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Sample records for untreated control water

  1. Microbiological composition of untreated water during different weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Bešić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water can support the growth of different microorganisms which may result in contamination. Therefore, the microbiological examination is required for testing the hygienic probity of water. In the study of microbial composition of untreated, natural spring and mineral water differences in the presence and number of bacteria during the two periods, winter and summer, are detectable.Methods: In our study, we analyzed and compared the following parameters, specified in the Rulebook: total bacteria and total aerobic bacteria (ml/22 and 37°C, total Coliform bacteria and Coliforms of fecalorigin (MPN/100ml, fecal streptococci as Streptococcus faecalis  (MPN/100ml, Proteus spp (MPN/100ml, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MPN/100 ml Sulphoreducing Clostridia (cfu / ml. The paper is a retrospective study in which we processed data related to the period of 2005-2009 year. While working, we used the descriptive-analytical comparative statistical treatment.Results: The obtained results show statistically significant differences in the microbial composition of untreated water in the two observed periods,Conclusions: Findings were consequence of different weather conditions in these periods, which imply a number of other variable factors.

  2. Influence of untreated and bacterial-treated Yamuna water on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present study an attempt has been made to study the pollution level of river Yamuna at Agra, by analyzing the physico-chemical parameters of untreated and bacterial-treated water and its effect on the growth of maize plant. Among different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100%) of treated water, the 100% concentration of ...

  3. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

  4. Prevalence, species differentiation, haemolytic activity, and antibiotic susceptibility of aeromonads in untreated well water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of untreated water for drinking and other activities have been associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans due to Aeromonas species. In the present study aeromonads were isolated from 48.7% of 1,000 water samples obtained from wells and other miscellaneous sources. Aeromonas species were detected in 45% of samples tested in spring, 34.5% in summer, 48% in autumn and 60% of samples tested in winter. Speciation of 382 strains resulted in 225 (59% being A. hydrophila, 103 (27% A. caviae, 42 (11% A. sobria and 11 (3% atypical aeromonads. Of 171 Aeromonas strains tested for their haemolytic activity, 53%, 49%, 40% and 37% were positive in this assay using human, horse, sheep and camel erythrocytes respectively. The results obtained indicate that potentially enteropathogenic Aeromonas species are commonly present in untreated drinking water obtained from wells in Libya (this may also apply to other neighbouring countries which may pose a health problem to users of such water supplies. In addition, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are suitable drugs that can be used in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated infections, particularly in the immunocompromised, resulting from contact with untreated sources of water.

  5. Growth of Chironomus dilutus larvae exposed to ozone-treated and untreated oil sands process water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.; Wiseman, S.; Franz, E.; Jones, P.; Liber, K.; Giesy, J.; Gamal El-Din, M.; Marin, J.

    2010-01-01

    Oil sand processing operations require large quantities of freshwater and produce large volumes of oil sands process water (OSPW) which must be stored on-site. This presentation reviewed various treatment methods for remediating OSPW in order to eliminate downstream toxicity. Naphthenic acids are the most important target fractions for treatment because they are primarily responsible for the acute toxicity of OSPW. Although ozonation has shown promise for reducing OSPW toxicity, the effects of ozonation on aquatic invertebrates remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of exposure to untreated and ozonated OSPW in Chironomus dilutus larvae. OSPW was treated with either a 50 or 80 mg O 3 /L dose of ozonation. The effects of ozonation levels on C. dilutus survival and growth were examined. The study showed that after a 10-day exposure, there were pronounced effects on survival of larvae exposed to ozone-treated or untreated OSPW. Larvae exposed to OSPW were 64-77 percent smaller than their respective controls, but the mean wet mass of organisms exposed to 50 mg O 3 /L ozonated OSPW was not much different from that of the controls. Larvae exposed to 80 mg O 3 /L ozone-treated OSPW were 40 percent smaller than the freshwater controls, and the mean wet mass was also much larger than the untreated OSPW. It was concluded that the toxicity of OSPW to benthic invertebrates may be reduced by ozone treatment.

  6. Characterization of antibiotic resistant enterococci isolated from untreated waters for human consumption in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Ana S; Freitas, Ana R; Abreu, Cristina; Machado, Elisabete; Peixe, Luísa; Sousa, João C; Novais, Carla

    2011-01-31

    Untreated drinking water is frequently overlooked as a source of antibiotic resistance in developed countries. To gain further insight on this topic, we isolated the indicator bacteria Enterococcus spp. from water samples collected in wells, fountains and natural springs supplying different communities across Portugal, and characterized their antibiotic resistance profile with both phenotypic and genetic approaches. We found various rates of resistance to seven antibiotic families. Over 50% of the isolates were resistant to at least ciprofloxacin, tetracyclines or quinupristin-dalfopristin and 57% were multidrug resistant to ≥3 antibiotics from different families. Multiple enterococcal species (E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. casseliflavus and other Enterococcus spp) from different water samples harbored genes encoding resistance to tetracyclines, erythromycin or gentamicin [tet(M)-46%, tet(L)-14%, tet(S)-5%, erm(B)-22%, aac(6´)-Ie-aph(2″)-12%] and putative virulence factors [gel-28%, asa1-16%]. The present study positions untreated drinking water within the spectrum of ecological niches that may be reservoirs of or vehicles for antibiotic resistant enterococci/genes. These findings are worthy of attention as spread of antibiotic resistant enterococci to humans and animals through water ingestion cannot be dismissed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. pH Control of Untreated Water for Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyen, Faruk Bin; Kundu, Palash K.; Ghosh, Apurba K.

    2018-05-01

    Irrigation in India still plays a pivotal role in the country's economic and employment structure. But due to unawareness and lack of technological upgradations and ill and careless agricultural practices, the yield from the fields is poor and not to its best capacity. There exists a lot of reasons and factors that brings down the crop productivity. One among them is the quality of irrigation water that is supplied to the fields. It is a common practice in India and other sub-continental countries not to access the water qualitatively before getting fed to the fields. Albeit, it does not have catastrophic effects on the productivity, but it affects the nourishment of the crops to some good extent. Water pH has a strong effect on the soil and crop, when it comes to absorption of nutrients by the plant bodies. With properly regulating the pH level of the irrigation water, it is possible to create an ambiance where the symbiotic effects between the soil and the plant can be optimized. In this paper, it is tried to regulate the pH levels of the water based on the type of soil and the optimal requirement by the crop. The work in this paper involves neutralization of acidic or alkaline water before it is being supplied to the farmlands. The process model is simulation based which gave considerably good and acceptable results.

  8. EPA and USGS scientists conduct study to determine prevalence of newly-emerging contaminants in treated and untreated drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists from the EPA and USGS are collaborating on a research study to determine the presence of contaminants of emerging concern in treated and untreated drinking water collected from drinking water treatment plants.

  9. Potential of nitrate addition to control the activity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in high-temperature oil production systems - a comparative study on a nitrate-treated and an untreated system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gittel, Antje; Sørensen, Ketil; Skovhus, Torben L.

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) cause severe problems like microbial corrosion and reservoir souring in seawater-injected oil production systems. Adding nitrate to the injection water is applied to control SRP activity by favoring the growth of heterotrophic, nitrate-reducing bacteria (h......NRB) and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). Microbial diversity, abundance of Bacteria, Archaea and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) and the potential activity of SRP were studied in production water samples from a nitrate-treated and an untreated system. The reservoirs and the produced water......) and Desulfotomaculum (system with nitrate). In samples from the untreated site, the presence of active SRP was supported by demonstrating their activity (incubations with 35S-sulfate) and growth in batch cultures at pipeline temperature. No SRP activity was detected at reservoir temperature and in samples from...

  10. Biological control of schistosome transmission in flowing water habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, W R; Laracuente, A

    1979-09-01

    Marisa cornuarietis was evaluated in Puerto Rico for control of schistosome transmission in flowing water. A population of Biomphalaria glabrata and their schistosome infections disappeared after introduction of 20,000 M. cornuarietis to an endemic stream, while in nearby untreated streams the B. glabrata population remained stable and the schistosome prevalence increased. This method cost U.S. $0.10 per capita for over a year of protection, 5%-10% of the cost of chemical control.

  11. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota.

  12. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S. — Occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. - Highlights: ► We assessed mixtures in untreated groundwater samples from public-supply wells. ► A screening

  13. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S. - Occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toccalino, Patricia L., E-mail: ptocca@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 6000 J Street, Placer Hall, Sacramento, California 95819 (United States); Norman, Julia E., E-mail: jnorman@usgs.gov [USGS, 2130 SW 5th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States); Scott, Jonathon C., E-mail: jon@usgs.gov [USGS, 202 NW 66th Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73116 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed mixtures in untreated groundwater samples from public

  14. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks

  15. Caffeine as an indicator for the quantification of untreated wastewater in karst systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin; Geyer, Tobias

    2012-02-01

    Contamination from untreated wastewater leakage and related bacterial contamination poses a threat to drinking water quality. However, a quantification of the magnitude of leakage is difficult. The objective of this work is to provide a highly sensitive methodology for the estimation of the mass of untreated wastewater entering karst aquifers with rapid recharge. For this purpose a balance approach is adapted. It is based on the mass flow of caffeine in spring water, the load of caffeine in untreated wastewater and the daily water consumption per person in a spring catchment area. Caffeine is a source-specific indicator for wastewater, consumed and discharged in quantities allowing detection in a karst spring. The methodology was applied to estimate the amount of leaking and infiltrating wastewater to a well investigated karst aquifer on a daily basis. The calculated mean volume of untreated wastewater entering the aquifer was found to be 2.2 ± 0.5 m(3) d(-1) (undiluted wastewater). It corresponds to approximately 0.4% of the total amount of wastewater within the spring catchment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S.--occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L; Norman, Julia E; Scott, Jonathon C

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - II) Untreated drinking water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, M.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Barnes, K.K.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Barber, L.B.; Thurman, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a variety of manufactured and natural organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, steroids, surfactants, flame retardants, fragrances, plasticizers and other chemicals often associated with wastewaters have been detected in the vicinity of municipal wastewater discharges and livestock agricultural facilities. To provide new data and insights about the environmental presence of some of these chemicals in untreated sources of drinking water in the United States targeted sites were sampled and analyzed for 100 analytes with sub-parts per billion detection capabilities. The sites included 25 ground- and 49 surface-water sources of drinking water serving populations ranging from one family to over 8 million people.

  18. Effect of untreated and treated sewage wastewater by chloride or irradiation on growth of some plants and soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Khalifa, K.

    2003-12-01

    Pot experiments were conducted at Deir-Alhajar research station, about 40 km. south east of Damascus during 2000. Corn. eggplant and parsley were planted in plastic pots capacity 8 kg soil to study the effect of irrigation of corn, eggplant and parsley by untreated and treated sewage water (by Chloride or Irradiation) on growth and effect of irrigation on soil characteristics and accumulation of some heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, Co, Hg, and Zn, Cu in plant and soil which irrigated with treated and untreated sewage water compared with irrigated with fresh water (well water). The results showed that no negative effect was observed for untreated and treated sewage water on growth of plants (corn, eggplant and parsley). Also, no significant effect due to irrigation with treated and untreated sewage water was observed in accumulation of some trace elopements (heavy metals) such as Cr, Pb, Hg, and Zn and Cu in plants irrigated with treated and untreated sewage water to critical toxic point. This point needed more studies and longer period to confirm these results before using by farmers on large scale. Irradiation of sewage water had a positive effect on reducing the transfer of some heavy toxic metals such as Pb and Cr form waste water to soil. (author)

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Ripple Effect of a Nationally Available Weight Management Program on Untreated Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A; Lenz, Erin M; Cornelius, Talea; Huedo-Medina, Tania; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Foster, Gary D

    2018-03-01

    For married couples, when one spouse participates in weight loss treatment, the untreated spouse can also experience weight loss. This study examined this ripple effect in a nationally available weight management program. One hundred thirty dyads were randomized to Weight Watchers (WW; n = 65) or to a self-guided control group (SG; n = 65) and assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 25 years, BMI 27 to 40 kg/m 2 (≥ 25 kg/m 2 for untreated spouses), and no weight loss contraindications. WW participants received 6 months of free access to in-person meetings and online tools. SG participants received a weight loss handout. Spouses did not receive treatment. Untreated spouses lost weight at 3 months (WW = -1.5 ± 2.9 kg; SG = -1.1 ± 3.3 kg) and 6 months (WW = -2.2 ± 4.2 kg; SG = -1.9 ± 3.6 kg), but weight losses did not differ by condition. Overall, 32.0% of untreated spouses lost ≥ 3% of initial body weight by 6 months. Baseline weight was significantly correlated within couples (r = 0.26; P ripple effect was found in untreated spouses in both formal and self-guided weight management approaches. These data suggest that weight loss can spread within couples, and that widely available lifestyle programs have weight loss effects beyond the treated individual. © 2018 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  20. Historical trends in occurrence and atmospheric inputs of halogenated volatile organic compounds in untreated ground water used as a source of drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, S.D.; Busenberg, E.; Focazio, M.J.; Plummer, Niel

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of samples of untreated ground water from 413 community-, non-community- (such as restaurants), and domestic-supply wells throughout the US were used to determine the frequency of detection of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking-water sources. The VOC data were compiled from archived chromatograms of samples analyzed originally for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by purge-and-trap gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector (GC-ECD). Concentrations of the VOCs could not be ascertained because standards were not routinely analyzed for VOCs other than trichloromonofluoromethane (CFC-11), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) and 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113). Nevertheless, the peak areas associated with the elution times of other VOCs on the chromatograms can be classified qualitatively to assess concentrations at a detection limit on the order of parts per quadrillion. Three or more VOCs were detected in 100% (percent) of the chromatograms, and 77.2% of the samples contained 10 or more VOCs. The maximum number of VOCs detected in any sample was 24. Modeled ground-water residence times, determined from concentrations of CFC-12, were used to assess historical trends in the cumulative occurrence of all VOCs detected in this analysis, as well as the occurrence of individual VOCs, such as CFC-11, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), chloroform and tetrachloroethene (PCE). The detection frequency for all of the VOCs detected has remained relatively constant from approximately 1940 to 2000; however, the magnitude of the peak areas on the chromatograms for the VOCs in the water samples has increased from 1940 to 2000. For CFC-11, CCl4, chloroform and PCE, small peaks decrease from 1940 to 2000, and large peaks increase from 1940 to 2000. The increase in peak areas on the chromatograms from analyses of more recently recharged water is consistent with reported increases in atmospheric concentrations of the VOCs. Approximately 44% and 6

  1. Efficacy of emamectin benzoate against sea lice infestations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: evaluation in the absence of an untreated contemporary control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, L; Ellis, S; Robinson, T; Marenghi, F; Endris, R

    2006-10-01

    The efficacy of emamectin benzoate (SLICE) against sea lice infestations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., is typically assessed using untreated fish, or fish treated with alternative therapeutants, as controls. The State of Maine, USA, is currently under active management for the OIE-notifiable pathogen, infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV); consequently, neither control group is feasible in this region. Untreated salmon risk extensive damage from the ectoparasites, and threaten to increase vector-borne exposure or susceptibility of farms to ISAV; and the only treatment presently available in Maine is SLICE. However, because sea lice infestations are unlikely to resolve spontaneously, and response to treatment occurs within weeks, use of a pretreatment baseline is a reasonable alternative for confirmatory studies. We evaluated SLICE efficacy on Atlantic salmon farms in Cobscook Bay 2002-2005, in the absence of untreated controls, using pretreatment lice loads as a reference for calculation. Maximum efficacy ranged from 68% to 100% reduction from initial levels. Time-to-maximum efficacy ranged from 1 to 8 weeks after treatment initiation. Efficacy duration, measured between first reduction and first progressive rise in counts, ranged from 4 to 16 weeks.

  2. Comparative evaluation of untreated and radurized Chilean avocadoes shipped to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, L.A.; Uzcategui, E.; Farkas, J.; Langerak, D.Is.; Duren, M.D.A.; Rubio, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Avocados of Fuerte variety were picked mature green, treated with a hot water dip (10 min at 46 deg C) then individually wrapped in PVC foil, irradiated with a gamma radiation dose of 25 Gy, shipped by boat at 7 deg C from Chile to the Netherlands and stored there under different conditions. Similarly packed untreated fruits served as controls. The combination treatment and wrapping in PVC foil delayed and reduced the decay, and resulted in a better consumer quality. This small-scale trial shipment holds promise that a sea-transport of combined treated avocados from Chile to Western Europe whould be feasible. (author)

  3. Factors associated with sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes in untreated groundwater used for drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Price, Curtis V.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence for indicating factors associated with the sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes (THMs) in untreated groundwater were revealed by evaluating low-level analytical results and logistic regression results for THMs. Samples of untreated groundwater from wells used for drinking water were collected from 1996-2007 from 2492 wells across the United States and analyzed for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform by a low-level analytical method implemented in April 1996. Using an assessment level of 0.02 μg/L, chloroform was detected in 36.5% of public-well samples and 17.6% of domestic-well samples, with most concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Brominated THMs occurred less frequently than chloroform but more frequently in public-well samples than domestic-well samples. For both public and domestic wells, THMs occurred most frequently in urban areas. Logistic regression analyses showed that the occurrence of THMs was related to nonpoint sources such as urban land use and to point sources like septic systems. The frequent occurrence and concentration distribution pattern of THMs, as well as their frequent co-occurrence with other organic compounds and nitrate, all known to have anthropogenic sources, and the positive associations between THM occurrence and dissolved oxygen and recharge indicate the recycling of water that contains THMs and other anthropogenic contaminants.

  4. Factors associated with sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes in untreated groundwater used for drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M; Moran, Michael J; Zogorski, John S; Price, Curtis V

    2012-08-07

    Multiple lines of evidence for indicating factors associated with the sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes (THMs) in untreated groundwater were revealed by evaluating low-level analytical results and logistic regression results for THMs. Samples of untreated groundwater from wells used for drinking water were collected from 1996-2007 from 2492 wells across the United States and analyzed for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform by a low-level analytical method implemented in April 1996. Using an assessment level of 0.02 μg/L, chloroform was detected in 36.5% of public-well samples and 17.6% of domestic-well samples, with most concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Brominated THMs occurred less frequently than chloroform but more frequently in public-well samples than domestic-well samples. For both public and domestic wells, THMs occurred most frequently in urban areas. Logistic regression analyses showed that the occurrence of THMs was related to nonpoint sources such as urban land use and to point sources like septic systems. The frequent occurrence and concentration distribution pattern of THMs, as well as their frequent co-occurrence with other organic compounds and nitrate, all known to have anthropogenic sources, and the positive associations between THM occurrence and dissolved oxygen and recharge indicate the recycling of water that contains THMs and other anthropogenic contaminants.

  5. Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Panel Influenced by Treated and Untreated Coconut Fiber Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Alida; Jamaludin, Shamsul Baharin; Anwar, Mohamed Iylia; Noor, Mazlee Mohd; Hussin, Kamarudin

    This project was conducted to produce a cement panel with the addition of treated and untreated coconut fiber in cement panel. Coconut fiber was added to replace coarse aggregate (sand) in this cement panel. In this project, the ratios used to design the mixture were 1:1:0, 1:0.97:0.03, 1:0.94:0.06, 1:0.91:0.09 (cement: sand: coconut fiber). The water cement ratio was constant at 0.55. The sizes of sample tested were, 160 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm for compression test, and 100 mm x 100 mm x 40 mm for density, moisture content and water absorption tests. After curing samples for 28 days, it was found that the addition of coconut fiber, further increase in compressive strength of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber. Moisture content of cement panel with treated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber whereas water absorption of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber. The density of cement panel decreased with the addition of untreated and treated coconut fiber.

  6. Impairment of attention networks in patients with untreated hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lili; Tian, Yanghua; Zhang, Fangfang; Dai, Fang; Luo, Li; Fan, Jin; Wang, Kai

    2014-06-27

    Attention disorders are common symptoms in patients with untreated hyperthyroidism. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether they represent a global attention deficit or selective impairment of attention networks. Thirty-seven patients with hyperthyroidism were recruited and underwent the Attention Network Test (ANT), which provided measures of three independent attention networks (alerting, orienting and executive control), before being treated with methimazole. This study demonstrated that patients with untreated hyperthyroidism had significant deficits in the alerting and executive control networks. Interestingly, a significant positive association was also found between T4 level and the value of the executive network in patients with hyperthyroidism. These results suggest that the patients with hyperthyroidism may not just exist a specific impairment of attention networks, and there was some relationship between the level of T4, not T3 or TSH, and the value of the executive control network in patients with hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flexural properties of treated and untreated kenaf/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, B.F.; Shalwan, A.; Chin, C.W.; Ming, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Untreated kenaf fibre/epoxy composites. Treated kenaf fibre/epoxy composites. Highlights: ► Treatment of kenaf fibres with 6% NaOH has improved the flexural properties of epoxy composites. ► Interfacial adhesion of the natural fibres is controlled by the microstructure of the fibres. ► Kenaf fibres have a potential to replace glass fibres for flexural applications. -- Abstract: In the current work, flexural properties of unidirectional long kenaf fibre reinforced epoxy (KFRE) composites are studied. The kenaf fibres were prepared into two types as untreated and treated (with 6% NaOH). The failure mechanism and damage features of the materials were categorized with the surface observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results revealed that reinforcement of epoxy with treated kenaf fibres increased the flexural strength of the composite by about 36%, while, untreated fibres introduced 20% improvement. This was mainly due to the high improvement of the chemical treatment (NaOH) on the interfacial adhesion of the fibres and the porosity of the composites which prevented the debonding, detachments or pull out of fibres. For untreated KFRE, the fracture mechanisms were debonding, tearing, detachments and pull out of fibres. The developed composite exhibited superior properties compared to the previous composites based on natural and synthetic fibres.

  8. System simulation for an untreated sewage source heat pump (USSHP) in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Na; Hao, Peng Z.

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the system characteristics of an untreated sewage source heat pump in winter. In this system, the sewage enters into the evaporator directly. The variable parameters to control the system contain the sewage temperature at evaporator inlet and the water temperature at condenser inlet. It is found that most parameters, except the condensation heat transfer coefficient, change in the form of sine wave the same as the sewage temperature at inlet. The heating load and consumed power are 12.9kW and 3.45kW when the sewage temperature at inlet is 13°C. COP is about 3.75 in the range of the sewage temperature at inlet of 12-13°C.

  9. Biofilm problems in dental unit water systems and its practical control.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, D C

    2009-05-01

    Dental chair units (DCUs) contain integrated systems that provide the instruments and services for a wide range of dental procedures. DCUs use water to cool and irrigate DCU-supplied instruments and tooth surfaces during dental treatment. Water is supplied to these instruments by a network of interconnected narrow-bore (2-3 mm) plastic tubes called dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). Many studies over the last 40 years demonstrated that DUWL output water is often contaminated with high densities of micro-organisms, predominantly Gram-negative aerobic heterotropic environmental bacteria, including Legionella and Pseudomonas species. Untreated DUWLs host biofilms that permit micro-organisms to multiply and disperse through the water network and which are aerosolized by DCU instrument use, thus exposing patients and staff to these micro-organisms, to fragments of biofilm and bacterial endotoxins. This review concentrates on how practical developments and innovations in specific areas can contribute to effective DUWL biofilm control. These include the use of effective DUWL treatment agents, improvements to DCU supply water quality, DCU design changes, development of automated DUWL treatment procedures that are effective at controlling biofilm in the long-term and require minimal human intervention, are safe for patients and staff, and which do not cause deterioration of DCU components following prolonged use.

  10. Replacement Value of Untreated or Fungal Treated Carrot Leaves for Corn in Broiler Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Three hundred (21 days old) Arbor Acre chicks were used to evaluate the replacement value of untreated or Aspergillus niger treated carrot leaves for corn in broiler diets. Birds were fed a control diet or diets in which 10% untreated or treated carrot leaves was quantitatively substituted for corn in the control diet. Replacement of yellow corn with 10% untreated and treated carrot leaves caused insignificant (P 0.01) in both experimental groups compared to control. These results denoted that although there were negligible changes in body weight and mortality rate in broiler chicken fed untreated and treated carrot leaves the amino acid profile of carcasses lessen their nutritive value which is in consequence reflected negatively on human amino acids intake. Poultry production represents one of the quickest means of correcting the anomaly of protein inadequacy, yet the rising cost of feed which represents 70-80% of the cost of production among other costs, is a major setback (Opera. 1996). The price of most conventional feed ingredients such as yellow corn, soybean meal and fish meal is so high in recent time that it is becoming uneconomical to use them in poultry feeding (Esonu et al., 2001). Consequently poultry feed researchers have been forced to seek alternative and cheaper feed resources

  11. Predictors of untreated dental decay among 15-34-year-old Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lisa M; Mejía, Gloria C; Slade, Gary D; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F

    2009-02-01

    To determine predictors of untreated dental decay among 15-34-year-olds in Australia. Data were from Australia's National Survey of Adult Oral Health, a representative survey that utilized a three-stage, stratified clustered sampling design. Models representing demographic, socioeconomic, dental service utilization and oral health perception variables were tested using multivariable logistic regression to produce odds ratios. An estimated 25.8% (95% CI 22.4-29.5) of 15-34-year-old Australians had untreated dental decay. After controlling for other covariates, those who lived in a location other than a capital city had 2.0 times the odds of having untreated dental decay than their capital city-dwelling counterparts (95% CI 1.29-3.06). Similarly, those whose highest level of education was not a university degree had 2.1 times the odds of experiencing untreated dental decay (95% CI 1.35-3.31). Perceived need of extractions or restorations predicted untreated coronal decay, with 2.9 times the odds for those who perceived a treatment need over those with no such treatment need perception (95% CI 1.84-4.53). Participants who experienced dental fear had 2.2 times the odds of having untreated dental decay (95% CI 1.38-3.41), while those who reported experiencing toothache, orofacial pain or food avoidance in the last 12 months had 1.9 times the odds of having untreated dental decay than their counterparts with no such oral health-related quality-of-life impact (95% CI 1.20-2.92). The multivariate model achieved a 'useful' level of accuracy in predicting untreated decay (area under the ROC curve = 0.74; sensitivity = 0.63; specificity = 0.73). In the Australian young adult population, residential location, education level, perceived need for dental care, dental fear, toothache, orofacial pain or food avoidance together were predictors of untreated dental decay. The prediction model had acceptable specificity, indicating that it may be useful as part of a triage system for

  12. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  13. Mitigation of soil water repellency improves rootzone water status and yield in precision irrigated apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, S.; Gadd, N.; Bell, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water repellent soils are documented to impact a range of hydrological properties, yet studies evaluating the consequences of soil water repellency (SWR) and its mitigation on crop yield and quality are conspicuously absent. With global concerns on drought and water availability and the projected impacts of climate change, development of novel strategies to optimize efficient rootzone delivery of water are required. Co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymer surfactants have been shown to improve wetting synergistically. The objectives of this study were to determine if this surfactant technology: 1) increased soil water content and wetting front depth in mini-sprinkler irrigated, water repellent, Goulburn Valley clay loam soils and 2) assess the consequence of SWR mitigation on yield of Malus domestica Borkh. Three trials were conducted in the apple varieties 'Pink Lady' (2006/07 and 2007/08) and 'Gala' (2007/08) growing on Goulburn Valley clay loam soils in Victoria, AU. The test design was a randomized complete block with treatments replicated 5-6 times. Plot size varied by location. SWR was mitigated by applying surfactant at initial rates of 0, 5, or 10 L ha-1 in the spring, then at 0, 2.5, or 5 L ha-1 monthly for up to four months and compared to an untreated control. Treatments were applied to tree lines using a hand held small plot sprayer (118 liters of spray solution ha-1) followed by irrigation within 1-3 days of treatment applications. At each location, plots were irrigated by mini sprinklers and received the same irrigation volumes and management practices. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) was monitored at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm using a Theta probe (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, UK). At harvest, fruit number and weights were measured and used for crop yield estimations. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with mean values summarized and separated using Least Significant Test

  14. Water Pollution Control Legislation in Israel: Understanding Implementation Processes from an Actor-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Hophmayer-Tokich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for decades, with the main source of pollution being untreated or partially treated domestic wastewater. This has been mainly the result of lack of enforcement of the existing laws. During the 1990s and onwards, a shift to forceful enforcement has been observed and wastewater treatment substantially improved. The paper analyzes the implementation processes of the pollution control legislations (the lack-of and the shift to forceful enforcement based on an actor-centered approach, using the contextual interaction theory.

  15. Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy...... fitness and daytime spent in intensive activity. Overweight children are physically less active than normal weight children....

  16. Control of abusive water addition to Octopus vulgaris with non-destructive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rogério; Schimmer, Ove; Vieira, Helena; Pereira, João; Teixeira, Bárbara

    2018-01-01

    Abusive water addition to octopus has evidenced the need for quick non-destructive methods for product qualification in the industry and control of fresh commercial products in markets. Electric conductivity (EC)/pH and dielectric property measurements were selected to detect water uptake in octopus. A significant EC decrease was determined after soaking octopus in freshwater for 4 h. EC reflected the water uptake of octopus and the correspondent concentration decrease of available ions in the interstitial fluid. Significant correlations were determined between octopus water uptake, EC (R = -0.940) and moisture/protein (M/P) ratio (R = 0.923) changes. Seasonal and spatial variation in proximate composition did not introduce any uncertainty in EC discrimination of freshwater tampering. Immersion in 5 g L -1 sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) increased EC to a value similar to control octopus. EC false negatives resulting from the use of additives (STPP and citric acid) were eliminated with the additional determination of pH. Octopus soaked in freshwater, STPP and citric acid can also be clearly discriminated from untreated samples (control) and also from frozen (thawed) ones using the dielectric properties. No significant differences in the dielectric property scores were found between octopus sizes or geographical locations. Simultaneous EC/pH or dielectric property measurements can be used in a handheld device for non-destructive water addition detection in octopus. M/P ratio can be used as a reference destructive method. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Drinking water treatment is not associated with an observed increase in neural tube defects in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Vanessa E.; Johnstone, David W.; Etzkorn, Felicia A.

    2018-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) arise when natural organic matter in source water reacts with disinfectants used in the water treatment process. Studies have suggested an association between DBPs and birth defects. Neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice were first observed in-house in May 2006 and have continued to date. The source of the NTD-inducing agent was previously determined to be a component of drinking water. Tap water samples from a variety of sources were analyzed for trihalomethanes (THMs) to determine if they were causing the malformations. NTDs were observed in CD-1 mice provided with treated and untreated surface water. Occurrence of NTDs varied by water source and treatment regimens. THMs were detected in tap water derived from surface water but not detected in tap water derived from a groundwater source. THMs were absent in untreated river water and laboratory purified waters, yet the percentage of NTDs in untreated river water were similar to the treated water counterpart. These findings indicate that THMs were not the primary cause of NTDs in the mice since the occurrence of NTDs was unrelated to drinking water disinfection. PMID:24497082

  18. The study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brawley, Otis W.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The participation of minorities in clinical studies is the subject of much discussion and has even become the subject of Federal law. The project known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and officially titled 'The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male', is one of the great debacles of American medicine and a national shame. Despite the fact that its existence is well known, many do not know the historical facts of the study nor the context of the study. My purpose here is to recount the facts of the study and its historical context. Methods: The history recounted here is taken from documents gathered during a U.S. Senate investigation of the study, original papers located in National Library of Medicine, and books about the trial. Results: The trial began in 1931 as a survey of the natural history of untreated tertiary syphilis in Black men. This study enrolled 399 men with syphilis and 201 uninfected men to serve as controls. All were at least 25 years old at enrollment. The men were told they were in a study, but never educated about the implications. Later, men were not informed that there was a treatment for effective treatment for their disease - a treatment that was being withheld from them. This trial continued till 1972. Conclusion: Many of the issues that led to the study and caused it to continue for 40 years still exist. The lessons of the Public Health Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Untreated Negro include the dangers of paternalism, arrogance, blind loyalty, and misuse of science. 'Those who do not appreciate history are condemned to repeat it' (Alfred North Whitehead)

  19. What Point-of-Use Water Treatment Products Do Consumers Use? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial among the Urban Poor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Jill; Najnin, Nusrat; Mahmud, Minhaj; Albert, Jeff; Islam, M. Sirajul; Luby, Stephen; Unicomb, Leanne; Levine, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence that household point-of-use (POU) water treatment products can reduce the enormous burden of water-borne illness. Nevertheless, adoption among the global poor is very low, and little evidence exists on why. Methods We gave 600 households in poor communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh randomly-ordered two-month free trials of four water treatment products: dilute liquid chlorine (sodium hypochlorite solution, marketed locally as Water Guard), sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets (branded as Aquatabs), a combined flocculant-disinfectant powdered mixture (the PUR Purifier of Water), and a silver-coated ceramic siphon filter. Consumers also received education on the dangers of untreated drinking water. We measured which products consumers used with self-reports, observation (for the filter), and chlorine tests (for the other products). We also measured drinking water's contamination with E. coli (compared to 200 control households). Findings Households reported highest usage of the filter, although no product had even 30% usage. E. coli concentrations in stored drinking water were generally lowest when households had Water Guard. Households that self-reported product usage had large reductions in E. coli concentrations with any product as compared to controls. Conclusion Traditional arguments for the low adoption of POU products focus on affordability, consumers' lack of information about germs and the dangers of unsafe water, and specific products not meshing with a household's preferences. In this study we provided free trials, repeated informational messages explaining the dangers of untreated water, and a variety of product designs. The low usage of all products despite such efforts makes clear that important barriers exist beyond cost, information, and variation among these four product designs. Without a better understanding of the choices and aspirations of the target end-users, household-based water treatment is unlikely to reduce

  20. The effect of social geographic factors on the untreated tooth decay among head start children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heima, Masahiro; Ferretti, Margaret; Qureshi, Mehveen; Ferretti, Gerald

    2017-10-01

    Disparities among untreated dental caries exist for children from low-income families in the United States. Understanding of the mechanism of the disparities is required to reduce it and social geographic factors are one of the important influences. Although the effect of fluoridated water has been well reported, studies of other sociogeograpic factors, such as the density of available dentists, are still very limited. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of sociogeographic factors on the number of primary teeth with untreated dental caries among children from low-income families who are enrolled in Head Start programs throughout Northeast Ohio of the United States. This was a cross-sectional chart review study. Three hundred-eighty-eight charts were reviewed, and the number of primary teeth with untreated dental caries (dt) and the children's addresses were retrieved. The sociogeographic variables, including fluoridated water availability and the density of available dentists who accept a government-supported insurance (Medicaid dentists), were collected. The mean (standard deviation) of children's age was 3.51 (1.14) years with a range of 7 months to 5 years. A negative binomial regression model analysis, which used dt as a dependent variable and children's characteristic factors (i.e. age, gender, insurance type, and total number of primary teeth) and sociogeographic factors (i.e. Population, total number of Medicaid dentists, density of Medicaid dentist, and Fluoride water availability) of cities, as independent variables, demonstrated that only the density of Medicaid dentist in the sociogeographic factors indicated a significant effect (Estimated ß-Coefficients (Standard Errors)=-0.003 (0.002), p =0.030). This study demonstrated a significant negative association between the density of available dentists and untreated dental caries among children from low-income families in Head Start programs in Northeast Ohio. Increasing available dentists

  1. Maternal and neonatal consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a prospective cohort study with an embedded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemier, Brenda M; Koningstein, Fiona N; Schneeberger, Caroline; Ott, Alewijn; Bossuyt, Patrick M; de Miranda, Esteriek; Vogelvang, Tatjana E; Verhoeven, Corine J M; Langenveld, Josje; Woiski, Mallory; Oudijk, Martijn A; van der Ven, Jeanine E M; Vlegels, Manita T W; Kuiper, Petra N; Feiertag, Nicolette; Pajkrt, Eva; de Groot, Christianne J M; Mol, Ben W J; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2015-11-01

    Existing approaches for the screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy are based on trials that were done more than 30 years ago. In this study, we reassessed the consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. In this multicentre prospective cohort study with an embedded randomised controlled trial, we screened women (aged ≥18 years) at eight hospitals and five ultrasound centres in the Netherlands with a singleton pregnancy between 16 and 22 weeks' gestation for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Screening was done with a single dipslide and two culture media. Dipslides were judged positive when the colony concentration was at least 1×10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) per mL of a single microorganism or when two different colony types were present but one had a concentration of at least 1×10(5) CFU per mL. Asymptomatic bacteriuria-positive women were eligible to participate in the randomised controlled trial comparing nitrofurantoin with placebo treatment. In this trial, participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either nitrofurantoin 100 mg or identical placebo tablets, and were instructed to self-administer these tablets twice daily for 5 consecutive days. Randomisation was done by a web-based application with a computer-generated list with random block sizes of two, four, or six participants rendered by an independent data manager. 1 week after the end of treatment, they provided us with a follow-up dipslide. Women, treating physicians, and researchers all remained unaware of the bacteriuria status and treatment allocation. Women who refused to participate in the randomised controlled trial did not receive any antibiotics, but their outcomes were collected for analysis in the cohort study. We compared untreated and placebo-treated asymptomatic bacteriuria-positive women with asymptomatic bacteriuria-negative women and nitrofurantoin-treated asymptomatic bacteriuria-positive women. The primary endpoint was a

  2. Health services determinants of the duration of untreated psychosis among African-American first-episode patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Ramsay, Claire E; Shim, Ruth S; Goulding, Sandra M; Gordon, Tynessa L; Weiss, Paul S; Druss, Benjamin G

    2009-11-01

    The duration of untreated psychosis is associated with poor outcomes in multiple domains in the early course of nonaffective psychotic disorders, although relatively little is known about determinants of this critical period, particularly health services-level determinants. This study examined three hypothesized predictors of duration of untreated psychosis (lack of insurance, financial problems, and broader barriers) among urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged African Americans, while controlling for the effects of three patient-level predictors (mode of onset of psychosis, living with family versus alone or with others before hospitalization, and living above versus below the federally defined poverty level). Analyses included data from 42 patient-family member dyads from a larger sample of 109 patients with a first episode of nonaffective psychosis. The duration of untreated psychosis and all other variables were measured in a rigorous, standardized fashion in a study designed specifically to examine determinants of treatment delay. Survival analyses and Cox regression assessed the effects of the independent predictors on time from onset of psychosis to hospital admission for initial evaluation and treatment. The median duration of untreated psychosis was 24.5 weeks. When the analyses controlled for the three patient-level covariates, patients without health insurance, with financial problems, or with barriers to seeking help had a significantly longer duration of untreated psychosis. Health services-related factors, such as lack of insurance, are predictive of longer treatment delay. Efforts to eliminate uninsurance and underinsurance, as well as minimize barriers to treatment, would be beneficial for improving the prognosis of young patients with emerging nonaffective psychotic disorders.

  3. Untreated pain, narcotics regulation, and global health ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas B; Fraser, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    Pain management is marginalized or ignored, with millions of people worldwide unnecessarily living with untreated pain. Reducing global inequalities in untreated pain requires a concerted global effort, say Veronique Fraser and colleagues, which must attend to the complexity of pain and promote multimodal, multidisciplinary pain management.

  4. Causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, W X; Meng, X W

    2000-05-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients (mean (SD) 46 (11) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism and anorexia and 29 patients (35 (9) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism without anorexia were studied. The study was conducted at the thyroid clinic of the PUMC Hospital, Beijing, China from March to August 1997. The patients' ages, serum free calcium, liver function and emotional state, specifically the level of anxiety (using the self anxiety scale, Chinese version), were compared before and/or after antithyroid drug treatment in the two groups. This prospective study suggested that the causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism are complicated. Older age, abnormal liver function, and the level of anxiety are significantly related to anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism, but hypercalcaemia was not confirmed to be related to anorexia in the study.

  5. Role of Purified Anthocyanins in Improving Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Chinese Men and Women with Prediabetes or Early Untreated Diabetes-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Ling, Wenhua; Yang, Yan; Chen, Yuming; Tian, Zezhong; Du, Zhicheng; Chen, Jianying; Xie, Yuanling; Liu, Zhaomin; Yang, Lili

    2017-10-10

    Objective: In vitro and animal studies suggest that purified anthocyanins have favorable effects on metabolic profiles, but clinical trials have reported inconsistent findings. Furthermore, no study has been specifically conducted among individuals with prediabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether purified anthocyanins could improve cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese adults with early untreated hyperglycemia. Research Design and Methods: This was a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 160 participants aged 40-75 years with prediabetes or early untreated diabetes were randomly allocated to receive either purified anthocyanins (320 mg/day, n = 80) or placebo ( n = 80) of identical appearance. A three-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed, and cardiometabolic biomarkers (glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and lipids) were measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results: A total of 138 subjects completed the protocol. Compared with placebo, purified anthocyanins moderately reduced HbA1c (-0.14%, 95% CI: -0.23~-0.04%; p = 0.005), low-density lipoprotein-c (LDL-c) (-0.2 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.38~-0.01, p = 0.04), apolipoprotein A-1 (apo A1) (0.09 g/L, 95% CI: 0.02~0.17; p = 0.02), and apolipoprotein B (apo B) (-0.07 g/L, 95% CI: -0.13~-0.01; p = 0.01) according to intention-to-treat analysis. Subgroup analyses suggested that purified anthocyanins were more effective at improving glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and lipids among patients with elevated metabolic markers. Conclusions: The 12-week randomized controlled trials (RCT) in Chinese adults with prediabetes or early untreated diabetes indicated that purified anthocyanins favorably affected glycemic control and lipid profile. Future studies of a longer duration that explore the dose-response relationship among patients with cardiometabolic disorders are needed to confirm our findings.

  6. Water quality control system and water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsumi, Sachio; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Uruma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuya; Seki, Shuji

    1998-01-01

    In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

  7. Comparison of untreated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with normal controls: a review and statistical analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paul R P; Grevitt, Michael P

    2013-04-20

    Review and statistical analysis of studies evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents with untreated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) using Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcomes. To apply normative values and minimum clinical important differences for the SRS-22r to the literature. Identify whether the HRQOL of adolescents with untreated AIS differs from unaffected peers and whether any differences are clinically relevant. The effect of untreated AIS on adolescent HRQOL is uncertain. The lack of published normative values and minimum clinical important difference for the SRS-22r has so far hindered our interpretation of previous studies. The publication of this background data allows these studies to be re-examined. Using suitable inclusion criteria, a literature search identified studies examining HRQOL in untreated adolescents with AIS. Each cohort was analyzed individually. Statistically significant differences were identified by using 95% confidence intervals for the difference in SRS-22r domain mean scores between the cohorts with AIS and the published data for unaffected adolescents. If the lower bound of the confidence interval was greater than the minimum clinical important difference, the difference was considered clinically significant. Of the 21 included patient cohorts, 81% reported statistically worse pain than those unaffected. Yet in only 5% of cohorts was this difference clinically important. Of the 11 cohorts included examining patient self-image, 91% reported statistically worse scores than those unaffected. In 73% of cohorts this difference was clinically significant. Affected cohorts tended to score well in function/activity and mental health domains and differences from those unaffected rarely reached clinically significant values. Pain and self-image tend to be statistically lower among cohorts with AIS than those unaffected. The literature to date suggests that it is only self-image which consistently differs

  8. The Histological, Histomorphometrical and Histochemical Changes of Testicular Tissue in the Metformin Treated and Untreated Streptozotocin-Induced Adult Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Kianifard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, diabetes was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 45 mg kg-1 of body weight. A group comprised of 8 diabetic rats was treated with metformin at 100 mg kg-1 of body weight for reducing the elevated blood glucose level. The results revealed that, in the untreated diabetic rats, the body and testicular weight reduced in comparison with the control rats (P < 0.05 , the metformin treated diabetic rats showed body weight loss in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05. In the untreated diabetic rats, the blood glucose level significantly increased in comparison with control and metformin treated diabetic rats. Histomorphological examinations revealed a reduction in testicular capsule diameter, seminiferous tubules (STs and germinal epithelium height, increase of amorphous material of interstitial tissue, germ cell depletion, decrease in cellular population and activity and disruption of spermatogenesis in the untreated diabetic rats in comparison with control group. In metformin treated diabetic rats, the histomorphological alterations were seen in lesser part in comparison with untreated diabetic group. The results from this study proved that, there was a direct relationship between increased levels of blood glucose as a result of STZ-induced diabetes and the histomorphological changes of testicular tissue.

  9. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood.......Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  10. Low cortical bone density measured by computed tomography in children and adolescents with untreated hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbenjapon, Nawaporn; Costin, Gertrude; Gilsanz, Vicente; Pitukcheewanont, Pisit

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether increased thyroid hormones levels have an effect on various bone components (cortical vs cancellous bone). The anthropometric and 3-dimensional quantitative computed tomography (CT) bone measurements, including bone density (BD), cross-sectional area (CSA) of the lumbar spine and femur, and cortical bone area (CBA) of the femur, of 18 children and adolescents with untreated hyperthyroidism were reviewed and compared with those of age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched historical controls. No significant differences in height, weight, body mass index (BMI), or pubertal staging between patients and controls were found. Cortical BD was significantly lower (P hyperthyroidism compared with historical controls. After adjusting for weight and height, no difference in femur CSA between hyperthyroid children and historical controls was evident. No significant correlations among thyroid hormone levels, antithyroid antibody levels, and cortical BD values were found. As determined by CT, cortical bone is the preferential site of bone loss in children and adolescents with untreated hyperthyroidism.

  11. Linking the environmental loads to the fate of PPCPs in Beijing: Considering both the treated and untreated wastewater sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin; Dai, Guohua; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The environmental loads of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in Beijing were estimated from direct discharge of untreated wastewater and WWTP treated effluent. The annual environmental loads of 15 PPCP components ranged from 16.3 kg (propranolol) to 9.85 tons (caffeine). A fugacity model was developed to successfully estimate the PPCP pollution based on the estimated environmental load. The modeled results approximated the observed PPCP concentrations in Beijing. The untreated wastewater contributed significantly to PPCP pollution in Beijing, ranging from 46% (propranolol) to 99% (caffeine). The total environmental burden of target PPCPs ranged from 0.90 kg (propranolol) to 536 kg (caffeine). Water is the most important media for the fate of PPCPs. Monte Carlo-based concentration distributions of PPCPs are consistent with the observed results. The most important way to reduce the PPCP pollution is to both improve wastewater collection rate and adopt deep treatment technologies. - Highlights: • Annual environmental loads of PPCPs ranged from 16.3 kg to 9.85 tons in Beijing. • The environmental loads can be linked to PPCP pollution by fugacity model. • Untreated wastewater significantly contributed to PPCP pollution in Beijing. • The environmental burden of 15 PPCPs in Beijing ranged from 0.90 kg to 536 kg. • Uncertainty simulation successfully generated PPCP concentration distribution. - The environmental loads from both the treated and untreated wastewater sources contribute to PPCPs pollution in the surface water in Beijing, China

  12. Water pressure control device for control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hideyuki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the fluctuations in the reactor water level upon occurrence of abnormality by inputting the level signal of the reactor to an arithmetic unit for controlling the pressure of control rod drive water to thereby enable effective reactor level control. Constitution: Signal from a flow rate transmitter is inputted into an arithmetic unit to perform constant flow rate control upon normal operation. While on the other hand, if abnormality occurs such as feedwater pump trips, the arithmetic unit is switched from the constant flow rate control to the reactor water level control. Reactor water level signal is inputted into the arithmetic unit and the control valve is most suitably controlled, whereby water is fed from CST to the reactor by way of control rod drive water system to secure the reactor water level if feedwater to the reactor is interrupted by loss of coolants on the feedwater system. Since this enables to minimize the fluctuations in the reactor water level upon abnormality, the reactor water level can be controlled most suitably by the reactor water level signal. (Moriyama, K.)

  13. SEPTIC TANK SETBACK DISTANCES: A WAY TO MINIMIZE VIRUS CONTAMINATION OF DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septic tanks are the most frequently reported causes of contamination in ground-water disease outbreaks associated with the consumption of untreated ground water in the United States. The placement of septic tanks is generally controlled by county-wide or state-wide regulations, ...

  14. Water management at Roessing uranium mine, Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, M.T.R.; Brent, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    Water Management at a large uranium mine and leaching plant located in a desert environment is described in respect of reducing water consumption and controlling and containing contaminants. The extent to which water consumption has been reduced by innovative measures to reduce water losses and increase water recycle is described. Although the recycling of untreated solutions generated in the process has had negative effects on plant throughput and recovery, the overall benefit has been significant. Measures employed to ensure that no contamination of local groundwater occurs are described. (author)

  15. Treatment of acute radiodermatitis with an oil-in-water emulsion following radiation therapy for breast cancer. A controlled, randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Jens-Michael; Gau, Tanja; Foelster-Holst, Regina; Proksch, Ehrhardt; May, Theodor

    2011-01-01

    A side effect of radiotherapy for breast cancer is acute radiodermatitis. It is a common practice to keep irradiated skin dry on account of data from the 1950s that suggested this regimen limits dermatitis. However, severe dryness of the skin induced by irradiation results in itching and discomfort. Dry skin is characterized by scaliness, epidermal barrier dysfunction, and reduced stratum corneum hydration, and these signs and symptoms are reduced by treatment with an emulsion. We performed a randomized, controlled, open-label study with 66 patients (ITT population), treating the irradiated skin in one group (n = 34) with an oil-in-water emulsion (WO1932), while leaving the other group untreated (n = 32). Clinical scoring (ONS radiation skin reaction scoring, pruritus) and biophysical measurements (stratum corneum hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), as a marker of skin barrier function) were determined at day 1 (directly after termination of the radiation therapy), day 8, and day 47 (± 7). Irradiation increased the ONS score and pruritus, whereas skin hydration and TEWL were reduced. The primary hypothesis that the increase in skin hydration was significantly greater in the emulsion-treated compared to the untreated group as early as after 8 days of treatment could not be confirmed. At the end of the study (day 47 ± 7), however, normalization of stratum corneum hydration was more advanced in the treatment group compared to the untreated group and nearly reached the values of the contralateral healthy breast skin. ONS score and pruritus also revealed an advantage for the emulsion-treated group. TEWL did not show significant changes during emulsion treatment. No adverse events were caused by the treatment regimens. Treatment of radiodermatitis with an oil-in-water emulsion was well tolerated, enhanced stratum corneum hydration, improved clinical indicators, and provided relief from itching. (orig.)

  16. Bioretention storm water control measures decrease the toxicity of copper roof runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarre, William J; Ownby, David R; Rader, Kevin J; Lev, Steven M; Casey, Ryan E

    2017-06-01

    The present study evaluated the ability of 2 different bioretention storm water control measures (SCMs), planter boxes and swales, to decrease the toxicity of sheet copper (Cu) roofing runoff to Daphnia magna. The present study quantified changes in storm water chemistry as it passed through the bioretention systems and utilized the biotic ligand model (BLM) to assess whether the observed D. magna toxicity could be predicted by variations found in water chemistry. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed using select storm samples with D. magna cultured under low ionic strength conditions that were appropriate for the low ionic strength of the storm water samples being tested. The SCMs decreased toxicity of Cu roof runoff in both the BLM results and the storm water bioassays. Water exiting the SCMs was substantially higher than influent runoff in pH, ions, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon and substantially lower in total and dissolved Cu. Daphnids experienced complete mortality in untreated runoff from the Cu roof (the SCM influent); however, for planter and swale effluents, survival averaged 86% and 95%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that conventional bioretention practices, including planter boxes and swales, are capable of decreasing the risk of adverse effects from sheet Cu roof runoff to receiving systems, even before considering dilution of effluents in those receiving systems and associated further reductions in copper bioavailability. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1680-1688. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Impact of industrial effluents on surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    2000-01-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of untreated municipal and industrial effluents has given rise to serious problems of water pollution and human health in Pakistan. The City of Lahore discharges about 365 mgd of wastewater with a BOD load of 250 tons per day, without treatment, into Ravi river. Because of the untreated industrial discharges, river Ravi is devoid of dissolved oxygen through most of its react between Lahore and Upper Chenab Canal under low flow conditions. Pollution levels can be controlled if each industry treats its own wastewater prior to disposal, in accordance with NEQS (Pakistan). (author)

  18. Effectiveness of school dental screening on dental visits and untreated caries among primary schoolchildren: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayadi, Haya; Sabbah, Wael; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2018-04-13

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases affecting children in Saudi Arabia despite the availability of free dental services. School-based dental screening could be a potential intervention that impacts uptake of dental services, and subsequently, dental caries' levels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two alternative approaches for school-based dental screening in promoting dental attendance and reducing untreated dental caries among primary schoolchildren. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing referral of screened-positive children to a specific treatment facility (King Saud University Dental College) against conventional referral (information letter advising parents to take their child to a dentist). A thousand and ten children in 16 schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, will be recruited for the trial. Schools (clusters) will be randomly selected and allocated to either group. Clinical assessment for dental caries will be conducted at baseline and after 12 months by dentists using the World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Data on sociodemographic, behavioural factors and children's dental visits will be collected through structured questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The primary outcome is the change in number of teeth with untreated dental caries 12 months after referral. Secondary outcomes are the changes in the proportions of children having untreated caries and of those who visited the dentist over the trial period. This project should provide high level of evidence on the clinical benefits of school dental screening. The findings should potentially inform policies related to the continuation/implementation of school-based dental screening in Saudi Arabia. ClinicalTrials.gov , ID: NCT03345680 . Registered on 17 November 2017.

  19. Excess Mortality in Treated and Untreated Hyperthyroidism Is Related to Cumulative Periods of Low Serum TSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative time-dependent excess mortality in hyperthyroid patients has been suggested. However, the effect of antithyroid treatment on mortality, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism, remains unclarified. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroid individuals. Register-based cohort study of 235,547 individuals who had at least one serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement in the period 1995 to 2011 (7.3 years median follow-up). Hyperthyroidism was defined as at least two measurements of low serum TSH. Mortality rates for treated and untreated hyperthyroid subjects compared with euthyroid controls were calculated using multivariate Cox regression analyses, controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities. Cumulative periods of decreased serum TSH were analyzed as a time-dependent covariate. Hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was increased in untreated [1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12 to 1.37; P hyperthyroid patients. When including cumulative periods of TSH in the Cox regression analyses, HR for mortality per every 6 months of decreased TSH was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.13; P hyperthyroid patients (n = 1137) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.15; P hyperthyroidism, respectively. Mortality is increased in hyperthyroidism. Cumulative periods of decreased TSH increased mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroidism, implying that excess mortality may not be driven by lack of therapy, but rather inability to keep patients euthyroid. Meticulous follow-up during treatment to maintain biochemical euthyroidism may be warranted. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  20. Outcome quality and long-term (≥15 years) stability after Class II:2 Herbst-multibracket appliance treatment in comparison to untreated Class I controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; Saffar, Mitra; Hudel, Helge; Evälahti, Marjut; Heikinheimo, Kaisa; Rice, David P; Ruf, Sabine

    2017-12-09

    To investigate the outcome quality and the long-term (≥15 years) post-treatment (Tx) changes after Class II:2 Herbst-multibracket appliance (MBA) Tx. In this longitudinal observational study, a recall of Class II:2 patients who had been treated by a Herbst-MBA during adolescence was conducted. Study models from before and after active Tx, after retention and after recall were assessed using standard occlusal variables and the peer assessment rating index (PAR). These data were compared to historical untreated Class I controls. Twenty out of 33 patients (61%) could be located and participated at age 33.9 ± 2.7 years. When comparing their data to the 13 patients who did not participate, the pre- and post-Tx occlusal findings did not differ systematically; however, the PAR scores of the non-participants were by 3.3-8.2 points higher at all times and the non-participants were 2.1-2.5 years older. Pre-Tx at age 14.4 ± 2.7 years, the participants showed the following mean values: PAR = 15.0 ± 7.0, Class II molar relationship (MR) = 0.8 ± 0.3 cusp widths (cw), overbite = 5.3 ± 1.3 mm. After Tx, a PAR score of 2.9 ± 1.3 and a super Class I MR (-0.1 ± 0.1 cw) with normal overbite (1.2 ± 0.8 mm) existed. At recall, a PAR score increase to 5.9 ± 3.6 points had occurred, mainly caused by an increase of overbite to 2.5 ± 1.5 mm. The average MR remained Class I (0.0 ± 0.2 cw). For all variables, the untreated controls exhibited similar findings. The occlusal outcome of Class II:2 Herbst-MBA Tx exhibited very good long-term stability. While mild post-Tx changes occurred, the long-term findings are similar to untreated Class I controls. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  2. Subcortical grey matter changes in untreated, early stage Parkinson's disease without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Mi; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Kim, Min-Jik; Jang, Ji-Wan; Suh, Sang-Il; Koh, Seong-Beom; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Previous MRI studies have investigated cortical or subcortical grey matter changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), yielding inconsistent findings between the studies. We therefore sought to determine whether focal cortical or subcortical grey matter changes may be present from the early disease stage. We recruited 49 untreated, early stage PD patients without dementia and 53 control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate cortical grey matter changes, and automated volumetry and shape analysis were used to assess volume changes and shape deformation of the subcortical grey matter structures, respectively. Voxel-based morphometry showed neither reductions nor increases in grey matter volume in patients compared to controls. Compared to controls, PD patients had significant reductions in adjusted volumes of putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus (corrected p grey matter and clinical variables representing disease duration and severity. Our results suggest that untreated, early stage PD without dementia is associated with volume reduction and shape deformation of subcortical grey matter, but not with cortical grey matter reduction. Our findings of structural changes in the posterolateral putamen and ventromedial putamen/nucleus accumbens could provide neuroanatomical basis for the involvement of motor and limbic striatum, further implicating motor and non-motor symptoms in PD, respectively. Early hippocampal involvement might be related to the risk for developing dementia in PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of pH, Dosage and Concentration on the Adsorption of Congo Red onto Untreated and Treated Aluminium Dross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria Mohamad Zulfika, Hazielim B.; Baini, Rubiyah; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    The adsorption of congo red onto aluminium dross was studied in batch process. The objective of this study is to adsorption capacity between untreated and treated aluminium dross in the removal of congo red. Aluminium dross was leached with 250 ml of 1% of NaOH and and precipitated with 30% H2O2. The treated aluminium dross being calcined at 600°C for 3 hours. The surface area for untreated and treated aluminium dross was 10.06 m2/g and 79.80 m2/g respectively. Then the adsorption process was carried out on an orbital shaker at 200 rpm for 4 hours. In the effect of pH, it was found that untreated removes more congo red compared to the treated while in the effect of concentration solution and dosage of adsorbent, treated aluminium dross removes more congo red. In conclusion, this adsorbent was found to be effective and economically viable in the removal of congo red in waste water treatment.

  4. Effect of Cuscuta campestris parasitism on the physiological and anatomical changes in untreated and herbicide-treated sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric-Krsmanovic, Marija M; Bozic, Dragana M; Radivojevic, Ljiljana M; Umiljendic, Jelena S Gajic; Vrbnicanin, Sava P

    2017-11-02

    The effects of field dodder on physiological and anatomical processes in untreated sugar beet plants and the effects of propyzamide on field dodder were examined under controlled conditions. The experiment included the following variants: N-noninfested sugar beet plants (control); I - infested sugar beet plants (untreated), and infested plants treated with propyzamide (1500 g a.i. ha -1 (T 1 ) and 2000 g a.i. ha -1 (T 2 )). The following parameters were checked: physiological-pigment contents (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total carotenoids); anatomical -leaf parameters: thickness of epidermis, parenchyma and spongy tissue, mesophyll and underside leaf epidermis, and diameter of bundle sheath cells; petiole parameters: diameter of tracheid, petiole hydraulic conductance, xylem surface, phloem cell diameter and phloem area in sugar beet plants. A conventional paraffin wax method was used to prepare the samples for microscopy. Pigment contents were measured spectrophotometrically after methanol extraction. All parameters were measured: prior to herbicide application (0 assessment), then 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after application (DAA). Field dodder was found to affect the pigment contents in untreated sugar beet plants, causing significant reductions. Conversely, reduction in the treated plants decreased 27% to 4% for chlorophyll a, from 21% to 5% for chlorophyll b, and from 28% to 5% for carotenoids (T 1 ). Also, in treatment T 2, reduction decreased in infested and treated plants from 19% to 2% for chlorophyll a, from 21% to 2% for chlorophyll b, from 23% to 3% for carotenoids and stimulation of 1% and 2% was observed 28 and 35 DAA, respectively. Plants infested (untreated) by field dodder had lower values of most anatomical parameters, compared to noninfested plants. The measured anatomical parameters of sugar beet leaves and petiole had significantly higher values in noninfested plants and plants treated with propyzamide than in untreated plants. Also, the

  5. Contrasting effects of untreated textile wastewater onto the soil available nitrogen-phosphorus and enzymatic activities in aridisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Riaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Buttler, Alexandre; Garcıa-Gil, Juan Carlos; Roohi, Mahnaz; Rasool, Akhtar

    2016-02-01

    Water shortage and soil qualitative degradation are significant environmental problems in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The increasing demand for water in agriculture and industry has resulted in the emergence of wastewater use as an alternative in these areas. Textile wastewater is produced in surplus amounts which poses threat to the environment as well as associated flora and fauna. A 60-day incubation study was performed to assess the effects of untreated textile wastewater at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% dilution levels on the physico-chemical and some microbial and enzymatic properties of an aridisol soil. The addition of textile wastewater provoked a significant change in soil pH and electrical conductivity and soil dehydrogenase and urease activities compared to the distilled-water treated control soil. Moreover, compared to the control treatment, soil phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly increased from 25 to 75% application rates, but decreased at 100% textile wastewater application rate. Total and available soil N contents increased significantly in response to application of textile wastewater. Despite significant increases in the soil total P contents after the addition of textile wastewater, soil available P content decreased with increasing concentration of wastewater. Changes in soil nutrient contents and related enzymatic activities suggested a dynamic match between substrate availability and soil N and P contents. Aridisols have high fixation and low P availability, application of textile wastewater to such soils should be considered only after careful assessment.

  6. Elevated serum IGF-1 level enhances retinal and choroidal thickness in untreated acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Ma, Jin; Wang, Yuhan; Li, Lüe; Gao, Lu; Guo, Xiaopeng; Xing, Bing; Zhong, Yong

    2018-03-01

    1) To compare the retinal, choroidal, Haller's layer, and Sattler's/choriocapillaris thicknesses of untreated acromegaly patients without chiasm compression or diabetes mellitus and healthy controls. 2) To evaluate the correlations of retinal and choroidal thicknesses with serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF) burden. This prospective, case-control study included 27 untreated acromegaly patients and 27 sex-matched and age-matched controls. Subfoveal choroidal, Haller's layer and Sattler's/choriocapillaris thicknesses were determined by enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Foveal and macular retinal thicknesses were determined with SD-OCT. GH and IGF-1 burdens were defined as the product of disease duration and treatment-naïve serum GH and IGF-1 levels. Compared with healthy controls, patients with acromegaly exhibited significantly increased foveal retinal (p = 0.003), subfoveal choroidal (p IGF-1 level (p = 0.03) and IGF-1 burden (p = 0.009). No significant correlations were detected between choroidal thickness and GH burden (p = 0.44). Retinal thickness was not significantly correlated with any factor. The choroidal thickness of acromegaly patients was greater than that of healthy controls and was significantly correlated with disease duration, IGF-1 level and IGF-1 burden, indicating that excessive serum IGF-1 and its exposure time have a combined effect on choroidal thickness.

  7. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Taylor

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease's non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes.A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max of 0-70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9-19.Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This information would facilitate reliable quantification of

  8. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew J; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease's non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes. A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max) of 0-70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9-19)). Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This information would facilitate reliable quantification of DALYs and

  9. Estimating the burden of illness in an Ontario community with untreated drinking water and sewage disposal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L W; Shimoda, F; Walter, S D; Pickard, L; Hunter, B; Ford, J; Deivanayagam, N; Cunningham, I

    1989-01-01

    The Hamilton-Wentworth regional health department was asked by one of its municipalities to determine whether the present water supply and sewage disposal methods used in a community without piped water and regional sewage disposal posed a threat to the health of its residents. Three approaches were used: assessments by public health inspectors of all households; bacteriological and chemical analyses of water samples; and completion of a specially designed questionnaire by residents in the target community and a control community. 89% of the 227 residences in the target community were found to have a drinking water supply that, according to the Ministry of Environment guidelines, was unsafe and/or unsatisfactory. According to on-site inspections, 32% of households had sewage disposal problems. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that the target community residents reported more symptoms associated with enteric infections due to the water supply. Two of these symptoms, diarrhea and stomach cramps, had a relative risk of 2.2 when compared to the control community (p less than 0.05). The study was successfully used by the municipality to argue for provincial funding of piped water.

  10. Controllability of Surface Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riasi, M. Sadegh; Yeghiazarian, Lilit

    2017-12-01

    To sustainably manage water resources, we must understand how to control complex networked systems. In this paper, we study surface water networks from the perspective of structural controllability, a concept that integrates classical control theory with graph-theoretic formalism. We present structural controllability theory and compute four metrics: full and target controllability, control centrality and control profile (FTCP) that collectively determine the structural boundaries of the system's control space. We use these metrics to answer the following questions: How does the structure of a surface water network affect its controllability? How to efficiently control a preselected subset of the network? Which nodes have the highest control power? What types of topological structures dominate controllability? Finally, we demonstrate the structural controllability theory in the analysis of a wide range of surface water networks, such as tributary, deltaic, and braided river systems.

  11. Reactor water level control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utagawa, Kazuyuki.

    1993-01-01

    A device of the present invention can effectively control fluctuation of a reactor water level upon power change by reactor core flow rate control operation. That is, (1) a feedback control section calculates a feedwater flow rate control amount based on a deviation between a set value of a reactor water level and a reactor water level signal. (2) a feed forward control section forecasts steam flow rate change based on a reactor core flow rate signal or a signal determining the reactor core flow rate, to calculate a feedwater flow rate control amount which off sets the steam flow rate change. Then, the sum of the output signal from the process (1) and the output signal from the process (2) is determined as a final feedwater flow rate control signal. With such procedures, it is possible to forecast the steam flow rate change accompanying the reactor core flow rate control operation, thereby enabling to conduct preceding feedwater flow rate control operation which off sets the reactor water level fluctuation based on the steam flow rate change. Further, a reactor water level deviated from the forecast can be controlled by feedback control. Accordingly, reactor water level fluctuation upon power exchange due to the reactor core flow rate control operation can rapidly be suppressed. (I.S.)

  12. Causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, W.; Meng, X.

    2000-01-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients (mean (SD) 46 (11) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism and anorexia and 29 patients (35 (9) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism without anorexia were studied. The study was conducted at the thyroid clinic of the PUMC Hospital, Beijing, China from March to August 1997. The patients' ages, serum free calcium, liver function and emotional state, specifically the level of anxiety (using the self anxiety scale, Chinese version), were compared before and/or after ...

  13. Disparities in untreated caries among children and adults in the U.S., 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Niodita; Vujicic, Marko; Yarbrough, Cassandra; Harrison, Brittany

    2018-03-06

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 increased dental coverage for children in the United States, (U.S.) but not for adults. Few studies in current scholarship make use of up-to-date, nationally representative data to examine oral health disparities in the U.S. The purpose of this study is to use nationally representative data to determine the prevalence of untreated caries among children and adults of different socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups and to examine the factors associated with untreated caries among children and adults. This study used the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) demographic, oral health questionnaire, and oral health dentition examination data (n = 7008 for children; n = 9673 for adults). Participants that had a standardized oral health examination and at least one natural primary or permanent tooth considering 28 tooth spaces were included in this study. Our main outcome measure was untreated coronal caries defined as decay on the crown or enamel surface of a tooth that had not been treated or filled. Population estimates were calculated to determine the prevalence of untreated caries among children and adults in the United States. Frequencies and Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare those with and without untreated caries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the factors associated with untreated caries. We conducted analyses among children and adults separately. From 2011 to 2014, 12.4 million children and 57.6 million adults in the United States had untreated caries. Age, family income level, recent dental visit, and financial and non-financial barriers were significantly associated with untreated caries in both children and adults. Race/ethnicity, gender and education level were also significantly associated with untreated caries among adults. The odds of untreated caries associated with financial barriers were 2.06 for children and 2.84 for adults while the

  14. Effect of hot water and gamma radiation on postharvest decay of grapefruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, D.H.; Reeder, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    'Marsh' seedless white Florida grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) were inoculated after harvest with a spore suspension of green mold (Penicillium digitatum Sacc.) and treated by immersion in hot water (50°C for 5 min) or irradiation with gamma rays (250 Gy) from a Cobalt-60 source or a combination of the two treatments. Fruit were wrapped individually with shrink film after hot water treatment and before irradiation and were stored with wrapped control fruit at 24°C for 9 days. Fruit treated with hot water developed less green mold rot than untreated fruit, even when treatment was delayed for 72 hr after inoculation. Fruit irradiated after a delay of 2 hr, but not 24-72 hr, after inoculation developed less rot than untreated fruit. Development of green mold rot was not significantly different in fruit treated with both hot water and irradiation than with hot water alone. No visible injury or off-flavors were detected in any of the fruit. (author)

  15. Evidence of an increased pathogenic footprint in the lingual microbiome of untreated HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Angeline T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opportunistic oral infections can be found in over 80% of HIV + patients, often causing debilitating lesions that also contribute to deterioration in nutritional health. Although appreciation for the role that the microbiota is likely to play in the initiation and/or enhancement of oral infections has grown considerably in recent years, little is known about the impact of HIV infection on host-microbe interactions within the oral cavity. In the current study, we characterize modulations in the bacterial composition of the lingual microbiome in patients with treated and untreated HIV infection. Bacterial species profiles were elucidated by microarray assay and compared between untreated HIV infected patients, HIV infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, and healthy HIV negative controls. The relationship between clinical parameters (viral burden and CD4+ T cell depletion and the loss or gain of bacterial species was evaluated in each HIV patient group. Results In untreated HIV infection, elevated viremia was associated with significantly higher proportions of potentially pathogenic Veillonella, Prevotella, Megasphaera, and Campylobacter species in the lingual microbiome than observed in healthy controls. The upsurge in the prevalence of potential pathogens was juxtaposed by diminished representation of commensal Streptococcus and Veillonella species. Colonization of Neisseria flavescens was lower in the lingual microbiome of HIV infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy than in uninfected controls. Conclusions Our findings provide novel insights into the potential impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy on the community structure of the oral microbiome, and implicate potential mechanisms that may increase the capacity of non-commensal species to gain a stronger foothold.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H 2 S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m 3 day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH 4 yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m 3 day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH 4 yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m 3 day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m 3 d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS at 3 kg VS/m 3 d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS at 4 kg VS/m 3 d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components

  17. hydrogeochemistry and quality assessment of some ground water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Waters adversely affected by abnormal concentration of iron tend ... is a reflection of the tectonic and geologic events that occurred over the .... PLATE COUNT. COLONIES. REMARKS. Ninth Mile Corner. Boreholes: Untreated. 70. Positive. 4 colonies after. 24hrs at 370c. Suspicious. Udi water supply. Untreated borehole. 3.

  18. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Barstow, Christina; Johnson, Michael; Kirby, Miles; Ngabo, Fidele; Thomas, Evan; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, pcooking area (p = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  19. Quantitative analysis of untreated human nails for monitoring human exposure to heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Koichiro; Futatsugawa, Shouji; Murao, Satoshi; Clemente, E.

    2002-01-01

    In order to address global environmental issues, a standard-free method developed by ourselves has been successfully applied to various kinds of bio-samples. Especially, a method for untreated hairs has been applied in many polluted areas to study human exposure to toxic elements. In addition to hair, nail is expected to give us valuable information about human exposure to toxic elements. However, the analysis requires relatively large amounts of samples and laborious sample preparation techniques which necessitate internal standards. In this work, we have developed a quantitative method for untreated human-nail analysis based on the standard-free method. It requires neither large amounts of nails nor complicated target preparation procedure. Furthermore, it is perfectly free from any ambiguity in target preparation such as volatilization of certain elements and contamination of the sample during chemical ashing. The optimum conditions of irradiating nail samples are established, and accuracy and reproducibility of the present method are confirmed. It is found that ultrasonic washing in distilled water is effective for many nail samples preventing the loss of elements from the sample. It is also found that elemental concentration in nails strongly depends on their sampling positions. (author)

  20. Presence of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes in ready-to-eat salads, from an area where crops are irrigated with untreated sewage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rosas, Javier; Cerna-Cortés, Jorge F; Méndez-Reyes, Eligio; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2012-05-15

    Consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) salads has increased worldwide. Consequently, the number of outbreaks caused by food-borne pathogens, including diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs), associated with the consumption of RTE-salads has increased. DEPs include enterotoxigenic (ETEC), typical and atypical enteropathogenic (tEPEC, aEPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), diffuse adherent (DAEC) and Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) E. coli. In less-developed areas of the world, fresh crops continue to be irrigated with untreated sewage water. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and prevalence of DEPs in RTE-salads of raw vegetables, purchased from restaurants at Pachuca-City, Hidalgo, Mexico, where most locally consumed vegetables are irrigated with untreated sewage water. A total of 130 salads were purchased from restaurants of three categories: A) national chain restaurants and B) local restaurants, both with the H distinctive (a recognition that the Secretary of Tourism grants to restaurants that manage supplies with high levels of hygiene); and C) local small inexpensive restaurants without H distinctive. A total of 6 restaurants were included, 2 per category (A(1-2), B(1-2), C(1-2)). Each sample was tested for the presence of faecal coliforms (FC) and E. coli by standard procedures. E. coli strains were further characterized for the presence of DEPs loci by two multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Among the 130 salad samples 99% (129) were contaminated with FC; 85% (110/129) harboured E. coli and 7% (8/110) DEPs. The amount of positive salad samples for FC and E. coli was similar between restaurants and categories. The FC mean (571 FC/g) of all samples was significantly higher (p<0.001) than the E. coli mean (63 E. coli/g). A weak correlation of 7.7% (r(2)=0.077, p=0.003) between median FC and E. coli MPN (most probable number) per sample was found. Of the 8 salad samples contaminated with DEPs, 2 were spinach salads

  1. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampio, Elina, E-mail: elina.tampio@mtt.fi [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles [University of Southampton, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rintala, Jukka [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H{sub 2}S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m{sup 3}day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH{sub 4} yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m{sup 3}day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH{sub 4} yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m{sup 3}day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m{sup 3} d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m{sup 3} d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components.

  2. Diseases of aging untreated virgin female RFM and BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, G.E.; Satterfield, L.C.; Bowles, N.D.; Klima, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Diseases of untreated, virgin female barrier-maintained RFM and BALB/c mice used as controls in a large radiation aging experiment were necropsied after natural death. The spectrum and incidence of neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases were somewhat different in the two strains. Both strains show a high incidence of neoplasma (largely reticulum cell sarcomas and lung tumors) and of glomerulosclerosis. A wide variety of other diseases was noted in much lower incidence. The findings in the RF were briefly compared with those in earlier experiments with that strain in this laboratory

  3. Untreated urban waste contaminates Indian river sediments with resistance genes to last resort antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket P; Pal, Chandan; Gaikwad, Swapnil S; Jonsson, Viktor; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-11-01

    Efficient sewage treatment is critical for limiting environmental transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In many low and middle income countries, however, large proportions of sewage are still released untreated into receiving water bodies. In-depth knowledge of how such discharges of untreated urban waste influences the environmental resistome is largely lacking. Here, we highlight the impact of uncontrolled discharge of partially treated and/or untreated wastewater on the structure of bacterial communities and resistome of sediments collected from Mutha river flowing through Pune city in India. Using shotgun metagenomics, we found a wide array (n = 175) of horizontally transferable antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) including carbapenemases such as NDM, VIM, KPC, OXA-48 and IMP types. The relative abundance of total ARGs was 30-fold higher in river sediments within the city compared to upstream sites. Forty four ARGs, including the tet(X) gene conferring resistance to tigecycline, OXA-58 and GES type carbapenemases, were significantly more abundant in city sediments, while two ARGs were more common at upstream sites. The recently identified mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was detected only in one of the upstream samples, but not in city samples. In addition to ARGs, higher abundances of various mobile genetic elements were found in city samples, including integron-associated integrases and ISCR transposases, as well as some biocide/metal resistance genes. Virulence toxin genes as well as bacterial genera comprising many pathogens were more abundant here; the genus Acinetobacter, which is often associated with multidrug resistance and nosocomial infections, comprised up to 29% of the 16S rRNA reads, which to our best knowledge is unmatched in any other deeply sequenced metagenome. There was a strong correlation between the abundance of Acinetobacter and the OXA-58 carbapenemase gene. Our study shows that uncontrolled discharge of untreated urban

  4. Long-Term Testosterone Therapy Improves Cardiometabolic Function and Reduces Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Men with Hypogonadism: A Real-Life Observational Registry Study Setting Comparing Treated and Untreated (Control) Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M; Haider, Ahmad; Haider, Karim Sultan; Doros, Gheorghe; Saad, Farid

    2017-09-01

    In the absence of large, prospective, placebo-controlled studies of longer duration, substantial evidence regarding the safety and risk of testosterone (T) therapy (TTh) with regard to cardiovascular (CV) outcomes can only be gleaned from observational studies. To date, there are limited studies comparing the effects of long-term TTh in men with hypogonadism who were treated or remained untreated with T, for obvious reasons. We have established a registry to assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of T in men in a urological setting. Here, we sought to compare the effects of T on a host of parameters considered to contribute to CV risk in treated and untreated men with hypogonadism (control group). Observational, prospective, cumulative registry study in 656 men (age: 60.7 ± 7.2 years) with total T levels ≤12.1 nmol/L and symptoms of hypogonadism. In the treatment group, men (n = 360) received parenteral T undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg/12 weeks following an initial 6-week interval for up to 10 years. Men (n = 296) who had opted against TTh served as controls. Median follow-up in both groups was 7 years. Measurements were taken at least twice a year, and 8-year data were analyzed. Mean changes over time between the 2 groups were compared by means of a mixed-effects model for repeated measures, with a random effect for intercept and fixed effects for time, group, and their interaction. To account for baseline differences between the 2 groups, changes were adjusted for age, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and lipids. There were 2 deaths in the T-treated group, none was related to CV events. There were 21 deaths in the untreated (control) group, 19 of which were related to CV events. The incidence of death in 10 patient-years was 0.1145 in the control group (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0746-0.1756; P control group and none in the T-treated group. Long-term TU was well tolerated with excellent adherence suggesting a high level of

  5. Distinctive distribution of lymphocytes in unruptured and previously untreated brain arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte infiltration in brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM is not associated with iron deposition (indicator of micro-hemorrhage. Methods: Sections of unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens (n = 19 were stained immunohistochemically for T-lymphocytes (CD3 + , B-lymphocytes (CD20 + , plasma cells (CD138 + and macrophages (CD68 + . Iron deposition was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and Prussian blue stains. Superficial temporal arteries (STA were used as control. Results: Both T-lymphocytes and macrophages were present in unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens, whereas few B cells and plasma cells were detected. Iron deposition was detected in 8 specimens (42%; 95% confidence intervals = 20-67%. The samples with iron deposition tended to have more macrophages than those without (666 ± 313 vs. 478 ± 174 cells/mm 2 ; P = 0.11. T-cells were clustered on the luminal side of the endothelial surface, on the vessel-wall, and in the perivascular regions. There was no correlation between T-lymphocyte load and iron deposition (P = 0.88. No macrophages and lymphocytes were detected in STA controls. Conclusion: T-lymphocytes were present in bAVM specimens. Unlike macrophages, the load and location of T-lymphocytes were not associated with iron deposition, suggesting the possibility of an independent cell-mediated immunological mechanism in bAVM pathogenesis.

  6. Effects of Untreated Periodontitis on Osseointegration of Dental Implants in a Beagle Dog Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daehyun; Sohn, Byungjin; Kim, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Sungtae; Koo, Ki-Tae; Kim, Tae-Il; Seol, Yang-Jo; Lee, Yong-Moo; Rhyu, In-Chul; Ku, Young

    2016-10-01

    There have been previous studies on the relationship between periodontitis and peri-implantitis, but limited information is available on how periodontitis affects osseointegration and wound healing of newly placed dental implants adjacent to natural teeth. The objective of the present experiment is to evaluate healing around dental implants adjacent to teeth with untreated experimental periodontitis. The study included six male beagle dogs. Scaling and plaque control procedures were performed on three dogs (control group). In the other three dogs (experimental group), retraction cords and ligature wires were placed subgingivally around all premolars and the first molars. Induced experimental periodontitis was confirmed after 3 months. Each control or experimental group was divided into two subgroups depending on the timing of implant placement (immediate/delayed). Twelve dental implants (two implants for each dog) were placed immediately, and the other 12 dental implants (two implants for each dog) were placed 2 months after extraction. The animals were sacrificed 2 months after implant placement. Histologic and histometric analyses were performed. Four implants (three from the immediate placement group and one from the delayed placement group) failed in the experimental group. There were significant differences in the percentage of bone-to-implant contact and marginal bone volume density between the control and experimental groups. Both parameters were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (P implants is associated with a higher failure rate compared with delayed placement. Untreated experimental periodontitis was correlated with compromised osseointegration in the implants with delayed placement.

  7. Impact of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunk. on physiological and anatomical changes in untreated and herbicide-treated alfalfa plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarić-Krsmanović Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of field dodder on physiological processes and the anatomy of alfalfa plants were examined under controlled conditions. The experiment included the following variants: N - noninfested alfalfa plants (control; I - infested alfalfa plants (untreated; T - infested plants treated with imazethapyr. Imazethapyr application rate was 100 g a.i. ha-1. The following parameters were checked: physiological - pigment content (chlorophyll ɑ, chlorophyll b, total carotenoids; anatomical - stem parameters: thickness of epidermis and cortex, and diameter of stem and central cylinder; leaf parameters: thickness of epidermis, parenchyma and spongy tissue, mesophyll and underside leaf epidermis, and diameter of bundle sheath cells in alfalfa plants. Pigment contents and anatomical parameters were measured: prior to herbicide treatment (0 assessment, then 7 (I assessment, 14 (II assessment, 21 (III assessment, 28 (IV assessment and 35 (V assessment days after application (DAA. Field dodder was found to affect the contents of chlorophyll ɑ, chlorophyll ɑ and carotenoids in untreated alfalfa plants, causing significant reductions in pigment content. Conversely, percent reduction in the treated plants decreased 22-5% for chlorophyll ɑ, 25-1%, for chlorophyll b, and 21-11% for carotenoids, while a stimulating effect of 1-6% was observed for the contents of chlorophyll b and carotenoids 35 DAA. Plants infested (untreated by field dodder had lower values of most anatomical parameters, compared to noninfested plants. The measured anatomical parameters of alfalfa stems and leaves had significantly higher values in noninfested plants and plants treated with imazethapyr than in untreated plants.

  8. Human norovirus in untreated sewage and effluents from primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos J A; Avant, Justin; Lowther, James; Till, Dale; Lees, David N

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater treatments are considered important means to control the environmental transmission of human norovirus (NoV). Information about NoV concentrations in untreated and treated effluents, their seasonality and typical removal rates achieved by different treatment processes is required to assess the effectiveness of sewage treatment processes in reducing human exposure to NoV. This paper reports on a characterisation of concentrations of NoV (genogroups I and II) in untreated sewage (screened influent) and treated effluents from five full scale wastewater treatment works (WwTW) in England. Results are shown for effluent samples characteristic of primary- (primary settlement, storm tank overflows), secondary- (activated sludge, trickling filters, humus tanks) and tertiary (UV disinfection) treatments. NoV occurrence in untreated sewage varied between years. This variation was consistent with the annual variation of the virus in the community as indicated by outbreak laboratory reports. Significant differences were found between mean NoV concentrations in effluents subject to different levels of treatment. Primary settlement achieved approximately 1 log10 removal for both genogroups. Concentrations of NoV and Escherichia coli in untreated sewage were of the same order of magnitude of those in storm tank overflows. Of the secondary treatments studied, activated sludge was the most effective in removing NoV with mean log10 removals of 3.11 and 2.34 for GI and GII, respectively. The results of this study provide evidence that monitoring of NoV in raw sewage or treated effluents could provide early warning of an elevated risk for NoV and potentially help prevent outbreaks through environmental exposure. They also provide evidence that elimination of stormwater discharges and improvement of the efficiency of activated sludge for NoV removal would be effective for reducing the risk of environmental transmission. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and...

  10. Evaluation of untreated coffee husks as potential biosorbents for treatment of dye contaminated waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Leandro S.; Franca, Adriana S.; Alves, Thiago M.; Rocha, Sonia D.F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to propose an alternative use for coffee husks (CH), a coffee processing residue, as untreated sorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The effects of solution temperature, pH, biosorbent dosage and contact time on MB removal were investigated. The experimental adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The biosorption kinetics was determined by fitting first and second-order kinetic models to the experimental data, with the second-order model providing the best description of MB adsorption onto coffee husks. pH variations did not present a significant effect on MB removal. Evaluation of thermodynamics parameters indicated that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic. The experimental data obtained in the present study demonstrated coffee husks to be suitable candidates for use as biosorbents in the removal of cationic dyes

  11. Power control device for heavy water moderated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Hidesuke; Masuda, Hiroyuki.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To improve self controllability of a nuclear power plant, as well as enable continuous power level control by a controlled flow of moderators in void pipes provided in a reactor core. Constitution: Hollow void pipes are provided in a reactor core to which a heavy water recycle loop for power control, a heavy water recycle pump for power control, a heavy water temperature regulator and a heavy water flow rate control valve for power control are connected in series to constitute a heavy water recycle loop for flowing heavy water moderators. The void ratio in each of the void pipes are calculated by a process computer to determine the flow rate and the temperature for the recycled heavy water. Based on the above calculation result, the heavy water temperature regulator is actuated by way of a temperature setter at the heavy water inlet and the heavy water flow rate is controlled by the actuation of the heavy water flow rate control valve. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Impaired bone remodeling in children with osteogenesis imperfecta treated and untreated with bisphosphonates: the role of DKK1, RANKL, and TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, G; Papadia, F; Tummolo, A; Fischetto, R; Nicastro, F; Piacente, L; Ventura, A; Mori, G; Oranger, A; Gigante, I; Colucci, S; Ciccarelli, M; Grano, M; Cavallo, L; Delvecchio, M; Faienza, M F

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the bone cell activity in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) treated and untreated with neridronate. We demonstrated the key role of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in regulating bone cell of untreated and treated OI subjects. These cytokines could represent new pharmacological targets for OI. Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) with the objective of reducing the risk of fractures. Although bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density in OI subjects, the effects on fracture incidence are conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying bone cell activity in subjects with mild untreated forms of OI and in a group of subjects with severe OI treated with cycles of intravenous neridronate. Sclerostin, DKK1, TNF-α, RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and bone turnover markers were quantified in serum of 18 OI patients (12 females, mean age 8.86 ± 3.90), 8 of which were receiving cyclic intravenous neridronate, and 21 sex- and age-matched controls. The effects on osteoblastogenesis and OPG expression of media conditioned by the serum of OI patients and anti-DKK1 neutralizing antibody were evaluated. Osteoclastogenesis was assessed in cultures from patients and controls. DKK1 and RANKL levels were significantly increased both in untreated and in treated OI subjects with respect to controls. The serum from patients with high DKK1 levels inhibited both osteoblast differentiation and OPG expression in vitro. High RANKL and low OPG messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were found in lymphomonocytes from patients. High amounts of TNF-α were expressed by monocytes, and an elevated percentage of circulating CD11b-CD51/CD61+ osteoclast precursors was observed in patients. Our study demonstrated the key role of DKK1, RANKL, and TNF-α in regulating bone cell activity of subjects

  13. The prevalence of sexual behavior disorders in patients with treated and untreated gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Paola; Pascariello, Annalisa; Limongelli, Paolo; Tremolaterra, Fabrizio; Consalvo, Danilo; Sabbatini, Francesco; Amato, Giuseppe; Ciacci, Carolina

    2007-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic disease. Sexual behavior is often altered in chronic illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual behavior in patients affected with GERD before and after medical or surgical treatment in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Upper GI endoscopy and 24-h ambulatory pH testing were performed to confirm GERD in symptomatic patients. GERD patients completed an anonymous questionnaire on sexual life before and after medical or surgical treatment. Compared with HC, untreated patients with GERD showed more frequent difficulty in attaining orgasm and painful intercourse. GERD patients after surgical treatment had significantly more difficulty in attaining orgasm, while after continuous medical treatment GERD patients compared with HC had significantly more difficulty in attaining orgasm, higher painful intercourse, lower sexual desire, and perceived more frequently that the partner was unhelpful. When compared with untreated conditions, GERD patients after surgical treatment had a significant improvement in attaining orgasm and in painful intercourse but a significant decrease in sexual desire, a lower satisfaction with their sexual life, and a higher prevalence of an unhelpful partner, whereas GERD patients after medical treatment had a decrease in all indices of sexual behavior. Untreated GERD is associated with disorders in sexual behavior. Compared with HC, only the surgical group partially improved after treatment.

  14. Association between treated/untreated traumatic dental injuries and impact on quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pordeus Isabela A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic dental injury (TDI could have physical and psychosocial consequences for children. Thus, it is important to measure the impact of TDI on the quality of life of children (QoL. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between treated/untreated TDI and the impact on the quality of life of 11-to-14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 1612 male and female schoolchildren aged 11 to 14 years attending public and private elementary schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select the children. Three calibrated examiners used the Andreasen classification for the diagnosis of TDI. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 - Impact Short Form (ISF:16, composed of 16 items and self-administered by all children. Other oral conditions (dental caries and malocclusion and the Social Vulnerability Index were determined and used as controlling variables. Results Two hundred nineteen children were diagnosed with untreated TDI and 64 were diagnosed with treated TDI. There were no statistically significant associations between untreated or treated TDI and overall CPQ11-14 (Fisher = 0.368 and Fisher = 0.610, respectively. Children with an untreated TDI were 1.4-fold (95% CI = 1.1-2.1 more likely to report impact on the item "avoided smiling/laughing" than those without TDI, whereas children with a treated TDI were twofold (95% CI = 1.1-3.5 more likely to report impact on the item "other children asked questions" than those without TDI. Conclusions Neither treated nor untreated TDI was associated with oral symptoms, functional limitations or emotional wellbeing. However, children with a TDI in the anterior teeth experienced a negative impact on social wellbeing, mainly with regard to avoiding smiling or laughing and being

  15. Head circumference in untreated and IGF-I treated patients with Laron syndrome: comparison with untreated and hGH-treated children with isolated growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi; Iluz, Moshe; Kauli, Rivka

    2012-04-01

    Head circumference (HC) is a simple and practical measure of brain size, development and longitudinal measurements of the HC in childhood are an index of brain growth. To determine the effects of long IGF-I deficiency and treatment on HC in patients with Laron syndrome (LS). 20 untreated adult LS patients, aged 48.4±11.2 years and 13 LS patients treated between ages of 5.6±4 to 11.3±3 years were studied. 15 patients with congenital IGHD treated between age 6.1±4 and 13±4 by hGH served as controls. HC was expressed as standard deviation (SD) and Ht as SDS. HC was measured and plotted on Nellhaus charts. Linear height (Ht) was measured by a Harpenden Stadiometer. The mean HC deficit of the adult untreated LS males was -2.9±0.6 SD compared to a Ht deficit of -7.0±1.7 SDS. The HC of the LS adult females was -3.6±1 SD compared to a Ht SDS of -6.9±1.5 (pdeficit decreased only by 1.5 SDS. hGH treatment of cIGHD children increased the HC from -2.0±1.8 to 0.3±1.2 SD and the Ht SDS from -4.8±1.6 to 1.6±1.0. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Shortened duration of untreated first episode of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; McGlashan, T H; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether duration of untreated psychosis can be shortened in patients with first episodes of DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorders and whether shorted duration alters patient appearance at treatment. METHOD: Two study groups were ascertained in the same Norwegian h...

  17. Application of fuzzy logic control system for reactor feed-water control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, T.; Nakajima, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The successful actual application of a fuzzy logic control system to the a nuclear Fugen nuclear power reactor is described. Fugen is a heavy-water moderated, light-water cooled reactor. The introduction of fuzzy logic control system has enabled operators to control the steam drum water level more effectively in comparison to a conventional proportional-integral (PI) control system

  18. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura

    2018-05-31

    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils.From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls.Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  19. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Marasco, Ramona; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur; Fava, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils.From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls.Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  20. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Marasco, Ramona; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur; Fava, Fabio

    2018-05-31

    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils. From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls. Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  1. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...... consumer pressure desire. A model predictive controller, MPC, is based on a simple model that models the main characteristics of a water distribution network, optimizes a desired cost minimisation, and keeps the system inside specified constraints. In comparison to a logic (on/off) control design...

  2. Acute Genotoxic Effects of Effluent Water of Thermo-Power Plant “Kosova” In Tradescantia Pallida

    OpenAIRE

    I. R. Elezaj, L.B.Millaku, R.H. Imeri-Millaku, Q.I. Selimi, and K. Rr. Letaj

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of acute genotoxic effect of effluent water of thermo-power plant by means of Tradescantia root tips micronucleus test (MN), mitotic index and cell aberrations.   Tradescantia, was experimentally treated (for 24 h), with effluent water of thermo-power plant in different dilution ratios (negative control – distilled water; primary untreated effluent water and 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4; 1:5; 1:6 and 1:7 respectively). Number of aberrant cells, and frequency of ...

  3. Brain Oscillations Elicited by the Cold Pressor Test: A Putative Index of Untreated Essential Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Christos Papageorgiou; Efstathios Manios; Eleftheria Tsaltas; Eleni Koroboki; Maria Alevizaki; Elias Angelopoulos; Meletios-Athanasios Dimopoulos; Charalabos Papageorgiou; Nikolaos Zakopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Essential hypertension is associated with reduced pain sensitivity of unclear aetiology. This study explores this issue using the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), a reliable pain/stress model, comparing CPT-related EEG activity in first episode hypertensives and controls. Method. 22 untreated hypertensives and 18 matched normotensives underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). EEG recordings were taken before, during, and after CPT exposure. Results. Significant group d...

  4. Haematological and physiological responses of brook charr, to untreated and limestone-neutralized acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, M.B.; Arnold, D.E.; Watten, B.J.; Krise, W.F. [ABR Inc, Forest Grove, OR (USA). Environmental Research and Services

    2001-07-01

    Brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, exhibited depressed plasma sodium and elevated plasma glucose concentrations in untreated acid mine drainage effluent (AMD), at two dilutions. Plasma sodium and glucose concentrations remained stable in treated AMD, pulsed, fluidized beds of limestone and carbon-dioxide pre-treatment of influent, and in AMD-free water. Results indicate that effluents produced by this treatment system were not toxic to these fish, despite still containing moderate concentrations of manganese (3-4 mg l{sup 1} following dilution in exposure systems), and provide justification for field deployment and further biological testing of this treatment in the field.

  5. 78 FR 35315 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act, Fla. Stat. Chapter 403, seeking penalties and injunctive... underneath Government Cut between Fisher Island and south of the City of Miami Beach that conveys untreated... implement a number of EPA sewer maintenance and repair programs which EPA believes will dramatically reduce...

  6. Immobilization remediation of Cd-polluted soil with different water condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianrui; Xu, Yingming

    2017-05-15

    To demonstrate effects of water management on soil Cd immobilization using palygorskite, the investigation evaluated impacts of palygorskite on uptake of Cd present in soils with different water condition by rice plant. Pot experiment results showed that, pH, available Fe and P in untreated soils were higher in continuous flooding than in traditional irrigation and wetting irrigation, which were reasons for lower soil exchangeable Cd and plant Cd in continuous flooding. In control group (untreated soils), compared to traditional irrigation, continuous flooding reduced brown rice Cd by 37.9%, that in wetting irrigation increased by 31.0%. At palygorskite concentrations of 5 g kg -1 , 10 g kg -1 and 15 g kg -1 , brown rice Cd reduced by 16.7%, 44.4% and 55.6% under continuous flooding, 13.8%, 34.5% and 44.8% under traditional irrigation, 13.1%, 36.8% and 47.3% under wetting irrigation (p soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Rosa

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001 and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005. Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions.Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  8. Cyanobacteria and microcystin contamination in untreated and treated drinking water in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Naa Dzama Addico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins represent a worldwide-occurring phenomenon, there are large differences among different countries in cyanotoxin-related human health risk assessment, management practices and policies. While national standards, guideline values and detailed regulatory frameworks for effective management of cyanotoxin risks have been implemented in many industrialized countries, the extent of cyanobacteria occurrence and cyanotoxin contamination in certain geographical regions is under-reported and not very well understood. Such regions include major parts of tropical West and Central Africa, a region constisting of more than 25 countries occupying an area of 12 million km2, with a total population of 500 milion people. Only few studies focusing on cyanotoxin occurrence in this region have been published so far, and reports dealing specifically with cyanotoxin contamination in drinking water are extremely scarce. In this study, we report seasonal data on cyanobacteria and microcystin (MC contamination in drinking water reservoirs and adjacent treatment plants located in Ghana, West Africa. During January-June 2005, concentrations of MCs were monitored in four treatment plants supplying drinking water to major metropolitan areas in Ghana: the treatment plants Barekese and Owabi, which serve Kumasi Metropolitan Area, and the plants Kpong and Weija, providing water for Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. HPLC analyses showed that 65% samples of raw water at the intake of the treatment plants contained intracellular MCs (maximal detected concentration was 8.73 µg L-1, whereas dissolved toxins were detected in 33% of the samples. Significant reduction of cyanobacterial cell counts and MC concentrations was achieved during the entire monitoring period by the applied conventional water treatment methods (alum flocculation, sedimentation, rapid sand filtration and chlorination, and MC concentration in the final treated water

  9. Improved or Unimproved Urban Areas Effect on Soil and Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Logsdon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction in urban areas usually results in compacted soil, which restricts plant growth and infiltration. Nutrients may be lost in storm runoff water and sediment. The purpose of this study was to determine if existing lawns benefit from aeration and surface compost additions without the negative impact of nutrient loss in runoff. Four sets of lawns were compared, with or without compost plus aeration, as a paired comparison. Surface bulk density was significantly reduced in the treated lawns (1.32 versus 1.42 Mg·m−3. Visual evaluation of soil structure showed improvement in the treated lawns. Of fifteen measurement dates over four years, four dates showed significantly higher surface soil water contents in the treated lawns compared with the untreated lawns. When compared over time, three of the four treated lawns had significantly higher soil water content than the untreated lawns. Nutrient concentrations in rainfall simulator runoff were not significantly different between treated and control lawns, which showed that compost did not negatively impact water quality. Compost and aeration helped restore soil quality for urban soils of recent construction.

  10. Reactor water level control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Yohei.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the rapid response of the waterlevel control converting a reactor water level signal into a non-linear type, when the water level is near to a set value, to stabilize the water level reducting correlatively the reactor water level variation signal to stabilize greatly from the set value, and increasing the variation signal. Constitution: A main vapor flow quality transmitter detects the vapor flow generated in a reactor and introduced into a turbine. A feed water flow transmitter detects the quantity of a feed water flow from the turbine to the reactor, this detected value is sent to an addition operating apparatus. On the other hand, the power signal of the reactor water level transmitter is sent to the addition operating apparatus through a non-linear water level signal converter. The addition operation apparatus generates a signal for requesting the feed water flow quantity from both signals. Upon this occasion, the reactor water level signal converter makes small the reactor water level variation when the reactor level is close the set value, and when the water level deviates greatly from the set value, the reactor water level variation is made large thereby to improve the rapid response of the reactor coater level control. (Yoshino, Y.)

  11. Complications of untreated molar-incisor hypomineralization in a 12-year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Arehalli Bhaskar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Complications arising because of untreated molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH have received little mention in the dental literature. However, this can be an area of concern, with severe consequences in rare cases. Hence, early recognition and prompt management of MIH is essential for long-term oral health of affected individuals. This paper describes an untreated case of severe MIH that resulted in infection of facial spaces.

  12. On-the-road driving performance and driving-related skills in older untreated insomnia patients and chronic users of hypnotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leufkens, T R M; Ramaekers, J G; de Weerd, A W; Riedel, W J; Vermeeren, A

    2014-07-01

    Many older adults report sleep problems and use of hypnotics. Several studies have shown that hypnotics can have acute adverse effects on driving the next morning. It is unclear however whether driving of chronic hypnotic users is impaired. Therapeutic effects on insomnia and development of tolerance may reduce the residual effects on driving. The present study aimed to compare actual driving performance and driving-related skills of chronic hypnotic users to good sleepers. To determine whether insomnia itself affects driving performance, driving and driving-related skills were compared between insomnia patients who do not or infrequently use hypnotics and good sleepers. Twenty-two frequent users of hypnotics (using hypnotics ≥ 4 nights per week for more than 3 months), 20 infrequent users (using hypnotics ≤ 3 nights per week), and 21 healthy, age-matched controls participated in this study. On the night before testing, all subjects were hospitalized for an 8-h sleep recorded by polysomnography. Frequent hypnotic users used their regular medication at bedtime (2330 hours), while infrequent users and controls received no medication. Cognitive performance (word learning, digit span, tracking, divided attention, vigilance, and inhibitory control) was assessed 8.5 h and driving performance between 10 and 11 h after bedtime and dosing. Polysomnographic recordings did not significantly differ between the groups, but the insomnia patients, treated or untreated, still reported subjective sleep complaints. Results show no differences in driving performance and driving-related skills between both groups of insomnia patients and controls. Driving performance in chronic users of hypnotics and untreated insomnia patients is not impaired. For chronic users, this may be due to prescription of relatively safe drugs and low doses. For untreated insomniacs, this corroborates previous findings showing an absence of neuropsychological deficits in this group of patients.

  13. The untreated dental caries in primary teeth: would it be problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udijanto Tedjosasongko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries still remain as the most prevalent oral health disease in children. Many efforts have been done to prevent dental caries in children, but unfortunately there are dental practitioners who still have false mindset and prefer not to treat the dental caries case in primary teeth with the most common reasons are because it will be replaced with the permanent teeth. There are many negative effect will occur if the dental caries treatments in primary teeth are neglected.This topic would review the effects of untreated dental caries in children based on research reports.Severely decayed teeth have an important impact on children’s general health, nutrition, growth and body weight by causing discomfort, pain, sleeping problems, learning disorders and absence from school.  Untreated caries may affect seriously the quality of children’s life because of pain and discomfort, which could lead to acute and chronic infections, oral mucosal conditions and altered eating and sleeping habits. Furthermore, untreated caries in primary teeth can have a lasting detrimental impact on the permanent dentition by causing high caries risk or developmental defects of the permanent successor tooth. Moreover it has been reported that children at each higher level of caries had significantly lower height and weight outcomes than those with lower caries levels. The untreated dental caries in primary teeth would lead the children to poor growth and health which lowering the their quality of life.

  14. Platelets in blood stored in untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F.; Madsen, C. B.; Nedergaard, Jytte

    1961-01-01

    Platelet survival was determined using untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags (Fenwal) for collecting and storing blood. The platelets were tagged in vivo with P32 in six polycythaemic patients undergoing treatment with P32. The results showed that fresh ACD blood collected in untreated glass, siliconed glass, and plastic gave the same recovery of platelets in the recipients. The use of EDTA (Fenwal formula) as anticoagulant gave results inferior to those obtained with blood using ACD as anticoagulant. Even after storage up to 24 hours in untreated glass bottles (ordinary bank blood) a satisfactory recovery of platelets was observed. After storage for 72 hours the recovery was less but not negligible. PMID:14456481

  15. Treated and Untreated Alcohol-Use Disorders: Course and Predictors of Remission and Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2007-01-01

    The research described here focused on personal, life context, and help-related factors to trace the long-term course of treated and untreated alcohol-use disorders. A group of 461 individuals who sought help for alcohol problems was surveyed at baseline and 1, 3, 8, and 16 years later. Compared with individuals who remained untreated, individuals…

  16. Water chemistry control at FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panigrahi, B.S.; Jambunathan, D.; Suresh Kumar, K.V.; Ramanathan, V.; Srinivasan, G.; Ramalingam, P.V.

    2008-01-01

    Condenser cooling and service water systems together serve as the cooling water system of Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). Palar river water serves as the make-up to the cooling water system. Initially, the service water system alone was commissioned in phases depending upon the arrival of auxiliary equipments at site. During this period, the water was not treated chemically and it also inadvertently remained stagnant for some time in some systems. Thereafter, a threshold chemical treatment was started. However, pin-hole leaks and reduced flow through the heat exchangers were observed and therefore chemical cleaning of headers was done and small diameter pipelines were replaced. Following this a full fledged chemistry control with proprietary formulations was initiated. Later the condenser cooling system was commissioned and the chemical treatment was reviewed. With adoption of improved monitoring methodology and treatment formulation satisfactory corrosion control (< 3 mpy) with minimum deposition problem in this system could be achieved. The primary coolant (primary sodium) of FBTR transfers the nuclear heat to the secondary coolant (secondary sodium) that in turn transfers heat to water in Once Through Steam Generator (OTSG) to generate superheated steam (480 deg C at 125 bar). Efficient water chemistry control plays the vital role in minimizing corrosion related failures of steam generator tubes and ensuring steam generator tube integrity. Therefore, the technical specifications of chemistry parameters of feed/steam water at FBTR are made very stringent to maintain the purity of water at the best attainable level. To meet this stringent feed water and steam quality specifications, online monitoring techniques have been employed in the steam/water circuit to get continuous information about the purity. These monitors have helped significantly in achieving the required feed water quality and running the steam generator for more than 25000 hours without any tube

  17. Water-controlled wealth of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-03-12

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations on the basis of calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-term sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water-rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects through (i) cooperative interactions among nations whereby water-rich countries maintain a tiny fraction of their food production available for export, (ii) changes in consumption patterns, and (iii) a positive feedback between demographic growth and technological innovations. We find that these strategies may indeed reduce the vulnerability of water-controlled societies.

  18. Immunological responses, histopathological finding and disease resistance of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to treated and untreated municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Fabiola M.; St-Jean, Sylvie D.; Bishay, Farida; Clarke, John; Rabitto, Ines da S.; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A. de

    2007-01-01

    This study provides new information on the response of the immune system of Mytilus edulis exposed to untreated and treated sewage, linking immune response to ecologically relevant endpoints, such as disease resistance. Our goal was to assess the potential effects of sewage on the immune system (phagocytic activity and production of cytotoxic metabolites, disease resistance) and gills (light microscope) of mussels through a bioassay and field study in an estuarine receiving environment (RE). A semi-static experiment was developed in a wastewater treatment plant in New Glasgow, NS Canada. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100% of untreated sewage influent and artificial seawater control. Sampling occurred after 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure. In the field study, eight sites were selected in East River and Pictou Harbour, NS, positioned upstream and downstream of sewage effluents outfalls. Caged mussels were exposed to the RE for 90 days (May-July 2005). Mussels were challenged to test their efficiency at eliminating the bacteria, Listonella anguillarium in the bioassay and field studies. The bioassay results showed that higher concentrations of untreated sewage could modulate the immune system of mussels through increased of phagocytic activity (PA), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production during 14 days of exposure, and decreased activity and production at 21 days, with the exception of H 2 O 2 production which was high even at 21 days. Mussels exposed to untreated sewage RE also presented a high PA, NO and H 2 O 2 production and lower number of haemocytes compared to mussels from reference sites. In the bacterial challenge, mussels pre-exposed to 100% sewage died 24 h after being infected with L. anguillarium, while mussels pre-exposed to 50% eliminated bacteria had a mortality rate of 30%. Mussels from the control, 12.5% and 25% groups eliminated bacteria and no mortality was observed. No significant difference was

  19. CARDIAC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ABNORMALITIES IN FEMALES WITH UNTREATED HYPOPITUITARISM DUE TO SHEEHAN SYNDROME: RESPONSE TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Ramzan, Mahroosa; Allai, Mohd Sultan; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Data on cardiac abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism are limited. We investigated echocardiographic abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism and their response to treatment. Twenty-three females with treatment-naïve hypopituitarism and 30 matched healthy controls were evaluated for cardiac structure and function. Echocardiographic evaluation was done at presentation and after achieving a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Fourteen (61%) patients had mitral regurgitation, and 11 (48%) had pericardial effusion as against none among controls. Indices of left ventricular (LV) size like LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDD; 44.5 ± 3.5 mm in cases vs. 47.6 ± 3.8 mm in controls, P = .004), and LV diastolic volume (LVEDV; 91.8 ± 18.0 mL versus 106.5 ± 20.4 mL, P = .009) were significantly lower in the SS group compared with controls. LV mass (LVM) was 70.8 ± 19.2 g in cases and 108.0 ± 33.2 g in controls (P = .02). Similarly, indices of LV systolic function like stroke volume (SV; 59.1 ± 12.0 mL in cases and 74.4 ± 15.8 mL in controls; P = .000), ejection fraction (EF; 64.3 ± 6.2 % in cases against 69.9 ± 9.2 % in controls; P = .03), and fractional shortening (FS; 34.9 ± 4.7% versus 40.1 ± 4.4%, P = .000) were significantly decreased in patients compared with controls. Cardiac abnormalities normalized with restoration of a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Pericardial effusion, mitral regurgitation, and diminished LVM are common in females with untreated hypopituitarism. ACTH = adrenocorticotrophic hormone BMI = body mass index DT = deceleration time EDV = end-diastolic volume EF = ejection fraction FS = fractional shortening GH = growth hormone IGF-1 = insulin growth factor-1 ITT = insulin tolerance test IVSd = interventricular septal diameter LH = luteinizing hormone LV = left ventricular LVEDD = LV end diastolic dimension LVEDV = LV end diastolic volume LVM = LV mass MRI = magnetic resonance imaging MVP = mitral value prolapse PPH

  20. Effects of irritant chemicals on Aedes aegypti resting behavior: is there a simple shift to untreated "safe sites"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortance Manda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to irritant and repellent chemicals that can be exploited to reduce man-vector contact. Maximum efficacy of interventions based on irritant chemical actions will, however, require full knowledge of variables that influence vector resting behavior and how untreated "safe sites" contribute to overall impact. METHODS: Using a laboratory box assay, resting patterns of two population strains of female Ae. aegypti (THAI and PERU were evaluated against two material types (cotton and polyester at various dark:light surface area coverage (SAC ratio and contrast configuration (horizontal and vertical under chemical-free and treated conditions. Chemicals evaluated were alphacypermethrin and DDT at varying concentrations. RESULTS: Under chemical-free conditions, dark material had significantly higher resting counts compared to light material at all SAC, and significantly increased when material was in horizontal configuration. Cotton elicited stronger response than polyester. Within the treatment assays, significantly higher resting counts were observed on chemical-treated dark material compared to untreated light fabric. However, compared to matched controls, significantly less resting observations were made on chemical-treated dark material overall. Most importantly, resting observations on untreated light material (or "safe sites" in the treatment assay did not significantly increase for many of the tests, even at 25% SAC. Knockdown rates were ≤5% for all assays. Significantly more observations of flying mosquitoes were made in test assays under chemical-treatment conditions as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When preferred Ae. aegypti resting sites are treated with chemicals, even at reduced treatment coverage area, mosquitoes do not simply move to safe sites (untreated areas following contact with the treated material. Instead, they become agitated

  1. Marrow hypoplasia: a rare complication of untreated Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Juliana; França, Larissa de; Ellinger, Vivian; Wolff, Mônica

    2014-12-01

    Atypical presentation forms of hyperthyroidism are always a challenge to the clinician. We present a female patient with the typical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, without any thionamides treatment before, associated with pancytopenia, which recovered after euthyroidism state was achieved. Although the major cases of pancytopenia in Grave's disease are seen as a complication of antithyroid drugs (thioamides), in this case report the alteration in blood tests was associated with untreated hyperthyroidism. In the literature review, we found 19 case reports between 1981 to 2012, but it has been related to a hypercellular bone marrow with periferic destruction. Our case, however, is about a hypocellular bone marrow without fibrosis or fat tissue replacement, which proceeded with a periferic improvement following thyroid treatment. Although rare, pancytopenia, when present, may develop as an unusual and severe manifestation in untreated subjects.

  2. BTEX compounds in water - future trends and directions for water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fayemiwo, OM; Daramola, MO; Moothi, K

    2017-01-01

    BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) compounds are common water resource and potable water pollutants that are often left undetected and untreated by municipal treatment systems in spite of the negative repercussions associated with their ingestion. The US EPA has classified these pollutants as priority pollutant, yet they are persistently present in a variety of water resources. In this review paper, we highlight the sources and reported concentrations of BTEX compounds in water...

  3. Effectiveness of insecticide-treated and untreated nets to prevent malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Remoortel, Hans; De Buck, Emmy; Singhal, Maneesh; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Agarwal, Satya P

    2015-08-01

    India is the most malaria-endemic country in South-East Asia, resulting in a high socio-economic burden. Insecticide-treated or untreated nets are effective interventions to prevent malaria. As part of an Indian first-aid guideline project, we aimed to investigate the magnitude of this effect in India. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Central to systematically review Indian studies on the effectiveness of treated or untreated vs. no nets. Parasite prevalence and annual parasite incidence served as malaria outcomes. The overall effect was investigated by performing meta-analyses and calculating the pooled risk ratios (RR) and incidence rate ratios. Of 479 articles, we finally retained 16 Indian studies. Untreated nets decreased the risk of parasite prevalence compared to no nets [RR 0.69 (95% CI; 0.55, 0.87) in high-endemic areas, RR 0.49 (95% CI; 0.28, 0.84) in low-endemic areas], as was the case but more pronounced for treated nets [RR 0.35 (95% CI; 0.26, 0.47) in high-endemic areas, risk ratio 0.16 (95% CI; 0.06, 0.44) in low-endemic areas]. Incidence rate ratios showed a similar observation: a significantly reduced rate of parasites in the blood for untreated nets vs. no nets, which was more pronounced in low-endemic areas and for those who used treated nets. The average effect of treated nets (vs. no nets) on parasite prevalence was higher in Indian studies (RR 0.16-0.35) than in non-Indian studies (data derived from a Cochrane systematic review; RR 0.58-0.87). Both treated and untreated nets have a clear protective effect against malaria in the Indian context. This effect is more pronounced there than in other countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Water Quality Management of Beijing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    At present, Beijing's water resources are insufficient and will become the limiting factor for sustainable development for the city in the near future. Although efforts have been made to control pollution, water quality degradation has occurred in some of the important surface water supplies, aggravating the water resource shortage. At present, approximately three quarters of the city's wastewater is discharged untreated into the urban river system, resulting in serious pollution and negatively influencing the urban landscape and quality of daily life. To counteract these measures, the city has implemented a comprehensive "Water Quality Management Plan" for the region, encompassing water pollution control, prevention of water body degradation, and improved water quality.The construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants is recognised as fundamental to controlling water pollution, and full secondary treatment is planned to be in place by the year 2015. Significant work is also required to expand the service area of the municipal sewage system and to upgrade and renovate the older sewer systems. The limitation on available water resources has also seen the emphasis shift to low water using industries and improved water conservation. Whilst industrial output has increased steadily over the past 10-15 years at around 10% per annum, industrial water usage has remained relatively constant. Part of the city's water quality management plan has been to introduce a strict discharge permit system, encouraging many industries to install on-site treatment facilities.

  5. Factors related to severe untreated tooth decay in rural adolescents: a case-control study for public health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaret, E; Weinstein, P; Milgrom, P; Kaakko, T; Getz, T

    2004-01-01

    In this case-control study of rural adolescents we identified factors to discriminate those who have high levels of tooth decay and receive treatment from those with similar levels who receive no treatment. The sample was drawn from all 12-20-year-olds (n = 439) in a rural high school in Washington State, U.S. The criterion for being included was 5 or more decayed, missing or filled teeth. The questionnaire included structure, history, cognition and expectation variables based on a model by Grembowski, Andersen and Chen. No structural variable was related to the dependent variable. Two of 10 history variables were related: perceived poor own dental health and perceived poor mother's dental health. Four of eight cognition variables were also predictive: negative beliefs about the dentist, not planning to go to a dentist even if having severe problems, not being in any club or playing on a sports team and not having a best friend. No relationship was found for the expectation variable 'usual source of care'. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that untreated tooth decay is associated with avoidance of care and point to the importance of history and cognition variables in planning efforts to improve oral health of rural adolescents.

  6. Water quality control device and water quality control method for reactor primary coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoichi; Ibe, Eishi; Watanabe, Atsushi.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is suitable for preventing defects due to corrosion of structural materials in a primary coolant system of a BWR type reactor. Namely, a concentration measuring means measures the concentration of oxidative ingredients contained in a reactor water. A reducing electrode is disposed along a reactor water flow channel in the primary coolant system and reduces the oxidative ingredients. A reducing counter electrode is disposed along the reactor water flow channel in the primary coolant system, and electrically connected to the reducing electrode. The reactor structural materials are used as a reference electrode providing a reference potential to the reducing electrode and the reducing counter electrode. A potential control means controls the potential of the reducing electrode relative to the reference potential based on the signals from the concentration measuring means. A stable reference potential in a region where an effective oxygen concentration is stable can be obtained irrespective of the change of operation conditions by using the reactor structural materials disposed to a boiling region in the reactor core as a reference electrode. As a result, the water quality can be controlled at high accuracy. (I.S.)

  7. The water chemistry of CANDU PHW reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSurf, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    This review will discuss the chemistry of the three major water circuits in a CANDU-PHW reactor, viz., the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) water, the moderator and the boiler water. An important consideration for the PHT chemistry is the control of corrosion and of the transport of corrosion products to minimize the growth of radiation fields. In new reactors the PHT will be allowed to boil, requiring reconsideration of the methods used to radiolytic oxygen and elevate the pH. Separation of the moderator from the PHT in the pressure-tubed CANDU design permits better optimization of the chemistry of each system, avoiding the compromises necessary when the same water serves both functions. Major objectives in moderator chemistry are to control (a) the radiolytic decomposition of D 2 0; (b) the concentration of soluble neutron poisons added to adjust reactivity; and (c) the chemistry of shutdown systems. The boiler water and its feed water are treated to avoid boiler tube corrosion, both during normal operation and when perturbations are caused to the feed by, for example, leaks in the condenser tubes which permit ingress of untreated condenser cooling water. Development of a system for automatic analysis and control of feed water to give rapid, reliable response to abnormal conditions is a novel feature which has been developed for incorporation in future CANDU-PHW reactors. (author)

  8. Water control at certain karst U-mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Mingxin; Xu Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To ensure mining security, water control for certain mining area is designed. Hydrogeological conditions in the studied area are analyzed. Four methods were used to calculate the inflow of water at mineral area, such as 'bigwell' method and 'groundwater isostatic' method according to the karst development. The calculated data for average inflow of water for the 100 m middle section are mainly compared with the data for the inflow of spring water in this deposit observed during the last five years. The difference between them is found minor. This indicates that the parameters selected for the calculation of inflow of water are reasonable and the methods used are suitable. Taking into account the above, it is decided to use the combination of surface water control and groundwater control Surface water control first,and groundwater control second, Five methods are used for surface water control such as plugging, filling, stopping, draining and dredging. Three methods for groundwater control such as curtain grouting, drainage in advance and blocking. The implimentation of this program will greatly reduce the threat of groundwater in ming area to mining operation and the cost of treatment of water discharge in mining pits and wells ,and effectively protect the environment and ensure the local people's living and production. (authors)

  9. Cyanobacteria and microcystin contamination in untreated and treated drinking water in Ghana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Addico, G.N.D.; Hardege, J. D.; Kohoutek, J.; Degraft-Johnson, K. A. A.; Babica, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), s. 92-106 ISSN 1947-573X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Ghana * microcystin * drinking water treatment Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  10. A case-control study of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, P; Pritchard, K; Floyd, D; Law, B

    1999-10-01

    To identify major risk factors for Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) and identify measures to reduce YE infections. A prospective case control study, group age matched, using 186 cases of YE identified by community pathology laboratories and 379 randomly selected controls. Conducted between April 1995 and June 1996 in Auckland, New Zealand. Face-to-face interviews used a standardised questionnaire examining exposures to factors potentially associated with YE infections including untreated water, unreticulated sewerage, consumption of selected foods, selected food handling practices and socio-demographic factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for the potential risk factors. Population attributable risk (PAR) was calculated for significant exposures. Having more than two people living in the home was more common among cases than controls (OR = 2.2). Town supply water (OR = 0.2), reticulated sewerage (OR = 0.34) and looking after a young child (OR = 0.51) were significantly less common. Of the meats, only pork (OR = 1.34) had a higher consumption rate, while bacon (OR = 0.75) and smallgoods (OR = 0.73) were consumed less frequently by cases than controls. Eating food from a sandwich bar was more frequent among cases (OR = 1.18). Fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally less (OR = 0.98). The population attributable risk of these factors was 0.89, implying that 89% of YE would be eliminated if adverse exposures were removed. The risk of YE illness is increased by contact with untreated water, unreticulated sewerage and consumption of pork. Investigation of non-town water supply, informal sewerage systems and methods of preparation and consumption of pork are recommended to determine how YE enters the human food chain.

  11. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  12. Determination of arsenic in some water bodies, untreated ore and tailing samples at Konongo in the Ashanti region of Ghana and its surrounding towns and villages by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, M.; Osae, E.K.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Golow, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been employed for the determination of arsenic in samples of water bodies at Konongo an old mining town in the Ashanti region of Ghana and its surrounding towns and villages. In some of the water samples, significant levels of arsenic were recorded but others gave no indication of the metal. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated using real ore samples and standard reference materials. The accuracy of the method was found to be within ±6%. The average arsenic levels found in the water samples ranged between 0.04 and 12.2 mg/l. Untreated ore and tailing samples were also analysed for arsenic. The surface ore gave an arsenic concentration of 4,628 ± 97 ppm while that of the bottom ore was 2,978 ± 69 ppm. For the tailing samples, the range of arsenic level was 1,776 to 1,787 ppm. It was observed that the upper sink (i.e., the surface portion of the ore) showed higher levels of arsenic than the lower one (i.e., bottom portion of the ore). (author)

  13. Effect of Water Quality and Temperature on the Efficiency of Two Kinds of Hydrophilic Polymers in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Davoud Khodadadi

    2018-06-01

      In this study, evaluation of two-superabsorbent effects, Super-AB-A-300 and Super-AB-A-200 in a sandy soil on the water retention capability and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) at different water quality and soil temperature were done. The Super-AB-A-200 was less effective in water uptake than Super-AB-A-300. The efficiency of these polymers in water retention was negatively influenced by the water quality and temperature. The efficiency of these polymer treatments in water uptake reduced significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing soil temperature. In the control soil, the Ks stayed nearly constant with increasing soil temperature. As compared to the untreated control, the treated soil demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase of Ks with increasing soil temperature. In the control soil, the water holding properties curve did not change with increasing soil temperature.

  14. Maternal and neonatal consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a prospective cohort study with an embedded randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazemier, B.M.; Koningstein, F.N.; Schneeberger, C.; Ott, A.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Miranda, E. de; Vogelvang, T.E.; Verhoeven, C.J.; Langenveld, J.; Woiski, M.D.; Oudijk, M.A.; Ven, J.E. van der; Vlegels, M.T.; Kuiper, P.N.; Feiertag, N.; Pajkrt, E.; Groot, C.J. de; Mol, B.W.; Geerlings, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing approaches for the screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy are based on trials that were done more than 30 years ago. In this study, we reassessed the consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. METHODS: In this

  15. Maternal and neonatal consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a prospective cohort study with an embedded randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazemier, B.M.; Koningstein, F.N.; Schneeberger, C.; Ott, A; Bossuyt, P.M.; de Miranda, E.; Vogelvang, T.E.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; Langenveld, J.; Woiski, M.; Oudijk, M.A.; van der Yen, J.E.M.; Vlegels, M.T.W.; Kuiper, P.N.; Feiertag, N.; Pajkrt, E.; de Groot, C.J.M.; Mol, B.W.J.; Geerlings, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Existing approaches for the screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy are based on trials that were done more than 30 years ago. In this study, we reassessed the consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Methods: In this

  16. An Environmentally Benign Approach for As (V Absorption from Wastewater Using Untreated Coffee Grounds—Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnu Nam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of water is a worldwide issue due to its severe effects on the human body. Coffee grounds are a porous material with network structures, making it absorb other substances such as some gases or elements. In this research, renewable coffee wastes were used as an adsorbent to extract arsenic (As from wastewater. In order to evaluate the usefulness of untreated coffee grounds, a series of preliminary tests for attachment of arsenic to coffee grounds were provided. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area and adsorption–desorption isotherms of an untreated coffee ground obtained from N2 gas adsorption were provided, and pore sizes was obtained using Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH method. The adsorption capacities of the coffee waste were verified through a series of experimental processes changing the conditions such as concentration of arsenic, initial amount of coffee grounds, and pH. The maximum absorption concentration of 6.44 mg/L on 1 g of coffee grounds at 1.00 mM of arsenic solution was observed. It was demonstrated that the modification by the cation species or pretreatment processes, such as calcination, will be necessary to enhance the absorption capacity for the extraction of arsenic.

  17. Impact of a risk management plan on Legionella contamination of dental unit water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Erica; Dallolio, Laura; Stagni, Francesca; Sanna, Tiziana; D'Alessandro, Giovanni; Piana, Gabriela

    2015-02-23

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Legionella spp. in dental unit waterlines of a dental clinic and to verify whether the microbiological parameters used as indicators of water quality were correlated with Legionella contamination. A risk management plan was subsequently implemented in the dental health care setting, in order to verify whether the adopted disinfection protocols were effective in preventing Legionella colonization. The water delivered from syringes and turbines of 63 dental units operating in a dental clinic, was monitored for counts of the heterotrophic bacteria P. aeruginosa and Legionella spp. (22 °C and 37 °C). At baseline, output water from dental units continuously treated with disinfection products was more compliant with the recommended standards than untreated and periodically treated water. However, continuous disinfection was still not able to prevent contamination by Legionella and P. aeruginosa. Legionella was isolated from 36.4%, 24.3% and 53.3% of samples from untreated, periodically and continuously treated waterlines, respectively. The standard microbiological parameters used as indicators of water quality proved to be unreliable as predictors of the presence of Legionella, whose source was identified as the tap water used to supply the dental units. The adoption of control measures, including the use of deionized water in supplying the dental unit waterlines and the application of a combined protocol of continuous and periodic disinfection, with different active products for the different devices, resulted in good control of Legionella contamination. The efficacy of the measures adopted was mainly linked to the strict adherence to the planned protocols, which placed particular stress on staff training and ongoing environmental monitoring.

  18. Maternal and neonatal consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy : a prospective cohort study with an embedded randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazemier, Brenda M.; Koningstein, Fiona N.; Schneeberger, Caroline; Ott, Alewijn; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; de Miranda, Esteriek; Vogelvang, Tatjana E.; Verhoeven, Corine J. M.; Langenveld, Josje; Woiski, Mallory; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van der Yen, Jeanine E. M.; Vlegels, Manita T. W.; Kuiper, Petra N.; Feiertag, Nicolette; Pajkrt, Eva; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    Background Existing approaches for the screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy are based on trials that were done more than 30 years ago. In this study, we reassessed the consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Methods In this multicentre

  19. Maternal and neonatal consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a prospective cohort study with an embedded randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazemier, Brenda M.; Koningstein, Fiona N.; Schneeberger, Caroline; Ott, Alewijn; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; de Miranda, Esteriek; Vogelvang, Tatjana E.; Verhoeven, Corine J. M.; Langenveld, Josje; Woiski, Mallory; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van der Ven, Jeanine E. M.; Vlegels, Manita T. W.; Kuiper, Petra N.; Feiertag, Nicolette; Pajkrt, Eva; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Existing approaches for the screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy are based on trials that were done more than 30 years ago. In this study, we reassessed the consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. In this multicentre prospective cohort

  20. Adsorption properties of stearic acid onto untreated kaolinite | Sari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the study is to investigate adsorption property and determine thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of stearic acid onto untreated kaolinite at the temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 oC. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms were analyzed by linear Langmuir and Freundlich models. Adsorption experiments ...

  1. The key to reducing duration of untreated first psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Auestad, Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    The TIPS early intervention program reduced the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in first-episode schizophrenia from 16 to 5 weeks in a health care sector using a combination of easy access detection teams (DTs) and a massive information campaign (IC) about the signs and symptoms of psychosis...

  2. Water availability pollution and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Water has played a very important role in the development of human society. Resources of water have shaped the development of people and nations. Management of water gave the birth to innovations and technologies. Our complex metropolitan civilization and advanced technologies have generated new demands for water. Its importance to society and government has never diminished. The growing concern over resources availability and a rapid spread of water pollution, the link between water supply and water quality have become more apparent. The global management of water demands economy in use, restricted chemical and sanitation emissions, population control, discouragement of urbanization and water pollution awareness can greatly assist in averting the water holocaust that the world is expecting to face in the years to come. The scientific community in Pakistan is required to diagnose these problems in a systematic way to give advance warning of expected water scarcity, water pollution, water related land degradation, urban growth and population to assure the water cycle integrity of our world. (author)

  3. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, F.; Lessa, G.C.; Wild, C.; Kikuchi, R.K.P.; Naumann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ 13 C org and δ 15 N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. - Highlights: •Pollution by untreated sewage discharge is evident at the outfall and in Salvador's coastal zone. •Seasonal wind- and tide-driven surface currents control advective transport of discharged sewage. •Water quality at Salvador's recreational beaches is impacted by a plume of untreated sewage.

  4. Diet quality and adherence to a healthy diet in Japanese male workers with untreated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanauchi, Masao; Kanauchi, Kimiko

    2015-07-10

    As Japanese societies rapidly undergo westernisation, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing. We investigated the association between dietary quality and the prevalence of untreated hypertension in Japanese male workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 433 male workers who completed a brief food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the WHO-based Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), the American Heart Association 2006 Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and Mediterranean-style diet was assessed using four adherence indexes (HDI score, AI-84 score, DASH score and MED score). Hypertension classes were classified into three categories: non-hypertension, untreated hypertension and treated hypertension (ie, taking antihypertensive medication). The prevalence of untreated hypertension and treated hypertension was 22.4% and 8.5%, respectively. Patients with untreated hypertension had significantly lower HDI and AI-84 scores compared with non-hypertension. DASH and MED scores across the three hypertension classes were comparable. After adjusting for age, energy intake, smoking habit, alcohol drinking, physical activity and salt intake, a low adherence to HDI and a lowest quartile of AI-84 score were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of untreated hypertension, with an OR of 3.33 (95% CI 1.39 to 7.94, p=0.007) and 2.23 (1.09 to 4.53, p=0.027), respectively. A lower dietary quality was associated with increased prevalence of untreated hypertension in Japanese male workers. Our findings support a potential beneficial impact of nutritional assessment using diet qualities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Dilatometric measurement of the partial molar volume of water sorbed to durum wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Ayako; Ogawa, Takenobu; Adachi, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms were measured at 25 °C for untreated, dry-heated and pre-gelatinized durum wheat flour samples. The isotherms could be expressed by the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation. The amount of water sorbed to the untreated flour was highest for low water activity, with water sorbed to the pre-gelatinized and dry-heated flour samples following. The dry-heated and pregelatinized flour samples exhibited the same dependence of the moisture content on the partial molar volume of water at 25 °C as the untreated flour. The partial molar volume of water was ca. 9 cm(3)/mol at a moisture content of 0.03 kg-H2O/kg-d.m. The volume increased with increasing moisture content, and reached a constant value of ca. 17.5 cm(3)/mol at a moisture content of 0.2 kg-H2O/kg-d.m. or higher.

  6. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  7. Biological control component [Management of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, K.L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Both chemical and biological control have been used with limited success for the management of water hyacinth in Fiji. In some cases heavy application of chemicals have been successful in completely killing limited areas of water hyacinth, but have resulted in the destruction of biological agents introduced to control the water hyacinth and high contamination of natural water supplies. It is proposed that under the direction of Mr S R Singh, the Senior Research Scientist (Entomology) of the Koronivia Research Station, Suva, Fiji, a collaborative programme with Dr Harley of Australia on chemical and biological control of water hyacinth be initiated. This programme would be fundamentally short-term with the prime objective being an investigation of levels of insect population following varying levels of application of chemical sprays. By comparison with control areas, observations would be made of both chemical damage and insect damage within the limited time span of the period

  8. Powdery Mildew Control and Yield Response of Inodorus Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolito Camele

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on melon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus Naud. in 2006 and 2007 at “Pantanello” Experimental Farm (40° 24’N; 16° 48’E; 10 m a.s.l.; Metaponto, southern Italy to evaluate the efficacy of a low environmental impact control strategy against powdery mildew of cucurbits. Winter melon was treated with a new anti-oidium formulation, called Stifénia, obtained from fenugreek seeds and stimulating the plant self-defence. The adopted experimental design included two control strategies (1. biological, using Stifénia and 2. conventional, using penconazole, myclobutanil and sulphur and an untreated control (treated with water alone applied to two cultivars of inodorus melon (cv ‘Amarillo’ and HF1 ‘Cocorito’, the latter a genotype resistant to powdery mildew. Stifénia applications were not effective against the disease; in fact, there were no differences in percentage of attacked plant surface between treated plots and untreated ones. The melon marketable yield was significantly higher with the conventional strategy respect to Stifénia and control. Repeated applications of Stifénia resulted in a significant decrease of marketable yield even in comparison with the untreated control. The cultivars significantly affected powdery mildew development, since the resistant one (‘Cocorito’ was attacked later and damaged always lower than the non-resistant genotype (‘Amarillo’. Laboratory analyses carried out on infected leaves always confirmed that Golovinomyces cichoracearum D.C. was responsible of the disease.

  9. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010-2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily MacDonald

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved.A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS. Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated.A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively. Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96, drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78, eating chicken (1.69, eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77, eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55, living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74, having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39, and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92.Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to protect and maintain the quality of

  10. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010-2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Emily; White, Richard; Mexia, Ricardo; Bruun, Tone; Kapperud, Georg; Lange, Heidi; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved. A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively). Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96), drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78), eating chicken (1.69), eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77), eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55), living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74), having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39), and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92). Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to protect and maintain the quality of water

  11. Two-loop feed water control system in BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Takashi; Watanabe, Takao; Hirose, Masao.

    1982-01-01

    In the process of the start-up and shutdown of BWR plants, the operation of changing over feed pumps corresponding to plant output is performed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the automatic changeover system for feed pumps, which minimizes the variation of water level in reactors and is easy to operate. The three-element control system with the water level in reactors, the flow rate of main steam and the flow rate of feed water as the input is mainly applied, but long time is required for the changeover of feed pumps. The two-loop feed control system can control simultaneously two pumps being changed over, therefore it is suitable to the automatic changeover control system for feed pumps. Also it is excellent for the control of the recirculating valves of feed pumps. The control characteristics of the two-loop feed water control system against the external disturbance which causes the variation of water level in reactors were examined. The results of analysis by simulation are reported. The features of the two-loop feed water control system, the method of simulation and the evaluation of the two-loop feed water control system are described. Its connection with a digital feed water recirculation control system is expected. (Kako, I.)

  12. Insulinlike growth factor I affects ocular development: a study of untreated and treated patients with Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourla, Dan Haim; Laron, Zvi; Snir, Moshe; Lilos, Pearl; Weinberger, Dov; Axer-Siegel, Ruth

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the ocular dimensions in patients with primary growth hormone receptor insensitivity (Laron syndrome [LS]) and to study the effect of supplemental insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) on ocular growth. Retrospective case series. Twelve patients with LS, 8 untreated (LS group) and 4 treated (LS-T group) with supplemental IGF-I, and 30 healthy controls. Ocular dimensions and refraction were measured, and a full ophthalmologic examination was performed. Differences in the average ocular dimension data among IGF-I-treated patients, untreated ones, and controls. The average axial length of eyes in the LS group was 21.94 mm (standard deviation [SD], 0.81). Corresponding values for the LS-T and control group eyes were 22.53 mm (SD, 1.74) and 23.20 mm (SD, 1.35) respectively. The average anterior chamber depth of eyes in the LS group was 2.55 mm (SD, 0.26). Corresponding values for eyes in the LS-T and control groups were 3.48 mm (SD, 0.09) and 3.84 mm (SD, 0.16) respectively. The average lens thickness of eyes in the LS group was 4.56 mm (SD, 0.36). Corresponding values for the LS-T and control groups were 3.77 mm (SD, 0.23) and 3.51 mm (SD, 0.25), respectively. The average corneal curvature of eyes in the LS group was 46.9 diopters (D) (SD, 2.32). Corresponding values for the LS-T and control groups were 47.6 D (SD, 2.83) and 44.4 D (SD, 1.5), respectively. Insulinlike growth factor I seems to be an important regulator of ocular growth as documented in patients with primary growth hormone insensitivity. The mechanism of this observation should be investigated further.

  13. Factors associated with post-treatment E. coli contamination in households practising water treatment: a study of rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benwic, Aaron; Kim, Erin; Khema, Cinn; Phanna, Chet; Sophary, Phan; Cantwell, Raymond E

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination in rural households in Cambodia that have adopted household water treatment. The following factors were significantly associated (α E. coli contamination: cleaning the drinking vessel with untreated water, not drying the cup (with a cloth), accessing treated water by the use of a scoop (ref: using a tap), having more than one untreated water storage container, having an untreated water storage container that appeared dirty on the outside, and cows living within 10 m of the household. This study provides further evidence confirming previous studies reporting an association between inadequate cleanliness of water storage containers and household drinking water contamination, and identifies practical recommendations statistically associated with reduced post-treatment E. coli contamination in the household setting in rural Cambodia.

  14. Heat Transfer in Directional Water Transport Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Directional water transport fabrics can proactively transfer moisture from the body. They show great potential in making sportswear and summer clothing. While moisture transfer has been previously reported, heat transfer in directional water transport fabrics has been little reported in research literature. In this study, a directional water transport fabric was prepared using an electrospraying technique and its heat transfer properties under dry and wet states were evaluated, and compared with untreated control fabric and the one pre-treated with NaOH. All the fabric samples showed similar heat transfer features in the dry state, and the equilibrium temperature in the dry state was higher than for the wet state. Wetting considerably enhanced the thermal conductivity of the fabrics. Our studies indicate that directional water transport treatment assists in moving water toward one side of the fabric, but has little effect on thermal transfer performance. This study may be useful for development of “smart” textiles for various applications.

  15. Biohydrogen production from untreated and hydrolyzed potato steam peels by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, Astrid E.; Veuskens, Teun; Budde, Miriam A.W.; van Doeveren, Patrick F.N.M.; Lips, Steef J.; Bakker, Robert R.; de Vrije, Truus; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Food and Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Production of hydrogen by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana was studied in serum flasks and in pH-controlled bioreactors with glucose, and hydrolyzed and untreated potato steam peels (PSP) as carbon sources. Two types of PSP hydrolysates were used: one in which the starch in the PSP was liquefied with alpha-amylase, and one in which the liquefied starch was further hydrolyzed to glucose by amyloglucosidase. When the PSP hydrolysates or untreated PSP were added at circa 10-14 g/L of glucose units, both strains grew well and produced hydrogen with reasonable to high molar yields (2.4-3.8 moles H{sub 2}/mole glucose units), and no significant production of lactate. The hydrogen production rates and yields were similar with untreated PSP, hydrolyzed PSP, and pure glucose, showing that C. saccharolyticus and T. neapolitana are well equipped for the utilization of starch. When the concentrations of the substrates were increased, growth and hydrogen production of both strains were hampered. At substrate concentrations of circa 30-40 g/L of glucose units, the molar hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was severely reduced due to the formation of high amounts of lactate, while T. neapolitana was unable to grow at all. The results showed that PSP and PSP hydrolysates are very suitable substrates for efficient fermentative hydrogen production at moderate substrate loadings. (author)

  16. Dry-season soil water repellency affects Tahoe Basin infiltration rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Erin C; Grismer, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tahoe’s declining clarity makes the identification of runoff and erosion sources and evaluation of control measures vitally important. We treated relatively undisturbed, native, forested sites of 10% to 15% slope with surfactant and used a rain-fall simulator to investigate the effects of repellency. We compared infiltration measurements made by the simulator and a mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI). Runoff was produced by all plots with untreated water, but only two of 12 plots with surfacta...

  17. The platelet activating factor acetyl hydrolase, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, paraoxonase 1 and arylesterase levels in treated and untreated patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlioglu, Ayse; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Karakurt, Feridun; Gumus, Ilknur Inegol; Uysal, Aysel; Kasapoglu, Benan; Armutcu, Ferah; Uysal, Sema; Keskin, Esra Aktepe; Koca, Cemile

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the platelet activating factor acetyl hydrolyze (PAF-AH), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), arylesterase (ARE) levels and the effects of metformin and Diane-35 (ethinyl oestradiol + cyproterone acetate) therapies on these parameters and to determine the PON1 polymorphisms among PCOS patients. Ninety patients with PCOS, age 30, and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups: metformin treatment, Diane-35 treatment and no medication groups. The treatment with metformin or Diane-35 was continued for 6 months and all subjects were evaluated with clinical and biochemical parameters 6 months later. One-way Anova test, t test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. PAF-AH and ox-LDL levels were statistically significantly higher in untreated PCOS patients than controls, and they were statistically significantly lower in patients treated with metformin or Diane-35 than untreated PCOS patients. In contrast, there were lower PON1 (not statistically significant) and ARE (statistically significant) levels in untreated PCOS patients than the control group and they significantly increased after metformin and Diane-35 treatments. In PCOS patients serum PON1 levels for QQ, QR and RR phenotypes were statistically significantly lower than the control group. In patients with PCOS, proatherogenic markers increase. The treatment of PCOS with metformin or Diane-35 had positive effects on lipid profile, increased PON1 level, which is a protector from atherosclerosis and decreased the proatherogenic PAF-AH and ox-LDL levels.

  18. Substitution of lucerne hay by untreated, urea-enriched and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat straw was left untreated (WS), enriched with 1.5% urea (UWS), or ammoniated with 5.5% urea in a stack for 8 .... nitrogen concentration for maximal microbial synthesis is in ... faeces and urine samples were taken daily and pooled for.

  19. Output control system in a boiling water atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadakane, Ken-ichiro.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a line in bypass relation with a water heater, a flow rate of said bypass being adjusted to thereby perform quick responsive sub-cool control of a core inlet. Structure: A steam line and a water line are disposed so as to feed water from the reactor core to the water heater via turbine and thence to the core. A line disposed in bypass relation with the water heater arranged in the water line includes a control valve for controlling water passing through the bypass line and a main control for sending a signal to said control valve, said main control receiving loads from the outside, whereby a control signal is transmitted to the control valve, causing water passing through the water heater and water line to the core to be bypassed, a period of time for supplying time to be reduced, and quick response to be enhanced. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Impact of untreated wastewater on a major European river evaluated with a combination of in vitro bioassays and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Maria; Escher, Beate I; Neale, Peta A; Krauss, Martin; Hilscherová, Klára; Novák, Jiří; Teodorović, Ivana; Schulze, Tobias; Seidensticker, Sven; Kamal Hashmi, Muhammad Arslan; Ahlheim, Jörg; Brack, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Complex mixtures of micropollutants, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals emitted by wastewater effluents to European rivers may compromise the quality of these water resources and may pose a risk to ecosystem health and abstraction of drinking water. In the present study, an integrated analytical and bioanalytical approach was applied to investigate the impact of untreated wastewater effluents from the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, into the River Danube. The study was based on three on-site large volume solid phase extracted water samples collected upstream and downstream of the untreated wastewater discharge. Chemical screening with liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) was applied together with a battery of in vitro cell-based bioassays covering important steps of the cellular toxicity pathway to evaluate effects on the activation of metabolism (arylhydrocarbon receptor AhR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma PPARγ), specific modes of action (estrogen receptor ERα, androgen receptor AR) and adaptive stress responses (oxidative stress, inflammation). Increased effects, significantly changed contamination patterns and higher chemical concentrations were observed downstream of the wastewater discharge. A mass balance approach showed that enhanced endocrine disruption was in good agreement with concentrations of detected hormones, while only a smaller fraction of the effects on xenobiotic metabolism (<1%) and adaptive stress responses (0-12%) could be explained by the detected chemicals. The chemical and effects patterns observed upstream of the discharge point were fairly re-established at about 7 km downstream, demonstrating the enormous dilution capacity of this large river. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010–2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexia, Ricardo; Bruun, Tone; Kapperud, Georg; Lange, Heidi; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line

    2015-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved. Methods A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Results A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively). Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96), drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78), eating chicken (1.69), eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77), eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55), living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74), having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39), and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92). Conclusions Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to

  2. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: a favourable prognosis in untreated patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deegens, J.K.J.; Assmann, K.J.M.; Steenbergen, E.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Gerlag, P.G.G.; Jansen, J.L.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are considered to have a poor prognosis and spontaneous remissions are seldom reported. However, FSGS is not a single disease entity. Our aim was to describe the clinical course in initially untreated patients with recently

  3. Substance use and duration of untreated psychosis in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Substance use and psychiatric disorders cause significant burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Co-morbid psychopathology and longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) can negatively affect treatment outcomes. Objectives: The study assessed substance use amongst adults with ...

  4. Do adult men with untreated hypospadias have adverse outcomes? A pilot study using a social media advertised survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Bruce; Breyer, Benjamin; Copp, Hillary; Baskin, Laurence; DiSandro, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Hypospadias is usually treated in childhood. Therefore, the natural history of untreated mild hypospadias is unknown. We hypothesized that men with untreated hypospadias, especially mild, do not have adverse outcomes. Facebook was used to advertise an electronic survey to men older than 18 years. Men with untreated hypospadias identified themselves and indicated the severity of hypospadias with a series of questions. Outcomes included: Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), penile curvature and difficulty with intercourse, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Penile Perception Score (PPS), psychosexual milestones, paternity, infertility, sitting to urinate, and the CDC HRQOL-4 module. 736 men completed self-anatomy questions and 52 (7.1%) self-identified with untreated hypospadias. Untreated hypospadias participants reported worse SHIM (p < 0.001) and IPSS scores (p = 0.05), more ventral penile curvature (p = 0.003) and resulting difficulty with intercourse (p < 0.001), worse satisfaction with meatus (p = 0.011) and penile curvature (p = 0.048), and more sitting to urinate (p = 0.07). When stratified by mild and severe hypospadias, severe hypospadias was associated with more adverse outcomes than mild hypospadias. Men with untreated hypospadias reported worse outcomes compared with non-hypospadiac men. Mild untreated hypospadias had fewer adverse outcomes than severe hypospadias. Research is needed to determine if treatment of childhood hypospadias improves outcomes in adults, especially for mild hypospadias. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Freezing point osmometry of milk to determine the additional water content – an issue in general quality control and German food regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holz Birger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The determination of the osmolality of aqueous samples using a freezing point osmometer is a well-established, routine laboratory method. In addition to their use in clinical and pharmaceutical laboratories, freezing point osmometers are also employed in food testing laboratories. One application is the determination of the osmolality of milk. Although cow's milk is a natural product whose water content is approximately 87%, the osmolality of milk is a significant value when the milk is collected from a larger population of animals. This value is used in milk processing to control the water content, based on the German Food Control Regulations for Milk. Results Measurement of the freezing point and osmolality of milk samples was performed with a Knauer Semi-Micro Freezing Point Osmometer. Osmolality was measured for the untreated milk samples and following their dilution (by volume with 10% and 50% water. The measurements were made after 1, 4 and 7 days to evaluate changes over time. All measurement values for the undiluted milk were spread over a small interval with an average of 271 mOsmol/kg. After mixing the milk samples with 10% water, the average decreased to 242 mOsmol/kg, while mixing with 50% water resulted in an average osmolality of 129 mOsmol/kg. There was no significant change for the osmolality within the 7 days (measurements from days 1, 4 and 7. Conclusion The results observed demonstrate clearly that the additional water content of milk can be determined easily using a freezing point osmometer. Milk samples that contain additional water have a significantly decreased osmolality, corresponding to an increased freezing point. The effect on osmolality of ageing the milk samples could not be determined in this study's time-dependent measurements.

  6. The effect of supplementing untreated, urea-supplemented and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3x2x2 factorial experiment, involving an intake and in vivo digestibility trial with 48 adult S.A. Mutton Merino wethers. Straw dry matter (OM) intake on ammoniated wheat-straw diets was 27 and 22% higher (P ';;0,01) than on untreated and urea-supplemented diets, respectively. No significant difference was found between ...

  7. Evaluation of untreated dental caries in children with PUFA index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagehan Aktaş

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tooth decay continues to come up as a serious health problem particularly in developing countries. Limited number of studies investigated the prevalence of complication of untreated dental caries as abscess, fistula and ulceration. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries among a group of children. Materials and Method: The study was conducted on 1200 children with ages between 5-12 years in the Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, GaziUniversity between the dates 1-31 March 2012. Caries in deciduous and permanent teeth were scored using DMFT/dmft and PUFA/pufa indexes (D/d: decayed, M/m: missing, F/f: filled, P/p: carious lesion with pulpal involvement, U/u: ulceration of the mucosa due to root fragments, F/f: fistula, A/a: abscess. Results: DMFT index was 2.34 ± 1.37 and dmft index was 4.25 ± 3.46. The prevalence of PUFA/pufa for permanent and deciduous teeth was 2.30% and 22.25%, respectively. The highest score in both permanent and deciduous teeth was caries lesions with pulpal involvement (%11.24 for deciduous teeth and %1.67 for permanent teeth. This was followed by abscess and fistula formation. Conclusion: The prevalence of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries was high for deciduous teeth in the selected population. The PUFA/pufa index is seen as an epidemiological tool complementary to the existing caries index aimed to assess dental caries.

  8. Drinking-water treatment, climate change, and childhood gastrointestinal illness projections for northern Wisconsin (USA) communities drinking untreated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K.; Christenson, Megan; Moran, Colleen; Gorelick, Mark

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the relative importance of climate change and drinking-water treatment for gastrointestinal illness incidence in children (age first quantified the observed (1991-2010) precipitation and gastrointestinal illness associations after controlling for seasonality and temporal trends. Precipitation likely transported pathogens into drinking-water sources or into leaking water-distribution networks. Building on observed relationships, the second analysis projected how climate change and drinking-water treatment installation may alter gastrointestinal illness incidence. Future precipitation values were modeled by 13 global climate models and three greenhouse-gas emissions levels. The second analysis was rerun using three pathways: (1) only climate change, (2) climate change and the same slow pace of treatment installation observed over 1991-2010, and (3) climate change and the rapid rate of installation observed over 2011-2016. The results illustrate the risks that climate change presents to small rural groundwater municipalities without drinking water treatment. Climate-change-related seasonal precipitation changes will marginally increase the gastrointestinal illness incidence rate (mean: ˜1.5%, range: -3.6-4.3%). A slow pace of treatment installation somewhat decreased precipitation-associated gastrointestinal illness incidence (mean: ˜3.0%, range: 0.2-7.8%) in spite of climate change. The rapid treatment installation rate largely decreases the gastrointestinal illness incidence (mean: ˜82.0%, range: 82.0-83.0%).

  9. Water-borne epidemic outbreaks; Brotes epidemicos de transmision hidrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciranda Larrea, F.B.; Hidalgo Garcia, E.; Peiro Callizo, E.F.; Herrero Alana, G.

    1995-12-31

    The control of water-transmitted infections is one of the key aims of any Public Heath-Care System. For this paper a descriptive epidemiologic analysis has been performed using data obtained through normalized forms as well as Annual Reports of Epidemiology Units and Veterinary Inspection Records. A total of 22 outbreaks have been recorded in the period of reference. Those outbreaks affected 2.263 people. The attack-rate was of 99 people affected for each 1000 ar risk. The main agents turned out to be Norwalk virus, Rotavirus and A-Hepatitis virus. The most important risk factor was undoubtedly the ingestion of untreated or not properly treated water. The improvement of water treatment and distribution systems, the increase in the population being supplied with potable water, along with the ease of the drought have caused a significant drop in the number of water-transmitted outbreaks. (Author)

  10. Microbial quality of water in rural communities of Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welch Pedro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in four rural communities of northeastern Trinidad to determine the microbial quality of water supply to households and that quality's relationship to source and storage device. Of the 167 household water samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 132 of the samples (79.0%, fecal coliforms in 102 (61.1%, and E. coli in 111 (66.5%. There were significant differences among the towns in the proportion of the samples contaminated with coliforms (P < 0.001 and E. coli (P < 0.001. Of 253 strains of E. coli studied, 4 (1.6% were mucoid, 9 (3.6% were hemolytic, and 37 (14.6% were nonsorbitol fermenters. Of 69 isolates of E. coli tested, 10 (14.5% were verocytotoxigenic. Twenty-eight (14.0% of 200 E. coli isolates tested belonged to enteropathogenic serogroups. Standpipe, the most common water source, was utilized by 57 (34.1% of the 167 households. Treated water (pipeborne in homes, standpipes, or truckborne was supplied to 119 households (71.3%, while 48 households (28.7% used water from untreated sources (rain, river/stream, or well as their primary water supply. The type of household storage device was associated with coli-form contamination. Water stored in drums, barrels, or buckets was more likely to harbor fecal coliforms (74.2% of samples than was water stored in tanks (53.3% of samples, even after controlling for water source (P = 0.04. Compared with water from other sources, water piped into homes was significantly less likely to be contaminated with total coliforms (56.9% versus 88.8%, P < 0.001 and fecal coliforms (41.2% versus 69.8%, P < 0.01, even when the type of storage device was taken into account. However, fecal contamination was not associated with whether the water came from a treated or untreated source. We concluded that the drinking water in rural communities in Trinidad was grossly unfit for human consumption, due both to contamination of various water sources and during household

  11. Microbial quality of water in rural communities of Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Welch

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in four rural communities of northeastern Trinidad to determine the microbial quality of water supply to households and that quality's relationship to source and storage device. Of the 167 household water samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 132 of the samples (79.0%, fecal coliforms in 102 (61.1%, and E. coli in 111 (66.5%. There were significant differences among the towns in the proportion of the samples contaminated with coliforms (P < 0.001 and E. coli (P < 0.001. Of 253 strains of E. coli studied, 4 (1.6% were mucoid, 9 (3.6% were hemolytic, and 37 (14.6% were nonsorbitol fermenters. Of 69 isolates of E. coli tested, 10 (14.5% were verocytotoxigenic. Twenty-eight (14.0% of 200 E. coli isolates tested belonged to enteropathogenic serogroups. Standpipe, the most common water source, was utilized by 57 (34.1% of the 167 households. Treated water (pipeborne in homes, standpipes, or truckborne was supplied to 119 households (71.3%, while 48 households (28.7% used water from untreated sources (rain, river/stream, or well as their primary water supply. The type of household storage device was associated with coli-form contamination. Water stored in drums, barrels, or buckets was more likely to harbor fecal coliforms (74.2% of samples than was water stored in tanks (53.3% of samples, even after controlling for water source (P = 0.04. Compared with water from other sources, water piped into homes was significantly less likely to be contaminated with total coliforms (56.9% versus 88.8%, P < 0.001 and fecal coliforms (41.2% versus 69.8%, P < 0.01, even when the type of storage device was taken into account. However, fecal contamination was not associated with whether the water came from a treated or untreated source. We concluded that the drinking water in rural communities in Trinidad was grossly unfit for human consumption, due both to contamination of various water sources and during household

  12. Removal of nitrate from water by adsorption onto zinc chloride treated activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatnagar, A.; Ji, M.; Choi, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption study with untreated and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) treated coconut granular activated carbon (GAC) for nitrate removal from water has been carried out. Untreated coconut GAC was treated with ZnCl2 and carbonized. The optimal conditions were selected by studying the influence of process...... variables such as chemical ratio and activation temperature. Experimental results reveal that chemical weight ratio of 200% and temperature of 500 degrees C was found to be optimum for the maximum removal of nitrate from water. Both untreated and ZnCl2 treated coconut GACs were characterized by scanning...... capacity of untreated and ZnCl2 treated coconut GACs were found 1.7 and 10.2 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption of nitrate on ZnCl2 treated coconut GAC was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration of nitrate anion, temperature, and pH by batch mode adsorption experiments. The kinetic...

  13. Emergence of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and untreatable gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Nicholas, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The new superbug Neisseria gonorrhoeae has retained resistance to antimicrobials previously recommended for first-line treatment and has now demonstrated its capacity to develop resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, the last remaining option for first-line empiric treatment of gonorrhea. An era of untreatable gonorrhea may be approaching, which represents an exceedingly serious public health problem. Herein, we review the evolution, origin and spread of antimicrobial resistance and resistance determinants (with a focus on extended-spectrum cephalosporins) in N. gonorrhoeae, detail the current situation regarding verified treatment failures with extended-spectrum cephalosporins and future treatment options, and highlight essential actions to meet the large public health challenge that arises with the possible emergence of untreatable gonorrhea. Essential actions include: implementing action/response plans globally and nationally; enhancing surveillance of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance, treatment failures and antimicrobial use/misuse; and improving prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhea. Novel treatment strategies, antimicrobials (or other compounds) and, ideally, a vaccine must be developed. PMID:23231489

  14. Risk assessment applications for determining cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.Q.; Layton, D.W.; Rutz, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium-contaminated soils are present at various locations across the US where uranium was processed for nuclear fuels or atomic weapons. Important issues relative to such contamination include the assessment of potential health risks associated with human exposures to the residual uranium and the determination of safe levels of uranium in soils that have been treated by a given technology. This paper discusses various risk assessment considerations that must be dealt with when developing cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils. Key issues addressed include alternative land use scenarios, potential exposure pathways, characterization of the bioavailability of uranium compounds in food and water, a brief overview of health risks associated with uranium and its daughter products as well as a summary of considerations for development of risk-based cleanup limits for uranium in soils

  15. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  16. Extending the applicability of pressurized hot water extraction to compounds exhibiting limited water solubility by pH control: curcumin from the turmeric rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euterpio, Maria Anna; Cavaliere, Chiara; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE, also known as subcritical water extraction) is commonly considered to be an environmentally friendly extraction technique that could potentially replace traditional methods that use organic solvents. Unfortunately, the applicability of this technique is often limited by the very low water solubility of the target compounds, even at high temperatures. In this paper, the scope for broadening the applicability of PHWE by adjusting the pH of the water used in the extraction is demonstrated in the extraction of curcumin (which exhibits very limited water solubility) from untreated turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes. Although poor extraction yields were obtained, even at high temperatures when using degassed water or neutral phosphate buffer as the extraction medium, yields exceeding those obtained by Soxhlet extraction were achieved using highly acidic pH buffers due to curcumin protonation. The influence of the temperature, pH, and buffer concentration on the extraction yield were investigated in detail by means of a series of designed experiments. Optimized conditions for the extraction of curcumin from turmeric by PHWE were estimated at 197 °C using 62 g/L buffer concentration at pH 1.6. The relationships between these variables were subjected to statistical analysis using response surface methodology.

  17. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq...

  18. Sediment accretion and carbon storage in constructed wetlands receiving water treated with metal-based coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpner, Elizabeth; Kraus, Tamara; Liang, Yan; Bachand, Sandra M.; Horwath, William R.; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2018-01-01

    In many regions of the world, subsidence of organic rich soils threatens levee stability and freshwater supply, and continued oxidative loss of organic matter contributes to greenhouse gas production. To counter subsidence in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California, we examined the feasibility of using constructed wetlands receiving drainage water treated with metal-based coagulants to accrete mineral material along with wetland biomass, while also sequestering carbon in wetland sediment. Nine field-scale wetlands were constructed which received local drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) or iron sulfate (FeSO4) coagulants. After 23 months of flooding and coagulant treatment, sediment samples were collected near the inlet, middle, and outlet of each wetland to determine vertical accretion rates, bulk density, sediment composition, and carbon sequestration rates. Wetlands treated with PAC had the highest and most spatially consistent vertical accretion rates (~6 cm year-1), while the FeSO4 wetlands had similarly high accretion rates near the inlet but rates similar to the untreated wetland (~1.5 cm year-1) at the middle and outlet sites. The composition of the newly accreted sediment in the PAC and FeSO4 treatments was high in the added metal (aluminum and iron, respectively), but the percent metal by weight was similar to native soils of California. As has been observed in other constructed wetlands, the newly accreted sediment material had lower bulk densities than the native soil material (0.04-0.10 g cm-3 versus 0.2-0.3 g cm-3), suggesting these materials will consolidate over time. Finally, this technology accelerated carbon burial, with rates in PAC treated wetland (0.63 kg C m-2 yr-1) over 2-fold greater than the untreated control (0.28 kg C m-2 yr-1). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using constructed wetlands treated with coagulants to reverse subsidence by accreting the

  19. Productivity losses attributable to untreated chlamydial infection and associated pelvic inflammatory disease in reproductive-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandford, John M; Gift, Thomas L

    2006-10-01

    The productivity losses attributable to disease-related morbidity and mortality impose a burden on society in general and on employers in particular. A reliable assessment of the productivity losses associated with untreated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) would complement earlier work on direct medical costs and contribute to an estimate of the full cost of chlamydial disease. The goal of this study was to estimate the discounted lifetime productivity losses attributable to untreated chlamydial infection in reproductive-aged women. We developed a cost model using Monte Carlo methods to estimate the lifetime discounted productivity losses attributable to untreated lower genital tract Ct infection among reproductive-aged women. The model considered the impact of disability resulting from acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) associated with untreated Ct infection and from the sequelae of acute PID, including chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. To accommodate disparate Ct infection rates and labor market characteristics across age groups, we matched age-based risk factors for Ct infection with labor market patterns. Data sources included the 2001 National Chlamydia Surveillance Data, the 2001 Current Population Survey, and published literature. Estimates indicate that the mean weighted productivity losses per untreated Ct infection were approximately US dollars 130 (in year 2001 dollars). Mean weighted productivity losses per case of acute PID were estimated at US dollars 649. Estimated productivity losses were highly correlated with age, reflecting age-dependent differences in labor market characteristics. The productivity losses attributable to untreated infection with Ct and to sequelae of this infection form a substantial portion of the total economic burden of disease. Effective programs to prevent chlamydial infection and effective screening, diagnosis, and treatment of Ct-infected women may reduce productivity losses and

  20. Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Nogueira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated water from taps (1,594, reservoir used to store treated water (1,033, spring water (96 and private well (350 collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83% and FC (48% were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i a warm-weather period (September-March with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii cold-weather period (April-August were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.

  1. Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Giovani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated water from taps (1,594, reservoir used to store treated water (1,033, spring water (96 and private well (350 collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83% and FC (48% were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i a warm-weather period (September-March with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii cold-weather period (April-August were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.

  2. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  3. Morbidity after Hemorrhage in Children with Untreated Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Kim, Helen; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Chun-Xue; Ma, Jun; Su, Hua; Zhao, Yuanli

    2017-01-01

    Background Children with untreated brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM) are at risk of encountering life-threatening hemorrhage very early in their lives. The primary aim of invasive treatment is to reduce unfavorable outcome associated with a bAVM rupture. A better understanding of the morbidity of bAVM hemorrhage might be helpful for weighing the risks of untreated bAVM and invasive treatment. Our aim was to assess the clinical outcome after bAVM rupture and identify features to predict severe hemorrhage in children. Methods We identified all consecutive children admitted to our institution for bAVMs between July 2009 and December 2014. Clinical outcome after hemorrhagic presentation and subsequent hemorrhage was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for children. The association of demographic characteristics and bAVM morphology with severe hemorrhage (mRS >3 or requiring emergency hematoma evacuation) was studied using univariate and multivariable regression analyses. A nomogram based on multivariable analysis was formulated to predict severe hemorrhage risk for individual patients. Results A total of 134 patients were identified with a mean treatment-free follow-up period of 2.1 years. bAVM ruptured in 83 (62%) children: 82 had a hemorrhage at presentation and 6 of them experienced a recurrent hemorrhage during follow-up; 1 patient had other diagnostic symptoms but bled during follow-up. Among them, 49% (41/83) had a severe hemorrhage; emergency hematoma evacuation was required in 28% of them (23/83), and 24% (20/83) remained as disabled (mRS ≥ 3) at last follow-up. Forty-six percent (38/82) of children with hemorrhagic presentation were severely disabled (mRS >3). Forty-three percent (3/7) were severely disabled after subsequent hemorrhage. The annual rate of severe subsequent hemorrhage was 1% in the overall cohort and 3.3% in children with ruptured presentation. All the subsequent severe hemorrhage events occurred in children with severe

  4. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  5. Device for controlling water supply to nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To smoothly control automatic water supply for realizing stable operation of a nuclear reactor by providing a flow rate limiting signal selection circuit and a preferential circuit in a water supply control device for a nuclear reactor wherein the speed of a recirculation pump may be changed in two-steps. Structure: Opening angle signals for a water supply regulating valve are controlled by a nuclear reactor water level signal, a vapor flow rate signal and a supplied water flow rate signal through an adder and an adjuster in response to a predetermined water level setting signal. When the water in the reactor is maintained at a predetermined level, a selection circuit receives a water pump condition signal for selecting one of the signals from a supplied water rate limiting signal generator generating signals for indicating whether one or two water supply pumps are operated. A low value preferential circuit passes the lower of the values generated from the selection circuit and the adder. The selection circuit receives a recirculation pump condition signal and selects either one of the signals from the supplied water flow rate limiting signal generator operated at high speed or low speed. A high value preferential circuit passes the higher value

  6. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean Water...

  7. Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

  8. Fuzzy logic control of steam generator water level in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, C.C.; Lin, C.; Hsu, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical mode of the object to be controlled. The design is based on a set of linguistic rules that were adopted from the human operator's experience. After off-line fuzzy computation, the controller is a lookup table, and thus, real-time control is achieved. Shrink-and-swell phenomena are considered in the linguistic rules, and the simulation results show that their effect is dramatically reduced. The performance of the control system can also be improved by changing the input and output scaling factors, which is convenient for on-line tuning

  9. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  10. Water Assessment as controlled informality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Judith van; Vlist, Maarten van der; Tatenhove, Jan van

    2011-01-01

    The expectations about the effectiveness of new developed policy instruments are usually very high. In the case of the introduction of Water Assessment in The Netherlands, the ambitious aim of the instrument was to connect the policy domains of spatial planning and water management. The instrument has been monitored continuously and was evaluated two times after the introduction in 2002, by civil servants of ministries, water boards, provinces and municipalities. By combining elements of rational and communicative planning approaches and introducing a three-layered model of power, it was possible to analyse WA as a form of controlled informality, which enables water managers to use the interplay of informal and formal practices strategically at different levels of power.

  11. Alternative normalization methods demonstrate widespread cortical hypometabolism in untreated de novo Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, Valentina; Polito, C; Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    , recent studies suggested that conventional data normalization procedures may not always be valid, and demonstrated that alternative normalization strategies better allow detection of low magnitude changes. We hypothesized that these alternative normalization procedures would disclose more widespread...... metabolic alterations in de novo PD. METHODS: [18F]FDG PET scans of 26 untreated de novo PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage I-II) and 21 age-matched controls were compared using voxel-based analysis. Normalization was performed using gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) reference regions and Yakushev...... normalization. RESULTS: Compared to GM normalization, WM and Yakushev normalization procedures disclosed much larger cortical regions of relative hypometabolism in the PD group with extensive involvement of frontal and parieto-temporal-occipital cortices, and several subcortical structures. Furthermore...

  12. Seawater ultrafiltration fouling control: Backwashing with demineralized water/SWRO permeate

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Verberk, J. Q J C; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Johannis C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of demineralized water backwashing on fouling control of seawater ultrafiltration was investigated. Seawater from Scheveningen beach in The Hague and a desalination plant of Evides Company at Zeeland in the Netherlands was used as feed water, while demineralized water and UF permeate were used as backwash water for a fouling control efficiency comparison under different fluxes and backwash durations. Furthermore, demineralized waters with 5 or 50 mmol/l NaCl were applied for backwashing as well, to check the influence of monovalent cations on UF fouling control. Additionally, SWRO permeate was used for backwashes in long-term experiments to check the possibility of it replacing demineralized water. Results show that seawater UF fouling control is substantially improved by demineralized water backwashing. However, due to the high salinity of seawater, more water was required to dilute the cation concentration and limit the dispersion effect near the membrane surface than was needed for surface water. A 2-min demineralized water backwash showed better fouling control efficiency than a 1-min backwash. Furthermore, the presence of monovalent cations in the backwash water deteriorated the fouling control efficiency of the backwash, indicating the existence of a charge screening effect. The demineralized water with 5 and 50 mmol/l NaCl both showed a similar fouling control efficiency which is better than the UF permeate backwash. The calcium ions in UF permeate probably deteriorates the fouling control efficiency by maintaining a Ca-bridging effect between the membranes and NOM. SWRO permeate backwashing successfully controls membrane fouling as well. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seawater ultrafiltration fouling control: Backwashing with demineralized water/SWRO permeate

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of demineralized water backwashing on fouling control of seawater ultrafiltration was investigated. Seawater from Scheveningen beach in The Hague and a desalination plant of Evides Company at Zeeland in the Netherlands was used as feed water, while demineralized water and UF permeate were used as backwash water for a fouling control efficiency comparison under different fluxes and backwash durations. Furthermore, demineralized waters with 5 or 50 mmol/l NaCl were applied for backwashing as well, to check the influence of monovalent cations on UF fouling control. Additionally, SWRO permeate was used for backwashes in long-term experiments to check the possibility of it replacing demineralized water. Results show that seawater UF fouling control is substantially improved by demineralized water backwashing. However, due to the high salinity of seawater, more water was required to dilute the cation concentration and limit the dispersion effect near the membrane surface than was needed for surface water. A 2-min demineralized water backwash showed better fouling control efficiency than a 1-min backwash. Furthermore, the presence of monovalent cations in the backwash water deteriorated the fouling control efficiency of the backwash, indicating the existence of a charge screening effect. The demineralized water with 5 and 50 mmol/l NaCl both showed a similar fouling control efficiency which is better than the UF permeate backwash. The calcium ions in UF permeate probably deteriorates the fouling control efficiency by maintaining a Ca-bridging effect between the membranes and NOM. SWRO permeate backwashing successfully controls membrane fouling as well. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of structural integrity and controllability of main feed water control valve for APWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koji Tachibana; Toshikazu Maeda; Hideyuki Morita; Takaharu Hiroe; Koichiro Oketani

    2005-01-01

    In Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), the main feed water control valve always controls the mass flow rate of main feed water to maintain the water level of steam generator within the allowable range. For the main feed water control valve of PWR, we have used an air operated globe valve conventionally since it has large capacity and quick responsibility. On the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR) system conditions, the mass flow rate of main feed water increases compared with the conventional PWR system conditions as an increase of the generating power. So, it is expected that the fluid force will increase, and it could cause critical damage on internal parts of the valve, such as plug, stem, etc. and uncontrollability of the valve. In this study, we measured the stem strain in the fluid tests using scale model and test loop under the APWR feed water flow rate conditions. The stem strain gave the stem stress and the fluid force acting on the plug surface. We evaluated the stem integrity from the stem stress and confirmed the influence which the fluid force had on the valve controllability by simulating the feed water system considering the fluid force. (authors)

  15. Effective water influx control in gas reservoir development: Problems and countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Feng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the diversity of geological characteristics and the complexity of percolation rules, many problems are found ineffective water influx control in gas reservoir development. The problems mainly focus on how to understand water influx rules, to establish appropriate countermeasures, and to ensure the effectiveness of technical measures. It is hard to obtain a complete applicable understanding through the isolated analysis of an individual gas reservoir due to many factors such as actual gas reservoir development phase, research work, pertinence and timeliness of measures, and so on. Over the past four decades, the exploration, practicing and tracking research have been conducted on water control in gas reservoir development in the Sichuan Basin, and a series of comprehensive water control technologies were developed integrating advanced concepts, successful experiences, specific theories and mature technologies. Though the development of most water-drive gas reservoirs was significantly improved, water control effects were quite different. Based on this background, from the perspective of the early-phase requirements of water influx control, the influencing factors of a water influx activity, the dynamic analysis method of water influx performance, the optimizing strategy of a water control, and the water control experience of typical gas reservoirs, this paper analyzed the key problems of water control, evaluated the influencing factors of water control effect, explored the practical water control strategies, and proposed that it should be inappropriate to apply the previous water control technological model to actual work but the pertinence should be improved according to actual circumstances. The research results in the paper provide technical reference for the optimization of water-invasion gas reservoir development.

  16. Effect of untreated bed nets on blood-fed Phlebotomus argentipes in kala-azar endemic foci in Nepal and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Albert; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Murari; Burniston, Ian; Roy, Lalita; Suman, Rijal; Dinesh, Diwakar; Coosemans, Marc; Sundar, Shyam; Shreekant, Kesari; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive; Cameron, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Observational studies in the Indian subcontinent have shown that untreated nets may be protective against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we evaluated the effect of untreated nets on the blood feeding rates of Phlebotomus argentipes as well as the human blood index (HBI) in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal. The study had a 'before and after intervention' design in 58 households in six clusters. The use of untreated nets reduced the blood feeding rate by 85% (95% CI 76.5-91.1%) and the HBI by 42.2% (95% CI 11.1-62.5%). These results provide circumstantial evidence that untreated nets may provide some degree of personal protection against sand fly bites.

  17. Strategies to water pollution control in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGWenchao; CHENGJijian; LONGTengrui; HEQiang

    2003-01-01

    Problems of and main limiting factors to Chinese western eco-environment are analyzea firstly and principles of integrating water pollution control with water resources planning and management, with ecological construction and with economic development planning and setting control priorities according to local conditions are proposed. Following strategies for water pollution control are suggested: 1) a master plan for western area need to be established as soon as possible; 2) total emission control should be regarded as the basic policy and measures such as clean production, charging and subsidy need to be implemented; 3) point sources pollution control should be considered the main task in short term and centralized wasteweter treatment plants by using sustainable processes should be constructed primarily for large and medium-size cities with heavier pollution; 4) sound institutional and regulation systems need to be established to create an enabling environment; 5) multiple investment system should be established; and 6) studies of pragmatic theories and methodologies for water pollution control and cost-effective technologies appropriate to western area, and training of local technicians need to be enhanced as well.

  18. Down-regulated resistin level in consequence of decreased neutrophil counts in untreated Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Qi, Yicheng; Huang, Fengjiao; Chen, Xinxin; Zhou, Yulin; Ye, Lei; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Wang, Shu

    2016-11-29

    Resistin, belongs to cysteine-rich secretory protein, is mainly produced by circulating leukocytes, such as neutrophils monocytes and macrophages in humans. To date, few but controversial studies have reported about resistin concentrations in hyperthyroid patients, especially in Graves' disease (GD). We undertaked a controlled, prospective study to explore the serum resistin concentration in GD patients before and after -MMI treatment. In addition, we also investigated the main influencing factor on serum resistin level and discuessed the potential role of serum resistin plays in GD patients. 39 untreated GD (uGD) patients, including 8 males and 31 females, were enrolled in our investigation. All of these patients were prescribed with MMI treatment, in addition to 25 healthy controls. Anthropometric parameters and hormone assessment were measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum resistin concentration in different stages of GD patients. Furthermore, neutrophil cell line NB4 with or without T3 treatment to detect the effect of thyroid hormones on resistin expression. The serum resistin level and neutrophil counts in untreated GD patients were significantly declined. And all of these parameters were recovered to normal after MMI treatment in ethyroid GD (eGD) and TRAb-negative conversion (nGD) patients. Resistin concentration exhibited a negative correlation with FT3 and FT4, but a positive correlation with absolute number of neutrophiles in uGD patients, whereas did not correlate with thyroid autoimmune antibodies and BMI. Neutrophile cell line, NB4, produced decreased expression of resistin when stimulated with T3. Our study showed a decrease of serum resistin level in GD patients and we suggested that the serum resistin might primarily secreted from circulating neutrophils and down-regulated by excessive thyroid hormones in GD patients.

  19. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.

    2018-04-10

    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  20. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the State... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a...

  1. Water chemistry control of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Yuichi; Makino, Ichiro; Yamauchi, Sumio; Fukuda, Fumihito.

    1992-01-01

    In PWR power plants, the primary system taking heat out of nuclear reactors and the secondary system generating steam and driving turbines are completely separated by steam generators, accordingly, by mutually independent water treatment, both systems are to be maintained in the optimal conditions. Namely, primary system is the closed water circulation circuit of simple liquid phase though under high temperature, high pressure condition, therefore, water shows the stable physical and chemical properties, and the minute water treatment for restraining the corrosion of structural materials and reducing radioactivity can be done. Secondary system is similar to the condensate and feedwater system of thermal power plants, and is the circuit for liquid-vapor two-phase transformation, but due to the local concentration of impurities by evaporation, the strict requirement is set for secondary water quality. However, secondary system can be treated in the state without radioactivity, and this is a great merit. The outline, basic concept and execution of primary water quality control, and the outline, concept, control criteria, facilities and execution of secondary water quality control are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Compulsive buying disorder: an untreated patient for 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things), personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychi...

  3. Variation in duration of untreated psychosis in an 18-year perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Barder, Helene

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The Scandinavian TIPS project engineered an early detection of psychosis programme that sought to reduce the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) through early detection teams and extensive information campaigns since 1997. In 1997-2000, DUP was reduced from 26 to 4.5 weeks median. The prog......AIM: The Scandinavian TIPS project engineered an early detection of psychosis programme that sought to reduce the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) through early detection teams and extensive information campaigns since 1997. In 1997-2000, DUP was reduced from 26 to 4.5 weeks median....... The programme was continued beyond the initial project in modified forms for over 13 years. The aim of this study was to track the vicissitudes of DUP over an 18-year period (1993-2010) with differing early detection efforts in a defined catchment area. METHOD: The DUP of all patients meeting criteria for first...

  4. Acute Genotoxic Effects of Effluent Water of Thermo-Power Plant “Kosova” In Tradescantia Pallida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Elezaj, L.B.Millaku, R.H. Imeri-Millaku, Q.I. Selimi, and K. Rr. Letaj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of acute genotoxic effect of effluent water of thermo-power plant by means of Tradescantia root tips micronucleus test (MN, mitotic index and cell aberrations.   Tradescantia, was experimentally treated (for 24 h, with effluent water of thermo-power plant in different dilution ratios (negative control – distilled water; primary untreated effluent water and 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4; 1:5; 1:6 and 1:7 respectively. Number of aberrant cells, and frequency of micronuclei (MN, in meristematic root tip cells of treated plants (Tradescantia, were significantly increased (P<0.001; P<0.001 respectively, while the mitotic index in all treated plants was progressively decreased in comparison to the negative control. The results of present study indicate that Tradescantia root-tip micronucleus assay with direct exposure of intact plants is an appropriate method which enables to detect genotoxic effects of effluent waters.

  5. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

  6. Aquatic weed control within an integrated water management framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    Aquatic weed control, carried out by the water boards in the Netherlands, is required to maintain sufficient discharge capacity of the surface water system. Weed control affects the conditions of both surface water and groundwater. The physically based model MOGROW was developed to simulate

  7. Dynamics of cesium-134 and biomass in treated and untreated turkey oak leaf-litter bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, J.M.; Ragsdale, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Litter bags were prepared from leaves harvested in late fall from turkey oak trees (Quercus laevis) tagged with 134 Cs. Untreated bags and bags treated by soaking in 1000 ppM HgCl 2 were placed in the field on Dec. 7, 1974. Five bags of each treatment were retrieved at 7-, 14-, and 30-day intervals as the experiment progressed. Treated bags remained free of visible fungal hyphae growth for 12 weeks. Untreated bags had lost more weight but less 134 Cs than treated bags after 14 and 56 days, respectively. After 9 months, untreated bags had lost 33% weight and 90% 134 Cs. Although 134 Cs is rapidly leached from litter (ecological half-life approximately equal to 12 weeks), some is retained by fungal hyphae on leaf-litter surfaces. This mechanism of mineral retention in the litter layer could represent adaptation at the ecosystem level for nutrient conservation

  8. Features of Brain MRI in Dogs with Treated and Untreated Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vite, Charles H; Nestrasil, Igor; Mlikotic, Anton; Jens, Jackie K; Snella, Elizabeth M; Gross, William; Shapiro, Elsa G; Kovac, Victor; Provenzale, James M; Chen, Steven; Le, Steven Q; Kan, Shih-hsin; Banakar, Shida; Wang, Raymond Y; Haskins, Mark E; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Dickson, Patricia I

    2013-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) dog model has been important in the development of therapies for human patients. We treated dogs with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) by various approaches. Dogs assessed included untreated MPS I dogs, heterozygous carrier dogs, and MPS I dogs treated with intravenous ERT as adults (beginning at age 13 to 16 mo), intrathecal and intravenous ERT as adults (beginning at age 13 to 16 mo), or intrathecal ERT as juveniles (beginning at age 4 mo). We then characterized the neuroimaging findings of 32 of these dogs (age, 12 to 30 mo). Whole and midsagittal volumes of the corpus callosum, measured from brain MRI, were significantly smaller in affected dogs compared with unaffected heterozygotes. Corpus callosum volumes in dogs that were treated with intrathecal ERT from 4 mo until 21 mo of age were indistinguishable from those of age-matched carrier controls. Dogs with MPS I showed cerebral ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy as early as 12 mo of age. Ventricular enlargement was greater in untreated MPS I dogs than in age-matched dogs treated with intrathecal ERT as juveniles or adults. However, treated dogs still showed some ventricular enlargement or cortical atrophy (or both). Understanding the progression of neuroimaging findings in dogs with MPS I and their response to brain-directed therapy may improve preclinical studies for new human-directed therapies. In particular, corpus callosum volumes may be useful quantitative neuroimaging markers for MPS-related brain disease and its response to therapy. PMID:23582423

  9. Improving production of treated and untreated verbs in aphasia: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia de Aguiar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Demographic and clinical predictors of aphasia recovery have been identified in the literature. However, little attention has been devoted to identifying and distinguishing predictors of improvement for different outcomes, e.g., production of treated vs. untreated materials. These outcomes may rely on different mechanisms, and therefore be predicted by different variables. Furthermore, treatment features are not typically accounted for when studying predictors of aphasia recovery. This is partly due to the small numbers of cases reported in studies, but also to limitations of data analysis techniques usually employed. METHOD. We reviewed the literature on predictors of aphasia recovery, and conducted a meta-analysis of single-case studies designed to assess the efficacy of treatments for verb production. The contribution of demographic, clinical, and treatment-related variables was assessed by means of Random Forests (a machine-learning technique used in classification and regression. Two outcomes were investigated: production of treated (for 142 patients and untreated verbs (for 166 patients. RESULTS. Improved production of treated verbs was predicted by a three-way interaction of pre-treatment scores on tests for verb comprehension and word repetition, and the frequency of treatment sessions. Improvement in production of untreated verbs was predicted by an interaction including the use of morphological cues, presence of grammatical impairment, pre-treatment scores on a test for noun comprehension and frequency of treatment sessions. CONCLUSION. Improvement in the production of treated verbs occurs frequently. It may depend on restoring access to and/or knowledge of lexeme representations, and requires relative sparing of semantic knowledge (as measured by verb comprehension and phonological output abilities (including working memory, as measured by word repetition. Improvement in the production of untreated verbs has not been

  10. Limitations of fecal calprotectin at diagnosis in untreated pediatric Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaoul, Ron; Sladek, Marlgozata; Turner, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Fecal Calprotectin (FC) is a validated screening test for intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD). The objective of the study was to prospectively evaluate the limitations of FC for identifying CD in newly diagnosed untreated pediatric patients and to assess the association of FC levels w...

  11. Dominant Fecal Microbiota in Newly Diagnosed Untreated Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lill Therese Thorkildsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge about the microbiota associated with the onset of IBD is limited. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between IBD and the fecal microbiota for early diagnosed untreated patients. The fecal samples used were a part of the Inflammatory Bowel South-Eastern Norway II (IBSEN II study and were collected from CD patients (n=30, UC patients (n=33, unclassified IBD (IBDU patients (n=3, and from a control group (n=34. The bacteria associated with the fecal samples were analyzed using a direct 16S rRNA gene-sequencing approach combined with a multivariate curve resolution (MCR analysis. In addition, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was prepared for the construction of bacteria-specific gene-targeted single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE probes. The MCR analysis resulted in the recovery of five pure components of the dominant bacteria present: Escherichia/Shigella, Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, and two components of unclassified Clostridiales. Escherichia/Shigella was found to be significantly increased in CD patients compared to control subjects, and Faecalibacterium was found to be significantly reduced in CD patients compared to both UC patients and control subjects. Furthermore, a SNuPE probe specific for Escherichia/Shigella showed a significant overrepresentation of Escherichia/Shigella in CD patients compared to control subjects. In conclusion, samples from CD patients exhibited an increase in Escherichia/Shigella and a decrease in Faecalibacterium indicating that the onset of the disease is associated with an increase in proinflammatory and a decrease in anti-inflammatory bacteria.

  12. Hepatopathy in an adult, secondary to congenital untreated panhypopituitarism and ectopic posterior pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Valle-Murillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of an adult with advanced liver failure in the setting of an untreated congenital panhypopituitarism. A 32-years-old man presented with a newly onset seizure episode secondary to hypoglycemia. In the initial exploration, we found eunuchoid habitus, absence of secondary sexual characteristics, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Hormonal evaluation confirmed the absence of anterior hypophyseal hormones and the liver function tests showed derangement of liver function. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI showed hypoplastic adenohypophysis and ectopic posterior pituitary gland. In the approach to liver disease, no cause was identified, besides the untreated panhypopituitarism.

  13. Hepatopathy in an adult, secondary to congenital untreated panhypopituitarism and ectopic posterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Murillo, Miguel A; Perez-Diaz, Ivan

    2012-09-01

    We report a rare case of an adult with advanced liver failure in the setting of an untreated congenital panhypopituitarism. A 32-years-old man presented with a newly onset seizure episode secondary to hypoglycemia. In the initial exploration, we found eunuchoid habitus, absence of secondary sexual characteristics, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Hormonal evaluation confirmed the absence of anterior hypophyseal hormones and the liver function tests showed derangement of liver function. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed hypoplastic adenohypophysis and ectopic posterior pituitary gland. In the approach to liver disease, no cause was identified, besides the untreated panhypopituitarism.

  14. [Research on controlling iron release of desalted water transmitted in existing water distribution system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Mei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Shan, Jin-Lin; Yang, Suo-Yin; Liu, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Desalted water, with strong corrosion characteristics, would possibly lead to serious "red water" when transmitted and distributed in existing municipal water distribution network. The main reason for red water phenomenon is iron release in water pipes. In order to study the methods of controlling iron release in existing drinking water distribution pipe, tubercle analysis of steel pipe and cast iron pipe, which have served the distribution system for 30-40 years, was carried out, the main construction materials were Fe3O4 and FeOOH; and immersion experiments were carried in more corrosive pipes. Through changing mixing volume of tap water and desalted water, pH, alkalinity, chloride and sulfate, the influence of different water quality indexes on iron release were mainly analyzed. Meanwhile, based on controlling iron content, water quality conditions were established to meet with the safety distribution of desalted water: volume ratio of potable water and desalted water should be higher than or equal to 2, pH was higher than 7.6, alkalinity was higher than 200 mg x L(-1).

  15. Design of Water Temperature Control System Based on Single Chip Microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hanhong; Yan, Qiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we mainly introduce a multi-function water temperature controller designed with 51 single-chip microcomputer. This controller has automatic and manual water, set the water temperature, real-time display of water and temperature and alarm function, and has a simple structure, high reliability, low cost. The current water temperature controller on the market basically use bimetal temperature control, temperature control accuracy is low, poor reliability, a single function. With the development of microelectronics technology, monolithic microprocessor function is increasing, the price is low, in all aspects of widely used. In the water temperature controller in the application of single-chip, with a simple design, high reliability, easy to expand the advantages of the function. Is based on the appeal background, so this paper focuses on the temperature controller in the intelligent control of the discussion.

  16. Hot Water Bathing Impairs Training Adaptation in Elite Teen Archers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ta-Cheng; Liao, Yi-Hung; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2018-04-30

    Despite heat imposes considerable physiological stress to human body, hot water immersion remains as a popular relaxation modality for athletes. Here we examined the lingering effect of hot tub relaxation after training on performance-associated measures and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in junior archers. Ten national level archers, aged 16.6 ± 0.3 years (M = 8, F = 2), participated in a randomized counter-balanced crossover study after baseline measurements. In particular, half participants were assigned to the hot water immersion (HOT) group, whereas another halves were assigned to the untreated control (CON) group. Crossover trial was conducted following a 2-week washout period. During the HOT trial, participants immersed in hot water for 30 min at 40°C, 1 h after training, twice a week (every 3 days) for 2 weeks. Participants during CON trial sat at the same environment without hot water after training. Performance-associated measures and salivary DHEA-S were determined 3 days after the last HOT session. We found that the HOT intervention significantly decreased shooting performance (CON: -4%; HOT: -22%, P HOT: -16%, P HOT: -60%, P < 0.05) of archers, compared with untreated CON trial. No group differences were found in motor unit recruitment (root mean square electromyography, RMS EMG) of arm muscles during aiming, autonomic nervous activity (sympathetic and vagal powers of heart rate variability, HRV), and plasma cortisol levels after treatments. Our data suggest that physiological adaptation against heat exposure takes away the sources needed for normal training adaptation specific to shooting performance in archers.

  17. Body composition in untreated adult patients with Laron syndrome (primary GH insensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi; Ginsberg, Shira; Lilos, Pearl; Arbiv, Mira; Vaisman, Nahum

    2006-07-01

    To quantify body adiposity and its distribution in untreated adult patients with Laron syndrome (LS; primary GH insensitivity) caused by molecular defects of the GH receptor gene or postreceptor pathways and characterized by dwarfism, obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia. Eleven LS patients (seven females and four males) aged 28-53 years were studied. Seven healthy males and six healthy females served as controls. Body composition of the total body trunk, upper and lower extremities was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Statistical analysis using an analysis of variance (anova) and Mann-Whitney nonparametric methods was performed separately in males and females. Percentage body fat in the LS patients was much higher (P < 0.01) than that in the control population and the female LS patients were significantly more obese (59% total body fat) than the male patients (39% total body fat) (P < 0.002). It was also evident that in these types of patients with markedly increased body fat and decreased muscle and bone mass, body mass index (BMI) does not accurately reflect the body composition. Lifelong congenital IGF-I deficiency leads to extreme adiposity.

  18. Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

    2010-09-30

    Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass

  19. Pleural tuberculosis in a patient with untreated type 1 Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgar, Ozgecan; Eskazan, Ahmet Emre; Ersen, Ezel; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Turna, Akif; Oz, Buge; Tuzuner, Nukhet

    2016-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive glycolipid storage disorder, due to deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, leading to accumulation of the substrate glucocerebroside in the cells of the macrophage-monocyte system. Patients with GD have alteration in their immune system and impaired microbicidal capacity of mononuclear phagocytes. It has also been demonstrated that monocyte dysfunction may correlate with the plasma glucocerebrosidase concentrations. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in developing countries. Pleural TB is one of the most common forms of extra-pulmonary TB. Since immune system can be impaired due to the deficiency of glucocerebrosidase in various ways, TB can be observed in patients with GD especially when left untreated. Cytopenia(s) is also general finding in untreated Gaucher patients, and they may be observed most frequently due to the infiltration of the bone marrow with Gaucher cells together with the additional factor of splenomegaly. We herein present a case of an adult patient with heterozygous untreated GD1, who developed pleural TB complicated by ipsilateral pulmonary fibrosis. Before his admission to our clinic, pleurectomy operation was performed and 4-drug combination anti-TB therapy was initiated including isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Fever complaint was disappeared with anti-TB treatment but he also had fatigue and pain. After initiation of enzyme replacement therapy in addition to anti-TB treatment, clinical and hematological improvement was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of GD1 with pleural TB. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal and...

  1. Performance of Control System Using Microcontroller for Sea Water Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriani, A.; Witanto, Y.; Pratama, A. S.; Supriyadi; Hendra; Tanjung, A.

    2018-02-01

    Now a day control system is very important rule for any process. Control system have been used in the automatic system. Automatic system can be seen in the industrial filed, mechanical field, electrical field and etc. In industrial and mechanical field, control system are used for control of motion component such as motor, conveyor, machine, control of process made of product, control of system and soon. In electrical field, control system can met for control of electrical system as equipment or part electrical like fan, rice cooker, refrigerator, air conditioner and etc. Control system are used for control of temperature and circulation gas, air and water. Control system of temperature and circulation of water also can be used for fisher community. Control system can be create by using microcontroller, PLC and other automatic program [1][2]. In this paper we will focus on the close loop system by using microcontroller Arduino Mega to control of temperature and circulation of sea water for fisher community. Performance control system is influenced by control equipment, sensor sensitivity, test condition, environment and others. The temperature sensor is measured using the DS18S20 and the sea water clarity sensor for circulation indicator with turbidity sensor. From the test results indicated that this control system can circulate sea water and maintain the temperature and clarity of seawater in a short time.

  2. Progression of Treated versus Untreated Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System Category 4 Masses after Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, James; Gupta, Rajan T; Marin, Daniele; Wang, Qi; Durocher, Nicholas S; Suhocki, Paul V; Kim, Charles Y

    2018-05-01

    To compare outcomes of treated vs untreated Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category 4 (LR-4) masses after transcatheter arterial embolization. In 167 patients undergoing embolization for HCC from January 2005 to December 2012, LR-4 masses were retrospectively identified on CT and MR imaging examinations performed before embolization. In 149 patients undergoing embolization from January 2013 to December 2016, masses prospectively classified as LR-4 were identified. In total, there were 81 LR-4 masses in 62 patients (16 women; mean age 62 y; range 29-83 y). Procedures were reviewed to determine whether LR-4 masses were within or outside the liver volume that received embolization during treatment of dominant masses. Time to progression to LR-5 and by modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) was estimated for treated vs untreated LR-4 masses using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log rank test. LR-4 masses averaged 1.8 cm; 88%, 60%, 14%, and 14% demonstrated arterial phase hyperenhancement, washout, a capsule, and growth. Of LR-4 masses, 62 were within the liver volume that received embolization and considered treated, and 19 were outside and considered untreated. Response rates according to mRECIST were 37% vs 21% for treated vs untreated masses (P = .27). The 6- and 12-month rates of progression to LR-5 were 7% and 26% for treated masses vs 27% and 75% for untreated masses (P = .001). According to mRECIST, 7% and 27% of treated masses progressed vs 30% and 65% of untreated masses (P = .001). LR-4 masses that receive embolization in the setting of dominant masses elsewhere show lower rates of progression compared with untreated masses. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the control unit of the prototype performs automatic switching control of on and off on a single phase centrifugal water pump, 220volts, 0.5hp motor via a motor driver circuit (relay). It also incorporates a buzzer that beeps briefly when water level hits 100%, thus causing the pump to be switched off but when water ...

  4. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  5. Drinking Water Systems, Hydrology, and Childhood Gastrointestinal Illness in Central and Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K.; Yale, Steven H.; Malecki, Kristen; Borchardt, Mark A.; Anderson, Henry A.; Patz, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated if the type of drinking water source (treated municipal, untreated municipal, and private well water) modifies the effect of hydrology on childhood (aged water systems. Separate time series models were created for each system and half-year period (winter/spring, summer/fall). Results. More precipitation (summer/fall) systematically increased childhood gastrointestinal illness in municipalities accessing untreated water. The relative risk of contracting gastrointestinal illness was 1.4 in weeks with 3 centimeters of precipitation and 2.4 in very wet weeks with 12 centimeters of precipitation. By contrast, gastrointestinal illness in private well and treated municipal areas was not influenced by hydrologic conditions, although warmer winter temperatures slightly increased incidence. Conclusions. Our study suggests that improved drinking water protection, treatment, and delivery infrastructure may improve public health by specifically identifying municipal water systems lacking water treatment that may transmit waterborne disease. PMID:24524509

  6. Improving Production of Treated and Untreated Verbs in Aphasia : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Aguiar, Vânia; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Demographic and clinical predictors of aphasia recovery have been identified in the literature. However, little attention has been devoted to identifying and distinguishing predictors of improvement for different outcomes, e.g., production of treated vs. untreated materials. These

  7. Clarifying the Impact of Untreated and Treated Dental Caries on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Hernandez, Pedro Antonio González; Kramer, Paulo Floriani

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dental caries experience and the components of the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adolescents in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11-14 years enrolled at public schools in the municipality of Osório (southern Brazil). A calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination for caries (World Health Organization: DMFT index), malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index) and traumatic dental injuries [Andreasen et al., 2007]. The participants answered the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) - Impact Short Form, and their parents/guardians answered a structured questionnaire addressing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data analysis involved Poisson regression with robust variance, with the calculation of rate ratios adjusted for potential confounding variables. High severity of dental caries experience exerted a significant impact on OHRQoL, even after controlling for socioeconomic and clinical factors (rate ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.12-1.51). All OHRQoL domains were affected by untreated dental caries. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CPQ11-14 scores were 33% higher among adolescents with untreated caries (rate ratio 1.33; 95% CI 1.17-1.50) and 24% higher among those with missing teeth (rate ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.06-1.47). No difference in OHRQoL was found between adolescents with filled teeth and those without dental caries. In conclusion, dental caries experience, untreated dental caries and missing teeth exerted a negative impact on OHRQoL among the adolescents. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Method of controlling power of a heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiroyuki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To adjust a level of heavy water in a region of reflection body to control power in a heavy water reactor. Structure: The interior of a core tank filled with heavy water is divided by a partition into a core heavy water region and a reflection body region formed by surrounding the core heavy water region, and a level of heavy water within the reflection body region is adjusted to control power. Preferably, it is desirable to communicate the core heavy water region with the reflection body heavy water region at their lower portion, and gas pressure applied to an upper portion within at least one of said regions is adjusted to adjust the level of heavy water within the reflection body heavy water region. Thereby, the heavy water within the reflection body heavy water region may be introduced into the core region, thus requiring no tank which stores heavy water within the reflection body region. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. [Spatial and seasonal characterization of the drinking water from various sources in a peri-urban town of Salta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, María S; Moraña, Liliana B; Salusso, María M; Seghezzo, Lucas

    Drinking water monitoring plans are important to characterize both treated and untreated water used for drinking purposes. Access to drinking water increased in recent years as a response to the Millennium Development Goals set for 2015. The new Sustainable Development Goals aim to ensure universal access to safe drinking water by 2030. Within the framework of these global goals, it is crucial to monitor local drinking water systems. In this paper, treated and untreated water from different sources currently consumed in a specific town in Salta, northern Argentina, was thoroughly assessed. Monitoring extended along several seasons and included the physical, chemical and microbiological variables recommended by the Argentine Food Code. On the one hand, treated water mostly complies with these standards, with some non-compliances detected during the rainy season. Untreated water, on the other hand, never meets microbiological standards and is unfit for human consumption. Monitoring seems essential to detect anomalies and help guarantee a constant provision of safe drinking water. New treatment plants are urgently needed to expand the water grid to the entire population. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of feed water control for auxiliary boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lingmao

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the feed water control system of the auxiliary boiler steam drum in Qinshan Phase III Nuclear Power Plant, analyzed the deficiency of the original configuration, and proposed the optimized configuration. The optimized feed water control system can ensure the stable and safe operation of the auxiliary boiler, and the normal operation of the users. (author)

  11. Steam Generator control in Nuclear Power Plants by water mass inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Wei [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Doster, J. Michael [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)], E-mail: doster@eos.ncsu.edu; Mayo, Charles W. [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Control of water mass inventory in Nuclear Steam Generators is important to insure sufficient cooling of the nuclear reactor. Since downcomer water level is measurable, and a reasonable indication of water mass inventory near steady-state, conventional feedwater control system designs attempt to maintain downcomer water level within a relatively narrow operational band. However, downcomer water level can temporarily react in a reverse manner to water mass inventory changes, commonly known as shrink and swell effects. These complications are accentuated during start-up or low power conditions. As a result, automatic or manual control of water level is difficult and can lead to high reactor trip rates. This paper introduces a new feedwater control strategy for Nuclear Steam Generators. The new method directly controls water mass inventory instead of downcomer water level, eliminating complications from shrink and swell all together. However, water mass inventory is not measurable, requiring an online estimator to provide a mass inventory signal based on measurable plant parameters. Since the thermal-hydraulic response of a Steam Generator is highly nonlinear, a linear state-observer is not feasible. In addition, difficulties in obtaining flow regime and density information within the Steam Generator make an estimator based on analytical methods impractical at this time. This work employs a water mass estimator based on feedforward neural networks. By properly choosing and training the neural network, mass signals can be obtained which are suitable for stable, closed-loop water mass inventory control. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that water mass control can significantly improve the operation and safety of Nuclear Steam Generators.

  12. Steam Generator control in Nuclear Power Plants by water mass inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Wei; Doster, J. Michael; Mayo, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Control of water mass inventory in Nuclear Steam Generators is important to insure sufficient cooling of the nuclear reactor. Since downcomer water level is measurable, and a reasonable indication of water mass inventory near steady-state, conventional feedwater control system designs attempt to maintain downcomer water level within a relatively narrow operational band. However, downcomer water level can temporarily react in a reverse manner to water mass inventory changes, commonly known as shrink and swell effects. These complications are accentuated during start-up or low power conditions. As a result, automatic or manual control of water level is difficult and can lead to high reactor trip rates. This paper introduces a new feedwater control strategy for Nuclear Steam Generators. The new method directly controls water mass inventory instead of downcomer water level, eliminating complications from shrink and swell all together. However, water mass inventory is not measurable, requiring an online estimator to provide a mass inventory signal based on measurable plant parameters. Since the thermal-hydraulic response of a Steam Generator is highly nonlinear, a linear state-observer is not feasible. In addition, difficulties in obtaining flow regime and density information within the Steam Generator make an estimator based on analytical methods impractical at this time. This work employs a water mass estimator based on feedforward neural networks. By properly choosing and training the neural network, mass signals can be obtained which are suitable for stable, closed-loop water mass inventory control. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that water mass control can significantly improve the operation and safety of Nuclear Steam Generators

  13. Control of water infiltration through SLB trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for control of water infiltration into waste burial trenches is described. Initial results show the procedure to be very promising. In essence, the technique combines engineered or positive control of run-off, along with a vegetative cover, and is named bioengineering management. To investigate control of infiltration, lysimeters are being used to make complete water balance measurements. The studies are underway at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level waste burial site. Where the original Maxey Flats site closure procedure is followed, it is necessary to pump large amounts of water out of the lysimeters to prevent the water table from rising closer than 2 meters from the surface. Using the fescue grass bioengineering management procedure, no pumping is required. Encouraged by the initial findings in the rather small-scale lysimeters, a large scale demonstration of the bioengineering management technique has been initiated in Beltsville, Maryland. 6 references, 14 figures

  14. Status of control assembly materials in Indian water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, V.G.; Kulkarni, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    India's present operating water cooled power reactors comprise boiling water reactors of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) and pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) at Kota (RAPS), Kalpakkam (MAPS), Narora (NAPS) and Kakrapara (KAPS). Boiling water reactors of TAPS use boron carbide control blades for control of power as well as for shut down (scram). PHWRs use boron steel and cobalt absorber rods for power control and Cd sandwiched shut off rods (primary shut down system) and liquid poison rods (secondary shut down system) for shut down. In TAPS, Gadolinium rods (burnable poison rods) are also incorporated in fuel assembly for flux flattening. Boron carbide control blades and Gadolinium rods for TAPS, cobalt absorber rods and shut down assemblies for PHWRs are fabricated indigenously. Considerable development work was carried out for evolving material specifications, component and assembly drawings, and fabrication processes. Details of various control and shut off assemblies being fabricated currently are highlighted in the paper. (author)

  15. Effective use of surface-water management to control saltwater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.; White, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Biscayne aquifer in southeast Florida is susceptible to saltwater intrusion and inundation from rising sea-level as a result of high groundwater withdrawal rates and low topographic relief. Groundwater levels in the Biscayne aquifer are managed by an extensive canal system that is designed to control flooding, supply recharge to municipal well fields, and control saltwater intrusion. We present results from an integrated surface-water/groundwater model of a portion of the Biscayne aquifer to evaluate the ability of the existing managed surface-water control network to control saltwater intrusion. Surface-water stage and flow are simulated using a hydrodynamic model that solves the diffusive-wave approximation of the depth-integrated shallow surface-water equations. Variable-density groundwater flow and fluid density are solved using the Oberbeck--Boussinesq approximation of the three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow equation and a sharp interface approximation, respectively. The surface-water and variable-density groundwater domains are implicitly coupled during each Picard iteration. The Biscayne aquifer is discretized into a multi-layer model having a 500-m square horizontal grid spacing. All primary and secondary surface-water features in the active model domain are discretized into segments using the 500-m square horizontal grid. A 15-year period of time is simulated and the model includes 66 operable surface-water control structures, 127 municipal production wells, and spatially-distributed daily internal and external hydrologic stresses. Numerical results indicate that the existing surface-water system can be effectively used in many locations to control saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer resulting from increases in groundwater withdrawals or sea-level rise expected to occur over the next 25 years. In other locations, numerical results indicate surface-water control structures and/or operations may need to be modified to control

  16. The control of water radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Graubey, A.

    1962-01-01

    This report presents the different apparatuses and devices used to control and adjust routine releases, to detect accidental pollutions, and to identify the origins of an increased radioactivity. The objective is to perform permanent and continuous sampling and measurement. Samplers and measurement devices (Geiger probes, resin-based integrators, dry aerosol radioactivity recorders and dry sample radioactivity recorders) are presented. Water control stations are presented: these stations are either fixed, or mobile or floating

  17. Microelement Exploration Water Flow of Rimnik River

    OpenAIRE

    , N. Bajraktari; , B. Baraj; , T. Arbneshi; , S. Jusufi

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the increasing need on qualitative water use, many water şows are subject to a rising pollution by urban and industrial untreated water discharge, and in some cases by incidental run-offs. Besides them, there is also a great impact made by disseminated agricultural pollution and air and soil rinsing after atmospheric rainfalls. The main purpose of this paper is the micro-element exploration in water and sediments, along the water şow of Rimnik River. Some of the heavy metals: Pb, ...

  18. Water quality control program in experimental circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegalla, Miriam A.

    1996-01-01

    The Water Quality Control Program of the Experimental Circuits visualizes studying the water chemistry of the cooling in the primary and secondary circuits, monitoring the corrosion of the systems and studying the mechanism of the corrosion products transport in the systems. (author)

  19. Decreasing systolic blood pressure and declining mortality rates in an untreated population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla O; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate developments in 30 years mortality risk that may be associated with developments in population systolic blood pressure (SBP) and to evaluate possible secular trends in BP-associated mortality risk in the untreated population....

  20. Vital Signs: Dental Sealant Use and Untreated Tooth Decay Among U.S. School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Susan O; Wei, Liang; Gooch, Barbara F; Weno, Katherine; Espinoza, Lorena

    2016-10-21

    Tooth decay is one of the greatest unmet treatment needs among children. Pain and suffering associated with untreated dental disease can lead to problems with eating, speaking, and learning. School-based dental sealant programs (SBSP) deliver a highly effective intervention to prevent tooth decay in children who might not receive regular dental care. SBSPs benefits exceed their costs when they target children at high risk for tooth decay. CDC used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 to estimate current prevalences of sealant use and untreated tooth decay among low-income (≤185% of federal poverty level) and higher-income children aged 6-11 years and compared these estimates with 1999-2004 NHANES data. The mean number of decayed and filled first molars (DFFM) was estimated for children with and without sealants. Averted tooth decay resulting from increasing sealant use prevalence was also estimated. All reported differences are significant at pdental sealant use has increased; however, most children have not received sealants. Increasing sealant use prevalence could substantially reduce untreated decay, associated problems, and dental treatment costs.

  1. Treated and Untreated Remission from Problem Drinking in Late Life: Post-Remission Functioning and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the post-remission status of older remitted problem drinkers who achieved stable remission without treatment. Method The post-remission drinking behavior, health-related functioning, life context, coping, and help-seeking of older, untreated (n = 330) and treated (n = 120) former problem drinkers who had been remitted for a minimum of six years were compared twice over the course of six-years to each other and to lifetime nonproblem drinkers (n = 232). Analyses considered the impact of severity of drinking problem history. Results Untreated remitters were more likely than treated remitters to continue to drink, exhibited fewer chronic health problems and less depressive symptomatology, and were less likely to smoke. Untreated remitters’ life contexts were somewhat more benign than those of treated ones, and they were less likely to describe a coping motive for drinking and engage in post-remission help-seeking. Although untreated remitters more closely resembled lifetime nonproblem drinkers than did treated remitters, both untreated and treated remitter groups exhibited worse health-related functioning, more financial and interpersonal stressors, and more post-remission help-seeking than did lifetime nonproblem drinkers. Conclusions Regardless of whether late-life remission was gained without or with treatment, prior drinking problems conveyed a legacy of health-related and life context deficits. PMID:18829184

  2. USEPA/USGS Study of CECs in Source Water and Treated Drinking Water: Assessment of Estrogenic Activity Using an In Vitro Bioassay, T47D-KBluc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are collaborating on a research study to determine the presence of contaminants of emerging concern in treated and untreated drinking water collected from up to 50 drinking water trea...

  3. Duration of untreated psychosis/illness and brain volume changes in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Charlotte; Canela, Carlos; Studerus, Erich; Walter, Anna; Aston, Jacqueline; Borgwardt, Stefan; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2017-09-01

    The time period during which patients manifest psychotic or unspecific symptoms prior to treatment (duration of untreated psychosis, DUP, and the duration of untreated illness, DUI) has been found to be moderately associated with poor clinical and social outcome. Equivocal evidence exists of an association between DUP/DUI and structural brain abnormalities, such as reduced hippocampus volume (HV), pituitary volume (PV) and grey matter volume (GMV). Thus, the goal of the present work was to examine if DUP and DUI are associated with abnormalities in HV, PV and GMV. Using a region of interest (ROI) based approach, we present data of 39 patients from the Basel FePsy (Früherkennung von Psychosen, early detection of psychosis) study for which information about DUP, DUI and HV, PV and GMV data could be obtained. Twenty-three of them were first episode psychosis (FEP) and 16 at-risk mental state (ARMS) patients who later made the transition to frank psychosis. In unadjusted analyses, we found a significant positive correlation between DUP and PV in FEP patients. However, when adjusted for covariates, we found no significant correlation between DUP or DUI and HV, PV or GMV anymore. There only was a trend for decreasing GMV with increasing DUI in FEP. Our results do not comprehensively support the hypothesis of a "toxic" effect of the pathogenic mechanism underlying untreated psychosis on brain structure. If there is any effect, it might rather occur very early in the disease process, during which patients experience only unspecific symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Rene

    2013-04-01

    The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water

  5. Occurrence and status of volatile organic compounds in ground water from rural, untreated, self-supplied domestic wells in the United States, 1986-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Lapham, Wayne W.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of untreated ground water from 1,926 rural, self-supplied domestic wells were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-99. This information was used to characterize the occurrence and status of VOCs in domestic well water. The samples were either collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program occurrence-assessment studies or were compiled by NAWQA from existing ambient ground-water or source-water-quality monitoring programs conducted by local, State, and other Federal agencies. Water samples were collected at the wellhead prior to treatment or storage. In most samples, 55 target VOCs were analyzed, and occurrence and status information generally was computed at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L (microgram per liter). At least one VOC was detected in 12 percent of samples (232 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. This detection frequency is relatively low compared to the 26 percent detection frequency of at least one VOC in public sup-ply wells sampled by NAWQA, and the difference may be due, in part, to the higher pumping rates, pumping stress factors, and larger contributing areas of public supply wells. Samples with detections of at least one VOC were collected from wells located in 31 of 39 States. Solvents were the most frequently detected VOC group with detections in 4.6 percent of samples (89 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. The geographic distribution of detections of some VOC groups, such as fumigants and oxygenates, relates to the use pattern of com-pounds in that group. With the exception of com-pounds used in organic synthesis, detection frequencies of VOCs by group are proportional to the average half-life of compounds in the group. When the organic synthesis group is excluded from the analysis, a good correlation exists between the detection frequency of VOCs by group and average half-life of compounds in the group. Individually, VOCs were not commonly

  6. Bacterial Community Dynamics and Biodegradation Rates in Untreated and Oily Soils During PAH Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    The approach taken in this study represents an attempt to address the possible selective effects of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on the bacterial community structure of an untreated garden soil (S) and a chronically contaminated oily soil (CS). Untreated and chronically hydrocarbon polluted soils, collected from Egypt were enriched in shaking flasks containing 50 mg/l anthracene as a sole source of carbon over a period of 15 days. Bacterial communities in each soil were profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR amplified 16 S r DNA gene fragments after 0, 5, 10, and 15 days. Culture able biodegrading bacterial counts on minerals- Silica gel- Oil (MSD) plates as well as anthracene degradation for both soils were followed up at the same time intervals. Nine bacterial species were found to be dominant in the pristine soil before enrichment with the model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), eight of them disappeared after live days of enrichment with the domination of one new species. It stayed dominant in soil until 15 days - exposure to anthracene. Therefore it can be used as a bio marker for PAH pollution. The chronically contaminated soil revealed a remarkable increase in the diversity directly after 5 days exposure to PAH HPLC analysis of the extracted anthracene remained in the biodegradation flasks after different degradation periods revealed that a higher biodegradation rates were accomplished by the oily soil consortium rather than by the pristine one. Before exposure to PAH, counts of culture able biodegrading bacteria were found to be higher in the untreated soil rather than in the oily one. After exposure the situation has been a bit altered as the counts in the untreated soil revealed a temporary suppression with a prolongation of the time required for growth as a result of the hydrocarbon stress

  7. Water level control for a nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Tan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A water level control system for a nuclear steam generator (SG) is proposed. → The parameters of the control system are directly related to those of the plant model thus scheduling is easy to implement in practice. → The proposed gain-scheduled controller can achieve good performance at both low and high power levels. - Abstract: A water level control system for a nuclear steam generator (SG) is proposed. The control system consists of a feedback controller and a feedforward controller. The feedback controller is of first order, the feedforward controller is of second order, and parameters of the two controllers are directly related to the parameters of plant model thus scheduling is easy to implement in practice. Robustness and performance of the feedback and the feedforward controllers are analyzed in details and tuning of the two parameters of the controllers are discussed. Comparisons among a single robust controller, a multi-model controller and a gain-scheduled controller are studied. It is shown that the proposed gain-scheduled controller can achieve good performance at both low and high power levels.

  8. Spermidine sprays alleviate the water deficit-induced oxidative stress in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Lakkakula; Rency, Arockiam Sagina; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2018-01-01

    Severe drought stress (water deficit) in finger millet ( Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) plants significantly reduced total leaf chlorophyll and relative water content in shoots and roots, whereas electrolyte leakage, concentrations of proline and hydrogen peroxide, as well as caspase-like activity were significantly increased. The role of spermidine in plant defence to water-stress was investigated after subjected to various drought treatments. Three weeks of daily spermidine sprays (0.2 mM) at early flowering stage significantly changed shoot and root growth, in both fresh and dry weights terms. At 75% of water deficit stress, leaves accumulated twice as much proline as unstressed plants, and roots accumulated thrice. Plants treated with spermidine under water stress showed lower electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide and caspase-like activity than unstressed and untreated control.

  9. Case-specific comparison of water pollution control alternatives in peat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.; Kaasinen, A.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.; Kaemae, T.; Alasaarela, E.

    1996-01-01

    The present practice water pollution control in peat production and the elements of planning were analyzed, the water purification methods were classified and their weaknesses estimated. Furthermore, the cost of the water purification constructions was estimated and their significance for the watercourses evaluated. 54 peat production plans were chosen from the catchment areas of the rivers Iijoki, Siikajoki and Pyhaejoki. The suitability of the chosen water pollution control methods was evaluated on the basis of the plans and, further, on the basis of field surveys. The suitability of the purification methods to practical water pollution control was assessed by making plans for 15 peat mining areas. There is a need to develop the planning and implementation of water pollution control in peat mining. The methods that are used do not always work in the expected way in practice. Despite this planning is compatible with the water protection program and the regulations that are in force. The study gives a good idea of how to update the planning instructions for water pollution control. The accompanying report includes plan for 11 peat mining areas. (orig.)

  10. Water chemistry control to meet the advanced design and operation of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Sato, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The road maps on R and D plans for water chemistry of nuclear power systems in Japan have been proposed along with promotion of R and D related water chemistry improvement for the advanced application of light water reactors (LWRs). The technical trends were divided into four categories, dose rate reduction, structural integrity, fuel integrity and radioactive waste reduction, and latest technical break through for each category was shown for the advanced application of LWRs. At the same time, the technical break through and the latest movements for regulation of water chemistry were introduced for each of major organizations related to nuclear engineering in the world. The conclusions were summarized as follows; 1. Water chemistry improvements might contribute to achieve the advanced application of LWRs, while water chemistry should be often changed to achieve the advanced application of LWRs. 2. Only one solution for water chemistry control was not obtained for achieving the advanced application of LWRs, but miscellaneous solutions were possible for achieving one. Optimal water chemistry control was desired for having the good practices for satisfying multi-targets at the same time and it was much affected by the plant unique systems and operational history. 3. That meant it was difficult to determine water chemistry regulation targets for achieving application of LWRs but it was necessary to prepare suitable guideline for good achievement of application of LWRs. That meant the guideline should be recommendation for good practice in the plant. 4. The water chemistry guide line should be modified along with progress of plant operation and water chemistry and related technologies. (author)

  11. Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellina V. Grigorieva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  12. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  13. Careers in Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

  14. Wind and water erosion control on semiarid lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddoway, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial crop production on semiarid lands is difficult because insufficient water is often present to manage the system effectively. Erosion control presents the major management problem. The factors contributing to wind erosion and their interaction have been quantified into a wind erosion equation. The control of wind erosion through agronomic alteration of the various factors is discussed. The quantification and control of water erosion is also discussed with respect to the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Radioisotopes tracers have been used in conjunction with these erosion equations to measure soil losses. (author)

  15. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., responsibilities and authority of the Mississippi River Water Control Management Board. (b) Applicability. This... control management within the Mississippi River Basin. (c) Objectives. The objectives of the Board are: (1...) Composition. The Mississippi River Water Control Management Board is a continuing board consisting of the...

  16. The course of untreated anxiety and depression, and determinants of poor one-year outcome: a one-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beljouw, I.M.J.; Verhaak, P.; Cuijpers, P.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the course and outcome of untreated anxiety and depression in patients with and without a self-perceived need for care. The aim of the present study was to examine the one-year course of untreated anxiety and depression, and to determine predictors of a poor

  17. The course of untreated anxiety and depression, and determinants of poor one-year outcome: a one-year cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beljouw, I.M.J. van; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Cuijpers, P.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the course and outcome of untreated anxiety and depression in patients with and without a self-perceived need for care. The aim of the present study was to examine the one-year course of untreated anxiety and depression, and to determine predictors of a poor

  18. The course of untreated anxiety and depression, and determinants of poor one-year outcome : a one-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beljouw, Ilse M. J.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; Cuijpers, Pim; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the course and outcome of untreated anxiety and depression in patients with and without a self-perceived need for care. The aim of the present study was to examine the one-year course of untreated anxiety and depression, and to determine predictors of a poor

  19. The influence of untreated sugarcane bagasse ash on the microstructural and mechanical properties of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado-García, M.A.; Hernández-Toledo, U.I.; Montes-García, P.; Valdez-Tamez, P.L.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the addition of untreated sugarcane bagasse ash (UtSCBA) on the microstructural and mechanical properties of mortars. The SCBA was sieved for only five minutes through a No. 200 ASTM mesh, and fully characterized by chemical composition analysis, laser ray diffraction, the physical absorption of gas, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Mortar mixtures with 0, 10 and 20% UtSCBA as cement replacement and a constant 0.63 water/cementitious material ratio were prepared. Fresh properties of the mortars were obtained. The microstructural characteristics of the mortars at 1, 7, 28, 90 and 600 days were evaluated by SEM and XRD. The compressive strengths of the mortars at the same ages were then obtained. The results show that the addition of 10 and 20% UtSCBA caused a slight decrease in workability of the mortars but improved their microstructure, increasing the long-term compressive strength. [es

  20. Heavy metal accumulation imparts structural differences in fragrant Rosa species irrigated with marginal quality water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Muhammad; Younis, Adnan; Jaskani, Muhammad Jafar; Tufail, Aasma; Riaz, Atif; Schwinghamer, Timothy; Tariq, Usman; Nawaz, Fahim

    2018-09-15

    Wastewater is an alternative to traditional sources of renewable irrigation water in agriculture, particularly in water-scarce regions. However, the possible risks due to heavy metals accumulation in plant tissues are often overlooked by producers. The present study aimed to identify heavy metals-induced structural modifications to roots of scented Rosa species that were irrigated with water of marginal quality. The chemical and mineral contents from the experimental irrigation canal water (control) and treated wastewater were below the limits recommended by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA) for medicinal plants. The experimentally untreated wastewater contained electrical conductivity (EC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and heavy metals (Co, Cu, Cd, Pb) that were above the recommended limits. The responses by wastewater-treated Rosa species (Rosa damascena, R. bourboniana, R. Gruss-an-Teplitz, and R. centifolia) were evaluated. The experimental data revealed that treated wastewater significantly increased the thickness of collenchyma (cortex and pith) and parenchyma tissues (vascular bundle, xylem, and phloem) of R. Gruss-an-Teplitz. Root dermal tissues (epidermis) of R. bourboniana also responded to treated wastewater. R. damascena and R. centifolia were the least affected species, under the experimental irrigation conditions. Collenchyma and dermal tissues were thicker in R. damascena and R. Gruss-an-Teplitz under untreated wastewater conditions. In parenchyma tissues, vascular bundles were thicker in R. damascena in untreated wastewater conditions, while the xylem and phloem of R. Gruss-an-Teplitz were thicker where treated wastewater was applied. In tissues other than the vascular bundle, the differences in anatomical metrics due to the experimental irrigation treatments were greater during the second year of the experiment than in the first year. The contents of metals other than chromium in the roots and

  1. NOESY-WaterControl: a new NOESY sequence for the observation of under-water protein resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Allan M.; Zheng, Gang; Price, William S.

    2017-01-01

    Highly selective and efficient water signal suppression is indispensable in biomolecular 2D nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. However, the application of conventional water suppression schemes can cause a significant or complete loss of the biomolecular resonances at and around the water chemical shift (ω 2 ). In this study, a new sequence, NOESY-WaterControl, was developed to address this issue. The new sequence was tested on lysozyme and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), demonstrating its efficiency in both water suppression and, more excitingly, preserving water-proximate biomolecular resonances in ω 2 . The 2D NOESY maps obtained using the new sequence thus provide more information than the maps obtained with conventional water suppression, thereby lessening the number of experiments needed to complete resonance assignments of biomolecules. The 2D NOESY-WaterControl map of BPTI showed strong bound water and exchangeable proton signals in ω 1 but these signals were absent in ω 2 , indicating the possibility of using the new sequence to discriminate bound water and exchangeable proton resonances from non-labile proton resonances with similar chemical shifts to water.

  2. Biofouling Control in Cooling Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reg Bott

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of environmental engineering is the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuel-fired power stations, for instance, represent a substantial contribution to this problem. Unless suitable steps are taken the accumulation of microbial deposits (biofouling on the cooling water side of the steam condensers can reduce their efficiency and in consequence, the overall efficiency of power production, with an attendant increase in fuel consumption and hence CO2 production. Biofouling control, therefore, is extremely important and can be exercised by chemical or physical techniques or a combination of both. The paper gives some examples of the effectiveness of different approaches to biofouling control.

  3. Mathematical modeling of drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    OpenAIRE

    Tunde-Akintunde, T. Y.; Ogunlakin, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, drying characteristics of pretreated and untreated pumpkin were examined in a hot-air dryer at air temperatures within a range of 40–80 °C and a constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The drying was observed to be in the falling-rate drying period and thus liquid diffusion is the main mechanism of moisture movement from the internal regions to the product surface. The experimental drying data for the pumpkin fruits were used to fit Exponential, General exponential, Logarithmic, Page...

  4. Compulsive buying disorder: an untreated patient for 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things, personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychiatric disorders started in the last two months which expedited her current referral. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 172-175

  5. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William P. [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Buescher, Tom [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  6. Leaked water detection device for control rod drive and BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can specify a control rod drive causing great amount of water leakage among a large number of control rod drives. Namely, water leaked from the control rod drives is introduced to each of leaked water pipelines. Further, it is introduced from the leaked water pipelines to flow glasses at which leaked water can visually be recognized individually, and then discharged through a drain pipeline. With such procedures, the amount of leaked water from the leaked water pipelines can visually be recognized at the flow glasses. As a result, the control rod drives which cause a great amount of leakage can be specified among large number of control rod drives. Accordingly, an accurate inspection schedule for a shaft-sealing portion of the control rod drives can be formed. The shaft-sealing portion degradated in the sealing property can reliably be inspected and repaired. Purge water can be ensured to improve reliability of the operation of equipments. (I.S.)

  7. Reactor water chemistry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station - 1 and 2 (TAPS) is a twin unit Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) built in 1960's and operating presently at 160MWe. TAPS -1 and 2 are one of the vintage reactors operating in the world and belongs to earlier generation of BWRs has completed 40 years of successful, commercial and safe operation. In 1980s, both the reactors were de-rated from 660MWth to 530MWth due to leaks in the Secondary Steam Generators (SSGs). In BWR the feed water acts as the primary coolant which dissipates the fission heat and thermalises the fast neutrons generated in the core due to nuclear fission reaction and under goes boiling in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) to produce steam. Under the high reactor temperature and pressure, RPV and the primary system materials are highly susceptible to corrosion. In order to avoid local concentration of the chemicals in the RPV of BWR, chemical additives are not recommended for corrosion prevention of the system materials. So to prevent corrosion of the RPV and the primary system materials, corrosion resistant materials like stainless steel (of grade SS304, SS304L and SS316LN) is used as the structural material for most of the primary system components. In case of feed water system, main pipe lines are of carbon steel and the heater shell materials are of carbon steel lined with SS whereas the feed water heater tubes are of SS-304. In addition to the choice of materials, another equally important factor for corrosion prevention and corrosion mitigation of the system materials is maintaining highly pure water quality and strict water chemistry regime for both the feed water and the primary coolant, during operation and shutdown of the reactor. This also helps in controlled migration of corrosion product to and from the reactor core and to reduce radiation field build up across the primary system materials. Experience in this field over four decades added to the incorporation of modern techniques in detection of low

  8. Quality control in public participation assessments of water quality: the OPAL Water Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N L; Turner, S D; Goldsmith, B; Gosling, L; Davidson, T A

    2016-07-22

    Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey. During 2010, over 3000 participant-selected lakes and ponds were surveyed making this the largest public participation lake and pond survey undertaken to date in the UK. But the OPAL approach of using untrained volunteers and largely anonymous data submission exacerbates quality control concerns. A number of approaches were used in order to address data quality issues including: sensitivity analysis to determine differences due to operator, sampling effort and duration; direct comparisons of identification between participants and experienced scientists; the use of a self-assessment identification quiz; the use of multiple participant surveys to assess data variability at single sites over short periods of time; comparison of survey techniques with other measurement variables and with other metrics generally considered more accurate. These quality control approaches were then used to screen the OPAL Water Survey data to generate a more robust dataset. The OPAL Water Survey results provide a regional and national assessment of water quality as well as a first national picture of water clarity (as suspended solids concentrations). Less than 10 % of lakes and ponds surveyed were 'poor' quality while 26.8 % were in the highest water quality band. It is likely that there will always be a question mark over untrained volunteer generated data simply because quality assurance is uncertain

  9. Natural History of Tuberculosis: Duration and Fatality of Untreated Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Negative Patients: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemersma, Edine W.; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Williams, Brian G.; Nagelkerke, Nico J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis, specifically the case fatality and duration, of untreated tuberculosis is important as many patients are not correctly diagnosed and therefore receive inadequate or no treatment. Furthermore, duration and case fatality of tuberculosis are key parameters in interpreting epidemiological data. Methodology and Principal Findings To estimate the duration and case fatality of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV negative patients we reviewed studies from the pre-chemotherapy era. Untreated smear-positive tuberculosis among HIV negative individuals has a 10-year case fatality variously reported between 53% and 86%, with a weighted mean of 70%. Ten-year case fatality of culture-positive smear-negative tuberculosis was nowhere reported directly but can be indirectly estimated to be approximately 20%. The duration of tuberculosis from onset to cure or death is approximately 3 years and appears to be similar for smear-positive and smear-negative tuberculosis. Conclusions Current models of untreated tuberculosis that assume a total duration of 2 years until self-cure or death underestimate the duration of disease by about one year, but their case fatality estimates of 70% for smear-positive and 20% for culture-positive smear-negative tuberculosis appear to be satisfactory. PMID:21483732

  10. Plasma erythropoietin by high-detectability immunoradiometric assay in untreated and treated patients with polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocythaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneskog, J.; Kutti, J.; Wadenvik, H. [Univ. of Goeteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medicine, Haematology Section (Sweden); Lundberg, P.A.; Lindstedt, G. [Univ. of Goeteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    By using an immunoradiometric method with a stated detection limit of {<=}1 IU/l (stated normal reference limit in adults 3.7-16 IU/l) we determined EDTA-plasma erythropoietin (EPO) in 58 patients with polycythaemia vera (PV) and 49 patients with essential thrombocythaemia (ET). At the time of blood sampling, 20 of the PV patients were newly diagnosed and untreated, 23 were treated by phlebotomy only, and 30 also received myelosuppressive treatment (with 32P, hydroxyurea of alpha-interferon). Of the ET patients 24 were untreated and 28 received myelosuppressive therapy. For comparison plasma EPO was also determined in 10 patients with pseudopolycythaemia (PP). In this latter group the results for plasma EPO agreed well with the cited normal reference limits. The majority of untreated PV patients (12/20) had undetectable plasma EPO concentration, and the remainder all had values below the lower normal reference limit. Plasma EPO in PV was not significantly influenced by phlebotomy therapy. Twelve of the 24 untreated ET patients (50%) had plasma EPO values below the reference interval (undetectable in 2 patients). The mean EPO concentration was significantly lower in PV patients receiving phlebotomy therapy than in patients with untreated ET. In the total material of PV and ET treated with myelosuppressive agents the PV patients showed significantly lower values for EPO concentration than did patients with ET. The present results support the view that EPO measurements by high-detectability methods are diagnostically useful and should be included in the panel of new criteria for the diagnosis of PV. (au) 20 refs.

  11. Evaluation of two methods in controlling dental treatment water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ritu; Puttaiah, Raghunath; Harris, Robert; Reddy, Anil

    2011-03-01

    Dental unit water systems are contaminated with biofilms that amplify bacterial counts in dental treatment water in excess of a million colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association have agreed that the maximum allowable contamination of dental treatment water not exceed 500 cfu/ml. This study was conducted to evaluate two protocols in controlling contamination of dental unit water systems and dental treatment water. Both methods used an antimicrobial self-dissolving chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) tablet at a high concentration (50 ppm) to shock the dental unit water system biofilms initially followed by periodic exposure. To treat dental treatment source water for patient care, 3 parts per million (ppm) ClO₂ in municipal/tap water was compared to use of a citrus botanical extract dissolved in municipal water. Heterotrophic microbial counts of effluent water and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to evaluate effects of the two treatments. Results from this study indicated that both treatments were effective in controlling biofilm contamination and reducing heterotrophic plate counts Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):73-83. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  12. Diversity and population dynamics of pests and predators in irrigated rice fields with treated and untreated pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapun, W

    2012-01-01

    The monitoring of rice pests and their predators in pesticide untreated and treated rice fields was conducted at the southern of Thailand. Twenty-two species in 15 families and 6 orders of rice pests were sampled from untreated rice field. For treated rice field, 22 species in 14 families and 5 orders of rice pest were collected. Regardless of treatment type, dominant species and individual number of rice pest varied to physiological stage of rice. Lepidopteran pests had highest infestation during the vegetative stage of rice growth, while hemipteran pests composed of hopper species (Hemipetra: Auchenorrhyncha) and heteropteran species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) were dominant groups during the reproductive stage and grain formation and ripening stage of rice growth. In contrast, dominant species of predator did not change throughout rice growing season. There were 35 species in 25 families and seven orders and 40 species in 29 families and seven orders of predators collected from untreated and treated rice field, respectively. Major predators of both rice fields were Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Tetragnatha sp. (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) and Agriocnemis pygmaea Rambur (Odonata: Agrionidae). The population dynamic of predators were not related with rice pest population in both treatments. However, the fluctuation of population pattern of rice pests in the untreated treatment were more distinctly synchronized with their predators than that of the treated treatment. There were no significant differences in the total number of rice pest and predator between two treatments at vegetative and reproductive stages of rice growth. Untreated rice field had a higher population number of predator and a lower population number of rice pest than that of treated rice field during grain formation and ripening stages. These results indicated the ago-ecosystem balance in rice fields could be produced through minimal pesticide application, in order to allow

  13. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki Gökalp; Sedat Karaman; Ismail Taş; Halil Kirnak

    2016-01-01

    Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance c...

  14. Protection against deposits and corrosion in water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, J

    1978-11-01

    Industry generally, including mining and coal preparation, are in the habit of using large amounts of untreated service water. The service water can be softened or treated with hardness stabilisers in order to prevent deposit formation and corrosion. As often as not, deposits of dirt and attack by microorganisma also have to be eliminated. The article puts forward some suggestions for practical assistance in protecting water systems against the dangers of deposits and corrosion.

  15. Corrosion control for open cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karweer, S.B.; Ramchandran, R.

    2000-01-01

    Frequent stoppage of water circulation due to shut down of the Detritiation Plant in Heavy Water Division, Trombay resulted in considerable algae growth. As polyphosphate is a nutrient to algae growth, studies were directed in the evaluation of a nonpolyphosphate formulation for controlling corrosion and scale formation of carbon-steel, copper and aluminium. A blend of HEDP, polyacrylate, zinc, and benzotriazole was used and the optimum condition was determined. In presence of 25 ppm kw-1002 [proprietary formulation, containing HEDP and polyacrylate], 10 ppm kw-201 [active ingredient benzotriazole] and 2 ppm zinc (as zinc sulphate), the corrosion rate of carbon-steel in Mumbai Municipal Corporation (MMC) water at pH 7.5 ± 0.1 for a period of 31 days was 10.4 x 10 -3 μm/h. When MMC water concentrated to half its original volume was used, the corrosion rate was still 9.74 x 10 -3 μm/h close to the original value without concentration. Hence, this formulation was used for controlling scale and corrosion. The results were satisfactory. (author)

  16. Assessment of the microbial quality of river water sources in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-07-03

    Jul 3, 2002 ... Assessment of the microbial quality of river water sources ... These untreated water sources are used for drinking and domestic purposes and pose a serious threat to ... These diseases cause crippling, devastating and debilitating effects ..... gastrointestinal illness, due mainly by enteric viruses in sewage.

  17. Modeling, control and optimization of water systems systems engineering methods for control and decision making tasks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides essential background knowledge on the development of model-based real-world solutions in the field of control and decision making for water systems. It presents system engineering methods for modelling surface water and groundwater resources as well as water transportation systems (rivers, channels and pipelines). The models in turn provide information on both the water quantity (flow rates, water levels) of surface water and groundwater and on water quality. In addition, methods for modelling and predicting water demand are described. Sample applications of the models are presented, such as a water allocation decision support system for semi-arid regions, a multiple-criteria control model for run-of-river hydropower plants, and a supply network simulation for public services.

  18. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries in German 5- and 8-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Katrin; Goddon, Inka; Schüler, Ina M; Lehmann, Thomas; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2015-11-04

    About half of all carious lesions in primary teeth of German 6- to 7-year-old children remain untreated, but no data regarding the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries are available. Therefore, this cross-sectional observational study aimed to assess the prevalence and experience of caries and odontogenic infections in the primary dentition of 5- and 8-year-old German children. Dental examinations were performed in 5-year-old pre-school children (n = 496) and in 8-year-old primary school children (n = 608) living in the Westphalian Ennepe-Ruhr district. Schools and preschools were selected by sociodemographic criteria including size, area, ownership, socio-economic status. Caries was recorded according to WHO criteria (1997). The Lorenz curves were used to display the polarisation of dental caries. Caries pattern in 5-year-olds was categorized by Wyne's (1997) definition of early childhood caries (ECC). Odontogenic infections as clinical consequence of untreated dental caries were assessed by the pufa index. The 'untreated caries-pufa ratio' was calculated, and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ) was used for evaluating the correlation between dmft and pufa scores. Categorical data were compared between groups using the chi-square test and continuous data were analysed by t-test. Caries prevalence and experience in the primary dentition was 26.2 %/0.9 ± 2.0 dmft in 5-year-olds and 48.8 %/2.1 ± 2.8 dmft in 8-year-olds. ECC type I (22 %) was the prevalent caries pattern in 5-year-olds. About 30 % of the tooth decay was treated (5y: 29.7 %/8y: 39.3 %). The Lorenz curves showed a strong caries polarisation on 20 % of the children. Pufa prevalence and experience was 4.4 %/0.1 ± 0.5 pufa in 5-year-olds and 16.6 %/0.3 ± 0.9 pufa in 8-year-olds. In 5-year-olds 14.2 % and in 8-year-olds 34.2 % of the d-component had progressed mainly to the pulp. A significant correlation between dmft and pufa scores exists in

  19. Reduced exercise capacity in untreated adults with primary growth hormone resistance (Laron syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dov, Issahar; Gaides, Mark; Scheinowitz, Mickey; Wagner, Rivka; Laron, Zvi

    2003-12-01

    Primary IGF-I deficiency (Laron syndrome, LS) may decrease exercise capacity as a result of a lack of an IGF-I effect on heart, peripheral muscle or lung structure and/or function. Eight patients (six females) who had never received treatment with IGF-I, with mean age of 36 +/- 10 (SD) years (range 21-48), weight 47 +/- 9 kg (31-61), height 126 +/- 12 cm (112-140) and body mass index of 29 +/- 4 kg/m2 (24-34), and 12 age-matched controls, underwent lung function tests and incremental cycling to the limit of tolerance (CPX, MedGraphics). Predicted values for the patients were derived from adult equations based on height. In LS patients, lung function was near normal; vital capacity was 84 +/- 11% of expected (66-103). Peak exercise O2-uptake and the anaerobic threshold were reduced, 57 +/- 20% of predicted and 33 +/- 9% of predicted peak (P = 0.005 vs. controls), despite normal mean exercise breathing reserve. All parameters were normal in the controls. Exercise capacity in untreated adults with LS is significantly reduced. The limitation for most patients was not ventilatory but resulted either from low cardiac output and/or from dysfunction of the peripheral muscles. However, the relative contribution of each of these elements and/or the role of poor fitness needs further study.

  20. NOESY-WaterControl: a new NOESY sequence for the observation of under-water protein resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Allan M.; Zheng, Gang, E-mail: g.zheng@westernsydney.edu.au; Price, William S. [Western Sydney University, Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, School of Science and Health (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Highly selective and efficient water signal suppression is indispensable in biomolecular 2D nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. However, the application of conventional water suppression schemes can cause a significant or complete loss of the biomolecular resonances at and around the water chemical shift (ω{sub 2}). In this study, a new sequence, NOESY-WaterControl, was developed to address this issue. The new sequence was tested on lysozyme and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), demonstrating its efficiency in both water suppression and, more excitingly, preserving water-proximate biomolecular resonances in ω{sub 2}. The 2D NOESY maps obtained using the new sequence thus provide more information than the maps obtained with conventional water suppression, thereby lessening the number of experiments needed to complete resonance assignments of biomolecules. The 2D NOESY-WaterControl map of BPTI showed strong bound water and exchangeable proton signals in ω{sub 1} but these signals were absent in ω{sub 2}, indicating the possibility of using the new sequence to discriminate bound water and exchangeable proton resonances from non-labile proton resonances with similar chemical shifts to water.

  1. Real-time monitoring and operational control of drinking-water systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ocampo-Martínez, Carlos; Pérez, Ramon; Cembrano, Gabriela; Quevedo, Joseba; Escobet, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a set of approaches for the real-time monitoring and control of drinking-water networks based on advanced information and communication technologies. It shows the reader how to achieve significant improvements in efficiency in terms of water use, energy consumption, water loss minimization, and water quality guarantees. The methods and approaches presented are illustrated and have been applied using real-life pilot demonstrations based on the drinking-water network in Barcelona, Spain. The proposed approaches and tools cover: • decision-making support for real-time optimal control of water transport networks, explaining how stochastic model predictive control algorithms that take explicit account of uncertainties associated with energy prices and real demand allow the main flow and pressure actuators—pumping stations and pressure regulation valves—and intermediate storage tanks to be operated to meet demand using the most sustainable types of source and with minimum electricity costs;...

  2. Rootstock control of scion transpiration and its acclimation to water deficit are controlled by different genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerit, Elisa; Brendel, Oliver; Lebon, Eric; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Ollat, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    The stomatal control of transpiration is one of the major strategies by which plants cope with water stress. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of the rootstock control of scion transpiration-related traits over a period of 3 yr. The rootstocks studied were full sibs from a controlled interspecific cross (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon × Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier), onto which we grafted a single scion genotype. After 10 d without stress, the water supply was progressively limited over a period of 10 d, and a stable water deficit was then applied for 15 d. Transpiration rate was estimated daily and a mathematical curve was fitted to its response to water deficit intensity. We also determined δ(13) C values in leaves, transpiration efficiency and water extraction capacity. These traits were then analysed in a multienvironment (year and water status) quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Quantitative trait loci, independent of year and water status, were detected for each trait. One genomic region was specifically implicated in the acclimation of scion transpiration induced by the rootstock. The QTLs identified colocalized with genes involved in water deficit responses, such as those relating to ABA and hydraulic regulation. Scion transpiration rate and its acclimation to water deficit are thus controlled genetically by the rootstock, through different genetic architectures. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Dentofacial growth changes in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion from late puberty through young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to compare dentofacial growth changes in untreated subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with those in subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from late puberty through young adulthood. The Class II Division 1 sample consisted of 23 subjects (10 male, 13 female). The Class I sample included 30 subjects (13 male, 17 female). The lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups were analyzed at 2 consecutive stages of development: T1, postpubertal observation (cervical vertebral maturation stage 6), and T2, young adulthood stage. The average time between T1 and T2 was 3.5 years. The statistical comparisons of the growth changes in the 2 groups were performed with Mann-Whitney U tests. From late puberty through young adulthood, dentofacial growth in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion does not show significant differences when compared with that observed in untreated subjects with normal occlusion. These findings show that Class II dentoskeletal disharmony does not exhibit significant growth change from late puberty through young adulthood.

  4. Pain Reduction in Untreated Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis Using Liposomal Bupivacaine (Exparel): A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultema, Kristy; Fowler, Sara; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2016-12-01

    In the treatment of patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, endodontic debridement is a predictable method to relieve pain. However, there are clinical situations in which emergency care cannot be provided immediately. An unexplored treatment option in these cases may be the use of a long-acting anesthetic to reduce pain in untreated irreversible pulpitis. Some medical studies have shown potential for infiltrations of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel; Pacira Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) to prolong pain relief and reduce opioid use postoperatively. The Food and Drug Administration has approved Exparel only for infiltrations; therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare an infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine for pain control in untreated, symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Ninety-five emergency patients received 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine via infiltration or an inferior alveolar nerve block to relieve their initial presenting pain. Patients then randomly received either 4 mL liposomal bupivacaine (13.3 mg/mL) or 4 mL 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine by infiltration. Patients received a diary for the day of the appointment and 3 days postinjection to record soft tissue numbness, pain levels, and analgesic (non-narcotic and narcotic) use. No significant differences (P pulpitis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions,...

  6. Moisture meter calibration for untreated and ACQ-treated southern yellow pine plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Charles G. Carll

    2009-01-01

    Conductance moisture meter readings using stainless steel screws as electrodes were compared with gravimetric moisture content for 1) southern yellow pine (SYP) dimensioned lumber, 2) untreated (underlayment grade) SYP plywood, and 3) SYP plywood treated with alkaline copper quaternary. Meter readings were taken with the meter set to the manufacturer-provided species...

  7. Hand size and growth in untreated and IGF-I treated patients with Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konen, O; Silbergeld, A; Lilos, P; Kornreich, L; Laron, Z

    2009-03-01

    We have previously reported on the linear growth, growth of the head circumference and foot length in untreated and IGF-I treated patients with Laron syndrome (LS) (primary GH insensitivity). To assess the size and growth of the hands in patients with LS from early childhood to adult age. Ten IGF-I treated children with LS (4 M, 6 F) and 24 untreated patients (10 M, 14 F) were studied. Measurements of palm length were made on available standardized hand X-rays from infancy to adult age. The measurements were compared to normal references and SD values were calculated for each measurement. The growth of the hand was compared to the concomitant height of the body. Hand SDS in untreated patients with LS decreased with age, from a mean of -2.8 +/- 0.7 (age 1-3 years) to -7.3 +/- 0.8 (age 13-15 years) and to -9.0 +/- 3.9 (age 40-50 years). During 9 years of IGF-I treatment the hand size deficit SDS did not improve in contradistinction to the height SDS which decreased from -6.2 +/- 1.2 to -3.9 +/- 0.5. Congenital IGF-I deficiency, as in Laron syndrome, profoundly affects the size and growth of the hand as part of its growth retardation characteristics, resulting in acromicria.

  8. FDG metabolism and uptake versus blood flow in women with untreated primary breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasadny, Kenneth R.; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Wahl, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between tumor blood flow and glucose utilization in women with untreated primary breast carcinomas. Noninvasive determinations of blood flow and glucose utilization with positron emission tomography (PET) were performed in 101 regions of tumor from nine women with untreated primary breast carcinoma. [ 15 O]H 2 O PET scans of tumor blood flow were compared with fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET scans of tumor glucose metabolism. Modeling of multiple parameters was undertaken and flow and glucose utilization compared. Mean whole-tumor blood flow was 14.9 ml dl -1 min -1 , but ranged from 7.6 to 29.2 ml dl -1 min -1 . Mean whole-tumor standardized uptake value corrected for lean body mass, SUV-lean (50-60 min), was 2.32±0.19 while mean K i was 1.2 ml dl -1 min -1 for FDG. SUV-lean and blood flow were strongly correlated (r=0.82, P=0.007) as were K 1 for FDG and flow (r=0.84, P=0.004). In these women with untreated breast cancers, FDG uptake (SUV-lean) and tumor blood flow are strongly correlated. The slope of FDG uptake versus blood flow appears higher at low flow rates, suggesting the possible presence of areas of tumor hypoxia. (orig.)

  9. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A validated UHPLC-MS/MS method to quantify low levels of anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, Anneleen; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Garcia, Patrice; Popot, Marie-Agnes; Bonnaire, Yves; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Doping control is a main priority for regulatory bodies of both the horse racing industry and the equestrian sports. Urine and blood samples are screened for the presence of hundreds of forbidden substances including anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Based on the suspected endogenous origin of some AASs, with β-boldenone as the most illicit candidate, this study aimed to improve the knowledge of the naturally present AAS in horse urine. To this extent, a novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated according to the Association of Official Racing Chemists (AORC) and European Commission (EC) guidelines, proving the power of this new method. Low limits of detection (0.2 ng/mL), good reproducibility (percentage of standard deviation (%RSD)  0.99 and lack-of-fit analysis) were obtained for all included AASs. With this method, urine samples of 105 guaranteed untreated horses (47 geldings, 53 mares, and 5 stallions serving as a control) were screened for β-boldenone and five related natural steroids: androstadienedione (ADD), androstenedione (AED), alpha-testosterone (αT), beta-testosterone (βT), and progesterone (P). Progesterone, β-testosterone, and α-testosterone were detected in more than half of the horses at low concentrations (anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses (mares and geldings).

  11. High frequency of association of rheumatic/autoimmune diseases and untreated male hypogonadism with severe testicular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Balderas, F Javier; Tapia-Serrano, Rosario; Fonseca, M Eugenia; Arellano, Jorge; Beltran, Arturo; Yañez, Patricia; Camargo-Coronel, Adolfo; Fraga, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Our goal in the present work was to determine whether male patients with untreated hypogonadism have an increased risk of developing rheumatic/autoimmune disease (RAD), and, if so, whether there is a relation to the type of hypogonadism. We carried out neuroendocrine, genetic, and rheumatologic investigations in 13 such patients and 10 healthy male 46,XY normogonadic control subjects. Age and body mass index were similar in the two groups. Nine of the 13 patients had hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (five of whom had Klinefelter's syndrome [karyotype 47,XXY]) and 4 of the 13 had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (46,XY). Of these last four, two had Kallmann's syndrome and two had idiopathic cryptorchidism. Eight (61%) of the 13 patients studied had RADs unrelated to the etiology of their hypogonadism. Of these, four had ankylosing spondylitis and histocompatibility B27 antigen, two had systemic lupus erythematosus (in one case associated with antiphospholipids), one had juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and one had juvenile dermatomyositis. In comparison with the low frequencies of RADs in the general population (about 0.83%, including systemic lupus erythematosus, 0.03%; dermatomyositis, 0.04%; juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, 0.03%; ankylosing spondylitis, 0.01%; rheumatoid arthritis, 0.62%; and other RAD, 0.1%), there were surprisingly high frequencies of such disorders in this small group of patients with untreated hypogonadism (P hypogonadism and was associated with marked gonadal failure with very low testosterone levels. PMID:11714390

  12. Graphite-moderated and heavy water-moderated spectral shift controlled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala Ruiz, F.

    1984-01-01

    It has been studied the physical mechanisms related with the spectral shift control method and their general positive effects on economical and non-proliferant aspects (extension of the fuel cycle length and low proliferation index). This methods has been extended to non-hydrogenous fuel cells of high moderator/fuel ratio: heavy water cells have been con- trolled by graphite rods graphite-moderated and gas-cooled cells have been controlled by berylium rods and graphite-moderated and water-cooled cells have been controlled by a changing mixture of heavy and light water. It has been carried out neutron and thermal analysis on a pre design of these types of fuel cells. We have studied its neutron optimization and their fuel cycles, temperature coefficients and proliferation indices. Finally, we have carried out a comparative analysis of the fuel cycles of conventionally controlled PWRs and graphite-moderated, water-cooled and spectral shift controlled reactors. (Author) 71 refs

  13. Methods of removing uranium from drinking water. 1. A literature survey. 2. Present municipal water treatment and potential removal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Michelson, D.; Ensminger, J.T.; Lee, S.Y.; White, S.K.

    1982-12-01

    Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. U.S. manufacturers and users of water-treatment equipment and products were also contacted regarding methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it was recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water-treatment facilities be analyzed to determine the extent of removal of uranium by presently used procedures, and that additional laboratory studies be performed to determine what changes are needed to maximize the effectiveness of treatments that are already in use in existing water-treatment plants

  14. Duration of untreated psychosis: a proposition regarding treatment definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polari, Andrea; Lavoie, Suzie; Sarrasin, Pascale; Pellanda, Veronica; Cotton, Sue; Conus, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) refers to the time elapsing between psychosis onset and treatment initiation. Despite a certain degree of consensus regarding the definition of psychosis onset, the definition of treatment commencement varies greatly between studies and DUP may be underestimated due to lack of agreement. In the present study, three sets of criteria to define the end of the untreated period were applied in a first-episode psychosis cohort to assess the impact of the choice of definition on DUP estimation. The DUP of 117 patients admitted in the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program Psychosis in Lausanne was measured using the following sets of criteria to define treatment onset: (i) initiation of antipsychotic medication; (ii) entry into a specialized programme; and (iii) entry into a specialized programme and adequate medication with a good compliance. DUP varied greatly according to definitions, the most restrictive criteria leading to the longest DUP (median DUP1=2.2 months, DUP2=7.4 months and DUP3=13.6 months). A percentage of 19.7 of the patients who did not meet these restrictive criteria had poorer premorbid functioning and were more likely to use cannabis. Longer DUP3 was associated with poorer premorbid functioning and with younger age at onset of psychosis. These results underline the need for a unique and standardized definition of the end of DUP. We suggest that the most restrictive definition of treatment should be used when using the DUP concept in future research. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Jovanović; Milana Popović

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor...

  16. Adaptive Reference Control for Pressure Management in Water Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is an increasing problem worldwide and at the same time a huge amount of water is lost through leakages in the distribution network. It is well known that improved pressure control can lower the leakage problems. In this work water networks with a single pressure actuator and several....... Subsequently, these relations are exploited in an adaptive reference control scheme for the actuator pressure that ensures constant pressure at the critical points. Numerical experiments underpin the results. © Copyright IEEE - All rights reserved....

  17. Control of corrosion and aggression in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, R E; Morrison, I; Wentzel, M C

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion and/or aggression are common problems arising in pipelines transporting terrestrial waters. The kinetics and severity of such events depend on both the quality of the water being transported and the material properties of the pipeline. Irrespective of the nature of the problem, its solution (or at least its minimisation) is strongly linked to control of pH, calcium concentration and carbonate chemistry of the water (stabilisation). However, application of such chemistry to water treatment problems is complex and time consuming. Various numerical, graphical and computer techniques have been developed to address this, but these are either of insufficient accuracy, too time consuming or lacking in generality. In this paper algorithms are presented for solving a broad spectrum of problems related to control of mineral precipitation/aggression, pH and chemical dosing in water treatment. These have been incorporated into a computer software package, STASOFT, which offers the requisite framework for use in water treatment. Various stabilisation problems pertinent to water supply are addressed.

  18. Assessment of Surface Water Quality in the Malaysian Coastal Waters by Using Multivariate Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, C.K.; Chee, M.W.; Shamarina, S.; Edward, F.B.; Chew, W.; Tan, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal water samples were collected from 20 sampling sites in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Seven physico-chemical parameters were measured directly in-situ while water samples were collected and analysed for 6 dissolved trace metal concentrations. The surface water (0-20 cm) physico-chemical parameters including temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), specific conductance (SpC) and turbidity while the dissolved trace metals were Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn. The ranges for the physico-chemical parameters were 28.07-35.6 degree Celsius for temperature, 0.18-32.42 ppt for salinity, 2.20-12.03 mg/ L for DO, 5.50-8.53 for pH, 0.24-31.65 mg/ L for TDS, 368-49452 μS/ cm for SpC and 0-262 NTU for turbidity while the dissolved metals (mg/ L) were 0.013-0.147 for Cd, 0.024-0.143 for Cu, 0.266-2.873 for Fe, 0.027-0.651 for Ni, 0.018-0.377 for Pb and 0.032-0.099 for Zn. Based on multivariate analysis (including correlation, cluster and principal component analyses), the polluted sites were found at Kg. Pasir Puteh and Tg. Kupang while Ni and Pb were identified as two major dissolved metals of high variation in the coastal waters. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of untreated anthropogenic wastes into rivers and coastal waters are strongly needed. (author)

  19. Relationship between amount of overtime work and untreated decayed teeth in male financial workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Koichi; Suzuki, Seitaro; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Sugihara, Naoki; Kamijyo, Hideyuki

    2017-05-25

    Continuous or frequent overtime work has been shown to have harmful effects on human health. Meanwhile, one of the main reasons for tooth loss is caries. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between overtime work and untreated decayed teeth in male financial workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. Participants filled out a questionnaire about their oral health, behavior, and working conditions. Participants comprised a total of 951 financial male workers, aged 25-64 years. The likelihood of tooth decay increased with amount of overtime work (p=0.002). After adjusting for age, income, educational background, oral hygiene behavior, snacking behavior, regular dental visitation, bad interpersonal relationships at work, and smoking habit, a multiple logistic regression analysis found that participants with 45-80 h of overtime work (odds ratio [OR], 2.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-5.33) or over 80 h of overtime work (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.13-7.97) were more likely to have untreated tooth decay. The percentage of participants who gave "too busy with work" as the reason for leaving decayed teeth untreated increased with amount of overtime (p<0.001). These results indicate that overtime work is strongly related to untreated decayed teeth. In addition to oral health education and dental checkups, decreasing stress and decreasing the amount of overtime work may also have a positive effect on oral health in the workplace.

  20. Controlling the photochemical reaction of an azastilbene derivative in water using a water-soluble pillar[6]arene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Danyu; Wang, Pi; Shi, Bingbing

    2017-09-20

    Photochemistry plays an important role in our lives. It has also been a common tool in the laboratory to construct complicated systems from small molecules. Supramolecular chemistry provides an opportunity to solve some of the problems in controlling photochemical reactions via non-covalent interactions. By using confining media and weak interactions between the medium and the reactant molecule, the excited state behavior of molecules has been successfully manipulated. Pillararenes, a new class of macrocyclic hosts, have rarely been used in the field of photochemical investigations, such as the controlling of photo-induced reactions. Herein, we explore a synthetic macrocyclic host, a water-soluble pillar[6]arene, as a controlling tool to manipulate the photo-induced reactions (hydration) in water. A host-guest system in water based on a water-soluble pillar[6]arene and an azastilbene derivative, (E)-4,4'-dimethyl-4,4'-diazoniastilbene diiodide, has been constructed. Then this water-soluble pillar[6]arene was successfully employed to control the photohydration of the azastilbene derivative in water as a "protective agent".

  1. Drinking water systems, hydrology, and childhood gastrointestinal illness in Central and Northern Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K; Yale, Steven H; Malecki, Kristen; Borchardt, Mark A; Anderson, Henry A; Patz, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated if the type of drinking water source (treated municipal, untreated municipal, and private well water) modifies the effect of hydrology on childhood (aged hydrologic and weather conditions with childhood gastrointestinal illness from 1991 to 2010. The Central and Northern Wisconsin study area includes households using all 3 types of drinking water systems. Separate time series models were created for each system and half-year period (winter/spring, summer/fall). More precipitation (summer/fall) systematically increased childhood gastrointestinal illness in municipalities accessing untreated water. The relative risk of contracting gastrointestinal illness was 1.4 in weeks with 3 centimeters of precipitation and 2.4 in very wet weeks with 12 centimeters of precipitation. By contrast, gastrointestinal illness in private well and treated municipal areas was not influenced by hydrologic conditions, although warmer winter temperatures slightly increased incidence. Our study suggests that improved drinking water protection, treatment, and delivery infrastructure may improve public health by specifically identifying municipal water systems lacking water treatment that may transmit waterborne disease.

  2. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  3. Water chemistry: cause and control of corrosion degradation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kain, Vivekanand

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion degradation of a material is directly determined by the water chemistry, material (composition, fabrication procedure and microstructure) and by the stress/strain in the material under operating conditions. Water chemistry plays an important role in both uniform corrosion and localized forms of corrosion of materials. Once we understand how water chemistry is contributing to corrosion of a material, it is logical to modify/change that water chemistry to control the corrosion degradation. In nuclear power plants, different water chemistries have been used in different components/systems. This paper will cover the origin of corrosion degradation in the Primary Heat Transport system of different reactor types, Steam Generator tubing, secondary circuit pipelines, service water pipelines and auxiliary systems and establish the role of water chemistry in causing corrosion degradation. The history of changes in water chemistry adopted in these systems to control corrosion degradation is also described. It is shown by examples that there is an obvious limitation in changing water chemistry to control corrosion degradation and in those cases, a change of material or change of the state of stresses/fabrication procedure becomes necessary. The role of water chemistry as a causative factor and also as a controlling parameter on particular types of corrosion degradation e.g. stress corrosion cracking, flow accelerated corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion is illustrated. It will be shown that increase in dissolved oxygen content (due to radiolysis in nuclear reactors) is sufficient to make even the de-mineralized water to cause stress corrosion cracking in Boiling Water Reactors. Hydrogen Water Chemistry (by hydrogen injection) to control dissolved oxygen is shown to control the stress corrosion cracking. However, it is not possible to control dissolved oxygen at all parts of the Boiling Water Reactors. Therefore, a further refinement in terms of noble metal

  4. Application of simple adaptive control to water hydraulic servo cylinder system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ikeo, Shigeru; Takahashi, Koji

    2012-09-01

    Although conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) achieves good tracking performance for cylinder control, the controller structure is much more complicated and has less robustness to disturbance in real applications. This paper discusses the use of simple adaptive control (SAC) for positioning a water hydraulic servo cylinder system. Compared with MRAC, SAC has a simpler and lower order structure, i.e., higher feasibility. The control performance of SAC is examined and evaluated on a water hydraulic servo cylinder system. With the recent increased concerns over global environmental problems, the water hydraulic technique using pure tap water as a pressure medium has become a new drive source comparable to electric, oil hydraulic, and pneumatic drive systems. This technique is also preferred because of its high power density, high safety against fire hazards in production plants, and easy availability. However, the main problems for precise control in a water hydraulic system are steady state errors and overshoot due to its large friction torque and considerable leakage flow. MRAC has been already applied to compensate for these effects, and better control performances have been obtained. However, there have been no reports on the application of SAC for water hydraulics. To make clear the merits of SAC, the tracking control performance and robustness are discussed based on experimental results. SAC is confirmed to give better tracking performance compared with PI control, and a control precision comparable to MRAC (within 10 μm of the reference position) and higher robustness to parameter change, despite the simple controller. The research results ensure a wider application of simple adaptive control in real mechanical systems.

  5. Does duration of untreated psychosis bias study samples of first-episode psychosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, S; Melle, I; Larsen, T K

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While findings are contradictory, many studies report that long Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) correlates with poorer outcome in first episode psychosis. In an outcome study of first-episode psychosis, we compared the patients who refused to participate in a follow-along with th......OBJECTIVE: While findings are contradictory, many studies report that long Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) correlates with poorer outcome in first episode psychosis. In an outcome study of first-episode psychosis, we compared the patients who refused to participate in a follow......-along with those who consented to estimate the importance of this factor in sample recruitment bias. Our questions were: (i) What is the percentage of refusers? (ii) Are there systematic differences between refusers and consenters on DUP and/or other admission variables? (iii) What is the risk of refusal...... for different values of DUP? METHOD: In an unselected group of consecutively admitted patients we compared follow-along refusers and consenters on the following admission variables: sex, age, diagnostic group, substance abuse, being in-patient, coming from an early detection site and DUP. We conducted...

  6. [Untreated syphilis - from Oslo to Tuskegee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Anniken; Lie, Anne Kveim

    2016-12-01

    In the period from 1891 - 1910, around 2000 patients with syphilis were admitted to the Department of Dermatology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet. The head of the department, Cæsar Boeck (1845 - 1917), believed in allowing the disease to take its natural course and withheld treatment. He made detailed notes of the diagnosis and the clinical course of the disease for all his patients. Boeck's material is unique, and forms the basis for our current knowledge about the prognosis and course of syphilis infections. In 1928, the patients were scrutinised by Boeck's successor in the Department of Dermatology, Edvin Bruusgaard (1869 - 1934), and later by Trygve Gjestland (1911 - 1993). Gjestland's doctoral thesis from 1955 has remained as «The Oslo study of untreated syphilis.» This article presents a medical historical background for the study. Bruusgaard's and Gjestland's research was important for the Tuskegee Study in the USA, and the Oslo study gave implicit support to this research project, which posterity has emphatically condemned as ethically unacceptable.

  7. Quantitative analysis of untreated bio-samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Matsuda, K.

    1999-01-01

    A standard-free method of quantitative analysis for untreated samples has been developed. For hair samples, measurements were performed by irradiating with a proton beam a few hairs as they are, and quantitative analysis was carried out by means of a standard-free method developed by ourselves. First, quantitative values of concentration of zinc were derived, then concentration of other elements was obtained by regarding zinc as an internal standard. As the result, values of concentration of sulphur for 40 samples agree well with the average value for a typical Japanese and also with each other within 20%, and validity of the present method could be confirmed. Accuracy was confirmed by comparing the results with those obtained by the usual internal standard method, too. For the purpose of a surface analysis of a bone sample, a very small incidence angle of the proton beam was used, so that both energy loss of the projectile and self-absorption of X-rays become negligible. As the result, consistent values of concentration for many elements were obtained by the standard-free method

  8. The study and improvement of water level control of pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Peng; Zhang Qinshun

    2006-01-01

    The PI controller which is used widely in water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system usually leads dynamic overshoot and long setting time. The improvement project for intelligent fuzzy controller to take the place of PI controller is advanced. This paper researches the water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system of Daya Bay Phase I, and describes the method of intelligent fuzzy control in practice. Simulation indicates that the fuzzy control has advantages of small overshoot and short settling time. It can also improve control system's real time property and anti-interference ability. Especially for non-linear and time-varying complicated control systems, it can obtain good control results. (authors)

  9. Eutrophication of Lake Waters in China: Cost, Causes, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, C.; Zha, Y.; Li, Y.; Sun, D.; Lu, H.; Yin, B.

    2010-04-01

    Lake water eutrophication has become one of the most important factors impeding sustainable economic development in China. Knowledge of the current status of lake water eutrophicatoin and determination of its mechanism are prerequisites to devising a sound solution to the problem. Based on reviewing the literature, this paper elaborates on the evolutional process and current state of shallow inland lake water eutrophication in China. The mechanism of lake water eutrophication is explored from nutrient sources. In light of the identified mechanism strategies are proposed to control and tackle lake water eutrophication. This review reveals that water eutrophication in most lakes was initiated in the 1980s when the national economy underwent rapid development. At present, the problem of water eutrophication is still serious, with frequent occurrence of damaging algal blooms, which have disrupted the normal supply of drinking water in shore cities. Each destructive bloom caused a direct economic loss valued at billions of yuan. Nonpoint pollution sources, namely, waste discharge from agricultural fields and nutrients released from floor deposits, are identified as the two major sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, all control and rehabilitation measures of lake water eutrophication should target these nutrient sources. Biological measures are recommended to rehabilitate eutrophied lake waters and restore the lake ecosystem in order to bring the problem under control.

  10. Drinking water quality from the aspect of element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, M.; Shinohara, A.; Sekine, M.; Hiraishi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Drinking water in developed countries is usually treated by the water-purification system, while in developing countries untreated natural water such as well water, river water, rain water, or pond water are used. On the other hand, many kinds of mineral water bottled in plastic containers are sold as drinking water with or without gas in urban areas in many countries. Seawater under hundreds meters from the surface is also bottled and sold as drinking water with advertising good mineral balance. Various element concentrations in water samples for drinking were analyzed, and then it was considered the effects of elements on human health. (author)

  11. Agronomic benefits of biochar as a soil amendment after its use as waste water filtration medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Steffen; Kätzl, Korbinian; Wichern, Marc; Buerkert, Andreas; Steiner, Christoph; Marschner, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    In many water-scarce countries, waste water is used for irrigation which poses a health risk to farmers and consumers. At the same time, it delivers nutrients to the farming systems. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that biochar can be used as a filter medium for waste water treatment to reduce pathogen loads. At the same time, the biochar is becoming enriched with nutrients and therefore can act as a fertilizer for soil amendment. We used biochar as a filter medium for the filtration of raw waste water and compared the agronomic effects of this "filterchar" (FC) and the untreated biochar (BC) in a greenhouse pot trial on spring wheat biomass production on an acidic sandy soil from Niger. The biochar filter showed the same removal of pathogens as a common sand filter (1.4 log units on average). We did not observe a nutrient accumulation in FC compared to untreated BC. Instead, P, Mg and K were reduced during filtration while N content remained unchanged. Nevertheless, higher biomass (Triticum L. Spp.) production in BC (+72%) and FC (+37%) treatments (20 t ha -1 ), compared with the unamended control, were found. There were no significant differences in aboveground biomass production between BC and FC. Soil available P content was increased by BC (+106%) and FC (+52%) application. Besides, mineral nitrogen content was reduced in BC treated soil and to a lesser extent when FC was used. This may be explained by reduced sorption affinity for mineral nitrogen compounds on FC surfaces. Although the nutrients provided by FC decreased, due to leaching in the filter, it still yielded higher biomass than the unamended control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Technical Basis for Water Chemistry Control of IGSCC in Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Barry; Garcia, Susan

    Boiling water reactors (BWRs) operate with very high purity water. However, even the utilization of near theoretical conductivity water cannot prevent intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized stainless steel, wrought nickel alloys and nickel weld metals under oxygenated conditions. IGSCC can be further accelerated by the presence of certain impurities dissolved in the coolant. The goal of this paper is to present the technical basis for controlling various impurities under both oxygenated, i.e., normal water chemistry (NWC) and deoxygenated, i.e., hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) conditions for mitigation of IGSCC. More specifically, the effects of typical BWR ionic impurities (e.g., sulfate, chloride, nitrate, borate, phosphate, etc.) on IGSCC propensities in both NWC and HWC environments will be discussed. The technical basis for zinc addition to the BWR coolant will also provided along with an in-plant example of the most severe water chemistry transient to date.

  13. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Using Water Glass and Aluminum Sulfate to Treat Complications in High Liquid Limit Soil Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using water glass and aluminum sulfate to treat high liquid limit soil subgrade diseases is studied through laboratory experiments, and the following results were observed. After improving the high liquid limit clay with water glass and aluminum sulfate, the liquid limit decreases, the plastic limit increases, and the plasticity index decreases. Compared with untreated soil, the clay content of the improved soil decreases, while the silt and coarse contents increase. The absolute and relative expansion rates of the improved soil are both lower than those of the untreated soil. With the same number of dry and wet cycles, the decreased degrees of cohesion and internal friction angle of the improved soil are, respectively, one-half and one-third of those of the untreated soil. After three dry and wet cycles, the California bearing ratio (CBR of the untreated soil does not meet the requirements of specifications. However, after being cured for seven days and being subjected to three dry and wet cycles, the CBR of the improved soil, with 4% water glass solution and 0.4% aluminum sulfate, meets the requirements of specifications.

  14. Aquaponic Growbed Water Level Control Using Fog Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi Romli, Muhamad; Daud, Shuhaizar; Raof, Rafikha Aliana A.; Awang Ahmad, Zahari; Mahrom, Norfadilla

    2018-05-01

    Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is an advance method of aquaculture which combines species with different nutritional needs to live together. The combination between aquatic live and crops is called aquaponics. Aquatic waste that normally removed by biofilters in normal aquaculture practice will be absorbed by crops in this practice. Aquaponics have few common components and growbed provide the best filtration function. In growbed a siphon act as mechanical structure to control water fill and flush process. Water to the growbed comes from fish tank with multiple flow speeds based on the pump specification and height. Too low speed and too fast flow rate can result in siphon malfunctionality. Pumps with variable speed do exist but it is costly. Majority of the aquaponic practitioner use single speed pump and try to match the pump speed with siphon operational requirement. In order to remove the matching requirement some control need to be introduced. Preliminarily this research will show the concept of fill-and-flush for multiple pumping speeds. The final aim of this paper is to show how water level management can be done to remove the speed dependency. The siphon tried to be controlled remotely since wireless data transmission quite practical in vast operational area. Fog architecture will be used in order to transmit sensor data and control command. This paper able to show the water able to be retented in the growbed within suggested duration by stopping the flow in once predefined level.

  15. Dynamics of controlled release systems based on water-in-water emulsions: A general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and aqueous dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, aqueous polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are all examples of water-in-water emulsions. These systems can be used for encapsulation and controlled release purposes, in for example food or

  16. Clinical consequences and economic costs of untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Knauert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide an overview of the healthcare and societal consequences and costs of untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Data sources: PubMed database for English-language studies with no start date restrictions and with an end date of September 2014. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify all studies that discussed the physiologic, clinical and societal consequences of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as well as the costs associated with these consequences. There were 106 studies that formed the basis of this analysis. Conclusions: Undiagnosed and untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome can lead to abnormal physiology that can have serious implications including increased cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic disease, excessive daytime sleepiness, work-place errors, traffic accidents and death. These consequences result in significant economic burden. Both, the health and societal consequences and their costs can be decreased with identification and treatment of sleep apnea. Implications for practice: Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, despite its consequences, is limited by lack of diagnosis, poor patient acceptance, lack of access to effective therapies, and lack of a variety of effective therapies. Newer modes of therapy that are effective, cost efficient and more accepted by patients need to be developed. Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, Cost, Continuous positive airway pressure, Mandibular advancement device

  17. Hyperarousal during sleep in untreated primary insomnia sufferers: A polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthieu; Senterre, Christelle; Lanquart, Jean-Pol; Montana, Xavier; Loas, Gwénolé; Linkowski, Paul; Hubain, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    Because some evidence favors the hyperarousal model of insomnia, we sought to learn more about the dynamics of this phenomenon during sleep. Polysomnographic data from 30 normative subjects and 86 untreated primary insomnia sufferers recruited from the database of the sleep laboratory were studied for whole nights and in terms of thirds of the night. Untreated primary insomnia sufferers had an increased sleep latency and excess of WASO, together with a deficit in REM and NREM sleep during the entire night. In terms of thirds of the night, they presented a major excess of WASO during the first and last thirds of the night but an excess of lesser importance during the middle third. A deficit in SWS was found during the first third of the night, but for REM, the deficit was present during both the first and last thirds. Primary insomnia sufferers had no SWS or REM deficit during the second third of the night. We found that the hyperarousal phenomenon occurs mainly during the sleep-onset period of the first and last thirds of the night and is less important during the middle third. These results open new avenues for understanding the pathophysiology of primary insomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlates of Untreated Hypercholesterolemia in Older Adults: A Community-Based Household Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi; Zaman, M. Justin; Wang, Jingjing; Peacock, Janet L.; Chen, Ruoling

    2015-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is common in older adults and less treated, but little is known about correlates of untreated hypercholesterolemia. Using a standard interview method we examined a random sample of 7,572 participants aged ≥60 years in a community-based household survey across 7 provinces of China during 2007–2012, and documented 328 cases of hypercholesterolemia from self-reported doctor diagnosis. Compared to participants with normal cholesterol, older adults with hypercholesterolemia had higher socioeconomic position and larger body mass index. In patients with hypercholesterolemia, 209 were not treated using lipid-lowering medications (63.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 58.5%–68.9%). Untreated hypercholesterolemia was significantly associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95%CI 1.17–3.89), current smoking (3.48, 1.44–8.44), heavy alcohol drinking (3.13,1.11–8.84), chronic bronchitis (2.37,1.14–4.90) and high level of meat consumptions (2.85,1.22–6.65). Although having coronary heart disease exposed participants for treatment, half of participants with coronary heart disease did not receive lipid-lowering medications. Among hypercholesterolemia participants with stroke, hypertension or diabetes, more than half of them did not receive lipid-lowering medications. The high proportion of untreated hypercholesterolemia in older, high-risk Chinese adults needs to be mitigated through multi-faceted primary and secondary prevention strategies to increase population opportunities of treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26161751

  19. Improvement of chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N.; Zivojinovic, Dragana Z.; Grgur, Branimir N.; Rajakovic, Ljubinka V.

    2011-01-01

    A more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle (WSC) of thermal power plants (TPP) is proposed in this paper. Minimization of corrosion effects by the production of ultra pure water and its strict control is the basis of all the investigated processes. The research involved the analysis of water samples in the WSC through key water quality parameters and by the most convenient analytical tools. The necessity for the stricter chemical control is demonstrated through a concrete example of the TPP Nikola Tesla, Serbia. After a thorough analysis of the chemical control system of the WSC, diagnostic and control parameters were chosen for continuous systematic measurements. Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as the ions which indicate the corrosion potential of the water and give insight into the proper production and maintenance of water within the WSC. Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica, were considered and related to their quantitative values. - Research highlights: → The more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plant Nikola Tesla, Serbia. → In chemical control the diagnostic and control parameters were optimized and introduced for the systematic measurements in the water-steam cycle. → Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as ions which indicate corrosion potential of water and give insight to proper function of production and maintenance of water within water-team cycle. → Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica are considered and related with their quantitative values.

  20. Fuzzy logic controller architecture for water level control in nuclear power plant steam generator using ANFIS training method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Ekrami, AmirHasan; Naseri, Zahra

    2003-01-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. It is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial membership functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generator while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input-output mapping based on both human knowledge (in the from of fuzzy if - then rules) and stipulated input-output data. This fuzzy logic controller is applied to the steam generator level control by computer simulations. The simulation results confirm the excellent performance of this control architecture in compare with a well-turned PID controller. (author)

  1. Control of water chemistry in operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1997-01-01

    Water chemistry plays a major role in fuel cladding corrosion and hydriding. Although a full understanding of all mechanisms involved in cladding corrosion does not exist, controlling the water chemistry has achieved quite some progress in recent years. As an example, in PWRs the activity transport is controlled by operating the coolant under higher pH-values (i.e. the ''modified'' B/Li-Chemistry). On the other hand, the lithium concentration is limited to a maximum value of 2 ppm in order to avoid an acceleration of the fuel cladding corrosion. In BWR plants, for example, the industry has learned on how to limit the copper concentration in the feedwater in order to limit CILC (Copper Induced Localized Corrosion) on the fuel cladding. However, economic pressures are leading to more rigorous operating conditions in power reactors. Fuel burnups are to be increased, higher efficiencies are to be achieved, by running at higher temperatures, plant lifetimes are to be extended. In summary, this paper will describe the state of the art in controlling water chemistry in operating reactors and it will give an outlook on potential problems that will arise when going to more severe operating conditions. (author). 3 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Control of water chemistry in operating reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, R [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Water chemistry plays a major role in fuel cladding corrosion and hydriding. Although a full understanding of all mechanisms involved in cladding corrosion does not exist, controlling the water chemistry has achieved quite some progress in recent years. As an example, in PWRs the activity transport is controlled by operating the coolant under higher pH-values (i.e. the ``modified`` B/Li-Chemistry). On the other hand, the lithium concentration is limited to a maximum value of 2 ppm in order to avoid an acceleration of the fuel cladding corrosion. In BWR plants, for example, the industry has learned on how to limit the copper concentration in the feedwater in order to limit CILC (Copper Induced Localized Corrosion) on the fuel cladding. However, economic pressures are leading to more rigorous operating conditions in power reactors. Fuel burnups are to be increased, higher efficiencies are to be achieved, by running at higher temperatures, plant lifetimes are to be extended. In summary, this paper will describe the state of the art in controlling water chemistry in operating reactors and it will give an outlook on potential problems that will arise when going to more severe operating conditions. (author). 3 figs, 6 tabs.

  3. Control and Coordination of Frequency Responsive Residential Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2016-07-31

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  4. Is screening effective in detecting untreated psychiatric disorders among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, Steven C.; Taggi, Alison; DeMichele, Angela; Coyne, James C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A key purpose of routine distress screening is to ensure that cancer patients receive appropriate mental health care. Most studies validating screening instruments overestimate the effectiveness of screening by not differentiating between patients with untreated disorders and patients

  5. Separation control with fluidic oscillators in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H.-J.; Woszidlo, R.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.

    2017-08-01

    The present study assesses the applicability of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water. The first part of this work evaluates the properties of the fluidic oscillators including frequency, cavitation effects, and exerted thrust. Derived from the governing internal dynamics, the oscillation frequency is found to scale directly with the jet's exit velocity and the size of the fluidic oscillator independent of the working fluid. Frequency data from various experiments collapse onto a single curve. The occurrence of cavitation is examined by visual inspection and hydrophone measurements. The oscillation frequency is not affected by cavitation because it does not occur inside the oscillators. The spectral information obtained with the hydrophone provide a reliable indicator for the onset of cavitation at the exit. The performance of the fluidic oscillators for separation control on a bluff body does not seem to be affected by the presence of cavitation. The thrust exerted by an array of fluidic oscillators with water as the working fluid is measured to be even larger than theoretically estimated values. The second part of the presented work compares the performance of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water with previous results in air. The array of fluidic oscillators is installed into the rear end of a bluff body model. The drag improvements based on force balance measurements agree well with previous wind tunnel experiments on the same model. The flow field is examined by pressure measurements and with particle image velocimetry. Similar performance and flow field characteristics are observed in both water and air.

  6. Feed water control device in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent substantial fluctuations of the water level in a nuclear reactor and always keep a constant standard level under any operation condition. Constitution: When the causes for fluctuating the reactor water level is resulted, a certain amount of correction signal is added to a level deviation signal for the difference between the reactor standard level and the actual reactor water level to control the flow rate of the feed water pump depending on the addition signal. If reactor scram should occur, for instance, a level correction signal changing stepwise depending on a scram signal is outputted and added to the level deviation signal. As the result, the flow rate of feed water sent into the reactor just after the scram is increased, whereby the lowering in the reactor water level upon scram can be decreased as compared with the case where no such level compensation signal is inputted. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Economics of selected water control technologies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a production function, marginal productivity of farm inputs and benefit-cost analysis, we explore the economics of selected water control technologies. From the production function, all farm inputs, including irrigation water is found to have a significant and positive effect on yield. Marginal value products of farm inputs ...

  8. Chemistry control challenges in a supercritical water-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzonas, David; Tremaine, Peter; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    The long-term viability of a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) will depend on the ability of designers to predict and control water chemistry to minimize corrosion and the transport of corrosion products and radionuclides. Meeting this goal requires an enhanced understanding of water chemistry as the temperature and pressure are raised beyond the critical point. A key aspect of SCWR water chemistry control will be mitigation of the effects of water radiolysis; preliminary studies suggest markedly different behavior than that predicted from simple extrapolations from conventional water-cooled reactor behavior. The commonly used strategy of adding excess hydrogen at concentrations sufficient to suppress the net radiolytic production of primary oxidizing species may not be effective in an SCWR. The behavior of low concentrations of impurities such as transition metal corrosion products, chemistry control agents, anions introduced via make-up water or from ion-exchange resins, and radionuclides (e.g., 60 Co) needs to be understood. The formation of neutral complexes increases with temperature, and can become important under near-critical and supercritical conditions; the most important region is from 300-450 C, where the properties of water change dramatically, and solvent compressibility effects exert a huge influence on solvation. The potential for increased transport and deposition of corrosion products (active and inactive), leading to (a) increased deposition on fuel cladding surfaces, and (b) increased out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose, must be assessed. There are also significant challenges associated with chemistry sampling and monitoring in an SCWR. The typical methods used in current reactor designs (grab samples, on-line monitors at the end of a cooled, depressurized sample line) will be inadequate, and in-situ measurements of key parameters will be required. This paper describes current Canadian activities in SCWR chemistry and chemistry

  9. Speed control of boiler feed water pump turbine based on gray correlation compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yun Long; Wang, Di; Zhou, Hai Chun [Northeast Dianli UniversityJilin (China)

    2017-01-15

    One of the most important controlled parameters of thermal power units is the boiler drum water level. Disturbances of feed water flow rate could cause instability of the drum water level. This study proposes the Gray correlation compensation (GCC) control technology for the Boiler feed water pump turbine (BFPT) to solve this problem. Simulation results indicate that the GCC controller outperforms the traditional proportional-integral-derivative controller when it encounters different disturbances. Furthermore, the GCC controller can rapidly switch to the high-pressure steam source to ensure that the drum water level is in the secure range during steam source switching of the BFPT.

  10. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced

  11. Water Pollution Control Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

  12. Ground water as the source of an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kovačić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In September 2014, an outbreak of gastroenteritis was reported to the Public Health Institute of Šibenik and Knin County in Croatia. The outbreak occurred in the County center of Šibenik, a town with 50,000 inhabitants, and it lasted for 12 days. An epidemiological investigation suggested a nearby water spring as the source of the outbreak. Due to the temporary closure of the public water supply system, the inhabitants started to use untreated water from a nearby spring. Microbiological analysis revealed that the outbreak was caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis that was isolated from stool samples of the patients and ground water. The isolates were further analysed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using XbaI, which revealed an identical macrorestriction profile. Although 68 cases were reported, it was estimated that the actual number of affected persons was more than several hundred. In order to prevent further spread of disease, public advice was released immediately after the first epidemiological indication and a warning sign was placed at the incriminated water source, after microbiological confirmation. It is necessary to regularly monitor microbiological quality of ground water especially in urban areas and provide adequate education and awareness to the inhabitants regarding the risk of using untreated ground water.

  13. Early detection strategies for untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jan Olav; McGlashan, T H; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2001-01-01

    -year inclusion period (1997-2000) are described. It includes targeted information towards the general public, health professionals and schools, and ED teams to recruit appropriate patients into treatment as soon as possible. This plus easy access to psychiatric services via ED teams systematically changed......Some studies in first-episode schizophrenia correlate shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) with better prognosis, suggesting that timing of treatment may be important. A three-site prospective clinical trial in Norway and Denmark is underway to investigate the effect of the timing......-episode cases. The study ultimately will compare early detected with usual detected patients. This paper describes the study's major independent intervention variable, i.e. a comprehensive education and detection system to change DUP in first onset psychosis. System variables and first results from the four...

  14. Characterization of Irreversible Fouling after Ultrafiltration of Thermomechanical Pulp Mill Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuvander, Johan; Zarebska, Agata; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    process streams is fouling of the membranes. Fouling not only increases operating costs but also reduces the operating time of the membrane plant. When optimizing the membrane cleaning method, it is important to know which compounds cause the fouling. In this work fouling of an ultrafiltration membrane...... was studied. The fouling propensity of untreated process water and microfiltrated process water was compared. Fouled membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Acid hydrolysis of membranes exposed to untreated process......Large volumes of wastewater with dissolved wood components are treated in wastewater treatment plants at thermomechanical pulp mills. It has been shown previously that hemicelluloses in these wastewater streams can be recovered by membrane filtration. A serious obstacle when treating lignocellulose...

  15. Muscle Reaction Time During a Simulated Lateral Ankle Sprain After Wet-Ice Application or Cold-Water Immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thain, Peter K; Bleakley, Christopher M; Mitchell, Andrew C S

    2015-07-01

    Cryotherapy is used widely in sport and exercise medicine to manage acute injuries and facilitate rehabilitation. The analgesic effects of cryotherapy are well established; however, a potential caveat is that cooling tissue negatively affects neuromuscular control through delayed muscle reaction time. This topic is important to investigate because athletes often return to exercise, rehabilitation, or competitive activity immediately or shortly after cryotherapy. To compare the effects of wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, and an untreated control condition on peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscle reaction time during a simulated lateral ankle sprain. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University of Hertfordshire human performance laboratory. A total of 54 physically active individuals (age = 20.1 ± 1.5 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.07 m, mass = 66.7 ± 5.4 kg) who had no injury or history of ankle sprain. Wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, or an untreated control condition applied to the ankle for 10 minutes. Muscle reaction time and muscle amplitude of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain were calculated. The ankle-sprain simulation incorporated a combined inversion and plantar-flexion movement. We observed no change in muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude after cryotherapy for either the peroneus longus or tibialis anterior (P > .05). Ten minutes of joint cooling did not adversely affect muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain. These findings suggested that athletes can safely return to sporting activity immediately after icing. Further evidence showed that ice can be applied before ankle rehabilitation without adversely affecting dynamic neuromuscular control. Investigation in patients with acute ankle sprains is warranted to assess the clinical applicability of these interventions.

  16. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. A vadose zone water fluxmeter with divergence control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Caldwell, T.G.; Ritter, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Unsaturated water flux densities are needed to quantify water and contaminant transfer within the vadose zone. However, water flux densities are seldom measured directly and often are predicted with uncertainties of an order or magnitude or more. A water fluxmeter was designed, constructed, and tested to directly measure drainage fluxes in field soils. The fluxmeter was designed to minimize divergence. It concentrates flow into a narrow sensing region filled with a fiberglass wick. The wick applies suction, proportional to its length, and passively drains the meter. The meter can be installed in an augured borehole at almost any depth below the root zone. Water flux through the meter is measured with a self‐calibrating tipping bucket, with a sensitivity of ∼4 mL tip−1. For our meter this is equivalent to detection limit of ∼0.1 mm. Passive‐wick devices previously have not properly corrected for flow divergence. Laboratory measurements supported predictions of a two‐dimensional (2‐D) numerical model, which showed that control of the collector height H and knowledge of soil hydraulic properties are required for improving divergence control, particularly at fluxes below 1000 mm yr−1. The water fluxmeter is simple in concept, is inexpensive, and has the capability of providing continuous and reliable monitoring of unsaturated water fluxes ranging from less than 1 mm yr−1 to more than 1000 mm yr−1.

  18. Gefitinib plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in previously untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Vincent; Hamoir, Marc; Chen Changhu; Kane, Madeleine; Kawecki, Andrzej; Julka, Pramod K.; Wang, Hung-Ming; Prasad, Srihari; D'Cruz, Anil K.; Radosevic-Jelic, Ljiljana; Kumar, Rejnish R.; Korzeniowski, Stanislaw; Fijuth, Jacek; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Sellers, Mark V.; Tchakov, Ilian; Raben, David

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of gefitinib given concomitantly and/or as maintenance therapy to standard cisplatin/radiotherapy for previously untreated, unresected, stage III/IV non-metastatic SCCHN. Materials and methods: In this phase II, double-blind, study, 226 patients were randomized to gefitinib 250 mg/day, 500 mg/day or placebo in two phases: a concomitant phase (gefitinib or placebo with chemoradiotherapy), followed by a maintenance phase (gefitinib or placebo alone). Primary endpoint was local disease control rate (LDCR) at 2 years; secondary endpoints were LDCR at 1 year, objective response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety and tolerability. Results: Gefitinib (250 and 500 mg/day) did not improve 2-year LDCR compared with placebo either when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy (32.7% vs. 33.6%, respectively; OR 0.921, 95% CI 0.508, 1.670 [1-sided p = 0.607]) or as maintenance therapy (28.8% vs. 37.4%, respectively; OR 0.684, 95% CI 0.377, 1.241 [1-sided p = 0.894]). Secondary efficacy outcomes were broadly consistent with the 2-year LDCR results. In both doses, gefitinib was well-tolerated and did not adversely affect the safety and tolerability of concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion: Gefitinib was well-tolerated, but did not improve efficacy compared with placebo when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy, or as maintenance therapy alone.

  19. Intake and digestibility of untreated and urea treated rice straw base diet fed to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yulistiani

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw as one of agricultural by-products has low quality due to low content of essensial nutrients like protein, energy, minerals and vitamin as well as poor palatability and digestibility. Therefore, the quality of rice straw needs to be improved in order to increase its utilization by gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. The purpose of this study is to compare untreated and urea treated rice straw as basal diets for sheep. Twelve mature Merino wethers (average body weight 53.62 + 3.44 kg were separated into 4 groups based on their live weight with each groups assigned three diets, that are: diet 1 untreated rice straw with high forage legume content, diet 2 urea ensiled rice straw and diet 3 rice straw sprayed with urea solution at feeding time. Diets were allocated based on a randomized complete block design. Urea ensiled rice straw was prepared by spraying chopped straw with urea solution to yield straw containing 4% urea and 40% moisture, then kept in air tight polythylene bags for 6 weeks. The untreated, ensiled and urea supplemented rice straw were mixed with other feed ingredients to provide isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets. Diets were formulated to meet maintenance requirement according to NRC. Sheep were adapted to experimental diets for 15 days, and after adaptation period, a metabolism trial was conducted. Results reveal that dry matter intake permetabolic body weight (DMI/W0.75, DE (digestible energi intake and apparent digestibility of NDF (neutral detergent fibre were not significantly different between diet 1 and diet 2. Apparent digestibility of DM (dry matter, OM (organic matter, and ADF (acid detergent fibre, as well as N retention were not significantly different between three diets. Positive result in N retention was only observed in diet 2, while others were negative. It may be concluded from this study that untreated rice straw basal diet supplemented with forage legume offer an alternative method other than urea

  20. Increased blood clearance rate of indium-111 oxine-labeled autologous CD4+ blood cells in untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimfors, G.; Holm, G.; Mellstedt, H.; Schnell, P.O.; Tullgren, O.; Bjoerkholm, M.

    1990-01-01

    Untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) have a blood T-lymphocytopenia mainly caused by a reduction of the CD4+ subset. Indirect support for a sequestration of T cells in the spleen and tumor-involved lymphoid tissue has accumulated. To test the hypothesis that the blood CD4 T-lymphocytopenia in patients with HD is caused by an altered lymphocyte traffic, 12 untreated HD patients and five in complete clinical remission (CCR) were studied. Blood lymphocytes were collected by leukapheresis and gradient centrifugation, and were further purified by an adherence step. The cells were labeled with indium-111 oxine and reinfused intravenously into the patient. The radioactivity of CD4+ and CD8+ blood lymphocytes separated by immunoabsorption was measured from serial blood samples. CD4+ cells were eliminated more rapidly in untreated patients than patients in CCR. Repeated gamma camera imaging after autotransfusion of indium-111 oxine labeled cells demonstrated an accumulation of radioactivity in tumor-involved tissue of untreated patients. These findings support the concept of an enhanced elimination of CD4+ cells in patients with active HD that may contribute to the observed blood T-lymphocytopenia and may reflect a biologic response to the tumor

  1. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Kraus, Tamara E C; Fleck, Jacob A; Krabbenhoft, David P; Horwath, William R; Bachand, Sandra M; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex; Bachand, Philip A M

    2015-05-19

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  2. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Horwarth, William R.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  3. Cooling water conditioning and quality control for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootgeld, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    Designers and operators of Tokamaks and all associated water cooled, peripheral equipment, are faced with the task of providing and maintaining closed-loop, low conductivity, low impurity, cooling water systems. Most of these systems must provide large volumes of high quality cooling water at reasonable cost and comply with local and state government orders and EPA mandated national pretreatment standards and regulations. This paper discusses the DIII-D water quality requirements, the means used to obtain the necessary quality and the instrumentation used for control and monitoring. Costs to mechanically and chemically condition and maintain water quality are discussed as well as the various aspects of complying with government standards and regulations

  4. Supercooling of Water Controlled by Nanoparticles and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Jia, Lisi; Chen, Ying; Li, Yi'ang; Li, Jun; Mo, Songping

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles, including Al2O3 and SiO2, and ultrasound were adopted to improve the solidification properties of water. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, contact angle, and ultrasonic intensity on the supercooling degree of water were investigated, as well as the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in water during solidification. Experimental results show that the supercooling degree of water is reduced under the combined effect of ultrasound and nanoparticles. Consequently, the reduction of supercooling degree increases with the increase of ultrasonic intensity and nanoparticle concentration and decrease of contact angle of nanoparticles. Moreover, the reduction of supercooling degree caused by ultrasound and nanoparticles together do not exceed the sum of the supercooling degree reductions caused by ultrasound and nanoparticles separately; the reduction is even smaller than that caused by ultrasound individually under certain conditions of controlled nanoparticle concentration and contact angle and ultrasonic intensity. The dispersion stability of nanoparticles during solidification can be maintained only when the nanoparticles and ultrasound together show a superior effect on reducing the supercooling degree of water to the single operation of ultrasound. Otherwise, the aggregation of nanoparticles appears in water solidification, which results in failure. The relationships among the meaningful nanoparticle concentration, contact angle, and ultrasonic intensity, at which the requirements of low supercooling and high stability could be satisfied, were obtained. The control mechanisms for these phenomena were analyzed.

  5. A prototype expert system 'SMART' for water chemistry control in reactor water circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The operational safety of a power plant depends mainly on the material compatibility of the system materials with the environment. However, for an operating plant, the material is almost fixed and hence one can improve the safety by controlling the surrounding environment. From the economy point of view, the plant availability factor as well as plant life extension (PLEX) are important considerations and these necessitate a systematic approach for continuous parametric monitoring, rapid data analysis and diagnosis for controlling the water chemistry regime. A prototype expert system 'SMART' was developed in BASIC language. The expert system consists of four modules. The DATA HANDLER module controls all the data handling functions and graphical display of the data parameters. It also generates weekly and monthly reports of the water chemistry data. The DATA INTERPRETER module compares the experimental data with the theoretically calculated values and predicts the presence of impurity ingress in the system. The CHEMISTRY EXPERT contains the knowledge base about the various sub-systems. All the water chemistry specifications are translated in the form of IF... THEN.. rules and are stored in this module. The expert system inferences with the forward chain reasoning mechanism to identify the diagnostic parameters by consulting the knowledge base and applying the appropriate rules. The ACTION EXPERT module collects all the diagnostic parameters and suggests the operator, the remedial actions/counter measures that should be taken immediately. This rule based system can be expanded to accommodate different water chemistry regimes. (author)

  6. design and implementation of a water level controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH) ... in real time application by using it to control the level of water in a tank fed by a ... chine when a cow is finished in a milking par- .... Robotics Arm. IEEE Control Systems 10(1).

  7. Recent experience in water chemistry control at PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    At present, 23 units of PWRs are under operation in all of Japan, among which 11 units are operated by the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEP). Plant availability in KEP's PWRs has been improved for the past several years, through their successive stable operation. Recently, a focus is given not only to maintenance of plant integrity, but also to preventive maintenance and water chemistry control. Various measures have been carried out to enhance exposure reduction of the primary water chemistry control in the Japanese PWRs. As a result, environmental dose equivalent rate is decreasing. A secondary system is now under excellent condition because of application of diversified measures for prevention of the SG tube corrosion. At present, the water chemistry control measures which take into account of efficient chemistry control and plant aging deterioration prevention, are being examined to use for both primary and secondary systems in Japanese PWRs, to further enhance their plant integrity and availability. And, some of them are currently being actually applied. (G.K.)

  8. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  9. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  10. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  11. Untreated Natural Graphite as a Graphene Source for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Simón

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanosheets (GNS are synthesized from untreated natural graphite (NG for use as electroactive materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs, which avoids the pollution-generating steps of purifying graphite. Through a modified Hummer method and subsequent thermal exfoliation, graphitic oxide and graphene were synthesized and characterized structurally, morphologically and chemically. Untreated natural graphite samples contain 45–50% carbon by weight; the rest is composed of different elements such as aluminium, calcium, iron, silicon and oxygen, which are present as calcium carbonate and silicates of aluminium and iron. Our results confirm that in the GO and GNS synthesized, calcium is removed due to oxidation, though other impurities are maintained because they are not affected by the synthesis. Despite the remaining mineral phases, the energy storage capacity of GNS electrodes is very promising. In addition, an electrochemical comparison between GNS and NG demonstrated that the specific capacity in GNS is higher during the whole cycling process, 770 mA·g−1 at 100th cycle, which is twice that of graphite.

  12. Neuroendocrine and behavioral consequences of untreated and treated depression in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaszar, Eszter; Melichercikova, Kristina; Dubovicky, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy and in the post partum period is a significant health issue in modern society. The estimated prevalence of depression in pregnancy ranges from 13-20%. The major dilemma for gynecologists is to treat or not to treat depression during gestation and lactation. Consequences of untreated depression can be so serious that the benefit of antidepressant therapy may overweigh the possible risk for injury of fetal/neonatal development. Currently, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are commonly used for treatment of maternal depression. The review article brings up-to-date knowledge on effects of maternal adversity (depression) and/or antidepressants on the development of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of the offspring in relation to postnatal behavior and reactivity to stressful stimuli. Treated as well as untreated maternal depression presents a risk for the developing fetus and neonate. The authors stress the need to evaluate the relative safety of SNRIs/SNRIs by means of relevant experimental models to assess if these drugs can be assigned to treat pregnant and lactating depressive women.

  13. Report on the laboratory examination of the effect of fungal invasion on the durability of untreated mine support timbers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, PJ

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info RR 12_67 The laboratory examination of the effect of fungal invasion on the durability of untreated mine support timber COMRO 1967.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 8 Content-Encoding ISO-8859...-1 stream_name RR 12_67 The laboratory examination of the effect of fungal invasion on the durability of untreated mine support timber COMRO 1967.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. Casodex (bicalutamide) 150-mg monotherapy compared with castration in patients with previously untreated nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Tyrrell, C J; Kaisary, A V

    1998-01-01

    To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life benefits of bicalutamide (Casodex) 150-mg/day monotherapy and castration in previously untreated nonmetastatic (M0) advanced prostate cancer....

  15. Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use

  17. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  18. 33 CFR 222.5 - Water control management (ER 1110-2-240).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... essential to effective relief or assistance. (6) One copy of all water control manuals and subsequent... project benefits and possible hazards. Accordingly, it is essential that appropriate water control and... considering timeliness, reliability, economics and other factors deemed important. (E) Delineate system scope...

  19. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  20. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries evaluated using PUFA index in orphanage children from India

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhog, Raghavendra; Godhi, Brinda S; Nandlal, Bhojraj; Kumar, Shruti S; Raju, Veena; Rashmi, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence and severity of oral condition related to untreated dental caries with PUFA index and to relate period of institutional stay, oral hygiene practice and diet of orphan children to caries experience ratio.

  1. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on distribution dynamics of free amino acids in water soaked brown rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, T; Nakajima, K; Uno, Y; Sakano, A; Murakami, M; Narahara, Y; Fujii, T; Hayashi, M; Ueno, S

    2010-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) with approximately below 400 MPa can induce a transformation of food materials to an alternative form, where membrane systems are damaged but certain enzymes are still active. HP treatment of water soaked brown rice grain could modify the mass transfer inside and apparent activities of enzymes, resulting in HP-dependent change of distribution of free amino acids. Thus, the distribution of free amino acids in brown rice grain during preservation after HP treatment was analyzed. Just after HP treatment at 200 MPa for 10 min, the distribution of free amino acids was not apparently different from that of untreated control. In contrast, after 1 to 4 days preservation at 25 0 C, amino acids, such as Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp and Val, showed higher concentrations than those in control. This result suggested that HP treatment induced proteolysis to produce free amino acids. However, Gln, Thr and Cys, showed no apparent difference, suggesting that conversion of certain amino acids produced by proteolysis occurred. Moreover, the concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HP-treated sample was higher than that in untreated control. These results suggested that HP treatment induced alteration of distribution of free amino acids of rice grains via proteolysis and certain amino acids metabolism pathways.

  2. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on distribution dynamics of free amino acids in water soaked brown rice grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, T.; Hayashi, M.; Nakajima, K.; Uno, Y.; Sakano, A.; Murakami, M.; Narahara, Y.; Ueno, S.; Fujii, T.

    2010-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) with approximately below 400 MPa can induce a transformation of food materials to an alternative form, where membrane systems are damaged but certain enzymes are still active. HP treatment of water soaked brown rice grain could modify the mass transfer inside and apparent activities of enzymes, resulting in HP-dependent change of distribution of free amino acids. Thus, the distribution of free amino acids in brown rice grain during preservation after HP treatment was analyzed. Just after HP treatment at 200 MPa for 10 min, the distribution of free amino acids was not apparently different from that of untreated control. In contrast, after 1 to 4 days preservation at 25°C, amino acids, such as Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp and Val, showed higher concentrations than those in control. This result suggested that HP treatment induced proteolysis to produce free amino acids. However, Gln, Thr and Cys, showed no apparent difference, suggesting that conversion of certain amino acids produced by proteolysis occurred. Moreover, the concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HP-treated sample was higher than that in untreated control. These results suggested that HP treatment induced alteration of distribution of free amino acids of rice grains via proteolysis and certain amino acids metabolism pathways.

  3. Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The geochemical conditions, occurrence of selected trace elements, and processes controlling the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater were investigated in groundwater basins of the Desert and Basin and Range (DBR) hydrogeologic provinces in southeastern California as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP is designed to provide an assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the aquifer systems that are used for public drinking-water supply. The GAMA PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Advanced analytical techniques for boiling water reactor chemistry control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, H P; Schenker, E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    The analytical techniques applied can be divided into 5 classes: OFF-LINE (discontinuous, central lab), AT-LINE (discontinuous, analysis near loop), ON-LINE (continuous, analysis in bypass). In all cases pressure and temperature of the water sample are reduced. In a strict sense only IN-LINE (continuous, flow disturbance) and NON-INVASIVE (continuous, no flow disturbance) techniques are suitable for direct process control; - the ultimate goal. An overview of the analytical techniques tested in the pilot loop is given. Apart from process and overall water quality control, standard for BWR operation, the main emphasis is on water impurity characterization (crud particles, hot filtration, organic carbon); on stress corrosion crackling control for materials (corrosion potential, oxygen concentration) and on the characterization of the oxide layer on austenites (impedance spectroscopy, IR-reflection). The above mentioned examples of advanced analytical techniques have the potential of in-line or non-invasive application. They are different stages of development and are described in more detail. 28 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  6. Evaluation of polar organic micropollutants as indicators for wastewater-related coastal water quality impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Aloupi, Maria; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.; Licha, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Results from coastal water pollution monitoring (Lesvos Island, Greece) are presented. In total, 53 samples were analyzed for 58 polar organic micropollutants such as selected herbicides, biocides, corrosion inhibitors, stimulants, artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals. Main focus is the application of a proposed wastewater indicator quartet (acesulfame, caffeine, valsartan, and valsartan acid) to detect point sources and contamination hot-spots with untreated and treated wastewater. The derived conclusions are compared with the state of knowledge regarding local land use and infrastructure. The artificial sweetener acesulfame and the stimulant caffeine were used as indicators for treated and untreated wastewater, respectively. In case of a contamination with untreated wastewater the concentration ratio of the antihypertensive valsartan and its transformation product valsartan acid was used to further refine the estimation of the residence time of the contamination. The median/maximum concentrations of acesulfame and caffeine were 5.3/178 ng L"−"1 and 6.1/522 ng L"−"1, respectively. Their detection frequency was 100%. Highest concentrations were detected within the urban area of the capital of the island (Mytilene). The indicator quartet in the gulfs of Gera and Kalloni (two semi-enclosed embayments on the island) demonstrated different concentration patterns. A comparatively higher proportion of untreated wastewater was detected in the gulf of Gera, which is in agreement with data on the wastewater infrastructure. The indicator quality of the micropollutants to detect wastewater was compared with electrical conductivity (EC) data. Due to their anthropogenic nature and low detection limits, the micropollutants are superior to EC regarding both sensitivity and selectivity. The concentrations of atrazine, diuron, and isoproturon did not exceed the annual average of their environmental quality standards (EQS) defined by the European Commission. At two

  7. Fuzzy logic control of water level in advanced boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chaung; Lee, Chi-Szu; Raghavan, R.; Fahrner, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The feedwater control system in the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is more challenging to design compared to other control systems in the plant, due to the possible change in level from void collapses and swells during transient events. A basic fuzzy logic controller is developed using a simplified ABWR mathematical model to demonstrate and compare the performance of this controller with a simplified conventional controller. To reduce the design effort, methods are developed to automatically tune the scaling factors and control rules. As a first step in developing the fuzzy controller, a fuzzy controller with a limited number of rules is developed to respond to normal plant transients such as setpoint changes of plant parameters and load demand changes. Various simulations for setpoint and load demand changes of plant performances were conducted to evaluate the modeled fuzzy logic design against the simplified ABWR model control system. The simulation results show that the performance of the fuzzy logic controller is comparable to that of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, However, the fuzzy logic controller produced shorter settling time for step setpoint changes compared to the simplified conventional controller

  8. Chemo-radioresistance of small cell lung cancer cell lines derived from untreated primary tumors obtained by diagnostic bronchofiberscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanio, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Inoue, Tamotsu

    1990-01-01

    New cell lines of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were established from specimens of untreated primary tumors biopsied by diagnostic bronchofiberscopy. The advantage of this method was ease of obtaining specimens from lung tumors. Establishment of cell lines was successful with 4 of 13 specimens (30%). Clinical responses of the tumors showed considerable variation, but were well correlated with the in vitro sensitivity of the respective cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs and irradiation. One of the cell lines was resistant to all drugs tested and irradiation, while another was sensitive to all of them. Although the acquired resistance of SCLC is the biggest problem in treatment, the natural resistance to therapy is another significant problem. Either acquired or natural, resistance mechanisms of SCLC may be elucidated by the use of such cell lines derived from untreated tumors. This method and these SCLC cell lines are expected to be useful for the serial study of biologic and genetic changes of untreated and pre-treated tumors, or primary and secondary tumors. (author)

  9. The Impact of Climate Change on Raw and Untreated Wastewater Use for Agriculture, Especially in Arid Regions: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faour-Klingbeil, Dima; Todd, Ewen C D

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time that pose unprecedented stress to the environment and threats to human health. The global impacts of climate change are vast, spanning from extreme weather events to changes in patterns and distribution of infectious diseases. Lack of rainfall associated with higher temperatures has a direct influence on agricultural production. This is compounded by a growing population forecasted to expand further with increasing needs for food and water. All this has led to the increasing use of wastewater worldwide. In this review, we more specifically discuss the use of untreated wastewater in agriculture in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, the most arid region in the world. This presents challenges for agriculture with respect to water availability and increasing wastewater use in agri-food chain. This in turn exerts pressures on the safety of food raised from such irrigated crops. Current practices in the MENA region indicate that ineffective water resource management, lack of water quality policies, and slow-paced wastewater management strategies continue to contribute to a decline in water resources and an increased unplanned use of black and graywater in agriculture. Radical actions are needed in the region to improve water and wastewater management to adapt to these impacts. In this regard, the 2006 WHO guidelines for the use of wastewater contain recommendations for the most effective solutions. They provide a step-by-step guide for series of appropriate health protection measures for microbial reduction targets of 6 log units for viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens, but these need to be combined with new varieties of crops that are drought and pest resistant. More research into economic local treatment procedures for wastewater in the region is warranted.

  10. Relationship between parents' occupational characteristics and untreated dental caries in offspring: A population-based study of data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Shil; Kim, Byurira; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Song, Je Seon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Jang, Sung-In

    2018-05-01

    Objectives We investigated the association between parents' occupational characteristics and untreated dental caries in their children. Methods We analyzed the data of 4764 and 5862 children merged with data of their mothers and fathers, respectively, derived from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2015. Dentists assessed untreated dental caries, and occupational characteristics were self-reported. The associations between untreated dental caries in children and their parents' occupational characteristics were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of untreated dental caries was 18.58% and 16.39% in the mother- and father-matched data, respectively. Compared to children whose mothers worked regular hours, those whose mothers worked overtime had increased odds of untreated dental caries [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.39]. Children of female self-employed workers/employers/unpaid family workers had higher odds of untreated dental caries than those of wage earners (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.39). The OR of untreated dental caries was higher among children with shift-working parents than those whose parents worked daytime hours (mother: OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.51; father: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.18-1.58). Conclusions The children of non-white-collar workers, non-wage earners, and workers working overtime or doing shift work had higher odds of untreated dental caries. The effects of parental occupational characteristics on untreated dental caries differed by sex (mother versus father). Public health programs targeting the prevention of dental caries among children should consider parental occupational characteristics.

  11. Advances in water chemistry control for BWRs and PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the effects of water chemistry developments on the current operation of nuclear power plants in the United States, and the mitigation of corrosion-related degradation processes and radiation field build-up processes through the use of advanced water chemistry. Recent modifications in water chemistry to control and reduce radiation fields are outlined, including revisions to the EPRI water chemistry guidelines for BWRs and PWR primary and secondary systems. The change from a single water chemistry specification for all plants to a set of options, from which a plant-specific chemistry programme can be defined, is described. (author)

  12. Duration of untreated psychosis and pathway to care in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Fayez, Hanan; Lappin, Julia; Murray, Robin; Boydell, Jane

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies of 'duration of untreated psychosis' (DUP) indicate that some patients remain untreated in the community for some time. Considerable emphasis has been placed on reducing the DUP. However, most studies investigating DUP have been conducted in Western countries, where well-developed primary care systems are available. This study aims to describe DUP and its association with both demographic factors and pathways to care in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A retrospective study of 421 new case records of all Saudi schizophrenia patients over a 2-year period in six governmental hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The median DUP was 1.41 years (interquartile range 0.35-2.81 years). The longest time to contact was 9.86 years but 90% had a DUP shorter than 5 years. Older age at onset, single marital status and higher educational level were associated with shorter DUP. Long DUP was associated with help seeking from traditional healers. In Saudi Arabia, it usually takes longer for patients to seek help from psychiatric services after their first psychosis onset than it does in Western countries. The results suggest that the DUP is influenced by both demographic factors and pathways to care. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Toxicity assessment of untreated/treated electroplating sludge using human and plant bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Durgo, Ksenija; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Halkijevic, Ivan; Kuspilic, Marin

    2018-04-30

    The purpose of this work was to assess the risk to the environment arising from the electroplating sludge from both chemical and toxicological point of view. Both approaches were used for the assessment of the treatment efficiency which consisted of CaO based solidification followed by thermal treatment at 400°C. The elemental composition was determined in the bulk samples and the leachates of untreated sludge. The toxicity of the leachate was determined using two human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (Caco-2 and SW 480) and Hordeum vulgare L. based plant bioassay. The same toxicity tests were employed to the leachate of the treated sludge. Untreated sludge showed extremely high cytotoxic effect to both human and plant bio-system in dose-dependent manner. The percentages higher than 0.5% and 0.05% of the leachate caused significant cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 and SW 480 cells, respectively. The percentages of the leachate higher than 0.05% also showed significant toxic effect to H. vulgare L. bio-system with complete arrest of seed germination following the treatment with 100% to 5% of the leachate. The leachate of the treated sludge showed no toxicity to any of the test systems confirming the efficiency and justification of the employed procedures for the detoxification of electroplating sludge.

  14. Control of schistosomiasis in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, William R.; Ferguson, Frederick F.; Palmer, Juan R.

    1970-01-01

    In 1953, a programme to control schistosomiasis mansoni was started in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico, employing, first, chemical and, later, both biological and chemical methods to control Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. Sodium pentachlorophenate was the molluscicide, and an ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, was used for biological control in ponds and reservoirs. In addition some chemotherapy was given to infected persons. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was measured annually, sampling about one-third of the 6-year-old population in Guayama and Arroyo and in Caguas, an untreated area. Costs of the programme and the results are discussed in relation to similar projects in other parts of Puerto Rico. In Guayama and Arroyo the prevalence of schistosomiasis reached zero in 6-year-olds by 1966 despite the persistence of the disease in a nearby untreated area. Although this decline appeared related to the control effort, it is noted that a large decline also occurred in the untreated area, suggesting the influence of other factors such as economic development or improvements in sanitation. PMID:5309511

  15. Control of schistosomiasis in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, W R; Ferguson, F F; Palmer, J R

    1970-01-01

    In 1953, a programme to control schistosomiasis mansoni was started in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico, employing, first, chemical and, later, both biological and chemical methods to control Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. Sodium pentachlorophenate was the molluscicide, and an ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, was used for biological control in ponds and reservoirs. In addition some chemotherapy was given to infected persons. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was measured annually, sampling about one-third of the 6-year-old population in Guayama and Arroyo and in Caguas, an untreated area. Costs of the programme and the results are discussed in relation to similar projects in other parts of Puerto Rico. In Guayama and Arroyo the prevalence of schistosomiasis reached zero in 6-year-olds by 1966 despite the persistence of the disease in a nearby untreated area. Although this decline appeared related to the control effort, it is noted that a large decline also occurred in the untreated area, suggesting the influence of other factors such as economic development or improvements in sanitation.

  16. Offset-Free Model Predictive Control of Open Water Channel Based on Moving Horizon Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin Aydin, Boran; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Model predictive control (MPC) is a powerful control option which is increasingly used by operational water managers for managing water systems. The explicit consideration of constraints and multi-objective management are important features of MPC. However, due to the water loss in open water systems by seepage, leakage and evaporation a mismatch between the model and the real system will be created. These mismatch affects the performance of MPC and creates an offset from the reference set point of the water level. We present model predictive control based on moving horizon estimation (MHE-MPC) to achieve offset free control of water level for open water canals. MHE-MPC uses the past predictions of the model and the past measurements of the system to estimate unknown disturbances and the offset in the controlled water level is systematically removed. We numerically tested MHE-MPC on an accurate hydro-dynamic model of the laboratory canal UPC-PAC located in Barcelona. In addition, we also used well known disturbance modeling offset free control scheme for the same test case. Simulation experiments on a single canal reach show that MHE-MPC outperforms disturbance modeling offset free control scheme.

  17. Local drinking water filters reduce diarrheal disease in Cambodia: a randomized, controlled trial of the ceramic water purifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D; Loomis, Dana

    2008-09-01

    A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease, and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier (CWP), those receiving a second filter employing an iron-rich ceramic (CWP-Fe), and a control group receiving no intervention. Households were followed for 18 weeks post-baseline with biweekly follow-up. Households using either filter reported significantly less diarrheal disease during the study compared with a control group of households without filters as indicated by longitudinal prevalence ratios CWP: 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-0.63); CWP-Fe: 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), an effect that was observed in all age groups and both sexes after controlling for clustering within households and within individuals over time.

  18. Higher energy efficiency and better water quality by using model predictive flow control at water supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Verberk, J.Q.J.C.; Palmen, L.J.; Sperber, V.; Bakker, G.

    2011-01-01

    Half of all water supply systems in the Netherlands are controlled by model predictive flow control; the other half are controlled by conventional level based control. The differences between conventional level based control and model predictive control were investigated in experiments at five full

  19. Post-fire interactions between soil water repellency, soil fertility and plant growth in soil collected from a burned piñon-juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernelius, Kaitlynn J.; Madsen, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Bryan G.; Bansal, Sheel; Anderson, Val J.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Roundy, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment can increase nutrient resources in the plant-mound zone. After a fire, this zone is often found to be water repellent. This study aimed to understand the effects of post-fire water repellency on soil water and inorganic nitrogen and their effects on plant growth of the introduced annual Bromus tectorum and native bunchgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata. Plots centered on burned Juniperus osteosperma trees were either left untreated or treated with surfactant to ameliorate water repellency. After two years, we excavated soil from the untreated and treated plots and placed it in zerotension lysimeter pots. In the greenhouse, half of the pots received an additional surfactant treatment. Pots were seeded separately with B. tectorum or P. spicata. Untreated soils had high runoff, decreased soilwater content, and elevated NO3eN in comparison to surfactant treated soils. The two plant species typically responded similar to the treatments. Above-ground biomass and microbial activity (estimated through soil CO2 gas emissions) was 16.8-fold and 9.5-fold higher in the surfactant-treated soils than repellent soils, respectably. This study demonstrates that water repellency can influence site recovery by decreasing soil water content, promoting inorganic N retention, and impairing plant growth and microbial activity.

  20. Digitization and simulation realization of full range control system for steam generator water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Hong; Ye Jianhua; Qian Fei; Li Chao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a full range digital control system for the steam generator water level is designed by a control scheme of single element control and three-element cascade feed-forward control, and the method to use the software module configuration is proposed to realize the water level control strategy. This control strategy is then applied in the operation of the nuclear power simulation machine. The simulation result curves indicate that the steam generator water level maintains constant at the stable operation condition, and when the load changes, the water level changes but finally maintains the constant. (authors)

  1. Characterization of untreated and treated male and female date palm leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMaadeed, M.A.; Kahraman, Ramazan; Noorunnisa Khanam, P.; Al-Maadeed, Somaya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sheshi female and male date palm leaves were treated with NaOH concentrations. ► Male leaves have lower mechanical properties and improved when treated by NaOH 2%. ► Female leaves have higher thermal stability. ► There are different properties for different types of date leaves. ► Leaves can be used as reinforcements for thermoplastic materials. -- Abstract: This paper describes the characterization of male and female date palm leaves from two different cultivars, Sheshi female and unknown male leaves. Characterization was done for both untreated and NaOH treated date palm leaves by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopic techniques. To our knowledge, the difference in specious reaction to the treatment type of date palm fiber has not been investigated earlier. These leaves were treated with different concentrations of NaOH, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (w/w). The results from this investigation indicate that female leaves have better tensile properties which deteriorate with the increase of the alkali. The male leaves have lower tensile properties than female leaves and their mechanical properties are improved slightly by NaOH treatment. Female leaves have more pores than male leaves, this was proved and calculated by image analysis. Untreated female leaves have higher thermal stability (353 °C) than male leaves (343 °C). Both can be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic matrix materials whose processing temperatures are below 300 °C.

  2. Quality of Life in Patients With Untreated and Symptomatic Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Muramatsu, Yuta; Terakado, Atsushi; Sasho, Takahisa; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Endo, Jun; Sato, Yasunori; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the quality of life (QOL) of subjects who had untreated symptomatic hallux valgus with the QOL of the general population and to investigate factors associated with the QOL of the subjects. One hundred sixteen subjects with previously untreated and symptomatic hallux valgus were surveyed. QOL was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Additionally, clinical evaluations (the visual analog scale for pain, Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot Scale, lesser toe pain, and pain in other parts of the body) and radiographic evaluations (hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle between the first and second metatarsals, and dislocation of the second metatarsophalangeal joint) were performed. Differences in the SF-36 between the subjects and the general population were tested using independent t tests. Correlations between the QOL measurements, clinical evaluations, and radiographic evaluations were assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficient. All SF-36 subscales and physical component summary scores for the subjects were significantly lower than those of the general population. Notably, the standardized physical function subscale (38.2 ± 15.8, P hallux valgus subjects was lower than that of the general population. All QOL and clinical evaluation parameters were not significantly or negligibly correlated with the severity of toe deformities. Surgical decision making should not be based on the severity of the deformity alone, but rather patient QOL should also be carefully assessed. Level III, comparative series. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Water column methanotrophy controlled by a rapid oceanographic switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinle, L.; Graves, C.A.; Treude, T.; Ferré, B.; Biastoch, A.; Bussmann, I.; Berndt, C.; Krastel, S.; James, R.H.; Behrens, E.; Böning, C.W.; Greinert, J.; Sapart, C.-J.; Scheinert, M.; Sommer, S.; Lehmann, M.F.; Niemann, H.

    2015-01-01

    From the seabed to the water column, where it may be consumed by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria. The size and activity of methanotrophic communities, which determine the amount of methane consumed in the water column,are thought to be mainly controlled by nutrient and redoxdynamics3–7. Here, we

  4. Predictors of Drinking Water Boiling and Bottled Water Consumption in Rural China: A Hierarchical Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Qing; Tao, Yong; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha

    2017-06-20

    Approximately two billion people drink unsafe water. Boiling is the most commonly used household water treatment (HWT) method globally and in China. HWT can make water safer, but sustained adoption is rare and bottled water consumption is growing. To successfully promote HWT, an understanding of associated socioeconomic factors is critical. We collected survey data and water samples from 450 rural households in Guangxi Province, China. Covariates were grouped into blocks to hierarchically construct modified Poisson models and estimate risk ratios (RR) associated with boiling methods, bottled water, and untreated water. Female-headed households were most likely to boil (RR = 1.36, p water, or use electric kettles if they boiled. Our findings show that boiling is not an undifferentiated practice, but one with different methods of varying effectiveness, environmental impact, and adoption across socioeconomic strata. Our results can inform programs to promote safer and more efficient boiling using electric kettles, and suggest that if rural China's economy continues to grow then bottled water use will increase.

  5. Impact of sulphurous water politzer inhalation on audiometric parameters in children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Prisco; Gobbi, Giuliana; Malinverno, Chiara; Carubbi, Cecilia; Ferné, Filippo M; Artico, Marco; Vitale, Marco; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    The positive effects of spa therapy on ear, nose, and throat pathology are known but robust literature in this field, is still lacking. The aim of this study was to assess through a retrospective analysis, the effects on otitis media with effusion of Politzer endotympanic inhalation of sulphurous waters in children aged 5-9 years. A cohort of 95 patients was treated with Politzer insufflations of sulphurous water: 58 patients did a cycle consisting of a treatment of 12 days per year for three consecutive years; 37 patients followed the same procedure for 5 years consecutively. The control population was represented by untreated, age-matched children. A standard audiometric test was used before and after each cycle of treatment. One cycle of Politzer inhalation of sulphur-rich water improved the symptoms. Three cycles definitively stabilized the improvement of hearing function. Our results show that otitis media with effusion in children can be resolved by an appropriate non-pharmacological treatment of middle ear with sulphur-rich water.

  6. THE CORROSION CONTROL-WATER QUALITY SPIDER WEB

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an overview of new research results and emerging research needs with respect to both corrosion control issues, (lead, copper, iron) and to issues of inorganic contaminants that can form or accumulate in distribution system, water, pipe scales and distri...

  7. School-based approaches to reducing the duration of untreated psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Jason; Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Hong, L Elliot; Reeves, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Students with emerging psychosis often experience delays in diagnosis and treatment that impact mental health and academic outcomes. School systems have tremendous potential to improve early identification and treatment of adolescent psychosis. As a community-based resource, schools can support outreach, education, and screening for adolescents with psychosis and engage identified students and their families for treatment. The concept of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP; the gap between symptom onset and treatment initiation) in adolescent psychosis and the potential role of schools in reducing DUP are reviewed. Future directions for clinical care and research needed to support school-based interventions are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations between causal attributions and personal stigmatizing attitudes in untreated persons with current mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Susanne; Freitag, Simone; Schmidt, Silke; Schomerus, Georg

    2018-02-01

    Past research has shown that among the general public, certain causal explanations like biomedical causes are associated with stronger desire for social distance from persons with mental illness. Aim of this study was to find out how different causal attributions of persons with untreated mental health problems regarding their own complaints are associated with stigmatizing attitudes, anticipated self-stigma when seeking help and perceived stigma-stress. Altogether, 207 untreated persons with a current depressive syndrome were interviewed. Biomedical causes, but also belief in childhood trauma or unhealthy behavior as a cause of the problem, were associated with stronger personal stigma and with more stigma-stress. Similarities and differences to findings among the general population and implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products and their wastes play a major role in the degradation of environment. These drugs have positive as well as negative consequences on different environmental components including biota in different ways. Many types of pharmaceutical substances have been detected with significant concentrations through various advanced instrumental techniques in surface water, subsurface water, ground water, domestic waste water, municipal waste water and industrial effluents. The central as well as state governments in India are providing supports by creating excise duty free zones to promote the pharmaceutical manufacturers for their production. As a result, pharmaceutical companies are producing different types of pharmaceutical products at large scale and also producing complex non-biodegradable toxic wastes byproducts and releasing untreated or partially treated wastes in the environment in absence of strong regulations. These waste pollutants are contaminating all types of drinking water sources. The present paper focuses on water quality pollution by pharmaceutical pollutants, their occurrences, nature, metabolites and their fate in the environment.

  10. Ten-year survival rates of teeth adjacent to treated and untreated posterior bounded edentulous spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, S A; Shugars, D A; Bader, J D; White, B A

    2001-05-01

    Failure to replace a single missing posterior tooth may lead to a variety of dental problems, which may ultimately result in tooth loss. However, little is known about the fate of the adjacent teeth if a missing posterior tooth is not replaced. This retrospective study evaluated the survival of teeth adjacent to treated and untreated posterior bounded edentulous spaces. Data were obtained from electronic treatment records from the Kaiser Permanente Dental Care Program, Portland, Ore. A final sample of 317 patients who met the study inclusion criteria was identified. Each bounded edentulous space was placed in 1 of 3 treatment categories: untreated, restored with a fixed partial denture, or restored with a removable partial denture. Subsequent treatment and the status of the teeth adjacent to the bounded edentulous space were followed through December 1999. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were generated for each treatment group, and differences in survival were evaluated with the log-rank chi-square test (alpha=.05). There was a significant difference in survival among the 3 treatment categories (P=.005). Spaces restored with a fixed partial denture had longer 10-year survival estimates (92%) than those that remained untreated (81%). Spaces restored with a removable partial denture had the poorest 10-year survival rate (56%). Under the conditions and selection bias associated with this retrospective study, the survival of teeth adjacent to a single posterior edentulous space was negatively associated with removable partial denture placement compared with no treatment or the use of a fixed partial denture.

  11. Pathogenic bacteria associated with oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) and estuarine water along the south coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane A; Iaria, Sebastião T; Gelli, Dilma S; Rivera, Irma N G

    2007-08-01

    Oysters and estuarine water samples were collected monthly, from June 1998 to March 1999, in the Cananéia estuary, on the south coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and analyzed for bacterial hazards with and without depuration in filtered estuarine water. Aeromonas spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus were counted in oyster samples using the most probable number (MPN) and their presence verified in the surrounding estuarine water samples. The presence of Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and fecal coliforms counts were determined in oysters and in water samples too. Sixty percent of water samples contained fecal coliforms ranging from 200 CFU/100 ml and 100%, 30%, 20% and 10% were positive for V. parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, Aeromonas, and V. vulnificus in 5 l of water samples, respectively. In oyster samples, the fecal coliforms concentration ranged from or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g in 40% of untreated and from oyster samples and their concentration varied from 3.6 to > or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g. For the untreated oyster samples 80%, 70%, and 10% were positive for V. vulnificus (oyster samples 60%, 30%, and 0% of them contained the same bacteria, respectively. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., P. shigelloides, and V. cholerae O1 were not detected in any of the samples. Fecal indicators did not correlate with Vibrio presence (p>0.05), although the isolation of Aeromonas species had a positive correlation (p = 0.017). The results showed no correlation between temperature, salinity, and bacteria (p > 0.05). The comparison between bacterial concentration in treated and untreated oyster samples, showed that only Aeromonas was higher in untreated oyster samples (p = 0.039). This study contributes toward creating a more global understanding of food-borne bacterial pathogens. The presence and concentration of viable bacterial hazards in oysters and water surrounding areas was determined for the first time

  12. Association of Land Use With Detections of VOCs, Pesticides, and Nitrate in Untreated Groundwater Used for Drinking Water in the United States, 1992-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, P. J.; Moran, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Between 1992 and 1999, samples of untreated groundwater from 1,497 drinking-water wells were analyzed as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Well depths ranged from 1.8 to 823 m, with a median depth of 46 m. Domestic wells (1255) had a median well depth of 43 m, and public supply wells (242) had a median depth of 77 m. Up to 144 compounds were analyzed for each sample. Seventy percent of the samples contained at least one volatile organic compound (VOC), pesticide, or anthropogenic nitrate---conservatively assuming concentrations of nitrate >= 3 mg/L were from an anthropogenic source. The total concentration of VOCs and pesticides ranged from about 0.001 to 100 μ g/L, with a median of 0.02 μ g/L. About 12% of the samples exceeded health criteria, primarily due to nitrate concentrations exceeding the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 mg/L. Almost half (46%) of the samples contained a mixture of two compounds; and 33% contained at least three compounds. There were 402 common mixtures; each mixture was detected in at least one percent of the samples. Although VOCs were detected more frequently (44%) than pesticides (38%) or anthropogenic nitrate (28%), the top 100 common mixtures consisted primarily of persistent pesticides and nitrate, which frequently are applied either together, or sequentially on row crops. VOCs, on the other hand, tended to co-occur with a wider variety of compounds and were common in the remaining 302 mixtures. Groundwater samples with VOCs, pesticides, anthropogenic nitrate, or at least one of the common mixtures of these compounds were associated with areas of higher population density compared to samples without these compounds. The common mixtures had higher concentrations of VOCs, pesticides, and nitrate, and were associated with more intense land development (urban areas, cultivated land, or orchards). Well type, well depth, dissolved oxygen, and aquifer type were tested for their

  13. Sterilization of melon flies: mating competitiveness after treatment with tepa or gamma irradiation and ratios of treated to untreated flies producing population suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Keiser, I.; Harris, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Male melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, treated with a single dose of the chemosterilant tepa (tris(l-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide), or with gamma irradiation, either single or fractionated doses, did not differ significantly in sexual competitiveness as determined by percentage hatch of eggs. Mating competitiveness of males treated by either method ranged from 53 to 66 percent of that of untreated males. In another study, melon flies (males and females) sterilized with 0.0125 percent tepa, the threshold dose for both sexes, completely suppressed a population when the ratio was 16:16:1:1 (sterile males-sterile females-untreated males-untreated females) as determined by no egg hatch

  14. Giant unusual shaped chronic subdural hematoma in a patient with untreated congenital hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Arvind; Ojha, Bal. K.; Chandra, Anil; Srivastava, Chhitij; Singh, Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Subdural hematoma is a well known complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion for hydrocephalus and usually spreads out over the cerebral convexity, and appears as a crescent shaped lesion on imaging. Chronic subdural hematoma in a case of untreated compensated congenital hydrocephalus has not been reported in English literature. We report the rare case of an adult with congenital hydrocephalus with a huge unusual shaped hemispheric subdural hematoma.

  15. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in

  16. Testing of unlubricated water-immersed carbon-steel ball bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, R.G.

    1977-07-01

    Wear data for untreated, chemically oxidized, autoclave oxidized, and hard chromium plated ball bearings operating in water at different radial loads, speeds and water temperatures are presented. Results were highly variable, even for replicated tests, making wear results difficult to interpret. Within the ranges used in these tests, load, speed and water temperature had no consistent effect on wear rate or operating torque. One treatment, the Du-Lite process, resulted in a significant reduction in wear rate. All oxide-forming treatments studied, resulted in improved corrosion resistance. (author)

  17. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F. [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  18. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  19. Fault tolerant digital control systems for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Cash, N.R.

    1986-01-01

    In a Boiling Water Reactor nuclear power plant, the power generation control function is divided into several systems, each system controlling only a part of the total plant. Presently, each system is controlled by conventional analog or digital logic circuits with little interaction for coordinated control. The advent of microprocessors has allowed the development of distributed fault-tolerant digital controls. The objective is to replace these conventional controls with fault-tolerant digital controls connected together with digital communication links to form a fully integrated nuclear power plant control system

  20. Programmable logic controllers in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru (Paper No. 3.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Bhaskar, R.; Maiti, A.; Venkatesu, G.; Satish, P.; Goel, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Enhancement to plant operational flexibility has been achieved in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru by installing programmable logic controllers for its control equipment. The earlier sulfide based Heavy Water Plant, Kota is using relay logic and diode based program-matrix for binary controls. Performance improvement and advantages of PLC and experience in its operation are described. (author). 3 refs

  1. Economic impact of feeding a phenylalanine-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M C; Guest, J F

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the direct healthcare cost of managing adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) for one year before any dietary restrictions and for the first year after a phenylalanine- (PHE-) restricted diet was introduced. The resource use and corresponding costs were estimated from medical records and interviews with health care professionals experienced in caring for adults with previously untreated PKU. The mean annual cost of caring for a client being fed an unrestricted diet was estimated to be 83 996 pound silver. In the first year after introducing a PHE-restricted diet, the mean annual cost was reduced by 20 647 pound silver to 63 348 pound silver as a result of a reduction in nursing time, hospitalizations, outpatient clinic visits and medications. However, the economic benefit of the diet depended on whether the clients were previously high or low users of nursing care. Nursing time was the key cost-driver, accounting for 79% of the cost of managing high users and 31% of the management cost for low users. In contrast, the acquisition cost of a PHE-restricted diet accounted for up to 6% of the cost for managing high users and 15% of the management cost for low users. Sensitivity analyses showed that introducing a PHE-restricted diet reduces the annual cost of care, provided that annual nursing time was reduced by more than 8% or more than 5% of clients respond to the diet. The clients showed fewer negative behaviours when being fed a PHE-restricted diet, which may account for the observed reduction in nursing time needed to care for these clients. In conclusion, feeding a PHE-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated PKU leads to economic benefits to the UK's National Health Service and society in general.

  2. Assessment of treated vs untreated oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.P.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of studies conducted to determine the practicability and feasibility of using dispersants to mitigate the impact of an oil spill on the environment are described. The method of approach is holistic in that it combines the physical, chemical, microbial and macro-fauna response to a spill treated with dispersants and compares this with spills that are left untreated. The program integrates mathematical, laboratory, meso-scale (three 20 foot high by three feet in diameter tanks, in-situ experiments and analyses to determine if the use of dispersants is an effective oil spill control agent. In summary, it appears viable to use dispersants as determined on a case by case basis. The case for using dispersants has to be based on whether or not their use will mitigate the environmental impact of the spill. In the case of an open ocean spill that is being driven into a rich inter-tidal community, the use of dispersants could greatly reduce the environmental impact. Even in the highly productive George's Bank area at the height of the cod spawning season, the impact of the use of dispersants is well within the limits of natural variability when the threshold toxicity level is assumed to be as low as 100 ppB, a level which is often found in the open ocean. Thus, it appears that dispersants can and should be used when it is evident that their use will mitigate the impacts of the spill. Their use in areas where there is poor circulation and therefore little possibility of rapid dilution is more questionable and should be a subject of future studies.

  3. Impact of untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren aged 8-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Veloso, Isabella; Soares, Maria Eliza C; Alencar, Bruna Mota; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Ramos-Jorge, Joana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences on the quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8-10 years. A randomly selected sample of 587 children underwent a clinical oral examination for the assessment of untreated dental caries and clinical consequences. The WHO criteria (decayed component of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth--D-DMFT in permanent teeth or d-dfmt in primary teeth) and the PUFA index, which records the presence of severely decayed permanent (upper case) and primary (lower case) teeth with visible pulpal involvement (P/p), as well as ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments (U/u), fistula (F/f), and abscesses (A/a), were used for the oral examination. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was evaluated using the Child's Perception Questionnaire (CPQ8-10). Poisson regression was employed to test unadjusted and adjusted associations between untreated dental caries/clinical consequences and OHRQoL. The prevalence of untreated dental caries was 64.6% (D/d component of DMFT/dmft > 0) and 17.9% of children exhibited clinical consequences of caries (PUFA/pufa index >0). In the adjusted models, untreated caries was significantly associated with the total CPQ8-10 score and all subscale scores. The clinical consequences of dental caries (PUFA/pufa index >0) were significantly associated with the total CPQ8-10 as well as the oral symptoms and functional limitations' subscales. Untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences exerted a negative impact on the OHRQoL of the schoolchildren analyzed.

  4. Mine water treatment in Donbass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarenkov, P A; Anisimov, V M; Krol, V A

    1980-10-01

    About 2,000,000 m$SUP$3 of mine water are discharged by coal mines yearly to surface waters in the Donbass. Mine water in the region is rich in mineral salts and suspended matter (coal and rock particles). The DonUGI Institute developed a system of mine water treatment which permits the percentage of suspended matter to be reduced to 1.5 mg/l. The treated mine water can be used in fire fighting and in dust suppression systems in coal mines. A scheme of the water treatment system is shown. It consists of the following stages: reservoir of untreated mine water, chamber where mine water is mixed with reagents, primary sedimentation tanks, sand filters, and chlorination. Aluminium sulphate is used as a coagulation agent. To intensify coagulation polyacrylamide is added. Technical specifications of surface structures in which water treatment is carried out are discussed. Standardized mine water treatment systems with capacities of 600 m$SUP$3/h, with 900, 1200, 1500, 1800 and 2100 m$SUP$3/h capacities are used. (In Russian)

  5. Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) control in the Vaalharts Irrigation Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Arp, RS; Fraser, GCG; Hill, MP

    2017-01-01

    Global freshwater resources are threatened by an ever-growing population and continued economic development, highlighting the need for sustainable water management. Sustainable management must include the control of any additional factors that may aggravate water scarcity, such as invasive alien plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), one of the world's most destructive invasive plants, presents a direct threat to economically productive water resources. Through high levels of evapotra...

  6. Dynamic and inertial controls on forest carbon-water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T.; Silva, L.; Horwath, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    This study fuses theory, empirical measurements, and statistical models to evaluate multiple processes controlling coupled carbon-water cycles in forest ecosystems. A series of latitudinal and altitudinal transects across the California Sierra Nevada was used to study the effects of climatic and edaphic gradients on intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) - CO2 fixed per unit of water lost via transpiration - of nine dominant trees species. Transfer functions were determined between leaf, litter, and soil organic matter stable isotope ratios of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, revealing causal links between the physiological performance of tree species and stand-level estimations of productivity and water balance. Our results show that species iWUE is governed both by leaf traits (24% of the variation) and edaphic properties, such as parent material and soil development (3% and 12% of the variation, respectively). We show that soil properties combined with isotopic indicators can be used to explain constraints over iWUE by regulating water and nutrient availability across elevation gradients. Based on observed compositional shifts likely driven by changing climates in the region, encroachment of broad leaf trees could lead to an 80% increase in water loss via transpiration for each unit of CO2 fixed in Sierra mixed conifer zones. A combination of field-based, laboratory, and remote sensed data provide a useful framework for differentiating the effect of multiple controls of carbon and water cycles in temperate forest ecosystems.

  7. Tritium control by water recycle in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, N.E.; Ward, G.N.

    1975-06-01

    A preliminary study was made of the use of water recycle within a reprocessing plant to control the escape of tritium and to consolidate it for disposal. Tritium distribution was evaluated in the leacher, high-level, and low-level systems for seven different flowsheet conditions. Tritium retention efficiency was also evaluated for these flowsheet conditions. Impact of tritiated water recycle on the plant design and operation is assessed. It is concluded that tritium control by water recycle is feasible. Achievement of satisfactory retention efficiencies and economic volumes of solidified tritium waste will require extension of existing technology and development of new technology. Evaluation of potential abnormal conditions indicate that releases from upsets need not be excessive. Some increase in occupational exposure will occur because of the pervasiveness, persistence, and ease of uptake of tritiated water vapor. Incentives for tritium control by water recycle may prove marginal if this increased exposure to plant personnel is significant compared to the small reduction in exposure to the general public. Recommendations are presented for further studies

  8. Water Quality in Surface Water: A Preliminary Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination of the Mashavera River, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushadze, Teo

    2018-01-01

    Water quality contamination by heavy metal pollution has severe effects on public health. In the Mashavera River Basin, an important agricultural area for the national food system in Georgia (e.g., vegetable, dairy and wine production), water contamination has multiple influences on the regional and country-wide health. With new industrial activities in the region, sediment extraction, and discharge of untreated wastewater into the river, its tributaries and irrigation canals, a comprehensive study of water quality was greatly needed. This study examined sediment and water samples from 17 sampling sites in the Mashavera River Basin during the high and low precipitation seasons. The results were characterized utilizing the Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), Enrichment Factor (EF), Pollution Load index (PLI), Contamination Factor (CF) and Metal Index (MI). According to the CFs, Cu > Cd > Zn > Pb > Fe > Mn > Ni > Cr > Hg is the descending order for the content of all observed heavy metals in sediments collected in both seasons. Fe and As were additionally examined in water samples. Overall, As, Cd and Pb, all highly toxic elements, were found in high concentrations in downstream sample sites. According to these results, comprehensive monitoring with narrow intervals between sampling dates, more sample sites along all waterways, and proximate observation of multiple trace metal elements are highly recommended. Moreover, as the part of the water quality governance system, an immediate and sustainable collective action by all stakeholders to control the pollution level is highly recommended, as this issue is linked to the security of the national food system and poses a local public health risk. PMID:29597320

  9. Analysis of water hammer in control rod drive systems of boiling water reactor nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, H.H.; Arastu, A.H.; Lau, S.

    1983-01-01

    The method of characteristics is applied to analyze water hammer in BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) Control Rod Drive (CRD) Systems following fast opening of scram valves. The modelling of the CRD mechanism is presented. Numerical predictions are compared to experimental data. (author)

  10. Water Chemistry Control in Reducing Corrosion and Radiation Exposure at PWR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febrianto

    2006-01-01

    Water chemistry control plays an important role in relation to plant availability, reliability and occupational radiation exposures. Radiation exposures of nuclear plant workers are determined by the radiation rate dose and by the amount maintenance and repair work time Water chemistry has always been, from beginning of operation of power Pressurized Water Reactor, an important factor in determining the integrity of reactor components, fuel cladding integrity and minimize out of core radiation exposures. For primary system, the parameters to control the quality of water chemistry have been subject to change in time. Reactor water coolant pH need to be optimally controlled and be operated in range pH 6.9 to 7.4. At pH lower than 6.9, cause increasing the radiation exposure level and increasing coolant water pH higher than 7.4 will decrease radiation exposure level but increasing risk to fuel cladding and steam generator tube. Since beginning 90 decade, PWR water coolant pH tend to be operated at pH 7.4. This paper will discuss concerning water chemistry development in reducing corrosion and radiation exposure dose in PWR reactor. (author)

  11. Coho salmon spawner mortality in western US urban watersheds: bioinfiltration prevents lethal storm water impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spromberg, Julann A; Baldwin, David H; Damm, Steven E; McIntyre, Jenifer K; Huff, Michael; Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Davis, Jay W; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2016-04-01

    Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run-off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long-term conservation of threatened wild coho populations, a causal role for toxic run-off in the mortality syndrome has not been demonstrated.We exposed otherwise healthy coho spawners to: (i) artificial storm water containing mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, at or above concentrations previously measured in urban run-off; (ii) undiluted storm water collected from a high traffic volume urban arterial road (i.e. highway run-off); and (iii) highway run-off that was first pre-treated via bioinfiltration through experimental soil columns to remove pollutants.We find that mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons - conventional toxic constituents in urban storm water - are not sufficient to cause the spawner mortality syndrome. By contrast, untreated highway run-off collected during nine distinct storm events was universally lethal to adult coho relative to unexposed controls. Lastly, the mortality syndrome was prevented when highway run-off was pretreated by soil infiltration, a conventional green storm water infrastructure technology.Our results are the first direct evidence that: (i) toxic run-off is killing adult coho in urban watersheds, and (ii) inexpensive mitigation measures can improve water quality and promote salmon survival. Synthesis and applications . Coho salmon, an iconic species with exceptional economic and cultural significance, are an ecological sentinel for the harmful effects of untreated urban run-off. Wild coho populations cannot withstand the high rates of

  12. Method of controlling the water quality in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Hidefumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a simple and reliable water quality calculation system and water quality control method based thereon for the entire primary coolant circuits in BWR type reactors. Method: In a method of controlling the water quality of the reactor water by injecting hydrogen into the primary coolant circuits of a nuclear reactor, by utilizing a first linear relationship established between the concentration of oxygen and hydrogen in the main steam system and the concentration of radiolysis products in the reactor core and separators and mixing plenum portions, each of the above-mentioned concentrations is calculated from the concentrations for hydrogen or oxygen. Further, by utilizing the first linear relationship established between the concentrations for the oxygen and hydrogen in the recycling system and the concentration of the radiolysis products in the system from the downcomer to the lower plenum portion, the above-mentioned concentration is calculated from the concentration for oxygen and hydrogen. Then, the hydrogen injection rate into the primary coolant system is determined such that the calculated value takes an aimed value. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...

  14. An Architecture Of Plc Ls Xbc-Dr30e Based Clean Water Controlling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Jusuf Jamanawar Purba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial field the good controlling system is definitely required to improve the working efficiency of a system. The type of controller PLC Programmable Logic Controller used in Clean Water Controlling System in Electrical Workshop with PLC LS XBC-DR30E. Furthermore such system consistently uses two types of component they are Relay and Timer. The clean water pump control aims to pump the water in well A to storage tank B. The pump will work when water-contained well A is marked by sensor level well A on and the water inside storage tank B is under level 3. When the water inside storage tank B is under level 2 both pumps M1 and M2 will work to fill storage tank B. on the contrary when storage tank B is above level 2 only one pump M1 works until the tank reach level 3. In addition when storage tank B is above level 3 both pumps will stop working. However along with the advancement of recent technology the above system can be controlled by using PLC Programmable Logic Controller. Therefore it is possible to apply the controlling method of PLC as the semester Vs practical module. Based on the trial performed the PLC-based clean water system is well-functioned as the working description compiled before the operation of the tool.

  15. Duration of untreated psychosis in adolescents: ethnic differences and clinical profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Maria-de-Gracia; Fisher, Helen L; Major, Barnaby; Chisholm, Brock; Rahaman, Nikola; Joyce, John; Woolley, James; Lawrence, Jo; Hinton, Mark; Marlowe, Karl; Aitchison, Katherine; Johnson, Sonia; Hodes, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) is an important measure associated with outcome of psychosis. This first study in the UK compared DUP between adolescent and adult-onset individuals and explored whether the adolescent-onset group showed variations in DUP that could be accounted for by sociodemographic and selected risk factors. This naturalistic cohort study included 940 new first-episode psychosis cases aged 14-35years (136 adolescent-onset versus 804 adult-onset psychotic individuals) referred to nine Early Intervention Services for Psychosis in London (2003-2009). Sociodemographic characteristics, age of onset, family history of mental illness, duration of untreated psychosis, suicidality and substance use information were collected at entry to the services. Adolescents presented with significantly greater median DUP (179days) than adults (81days, p=0.005). Large differences in DUP were found amongst adolescent ethnic groups (median DUP: White: 454days; Black: 103days; Asian and mixed: 28.5days). In addition, younger age of onset and higher lifetime cannabis use were associated with longer treatment delay amongst adolescents. This study of DUP in adolescent-onset psychosis found it to be approximately twice the length of DUP amongst adults. For the adolescent White sub-group, DUP was far greater than the UK Department of Health target (<3months). Both the high rates of lifetime cannabis use and the lower age of onset might explain the long DUP in this ethnic group. Physicians need to be particularly vigilant about identifying and managing early psychosis in adolescents. © 2013.

  16. Risk assessment and control management of radon in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The role of risk assessment and risk management of radon in drinking water was reviewed. It is noted that risk assessments for the public health consequences of radon in drinking water require information on radon concentration in water, exposure pathways, and dose-response relationships. On the other hand, risk management involves assumptions of risk acceptance and the establishment of governmental policies in accord with society's acceptance of these assumptions. Although risk assessment for radon exposures can be reasonably qualitative, risk management is clearly judgmental. The following conclusions/recommendations were made. (1) The presence of radon in drinking water is estimated to have its greatest health impact on the 18% of the US population served by private wells. (2) Although no direct evidence exists associated radon in water with health problems, the diseases that are associated with radon in drinking water are stomach cancer from ingestion and lung cancer from inhalation of radon decay products released during household use of water. (3) Using a number of questionable assumptions, the total number of cancer deaths per year attributable to radon in water is estimated to be about 5,000 as a maximum value, with essentially all cases occurring in the population served by private wells. (4) Promulgating federal regulations to control radon levels in water under the Safe Drinking Water Act seems unwarranted, since private wells would not likely be regulated. (5) Government control programs should be limited to emphasizing an awareness of possible substantially higher than average levels of radon in water in certain geological areas. 12 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Biogeochemical control points in a water-limited critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorover, J.; Brooks, P. D.; Gallery, R. E.; McIntosh, J. C.; Olshansky, Y.; Rasmussen, C.

    2017-12-01

    The routing of water and carbon through complex terrain is postulated to control structure evolution in the sub-humid critical zone of the southwestern US. By combining measurements of land-atmosphere exchange, ecohydrologic partitioning, and subsurface biogeochemistry, we seek to quantify how a heterogeneous (in time and space) distribution of "reactants" impacts both short-term (sub-)catchment response (e.g., pore and surface water chemical dynamics) and long-term landscape evolution (e.g., soil geochemistry/morphology and regolith weathering depth) in watersheds underlain by rhyolite and schist. Instrumented pedons in convergent, planar, and divergent landscape positions show distinct depth-dependent responses to precipitation events. Wetting front propagation, dissolved carbon flux and associated biogeochemical responses (e.g., pulses of CO2 production, O2 depletion, solute release) vary with topography, revealing the influence of lateral subsidies of water and carbon. The impacts of these episodes on the evolution of porous media heterogeneity is being investigated by statistical analysis of pore water chemistry, chemical/spectroscopic studies of solid phase organo-mineral products, sensor-derived water characteristic curves, and quantification of co-located microbial community activity/composition. Our results highlight the interacting effects of critical zone structure and convergent hydrologic flows in the evolution of biogeochemical control points.

  18. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC

  19. A study on water level control of PWR steam generator at low power and the self-tuning of its fuzzy controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, N.; Kwon, K.; Ham, C.; Bien, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The water level control system of a steam generator in a pressurized water reactor and its control problems during the operation at low power is analysed. In particular, a strategy for a water level control system, which is based on the use of a fuzzy logic controller, is proposed. The control strategy includes dynamic tuning for the large transient. The fuzzy variable of the flow rate during the power operation is obtained from the bypass valve opening and not from the incorrect measured signal at the low flow rate. The practical self-tuning algorithm is based on the optimal control performance

  20. δ15N and nutrient stoichiometry of water, aquatic organisms and environmental implications in Taihu lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Dan, Dai; Kun, Lei; Chengda, He; Haibing, Cong; Guo, Fu; Qiujin, Xu; Fuhong, Sun; Fengchang, Wu

    2018-06-01

    Nitrogen pollution has become a worldwide problem and the source identification is important for the development of pertinent control measures. In this study, isotope end members (rain, nitrogen fertilizer, untreated/treated sewage), and samples (river water discharging to Taihu lake, lake water, aquatic organisms of different trophic levels) were taken during 2010-2015 to examine their δ 15 N values and nutrient stoichiometry. Results indicated that phytoplankton (primary producers), which directly take up and incorporate N from the lake water, had a similar δ 15 N value (14.1‰ ± 3.2) to the end member of treated sewage (14.0‰ ± 7.5), and the most frequently observed δ 15 N value in the lake water was 8-12‰, both indicating the dominant impact of the sewage discharge. Relationship analysis between N isotope value of nitrate and nitrate concentration indicated that different N cycling existed between the algae-dominated northwest lake (NW) and the macrophyte-dominated southeast lake (SE), which is a result of both impacts of river inputs and denitrification. Our nutrient stoichiometry analysis showed that the lake water had a significantly higher N:P ratio than that of algae (p economic development in the watershed further confirmed that the rapid population increase and urbanization have resulted in a great change in the N loading and source proportion. We suggest that although P control is necessary in terms of eutrophication control, N pollution control is urgent for the water quality and ecological recovery for Taihu lake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prospective relationship of duration of untreated psychosis to psychopathology and functional outcome over 12 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, Michele

    2012-11-01

    The duration of untreated psychosis is well recognised as an independent predictor of symptomatic and functional outcome in the short term and has facilitated the development of worldwide early intervention programmes. However, the extent and mechanisms by which it might influence prognosis beyond a decade remain poorly understood.

  2. Biological stability of drinking water: controlling factors, methods and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle ePrest

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g. development of opportunistic pathogens, aesthetic (e.g. deterioration of taste, odour, colour or operational (e.g. fouling or biocorrosion of pipes problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors such as (i type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii presence of predators such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv environmental conditions such as water temperature, and (v spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment or biofilm. Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discuss how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to

  3. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  4. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.

    2016-02-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  5. Units 3 and 4 steam generators new water level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoev, D.; Genov, St.

    2001-01-01

    The Steam Generator Water Level Control System is one of the most important for the normal operation systems, related to the safety and reliability of the units. The main upgrading objective for the SG level and SGWLC System modernization is to assure an automatic maintaining of the SG level within acceptable limits (below protections and interlocks) from 0% to 100% of the power in normal operation conditions and in case of transients followed by disturbances in the SG controlled parameters - level, steam flow, feedwater flow and/or pressure/temperature. To achieve this objective, the computerized controllers of new SG water level control system follows current computer control technology and is implemented together with replacement of the feedwater control valves and the needed I and C equipment. (author)

  6. Modelling the Thin-Layer Drying Kinetics of Untreated and Blanch-Osmotic Pre-treated Tomato Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment and drying temperature on the drying kinetics and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L. under hot air drying. Tomato samples were blanched at 80oC and osmotically dehydrated using 20% w/w sodium chloride solutions at 30oC for 20 min. The blanch-osmotic pre-treated and untreated tomato slices were dried at temperature of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80oC, respectively in a hot air-dryer. The results showed that blanch-osmotic pre-treatment offered a higher drying rate and lower or faster drying time than untreated condition. The tomato drying regime was characteristically in the constant and falling rate period. The tomato drying rate curve showed characteristics of porous hygroscopic solids. The optimum drying temperature for tomato was found to be 60oC. Four semi-empirical drying models of Newton, Page, Henderson and Pabis, and Logarithmic were fitted to the drying data using non-linear regression analysis. The most appropriate model was selected using the coefficient of determination (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE. The Page model has shown a better fit to the drying kinetics data of tomato in comparison with other tested models. Transport of moisture during drying was described by Fick’s diffusion model application and the effective moisture diffusivity (Deff thus estimated. The Deff at 60oC was 4.43 × 10-11m2/s and 6.33 × 10-11m2/s for blanch-osmotic pre-treated and untreated tomato slices, respectively.

  7. Gray mode control or a device with added manoeuvrability: a new fine control system for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmin, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present fine control system for pressurized water reactors (the so-called ''A'' mode) cannot meet the requirements of a variable output in all respects. For this reason specialists are now developing a new fine control system, called gray mode control which is better suited to rapid load variations. The basic principles for control of pressurized water reactors are summarized and, then gray mode control or the device with added manoeuvrability is described. The series of tests carried out in 1981 and 1982 on stage 3 of the Tricastin power station are analyzed and the satisfactory results obtained are presented [fr

  8. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974

  9. Fascioliasis and Eosinophilia in the Highlands of Cuzco, Peru and Their Association with Water and Socioeconomic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Goodrich, Mary R.; Graham, Brittany; Villanueva-Meyer, Pablo G.; Lopez, Martha; Arque, Eulogia; White, A. Clinton

    2014-01-01

    There are limited data about the epidemiology of fascioliasis in Cuzco, Peru. We studied children 3–12 years old from six communities in the highlands of Cuzco to evaluate the epidemiology of fascioliasis; 227 children were included, one-half were female, the mean age was 7.5 (±2.6) years, and 46.2±% had one or more parasites, including Fasciola (9.7%), Ascaris (12.8%), Hymenolepis (9.3%), Trichuris (1.3%), hookworm (1.8%), Strongyloides (0.9%), and Giardia (27.8%). Fasciola was associated with the number of siblings in the household, drinking untreated water, and giardiasis. Eosinophilia was encountered in 21% of children and more common in those drinking untreated water at home and those infected with a parasite, but the differences were not significant. Eating water plants was not associated with Fasciola or eosinophilia. Fascioliasis and eosinophilia were common in the highlands of Cuzco. Fascioliasis was associated with socioeconomic factors and drinking water. PMID:25200257

  10. Fascioliasis and eosinophilia in the highlands of Cuzco, Peru and their association with water and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Goodrich, Mary R; Graham, Brittany; Villanueva-Meyer, Pablo G; Lopez, Martha; Arque, Eulogia; White, A Clinton

    2014-11-01

    There are limited data about the epidemiology of fascioliasis in Cuzco, Peru. We studied children 3-12 years old from six communities in the highlands of Cuzco to evaluate the epidemiology of fascioliasis; 227 children were included, one-half were female, the mean age was 7.5 (±2.6) years, and 46.2±% had one or more parasites, including Fasciola (9.7%), Ascaris (12.8%), Hymenolepis (9.3%), Trichuris (1.3%), hookworm (1.8%), Strongyloides (0.9%), and Giardia (27.8%). Fasciola was associated with the number of siblings in the household, drinking untreated water, and giardiasis. Eosinophilia was encountered in 21% of children and more common in those drinking untreated water at home and those infected with a parasite, but the differences were not significant. Eating water plants was not associated with Fasciola or eosinophilia. Fascioliasis and eosinophilia were common in the highlands of Cuzco. Fascioliasis was associated with socioeconomic factors and drinking water. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF QUANTIFICATION OF FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER UTILIZATION EFFECT OF RAINFALL INFILTRATION FACILITY BY USING WATER BALANCE ANALYSIS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    文, 勇起; BUN, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many flood damage and drought attributed to urbanization has occurred. At present infiltration facility is suggested for the solution of these problems. Based on this background, the purpose of this study is investigation of quantification of flood control and water utilization effect of rainfall infiltration facility by using water balance analysis model. Key Words : flood control, water utilization , rainfall infiltration facility

  12. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Pozna?, in the Midwest of Poland. The conventional production flow control and pressure control of the facility was replaced by the advanced control software called OPIR. To assess the differences between conventional and advanced

  13. Impact of Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water on the Growth and Yield of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamorudeen Olaniyi YUSUF

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine whether magnetic treatment of the irrigation water may actually enhance vegetative growth and yield of tomato. Three magnetic flux densities of 124, 319 and 719 G (treatments T1, T2 and T3 were used to treat the water and a control experiment (Tc which was irrigated with non-magnetically treated water was also set up. The magnetic field was produced by an electromagnet that had a variable voltage unit varying the voltage from 4 to 12 V. The tomato were planted in buckets, kept in a transparent garden shed for 130 days and irrigated with magnetically treated water and non-magnetically treated water. A completely randomized design experimental layout was used in this study and each of the three treatments was replicated seven times. The results indicated that tomato crop irrigated with magnetically treated water grew faster than that of the non-magnetically treated water and the stem diameters were bigger than those of control. The heights of tomato plants (T1, T2 T3 and Tc after 47 days were 560.0, 556.4, 588.6 and 469.3 mm respectively. The total yield after 130 days of survey for T1, T2 T3 and Tc were 892.1, 1075.8, 1045.7 and 637.7 g respectively. The percentage increment in yield from the plants treated with magnetically treated water varied from 39.9 to 68.7% compared to the yield from untreated water.

  14. Automated Water Chemistry Control at University of Virginia Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technologically advanced aquatic and fitness center at the University of Virginia. Discusses the imprecise water chemistry control at the former facility and its intensive monitoring requirements. Details the new chemistry control standards initiated in the new center, which ensure constant chlorine and pH levels. (RJM)

  15. Water pollution control technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This work is a compilation by members of the Committee for Studying Transfer of Environmental Technology on the expertise and technology developed by the members for controlling water pollution in Japan, together with consideration of issues concerning the transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries. The committee is composed of representatives for the Environment Agency, Japan, Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka Municipal Government, and 25 companies such as manufacturers of environmental equipment. The document contains a total of 93 short papers grouped into sections on: industrial wastewater treatment; sewage treatment; right soil treatment; sludge treatment; and miscellaneous. One paper by the Kausai Electric Power Co., Inc., discusses waste water treatment systems in oil-fired thermal power plants; another describes an internally circulating fluidized bed boiler for cocombusting coal with industrial wastes.

  16. Arid Green Infrastructure for Water Control and Conservation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure is an approach to managing wet weather flows using systems and practices that mimic natural processes. It is designed to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible and protect the quality of receiving waters. Although most green infrastructure practices were first developed in temperate climates, green infrastructure also can be a cost-effective approach to stormwater management and water conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, such as those found in the western and southwestern United States. Green infrastructure practices can be applied at the site, neighborhood and watershed scales. In addition to water management and conservation, implementing green infrastructure confers many social and economic benefits and can address issues of environmental justice. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commissioned a literature review to identify the state-of-the science practices dealing with water control and conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, with emphasis on these regions in the United States. The search focused on stormwater control measures or practices that slow, capture, treat, infiltrate and/or store runoff at its source (i.e., green infrastructure). The material in Chapters 1 through 3 provides background to EPA’s current activities related to the application of green infrastructure practices in arid and semi-arid regions. An introduction to the topic of green infrastructure in arid and semi-arid regions i

  17. Robust Economic Control Decision Method of Uncertain System on Urban Domestic Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kebai; Ma, Tianyi; Wei, Guo

    2018-03-31

    As China quickly urbanizes, urban domestic water generally presents the circumstances of both rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. A robust economic control decision method for dynamic uncertain systems is proposed in this paper. It is developed based on the internal model principle and pole allocation method, and it is applied to an urban domestic water supply system with rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. To achieve this goal, first a multiplicative model is used to describe the urban domestic water demand. Then, a capital stock and a labor stock are selected as the state vector, and the investment and labor are designed as the control vector. Next, the compensator subsystem is devised in light of the internal model principle. Finally, by using the state feedback control strategy and pole allocation method, the multivariable robust economic control decision method is implemented. The implementation with this model can accomplish the urban domestic water supply control goal, with the robustness for the variation of parameters. The methodology presented in this study may be applied to the water management system in other parts of the world, provided all data used in this study are available. The robust control decision method in this paper is also applicable to deal with tracking control problems as well as stabilization control problems of other general dynamic uncertain systems.

  18. High Resolution Sensing and Control of Urban Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, M. D.; Wong, B. P.; Kerkez, B.

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework to enable high-resolution sensing, modeling, and control of urban watersheds using (i) a distributed sensor network based on low-cost cellular-enabled motes, (ii) hydraulic models powered by a cloud computing infrastructure, and (iii) automated actuation valves that allow infrastructure to be controlled in real time. This platform initiates two major advances. First, we achieve a high density of measurements in urban environments, with an anticipated 40+ sensors over each urban area of interest. In addition to new measurements, we also illustrate the design and evaluation of a "smart" control system for real-world hydraulic networks. This control system improves water quality and mitigates flooding by using real-time hydraulic models to adaptively control releases from retention basins. We evaluate the potential of this platform through two ongoing deployments: (i) a flood monitoring network in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area that detects and anticipates floods at the level of individual roadways, and (ii) a real-time hydraulic control system in the city of Ann Arbor, MI—soon to be one of the most densely instrumented urban watersheds in the United States. Through these applications, we demonstrate that distributed sensing and control of water infrastructure can improve flash flood predictions, emergency response, and stormwater contaminant mitigation.

  19. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) to guarantee safe water reuse and drinking water production--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewettinck, T; Van Houtte, E; Geenens, D; Van Hege, K; Verstraete, W

    2001-01-01

    To obtain a sustainable water catchment in the dune area of the Flemish west coast, the integration of treated domestic wastewater in the existing potable water production process is planned. The hygienic hazards associated with the introduction of treated domestic wastewater into the water cycle are well recognised. Therefore, the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) was used to guarantee hygienically safe drinking water production. Taking into account the literature data on the removal efficiencies of the proposed advanced treatment steps with regard to enteric viruses and protozoa and after setting high quality limits based on the recent progress in quantitative risk assessment, the critical control points (CCPs) and points of attention (POAs) were identified. Based on the HACCP analysis a specific monitoring strategy was developed which focused on the control of these CCPs and POAs.

  20. Control of materials harmful to water in the German Konrad repository - 16125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, Karin; Brennecke, Peter; Steyer, Stephan; Gruendler, Detlef; Boetsch, Wilma; Haider, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In order to avoid a pollution of the near surface ground water during the post closure phase of the Konrad repository the acceptable amount of material harmful to water in the radioactive waste is restricted. For this purpose the KONRAD plan approval order includes waste requirements referring to the German water law ('water law permission'). In a first part of this contribution the water law permission for the KONRAD repository is introduced. This permission contains a list of materials harmful to water with the respective limitations in mass and many instructions and proposals regarding the registering and balancing of these materials as well as quality assurance aspects. The second part deals with the implementation of the water law permission in the waste acceptance criteria. The waste producer has to describe his waste in a standardized way with respect to the material composition. The operator of the repository has to check this description and to register and balance the materials and substances harmful to water. This procedure is based on a standardized list of materials and a list of containers. In the third part quality control measures used for the proof of the compliance with the acceptance criteria (with respect to the water law permission) are described. In particular objective of the quality control, possible quality control options and acceptable margins are dealt with. (authors)

  1. Altered metabolic incorporation of fucose and leucine into PNS myelin of 25-week-old diabetic (C57BL/Ks [db/db]) mice: effects of untreated diabetes on nerve metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chez, M.G.; Peterson, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Sciatic nerves of 25-week-old genetically diabetic (C57BL/Ks [db/db]) mice and their litter-mate controls were removed, and their metabolic incorporation of [ 3 H]fucose and [ 14 C]leucine into myelin was studied in vitro. Untreated diabetic animals showed significant increases (p less than 0.05) in the fucose/leucine incorporation into myelin when compared to values found for their litter-mates. These results correlated well with previous experiments performed on alloxan or streptozotocin-diabetic rats and thus show the in vitro incubation procedure to be a good indicator of altered metabolic conditions in peripheral nerves due to diabetes mellitus. The resulting ratio increases seen in diabetic animals is at variance with the decrease in ratios found in animals undergoing typical Wallerian degeneration. These results suggest that different metabolic processes operate in untreated diabetics than in normals or in those undergoing other degenerative nerve processes

  2. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  3. Drinking water disinfection by means of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelzhaeuser, P.; Bewig, F.; Holm, K.; Kryschi, R.; Reich, G.; Steuer, W.

    1985-01-01

    The book presents all lectures held during a course at Technical Academy Esslingen, on September 10, 1985, on the subject of 'Drinking water disinfection by means of ultraviolet radiation'. The methods hitherto used for disinfection are no longer suitable because of the increasing amounts of organic pollutants found in the untreated water, and because of the necessity to make drinking water disinfection less expensive, non-polluting and thus environmentally compatible. U.V. irradiation is a method allowing technically simple and safe disinfection of the water, and also does not have any effect on the natural taste of the drinking water. The lectures presented discuss all aspects of the method, the equipment, and the performance of irradiation systems in practice. (orig./PW) [de

  4. The impact of traditional coffee processing on river water quality in Ethiopia and the urgency of adopting sound environmental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Abebe; Kassahun, Yared; Addis, Taffere; Assefa, Fassil; Amsalu, Aklilu; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Triest, Ludwig

    2012-11-01

    Although waste from coffee processing is a valuable resource to make biogas, compost, and nutrient-rich animal food, it is usually dumped into nearby water courses. We carried out water quality assessment at 44 sampling sites along 18 rivers that receive untreated waste from 23 coffee pulping and processing plants in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Twenty upstream sampling sites free from coffee waste impact served as control, and 24 downstream sampling sites affected by coffee waste were selected for comparison. Physicochemical and biological results revealed a significant river water quality deterioration as a result of disposing untreated coffee waste into running water courses. During coffee-processing (wet) season, the highest organic load (1,900 mg/l), measured as biochemical oxygen demand, depleted dissolved oxygen (DO) to a level less than 0.01 mg/l, and thus curtailed nitrification. During off season, oxygen started to recuperate and augmented nitrification. The shift from significantly elevated organic load and reduced DO in the wet season to increased nitrate in the off season was found to be the determining factor for the difference in macroinvertebrate community structure as verified by ordination analysis. Macroinvertebrate diversity was significantly reduced in impacted sites during the wet season contrary to the off season. However, there was a significant difference in the ratio of sensitive to pollution-tolerant taxa in the off season, which remained depreciated in the longer term. This study highlights the urgency of research exploring on the feasibility of adopting appropriate pollution abatement technologies to implement ecologically sound coffee-processing systems in coffee-growing regions of Ethiopia.

  5. Cooling water conditioning and quality control for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootgeld, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Designers and operators of Tokamaks and all associated water cooled, peripheral equipment, are faced with the task of providing and maintaining closed-loop, low conductivity, low impurity, cooling water systems. The primary reason for supplying low conductivity water to the DIII-D vacuum vessel coils, power supplies and auxiliary heating components is to assure, along with the use of a non-conducting break in the supply piping, sufficient electrical resistance and thus an acceptable current-leakage path to ground at operating voltage potentials. As important, good quality cooling water significantly reduces the likelihood of scaling and fouling of flow passages and heat transfer surfaces. Dissolved oxygen gas removal is also required in one major DIII-D cooling water system to minimize corrosion in the ion sources of the neutral beam injectors. Currently, the combined pumping capacity of the high quality cooling water systems at DIII-D is ∼5,000 gpm. Another area that receives close attention at DIII-D is the chemical treatment of the water used in the cooling towers. This paper discusses the DIII-D water quality requirements, the means used to obtain the necessary quality and the instrumentation used for control and monitoring. Costs to mechanically and chemically condition and maintain water quality are discussed as well as the various aspects of complying with government standards and regulations

  6. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  7. Mathematical modeling of drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunde-Akintunde, T Y; Ogunlakin, G O

    2013-08-01

    In this study, drying characteristics of pretreated and untreated pumpkin were examined in a hot-air dryer at air temperatures within a range of 40-80 °C and a constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The drying was observed to be in the falling-rate drying period and thus liquid diffusion is the main mechanism of moisture movement from the internal regions to the product surface. The experimental drying data for the pumpkin fruits were used to fit Exponential, General exponential, Logarithmic, Page, Midilli-Kucuk and Parabolic model and the statistical validity of models tested were determined by non-linear regression analysis. The Parabolic model had the highest R(2) and lowest χ(2) and RMSE values. This indicates that the Parabolic model is appropriate to describe the dehydration behavior for the pumpkin.

  8. Performance confirmation operation of water environment control facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, Hirokatsu; Okada, Yuji; Tomita, Kenji; Iida, Kazuhiro; Ando, Hitoshi; Yonekawa, Akihisa; Ueda, Haruyasu; Hanawa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Masaru; Sakuta, Yoshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in order to solve the problem in the long-term operation of a light water reactor, preparation which does the irradiation experiment of light-water reactor fuel and material was advanced. JMTR stopped after the 165th operation cycle in August 2006, and is advancing renewal of the irradiation facility towards re-operation. The material irradiation test facility was installed from 2008 fiscal year to 2012 fiscal year in JMTR. The material irradiation test facility is used for IASCC study, and consists of mainly three equipments. This report described performance operating test of the water environmental control facilities for IASCC study carried out 2013 fiscal year. (author)

  9. Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors of Low Bone Mineral Density in Untreated Female Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ning Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation. Different studies have shown decreased bone mineral density (BMD in patients with SLE. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and possible risk factors of low BMD in untreated female patients with SLE in Chinese population. A total of 119 untreated female patients with SLE were included. BMD was measured at lumbar spine and at total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The associations between decreased BMD and demographic variables, clinical variables, and bone metabolism variables were analyzed. These SLE patients had the following characteristics: mean age was 32.6±11.9 years, mean disease duration was 22.1±34.5 months, and mean SLEDAI was 11.4±5.4. Osteopenia was present in 31.1% of the patients and osteoporosis in 8.5%. A significant negative association between low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and BMD at the lumbar spine (correlation coefficient = −0.242; P=0.023 and total hip (correlation coefficient = −0.259; P=0.019 was shown. These results seem to indicate that increased LDL-c may be an important risk factor for low BMD at lumbar spine and total hip in untreated female SLE patients.

  10. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A.

    1990-01-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease

  11. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  12. Use of clay to remediate cadmium contaminated soil under different water management regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianrui; Xu, Yingming

    2017-07-01

    We examined in situ remediation of sepiolite on cadmium-polluted soils with diverse water regimes, and several variables including brown rice Cd, exchangeable Cd, pH, and available Fe/P. pH, available Fe/P in soils increased gradually during continuous flooding, which contributed to Cd absorption on colloids. In control group (untreated soils), compared to conventional irrigation, brown rice Cd in continuous flooding reduced by 37.9%, and that in wetting irrigation increased by 31.0% (psoils reduced by 44.4%, 34.5% and 36.8% under continuous flooding, conventional irrigation and wetting irrigation (psoils reduced by 27.5-49.0%, 14.3-40.5%, and 24.9-32.8% under three water management regimes (psoils were higher in continuous flooding than in conventional irrigation and wetting irrigation. Continuous flooding management promoted soil Cd immobilization by sepiolite. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Survival of tumor-bearing mice exposed to heavy water or heavy water plus methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laissue, J.A.; Buerki, H.; Berchtold, W.

    1982-01-01

    Moderate body deuteration combined with a cytostatic drug [methotrexate (MTX)] significantly increases the survival time of young adult DBA/2 mice bearing transplantable P815. L5178Y, or L1210 tumors. Neoplastic cells were grown in vitro from tumor stock and injected i.p. into mice from two groups, one drinking tap water, and other drinking 30% heavy water in tap water. One-half of the animals in each of these two groups was given a single injection of MTX (4 mg/kg body weight) on 3 consecutive days per week. At death, extension of primary and metastatic tumors was examined and was found to be macro- and microscopically comparable in the corresponding groups. The mean survival time of untreated mice drinking tap water was about 2 weeks following injection of the fast-growing P815, L5178Y, or L1210 (V) tumors and approximately 5 weeks after injection of cells from a slower-growing L1210 subline. Body deuteration alone roughly doubled the survival time solely of mice bearing this L1210 subline. Treatment with MTX approximately doubled the mean survival time of hosts bearing one of the fast-growing tumors. Combined treatment with heavy water and MTX increased the mean survival time of the mice in all groups by 15 to 125% as compared to control values. The reasons for this effect are unknown. However, heavy water has been shown to exert antimitotic activity and to depress the incorporation of radioactive precursors into DNA of proliferating mammalian cells. The depression of antibody formation following antigenic stimulation and the reduction in numbers of nonneoplastic lymphoid cells of mice following moderate body deuteration may have contributed to the enhancement of MTX activity in addition to other effects of deuterium

  14. Utilization of Urea Treated and Untreated Cocoa Pod Husk Based Diets by Growing Pigs : An On-farm Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyayi, EA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An on-farm adaptation study of the utilization of urea treated and untreated cocoa pod husk (CPH by growing pigs was carried out on a commercial pig farm. Thirty-two Landrace X Large White growing pigs (16 males + 16 females were randomly assigned to 4 experimental diets. Diet 1 was a standard grower ration (control. In Diets 2 and 3 CPH meal was included at 250 g/kg, that used in Diet 3 being treated with a 5 % urea solution. Diet 4 was the farmer's diet. There was no significant difference (P> 0.05 between diets 3 and the control in their effect on the performance of the animals. These two diets caused a better (P 0.05 influence on the backfat thickness. Carcass cuts were also not significantly (P> 0.05 influenced by inclusion of CPH meal. Results suggest (1 the possibility of formulating diets for growing pigs using CPH meals and (2 that further treatment of the CPH meal with urea improves its nutritive value resulting in better performance and economy of production.

  15. The course of untreated anxiety and depression, and determinants of poor one-year outcome: a one-year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Marwijk Harm WJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the course and outcome of untreated anxiety and depression in patients with and without a self-perceived need for care. The aim of the present study was to examine the one-year course of untreated anxiety and depression, and to determine predictors of a poor outcome. Method Baseline and one-year follow-up data were used of 594 primary care patients with current anxiety or depressive disorders at baseline (established by the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI, from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA. Receipt of and need for care were assessed by the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire (PNCQ. Results In depression, treated and untreated patients with a perceived treatment need showed more rapid symptom decline but greater symptom severity at follow-up than untreated patients without a self-perceived mental problem or treatment need. A lower education level, lower income, unemployment, loneliness, less social support, perceived need for care, number of somatic disorders, a comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder and symptom severity at baseline predicted a poorer outcome in both anxiety and depression. When all variables were considered at the same time, only baseline symptom severity appeared to predict a poorer outcome in anxiety. In depression, a poorer outcome was also predicted by more loneliness and a comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder. Conclusion In clinical practice, special attention should be paid to exploring the need for care among possible risk groups (e.g. low social economic status, low social support, and support them in making an informed decision on whether or not to seek treatment.

  16. A serological, parasitological and clinical evaluation of untreated Chagas disease patients and those treated with benznidazole before and thirteen years after intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Diniz, Glaucia Alessio; Montoya, Roberto Araújo; Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Coura, José Rodrigues; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Torres, Rosália Morais; de Lana, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Patients who presented with the indeterminate form of the disease at the beginning of the study exhibited less clinical progression (17.4%) compared with the untreated group (56.5%). Therefore, this global analysis revealed that etiological treatment with benznidazole may benefit patients with respect to the clinical progression of Chagas disease and the prognosis, particularly when administered to patients with the indeterminate form of the disease. PMID:24037109

  17. Prey Preference of Predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Seiedy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The predator Amblyseius swirskii and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana are important biocontrol agents of Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Determination of the host preference of predators in the fields when receiving signals related to either untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated pest is important. Materials and Methods In this research, the prey preference of adult female (2 days old of A. swirskii was determined on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae in various treatments base on Manly Index. These different treatments consisted of two time intervals; 24 and 48 h post-inoculation of greenhouse whiteflies with 1×105 conidia /ml of B. bassiana with 13 replicates. 24-h starved predators were added to the leaf discs singly then the number of consumed untreated and B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in each Petri dish was assessed after 24 h. Results and Discussion The results revealed that mean number of consumed B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in two time intervals; 24 and 48 h. after inoculation were 4/15±0/19 and 2.23±0/12, respectively. This investigation showed a significant preference of A. swirskii towards untreated T. vaporariorum in 24 (P< 0.0034 and 48 h. (P

  18. The Effects of Abattoir Waste on Water Quality in Gwagwalada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the impact of abattoir wastes on water quality around an abattoir site in Gwagwalada. The work was premised on the fact that untreated wastes from the abattoir are discharged directly into open drainage which flows into a nearby stream. Leachates from dumped and decomposed wastes have also ...

  19. Quantifying the non-fungicidal effects of foliar applications of fluxapyroxad (Xemium) on stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and yield in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Grimmer, M; Waterhouse, S; Paveley, N

    2013-01-01

    The active ingredient fluxapyroxad belongs to the chemical group of carboxamides and is a new generation succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) in complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It has strong efficacy against the key foliar diseases of winter wheat in the UK: Septoria leaf blotch, yellow stripe rust and brown rust. Fluxapyroxad is marketed under the brand name of Xemium, was launched in 2012 and is available in the UK as a solo product (Imtrex) for co-application with triazoles, in co-formulation with epoxiconazole (Adexar), or in a three way formulation with epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin (Ceriax). The objective of the study was to quantify the direct effects of Xemium on stomatal conductance and yield, mediated through stimulation of host physiology. Three field experiments and two controlled environment (CE) experiments were conducted across three cropping seasons (2010-2012) in Herefordshire and Cambridge, in the UK. Xemium was evaluated against boscalid, pyraclostrobin (F500), epoxiconazole and an untreated control. Across site-seasons, disease severity was significantly reduced when Xemium was applied as a foliar spray. Healthy canopy size and duration was increased by Xemium and canopy greening effects were seen shortly after application. Stomatal conductance was found to be consistently lower in Xemium treated plants but reduced stomatal opening was not found to be detrimental to yield in these experiments. Large, beneficial effects of Xemium on water use efficiency were found at the canopy level and this finding was supported by measurements of instantaneous water use efficiency at the leaf level. Effects on season long water use efficiency were largely driven by improvements in yield for a given amount of water uptake. Foliar applications of Xemium reduced the water required to produce 1.0 t grain per hectare by 82,330 L(82 t) when compared with an untreated crop. Yield was significantly higher in Xemium treatments and this was

  20. Case-specific comparison of water pollution control alternatives in peat production; Turvetuotannon vesiensuojeluvaihtoehtojen tapauskohtainen vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, M.; Kaasinen, A.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.; Kaemae, T.; Alasaarela, E.

    1996-12-31

    The present practice water pollution control in peat production and the elements of planning were analyzed, the water purification methods were classified and their weaknesses estimated. Furthermore, the cost of the water purification constructions was estimated and their significance for the watercourses evaluated. 54 peat production plans were chosen from the catchment areas of the rivers Iijoki, Siikajoki and Pyhaejoki. The suitability of the chosen water pollution control methods was evaluated on the basis of the plans and, further, on the basis of field surveys. The suitability of the purification methods to practical water pollution control was assessed by making plans for 15 peat mining areas. There is a need to develop the planning and implementation of water pollution control in peat mining. The methods that are used do not always work in the expected way in practice. Despite this planning is compatible with the water protection program and the regulations that are in force. The study gives a good idea of how to update the planning instructions for water pollution control. The accompanying report includes plan for 11 peat mining areas. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected controllers and noncontrollers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Hiroyu; Somsouk, Ma; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Harvill, Kara; Gilman, Lee; Cohen, Michelle; Hoh, Rebecca; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Wong, Joseph K; Deeks, Steven G; Yukl, Steven A

    2013-09-10

    HIV-infected controllers have provided novel insights into mechanisms of viral control. We investigated the degree to which HIV DNA and RNA are present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of controllers. Cross-sectional cohort study. Colorectal biopsy pieces were obtained from five untreated noncontrollers, five ART-suppressed patients, and nine untreated controllers. Rectal HIV DNA was lower in controllers (median 496 copies/10(6) CD4 T cells) than in untreated noncontrollers (117483 copies/10(6) CD4+ T cells, P = 0.001) and ART-suppressed patients (6116 copies/10(6) CD4 T cells, P = 0.004). Similarly, rectal HIV RNA was lower in controllers (19 copies/10(6) CD4 T cells) than in noncontrollers (15210 copies/10(6) CD4+ T cells, P = 0.001) and ART-suppressed patients (1625 copies/10(6) CD4+ T cells, P = 0.0599). Rectal HIV RNA/DNA ratios were not statistically different between the three groups. Despite being able to maintain very low plasma HIV RNA levels in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected controllers have readily measurable levels of HIV DNA and RNA in GALT. As expected, controllers had lower rectal HIV DNA and RNA compared with untreated noncontrollers and ART-suppressed individuals. Compared with the mechanisms of 'natural' viral control of controllers, long-term ART does not reduce the total HIV reservoir to the level of controllers.

  2. Model Predictive Control application for real time operation of controlled structures for the Water Authority Noorderzijlvest, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Gooijer, Jan; Knot, Floris; Talsma, Jan

    2015-04-01

    In the Netherlands, flood protection has always been a key issue to protect settlements against storm surges and riverine floods. Whereas flood protection traditionally focused on structural measures, nowadays the availability of meteorological and hydrological forecasts enable the application of more advanced real-time control techniques for operating the existing hydraulic infrastructure in an anticipatory and more efficient way. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a powerful technique to derive optimal control variables with the help of model based predictions evaluated against a control objective. In a project for the regional water authority Noorderzijlvest in the north of the Netherlands, it has been shown that MPC can increase the safety level of the system during flood events by an anticipatory pre-release of water. Furthermore, energy costs of pumps can be reduced by making tactical use of the water storage and shifting pump activities during normal operating conditions to off-peak hours. In this way cheap energy is used in combination of gravity flow through gates during low tide periods. MPC has now been implemented for daily operational use of the whole water system of the water authority Noorderzijlvest. The system developed to a real time decision support system which not only supports the daily operation but is able to directly implement the optimal control settings at the structures. We explain how we set-up and calibrated a prediction model (RTC-Tools) that is accurate and fast enough for optimization purposes, and how we integrated it in the operational flood early warning system (Delft-FEWS). Beside the prediction model, the weights and the factors of the objective function are an important element of MPC, since they shape the control objective. We developed special features in Delft-FEWS to allow the operators to adjust the objective function in order to meet changing requirements and to evaluate different control strategies.

  3. Research on wireless remote control scheme for the water source well of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun; Bao Feng

    2013-01-01

    Traditional wired electrical control method is applicable to simple control for the short-distance industrial equipment, but it is not suitable for the water source well of uranium mines requiring remote control. A kind of wireless remote control system based on high-speed radio modem communication technology was presented for the water source wells of a uranium mine, and the water source wells can be remotely controlled with the system. The component, implementation and characteristics of the control system are introduced. (authors)

  4. Computerized EEG and brain imaging studies in untreated schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, Toshiro; Kishimoto, Hideji; Hagimoto, Hiroshi; Fujita, Haruhiro; Tanaka, Kenkichi

    1993-01-01

    We undertook routine EEG, Z-map, CT and PET scans in seven acute untreated schizophrenics. Routine EEGs showed slower activity in only one case. However, the Z-map showed slower activity in all the cases. CT demonstrated brain atrophy in three of the cases, and PET revealed hypofrontality in two, right hypoparietality in four, and both conditions in one case. There was no relation between CT and PET or the Z-map. However, a significant increase in alpha 1 activity was demonstrated on the Z-map in cases who were found to be the parietal type on PET; this was not conspicuous in the frontal type on PET. Moreover, in three of the patients, the Z-map findings were similar to the lesion indicated on PET. (author)

  5. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves.

  6. Ecotechnology: basis of a new immission concept in water pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benndorf, J

    2005-01-01

    Beyond the traditional load reduction also an ecosystem-internal mechanism can be used to minimise the effects of water pollution. The control of the internal mechanisms is achieved through the optimisation of the ecosystem structure. This ecotechnology principle is based on the idea to reduce as much as possible the gap between the current (suboptimal) structural status and the optimum structure by intentional manipulations. The spectrum of such manipulations is very broad. A few examples are demonstrated. They comprise physical (e.g. stream morphology), chemical (e.g. enhancing the redox potential at the sediment-water interface) and biological (e.g. enhancing stocks of predatory fishes) control measures. It can be supposed that a new immission concept including the ecotechnology principle could be much more adequate to the demand of modern water pollution control than the traditional emission and imission concepts.

  7. The Hidden Cost of Untreated Paragangliomas of the Head and Neck: Systemic Reactive (AA Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Dervisoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 51-year-old man who was diagnosed with systemic reactive (AA amyloidosis in association with untreated glomus jugulare and glomus caroticum tumors. He refused radiotherapy and renal replacement therapy. Paragangliomas, although rare, should be considered one of the tumors that can result in AA amyloidosis.

  8. Effects of intravitreal ranibizumab on the untreated eye and systemic gene expression profile in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalska-Małecka K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Katarzyna Michalska-Małecka,1,2 Adam Kabiesz,2 Malgorzata W Kimsa,3 Barbara Strzałka-Mrozik,3 Maria Formińska-Kapuścik,2,4 Malgorzata Nita,5 Urszula Mazurek31Clinical Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 2University Center for Ophthalmology and Oncology, Independent Public Clinical Hospital, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 3Department of Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 4Clinical Department of Children Ophthalmology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 5Domestic and Specialized Medicine Centre “Dilmed”, Katowice, PolandAbstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the systemic effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis treatment in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The impact of intravitreal ranibizumab injections on central retinal thickness (CRT of treated and contralateral untreated eyes, and differences in gene expression patterns in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed. The study included 29 patients aged 50 years old and over with diagnosed neovascular AMD. The treatment was defined as 0.5 mg of ranibizumab injected intravitreally in the form of one injection every month during the period of 3 months. CRT was measured by optical coherence tomography. The gene expression profile was assigned using oligonucleotide microarrays of Affymetrix HG-U133A. Studies have shown that there was a change of CRT between treated and untreated eyes, and there were differences in CRT at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 months of ranibizumab treatment. Three months after intravitreal injection, mean CRT was reduced in the treated eyes from 331.97±123.62 to 254.31±58.75 µm, while mean CRT in the untreated fellow eyes reduced from 251.07±40.29 to 235.45±36.21 µm at the same time. Furthermore, the research has shown

  9. Water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation of silver nanoparticles in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongguang; Yang, Xiaoya; Zhou, Xiaoxia; Wang, Weidong; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable release of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into aquatic environments has drawn great concerns about its environmental toxicity and safety. Although aggregation and transformation play crucial roles in the transport and toxicity of AgNPs, how the water chemistry of environmental waters influences the aggregation and transformation of engineered AgNPs is still not well understood. In this study, the aggregation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs was investigated in eight typical environmental water samples (with different ionic strengths, hardness, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations) by using UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Raman spectroscopy was applied to probe the interaction of DOM with the surface of AgNPs. Further, the photo-transformation and morphology changes of AgNPs in environmental waters were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The results suggested that both electrolytes (especially Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and DOM in the surface waters are key parameters for AgNP aggregation, and sunlight could accelerate the morphology change, aggregation, and further sedimentation of AgNPs. This water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation should have significant environmental impacts on the transport and toxicity of AgNPs in the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Regulation of Silk Material Structure by Temperature-Controlled Water Vapor Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Shmelev, Karen; Sun, Lin; Gil, Eun-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyug; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and effective method to obtain refined control of the molecular structure of silk biomaterials through physical temperature-controlled water vapor annealing (TCWVA). The silk materials can be prepared with control of crystallinity, from a low content using conditions at 4°C (alpha-helix dominated silk I structure), to highest content of ~60% crystallinity at 100°C (beta-sheet dominated silk II structure). This new physical approach covers the range of structures previously reported to govern crystallization during the fabrication of silk materials, yet offers a simpler, green chemistry, approach with tight control of reproducibility. The transition kinetics, thermal, mechanical, and biodegradation properties of the silk films prepared at different temperatures were investigated and compared by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), uniaxial tensile studies, and enzymatic degradation studies. The results revealed that this new physical processing method accurately controls structure, in turn providing control of mechanical properties, thermal stability, enzyme degradation rate, and human mesenchymal stem cell interactions. The mechanistic basis for the control is through the temperature controlled regulation of water vapor, to control crystallization. Control of silk structure via TCWVA represents a significant improvement in the fabrication of silk-based biomaterials, where control of structure-property relationships is key to regulating material properties. This new approach to control crystallization also provides an entirely new green approach, avoiding common methods which use organic solvents (methanol, ethanol) or organic acids. The method described here for silk proteins would also be universal for many other structural proteins (and likely other biopolymers), where water controls chain interactions related to material properties. PMID:21425769

  11. Monitoring and controlling microbiological growth in a standby service water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisson, P.S.; Whitaker, J.M.; Neilson, H.L.; Mayne, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission formally recognized the potential for nuclear accidents caused by loss of heat transfer due to microbiological fouling and loss of system integrity caused by microbiologically influenced corrosion. To prevent such potential problems, monitoring, mitigation, and control procedures must be developed by all regulated plants. This article describes the control and mitigation strategy for the standby service water system of a boiling water reactor nuclear power plant

  12. Water sorption in wood and modified wood at high values of relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Engelund, Emil Tang; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2010-01-01

    additional results corroborate this conclusion: (1) calculation of the theoretical contribution of capillary condensation to the moisture content (MC) in wood based on idealized microstructural geometries by means of the Kelvin and Laplace equations resulted in very small contributions to the equilibrium...... moisture content (EMC), i.e., below 0.35% moisture at 99.9% RH. (2) The ratio between the EMC of acetylated and untreated samples did not show an increasing trend for increasing RH, as would have been the case if capillary condensation had taken place in both untreated and acetylated wood. (3) Low field......, and the pressure plate technique. The curve form for the untreated samples did not show an upward bend, except perhaps above 99.5% RH, indicating that – contrary to what has hitherto been assumed – capillary condensation does not play a significant role for water sorption in wood below fiber saturation. Three...

  13. Poor quality of life among untreated Thai and Cambodian children without severe HIV symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Kerr, Stephen J; Kariminia, Azar; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Chuenyam, Theshinee; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Vun, Mean Chhi; Vibol, Ung; Vannary, Bun; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2012-01-01

    There are limited data on quality of life (QOL) 1 in untreated HIV-infected children who do not have severe HIV symptoms. Moreover, such data do not exist for Asian children. Poor QOL could be a factor in deciding if antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated. Thai and Cambodian children (n=294), aged 1-11 years, naïve to ART, with mild to moderate HIV symptoms and CD4 15-24% were enrolled. Their caregivers completed the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group QOL questionnaire prior to ART commencement. Six QOL domains were assessed using transformed scores that ranged from 0 to 100. Higher QOL scores indicated better health. Mean age was 6.1 (SD 2.8) years, mean CD4 was 723 (SD 369) cells/mm(3), 57% was female, and%CDC N:A:B was 2:63:35%. One-third knew their HIV diagnosis. Mean (SD) scores were 69.9 (17.6) for health perception, 64.5 (16.2) for physical resilience, 84.2 (15.6) for physical functioning, 77.9 (16.3) for psychosocial well-being, 74.7 (28.7) for social and role functioning, 90.0 (12.1) for health care utilization, and 87.4 (11.3) for symptoms domains. Children with CD4 counts above the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) ART-initiation criteria (n=53) had higher scores in health perception and health care utilization than those with lower CD4 values. Younger children had poorer QOL than older children despite having similar mean CD4%. In conclusion, untreated Asian children without severe HIV symptoms had relatively low QOL scores compared to published reports in Western countries. Therapy initiation criteria by the WHO identified children with lower QOL scores to start ART; however, children who did not fit ART-initiation criteria and those who were younger also displayed poor QOL. QOL assessment should be considered in untreated children to inform decisions about when to initiate ART.

  14. Laser and infrared techniques for water pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, A.L.; Landolina, F.; Pantani, L.; Cecchi, G.

    1993-01-01

    A remote sensing application for the control of oil pollution and water quality was developed by the National Council of Research at Florence, and the University of Catania, both in Italy. The application is based on the simultaneous use of active antipassive remote sensing systems (lidar and flir systems) from a helicopter. Water pollution characteristics were determined with the lidar system, in polluted areas of water detected, on a larger scale, by the flir system. Pollution characteristics detected included type of pollutant, type of oil, and oil thickness. The experiment, named LIRA, was carried out using an Italian Navy helicopter over sea areas around Sicily having a high risk of pollution. The results proved the effectiveness and usefulness of the techniques proposed

  15. The association between pre-morbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P; Petersen, L; Thorup, A

    2008-01-01

    The association between the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and outcome of schizophrenia may be confounded by other factors such as poor pre-morbid adjustment. The aim of the present study was to examine the independent contributions of DUP and of pre-morbid adjustment to the clinical...

  16. Complicated untreated apical periodontitis causing paraesthesia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F

    2017-08-14

    The purpose of this article was to report a case of untreated apical periodontitis resulting in severe late complications. A patient with an asymptomatic crowned root canal-treated mandibular molar revealing a radiographic substandard endodontic treatment and a slight periapical radiolucency was made aware of the treatment options and opted for no treatment. The lesion slightly increased in size after 6 years, but the tooth remained asymptomatic and endodontic retreatment was again refused. After 4 more years, the patient presented with an abscess and severe pain, complicated by paraesthesia of the left chin and lip. Radiographic examination revealed that the lesion had increased considerably to involve the mandibular canal. The treatment protocol included long-term intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide and follow-ups revealed complete resolution of the periapical radiolucency and the paraesthesia had completely subsided. © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  17. Mechanical properties of water hyacinth fibers – polyester composites before and after immersion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abral, H.; Kadriadi, D.; Rodianus, A.; Mastariyanto, P.; Ilhamdi; Arief, S.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ishak, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Moisture absorption of water hyacinth (WH) fibers was measured. • WH fibers polyester composites immersed in water decreased mechanical properties. • Improvement fibers fraction in polyester increases mechanical properties. - Abstract: This study reported moisture absorption of untreated and treated individual water hyacinth (WH) fibers as well as comparison the mechanical properties of WH fibers – unsaturated polyester (UPR) matrix composites after and before immersion in water. The result shows that the individual WH fibers treated with various alkali concentration did not exhibit significantly decreases of their moisture absorption. SEM photograph in cross section of the treated WH fibers shows swollen cell wall containing more nano and micro hollows. Tensile and flexure strength of the wet composite samples are lower than that of dried ones. However, increases volume fraction of the WH fibers in UPR matrix affected slightly on enhancement mechanical properties of the composite samples

  18. Perineal evisceration secondary to a bite injury in a dog with an untreated perineal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Daniel; Lux, Cassie; Seibert, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    Emergency surgery was performed on a 6-year-old castrated male springer spaniel dog with evisceration of most of the small intestinal tract through the perineal region, secondary to a dog attack. This is the first report describing successful treatment of perineal evisceration secondary to dog attack at an untreated perineal hernia, employing abdominal and perineal approaches.

  19. Model Prediction Control For Water Management Using Adaptive Prediction Accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, X.; Negenborn, R.R.; Van Overloop, P.J.A.T.M.; Mostert, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of operational water management, Model Predictive Control (MPC) has gained popularity owing to its versatility and flexibility. The MPC controller, which takes predictions, time delay and uncertainties into account, can be designed for multi-objective management problems and for

  20. DENTAL CAST STUDY OF ADULT PATIENTS WITH UNTREATED UNILATERAL CLEFT-LIP OR CLEFT-LIP AND PALATE IN INDONESIA COMPARED WITH SURGICALLY TREATED PATIENTS IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPAUWEN, PHM; HARDJOWASITO, W; BOERSMA, J; LATIEF, BS

    To determine differences in maxillary and dentoalveolar relationships between untreated and treated patients having unilateral clefts of the lip and alveolus (UCLA) or lip and palate (UCLP), dental cast assessments were done on 70 untreated adult Indonesian patients (UCLA-I, UCLP-I) and 67 Dutch

  1. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  2. Risk indicators for aggressive periodontitis in an untreated isolated young population from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Corraini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis (AgP, and to investigate the association between demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral risk indicators with AgP in an untreated and isolated young population in Southeastern Brazil. For this cross-sectional survey, 134 subjects aged 12-29 years were selected by a census. Of those eligible, 101 subjects received a full-mouth clinical examination, and were interviewed using a structured written questionnaire. Cases were defined as individuals with 4 or more teeth with attachment loss > 4 mm or > 5 mm in the age groups 12-19 and 20-29, respectively. Overall, 9.9% of the subjects presented AgP (10.3% of the 12-19-year-olds and 9.7% of the 20-29-year-olds. The only risk indicator significantly associated with AgP in this isolated population was a high proportion of sites (> 30% presenting supragingival calculus [OR = 23.2]. Having experienced an urgency dental treatment was a protective factor for AgP [OR = 0.1]. The authors concluded that this isolated and untreated population from Brazil presented a high prevalence of AgP. Local plaque-retaining factors played a major role in the prevalence of AgP in this isolated population, and should be included in further studies evaluating this destructive periodontal disease form.

  3. An Inductive Water Thermostat Using On‐Off Triac Control and Platinum Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1971-01-01

    An on‐off thermostat is described using novel means for heating, sensing, and triac control. Heating is performed by sending the water through a coil of silver tubing which forms the short‐circuited secondary winding of a transformer. This arrangement permits extremely good insulation, which...... was essential in the medical application (a dialysis water thermostat) for which it was designed; its quick response also contributes to the excellent regulation achieved with simple on‐off control. Sensing is provided by a very low resistance platinum coil in direct contact with the water, thus providing quick...

  4. Age-Dependent Fecal Bacterial Correlation to Inflammatory Bowel Disease for Newly Diagnosed Untreated Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Chinweije Nwosu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about correlation patterns between the fecal microbiota and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD—comprising the two subforms Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC—for newly diagnosed untreated children is limited. To address this knowledge gap, a selection of faecal specimens (CD, n=27 and UC, n=16 and non-IBD controls (n=30 children (age < 18 years was analysed utilising bacterial small subunit (SSU rRNA. We found, surprising age dependence for the fecal microbiota correlating to IBD. The most pronounced patterns were that E. coli was positively (R2=0.16, P=0.05 and Bacteroidetes, negatively (R2=0.15, P=0.05 correlated to age for CD patients. For UC, we found an apparent opposite age-related disease correlation for both Bacteroides and Escherichia. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of Haemophilus for the UC children. From our, results we propose a model where the aetiology of IBD is related to an on-going immunological development in children requiring different age-dependent bacterial stimuli. The impact of our findings could be a better age stratification for understanding and treating IBD in children.

  5. Water hammer prediction and control: the Green's function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Li