutch forest monitoring plots. In this method sampling locations and times (days) are selected by probability sampling. Sampling locations were selected by

  12. Analysis of medicinal plants and soil sample from Haridwar region by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of leaves and stems of four medicinal plants namely Kalmegh, Amaltas, Moalshri, and Arusa were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Soil from same location was analyzed. Though concentrations of many elements were determined in the plant samples, results of selected elements namely Na, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and As are discussed in this paper. The results show that all medicinal plants analyzed have lower elemental contents except Zn compared to the soil. (author)

  13. Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction 2 O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils

  14. ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

  15. Determination of 137Cs activities in soil samples from east and south Marmara region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Oe.; Belivermis, M.; Cotuk, Y.; Coskun, M.; Cayir, A.; Kuecer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 1 37Cs, 4 0K and physico-chemical parameters of soil samples collected from 99 sampling stations in the east and south of Marmara Region of Turkey were determined. The study region was divided into 20 x 20 km grids and soil samples collected randomly in each square from 0-5 cm surface layer. Activities were measured by means of multichannel gamma analyser provided with high purity germanium detector. Relations among 1 37Cs concentrations and physico-chemical parameters of soils and climatic factors of the region were evaluated. Arc View GIS version 3.1 was used mapping of study area. Distribution of radionuclide concentrations in the region illustrated with contour maps using Surfer 8.0 for Windows. The range of activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 4 0K were measured to be 0.92-153.72 and 69.24-1085.57 Bq/kg respectively

  16. Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling, hierarchical analysis of variance and residual maximum likelihood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Oliver R., E-mail: oliver.price@unilever.co [Warwick-HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick, CV32 6EF (United Kingdom); University of Reading, Soil Science Department, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6UR (United Kingdom); Oliver, Margaret A. [University of Reading, Soil Science Department, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6UR (United Kingdom); Walker, Allan [Warwick-HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick, CV32 6EF (United Kingdom); Wood, Martin [University of Reading, Soil Science Department, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6UR (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    An unbalanced nested sampling design was used to investigate the spatial scale of soil and herbicide interactions at the field scale. A hierarchical analysis of variance based on residual maximum likelihood (REML) was used to analyse the data and provide a first estimate of the variogram. Soil samples were taken at 108 locations at a range of separating distances in a 9 ha field to explore small and medium scale spatial variation. Soil organic matter content, pH, particle size distribution, microbial biomass and the degradation and sorption of the herbicide, isoproturon, were determined for each soil sample. A large proportion of the spatial variation in isoproturon degradation and sorption occurred at sampling intervals less than 60 m, however, the sampling design did not resolve the variation present at scales greater than this. A sampling interval of 20-25 m should ensure that the main spatial structures are identified for isoproturon degradation rate and sorption without too great a loss of information in this field. - Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling.

  17. Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling, hierarchical analysis of variance and residual maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Oliver R.; Oliver, Margaret A.; Walker, Allan; Wood, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An unbalanced nested sampling design was used to investigate the spatial scale of soil and herbicide interactions at the field scale. A hierarchical analysis of variance based on residual maximum likelihood (REML) was used to analyse the data and provide a first estimate of the variogram. Soil samples were taken at 108 locations at a range of separating distances in a 9 ha field to explore small and medium scale spatial variation. Soil organic matter content, pH, particle size distribution, microbial biomass and the degradation and sorption of the herbicide, isoproturon, were determined for each soil sample. A large proportion of the spatial variation in isoproturon degradation and sorption occurred at sampling intervals less than 60 m, however, the sampling design did not resolve the variation present at scales greater than this. A sampling interval of 20-25 m should ensure that the main spatial structures are identified for isoproturon degradation rate and sorption without too great a loss of information in this field. - Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling.

  18. Remediation of hydrocarbons in crude oil-contaminated soils using Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojinnaka, Chukwunonye; Osuji, Leo; Achugasim, Ozioma

    2012-11-01

    Sandy soil samples spiked with Bonny light crude oil were subsequently treated with Fenton's reagent at acidic, neutral, and basic pH ranges. Oil extracts from these samples including an untreated one were analyzed 1 week later with a gas chromatograph to provide evidence of hydrocarbon depletion by the oxidant. The reduction of three broad hydrocarbon groups-total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were investigated at various pHs. Hydrocarbon removal was efficient, with treatment at the acidic pH giving the highest removal of about 96% for PAH, 99% for BTEX, and some TPH components experiencing complete disappearance. The four-ringed PAHs were depleted more than their three-ringed counterparts at the studied pH ranges.

  19. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Silva, Alberto Antonio da

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  20. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: rmenezes@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: jairo.dias@ufpe.br, E-mail: kennedy.eng.ambiental@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez, E-mail: jestevez@ceaden.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Silva, Edvane Borges da, E-mail: edvane.borges@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Biologia; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Alberto Antonio da, E-mail: alberto.silva@barreiros.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Barreiros, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  1. Sampling and analysis plan for assessment of beryllium in soils surrounding TA-40 building 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Technical Area (TA) 40 Building 15 (40-15) is an active firing site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The weapons facility operations (WFO) group plans to build an enclosure over the site in 2017, so that test shots may be conducted year-round. The enclosure project is described in PRID 16P-0209. 40-15 is listed on LANL OSH-ISH’s beryllium inventory, which reflects the potential for beryllium in/on soils and building surfaces at 40-15. Some areas in and around 40-15 have previously been sampled for beryllium, but past sampling efforts did not achieve complete spatial coverage of the area. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates the area surrounding 40-15 via 9 deep (≥1-ft.) soil samples and 11 shallow (6-in.) soil samples. These samples will fill the spatial data gaps for beryllium at 40-15, and will be used to support OSH-ISH’s final determination of 40-15’s beryllium registry status. This SAP has been prepared by the Environmental Health Physics program in consultation with the Industrial Hygiene program. Industrial Hygiene is the owner of LANL’s beryllium program, and will make a final determination with regard to the regulatory status of beryllium at 40-15.

  2. Behaviour of rare earth elements, thorium, uranium and strontium isotopes in soil samples of Bryansk region contaminated due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Yonehara, H.; Kurotaki, K.; Shiraishi, K.; Ramzaev, V.; Barkovski, A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the processes which control retention of rare earth elements, U and Th in soil samples of Bryansk region in one of Russian territory contaminated due to Chernobyl accident. Acid sandy and loam sand podzolic soils are typical of this area. We have classified soil samples into forest, pasture, field, yard and kitchen garden. Rare earth elements, U and Th concentrations were measured by digestion soil samples using acid digestion and microwave digestion method followed by ICP-MS whereas Sr isotope ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) was determined by using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS). In case of forest soil samples, ratio of U/Th varied from 3.32 to 3.60. Though concentration of U and Th varies, ratio does not show much variation. Pasture soil showed higher concentration of REEs, U and Th. Chondrite normalized pattern of soil samples did not differ much from one another excep Ce and Eu and were similar to that for average concentration of continental crust. In case of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio, top layer soil sample shows a relatively higher isotope ratio than lower layers. These data, within the study area, may be reflective of variations in the concentration of elements in reservoir rocks at depth. (author)

  3. Effects of Spatial Sampling Interval on Roughness Parameters and Microwave Backscatter over Agricultural Soil Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ernesto Barber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial sampling interval, as related to the ability to digitize a soil profile with a certain number of features per unit length, depends on the profiling technique itself. From a variety of profiling techniques, roughness parameters are estimated at different sampling intervals. Since soil profiles have continuous spectral components, it is clear that roughness parameters are influenced by the sampling interval of the measurement device employed. In this work, we contributed to answer which sampling interval the profiles needed to be measured at to accurately account for the microwave response of agricultural surfaces. For this purpose, a 2-D laser profiler was built and used to measure surface soil roughness at field scale over agricultural sites in Argentina. Sampling intervals ranged from large (50 mm to small ones (1 mm, with several intermediate values. Large- and intermediate-sampling-interval profiles were synthetically derived from nominal, 1 mm ones. With these data, the effect of sampling-interval-dependent roughness parameters on backscatter response was assessed using the theoretical backscatter model IEM2M. Simulations demonstrated that variations of roughness parameters depended on the working wavelength and was less important at L-band than at C- or X-band. In any case, an underestimation of the backscattering coefficient of about 1-4 dB was observed at larger sampling intervals. As a general rule a sampling interval of 15 mm can be recommended for L-band and 5 mm for C-band.

  4. Determination of mercury in ash and soil samples by oxygen flask combustion method-Cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Wenhua; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Ohki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    A simple method was developed for the determination of mercury (Hg) in coal fly ash (CFA), waste incineration ash (WIA), and soil by use of oxygen flask combustion (OFC) followed by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). A KMnO 4 solution was used as an absorbent in the OFC method, and the sample containing a combustion agent and an ash or soil sample was combusted by the OFC method. By use of Hg-free graphite as the combustion agent, the determination of Hg in ash and soil was successfully carried out; the Hg-free graphite was prepared by use of a mild pyrolysis procedure at 500 deg. C. For six certified reference materials (three CFA samples and three soil samples), the values of Hg obtained by this method were in good agreement with the certified or reference values. In addition, real samples including nine CFAs collected from some coal-fired power plants, five WIAs collected from waste incineration plants, and two soils were analyzed by the present method, and the data were compared to those from microwave-acid digestion (MW-AD) method

  5. Gamma Radiation Dose from Radionuclides in Soil Samples of Udagamandalam (Ooty) in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvasekarapandian, S.; Muguntha Manikandan, N.; Sivakumar, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Meenakshisundram, V.; Ragunath, V.M.; Gajendran, V.

    1999-01-01

    The systematic study of background radiation and the distribution of radionuclides in the environment of Udagamandalam in Nilgiri District of Tamil Nadu has been made. Gamma spectrometric analysis of the soil samples of this area has been carried out. The measured gamma dose in air is in the range 31.6 nGy.h -1 - 221.1 nGy.h -1 with a mean value 121.8 nGy.h -1 . The average activities of the 232 Th series, 238 U series and 40 K in soil samples are 114.6 ± 52.5 Bq.kg -1 , 43.2 ± 23.2 Bq.kg -1 and 274.6 ± 86.7 Bq.kg -1 respectively. (author)

  6. Radium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples of Hassan district of South Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesha, B.G.; Narayana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m"-"3 and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg"-"1. Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m"-"2 h"-"1, and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg"-"1 h"-"1. (authors)

  7. A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE WATER DISTRIBUTION IN A SOIL SAMPLE USING NEUTRON IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šácha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical method by Kang et al. recently proposed for correcting two-dimensional neutron radiography for water quantification in soil. The method was tested on data from neutron imaging of the water infiltration in a soil sample. The raw data were affected by neutron scattering and by beam hardening artefacts. Two strategies for identifying the correction parameters are proposed in this paper. The method has been further developed for the case of three-dimensional neutron tomography. In a related experiment, neutron imaging is used to record ponded-infiltration experiments in two artificial soil samples. Radiograms, i.e., two-dimensional projections of the sample, were acquired during infiltration. A calculation was made of the amount of water and its distribution within the radiograms, in the form of two-dimensional water thickness maps. Tomograms were reconstructed from the corrected and uncorrected water thickness maps to obtain the 3D spatial distribution of the water content within the sample. Without the correction, the beam hardening and the scattering effects overestimated the water content values close to the perimeter of the sample, and at the same time underestimated the values close to the centre of the sample. The total water content of the entire sample was the same in both cases. The empirical correction method presented in this study is a relatively accurate, rapid and simple way to obtain the quantitatively determined water content from two-dimensional and three-dimensional neutron images. However, an independent method for measuring the total water volume in the sample is needed in order to identify the correction parameters.

  8. New approach to measure soil particulate organic matter in intact samples using X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alexandra; Negassa, Wakene; Guber, Andrey; Schmidt, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    Particulate soil organic matter (POM) is biologically and chemically active fraction of soil organic matter. It is a source of many agricultural and ecological benefits, among which are POM's contribution to C sequestration. Most of conventional research methods for studying organic matter dynamics involve measurements conducted on pre-processed i.e., ground and sieved soil samples. Unfortunately, grinding and sieving completely destroys soil structure, the component crucial for soil functioning and C protection. Importance of a better understanding of the role of soil structure and of the physical protection that it provides to soil C cannot be overstated; and analysis of quantities, characteristics, and decomposition rates of POM in soil samples with intact structure is among the key elements of gaining such understanding. However, a marked difficulty hindering the progress in such analyses is a lack of tools for identification and quantitative analysis of POM in intact soil samples. Recent advancement in applications of X-ray computed micro-tomography (μ-CT) to soil science has given an opportunity to conduct such analyses. The objective of the current study is to develop a procedure for identification and quantitative characterization of POM within intact soil samples using X-ray μ-CT images and to test performance of the proposed procedure on a set of multiple intact soil macro-aggregates. We used 16 4-6 mm soil aggregates collected at 0-15 cm depth from a Typic Hapludalf soil at multiple field sites with diverse agricultural management history. The aggregates have been scanned at SIMBIOS Centre, Dundee, Scotland at 10 micron resolution. POM was determined from the aggregate images using the developed procedure. The procedure was based on combining image pre-processing steps with discriminant analysis classification. The first component of the procedure consisted of image pre-processing steps based on the range of gray values (GV) along with shape and size

  9. Online recovery of radiocesium from soil, tissue paper and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of recovery of radio-cesium from soil, tissue papers, and plant samples has been evaluated by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) route employing calix(4)arene-mono(crown-6) (CC) dissolved in acetonitrile. These studies showed that quantitative recovery of 137 Cs from soil samples was difficult under the conditions of these studies. However, experiments performed on tissue papers (cellulose matrix) showed quantitative recovery of 137 Cs. On the other hand, 137 Cs recovery from plant samples varied between ∼50 % (for stems) and ∼67.2 % (for leaves) employing 1x10 -3 M CC + 4 M HNO 3 dissolved in acetonitrile. (author)

  10. Mitigation of soil water repellency improves rootzone water status and yield in precision irrigated apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, S.; Gadd, N.; Bell, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water repellent soils are documented to impact a range of hydrological properties, yet studies evaluating the consequences of soil water repellency (SWR) and its mitigation on crop yield and quality are conspicuously absent. With global concerns on drought and water availability and the projected impacts of climate change, development of novel strategies to optimize efficient rootzone delivery of water are required. Co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymer surfactants have been shown to improve wetting synergistically. The objectives of this study were to determine if this surfactant technology: 1) increased soil water content and wetting front depth in mini-sprinkler irrigated, water repellent, Goulburn Valley clay loam soils and 2) assess the consequence of SWR mitigation on yield of Malus domestica Borkh. Three trials were conducted in the apple varieties 'Pink Lady' (2006/07 and 2007/08) and 'Gala' (2007/08) growing on Goulburn Valley clay loam soils in Victoria, AU. The test design was a randomized complete block with treatments replicated 5-6 times. Plot size varied by location. SWR was mitigated by applying surfactant at initial rates of 0, 5, or 10 L ha-1 in the spring, then at 0, 2.5, or 5 L ha-1 monthly for up to four months and compared to an untreated control. Treatments were applied to tree lines using a hand held small plot sprayer (118 liters of spray solution ha-1) followed by irrigation within 1-3 days of treatment applications. At each location, plots were irrigated by mini sprinklers and received the same irrigation volumes and management practices. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) was monitored at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm using a Theta probe (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, UK). At harvest, fruit number and weights were measured and used for crop yield estimations. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with mean values summarized and separated using Least Significant Test

  11. Classification of soil samples according to their geographic origin using gamma-ray spectrometry and principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragovic, Snezana; Onjia, Antonije

    2006-01-01

    A principal component analysis (PCA) was used for classification of soil samples from different locations in Serbia and Montenegro. Based on activities of radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 238 U, 235 U, 4 K, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 7 Be) detected by gamma-ray spectrometry, the classification of soils according to their geographical origin was performed. Application of PCA to our experimental data resulted in satisfactory classification rate (86.0% correctly classified samples). The obtained results indicate that gamma-ray spectrometry in conjunction with PCA is a viable tool for soil classification

  12. New technique of insitu soil moisture sampling for environmental isotope analysis applied at 'Pilat-dune' near Bordeaux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, G.; Esser, N.; Sonntag, C.; Weiss, W.; Rudolph, J.; Leveque, P.

    1978-01-01

    A new soil-air suction method with soil water vapor adsorption by 4 A-molecular sieve provides soil moisture samples from various depths for environmental isotope analysis and yields soil temperature profiles. A field tritium tracer experiment shows that this insitu sampling method has an isotope profile resolution of about 5-10 cm only. Application of this method in the Pilat sand dune (Bordeaux/France) yielded deuterium and tritium profiles down to 25 meters depth. Bomb tritium measurements of monthly lysimeter percolate samples available since 1961 show that the tritium response has a mean delay of 5 months in case of a sand lysimeter and of 2.5 years for a loess loam lysimeter. A simple HETP model simulates the layered downward movement of soil water and the longitudinal dispersion in the lysimeters. Field capacity and evapotranspiration taken as open parameters yield tritium concentration values of the lysimeters' percolate which are in close agreement with the experimental results. Based on local meteorological data the HETP model applied to tritium tracer experiments in the unsaturated zone further yiels an individual prediction of the momentary tracer position and of the soil moisture distribution. This prediction can be checked experimentally at selected intervals by coring. (orig.) [de

  13. Progress in assisted natural remediation of an arsenic contaminated agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mench, Michel; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Beckx, Caroline; Ruttens, Ann

    2006-01-01

    A contaminated soil was collected in a field adjacent to a derelict As (III) smelter in Reppel (Bocholt, Belgium). A single soil treatment (% by soil weight) based on either iron grit (SS, 1%), beringite (B, 5%), or iron grit (1%) + beringite (5%) (BSS) was applied. Untreated and treated Reppel soils and a control soil were placed in lysimeters inside a greenhouse and cropped annually. The efficiency of soil treatments in decreasing As and metals in exposure sources and restoring soil functions was assessed 6 years after the treatments commenced. Decreases in extractable Cd, Mn, Zn and As occurred in the BSS soil. Only BSS treatment reduced both As and metal concentrations in leachates. BSS treatment produced best growth of lettuce and cabbage, the highest shoot and pod yields for dwarf bean, the lowest As, Cd and Zn concentrations in plant tissues, and partly restored Rhizobium nodulation on bean roots. The epigeic earthworm (Dendrobaena octaedra) could only survive in the BSS soil. Depurated living worms from the BSS soil had Cd concentration similar to those in control worms, but higher As, Ca, Fe, and Zn concentrations. Based on physiologically based extraction test (PBET), As bioaccessibility was reduced from 12% (untreated soil) to 7.4% (BSS) and 3% (SS), but only the SS treatment decreased the bioaccessibility of Cd (-30%) and Pb (-35%). The range of chemical and biological indicators suggested that BSS amendment was the most effective treatment for restoration of normal soil functions 6 years after initial treatment of the Reppel soil. - Restoration occurred in a contaminated soil six years after the combined application of iron grit and beringite

  14. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  15. LEAK AND GAS PERMEABILITY TESTING DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING AT HAL'S CHEVRON LUST SITE IN GREEN RIVER, UTAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of gas permeability and leak testing during active soil-gas sampling at Hal’s Chevron LUST Site in Green River, Utah are presented. This study was conducted to support development of a passive soil-gas sampling method. Gas mixtures containing helium and methane were...

  16. Amostragem de solo para estudos de fertilidade Sampling soils for fertility studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Catani

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de estabelecer um sistema e técnica mais adequados de se coletar amostras de terra, para fins de estudo de fertilidade. Foram escolhidas duas áreas de solos diferentes. Uma delas com seis hectares, situada na Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto, em solo tipo terra roxa legítima ; a outra com quatro hectares e localizada na Fazenda Santa Maria, em Pindorama, em solo do tipo arenito Bauru. A retirada das amostras de cada área foi feita com tubos especialmente construídos para esse fim e obedeceu ao seguinte critério: 1 30 amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área ; 2 10 amostras compostas, formadas de cinco amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área. 3 5 amostras compostas, formadas de 20 amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área. Nessas amostras foram determinados : pH, carbono total, potássio "trocável" e cálcio "trocável". Diante dos dados obtidos e levando-se em conta o trabalho exigido no laboratório, aconselha-se a retirada de três amostras compostas formadas de 20 simples cada uma, em glebas uniformes, de cinco hectares aproximadamente.The following methods of collecting soil samples for fertility studies were compared : 1 thirty individual samples covering the whole area ; 2 ten composite samples, each consisting of five individual samples, covering the whole area ; 3 five composite samples, each consisting of 20 individual samples, covering the whole area. The three types of samples were collected in each of two plots : 1 a six-hectare plot in the Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto, representing the "terra roxa" soil; 2 a four-hectare plot in the Santa Maria Farm, Pindorama, where the soil is of the "arenito de Bauru" type. The pH, total carbon, and exchangeable potassium and calcium were determined in the samples. Based on data obtained in the present investigation and considering the amount of work involved in the routine laboratory tests, it is suggested that

  17. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  18. Spatial heavy metals Zn and Cr distribution in soil samples taken from Tatra Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stobinski, M.; Misiak, R.; Kubica, B.

    2008-03-01

    The basic issue of presented report is showing the spatial heavy metals (Zn and Cr) distribution in soil samples taken from High Mts area. The expertise was done using two analytical techniques: AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy) and micro-PIXIE (proton induced X-ray emission).Given heavy metals concentration were originated either from soil surface (10 cm depth) or from the whole soil profile. Our evaluation indicates that the Zn and Cr levels measured for mountains region were comparable to the data presented by other authors. Furthermore, the amount of heavy metals is strongly correlated with its natural concentration in parental rock.We also observed that zinc was prone to accumulate in surface, rich in organic matter, soil levels. (author)

  19. Effect of dry land transformation and quality of water use for crop irrigation on the soil bacterial community in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüneberg, Kathia; Schneider, Dominik; Daniel, Rolf; Siebe, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Soil bacteria are important determinants of soil fertility and ecosystem services as they participate in all biogeochemical cycles. Until now the comprehension of compositional and functional response that bacterial communities have to land use change and management, specifically in dry land its limited. Dry lands cover 40% of the world's land surface and its crop production supports one third of the global population. In this regions soil moisture is limited constraining farming to the rainy season or oblige to irrigate, as fresh water resources become scarce, to maintain productivity, treated or untreated wastewater for field irrigation is used. In this study the transformation of semiarid shrubland to agriculture under different land systems regarding quantity and quality of water use for crop irrigation on bacterial communities was investigated. The land systems included maize rain-fed plantations and irrigation systems with freshwater, untreated wastewater stored in a dam and untreated wastewater during dry and rainy season. Bacterial community structure and function was heavily affected by land use system and soil properties, whereas seasonality had a slighter effect. A soil moisture, nutrient and contaminant-content increasing gradient among the land use systems, going from rain fed plantation over fresh water, dam wastewater to untreated wastewater irrigated plantations was detected, this gradient diminished the abundance of Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria, but enhanced the one from Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Discernible clustering of the dry land soil communities coincides with the moisture, nutrient and contaminant gradient, being shrubland soil communities closer to the rain-fed's system and farer to the one from untreated wastewater irrigated soil. Soil moisture together with sodium content and pH were the strongest drivers of the community structure. Seasonality promoted shifts in the composition of soil bacteria under irrigation with

  20. Soil forensics: How far can soil clay analysis distinguish between soil vestiges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, R S; Melo, V F; Abreu, G G F; Sousa, M H; Chaker, J A; Gomes, J A

    2018-03-01

    Soil traces are useful as forensic evidences because they frequently adhere to individuals and objects associated with crimes and can place or discard a suspect at/from a crime scene. Soil is a mixture of organic and inorganic components and among them soil clay contains signatures that make it reliable as forensic evidence. In this study, we hypothesized that soils can be forensically distinguished through the analysis of their clay fraction alone, and that samples of the same soil type can be consistently distinguished according to the distance they were collected from each other. To test these hypotheses 16 Oxisol samples were collected at distances of between 2m and 1.000m, and 16 Inceptisol samples were collected at distances of between 2m and 300m from each other. Clay fractions were extracted from soil samples and analyzed for hyperspectral color reflectance (HSI), X-ray diffraction crystallographic (XRD), and for contents of iron oxides, kaolinite and gibbsite. The dataset was submitted to multivariate analysis and results were from 65% to 100% effective to distinguish between samples from the two soil types. Both soil types could be consistently distinguished for forensic purposes according to the distance that samples were collected from each other: 1000m for Oxisol and 10m for Inceptisol. Clay color and XRD analysis were the most effective techniques to distinguish clay samples, and Inceptisol samples were more easily distinguished than Oxisol samples. Soil forensics seems a promising field for soil scientists as soil clay can be useful as forensic evidence by using routine analytical techniques from soil science. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation of PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in soil samples from the Swiss Soil Monitoring Network (NABO) to specific parameters of the observation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, P.; Gujer, E.; Zennegg, M. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bucheli, T. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    Soils are natural sinks for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Being lipophilic compounds, these contaminants adsorb to the organic carbon of the soil, and due to the low mobility and high persistence, they accumulate in the soil. Soil therefore represents rather a long-term archive for the atmospheric deposition than an indicator for the actual input of these compounds. In 1986, on demand of the Swiss ordinance of 9 June 1986 relating to hazardous substances in the soil, a national soil monitoring network (NABO) was set up in Switzerland aiming at monitoring the soil pollution. Sites were selected to reflect typical land use, vegetation, land management, air quality, and soil conditions in Switzerland. 50% of the sites are located on agricultural land, 30% in forests, and 20% on open land with extensive farming (alpine pastures, etc.); two sites are situated in urban parks. The sites are distributed throughout Switzerland including rural/remote areas as well as urban, urban fringe and industrial regions. Soil samples are taken every 5 years and are analysed for eight heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel, chromium, cobalt, and mercury) as well as fluorine. So far, organic pollutants (PAH and PCB) have been determined in isolated samples only, and there is no data on PCDD/F concentrations so far. The present program was set up to fill this knowledge gap. A subset of 23 sites representing locations where contaminant immissions above average were expected was selected for PCDD/F and PCB analysis.

  2. Determination of 7BE in soil sample by gamma spectrometry for erosion researchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Alexander D.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Amaral, Angela M.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2015-01-01

    Cosmogenic 7 Be is a natural radiotracer produced in the stratosphere and troposphere and reached to the Earth surface via wet and dry fallout and hence its measurement for research of erosion in soils is very significant. The 7 Be radio analyse based on gamma spectrometry technique has been a routine methodology for decades and although is the reference procedure is not free of analytical interference. 7 Be is a β-γ emitting radionuclide (Eγ = 477.59 keV, T½ = 53.12d) and depending on the chemical profile of the soil its determination is susceptible to 228 Ac (E γ = 478.40 keV, T½ = 6.15h) interference. The aim of this work was to establish an analytical protocol for the 7 Be determination in soil samples from Juatuba-Mg region in different sampling periods of dry and rainy seasons for erosion studies and to establish some methodologies for evaluating and correcting the interference level of 228 Ac in the 7 Be activity measurements by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  3. Hay-bait traps are a useful tool for sampling of soil dwelling millipedes and centipedes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tuf, I. H.; Chmelík, V.; Dobroruka, I.; Habová, L.; Hudcová, P.; Šipoš, Jan; Stašiov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 510 (2015), s. 197-207 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : chilopoda * populations * diplopoda * Diplopoda * Chilopoda * soil sampling * agroecosystem * soil fauna Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015

  4. NH4NO3 extractable trace element contents of soil samples prepared for proficiency testing--a stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, H; Scharf, H

    2001-06-01

    In view of its intended use as a sample for proficiency testing or as a reference material the stability of the extractable trace element contents of a soil from an irrigation field was tested using the extraction with 1 mol/L ammonium nitrate solution according to DIN 19730. Therefore, changes of the extractability of sterilized and non sterilized soil samples stored at different temperatures were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Sets of bottles were kept at -20 degrees C, +4 degrees C, about +20 degrees C and +40 degrees C, respectively. The NH4NO3 extractable contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined immediately after bottling and then after 3, 6, 12 and 18 months with ICP-AES or ETAAS. Appropriate storage conditions are of utmost importance to prevent deterioration of soil samples prepared for the determination of NH4NO3 extractable trace element contents. Temperatures above +20 degrees C must be avoided. The observed changes in the extractability of the metals (especially for Cr and Cu) most likely could be related to thermal degradation of the organic matter of the soil. There is no need to sterilize dry soil samples, because microbiological activity in soils with a low moisture content appears to be negligible with regard to trace element mobilization.

  5. Bio indication of soil samples from contaminated military sites in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariadze, N.; Gagelidze, N.; Amiranashvili, L.; Nabakhtiani, G.; Tsigroshvili, Z.

    2005-01-01

    State of environment in Georgia is influenced significantly by political and economic situation of the last several years.The consequences of these conditions are pollution of water, air, and soil with health-hazardous emissions, dissemination of uncontrolled waste, highly toxic substances and unfit military and industrial materials in civil, agricultural, and military sites and respective facilities. In Georgia the specific problems of soil contamination are: spot type distribution of contaminants; simultaneous (synergetic) impacts of various pollutants; chronic and enduring impacts; pollution of moderate or low intensity. Pollutants, at low doses, may not cause immediate changes; however in some time they can create danger and become the risk factors for acquired lethal diseases developed in living organisms and accumulated in environment. Several cases of contamination with radionuclide substances distribution have been detected on in a number of regions in Georgia, which became the range for investigation of specific, spot type of pollution. The soil samples contaminated with following nuclides were studied: Single sources 226 Ra, Dust 226 Ra, Single sources 90 Sr, Single sources 137 Cs. The main goal of the team is complex study of contaminated territories. In parallel with polluted spots' indication, the investigation of ecological systems' reactions to diverse impacts is carried out. Bioassays application significantly increases quality and reliability of: assessment of contaminated territories; selection of optimal and available technologies for sanation and remediation; recommendations on urgent measures. As bio-indicators the main groups of microorganisms were studied: Bacteria, Actinomycetes and Microphyte fungi. The primary results showed that behaviour of observed microorganisms colonies could be satisfactorily described with the following parameters: CCU; Meeting factor; Diameter of colonies; Morphological similarity and difference. Simultaneous study

  6. Analysis of techniques of sample attack for soil and mineral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.R.; Chiu, N.W.

    1985-05-01

    Four methods of sample attack were evaluated in the laboratory for use in the determination of uranium, radium-226, thorium-232, thorium-230, thorium-228, and lead-210. The methods evaluated were (1) KF/pyrosulfate fusion; (2) Sodium carbonate fusion; (3) Nitric, perchloric, hydrofluoric acid digestion; and, (4) combination nitric, perchloric, hydrofluoric acid/pyrosulfate fusion. Five samples were chosen for evaluation; two were mine tailings from Bancroft, Ontario and Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan, one was a synthetic uranium ore-silica mixture and two were soil samples supplied by AECB. The KF/pyrosulfate dissolution procedure was found to be the fastest and, overall, most accurate dissolution method for the analysis of 1-20 samples. For larger numbers of samples the three acid/pyrosulfate fusion combination was shown to have some merit

  7. Analysis of core samples from jet grouted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1995-10-01

    Superplasticized cementitious grouts were tested for constructing subsurface containment barriers using jet grouting in July, 1994. The grouts were developed in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test site was located close to the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia was responsible for the placement contract. The jet grouted soil was exposed to the service environment for one year and core samples were extracted to evaluate selected properties. The cores were tested for strength, density, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) and cementitious content. The tests provided an opportunity to determine the performance of the grouts and grout-treated soil. Several recommendations arise from the results of the core tests. These are: (1) grout of the same mix proportions as the final grout should be used as a drilling fluid in order to preserve the original mix design and utilize the benefits of superplasticizers; (2) a high shear mixer should be used for preparation of the grout; (3) the permeability under unsaturated conditions requires consideration when subsurface barriers are used in the vadose zone; and (4) suitable methods for characterizing the permeability of barriers in-situ should be applied

  8. Rice husk ash (RHA) as a partial cement replacement in modifying peat soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nik Norsyahariati Nik; Daud, Mohd Nazrin Mohd; Muhammed, Abubakar Sadiq

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the effect of rice husk ash (RHA) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as a potential binder for modifying the properties of peat soil. The amounts RHA and OPC added to the peat soil sample, as percentage of the dry soil mass were in the range of 10-15% and 15%, respectively. Observations were made for the changes in the properties of the soil such as maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) and shear strength. Scanning Electron Micrograph-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) test were also conducted to observe the microstructure of treated and untreated peat soil. The results show that the modified soil of MDD and OMC values are increased due to the increment amount of binder material. Shear strength values of modified peat showing a good result by assuming that it is relative to the formation of major reaction products such as calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H). The presence of C-S-H formation is indicated by the results produced from microstructural analysis of peat before and after modification process. This depicts the potential usage of RHA as a partial cement replacement in peat soil which is also improving its engineering properties.

  9. Influence of soil sampling approaches in the evaluation of soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses in a Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Different approaches of soil sampling can provide significantly different estimates of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a). Many studies have focused on SOC distribution only in the biologically active layers of topsoil, the IPCC carbon accounting method estimates the change in SOC storage for the top 30 cm of a soil profile, and indeed limited data are available for SOCs below this depth. Moreover, SOC estimates are more uncertain in areas with heterogeneous land uses and pedoclimatic conditions such as Mediterranean environments, which are more prone to land degradation due to SOC degradation and depletion and erosive processes (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Anyhow, the open question is whether soil should be sampled following the pedogenetic horizons with soil entire soil approach (ESP), or along fixed depth increments using the soil control section method (SCS) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). In addition, SOCs are often not adjusted for the soil volume occupied by coarse fragments as recommended by the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) accordingly to the equation: SOCs = SOC (g kg-1) × bulk density (Mg m-3) × depth (m) × (1 - coarse fragment) × 10. The work deals with the comparison of SOCs using the ESP and SCS approaches, applied to a study area of northeastern Sardinia (Italy) under typical agro-silvo-pastoral systems (Francaviglia et al., 2014). The area lies within a hilly basin where elevation is in the range 275-340 m a.s.l., and slope ranges from 2-6% to 16-30%. The local climate is warm temperate with dry and hot summers, mean annual rainfall is 623 mm (range 367-811mm) and mean annual temperature is 15.0° C (13.8-16.4° C). The area has the same soil type (Haplic Endoleptic Cambisols, Dystric) according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2006), and the following land uses with different levels of cropping intensification were compared: Tilled vineyards (Tv), No-tilled grassed vineyards (Ntgv), Hay crop

  10. Soil and Water – What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concerns of a potential terrorist’s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

  11. Diversity of Microbial Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZYmes) Associated with Freshwater and Soil Samples from Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana Camila; Fróes, Adriana; Lopes, Fabyano Álvares Cardoso; Thompson, Fabiano L; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Bruce, Thiago

    2017-07-01

    Semi-arid and arid areas occupy about 33% of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little information is available about microbial diversity in the semi-arid Caatinga, which represents a unique biome that extends to about 11% of the Brazilian territory and is home to extraordinary diversity and high endemism level of species. In this study, we characterized the diversity of microbial genes associated with biomass conversion (carbohydrate-active enzymes, or so-called CAZYmes) in soil and freshwater of the Caatinga. Our results showed distinct CAZYme profiles in the soil and freshwater samples. Glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases were the most abundant CAZYme families, with glycoside hydrolases more dominant in soil (∼44%) and glycosyltransferases more abundant in freshwater (∼50%). The abundances of individual glycoside hydrolase, glycosyltransferase, and carbohydrate-binding module subfamilies varied widely between soil and water samples. A predominance of glycoside hydrolases was observed in soil, and a higher contribution of enzymes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis was observed in freshwater. The main taxa associated with the CAZYme sequences were Planctomycetia (relative abundance in soil, 29%) and Alphaproteobacteria (relative abundance in freshwater, 27%). Approximately 5-7% of CAZYme sequences showed low similarity with sequences deposited in non-redundant databases, suggesting putative homologues. Our findings represent a first attempt to describe specific microbial CAZYme profiles for environmental samples. Characterizing these enzyme groups associated with the conversion of carbohydrates in nature will improve our understanding of the significant roles of enzymes in the carbon cycle. We identified a CAZYme signature that can be used to discriminate between soil and freshwater samples, and this signature may be related to the microbial species adapted to the habitat. The data show the potential ecological roles of the CAZYme repertoire and

  12. Major and minor elements analysis in soil samples by neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Claudia Petronilho Ribeiro; Ana Maria Graciano; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence were employed to analyze major and minor elements in soil samples collected near Bandeirantes road. Elements of environmental interest, such as Al, Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, V and Zn, which have reference background levels, were determined. The samples were dried in an oven at 40 deg C, were sieved (<2 mm), grinded and were analyzed by INAA and FRX. The aims of this work were: to evaluate the possible variations in the concentration levels in soil due to emission of particulate from vehicles and other anthropogenic sources; to compare the results obtained by using both techniques. This preliminary study showed that the concentration levels of the elements of environmental interest agree with reference values for tropical soils in the sampling sites, except for Ba, which presented higher values. (author)

  13. Contamination of Soil Samples of Public Parks with Toxocara spp. Eggs in Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid GHASHGHAEI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a zoonotic helminth infection, occurring in humans by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis and less frequently Toxocara cati. The present study was conducted to determine the existence of Toxocara spp. eggs by using the sucrose flotation method. A total of 150 soil samples were collected randomly from 7 public parks in Kermanshah city between September and December 2014 for investigating the presence of infective stages of parasites and to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 27 (18% were infected with eggs of Toxocara spp. eggs. The present investigation showed that humans (especially children from urban areas are at risk of acquiring helminth infection from contaminated soil. Since this host species is capable of transmitting zoonotic agents to both animals and humans, animal populations, including stray dogs and cats, have to be controlled to minimize the distribution of parasites.

  14. Changes According to Incubation Periods in Some Microbiological Characteristics at Soil Samples of Some Soil Series from the Gelemen Agricultural Administration

    OpenAIRE

    KARA, Emine Erman

    1998-01-01

    Changes according to incubation periods in some microbiological characteristics at soil samples of soil series from Gelemen Agricultural Administraction were investigated in this study. The results show that bacteria, actinomycet had values in the first periods of incubation (30ºC and field capacity) and in the following periods increased. However, fungus population changed depending upon series properties and reached maximum values 24th and 32th days after the beginning of incubation. During...

  15. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  16. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  17. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  18. Quantitative analysis of untreated oil samples in in-air PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Saitoh, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The method of quantitative analysis of oil samples in in-air PIXE has been developed on the basis of a standard-free method. The components of the continuous X-rays originated from air and backing film can be exactly subtracted using a blank spectrum after normalization by the yields of Ar K-α X-rays. The method was developed using nine oil samples including standard oils and its accuracy was confirmed by comparing the results with those obtained by the internal-standard method. Validity of the method for practical oil samples was confirmed for various kinds of oils such as engine, machine and cooking oils. It was found that the method is effective for various kinds of oils whatever elements we designate as an index element. (author)

  19. Efficiency calibration and measurement of self-absorption correction of environmental gamma spectroscopy of soils samples using Marinelli beaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdi, M. R.; Mostajaboddavati, M.; Hassanzadeh, S.; Faghihian, H.; Rezaee, Kh.; Kamali, M.

    2006-01-01

    A nonlinear function in combination with the method of mixing activity calibrated is applied for fitting the experimental peak efficiency of HPGe spectrometers in 59-2614 keV energy range. The preparation of Marinelli beaker standards of mixed gamma and RG-set at secular equilibrium with its daughter radionuclides was studied. Standards were prepared by mixing of known amounts of 13B a, 241 Am, 152 Eu, 207 Bi, 24 Na, Al 2 O 3 powder and soil. The validity of these standards was checked by comparison with certified standard reference material RG-set and IAEA-Soil-6 Self-absorption was measured for the activity calculation of the gamma-ray lines about series of 238 U daughter, 232 Th series, 137 Cs and 40 K in soil samples. Self-absorption in the sample will depend on a number of factor including sample composition, density, sample size and gamma-ray energy. Seven Marinelli beaker standards were prepared in different degrees of compaction with bulk density ( ρ) of 1.000 to 1.600 g cm -3 . The detection efficiency versus density was obtained and the equation of self-absorption correction factors calculated for soil samples

  20. Determination of Boron in soils and plants samples using spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stas, J.; Hariri, Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the concentration of boron in soil and plant samples was determined with UV-vis spectrophotometer by using azomethine-H as a complex reagent. The calibration curve for boron determination in the range of (0μ3 g.mL - 1) was constructed by plotting the measured absorption of the yellow azomethine-H-B complex at λmax = 412.6 nm against boron concentration in the aqueous phase. The detection limit, repeatability limit, intermediate precision, accuracy, and recovery coefficient of this method were calculated and found to be 0.021 μg.mL - 1, 0.335% , 0.81%, 2.93%, (98.4-101.5)% respectively. The influence of some foreign ions on the determination of boron were also investigated in detail, most of the studied ions, like iron, iodide, and calcium can be tolerated within the ranges of (20-35μg.mL-1), (3000-5000μg.mL - 1) , (15000-30000μg.mL - 1) respectively. This is due to the fact, that ascorbic acid and EDTA in the buffer masking reagent reaction system can be very effective in masking these ions. This method was found to be economic and suitable for boron determination in standard and local samples (soil, plant) and requires small amount of sample (1g). This method can also be applied for boron determination in water samples (drinking and industrial waste water).(author)

  1. Predicting bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils by passive sampling with triolein embedded cellulose acetate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Yuqiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.cn; Wang Zijian [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Queen' s University Belfast, Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Triolein embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) was used for passive sampling of the fraction of naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in 18 field-contaminated soils. The sampling process of PAHs by TECAM fitted well with a first-order kinetics model and PAHs reached 95% of equilibrium in TECAM within 20 h. Concentrations of PAHs in TECAM (C{sub TECAM}) correlated well with the concentrations in soils (r{sup 2} = 0.693-0.962, p < 0.001). Furthermore, concentrations of PAHs determined in the soil solution were very close to the values estimated by C{sub TECAM} and the partition coefficient between TECAM and water (K{sub TECAM-w}). After lipid normalization nearly 1:1 relationships were observed between PAH concentrations in TECAMs and earthworms exposed to the soils (r{sup 2} = 0.591-0.824, n = 18, p < 0.01). These results suggest that TECAM can be a useful tool to predict bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils. - Triolein embedded cellulose acetate membranes can be a useful tool to predict bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils.

  2. Potential denitrification in arable soil samples at winter temperatures - measurements by 15N gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.; Foerster, I.; Matzel, W.

    1989-01-01

    In samples from the plough horizon of five soils taken after cereal harvest, denitrification was measured as volatilization of N 2 and N 2 O from 15 N nitrate in the absence of O 2 . Nitrate contents lower than 50 ppm N (related to soil dry matter) had only a small effect on denitrification velocity in four of the five soils. In a clay soil dependence on nitrate concentration corresponded to a first-order reaction. Available C was no limiting factor. Even at zero temperatures remarkable N amounts (on average 0.2 ppm N per day) were still denitrified. The addition of daily turnover rates in relation to soil temperatures prevailing from December to March revealed potential turnovers in the 0-to-30-cm layer of the soils to average 28 ± 5 ppm N. (author)

  3. Levels and effects of natural radionuclides in soil samples of Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjulata Yadav; Mukesh Rawat; Anoop Dangwal; Mukesh Prasad; Gusain, G.S.; Ramola, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of natural radionuclide gives significant parameter to assess the presence of gamma radioactivity and its radiological effect in our environment. Natural radionuclides are present in the form of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil, rocks, water, air, and building materials. Distribution of natural radionuclides depends on the type of minerals present in the soil and rocks. For this purpose gamma spectrometer is used as tool for finding the concentration of these radionuclides. The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in these soil samples were found to vary from of 8 ± 1 Bq/kg to 50 ± 10 Bq/kg with an average 20 Bq/kg, 7 ± 1-88 ± 16 Bq/kg with an Average 26 Bq/kg and 115 ± 18-885 ± 132 Bq/kg with an average 329 Bq/kg, respectively. In this paper, we are presenting the radiological effect due to distribution of natural radionuclide present in soil of Garhwal Himalaya. (author)

  4. The Benefits of Sample Return: Connecting Apollo Soils and Diviner Lunar Radiometer Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Donaldson-Hanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Pieters, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has produced the first global, high resolution, thermal infrared observations of an airless body. The Moon, which is the most accessible member of this most abundant class of solar system objects, is also the only body for which we have extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study to reproduce an accurate simulated lunar environment, evaluate the most appropriate sample and measurement conditions, collect thermal infrared spectra of a representative suite of Apollo soils, and correlate them with Diviner observations of the lunar surface. We find that analyses of Diviner observations of individual sampling stations and SLE measurements of returned Apollo soils show good agreement, while comparisons to thermal infrared reflectance under terrestrial conditions do not agree well, which underscores the need for SLE measurements and validates the Diviner compositional dataset. Future work includes measurement of additional soils in SLE and cross comparisons with measurements in JPL Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL).

  5. Adaptive sampling based on the cumulative distribution function of order statistics to delineate heavy-metal contaminated soils using kriging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, K.-W.; Lee, D.-Y.; Teng, Y.-L.

    2005-01-01

    Correctly classifying 'contaminated' areas in soils, based on the threshold for a contaminated site, is important for determining effective clean-up actions. Pollutant mapping by means of kriging is increasingly being used for the delineation of contaminated soils. However, those areas where the kriged pollutant concentrations are close to the threshold have a high possibility for being misclassified. In order to reduce the misclassification due to the over- or under-estimation from kriging, an adaptive sampling using the cumulative distribution function of order statistics (CDFOS) was developed to draw additional samples for delineating contaminated soils, while kriging. A heavy-metal contaminated site in Hsinchu, Taiwan was used to illustrate this approach. The results showed that compared with random sampling, adaptive sampling using CDFOS reduced the kriging estimation errors and misclassification rates, and thus would appear to be a better choice than random sampling, as additional sampling is required for delineating the 'contaminated' areas. - A sampling approach was derived for drawing additional samples while kriging

  6. Anaerobic digestion coupled with digestate injection reduced odour emissions from soil during manure distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzi, V; Riva, C; Scaglia, B; D'Imporzano, G; Tambone, F; Adani, F

    2018-04-15

    This work aimed to measure the odour impact of untreated cow and pig slurries and treated (digestate and liquid fraction of digestate) manures when they were used on soil at a field scale, while also testing different spreading methods, i.e. surface vs. injection. Five experiments were performed in 2012-2016 on different farms. Odours were quantitatively (specific odour emission rate - SOER) (OU E m -2 h -1 ) measured by using dynamic olfactometry and qualitatively, i.e. to obtain an "odour fingerprint", by using an electronic nose (EN). Anaerobic digestion was effective in allowing the reduction of potential odour emission from digestates, so that when they were dosed on soil, odours emitted were much lower than those from soils on which untreated slurries were used. Slurries/digestate injection reduced much more odour emitted by soils so that SOER tended to become more similar to that of the control (untreated soil) although the odours were slightly greater. Odour fingerprint data indicated that there was a direct correlation between SOER and odour fingerprints. This was due to the ability of EN to detect ammonia, S-compounds and methane that were (the first two mainly), also, responsible for odours. Very good regression was found for Log SOER and EN by using a Partial Least Square (PLS) approach (R 2 =0.73; R 2 cv =0.66; Pfingerprints for control (Blank) and injected organic matrices were virtually identical, due to the creation of cavities in the soil during the injection that decreased the treated surface. Anaerobic digestion and subsequent digestate injection allowed us to reduce odour impact, avoiding annoyance to local inhabitants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of soil sampling and analytical methods for asbestos at the Sumas Mountain Asbestos Site-Working towards a toolbox for better assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroble, Julie; Frederick, Timothy; Frame, Alicia; Vallero, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Established soil sampling methods for asbestos are inadequate to support risk assessment and risk-based decision making at Superfund sites due to difficulties in detecting asbestos at low concentrations and difficulty in extrapolating soil concentrations to air concentrations. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) currently recommends the rigorous process of Activity Based Sampling (ABS) to characterize site exposures. The purpose of this study was to compare three soil analytical methods and two soil sampling methods to determine whether one method, or combination of methods, would yield more reliable soil asbestos data than other methods. Samples were collected using both traditional discrete ("grab") samples and incremental sampling methodology (ISM). Analyses were conducted using polarized light microscopy (PLM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods or a combination of these two methods. Data show that the fluidized bed asbestos segregator (FBAS) followed by TEM analysis could detect asbestos at locations that were not detected using other analytical methods; however, this method exhibited high relative standard deviations, indicating the results may be more variable than other soil asbestos methods. The comparison of samples collected using ISM versus discrete techniques for asbestos resulted in no clear conclusions regarding preferred sampling method. However, analytical results for metals clearly showed that measured concentrations in ISM samples were less variable than discrete samples.

  8. Phosphorus mitigation during springtime runoff by amendments applied to grassed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusi-Kämppä, J; Turtola, E; Närvänen, A; Jauhiainen, L; Uusitalo, R

    2012-01-01

    Permanent grass vegetation on sloping soils is an option to protect fields from erosion, but decaying grass may liberate considerable amounts of dissolved reactive P (DRP) in springtime runoff. We studied the effects of freezing and thawing of grassed soil on surface runoff P concentrations by indoor rainfall simulations and tested whether the peak P concentrations could be reduced by amending the soil with P-binding materials containing Ca or Fe. Forty grass-vegetated soil blocks (surface area 0.045 m, depth 0.07 m) were retrieved from two permanent buffer zones on a clay and loam soil in southwest Finland. Four replicates were amended with either: (i) gypsum from phosphoric acid processing (CaSO × 2HO, 6 t ha), (ii) chalk powder (CaCO, 3.3 t ha), (iii) Fe-gypsum (6 t ha) from TiO processing, or (iv) granulated ferric sulfate (Fe[SO], 0.7 t ha), with four replicates serving as untreated controls. Rainfall (3.3 h × 5 mm h) was applied on presaturated samples set at a slope of 5% and the surface runoff was analyzed for DRP, total dissolved P (TDP), total P (TP), and suspended solids. Rainfall simulation was repeated twice after the samples were frozen. Freezing and thawing of the samples increased the surface runoff DRP concentration of the control treatment from 0.19 to 0.46 mg L, up to 2.6-3.7 mg L, with DRP being the main P form in surface runoff. Compared with the controls, surface runoff from soils amended with Fe compounds had 57 to 80% and 47 to 72% lower concentrations of DRP and TP, respectively, but the gypsum and chalk powder did not affect the P concentrations. Thus, amendments containing Fe might be an option to improve DRP retention in, e.g., buffer zones. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Cost-effective sampling of 137Cs-derived net soil redistribution: part 1 – estimating the spatial mean across scales of variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Chappell, A.; Nyamdavaa, B.; Yu, H.; Davaasuren, D.; Zoljargal, K.

    2015-01-01

    The 137 Cs technique for estimating net time-integrated soil redistribution is valuable for understanding the factors controlling soil redistribution by all processes. The literature on this technique is dominated by studies of individual fields and describes its typically time-consuming nature. We contend that the community making these studies has inappropriately assumed that many 137 Cs measurements are required and hence estimates of net soil redistribution can only be made at the field scale. Here, we support future studies of 137 Cs-derived net soil redistribution to apply their often limited resources across scales of variation (field, catchment, region etc.) without compromising the quality of the estimates at any scale. We describe a hybrid, design-based and model-based, stratified random sampling design with composites to estimate the sampling variance and a cost model for fieldwork and laboratory measurements. Geostatistical mapping of net (1954–2012) soil redistribution as a case study on the Chinese Loess Plateau is compared with estimates for several other sampling designs popular in the literature. We demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid design for spatial estimation of net soil redistribution. To demonstrate the limitations of current sampling approaches to cut across scales of variation, we extrapolate our estimate of net soil redistribution across the region, show that for the same resources, estimates from many fields could have been provided and would elucidate the cause of differences within and between regional estimates. We recommend that future studies evaluate carefully the sampling design to consider the opportunity to investigate 137 Cs-derived net soil redistribution across scales of variation. - Highlights: • The 137 Cs technique estimates net time-integrated soil redistribution by all processes. • It is time-consuming and dominated by studies of individual fields. • We use limited resources to estimate soil

  10. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S. — Occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. - Highlights: ► We assessed mixtures in untreated groundwater samples from public-supply wells. ► A screening

  11. Optimization of a sample processing protocol for recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Erin E.; Feldhake, David; Griffin, Dale; Lisle, John T.; Nichols, Tonya L.; Shah, Sanjiv; Pemberton, A; Schaefer III, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps. Optimization of the protocol included: identifying an ideal extraction diluent, variation in the number of wash steps, variation in the initial centrifugation speed, sonication and shaking mechanisms. The optimized protocol was demonstrated at two laboratories in order to evaluate the recovery of spores from loamy and sandy soils. The new protocol demonstrated an improved limit of detection for loamy and sandy soils over the non-optimized protocol with an approximate matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/g of soil. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol will be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries.

  12. Flexural properties of treated and untreated kenaf/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, B.F.; Shalwan, A.; Chin, C.W.; Ming, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Untreated kenaf fibre/epoxy composites. Treated kenaf fibre/epoxy composites. Highlights: ► Treatment of kenaf fibres with 6% NaOH has improved the flexural properties of epoxy composites. ► Interfacial adhesion of the natural fibres is controlled by the microstructure of the fibres. ► Kenaf fibres have a potential to replace glass fibres for flexural applications. -- Abstract: In the current work, flexural properties of unidirectional long kenaf fibre reinforced epoxy (KFRE) composites are studied. The kenaf fibres were prepared into two types as untreated and treated (with 6% NaOH). The failure mechanism and damage features of the materials were categorized with the surface observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results revealed that reinforcement of epoxy with treated kenaf fibres increased the flexural strength of the composite by about 36%, while, untreated fibres introduced 20% improvement. This was mainly due to the high improvement of the chemical treatment (NaOH) on the interfacial adhesion of the fibres and the porosity of the composites which prevented the debonding, detachments or pull out of fibres. For untreated KFRE, the fracture mechanisms were debonding, tearing, detachments and pull out of fibres. The developed composite exhibited superior properties compared to the previous composites based on natural and synthetic fibres.

  13. Sampling methods for pasture, soil and deposition for radioactivity emergency preparedness in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare sampling techniques for pasture, soil and deposition, planned for radioactivity surveillance in emergency situations in the Nordic countries. The basis of the survey was a questionnaire, sent to radiation protection authorities and laboratories. Sampling of pasture is performed with a cutting height between 1 and 5 cm above the ground from an area of about 1 m 2 . The sampling plots are usually randomly positioned. Soil samples, 3 to 20 cores in various patterns, are generally taken by a corer of varying diameter. For deposition sampling, precipitation collectors of different sizes are used. When comparing results, the differences between laboratories should be borne in mind so that proper corrections can be made. It is, however, important to consider that, especially in an emergency situation, the use of standardised methods may worsen the results if these methods are not part of the daily work. (orig.)

  14. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Macêdo, Regina CL; Rosado, Alexandre S; da Mota, Fabio F; Cavalcante, Maria AS; Eulálio, Kelsen D; Filho, Antônio D; Martins, Liline MS; Lazéra, Márcia S; Wanke, Bodo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soi...

  15. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Integrated Demonstration Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Timpson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated approach that utilizes various characterization technologies has been developed for the Uranium Soil Integrated Demonstration program. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation site near Cincinnati, Ohio, was selected as the host facility for this demonstration. Characterization of background, untreated contaminated, and treated contaminated soils was performed to assess the contamination and the effect of treatment efforts to remove uranium from these soils. Carbonate minerals were present in the contaminated soils (added for erosion control) but were absent in the nearby background soils. Because of the importance of the carbonate anion to uranium solubility, the occurrence of carbonate minerals in these soils will be an important factor in the development of a successful remediation technology. Uranium partitioning data among several particle-size fractions indicate that conventional soil washing will be ineffective for remediation of these soils and that chemical extraction will be necessary to lower the uranium concentration to the target level (52 mg/kg). Carbonate-based (sodium carbonate/bicarbonate) and acid-based (sulfuric and citric acids) lixiviants were employed for the selective removal of uranium from these soils. Characterization results have identified uranium phosphate minerals as the predominant uranium mineral form in both the untreated and treated soils. The low solubility associated with phosphate minerals is primarily responsible for their occurrence in the posttreated soils. Artificial weathering of the treated soils caused by the treatments, particularly acid-based lixiviants, was documented by their detrimental effects on several physicochemical characteristics of these soils (e.g., soil pH, particle-size distribution, and mineralogy)

  16. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Taylor

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease's non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes.A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max of 0-70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9-19.Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This information would facilitate reliable quantification of

  17. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew J; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease's non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes. A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max) of 0-70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9-19)). Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This information would facilitate reliable quantification of DALYs and

  18. Quality control for measurement of soil samples containing 237Np and 241Am as radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Zhang Caihong; Song Hailong; Ren Xiaona; Han Yuhu; Zhang Aiming; Chu Taiwei

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports quality control (QC) for the measurement of soil samples containing 237 Np and 241 Am as radiotracers in migration test of transuranic nuclides. All of the QC were done independently by the QA members of analytical work. It mainly included checking 5%-10% of the total analyzed samples; preparing blank samples, blind replicate sample and spiked samples used as quality control samples to check the quality of analytical work

  19. Effects of sewage sludge addition to Norway spruce seedlings on nitrogen availability and soil fauna in clear-cut areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Jouni K; Räisänen, Mikko

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobically digested and composted sewage sludge (CSS) has been suggested to be a slow-release fertilizer in forestry and an alternative to quick-release inorganic fertilizers. The effects of CSS with or without added carbohydrate on inorganic nitrogen availability and on soil animals were tested in two Norway spruce plantations. Half of the seedlings were individually fertilized with CSS, and the rest were left as controls. Solid sucrose was added to half of the fertilized and untreated seedlings. Soil samples were taken in the autumn in the first and the second year after the treatments. CSS increased soil NH4-N (2100%), the proportion of soil NO3-N, and the N concentration of spruce needles. CSS greatly reduced the abundances of enchytraeids, tardigrades and collembolans, but increased the proportion and abundance of bacterial-feeding nematodes irrespective of carbohydrate addition. A better stabilization method needs to be developed before CSS can be used as a forest fertilizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Portable automation of static chamber sample collection for quantifying soil gas flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled in a given time period is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. However, the static chamber method can limit spatial ...

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiation hazard indices in different soil samples from Assiut governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, S.A.M.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Hefni, M.A.; El-Kamel, A.H; Nesreen, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazard radiological levels. So, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks and to have a baseline for future changes in the environmental radioactivity due to human activities. Determine the radioactivity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in surface and 20 cm soil samples collected beside Assiut fertilizer plant, Assiut government in south Upper Egypt, to assess their contribution to the external dose exposure. The contents of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in investigated samples by using gamma spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3”x 3”]. The total absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent, excess lifetime cancer risk and the external hazard index, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil, were calculated

  2. Improved detection of endoparasite DNA in soil sample PCR by the use of anti-inhibitory substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, F; Vollrath, T; Schnieder, T; Epe, C

    2002-09-26

    Although there have been numerous microbial examinations of soil for the presence of human pathogenic developmental parasite stages of Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis, molecular techniques (e.g. DNA extraction, purification and subsequent PCR) have scarcely been applied. Here, DNA preparations of soil samples artificially contaminated with genomic DNA or parasite eggs were examined by PCR. A. caninum and T. canis-specific primers based on the ITS-2 sequence were used for amplification. After the sheer DNA preparation a high content of PCR-interfering substances was still detectable. Subsequently, two different inhibitors of PCR-interfering agents (GeneReleaser, Bioventures Inc. and Maximator, Connex GmbH) were compared in PCR. Both substances increased PCR sensitivity greatly. However, comparison of the increase in sensitivity achieved with the two compounds demonstrated the superiority of Maximator, which enhanced sensitivity to the point of permitting positive detection of a single A. caninum egg and three T. canis eggs in a soil sample. This degree of sensitivity could not be achieved with GeneReleaser for either parasite Furthermore, Maximator not only increased sensitivity; it also cost less, required less time and had a lower risk of contamination. Future applications of molecular methods in epidemiological examinations of soil samples are discussed/elaborated.

  3. Impact of long term applications of cotton pesticides on soil biological properties, dissipation of [14C]-methyl parathion and persistence of multi-pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M.; Peres, T.B.; Luchini, L.C.; Marcondes, M.A.; Pettinelli, A. Jr.; Nakagawa, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    Biological parameters were followed in soils from a cotton farm (Tatui) where the recommended pesticides have been used for years, and from an experimental field (Sao Paulo) which was subdivided in two areas: one received the recommended pesticides and the other was maintained untreated. The soil bioactivities monitored from 1995 to 1998, after different pesticide applications, were: basal and glucose-induced respiration; anaerobic activity; nitrification rate; activity of the enzymes: dehydrogenase, aryl sulfatase and arginine deaminase; the soil capacity to mineralize an aromatic pesticide molecule ([ 14 C]-2,4-D), fungal and bacterial contributions for soil respiration until the beginning of 1998, and fungal and bacterial numbers from the beginning of 1998. The dissipation of [ 14 C]-methyl parathion - one of the recommended pesticides - was followed by radiometric techniques only in Sao Paulo, but persistence of multi-residues was determined in both soils by gas-liquid chromatography. All the biological parameters varied each sampling time and values also varied among soil samples, being inhibited or stimulated by the different pesticide applications, but they mostly recovered the initially detected activity. Dissipation of methyl parathion was fast and not affected by the other pesticide applications. Pesticide residues varied between the two soils but were mostly low after all applications, which indicates their dissipation. (author)

  4. Representing major soil variability at regional scale by constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling of remote sensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.; Bruin, de S.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sparse, remote sensing-based sampling approach making use of conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) to assess variability in soil properties at regional scale. The method optimizes the sampling scheme for a defined spatial population based on selected covariates, which are

  5. Comparison of tree coring and soil gas sampling for screening of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Stalder, Marcel; Riis, Charlotte

    and then identify high risk areas. The uptake of BTEX into trees varies to a greater extent with the tree species and the site conditions than chlorinated solvents, which lead to greater uncertainty. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the methods supplement each other. Based on results......Site characterization is often time consuming and a financial burden for the site owners, which raises a demand for rapid and inexpensive (pre)screening methods. Phytoscreening by tree coring has shown to be a useful tool to detect subsurface contamination, especially of chlorinated solvents...... suitable as initial screening methods for site characterization. The aim of this study is to compare tree coring and soil gas sampling to evaluate to which extent tree coring may supplement or substitute soil gas sampling as a site contaminant screening tool. And where both methods are feasible, evaluate...

  6. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S. - Occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toccalino, Patricia L., E-mail: ptocca@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 6000 J Street, Placer Hall, Sacramento, California 95819 (United States); Norman, Julia E., E-mail: jnorman@usgs.gov [USGS, 2130 SW 5th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States); Scott, Jonathon C., E-mail: jon@usgs.gov [USGS, 202 NW 66th Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73116 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed mixtures in untreated groundwater samples from public

  7. Causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, W.; Meng, X.

    2000-01-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients (mean (SD) 46 (11) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism and anorexia and 29 patients (35 (9) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism without anorexia were studied. The study was conducted at the thyroid clinic of the PUMC Hospital, Beijing, China from March to August 1997. The patients' ages, serum free calcium, liver function and emotional state, specifically the level of anxiety (using the self anxiety scale, Chinese version), were compared before and/or after ...

  8. Disparities in untreated caries among children and adults in the U.S., 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Niodita; Vujicic, Marko; Yarbrough, Cassandra; Harrison, Brittany

    2018-03-06

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 increased dental coverage for children in the United States, (U.S.) but not for adults. Few studies in current scholarship make use of up-to-date, nationally representative data to examine oral health disparities in the U.S. The purpose of this study is to use nationally representative data to determine the prevalence of untreated caries among children and adults of different socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups and to examine the factors associated with untreated caries among children and adults. This study used the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) demographic, oral health questionnaire, and oral health dentition examination data (n = 7008 for children; n = 9673 for adults). Participants that had a standardized oral health examination and at least one natural primary or permanent tooth considering 28 tooth spaces were included in this study. Our main outcome measure was untreated coronal caries defined as decay on the crown or enamel surface of a tooth that had not been treated or filled. Population estimates were calculated to determine the prevalence of untreated caries among children and adults in the United States. Frequencies and Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare those with and without untreated caries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the factors associated with untreated caries. We conducted analyses among children and adults separately. From 2011 to 2014, 12.4 million children and 57.6 million adults in the United States had untreated caries. Age, family income level, recent dental visit, and financial and non-financial barriers were significantly associated with untreated caries in both children and adults. Race/ethnicity, gender and education level were also significantly associated with untreated caries among adults. The odds of untreated caries associated with financial barriers were 2.06 for children and 2.84 for adults while the

  9. Effects of soil solarization and some amendments to control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCM) (1 kg m-2), solarization + olive processing waste (SOPW) (2 kg m-2), solarization + urea (SU) (100 g m-2) and an untreated control (C). Maximum soil temperatures reached in solarized plots were 54.7 and 43.9°C and in the ...

  10. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Childs, M.; Rivera-Dirks, C.; Coriz, F.

    1995-07-01

    Area G, in Technical Area 54, has been the principle facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the storage and disposal of low-level and transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes since 1957. The current environmental investigation consisted of ESH-19 personnel who collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G to characterize possible contaminant movement through surface-water runoff. These samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241 (soil only), and cesium 137. The metals, mercury, lead, and barium, were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence

  11. An assessment of the natural radioactivity distribution and radiation hazard in soil samples from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Al Mugren, K.S.; Bradley, D.A.; Regan, P.H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Nasir, Tabassum; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bukhari, S.

    2017-01-01

    We establish baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration in the soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the naturally occurring and technically enhanced levels of radiation associated with 235,8 U and 232 Th natural decay chains and the long-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. Three radiological distribution maps showing the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were constructed. Two soil samples were found to be elevated to the favour of 226 Ra concentration and significantly above the average and global values. Notably, these samples were collected from an area within an oil field (NW Dukhan). The mean values of activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for the full cohort of samples were found to be 17.2±1.6, 6.38±0.26 and 169±5 Bq/kg, respectively. These values lie within the expected range relative to the world average values in soil samples of 30, 35 and 400 Bq/kg, respectively. - Highlights: • This study aimed to establish a baseline for soil radioactivity in Qatar. • The work focused on measurement of NORM levels in 129 samples using HPGe detector. • The mean values lie within the range relative to the world average values. • The Ac of Dukhan soil samples were elevated. • The mean of D, Ra eq , H ex and AEDE had all normal levels of radiation.

  12. Identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways using high frequency sampling, REE aqueous sampling and soil characterization at Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory, Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraetis, Daniel, E-mail: moraetis@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Stamati, Fotini; Kotronakis, Manolis; Fragia, Tasoula; Paranychnianakis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Identification of hydrological and geochemical pathways within a complex watershed. > Water increased N-NO{sub 3} concentration and E.C. values during flash flood events. > Soil degradation and impact on water infiltration within the Koiliaris watershed. > Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in water bodies for identification of karstic water. - Abstract: Koiliaris River watershed is a Critical Zone Observatory that represents severely degraded soils due to intensive agricultural activities and biophysical factors. It has typical Mediterranean soils under the imminent threat of desertification which is expected to intensify due to projected climate change. High frequency hydro-chemical monitoring with targeted sampling for Rare Earth Elements (REE) analysis of different water bodies and geochemical characterization of soils were used for the identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways. The high frequency monitoring of water chemical data highlighted the chemical alterations of water in Koiliaris River during flash flood events. Soil physical and chemical characterization surveys were used to identify erodibility patterns within the watershed and the influence of soils on surface and ground water chemistry. The methodology presented can be used to identify the impacts of degraded soils to surface and ground water quality as well as in the design of methods to minimize the impacts of land use practices.

  13. TRAN-STAT: statistics for environmental studies, Number 22. Comparison of soil-sampling techniques for plutonium at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Hahn, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    A summary of a field soil sampling study conducted around the Rocky Flats Colorado plant in May 1977 is preseted. Several different soil sampling techniques that had been used in the area were applied at four different sites. One objective was to comparethe average 239 - 240 Pu concentration values obtained by the various soil sampling techniques used. There was also interest in determining whether there are differences in the reproducibility of the various techniques and how the techniques compared with the proposed EPA technique of sampling to 1 cm depth. Statistically significant differences in average concentrations between the techniques were found. The differences could be largely related to the differences in sampling depth-the primary physical variable between the techniques. The reproducibility of the techniques was evaluated by comparing coefficients of variation. Differences between coefficients of variation were not statistically significant. Average (median) coefficients ranged from 21 to 42 percent for the five sampling techniques. A laboratory study indicated that various sample treatment and particle sizing techniques could increase the concentration of plutonium in the less than 10 micrometer size fraction by up to a factor of about 4 compared to the 2 mm size fraction

  14. Determination of concentrations of chromium and other elements in soil and plant samples from leather tanning area by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohit Kumar; Rai, A.K.; Alamelu, D.; Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chromium, one of the toxic elements, along with other elements has been determined in samples of soil and plant (leaves and seeds) from Jajmau Area, Kanpur district, India, which is irrigated with effluent waste water from leather tanning industries. Soil and plant samples were collected from these areas and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using high flux reactor neutrons and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Concentrations of fifteen elements in soil and five elements in plant samples were determined by relative method. Chromium concentrations were found to be in range of 45-3,900 mg kg -1 in soil samples and 14-83 mg kg -1 in plant samples. This study showed that Cr is present in significant amounts, in the soil as well as in the plant samples, near to the leather tanning area. As a part of quality control work, IAEA reference material (RM) SL-3 and NIST standard reference material (SRM) 1645 were analyzed and the quality of the results has been evaluated by calculating % deviations from recommended/literature/certified values. (author)

  15. Lead, arsenic, and copper content of crops grown on lead arsenate-treated and untreated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, D

    1972-01-01

    Increased lead and arsenic concentrations in the surface soil (0-15 cm), resulting from applications of lead arsenate (PbHAs0/sub 1/), increased both lead and arsenic levels in crops grown on treated plots. The lead levels in some crops approached or exceeded the Canadian residue tolerance of 2.0 ppM. Lead arsenate soil treatments did not affect copper absorption by crops. On areas such as old orchard land contaminated with lead arsenate residues it may be advisable to ascertain crops, and also to determine the lead affinity and arsenic sensitivity of the plants to be grown.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H 2 S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m 3 day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH 4 yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m 3 day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH 4 yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m 3 day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m 3 d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS at 3 kg VS/m 3 d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS at 4 kg VS/m 3 d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components

  17. Characterization of antibiotic resistant enterococci isolated from untreated waters for human consumption in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Ana S; Freitas, Ana R; Abreu, Cristina; Machado, Elisabete; Peixe, Luísa; Sousa, João C; Novais, Carla

    2011-01-31

    Untreated drinking water is frequently overlooked as a source of antibiotic resistance in developed countries. To gain further insight on this topic, we isolated the indicator bacteria Enterococcus spp. from water samples collected in wells, fountains and natural springs supplying different communities across Portugal, and characterized their antibiotic resistance profile with both phenotypic and genetic approaches. We found various rates of resistance to seven antibiotic families. Over 50% of the isolates were resistant to at least ciprofloxacin, tetracyclines or quinupristin-dalfopristin and 57% were multidrug resistant to ≥3 antibiotics from different families. Multiple enterococcal species (E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. casseliflavus and other Enterococcus spp) from different water samples harbored genes encoding resistance to tetracyclines, erythromycin or gentamicin [tet(M)-46%, tet(L)-14%, tet(S)-5%, erm(B)-22%, aac(6´)-Ie-aph(2″)-12%] and putative virulence factors [gel-28%, asa1-16%]. The present study positions untreated drinking water within the spectrum of ecological niches that may be reservoirs of or vehicles for antibiotic resistant enterococci/genes. These findings are worthy of attention as spread of antibiotic resistant enterococci to humans and animals through water ingestion cannot be dismissed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inter-laboratory variation in the chemical analysis of acidic forest soil reference samples from eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Donald S.; Bailiey, Scott W; Briggs, Russell D; Curry, Johanna; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Fredriksen, Guinevere; Goodale, Christine L.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Heine, Paul R; Johnson, Chris E.; Larson, John T; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Kolka, Randy K; Ouimet, Rock; Pare, D; Richter, Daniel D.; Shirmer, Charles D; Warby, Richard A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term forest soil monitoring and research often requires a comparison of laboratory data generated at different times and in different laboratories. Quantifying the uncertainty associated with these analyses is necessary to assess temporal changes in soil properties. Forest soil chemical properties, and methods to measure these properties, often differ from agronomic and horticultural soils. Soil proficiency programs do not generally include forest soil samples that are highly acidic, high in extractable Al, low in extractable Ca and often high in carbon. To determine the uncertainty associated with specific analytical methods for forest soils, we collected and distributed samples from two soil horizons (Oa and Bs) to 15 laboratories in the eastern United States and Canada. Soil properties measured included total organic carbon and nitrogen, pH and exchangeable cations. Overall, results were consistent despite some differences in methodology. We calculated the median absolute deviation (MAD) for each measurement and considered the acceptable range to be the median 6 2.5 3 MAD. Variability among laboratories was usually as low as the typical variability within a laboratory. A few areas of concern include a lack of consistency in the measurement and expression of results on a dry weight basis, relatively high variability in the C/N ratio in the Bs horizon, challenges associated with determining exchangeable cations at concentrations near the lower reporting range of some laboratories and the operationally defined nature of aluminum extractability. Recommendations include a continuation of reference forest soil exchange programs to quantify the uncertainty associated with these analyses in conjunction with ongoing efforts to review and standardize laboratory methods.

  19. Iron Compounds and the Color of Soils in the Sakhalin Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Kirillova, N. P.; Manakhov, D. V.; Karpukhin, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    Numerical parameters of soil color were studied according to the CIE-L*a*b color system before and after the Tamm's and Mehra-Jackson's treatments; we also determined the total Fe content in the samples from the main genetic horizons of the alluvial gray-humus soil, two profiles of burozems, and two profiles of podzols in the Sakhalin Island. In the analyzed samples, the numerical color parameters L* (lightness), a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) are found to vary within 46-73, 3-11, and 8-28, respectively. A linear relationship is revealed between the numerical values of a* parameters and Fe content in the Mehra-Jackson extracts; the regression equations are derived with the determination coefficients ( R 2): 0.49 (typical burozem), 0.79 (podzolized burozem), 0.96 (shallow-podzolic mucky podzol), 0.98 (gray-humus gley alluvial soil). For the surface-podzolic mucky podzol contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, R 2 was equal to only 0.03. In the gray humus (AY) and structural-metamorphic (BM) horizons of the studied soils, a* and b* parameters decrease after their treatment with the Tamm's reagent by 2 points on average. After the Mehra-Jackson treatment, the a* parameter decreased by 6 (AY) and 8 (BM) points; whereas b* parameter, by 10 and 15 points, respectively. In the E horizons of podzols, the Tamm's treatment increased a* and b* parameters by 1 point; whereas the Mehra-Jackson's treatment decreased these parameters by only 1 and 3 points, respectively. The redness (a*) decreased maximally in the lower gley horizon of the alluvial gray humus soil, i.e., by 6 (in the Tamm's extract) and 10 points (in the Mehra-Jackson's) extract. Yellowness (b*) decreased by 12 and 17 points, respectively. The revealed color specifics in the untreated samples and the color transformation under the impact of reagents in the studied soils and horizons may serve as an additional parameter that characterizes quantitatively the object of investigation in the reference databases.

  20. Alpha liquid-scintillation spectrometry used for the measurement of uranium/thorium-disequilibria in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueeg, B.; Tschachtli, T.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1997-01-01

    For the measurements of low-level radioactivity of natural samples. It is of interest to have a system with high counting efficiency. Alpha liquid-scintillation spectrometry is attractive, because it offers a 4 π geometry. Some chemical separation can be obtained using extractive scintillators. Due to quenching problems for natural samples, additional separation power is needed. A new sample preparation method was developed employing extraction chromatographic resin for measuring 238 U, 234 U, 232 Th, 230 Th, 228 Th and 226 Ra in soil samples, without using any uranium- or thorium-tracer for determining the chemical yields. This method was tested by analyzing the two different reference materials, IAEA-375, soil from Tschernobyl, as well as IAEA SDA-1, a deep-sea sediment with a high calcium content. For all analyzed radionuclides the recoveries were better than 90% with errors (confidence level of 95%) smaller than 5%. The minimal detectable concentration ranges between 0.2 and 0.8 Bq/kg, based on a one gram aliquot of sample and 80'000 seconds counting time. (orig.)