Shock unsteadiness in a thrust optimized parabolic nozzle
Verma, S. B.
2009-07-01
This paper discusses the nature of shock unsteadiness, in an overexpanded thrust optimized parabolic nozzle, prevalent in various flow separation modes experienced during start up {(δ P0 /δ t > 0)} and shut down {(δ P0/δ t The results are based on simultaneously acquired data from real-time wall pressure measurements using Kulite pressure transducers, high-speed schlieren (2 kHz) of the exhaust flow-field and from strain-gauges installed on the nozzle bending tube. Shock unsteadiness in the separation region is seen to increase significantly just before the onset of each flow transition, even during steady nozzle operation. The intensity of this measure ( rms level) is seen to be strongly influenced by relative locations of normal and overexpansion shock, the decrease in radial size of re-circulation zone in the back-flow region, and finally, the local nozzle wall contour. During restricted shock separation, the pressure fluctuations in separation region exhibit periodic characteristics rather than the usually observed characteristics of intermittent separation. The possible physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of flow unsteadiness in various separation modes are discussed. The results are from an experimental study conducted in P6.2 cold-gas subscale test facility using a thrust optimized parabolic nozzle of area-ratio 30.
Lash, E. Lara; Schmisseur, John
2017-11-01
Pressure-sensitive paint has been used to evaluate the unsteady dynamics of transitional and turbulent shock wave-boundary layer interactions generated by a vertical cylinder on a flat plate in a Mach 2 freestream. The resulting shock structure consists of an inviscid bow shock that bifurcates into a separation shock and trailing shock. The primary features of interest are the separation shock and an upstream influence shock that is intermittently present in transitional boundary layer interactions, but not observed in turbulent interactions. The power spectral densities, frequency peaks, and normalized wall pressures are analyzed as the incoming boundary layer state changes from transitional to fully turbulent, comparing both centerline and outboard regions of the interaction. The present study compares the scales and frequencies of the dynamics of the separation shock structure in different boundary layer regimes. Synchronized high-speed Schlieren imaging provides quantitative statistical analyses as well as qualitative comparisons to the fast-response pressure sensitive paint measurements. Materials based on research supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research under Award Number N00014-15-1-2269.
Experimental measurement of unsteady drag on shock accelerated micro-particles
Bordoloi, Ankur; Martinez, Adam; Prestridge, Katherine
2016-11-01
The unsteady drag history of shock accelerated micro-particles in air is investigated in the Horizontal Shock Tube (HST) facility at Los Alamos National laboratory. Drag forces are estimated based on particle size, particle density, and instantaneous velocity and acceleration measured on hundreds of post-shock particle tracks. We use previously implemented 8-frame Particle Tracking Velocimetry/Anemometry (PTVA) diagnostics to analyze particles in high spatiotemporal resolution from individual particle trajectories. We use a simultaneous LED based shadowgraph to register shock location with respect to a moving particle in each frame. To measure particle size accurately, we implement a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in synchronization with the PTVA. In this presentation, we will corroborate with more accuracy our earlier observation that post-shock unsteady drag coefficients (CD(t)) are manifold times higher than those predicted by theoretical models. Our results will also show that all CD(t) measurements collapse on a master-curve for a range of particle size, density, Mach number and Reynolds number when time is normalized by a shear velocity based time scale, t* = d/(uf-up) , where d is particle diameter, and uf and up are post-shock fluid and particle velocities.
Vortex Formation During Unsteady Boundary-Layer Separation
Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
1998-11-01
Unsteady laminar boundary-layer separation is invariably accompanied by the formation of vortices. The aim of the present work is to study the vortex formation mechanism(s). An adverse pressure gradient causing a separation can be decomposed into a spatial component ( spatial variation of the velocity external to the boundary layer ) and a temporal component ( temporal variation of the external velocity ). Experiments were conducted in a piston driven 2-D water channel, where the spatial component could be be contolled by geometry and the temporal component by the piston motion. We present results for three divergent channel geometries. The piston motion consists of three phases: constant acceleration from start, contant velocity, and constant deceleration to stop. Depending on the geometry and piston motion we observe different types of unsteady separation and vortex formation.
Reynolds averaged simulation of unsteady separated flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iaccarino, G.; Ooi, A.; Durbin, P.A.; Behnia, M.
2003-01-01
The accuracy of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models in predicting complex flows with separation is examined. The unsteady flow around square cylinder and over a wall-mounted cube are simulated and compared with experimental data. For the cube case, none of the previously published numerical predictions obtained by steady-state RANS produced a good match with experimental data. However, evidence exists that coherent vortex shedding occurs in this flow. Its presence demands unsteady RANS computation because the flow is not statistically stationary. The present study demonstrates that unsteady RANS does indeed predict periodic shedding, and leads to much better concurrence with available experimental data than has been achieved with steady computation
Tumuklu, Ozgur; Levin, Deborah A.; Theofilis, Vassilis
2018-04-01
Shock-dominated hypersonic laminar flows over a double cone are investigated using time accurate direct simulation Monte Carlo combined with the residuals algorithm for unit Reynolds numbers gradually increasing from 9.35 × 104 to 3.74 × 105 m-1 at a Mach number of about 16. The main flow features, such as the strong bow-shock, location of the separation shock, the triple point, and the entire laminar separated region, show a time-dependent behavior. Although the separation shock angle is found to be similar for all Re numbers, the effects of Reynolds number on the structure and extent of the separation region are profound. As the Reynolds number is increased, larger pressure values in the under-expanded jet region due to strong shock interactions form more prominent λ-shocklets in the supersonic region between two contact surfaces. Likewise, the surface parameters, especially on the second cone surface, show a strong dependence on the Reynolds number, with skin friction, pressure, and surface heating rates increasing and velocity slip and temperature jump values decreasing for increasing Re number. A Kelvin-Helmholtz instability arising at the shear layer results in an unsteady flow for the highest Reynolds number. These findings suggest that consideration of experimental measurement times is important when it comes to determining the steady state surface parameters even for a relatively simple double cone geometry at moderately large Reynolds numbers.
Study on Reflected Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction in a Shock Tube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)
2017-07-15
The interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer causes boundary layer separation, shock train, and in some cases, strong unsteadiness in the flow field. Such a situation is also observed in a shock tube, where the reflected shock wave interacts with the unsteady boundary layer. However, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the shock train phenomenon in a shock tube. In the present study, numerical studies were conducted using the two-dimensional axisymmetric domain of a shock tube, and compressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved to clarify the flow characteristics of shock train phenomenon inside a shock tube. A detailed wave diagram was developed based on the present computational results, which were validated with existing experimental data.
Transonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions on an Oscillating Airfoil
Davis, Sanford S.; Malcolm, Gerald N.
1980-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic loads were measured on an oscillating NACA 64A010 airfoil In the NASA Ames 11 by 11 ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. Data are presented to show the effect of the unsteady shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction on the fundamental frequency lift, moment, and pressure distributions. The data show that weak shock waves induce an unsteady pressure distribution that can be predicted quite well, while stronger shock waves cause complex frequency-dependent distributions due to flow separation. An experimental test of the principles of linearity and superposition showed that they hold for weak shock waves while flows with stronger shock waves cannot be superimposed.
ERCOFTAC Symposium on Unsteady Separation in Fluid-Structure Interaction
Bottaro, Alessandro; Thompson, Mark
2016-01-01
This book addresses flow separation within the context of fluid-structure interaction phenomena. Here, new findings from two research communities focusing on fluids and structures are brought together, emphasizing the importance of a unified multidisciplinary approach. The book covers the theory, experimental findings, numerical simulations, and modeling in fluid dynamics and structural mechanics for both incompressible and compressible separated unsteady flows. There is a focus on the morphing of lifting structures in order to increase their aerodynamic and/or hydrodynamic performances, to control separation and to reduce noise, as well as to inspire the design of novel structures. The different chapters are based on contributions presented at the ERCOFTAC Symposium on Unsteady Separation in Fluid-Structure Interaction held in Mykonos, Greece, 17-21 June, 2013 and include extended discussions and new highlights. The book is intended for students, researchers and practitioners in the broad field of computatio...
Unsteady supercritical/critical dual flowpath inlet flow and its control methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun LIU
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The characteristics of unsteady flow in a dual-flowpath inlet, which was designed for a Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC propulsion system, and the control methods of unsteady flow were investigated experimentally and numerically. It was characterized by large-amplitude pressure oscillations and traveling shock waves. As the inlet operated in supercritical condition, namely the terminal shock located in the throat, the shock oscillated, and the period of oscillation was about 50â¯ms, while the amplitude was 6â¯mm. The shock oscillation was caused by separation in the diffuser. This shock oscillation can be controlled by extending the length of diffuser which reduces pressure gradient along the flowpath. As the inlet operated in critical condition, namely the terminal shock located at the shoulder of the third compression ramp, the shock oscillated, and the period of oscillation was about 7.5â¯ms, while the amplitude was 12â¯mm. At this condition, the shock oscillation was caused by an incompatible backpressure in the bleed region. It can be controlled by increasing the backpressure of the bleed region. Keywords: Airbreathing hypersonic vehicle, Dual flowpath inlet, Terminal shock oscillation, Turbine based combined cycle, Unsteady flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan MATEESCU
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the unsteady flows past stationary airfoils equipped with Gurney flaps at low Reynolds numbers, aiming to study the unsteady behavior of the aerodynamic coefficients due to the flow separations occurring at these Reynolds numbers. The Gurney flaps are simple but very efficient lift-increasing devices, which due to their mechanical simplicity are of particular interest for the small size micro-air-vehicles (MAV flying at low speed and very low Reynolds number. The unsteady aerodynamic analysis is performed with an efficient time-accurate numerical method developed for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations at low Reynolds numbers, which is second-order-accurate in time and space. The paper presents solutions for the unsteady aerodynamic coefficients of lift and drag and for the lift-to-drag ratio of several symmetric and cambered airfoils with Gurney flaps. It was found that although the airfoil is considered stationary, starting from a relatively small incidence (about 8 degrees the flow becomes unsteady due to the unsteadiness of the flow separations occurring at low Reynolds numbers, and the aerodynamic coefficients display periodic oscillations in time. A detailed study is presented in the paper on the influence of various geometric and flow parameters, such as the Gurney flap height, Reynolds number, airfoil relative thickness and relative camber, on the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag and lift-to-drag ratio. The flow separation is also studied with the aid of flow visualizations illustrating the changes in the flow pattern at various moments in time.
Unsteady separation and vortex shedding from a laminar separation bubble over a bluff body
Das, S. P.; Srinivasan, U.; Arakeri, J. H.
2013-07-01
Boundary layers are subject to favorable and adverse pressure gradients because of both the temporal and spatial components of the pressure gradient. The adverse pressure gradient may cause the flow to separate. In a closed loop unsteady tunnel we have studied the initiation of separation in unsteady flow past a constriction (bluff body) in a channel. We have proposed two important scalings for the time when boundary layer separates. One is based on the local pressure gradient and the other is a convective time scale based on boundary layer parameters. The flow visualization using a dye injection technique shows the flow structure past the body. Nondimensional shedding frequency (Strouhal number) is calculated based on boundary layer and momentum thicknesses. Strouhal number based on the momentum thickness shows a close agreement with that for flat plate and circular cylinder.
Vortex scale of unsteady separation on a pitching airfoil.
Fuchiwaki, Masaki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro
2002-10-01
The streaklines of unsteady separation on two kinds of pitching airfoils, the NACA65-0910 and a blunt trailing edge airfoil, were studied by dye flow visualization and by the Schlieren method. The latter visualized the discrete vortices shed from the leading edge. The results of these visualization studies allow a comparison between the dynamic behavior of the streakline of unsteady separation and that of the discrete vortices shed from the leading edge. The influence of the airfoil configuration on the flow characteristics was also examined. Furthermore, the scale of a discrete vortex forming the recirculation region was investigated. The non-dimensional pitching rate was k = 0.377, the angle of attack alpha(m) = 16 degrees and the pitching amplitude was fixed to A = +/-6 degrees for Re = 4.0 x 10(3) in this experiment.
Grid-converged solution and analysis of the unsteady viscous flow in a two-dimensional shock tube
Zhou, Guangzhao; Xu, Kun; Liu, Feng
2018-01-01
The flow in a shock tube is extremely complex with dynamic multi-scale structures of sharp fronts, flow separation, and vortices due to the interaction of the shock wave, the contact surface, and the boundary layer over the side wall of the tube. Prediction and understanding of the complex fluid dynamics are of theoretical and practical importance. It is also an extremely challenging problem for numerical simulation, especially at relatively high Reynolds numbers. Daru and Tenaud ["Evaluation of TVD high resolution schemes for unsteady viscous shocked flows," Comput. Fluids 30, 89-113 (2001)] proposed a two-dimensional model problem as a numerical test case for high-resolution schemes to simulate the flow field in a square closed shock tube. Though many researchers attempted this problem using a variety of computational methods, there is not yet an agreed-upon grid-converged solution of the problem at the Reynolds number of 1000. This paper presents a rigorous grid-convergence study and the resulting grid-converged solutions for this problem by using a newly developed, efficient, and high-order gas-kinetic scheme. Critical data extracted from the converged solutions are documented as benchmark data. The complex fluid dynamics of the flow at Re = 1000 are discussed and analyzed in detail. Major phenomena revealed by the numerical computations include the downward concentration of the fluid through the curved shock, the formation of the vortices, the mechanism of the shock wave bifurcation, the structure of the jet along the bottom wall, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability near the contact surface. Presentation and analysis of those flow processes provide important physical insight into the complex flow physics occurring in a shock tube.
Experimental Study of Unsteady Flow Separation in a Laminar Boundary Layer
Bonacci, Andrew; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Santos, Leonardo
2017-11-01
Flow separation, caused by an adverse pressure gradient, is a major problem in many applications. Reversing flow near the wall is the first sign of incipient separation and can bristle shark scales which may be linked to a passive, flow actuated separation control mechanism. An investigation of how this backflow forms and how it interacts with shark skin is of interest due to the fact that this could be used as a bioinspired means of initiating flow control. A water tunnel experiment aims to study unsteady separation with a focus on the reversing flow development near the wall within a flat plate laminar boundary layer (Re on order of 105) as an increasing adverse pressure gradient is induced by a rotating cylinder. Unsteady reversing flow development is documented using DPIV. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation under the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program (EEC 1659710) and the Army Research Office.
Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Large Scale Separated Flow around Oscillating Airfoil
Isogai, Koji; 磯貝, 紘二
1991-01-01
Numerical simulations of dynamic stall phenomenon of NACA0012 airfoil oscillating in pitch near static stalling angle are performed by using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the present computations, a TVD scheme and an algebraic turbulence model are employed for the simulations of the unsteady separated flows at Reynolds number of 1.1x105. The hysteresis loops of the unsteady pitching moment during dynamic stall are compared with the existing experimental data. The flow pattern a...
Dan MATEESCU
2015-01-01
This paper presents the analysis of the unsteady flows past stationary airfoils equipped with Gurney flaps at low Reynolds numbers, aiming to study the unsteady behavior of the aerodynamic coefficients due to the flow separations occurring at these Reynolds numbers. The Gurney flaps are simple but very efficient lift-increasing devices, which due to their mechanical simplicity are of particular interest for the small size micro-air-vehicles (MAV) flying at low speed and very low Reynolds numb...
Time-resolved stereo PIV measurements of shock-boundary layer interaction on a supercritical airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartmann, Axel; Klaas, Michael; Schroeder, Wolfgang [RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Aerodynamics, Aachen (Germany)
2012-03-15
Time-resolved stereo particle-image velocimetry (TR-SPIV) and unsteady pressure measurements are used to analyze the unsteady flow over a supercritical DRA-2303 airfoil in transonic flow. The dynamic shock wave-boundary layer interaction is one of the most essential features of this unsteady flow causing a distinct oscillation of the flow field. Results from wind-tunnel experiments with a variation of the freestream Mach number at Reynolds numbers ranging from 2.55 to 2.79 x 10{sup 6} are analyzed regarding the origin and nature of the unsteady shock-boundary layer interaction. Therefore, the TR-SPIV results are analyzed for three buffet flows. One flow exhibits a sinusoidal streamwise oscillation of the shock wave only due to an acoustic feedback loop formed by the shock wave and the trailing-edge noise. The other two buffet flows have been intentionally influenced by an artificial acoustic source installed downstream of the test section to investigate the behavior of the interaction to upstream-propagating disturbances generated by a defined source of noise. The results show that such upstream-propagating disturbances could be identified to be responsible for the upstream displacement of the shock wave and that the feedback loop is formed by a pulsating separation of the boundary layer dependent on the shock position and the sound pressure level at the shock position. Thereby, the pulsation of the separation could be determined to be a reaction to the shock motion and not vice versa. (orig.)
Physical mechanisms in shock-induced turbulent separated flow
Dolling, D. S.
1987-12-01
It has been demonstrated that the flow downstream of the moving shock is separated and that the foot of the shock is effectively the instantaneous separation point. The shock induced turbulent separation is an intermittant process and the separation line indicated by surface tracer methods, such as kerosene-lampblack, is a downstream boundary of a region of intermittent separation.
On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary-layer separation. I - General theory
Van Dommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.
1990-01-01
Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a Lagrangian approach may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In Lagrangian coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.
Flow control for oblique shock wave reflections
Giepman, R.H.M.
2016-01-01
Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are prevalent in many aerospace applications that involve transonic or supersonic flows. Such interactions may lead to boundary layer separation, flow unsteadiness and substantial losses in the total pressure. Flow control techniques can help to mitigate these
Flow control for oblique shock wave reflections
Giepman, R.H.M.
2016-01-01
Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are prevalent in many aerospace applications that involve transonic or supersonic flows. Such interactions may lead to boundary layer separation, flow unsteadiness and substantial losses in the total pressure. Flow control techniques can help to mitigate these adverse effects and stabilize the interaction. This thesis focuses on passive flow control techniques for oblique shock wave reflections on flat plates and presents experimental results for both la...
On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary layer separation. Part 1: General theory
Vandommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.
1989-01-01
Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a Lagrangian approach may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In Lagrangian coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.
On Poor Separation in Magnetically Driven Shock Tube
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chang, C.T.
1973-01-01
Observations made at steady-state running conditions in a magnetically driven shock tube, with parallel-plate electrodes, showed that for a given discharge voltage, sufficient separation between the shock and the current-sheet occurred only at relatively high discharge pressures. As a comparison......, poor separations were also noted in conventional diaphragm-type shock tubes running at low initial pressures. It is demonstrated that the observed poor separation can be explained by a mass leakage, instead of through the wall boundary layer, but through the current-sheet itself....
Examination of forced unsteady separated flow fields on a rotating wind turbine blade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huyer, S [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (US)
1993-04-01
The wind turbine industry faces many problems regarding the construction of efficient and predictable wind turbine machines. Steady state, two-dimensional wind tunnel data are generally used to predict aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades. Preliminary experimental evidence indicates that some of the underlying fluid dynamic phenomena could be attributed to dynamic stall, or more specifically to generation of forced unsteady separated flow fields. A collaborative research effort between the University of Colorado and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was conducted to systematically categorize the local and global effects of three- dimensional forced unsteady flow fields.
Control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic pitching of airfoils
Ahmed, Sajeer
1991-01-01
Although studies have been done to understand the dependence of parameters for the occurrence of deep stall, studies to control the flow for sustaining lift for a longer time has been little. To sustain the lift for a longer time, an understanding of the development of the flow over the airfoil is essential. Studies at high speed are required to study how the flow behavior is dictated by the effects of compressibility. When the airfoil is pitched up in ramp motion or during the upstroke of an oscillatory cycle, the flow development on the upper surface of the airfoil and the formation of the vortex dictates the increase in lift behavior. Vortex shedding past the training edge decreases the lift. It is not clear what is the mechanism associated with the unsteady separation and vortex formation in present unsteady environment. To develop any flow control device, to suppress the vortex formation or delay separation, it is important that this mechanism be properly understood. The research activities directed toward understanding these questions are presented and the results are summarized.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Yan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Strong shock waves can be generated by pulse discharge in water, and the characteristics due to the shock wave normal reflection from rigid walls have important significance to many fields, such as industrial production and defense construction. This paper investigates the effects of hydrostatic pressures and perturbation of wave source (i.e., charging voltage on normal reflection of one-dimensional unsteady flow shock waves. Basic properties of the incidence and reflection waves were analyzed theoretically and experimentally to identify the reflection mechanisms and hence the influencing factors and characteristics. The results indicated that increased perturbation (i.e., charging voltage leads to increased peak pressure and velocity of the reflected shock wave, whereas increased hydrostatic pressure obviously inhibited superposition of the reflection waves close to the rigid wall. The perturbation of wave source influence on the reflected wave was much lower than that on the incident wave, while the hydrostatic pressure obviously affected both incident and reflection waves. The reflection wave from the rigid wall in water exhibited the characteristics of a weak shock wave, and with increased hydrostatic pressure, these weak shock wave characteristics became more obvious.
Notes on the Prediction of Shock-induced Boundary-layer Separation
Lange, Roy H.
1953-01-01
The present status of available information relative to the prediction of shock-induced boundary-layer separation is discussed. Experimental results showing the effects of Reynolds number and Mach number on the separation of both laminar and turbulent boundary layer are given and compared with available methods for predicting separation. The flow phenomena associated with separation caused by forward-facing steps, wedges, and incident shock waves are discussed. Applications of the flat-plate data to problems of separation on spoilers, diffusers, and scoop inlets are indicated for turbulent boundary layers.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Barakos, G
1998-01-01
The numerical simulation of unsteady separated turbulent flows around moving lifting surfaces is fueled by the industrial need to analyse and understand flow phenomena associated with the behaviour...
METHOD FOR NUMERICAL MODELING OF UNSTEADY SEPARATED FLOW AROUND AIRFOILS MOVING CLOSE TO FLAT SCREEN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Pogrebnaya Tamara
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this article an attempt is made to explain the nature of differences in measurements of forces and moments, which influence an aircraft at take-off and landing when testing on different types of stands. An algorithm for numerical simulation of unsteady separated flow around airfoil is given. The algorithm is based on the combination of discrete vortex method and turbulent boundary layer equations. An unsteady flow separation modeling has been used. At each interval vortex method was used to calculate the potential flow around airfoils located near a screen. Calculated pressures and velocities were then used in boundary layer calculations to determine flow separation points and separated vortex in- tensities. After that calculation were made to determine free vortex positions to next time step and the process was fulfilled for next time step. The proposed algorithm allows using numeric visualization to understand physical picture of flow around airfoil moving close to screen. Three different ways of flow modeling (mirror method, fixed or movable screens were tested. In each case the flow separation process, which determines pressure distribution over airfoil surface and influ- ences aerodynamic performance, was viewed. The results of the calculations showed that at low atitudes of airfoil over screen mirror method over predicts lift force compared with movable screen, while fixed screen under predicts it. The data obtained can be used when designing equipment for testing in wind tunnels.
Unsteady Double Wake Model for the Simulation of Stalled Airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramos García, Néstor; Cayron, Antoine; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2015-01-01
In the present work, the recent developed Unsteady Double Wake Model, USDWM, is used to simulate separated flows past a wind turbine airfoil at high angles of attack. The solver is basically an unsteady two-dimensional panel method which uses the unsteady double wake technique to model flow separ...
Schobeiri, M. T.; Ozturk, B.; Ashpis, David E.
2007-01-01
The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.
Sjogreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.
2007-01-01
Flows containing steady or nearly steady strong shocks in parts of the flow field, and unsteady turbulence with shocklets on other parts of the flow field are difficult to capture accurately and efficiently employing the same numerical scheme even under the multiblock grid or adaptive grid refinement framework. On one hand, sixth-order or higher shock-capturing methods are appropriate for unsteady turbulence with shocklets. On the other hand, lower order shock-capturing methods are more effective for strong steady shocks in terms of convergence. In order to minimize the shortcomings of low order and high order shock-capturing schemes for the subject flows,a multi- block overlapping grid with different orders of accuracy on different blocks is proposed. Test cases to illustrate the performance of the new solver are included.
Batina, John T.
1990-01-01
Improved algorithm for the solution of the time-dependent Euler equations are presented for unsteady aerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes. The improvements were developed recently to the spatial and temporal discretizations used by unstructured grid flow solvers. The spatial discretization involves a flux-split approach which is naturally dissipative and captures shock waves sharply with at most one grid point within the shock structure. The temporal discretization involves an implicit time-integration scheme using a Gauss-Seidel relaxation procedure which is computationally efficient for either steady or unsteady flow problems. For example, very large time steps may be used for rapid convergence to steady state, and the step size for unsteady cases may be selected for temporal accuracy rather than for numerical stability. Steady and unsteady flow results are presented for the NACA 0012 airfoil to demonstrate applications of the new Euler solvers. The unsteady results were obtained for the airfoil pitching harmonically about the quarter chord. The resulting instantaneous pressure distributions and lift and moment coefficients during a cycle of motion compare well with experimental data. A description of the Euler solvers is presented along with results and comparisons which assess the capability.
Simpson, R. L.; Shivaprasad, B. G.; Chew, Y.-T.
1983-01-01
Measurements were obtained of the sinusoidal unsteadiness of the free stream velocity during the separation of the turbulent boundary layer. Data were gathered by single wire and cross-wire, anemometry upstream of flow detachment, by laser Doppler velocimetry to detect the movement of the flow in small increments, and by a laser anemometer in the detached zone to measure turbulence and velocities. The study was restricted to a sinusoidal instability frequency of 0.61 and a ratio of oscillation amplitude to mean velocity of 0.3. Large amplitude and phase variations were found after the detachment, with unsteady effects producing hysteresis in the relationships between flow parameters. The detached shear layer decreased in thickness with increasing free-stream velocity and increases in the Reynolds shear stress. Deceleration of the free stream velocity caused thickening in the shear layer and upstream movement of the flow reversal location. The results are useful for studies of compressor blade and helicopter rotors in transition.
Experimental Research of Machineless Energy Separation Effect Influenced by Shock Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Popovich
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents experimental research results of machineless energy separation effect with transversal ribs in supersonic channel. The energy separation effect assumes a physical division of the inlet flow into two or more flows, each having different stagnation temperature. Among well-known energy separation effects noted there are Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes, Hartmann-Sprenger resonance tubes, pulsating tubes and some others.A working principle of device under study is based on thermal interaction between subsonic and supersonic gas flows through a heat-conducting division wall. This energy separation method was proposed by academician Leontiev and was patented in 1998. A number of references for PhD theses, articles, and conference proceedings devoted to the research of “Leontiev tube” have been mentioned in the paper. Efficiency factors for energy separation device performability have been analyzed in detail. The main attention was focused on the phenomenon of shock waves generation in supersonic channel of Leontiev tube.Experiment was carried out in the air prototype of energy separation device with supersonic flow Mach numbers 1.9 and 2.5, stagnation temperatures 40°С and 70°С, and for uni-flow and counter-flow air moving direction in subsonic and supersonic channels. Shock waves have been generated by means of circular ribs in supersonic channel of energy separation device. The research was carried out by means of infrared thermal imaging, thermocouples, total and static pressure probes, and modern National Insturments automation equipment. The work shows that shock waves have no negative influence on energy separation effect. A conclusion is made that unexpected shock wave generation in supersonic channel will not cause operability loss. It was gained that counter-flow regime is more efficient than uni-flow. Energy separation effect also appears to be higher with the rise of Mach number and flow initial stagnation temperature
Control of a shock wave-boundary layer interaction using localized arc filament plasma actuators
Webb, Nathan Joseph
Supersonic flight is currently possible, but expensive. Inexpensive supersonic travel will require increased efficiency of high-speed air entrainment, an integral part of air-breathing propulsion systems. Although mixed compression inlet geometry can significantly improve entrainment efficiency, numerous Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interactions (SWBLIs) are generated in this configuration. The boundary layer must therefore develop through multiple regions of adverse pressure gradient, causing it to thicken, and, in severe cases, separate. The associated increase in unsteadiness can have adverse effects on downstream engine hardware. The most severe consequence of these interactions is the increased aerodynamic blockage generated by the thickened boundary layer. If the increase is sufficient, it can choke the flow, causing inlet unstart, and resulting in a loss of thrust and high transient forces on the engine, airframe, and aircraft occupants. The potentially severe consequences associated with SWBLIs require flow control to ensure proper operation. Traditionally, boundary layer bleed has been used to control the interaction. Although this method is effective, it has inherent efficiency penalties. Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPAs) are designed to generate perturbations for flow control. Natural flow instabilities act to amplify certain perturbations, allowing the LAFPAs to control the flow with minimal power input. LAFPAs also have the flexibility to maintain control over a variety of operating conditions. This work seeks to examine the effectiveness of LAFPAs as a separation control method for an oblique, impinging SWBLI. The low frequency unsteadiness in the reflected shock was thought to be the natural manifestation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer above the separation region. The LAFPAs were therefore placed upstream of the interaction to allow their perturbations to convect to the receptivity region (near the shear layer origin/separation
Species separation and kinetic effects in collisional plasma shocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellei, C., E-mail: bellei1@llnl.gov; Wilks, S. C.; Amendt, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rinderknecht, H.; Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2014-05-15
The properties of collisional shock waves propagating in uniform plasmas are studied with ion-kinetic calculations, in both slab and spherical geometry and for the case of one and two ion species. Despite the presence of an electric field at the shock front—and in contrast to the case where an interface is initially present [C. Bellei et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 044702 (2013)]—essentially no ion reflection at the shock front is observed due to collisions, with a probability of reflection ≲10{sup −4} for the cases presented. A kinetic two-ion-species spherical convergent shock is studied in detail and compared against an average-species calculation, confirming effects of species separation and differential heating of the ion species at the shock front. The effect of different ion temperatures on the DT and D{sup 3}He fusion reactivity is discussed in the fluid limit and is estimated to be moderately important.
Prediction of separation of gases and gaseous isotopes in a curved shock wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tunstall, J.N.; Harris, W.L.; Childs, K.W.
1976-01-01
An examination of the species separation induced by a curved shock wave in a supersonic flow of a binary gas mixture has been undertaken. The objectives of this investigation are to determine the importance of physical mechanisms operative in such flows per the species separation and to develop a self-consistent model for predicting species separation in such flows. The formulation of the model examined in this paper is based on the continuum Navier-Stokes equations. The effects of a specified flow field downstream of the shock have been neglected. The parameters which characterize the separation induced by the shock have been identified. Results show a mathematically self-consistent and physically plausible dependence on the parameters which characterize the phenomenon. A comparison with existing theoretical models and experimental data shows good agreement
2010-04-01
Characteristics associated with “Free Flight” Shroud and Stage Separation and Mode Switching in LENS II Michael S. Holden, PhD CUBRC , Inc. 4455 Genesee...ADDRESS(ES) CUBRC , Inc. 4455 Genesee Street Buffalo, NY 14225, USA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...switching and inlet-starting validation • Validation to CFD community ( CUBRC /UM) Figure 32: Numerical Simulation of the Unsteady Flow Dynamics during
Shock-jump conditions in a general medium: weak-solution approach
Forbes, L. K.; Krzysik, O. A.
2017-05-01
General conservation laws are considered, and the concept of a weak solution is extended to the case of an equation involving three space variables and time. Four-dimensional vector calculus is used to develop general jump conditions at a shock wave in the material. To illustrate the use of this result, jump conditions at a shock in unsteady three-dimensional compressible gas flow are presented. It is then proved rigorously that these reduce to the commonly assumed conditions in coordinates normal and tangential to the shock face. A similar calculation is also outlined for an unsteady three-dimensional shock in magnetohydrodynamics, and in a chemically reactive fluid. The technique is available for determining shock-jump conditions in quite general continuous media.
Dholey, S.
2018-04-01
In this paper, we have investigated numerically the laminar unsteady separated stagnation-point flow and heat transfer of a viscous fluid over a moving flat surface in the presence of a time dependent free stream velocity which causes the unsteadiness of this flow problem. The plate is assumed to move in the same or opposite direction of the free stream velocity. The flow is therefore governed by the velocity ratio parameter λ (ratio of the plate velocity to the free stream velocity) and the unsteadiness parameter β. When the plate surface moves in the same direction of the free stream velocity (i.e., when λ > 0), the solution of this flow problem continues for any given value of β. On the other hand, when they move in opposite directions (i.e., when λ heat transfer analysis is that for a given value of λ(= 0), first the heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the Prandtl number Pr and after attaining a maximum value, it decreases and finally tends to be zero for large values of Pr depending upon the values of β > 0. On the contrary, for a given value of β(≤ 0), the rate of heat transfer increases consistently with the increase of Pr.
Rotor-generated unsteady aerodynamic interactions in a 1½ stage compressor
Papalia, John J.
Because High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) remains the predominant surprise failure mode in gas turbine engines, HCF avoidance design systems are utilized to identify possible failures early in the engine development process. A key requirement of these analyses is accurate determination of the aerodynamic forcing function and corresponding airfoil unsteady response. The current study expands the limited experimental database of blade row interactions necessary for calibration of predictive HCF analyses, with transonic axial-flow compressors of particular interest due to the presence of rotor leading edge shocks. The majority of HCF failures in aircraft engines occur at off-design operating conditions. Therefore, experiments focused on rotor-IGV interactions at off-design are conducted in the Purdue Transonic Research Compressor. The rotor-generated IGV unsteady aerodynamics are quantified when the IGV reset angle causes the vane trailing edge to be nearly aligned with the rotor leading edge shocks. A significant vane response to the impulsive static pressure perturbation associated with a shock is evident in the point measurements at 90% span, with details of this complex interaction revealed in the corresponding time-variant vane-to-vane flow field data. Industry wide implementation of Controlled Diffusion Airfoils (CDA) in modern compressors motivated an investigation of upstream propagating CDA rotor-generated forcing functions. Whole field velocity measurements in the reconfigured Purdue Transonic Research Compressor along the design speedline reveal steady loading had a considerable effect on the rotor shock structure. A detached rotor leading edge shock exists at low loading, with an attached leading edge and mid-chord suction surface normal shock present at nominal loading. These CDA forcing functions are 3--4 times smaller than those generated by the baseline NACA 65 rotor at their respective operating points. However, the IGV unsteady aerodynamic response to the CDA
Versatile Sensor for Transition, Separation, and Shock Detection, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a simple, robust, sensor array for the detection of laminar/turbulent transition location, areas of flowfield separation, and shock wave...
Viscous-inviscid method for the simulation of turbulent unsteady wind turbine airfoil flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bermudez, L.; Velazquez, A.; Matesanz, A. [Thermal Engineering Area, Carlos III University of Madrid, Avd. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)
2002-06-01
A Viscous-inviscid interaction method is presented that allows for the simulation of unsteady airfoil flow in the context of wind turbine applications. The method couples a 2-D external unsteady potential flow to a 2-D unsteady turbulent boundary layer. The separation point on the airfoil leeward side is determined in a self-consistent way from the boundary-layer equations, and the separated flow region is modelled independently. Wake shape and motion are also determined in a self-consistent way, while an unsteady Kutta condition is implemented. The method is able to deal with attached flow and light stall situations characterised by unsteady turbulent boundary-layer separation size up to 50% of the airfoil chord length. The results of the validation campaign show that the method could be used for industrial design purposes because of its numerical robustness, reasonable accuracy, and limited computational time demands.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirani, E.; Zirak, S.
2001-01-01
Compressible flows for unsteady, inviscid and viscous cases have been studied. Important features of flows such as formation of shock waves across the flow in an unsteady flow as well as interaction of shock waves with boundary layers and their effects on the flow around the blades have been analyzed. Jameson control volume approach was used to spatially integrate the flow equations and the fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used for time integration. The obtained finite difference equations were used to simulate inviscid and viscous flows in V KI cascades and the effects of viscosity, angle of attack, bal de pitches and back pressure on the flow were obtained. It was shown that when the flow was assumed inviscid, the error on the distribution of pressure on the blades were about ten percent. Finally, unsteady flow were simulated and formation of shock waves and their motions were analyzed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thiery, Mylene [Aerodynamics and Energetics Modelling Department, Turbulence Modelling and Prediction Unit, ONERA Toulouse, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Coustols, Eric [Aerodynamics and Energetics Modelling Department, Turbulence Modelling and Prediction Unit, ONERA Toulouse, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: Eric.Coustols@onera.fr
2006-08-15
The present study deals with recent numerical results from on-going research conducted at ONERA/DMAE regarding the prediction of transonic flows, for which shock wave/boundary layer interaction is important. When this interaction is strong enough (M {>=} 1.3), shock induced oscillations (SIO) appear at the suction side of the airfoil and lead to the formation of unsteady separated areas. The main issue is then to perform unsteady computations applying appropriate turbulence modelling and relevant boundary conditions with respect to the test case. Computations were performed with the ONERA elsA software and the URANS-type approach, closure relationships being achieved from transport-equation models. Applications are provided for the OAT15A airfoil data base, well documented for unsteady CFD validation (mean and r.m.s. pressure, phase-averaged LDA data, ...). In this paper, the capabilities of turbulence models are evaluated with two 2D URANS strategies, under free-stream or confined conditions. The latter takes into account the adaptive upper and lower wind-tunnel walls. A complete 3D URANS simulation was then performed to demonstrate the real impact of all lateral wind-tunnel walls on such a flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thiery, Mylene; Coustols, Eric
2006-01-01
The present study deals with recent numerical results from on-going research conducted at ONERA/DMAE regarding the prediction of transonic flows, for which shock wave/boundary layer interaction is important. When this interaction is strong enough (M ≥ 1.3), shock induced oscillations (SIO) appear at the suction side of the airfoil and lead to the formation of unsteady separated areas. The main issue is then to perform unsteady computations applying appropriate turbulence modelling and relevant boundary conditions with respect to the test case. Computations were performed with the ONERA elsA software and the URANS-type approach, closure relationships being achieved from transport-equation models. Applications are provided for the OAT15A airfoil data base, well documented for unsteady CFD validation (mean and r.m.s. pressure, phase-averaged LDA data, ...). In this paper, the capabilities of turbulence models are evaluated with two 2D URANS strategies, under free-stream or confined conditions. The latter takes into account the adaptive upper and lower wind-tunnel walls. A complete 3D URANS simulation was then performed to demonstrate the real impact of all lateral wind-tunnel walls on such a flow
Investigation of oscillating airfoil shock phenomena
Giordano , Daniel; Fleeter , Sanford
1992-01-01
Fundamental experiments were performed in an unsteady flow water table facility to investigate and quantify the unsteady aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil executing torsion mode oscillations at realistic reduced frequencies. A computer-based image enhancement system was used to measure the oscillating supersonic and transonic shock flow phenomena. By utilizing the hydraulic analogy to compare experimental results with a linear theoretical prediction, magnitude and phase relationships for the...
Numerical simulation of stage separation of a multi-stage flying object with brake jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirzaei, M.; Shadaram, A.; Nia, B.N.
2005-01-01
In this paper, separation maneuver of a two-stage supersonic flying object is numerically simulated and the influences of supersonic brake jets on separation process are discussed. The finite volume approach is used for solution of unsteady three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes equations on a moving boundary domain. In this simulation, air has considered as a calorically perfect gas and since the flow field is turbulent, two equations κ-ε model has been adopted for turbulence modeling. Shocks, expansions and their reflections have major role on flow pattern between two stages during the separation process and the maneuver is dominantly affected by the main flow and braking jets. The separation process has an unsteady nature and the separation of stages at high Mach numbers induces some aerodynamic problems that may lead to fail the next stage flight. The purpose of this research is to compute the aerodynamic loads on separated stage and, consequently, the relative distance of body components with a good accuracy. The simulation of moving boundary problem is based on moving grid strategy using remeshing method. To validate the simulation, some of the results are compared with experimental data. (author)
Predicted and experimental steady and unsteady transonic flows about a biconvex airfoil
Levy, L. L., Jr.
1981-01-01
Results of computer code time dependent solutions of the two dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations and the results of independent experiments are compared to verify the Mach number range for instabilities in the transonic flow field about a 14 percent thick biconvex airfoil at an angle of attack of 0 deg and a Reynolds number of 7 million. The experiments were conducted in a transonic, slotted wall wind tunnel. The computer code included an algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model developed for steady flows, and all computations were made using free flight boundary conditions. All of the features documented experimentally for both steady and unsteady flows were predicted qualitatively; even with the above simplifications, the predictions were, on the whole, in good quantitative agreement with experiment. In particular, predicted time histories of shock wave position, surface pressures, lift, and pitching moment were found to be in very good agreement with experiment for an unsteady flow. Depending upon the free stream Mach number for steady flows, the surface pressure downstream of the shock wave or the shock wave location was not well predicted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sriram, R; Jagadeesh, G; Ram, S N; Hegde, G M; Nayak, M M
2015-01-01
Characterized not just by high Mach numbers, but also high flow total enthalpies—often accompanied by dissociation and ionization of flowing gas itself—the experimental simulation of hypersonic flows requires impulse facilities like shock tunnels. However, shock tunnel simulation imposes challenges and restrictions on the flow diagnostics, not just because of the possible extreme flow conditions, but also the short run times—typically around 1 ms. The development, calibration and application of fast response MEMS sensors for surface pressure measurements in IISc hypersonic shock tunnel HST-2, with a typical test time of 600 μs, for the complex flow field of strong (impinging) shock boundary layer interaction with separation close to the leading edge, is delineated in this paper. For Mach numbers 5.96 (total enthalpy 1.3 MJ kg −1 ) and 8.67 (total enthalpy 1.6 MJ kg −1 ), surface pressures ranging from around 200 Pa to 50 000 Pa, in various regions of the flow field, are measured using the MEMS sensors. The measurements are found to compare well with the measurements using commercial sensors. It was possible to resolve important regions of the flow field involving significant spatial gradients of pressure, with a resolution of 5 data points within 12 mm in each MEMS array, which cannot be achieved with the other commercial sensors. In particular, MEMS sensors enabled the measurement of separation pressure (at Mach 8.67) near the leading edge and the sharply varying pressure in the reattachment zone. (paper)
Transonic buffet control research with two types of shock control bump based on RAE2822 airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun TIAN
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Current research shows that the traditional shock control bump (SCB can weaken the intensity of shock and better the transonic buffet performance. The author finds that when SCB is placed downstream of the shock, it can decrease the adverse pressure gradient. This may prevent the shock foot separation bubble to merge with the trailing edge separation and finally improve the buffet performance. Based on RAE2822 airfoil, two types of SCB are designed according to the two different mechanisms. By using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS methods to analyze the properties of RAE2822 airfoil with and without SCB, the results show that the downstream SCB can better the buffet performance under a wide range of freestream Mach number and the steady aerodynamics characteristic is similar to that of RAE2822 airfoil. The traditional SCB can only weaken the intensity of the shock under the design condition. Under the off-design conditions, the SCB does not do much to or even worsen the buffet performance. Indeed, the use of backward bump can flatten the leeward side of the airfoil, and this is similar to the mechanism that supercritical airfoil can weaken the recompression of shock wave.
Computational aspects of unsteady flows
Cebeci, T.; Carr, L. W.; Khattab, A. A.; Schimke, S. M.
1985-01-01
The calculation of unsteady flows and the development of numerical methods for solving unsteady boundary layer equations and their application to the flows around important configurations such as oscillating airfoils are presented. A brief review of recent work is provided with emphasis on the need for numerical methods which can overcome possible problems associated with flow reversal and separation. The zig-zag and characteristic box schemes are described in this context, and when embodied in a method which permits interaction between solutions of inviscid and viscous equations, the characteristic box scheme is shown to avoid the singularity associated with boundary layer equations and prescribed pressure gradient. Calculations were performed for a cylinder started impulsively from rest and oscillating airfoils. The results are presented and discussed. It is conlcuded that turbulence models based on an algebraic specification of eddy viscosity can be adequate, that location of translation is important to the calculation of the location of flow separation and, therefore, to the overall lift of an oscillating airfoil.
A computational study on oblique shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interaction
Joy, Md. Saddam Hossain; Rahman, Saeedur; Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique; Ali, M.; Mitsutake, Y.; Matsuo, S.; Setoguchi, T.
2016-07-01
A numerical computation of an oblique shock wave incident on a turbulent boundary layer was performed for free stream flow of air at M∞ = 2.0 and Re1 = 10.5×106 m-1. The oblique shock wave was generated from a 8° wedge. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation with k-ω SST turbulence model was first utilized for two dimensional (2D) steady case. The results were compared with the experiment at the same flow conditions. Further, to capture the unsteadiness, a 2D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with sub-grid scale model WMLES was performed which showed the unsteady effects. The frequency of the shock oscillation was computed and was found to be comparable with that of experimental measurement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stetter, H.; Margot-Peters, X.; Kraus, P.
1999-12-01
The tip gap between rotor blades and the casing of a turbomachine is essential for a safe operation. Behind the last stage the resulting leakage jet may however cause a supersonic flow region at the outer diffuser casing which can induce - due to shock/boundary layer interactions - unsteady shock oscillations. Until now this process can't be described numerically. Therefore the scope of this project was to provide an extensive validated numerical code which can be used simultaneously to optimize the diffuser's flow properties and to minimize the blade loading due to shock oscillations. Fundamental questions such as shock oscillation amplitudes and influence area of the leakage jet had been answered by using the hydraulic analogy. To realize the flow properties steady and unsteady flow measurements had been carried out at an air test rig to deliver boundary conditions and validation data for the numerical code. Concerning the numerical work an existent steady Navier-Stokes-Code had been upgraded to unsteady calculations. Some turbulence models had been tested to proof its qualification for separated unsteady flows. However with the intended solution approach - no full threedimensional discretisation - it has been found impossible to converge the unsteady shock/boundary layer interaction calculations. Reasons are re-entry flow at the diffuser outlet and the measured, significant circumferential variation of flow properties. However important insights to the continuous work could be extracted from the preliminary negative results of the numerical studies: The circumferential variation of the flow properties can locally cause re-entry flow at the diffuser outlet. In addition the unsteady shock/boundary-interactions vary round the periphere, but they could be influenced by locally applied methods. Therefore a proofed numerical treatment supposes detailed solutions for the modelling of boundary conditions for re-entry flow and unsteady circumferentially varying
Analytical solutions of hypersonic type IV shock - shock interactions
Frame, Michael John
An analytical model has been developed to predict the effects of a type IV shock interaction at high Mach numbers. This interaction occurs when an impinging oblique shock wave intersects the most normal portion of a detached bow shock. The flowfield which develops is complicated and contains an embedded jet of supersonic flow, which may be unsteady. The jet impinges on the blunt body surface causing very high pressure and heating loads. Understanding this type of interaction is vital to the designers of cowl lips and leading edges on air- breathing hypersonic vehicles. This analytical model represents the first known attempt at predicting the geometry of the interaction explicitly, without knowing beforehand the jet dimensions, including the length of the transmitted shock where the jet originates. The model uses a hyperbolic equation for the bow shock and by matching mass continuity, flow directions and pressure throughout the flowfield, a prediction of the interaction geometry can be derived. The model has been shown to agree well with the flowfield patterns and properties of experiments and CFD, but the prediction for where the peak pressure is located, and its value, can be significantly in error due to a lack of sophistication in the model of the jet fluid stagnation region. Therefore it is recommended that this region of the flowfield be modeled in more detail and more accurate experimental and CFD measurements be used for validation. However, the analytical model has been shown to be a fast and economic prediction tool, suitable for preliminary design, or for understanding the interactions effects, including the basic physics of the interaction, such as the jet unsteadiness. The model has been used to examine a wide parametric space of possible interactions, including different Mach number, impinging shock strength and location, and cylinder radius. It has also been used to examine the interaction on power-law shaped blunt bodies, a possible candidate for
Prediction of unsteady separated flows on oscillating airfoils
Mccroskey, W. J.
1978-01-01
Techniques for calculating high Reynolds number flow around an airfoil undergoing dynamic stall are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on predicting the values of lift, drag, and pitching moments. Methods discussed include: the discrete potential vortex method; thin boundary layer method; strong interaction between inviscid and viscous flows; and solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. Empirical methods for estimating unsteady airloads on oscillating airfoils are also described. These methods correlate force and moment data from wind tunnel tests to indicate the effects of various parameters, such as airfoil shape, Mach number, amplitude and frequency of sinosoidal oscillations, mean angle, and type of motion.
Review of the physics of enhancing vortex lift by unsteady excitation
Wu, J. Z.; Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.
1991-01-01
A review aimed at providing a physical understanding of the crucial mechanisms for obtaining super lift by means of unsteady excitations is presented. Particular attention is given to physical problems, including rolled-up vortex layer instability and receptivity, wave-vortex interaction and resonance, nonlinear streaming, instability of vortices behind bluff bodies and their shedding, and vortex breakdown. A general theoretical framework suitable for handling the unsteady vortex flows is introduced. It is suggested that wings with swept and sharp leading edges, equipped with devices for unsteady excitations, could yield the first breakthrough of the unsteady separation barrier and provide super lift at post-stall angle of attack.
Transition of unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow
Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H
1998-01-01
This paper deals with the stability and transition to turbulence of wall-bounded unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow. Such flows occur, for example, during unsteady boundary layer separation and in oscillating pipe flow. The main focus is on results from experiments in time-developing flow in a long pipe, which is decelerated rapidly. The flow is generated by the controlled motion of a piston. We obtain analytical solutions for laminar flow in the pipe and in a two-dimensional channe...
Prediction of fluctuating pressure environments associated with plume-induced separated flow fields
Plotkin, K. J.
1973-01-01
The separated flow environment induced by underexpanded rocket plumes during boost phase of rocket vehicles has been investigated. A simple semi-empirical model for predicting the extent of separation was developed. This model offers considerable computational economy as compared to other schemes reported in the literature, and has been shown to be in good agreement with limited flight data. The unsteady pressure field in plume-induced separated regions was investigated. It was found that fluctuations differed from those for a rigid flare only at low frequencies. The major difference between plume-induced separation and flare-induced separation was shown to be an increase in shock oscillation distance for the plume case. The prediction schemes were applied to PRR shuttle launch configuration. It was found that fluctuating pressures from plume-induced separation are not as severe as for other fluctuating environments at the critical flight condition of maximum dynamic pressure.
Tao, Y.; Liu, W. D.; Fan, X. Q.; Zhao, Y. L.
2017-07-01
For a better understanding of the local unstart of supersonic/hypersonic inlet, a series of experiments has been conducted to investigate the shock-induced boundary layer separation extended to the leading edge. Using the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering, we recorded the fine structures of these interactions under different conditions and paid more attention to their structural characteristics. According to their features, these interactions could be divided into four types. Specifically, Type A wave pattern is similar to the classic shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction, and Type B wave configuration consists of an overall Mach reflection above the large scale separation bubble. Due to the gradual decrease in the size of the separation bubble, the separation bubble was replaced by several vortices (Type C wave pattern). Besides, for Type D wave configuration which exists in the local unstart inlet, there appears to be some flow spillage around the leading edge.
Unsteady Flow in a Supersonic Turbine with Variable Specific Heats
Dorney, Daniel J.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Huber, Frank; Sondak, Douglas L.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Modern high-work turbines can be compact, transonic, supersonic, counter-rotating, or use a dense drive gas. The vast majority of modern rocket turbine designs fall into these Categories. These turbines usually have large temperature variations across a given stage, and are characterized by large amounts of flow unsteadiness. The flow unsteadiness can have a major impact on the turbine performance and durability. For example, the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) fuel turbine, a high work, transonic design, was found to have an unsteady inter-row shock which reduced efficiency by 2 points and increased dynamic loading by 24 percent. The Revolutionary Reusable Technology Turbopump (RRTT), which uses full flow oxygen for its drive gas, was found to shed vortices with such energy as to raise serious blade durability concerns. In both cases, the sources of the problems were uncovered (before turbopump testing) with the application of validated, unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the designs. In the case of the RRTT and the Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) turbines, the unsteady CFD codes have been used not just to identify problems, but to guide designs which mitigate problems due to unsteadiness. Using unsteady flow analyses as a part of the design process has led to turbine designs with higher performance (which affects temperature and mass flow rate) and fewer dynamics problems. One of the many assumptions made during the design and analysis of supersonic turbine stages is that the values of the specific heats are constant. In some analyses the value is based on an average of the expected upstream and downstream temperatures. In stages where the temperature can vary by 300 to 500 K, however, the assumption of constant fluid properties may lead to erroneous performance and durability predictions. In this study the suitability of assuming constant specific heats has been investigated by performing three-dimensional unsteady Navier
Unsteady flow characteristic analysis of turbine based combined cycle (TBCC inlet mode transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Liu
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A turbine based combined cycle (TBCC propulsion system uses a turbine-based engine to accelerate the vehicle from takeoff to the mode transition flight condition, at which point, the propulsion system performs a “mode transition” from the turbine to ramjet engine. Smooth inlet mode transition is accomplished when flow is diverted from one flowpath to the other, without experiencing unstart or buzz. The smooth inlet mode transition is a complex unsteady process and it is one of the enabling technologies for combined cycle engine to become a functional reality. In order to unveil the unsteady process of inlet mode transition, the research of over/under TBCC inlet mode transition was conducted through a numerical simulation. It shows that during the mode transition the terminal shock oscillates in the inlet. During the process of inlet mode transition mass flow rate and Mach number of turbojet flowpath reduce with oscillation. While in ramjet flowpath the flow field is non-uniform at the beginning of inlet mode transition. The speed of mode transition and the operation states of the turbojet and ramjet engines will affect the motion of terminal shock. The result obtained in present paper can help us realize the unsteady flow characteristic during the mode transition and provide some suggestions for TBCC inlet mode transition based on the smooth transition of thrust.
Real-Time Unsteady Loads Measurements Using Hot-Film Sensors
Mangalam, Arun S.; Moes, Timothy R.
2004-01-01
Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in realtime, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteady aerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteady aerodynamic loads in real time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.
Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali
2009-01-01
Unsteady 3-D RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as to experiment. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the tangential direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this work is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.
Investigation of Unsteady Flow Behavior in Transonic Compressor Rotors with LES and PIV Measurements
Hah, Chunill; Voges, Melanie; Mueller, Martin; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter
2009-01-01
In the present study, unsteady flow behavior in a modern transonic axial compressor rotor is studied in detail with large eddy simulation (LES) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The main purpose of the study is to advance the current understanding of the flow field near the blade tip in an axial transonic compressor rotor near the stall and peak-efficiency conditions. Flow interaction between the tip leakage vortex and the passage shock is inherently unsteady in a transonic compressor. Casing-mounted unsteady pressure transducers have been widely applied to investigate steady and unsteady flow behavior near the casing. Although many aspects of flow have been revealed, flow structures below the casing cannot be studied with casing-mounted pressure transducers. In the present study, unsteady velocity fields are measured with a PIV system and the measured unsteady flow fields are compared with LES simulations. The currently applied PIV measurements indicate that the flow near the tip region is not steady even at the design condition. This self-induced unsteadiness increases significantly as the compressor rotor operates near the stall condition. Measured data from PIV show that the tip clearance vortex oscillates substantially near stall. The calculated unsteady characteristics of the flow from LES agree well with the PIV measurements. Calculated unsteady flow fields show that the formation of the tip clearance vortex is intermittent and the concept of vortex breakdown from steady flow analysis does not seem to apply in the current flow field. Fluid with low momentum near the pressure side of the blade close to the leading edge periodically spills over into the adjacent blade passage. The present study indicates that stall inception is heavily dependent on unsteady behavior of the flow field near the leading edge of the blade tip section for the present transonic compressor rotor.
Flow control of micro-ramps on supersonic forward-facing step flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Qing-Hu; Zhu Tao; Wu Anping; Yi Shihe
2016-01-01
The effects of the micro-ramps on supersonic turbulent flow over a forward-facing step (FFS) was experimentally investigated in a supersonic low-noise wind tunnel at Mach number 3 using nano-tracer planar laser scattering (NPLS) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. High spatiotemporal resolution images and velocity fields of supersonic flow over the testing model were captured. The fine structures and their spatial evolutionary characteristics without and with the micro-ramps were revealed and compared. The large-scale structures generated by the micro-ramps can survive the downstream FFS flowfield. The micro-ramps control on the flow separation and the separation shock unsteadiness was investigated by PIV results. With the micro-ramps, the reduction in the range of the reversal flow zone in streamwise direction is 50% and the turbulence intensity is also reduced. Moreover, the reduction in the average separated region and in separation shock unsteadiness are 47% and 26%, respectively. The results indicate that the micro-ramps are effective in reducing the flow separation and the separation shock unsteadiness. (paper)
Analytical extension of curved shock theory
Emanuel, G.
2018-03-01
Curved shock theory (CST) is limited to shock waves in a steady, two-dimensional or axisymmetric (2-Ax) flow of a perfect gas. A unique feature of CST is its use of intrinsic coordinates that result in an elegant and useful formulation for flow properties just downstream of a shock. For instance, the downstream effect of upstream vorticity, shock wave curvature, and the upstream pressure gradient along a streamline is established. There have been several attempts to extend CST, as mentioned in the text. Removal of the steady, 2-Ax, and perfect gas limitations, singly or in combination, requires an appropriate formulation of the shock wave's jump relations and the intrinsic coordinate Euler equations. Issues discussed include flow plane versus osculating plane, unsteady flow, vorticity, an imperfect gas, etc. The extension of CST utilizes concepts from differential geometry, such as the osculating plane, streamline torsion, and the Serret-Frenet equations.
Unsteady force estimation using a Lagrangian drift-volume approach
McPhaden, Cameron J.; Rival, David E.
2018-04-01
A novel Lagrangian force estimation technique for unsteady fluid flows has been developed, using the concept of a Darwinian drift volume to measure unsteady forces on accelerating bodies. The construct of added mass in viscous flows, calculated from a series of drift volumes, is used to calculate the reaction force on an accelerating circular flat plate, containing highly-separated, vortical flow. The net displacement of fluid contained within the drift volumes is, through Darwin's drift-volume added-mass proposition, equal to the added mass of the plate and provides the reaction force of the fluid on the body. The resultant unsteady force estimates from the proposed technique are shown to align with the measured drag force associated with a rapid acceleration. The critical aspects of understanding unsteady flows, relating to peak and time-resolved forces, often lie within the acceleration phase of the motions, which are well-captured by the drift-volume approach. Therefore, this Lagrangian added-mass estimation technique opens the door to fluid-dynamic analyses in areas that, until now, were inaccessible by conventional means.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shooshtari, S.H. Rajaee; Shahsavand, A.
2017-01-01
Natural gases provide around a quarter of energy consumptions around the globe. Supersonic separators (3S) play multifaceted role in natural gas industry processing, especially for water and hydrocarbon dew point corrections. These states of the art devices have minimum energy requirement and favorable process economy compared to conventional facilities. Their relatively large pressure drops may limit their application in some situations. To maximize the energy recovery of the dew point correction facility, the pressure loss across the 3S unit should be minimized. The optimal structure of 3s unit (including shock wave location and diffuser angle) is selected using simultaneous combination of normal shock occurrence and condensation in the presence of nucleation and growth processes. The condense-free gas enters the non-isentropic normal shock wave. The simulation results indicate that the normal shock location, pressure recovery coefficient and onset position strongly vary up to a certain diffuser angle (β = 8°) with the maximum pressure recovery of 0.88 which leads to minimum potential energy loss. Computational fluid dynamic simulations show that separation of boundary layer does not happen for the computed optimal value of β and it is essentially constant when the inlet gas temperatures and pressures vary over a relatively broad range. - Highlights: • Supersonic separators have found numerous applications in oil and gas industries. • Maximum pressure recovery is crucial for such units to maximize energy efficiency. • Simultaneous condensation and shock wave occurrence are studied for the first time. • Diverging nozzle angle of 8° can provide maximum pressure recovery of 0.88. • The optimal diffuser angle remains constant over a broad range of inlet conditions.
Unsteady force characteristics on foils undergoing pitching motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Chang Jo
2006-01-01
In the present study the unsteady forces acting on the pitching foils such as a flat plate, NACA0010, NACA0020, NACA65-0910 and BTE have been measured by using a six-axis sensor in a circulating water tunnel at a low Reynolds number region. The unsteady characteristics of the dynamic drag and lift have been compared to the quasi-steady ones which are measured under the stationary condition. The pitching motion is available for keeping the lift higher after the separation occurs. Especially, the characteristics of the dynamic lift are quite different from the quasi-steady one at high pitching frequency regions. As the pitching frequency deceases, the amplitude of the dynamic lift becomes closer to the quasi-steady one. However, the phase remains different between the steady and unsteady conditions even at low pitching frequencies. On the other hand, the dynamic drag is governed strongly by the angle of attack
Computation of steady and unsteady compressible quasi-axisymmetric vortex flow and breakdown
Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.
1991-01-01
The unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to compute and analyze compressible quasi-axisymmetric isolated vortices. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting finite-volume scheme. The developed three-dimensional solver has been verified by comparing its solution profiles with those of a slender, quasi-axisymmetric vortex solver for a subsonic, isolated quasi-axisymmetric vortex in an unbounded domain. The Navier-Stokes solver is then used to solve for a supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex flow in a configured circular duct. Steady and unsteady vortex-shock interactions and breakdown have been captured. The problem has also been calculated using the Euler solver of the same code and the results are compared with those of the Navier-Stokes solver. The effect of the initial swirl has been tentatively studied.
Theory and Low-Order Modeling of Unsteady Airfoil Flows
Ramesh, Kiran
Unsteady flow phenomena are prevalent in a wide range of problems in nature and engineering. These include, but are not limited to, aerodynamics of insect flight, dynamic stall in rotorcraft and wind turbines, leading-edge vortices in delta wings, micro-air vehicle (MAV) design, gust handling and flow control. The most significant characteristics of unsteady flows are rapid changes in the circulation of the airfoil, apparent-mass effects, flow separation and the leading-edge vortex (LEV) phenomenon. Although experimental techniques and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have enabled the detailed study of unsteady flows and their underlying features, a reliable and inexpensive loworder method for fast prediction and for use in control and design is still required. In this research, a low-order methodology based on physical principles rather than empirical fitting is proposed. The objective of such an approach is to enable insights into unsteady phenomena while developing approaches to model them. The basis of the low-order model developed here is unsteady thin-airfoil theory. A time-stepping approach is used to solve for the vorticity on an airfoil camberline, allowing for large amplitudes and nonplanar wakes. On comparing lift coefficients from this method against data from CFD and experiments for some unsteady test cases, it is seen that the method predicts well so long as LEV formation does not occur and flow over the airfoil is attached. The formation of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) in unsteady flows is initiated by flow separation and the formation of a shear layer at the airfoil's leading edge. This phenomenon has been observed to have both detrimental (dynamic stall in helicopters) and beneficial (high-lift flight in insects) effects. To predict the formation of LEVs in unsteady flows, a Leading Edge Suction Parameter (LESP) is proposed. This parameter is calculated from inviscid theory and is a measure of the suction at the airfoil's leading edge. It
Effects of explosion-generated shock waves in ducts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busby, M.R.; Kahn, J.E.; Belk, J.P.
1976-01-01
An explosion in a space causes an increase in temperature and pressure. To quantify the challenge that will be presented to essential components in a ventilation system, it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of a shock wave generated by an explosion, with attention directed to the propagation of such a wave in a duct. Using the equations of unsteady flow and shock tube theory, a theoretical model has been formulated to provide flow properties behind moving shock waves that have interacted with various changes in duct geometry. Empirical equations have been derived to calculate air pressure, temperature, Mach number, and velocity in a duct following an explosion
Influence of shock wave propagation on dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erfani, Rasool; Zare-Behtash, Hossein; Kontis, Konstantinos
2012-01-01
Interest in plasma actuators as active flow control devices is growing rapidly due to their lack of mechanical parts, light weight and high response frequency. Although the flow induced by these actuators has received much attention, the effect that the external flow has on the performance of the actuator itself must also be considered, especially the influence of unsteady high-speed flows which are fast becoming a norm in the operating flight envelopes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator when exposed to an unsteady flow generated by a shock tube. This type of flow, which is often used in different studies, contains a range of flow regimes from sudden pressure and density changes to relatively uniform high-speed flow regions. A small circular shock tube is employed along with the schlieren photography technique to visualize the flow. The voltage and current traces of the plasma actuator are monitored throughout, and using the well-established shock tube theory the change in the actuator characteristics are related to the physical processes which occur inside the shock tube. The results show that not only is the shear layer outside of the shock tube affected by the plasma but the passage of the shock front and high-speed flow behind it also greatly influences the properties of the plasma. (paper)
Separated Flow over Wind Turbines
Brown, David; Lewalle, Jacques
2015-11-01
The motion of the separation point on an airfoil under unsteady flow can affect its performance and longevity. Of interest is to understand and control the performance decrease in wind turbines subject to turbulent flow. We examine flow separation on an airfoil at a 19 degree angle of attack under unsteady flow conditions. We are using a DU-96-W180 airfoil of chord length 242 mm. The unsteadiness is generated by a cylinder with diameter 203 mm located 7 diameters upstream of the airfoil's leading edge. The data comes from twenty surface pressure sensors located on the top and bottom of the airfoil as well as on the upstream cylinder. Methods of analysis include Mexican hat transforms, Morlet wavelet transforms, power spectra, and various cross correlations. With this study I will explore how the differences of signals on the pressure and suction sides of an airfoil are related to the motion of the separation point.
Unsteady flow measurements in centrifugal compressors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bammert, K.; Mobarak, A.; Rautenberg, M.
1976-01-01
Centrifugal compressors and blowers are often used for recycling the coolant gas in gas-cooled reactors. To achieve the required high pressure ratios, highly loaded centrifugal compressors are built. The paper deals with unsteady flow measurements on highly loaded centrifugal impellers. Measurements of the approaching flow have been done with hot wires. The method of measurement enabled us to get the velocity distribution across the pitch ahead of the inducer. The static pressure signals along the shroud line has been discussed on the basis of some theoretical considerations. Accordingly the form of flow in the impeller and the wave flow or separation zones in the impeller can now be better interpreted. The importance of the unsteady nature of the relative flow, especially at impeller exit, is clearly demonstrated. Measurements with high responsive total pressure probes in the vicinity of impeller exit and the subsequent calculations have shown, that the instantaneous energy transfer at a certain point after the impeller may differ by more than 30% from the Euler work. Lastly, unsteady pressure measurements along the shroud line have been performed during surge and rotating stall. The surge signal have been analyzed in more detail and the mechanism of flow rupture and pressure recovery during a surge cycle is thoroughly discussed. (orig.) [de
Investigation of corner shock boundary layer interactions to understand inlet unstart
Funderburk, Morgan
2015-11-01
Inlet unstart is a detrimental phenomenon in dual-mode ramjet/scramjet engines that causes severe loss of thrust, large transient structural load, and potentially a loss of the aircraft. In order to analyze the effects that the corner shock boundary layer interaction (SBLI) has on initiating and perpetuating inlet unstart, a qualitative and quantitative investigation into mean and dynamic features of corner SBLI at various Mach numbers is made. Surface streakline visualization showed that the corner SBLI is highly three-dimensional with a dominant presence of corner separation vortex. Further, the peak r.m.s. pressure was located at the periphery of corner separation vortex, suggesting that the unsteady loading is caused by the corner vortex. Power spectral densities of wall-pressure fluctuations in the peak r.m.s. location were analyzed in order to characterize the dominant frequencies of oscillation of the flow structures and to unravel the dynamic interactions between them in order to expand the operating margin of future hypersonic air breathing vehicles.
Minnowbrook IV: 2003 Workshop on Transition and Unsteady Aspects of Turbomachinery Flows
LaGraff, John E. (Editor); Ashpis, David E.
2004-01-01
This Minnowbrook IV 2003 workshop on Transition and Unsteady Aspects of Turbomachinery Flows includes the following topics: 1) Current Issues in Unsteady Turbomachinery Flows; 2) Global Instability and Control of Low-Pressure Turbine Flows; 3) Influence of End Wall Leakage on Secondary Flow Development in Axial Turbines; 4) Active and Passive Flow Control on Low Pressure Turbine Airfoils; 5) Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Transitional Flows as Affected by Passing Wakes; 6) Effects of Freestream Turbulence on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer; 7) Bypass Transition Via Continuous Modes and Unsteady Effects on Film Cooling; 8) High Frequency Surface Heat Flux Imaging of Bypass Transition; 9) Skin Friction and Heat Flux Oscillations in Upstream Moving Wave Packets; 10) Transition Mechanisms and Use of Surface Roughness to Enhance the Benefits of Wake Passing in LP Turbines; 11) Transient Growth Approach to Roughness-Induced Transition; 12) Roughness- and Freestream-Turbulence-Induced Transient Growth as a Bypass Transition Mechanism; 13) Receptivity Calculations as a Means to Predicting Transition; 14) On Streamwise Vortices in a Curved Wall Jet and Their Effect on the Mean Flow; 15) Plasma Actuators for Separation Control of Low Pressure Turbine Blades; 16) Boundary-Layer Separation Control Under Low-Pressure-Turbine Conditions Using Glow-Discharge Plasma Actuators; 17) Control of Separation for Low Pressure Turbine Blades: Numerical Simulation; 18) Effects of Elevated Free-Stream Turbulence on Active Control of a Separation Bubble; 19) Wakes, Calming and Transition Under Strong Adverse Pressure Gradients; 20) Transitional Bubble in Periodic Flow Phase Shift; 21) Modelling Spots: The Calmed Region, Pressure Gradient Effects and Background; 22) Modeling of Unsteady Transitional Flow on Axial Compressor Blades; 23) Challenges in Predicting Component Efficiencies in Turbomachines With Low Reynolds Number Blading; 24) Observations on the Causal Relationship Between
Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Luk, Daniel F.; Chen, Jen-Ping
2010-01-01
Unsteady three-dimensional RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as experiment. A low Reynolds number k- turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the periodic direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.
Ionizing Shocks in Argon. Part 2: Transient and Multi-Dimensional Effects (Preprint)
2010-09-09
stability in ionizing monatomic gases. Part 1. Argon ,” J. Fluid Mech., 84, 55 (1978). 2M. P. F. Bristow and I. I. Glass, “ Polarizability of singly...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Ionizing Shocks in Argon . Part 2: Transient...Physics. 14. ABSTRACT We extend the computations of ionizing shocks in argon to unsteady and multi-dimensional, using a collisional-radiative
(YIP 2011) Unsteady Output-based Adaptive Simulation of Separated and Transitional Flows
2015-03-19
Investigator Aerospace Eng. U. Michigan Marco Ceze Ph.D. student/postdoctoral associate Aerospace Eng. U. Michigan Steven Kast Ph.D. student Aerospace...13] S. M. Kast , M. A. Ceze, and K. J. Fidkowski. Output-adaptive solution strategies for unsteady aerodynamics on deformable domains. Seventh...International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics ICCFD7-3802, 2012. [14] S. M. Kast and K. J. Fidkowski. Output-based mesh adaptation for high order
Analytical prediction of the unsteady lift on a rotor caused by downstream struts
Taylor, A. C., III; Ng, W. F.
1987-01-01
A two-dimensional, inviscid, incompressible procedure is presented for predicting the unsteady lift on turbomachinery blades caused by the upstream potential disturbance of downstream flow obstructions. Using the Douglas-Neumann singularity superposition potential flow computer program to model the downstream flow obstructions, classical equations of thin airfoil theory are then employed, to compute the unsteady lift on the upstream rotor blades. The method is applied to a particular geometry which consists of a rotor, a downstream stator, and downstream struts which support the engine casing. Very good agreement between the Douglas-Neumann program and experimental measurements was obtained for the downstream stator-strut flow field. The calculations for the unsteady lift due to the struts were in good agreement with the experiments in showing that the unsteady lift due to the struts decays exponentially with increased axial separation of the rotor and the struts. An application of the method showed that for a given axial spacing between the rotor and the strut, strut-induced unsteady lift is a very weak function of the axial or circumferential position of the stator.
Experimental investigation of shock wave diffraction over a single- or double-sphere model
Zhang, L. T.; Wang, T. H.; Hao, L. N.; Huang, B. Q.; Chen, W. J.; Shi, H. H.
2017-01-01
In this study, the unsteady drag produced by the interaction of a shock wave with a single- and a double-sphere model is measured using imbedded accelerometers. The shock wave is generated in a horizontal circular shock tube with an inner diameter of 200 mm. The effect of the shock Mach number and the dimensionless distance between spheres is investigated. The time-history of the drag coefficient is obtained based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) band-block filtering and polynomial fitting of the measured acceleration. The measured peak values of the drag coefficient, with the associated uncertainty, are reported.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zijun CHEN
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The problem of aeroelasticity and maneuvering of command surface and gust wing interaction involves a starting flow period which can be seen as the flow of an airfoil attaining suddenly an angle of attack. In the linear or nonlinear case, compressive Mach or shock waves are generated on the windward side and expansive Mach or rarefaction waves are generated on the leeward side. On each side, these waves are composed of an oblique steady state wave, a vertically-moving one-dimensional unsteady wave, and a secondary wave resulting from the interaction between the steady and unsteady ones. An analytical solution in the secondary wave has been obtained by Heaslet and Lomax in the linear case, and this linear solution has been borrowed to give an approximate solution by Bai and Wu for the nonlinear case. The structure of the secondary shock wave and the appearance of various force stages are two issues not yet considered in previous studies and has been studied in the present paper. A self-similar solution is obtained for the secondary shock wave, and the reason to have an initial force plateau as observed numerically is identified. Moreover, six theoretical characteristic time scales for pressure load variation are determined which explain the slope changes of the time-dependent force curve. Keywords: Force, Self-similar solution, Shock-shock interaction, Shock waves, Unsteady flow
Acoustic waves in shock tunnels and expansion tubes
Paull, A.; Stalker, R. J.
1992-01-01
It is shown that disturbances in shock and expansion tubes can be modelled as lateral acoustic waves. The ratio of sound speed across the driver-test gas interface is shown to govern the quantity of noise in the test gas. Frequency 'focusing' which is fundamental to centered unsteady expansions is discussed and displayed in centerline pitot pressure measurements.
Propagation of a Strong Shock Over a Random Bed of Spherical Particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehta, Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Neal, C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Salari, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jackson, T. L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Balachandar, S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Thakur, S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2017-04-11
Propagation of a strong shock through a bed of particles results in complex wave dynamics such as a reflected shock, a transmitted shock, and highly unsteady flow inside the particle bed. In this paper we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of shock propagation in air over a random bed of particles. We assume the flow is inviscid and governed by the Euler equations of gas dynamics. Simulations are carried out by varying the volume fraction of the particle bed at a fixed shock Mach number. We compute the unsteady inviscid streamwise and transverse drag coefficients as a function of time for each particle in the random bed as a function of volume fraction. We show that (i) there are significant variations in the peak drag for the particles in the bed, (ii) the mean peak drag as a function of streamwise distance through the bed decreases with a slope that increases as the volume fraction increases, and (iii) the deviation from the mean peak drag does not correlate with local volume fraction. We also present the local Mach number and pressure contours for the different volume fractions to explain the various observed complex physical mechanisms occurring during the shock-particle interactions. Since the shock interaction with the random bed of particles leads to transmitted and reflected waves, we compute the average flow properties to characterize the strength of the transmitted and reflected shock waves and quantify the energy dissipation inside the particle bed. Finally, to better understand the complex wave dynamics in a random bed, we consider a simpler approximation of a planar shock propagating in a duct with a sudden area change. We obtain Riemann solutions to this problem, which are used to compare with fully resolved numerical simulations.
Active Control of Flow Separation Over an Airfoil
Ravindran, S. S.
1999-01-01
Designing an aircraft without conventional control surfaces is of interest to aerospace community. In this direction, smart actuator devices such as synthetic jets have been proposed to provide aircraft maneuverability instead of control surfaces. In this article, a numerical study is performed to investigate the effects of unsteady suction and blowing on airfoils. The unsteady suction and blowing is introduced at the leading edge of the airfoil in the form of tangential jet. Numerical solutions are obtained using Reynolds-Averaged viscous compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Unsteady suction and blowing is investigated as a means of separation control to obtain lift on airfoils. The effect of blowing coefficients on lift and drag is investigated. The numerical simulations are compared with experiments from the Tel-Aviv University (TAU). These results indicate that unsteady suction and blowing can be used as a means of separation control to generate lift on airfoils.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...
Numerical analysis of three-dimensional MHD shock interactions in an inhomogeneous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prndergast, M.; Wu, S.T.
1987-01-01
Study of the formation and propagation of solar-originated shock waves in heliospheric space has attracted significant attention in the past decade. This attention is important because the propagation of shocks in heliospheric space has been thought of as one of the major physical processes for solar wind and cosmic ray modulations and their subsequent influence on the earth's environment. A version of the two step Lax-Wendroff difference method is used to seek solutions of the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for the study of a solar flare generated shock wave propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. 8 references
Numerical simulations of a nonequilibrium argon plasma in a shock-tube experiment
Cambier, Jean-Luc
1991-01-01
A code developed for the numerical modeling of nonequilibrium radiative plasmas is applied to the simulation of the propagation of strong ionizing shock waves in argon gas. The simulations attempt to reproduce a series of shock-tube experiments which will be used to validate the numerical models and procedures. The ability to perform unsteady simulations makes it possible to observe some fluctuations in the shock propagation, coupled to the kinetic processes. A coupling mechanism by pressure waves, reminiscent of oscillation mechanisms observed in detonation waves, is described. The effect of upper atomic levels is also briefly discussed.
A computational method for oleo-acoustics, application to hydraulic shock absorbers
B. Koren (Barry); P.F.M. Michielsen (Paul); J.-W. Kars; P. Wesseling
1995-01-01
textabstractTo predict high-frequency oil-flow phenomena in hydraulic-shock-absorber designs, a mathematical-physical model is proposed. The model consists of the 2-D unsteady Euler equations in axial-symmetric coordinates and an appropriate equation of state for oil. The main topic of the paper is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinli Liu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of microtabs on shock oscillation suppression and buffet load alleviation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA SC(2-0714 supercritical airfoil is studied. The unsteady flow field around the airfoil with a microtab is simulated with an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS simulation method using the scale adaptive simulation-shear stress transport turbulence model. Firstly, the influence of the microtab installation position along the upper airfoil surface is investigated with respect to the buffet load and the characteristics of the unsteady flow field. The results show that the shock oscillating range and moving average speed decrease substantially when the microtab is installed in the middle region between the shock and trailing edges of the airfoil. Subsequently, the effects of the protruding height (0.50%, 0.75% and 1.00% of the chord length of the microtab (installed at x/c = 0.8 on the upper airfoil surface on the buffet load and flow field are studied, and the results show that the effect on buffet load alleviation is best when the protruding height of the microtab is 0.75% of the chord length. Finally, the mechanism of buffet load alleviation with the microtab on the upper airfoil surface is briefly discussed.
Estimation of Aircraft Nonlinear Unsteady Parameters From Wind Tunnel Data
Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.
1998-01-01
Aerodynamic equations were formulated for an aircraft in one-degree-of-freedom large amplitude motion about each of its body axes. The model formulation based on indicial functions separated the resulting aerodynamic forces and moments into static terms, purely rotary terms and unsteady terms. Model identification from experimental data combined stepwise regression and maximum likelihood estimation in a two-stage optimization algorithm that can identify the unsteady term and rotary term if necessary. The identification scheme was applied to oscillatory data in two examples. The model identified from experimental data fit the data well, however, some parameters were estimated with limited accuracy. The resulting model was a good predictor for oscillatory and ramp input data.
Lee, Eun Seok
2000-10-01
An improved aerodynamics performance of a turbine cascade shape can be achieved by an understanding of the flow-field associated with the stator-rotor interaction. In this research, an axial gas turbine airfoil cascade shape is optimized for improved aerodynamic performance by using an unsteady Navier-Stokes solver and a parallel genetic algorithm. The objective of the research is twofold: (1) to develop a computational fluid dynamics code having faster convergence rate and unsteady flow simulation capabilities, and (2) to optimize a turbine airfoil cascade shape with unsteady passing wakes for improved aerodynamic performance. The computer code solves the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. It is based on the explicit, finite difference, Runge-Kutta time marching scheme and the Diagonalized Alternating Direction Implicit (DADI) scheme, with the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic and k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Improvements in the code focused on the cascade shape design capability, convergence acceleration and unsteady formulation. First, the inverse shape design method was implemented in the code to provide the design capability, where a surface transpiration concept was employed as an inverse technique to modify the geometry satisfying the user specified pressure distribution on the airfoil surface. Second, an approximation storage multigrid method was implemented as an acceleration technique. Third, the preconditioning method was adopted to speed up the convergence rate in solving the low Mach number flows. Finally, the implicit dual time stepping method was incorporated in order to simulate the unsteady flow-fields. For the unsteady code validation, the Stokes's 2nd problem and the Poiseuille flow were chosen and compared with the computed results and analytic solutions. To test the code's ability to capture the natural unsteady flow phenomena, vortex shedding past a cylinder and the shock oscillation over a bicircular airfoil were simulated and compared with
Unsteady adjoint for large eddy simulation of a coupled turbine stator-rotor system
Talnikar, Chaitanya; Wang, Qiqi; Laskowski, Gregory
2016-11-01
Unsteady fluid flow simulations like large eddy simulation are crucial in capturing key physics in turbomachinery applications like separation and wake formation in flow over a turbine vane with a downstream blade. To determine how sensitive the design objectives of the coupled system are to control parameters, an unsteady adjoint is needed. It enables the computation of the gradient of an objective with respect to a large number of inputs in a computationally efficient manner. In this paper we present unsteady adjoint solutions for a coupled turbine stator-rotor system. As the transonic fluid flows over the stator vane, the boundary layer transitions to turbulence. The turbulent wake then impinges on the rotor blades, causing early separation. This coupled system exhibits chaotic dynamics which causes conventional adjoint solutions to diverge exponentially, resulting in the corruption of the sensitivities obtained from the adjoint solutions for long-time simulations. In this presentation, adjoint solutions for aerothermal objectives are obtained through a localized adjoint viscosity injection method which aims to stabilize the adjoint solution and maintain accurate sensitivities. Preliminary results obtained from the supercomputer Mira will be shown in the presentation.
Numerical flow analysis of axial flow compressor for steady and unsteady flow cases
Prabhudev, B. M.; Satish kumar, S.; Rajanna, D.
2017-07-01
Performance of jet engine is dependent on the performance of compressor. This paper gives numerical study of performance characteristics for axial compressor. The test rig is present at CSIR LAB Bangalore. Flow domains are meshed and fluid dynamic equations are solved using ANSYS package. Analysis is done for six different speeds and for operating conditions like choke, maximum efficiency & before stall point. Different plots are compared and results are discussed. Shock displacement, vortex flows, leakage patterns are presented along with unsteady FFT plot and time step plot.
Transition of unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow
Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
1998-11-01
This paper deals with the stability and transition to turbulence of wall-bounded unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow. Such flows occur, for example, during unsteady boundary layer separation and in oscillating pipe flow. The main focus is on results from experiments in time-developing flow in a long pipe, which is decelerated rapidly. The flow is generated by the controlled motion of a piston. We obtain analytical solutions for laminar flow in the pipe and in a two-dimensional channel for arbitrary piston motions. By changing the piston speed and the length of piston travel we cover a range of values of Reynolds number and boundary layer thickness. The velocity profiles during the decay of the flow are unsteady with reverse flow near the wall, and are highly unstable due to their inflectional nature. In the pipe, we observe from flow visualization that the flow becomes unstable with the formation of what appears to be a helical vortex. The wavelength of the instability [simeq R: similar, equals]3[delta] where [delta] is the average boundary layer thickness, the average being taken over the time the flow is unstable. The time of formation of the vortices scales with the average convective time scale and is [simeq R: similar, equals]39/([Delta]u/[delta]), where [Delta]u=(umax[minus sign]umin) and umax, umin and [delta] are the maximum velocity, minimum velocity and boundary layer thickness respectively at each instant of time. The time to transition to turbulence is [simeq R: similar, equals]33/([Delta]u/[delta]). Quasi-steady linear stability analysis of the velocity profiles brings out two important results. First that the stability characteristics of velocity profiles with reverse flow near the wall collapse when scaled with the above variables. Second that the wavenumber corresponding to maximum growth does not change much during the instability even though the velocity profile does change substantially. Using the results from the experiments and the
Bayesian inference of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics from aeroelastic limit cycle oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sandhu, Rimple [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Poirel, Dominique [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Pettit, Chris [Department of Aerospace Engineering, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Khalil, Mohammad [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Sarkar, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit.sarkar@carleton.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)
2016-07-01
A Bayesian model selection and parameter estimation algorithm is applied to investigate the influence of nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic loads on the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) of a pitching airfoil in the transitional Reynolds number regime. At small angles of attack, laminar boundary layer trailing edge separation causes negative aerodynamic damping leading to the LCO. The fluid–structure interaction of the rigid, but elastically mounted, airfoil and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics is represented by two coupled nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equations containing uncertain parameters and model approximation errors. Several plausible aerodynamic models with increasing complexity are proposed to describe the aeroelastic system leading to LCO. The likelihood in the posterior parameter probability density function (pdf) is available semi-analytically using the extended Kalman filter for the state estimation of the coupled nonlinear structural and unsteady aerodynamic model. The posterior parameter pdf is sampled using a parallel and adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The posterior probability of each model is estimated using the Chib–Jeliazkov method that directly uses the posterior MCMC samples for evidence (marginal likelihood) computation. The Bayesian algorithm is validated through a numerical study and then applied to model the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads using wind-tunnel test data at various Reynolds numbers.
Unsteady Thick Airfoil Aerodynamics: Experiments, Computation, and Theory
Strangfeld, C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Mueller-Vahl, H.; Greenblatt, D.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.
2015-01-01
An experimental, computational and theoretical investigation was carried out to study the aerodynamic loads acting on a relatively thick NACA 0018 airfoil when subjected to pitching and surging, individually and synchronously. Both pre-stall and post-stall angles of attack were considered. Experiments were carried out in a dedicated unsteady wind tunnel, with large surge amplitudes, and airfoil loads were estimated by means of unsteady surface mounted pressure measurements. Theoretical predictions were based on Theodorsen's and Isaacs' results as well as on the relatively recent generalizations of van der Wall. Both two- and three-dimensional computations were performed on structured grids employing unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS). For pure surging at pre-stall angles of attack, the correspondence between experiments and theory was satisfactory; this served as a validation of Isaacs theory. Discrepancies were traced to dynamic trailing-edge separation, even at low angles of attack. Excellent correspondence was found between experiments and theory for airfoil pitching as well as combined pitching and surging; the latter appears to be the first clear validation of van der Wall's theoretical results. Although qualitatively similar to experiment at low angles of attack, two-dimensional URANS computations yielded notable errors in the unsteady load effects of pitching, surging and their synchronous combination. The main reason is believed to be that the URANS equations do not resolve wake vorticity (explicitly modeled in the theory) or the resulting rolled-up un- steady flow structures because high values of eddy viscosity tend to \\smear" the wake. At post-stall angles, three-dimensional computations illustrated the importance of modeling the tunnel side walls.
Gvaramadze, V. V.
1995-09-01
We propose a model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) based on close Galactic neutron stars with accretion disks. We outline a simple mechanism of unsteady plasma ejections during episodic accretion events. The relative kinetic energy of ejected blobs can be converted into gamma-rays by internal shocks. The beaming of gamma-ray emission can be responsible for the observed isotropic angular distribution of GRBs.
Effects of Oscillation Frequency and Amplitude on Separation in an Unsteady Turbulent Flow.
1980-09-01
be performed with much of the aircraft immersed in turbulent flow. When in operation near the ground or landing platform , unsteady, turbulent flow...34 - .-,...i ,aXa. 8O- IDa I"l N 0 N( ’A0 a r. 0 a 0.a " - M - if l’ . t 1 - o t I.- I.- I I I Ni ilNl 1i * 11 it O ag 0) - -i "NUm M CA myp WiX ~ U’iCL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, P. Pradeep; Kim, Kui Soon; Oh, Se Jong; Choi, Jeong Yeol [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-03-15
An unsteady shock-induced combustion (SIC) is characterized by the regularly oscillating combustion phenomenon behind the shock wave supported by the blunt projectile flying around the speed of Chapman-Jouguet detonation wave. The SIC is the coupling phenomenon between the hypersonic flow and the chemical kinetics, but the effects of chemical kinetics have been rarely reported. We compared hydrogen-air reaction mechanisms for the shock-induced combustion to demonstrate the importance of considering the reaction mechanisms for such complex flows. Seven hydrogen-air reaction mechanisms were considered, those available publically and used in other researches. As a first step in the comparison of the hydrogen combustion, ignition delay time of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures was compared at various initial conditions. Laminar premixed flame speed was also compared with available experimental data and at high pressure conditions. In addition, half-reaction length of ZND (Zeldovich-Neumann-Doering) detonation structure accounts for the length scale in SIC phenomena. Oscillation frequency of the SIC is compared by running the time-accurate 3rd-order Navier-Stokes CFD code fully coupled with the detailed chemistry by using four levels of grid resolutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, P. Pradeep; Kim, Kui Soon; Oh, Se Jong; Choi, Jeong Yeol
2015-01-01
An unsteady shock-induced combustion (SIC) is characterized by the regularly oscillating combustion phenomenon behind the shock wave supported by the blunt projectile flying around the speed of Chapman-Jouguet detonation wave. The SIC is the coupling phenomenon between the hypersonic flow and the chemical kinetics, but the effects of chemical kinetics have been rarely reported. We compared hydrogen-air reaction mechanisms for the shock-induced combustion to demonstrate the importance of considering the reaction mechanisms for such complex flows. Seven hydrogen-air reaction mechanisms were considered, those available publically and used in other researches. As a first step in the comparison of the hydrogen combustion, ignition delay time of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures was compared at various initial conditions. Laminar premixed flame speed was also compared with available experimental data and at high pressure conditions. In addition, half-reaction length of ZND (Zeldovich-Neumann-Doering) detonation structure accounts for the length scale in SIC phenomena. Oscillation frequency of the SIC is compared by running the time-accurate 3rd-order Navier-Stokes CFD code fully coupled with the detailed chemistry by using four levels of grid resolutions.
Shock wave attenuation in a micro-channel
Giordano, J.; Perrier, P.; Meister, L.; Brouillette, M.
2018-05-01
This work presents optical measurements of shock wave attenuation in a glass micro-channel. This transparent facility, with a cross section ranging from 1 mm× 150 μm to 1 mm× 500 μm, allowed for the use of high-speed schlieren videography to visualize the propagation of a shock wave within the entire micro-channel and to quantify velocity attenuation of the wave due to wall effects. In this paper, we present the experimental technique and the relevant data treatment we have used to increase the sensitivity of shock wave detection. Then, we compared our experimental results for different channel widths, lengths, and shock wave velocities with the analytical model for shock attenuation proposed by Russell (J Fluid Mech 27(2):305-314, 1967), which assumes laminar flow, and by Mirels (Attenuation in a shock tube due to unsteady-boundary-layer action, NACA Report 1333, 1957) for turbulent flow. We found that these models are inadequate to predict the observed data, owing to the presence of fully developed flow which violates the basic assumption of these models. The data are also compared with the empirical shock attenuation models proposed by Zeitoun (Phys Fluids 27(1):011701, 2015) and Deshpande and Puranik (Shock Waves 26(4):465-475, 2016), where better agreement is observed. Finally, we presented experimental data for the flow field behind the shock wave from measurements of the Mach wave angle which shows globally decreasing flow Mach numbers due to viscous wall effects.
Simulation of self-induced unsteady motion in the near wake of a Joukowski airfoil
Ghia, K. N.; Osswald, G. A.; Ghia, U.
1986-01-01
The unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis is shown to be capable of analyzing the massively separated, persistently unsteady flow in the post-stall regime of a Joukowski airfoil for an angle of attack as high as 53 degrees. The analysis has provided the detailed flow structure, showing the complex vortex interaction for this configuration. The aerodynamic coefficients for lift, drag, and moment were calculated. So far only the spatial structure of the vortex interaction was computed. It is now important to potentially use the large-scale vortex interactions, an additional energy source, to improve the aerodynamic performance.
Characterization of the unsteady flow in the nacelle region of a modern wind turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.
2011-01-01
A three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver has been used to investigate the flow in the nacelle region of a wind turbine where anemometers are typically placed to measure the flow speed and the turbine yaw angle. A 500 kW turbine was modelled with rotor and nacelle geometry in order to capture...... the complex separated flow in the blade root region of the rotor. A number of steady state and unsteady simulations were carried out for wind speeds ranging from 6 m s−1 to 16 m s−1 as well as two yaw and tilt angles. The flow in the nacelle region was found to be highly unsteady, dominated by unsteady vortex...... anemometry showed significant dependence on both yaw and tilt angles with yaw errors of up to 10 degrees when operating in a tilted inflow. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Mirels, Harold
1959-01-01
A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.
Universal Rim Thickness in Unsteady Sheet Fragmentation
Wang, Y.; Dandekar, R.; Bustos, N.; Poulain, S.; Bourouiba, L.
2018-05-01
Unsteady fragmentation of a fluid bulk into droplets is important for epidemiology as it governs the transport of pathogens from sneezes and coughs, or from contaminated crops in agriculture. It is also ubiquitous in industrial processes such as paint, coating, and combustion. Unsteady fragmentation is distinct from steady fragmentation on which most theoretical efforts have been focused thus far. We address this gap by studying a canonical unsteady fragmentation process: the breakup from a drop impact on a finite surface where the drop fluid is transferred to a free expanding sheet of time-varying properties and bounded by a rim of time-varying thickness. The continuous rim destabilization selects the final spray droplets, yet this process remains poorly understood. We combine theory with advanced image analysis to study the unsteady rim destabilization. We show that, at all times, the rim thickness is governed by a local instantaneous Bond number equal to unity, defined with the instantaneous, local, unsteady rim acceleration. This criterion is found to be robust and universal for a family of unsteady inviscid fluid sheet fragmentation phenomena, from impacts of drops on various surface geometries to impacts on films. We discuss under which viscous and viscoelastic conditions the criterion continues to govern the unsteady rim thickness.
Unsteady aerodynamics and vortex-sheet formation of a two-dimensional airfoil
Xia, X.; Mohseni, K.
2017-11-01
Unsteady inviscid flow models of wings and airfoils have been developed to study the aerodynamics of natural and man-made flyers. Vortex methods have been extensively applied to reduce the dimensionality of these aerodynamic models, based on the proper estimation of the strength and distribution of the vortices in the wake. In such modeling approaches, one of the most fundamental questions is how the vortex sheets are generated and released from sharp edges. To determine the formation of the trailing-edge vortex sheet, the classical Kutta condition can be extended to unsteady situations by realizing that a flow cannot turn abruptly around a sharp edge. This condition can be readily applied to a flat plate or an airfoil with cusped trailing edge since the direction of the forming vortex sheet is known to be tangential to the trailing edge. However, for a finite-angle trailing edge, or in the case of flow separation away from a sharp corner, the direction of the forming vortex sheet is ambiguous. To remove any ad-hoc implementation, the unsteady Kutta condition, the conservation of circulation, as well as the conservation laws of mass and momentum are coupled to analytically solve for the angle, strength, and relative velocity of the trailing-edge vortex sheet. The two-dimensional aerodynamic model together with the proposed vortex-sheet formation condition is verified by comparing flow structures and force calculations with experimental results for airfoils in steady and unsteady background flows.
The computation of pressure waves in shock tubes by a finite difference procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbaro, M.
1988-09-01
A finite difference solution of one-dimensional unsteady isentropic compressible flow equations is presented. The computer program has been tested by solving some cases of the Riemann shock tube problem. Predictions are in good agreement with those presented by other authors. Some inaccuracies may be attributed to the wave smearing consequent of the finite-difference treatment. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merzhanov, A.G.; Frolov, S.M.
1995-01-01
This book contains lectures by the experts in various fields of modern research in combustion, detonation and shock waves, presented at the Zel'dovich memorial - International conference on combustion dedicated to the 80-th birthday of academician Ya.B. Zel'dovich. There are eight chapters discussing the state-of-the-art in combustion kinetics, ignition and steady-state flame propagation, diffusion and heterogeneous combustion, turbulent combustion, unsteady combustion, detonation, combustion and detonation analogies, intense shock waves and extreme states of matter [ru
El-Asrag, Hossam A.
2011-01-01
Direct simulation of all the length and time scales relevant to practical combustion processes is computationally prohibitive. When combustion processes are driven by reaction and transport phenomena occurring at the unresolved scales of a numerical simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re-ignition, and history effects-via embedded simulations at the subgrid level. The model efficiently accounts for subgrid flame structure and incorporates detailed chemistry and transport, allowing more accurate prediction of the stretch effect and the heat release. In this chapter we first review the work done in the past thirty years to develop the flame embedding concept. Next we present a formulation for the same concept that is compatible with Large Eddy Simulation in the flamelet regimes. The unsteady flame embedding approach (UFE) treats the flame as an ensemble of locally one-dimensional flames, similar to the flamelet approach. However, a set of elemental one-dimensional flames is used to describe the turbulent flame structure directly at the subgrid level. The calculations employ a one-dimensional unsteady flame model that incorporates unsteady strain rate, curvature, and mixture boundary conditions imposed by the resolved scales. The model is used for closure of the subgrid terms in the context of large eddy simulation. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from a flame-vortex interaction problem is used for comparison. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.
Experimental Study of Shock Generated Compressible Vortex Ring
Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu
2000-11-01
Formation of a compressible vortex ring and generation of sound associated with it is studied experimentally. Impulse of a shock wave is used to generate a vortex ring from the open end of a shock-tube. Vortex ring formation process has been studied in details using particle image Velocimetry (PIV). As the shock wave exits the tube it diffracts and expands. A circular vortex sheet forms at the edge and rolls up into a vortex ring. Far field microphone measurement shows that the acoustic pressure consists of a spike due to shock wave followed by a low frequency pressure wave of decaying nature, superimposed with high frequency pressure wave. Acoustic waves consist of waves due to expansion, waves formed in the tube during diaphragm breakage and waves associated with the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices. Unsteady evolution of the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices in the jet behind the ring is studied by measuring the velocity field using PIV. Corresponding vorticity field, circulation around the vortex core and growth rate of the vortex core is calculated from the measured velocity field. The velocity field in a compressible vortex ring differs from that of an incompressible ring due to the contribution from both shock and vortex ring.
Numerical Simulation Of Shock Response To Wall Changes In High Speed Intakes
Fincham, J.; Taylor, N. V.
2011-05-01
Hypersonic flight presents a number of challenges to the designer, one of which is the intake behaviour. Minimising drag requires careful positioning of the intake shock structure, while accurate understanding of the dynamic behaviour is required to allow minimisation of margins. In this paper, a two shock external compression intake derived from the Reaction Engines Limited SABRE engine is examined using inviscid axisymmetric CFD analysis to determine the response of the normal shockwave to axial motion of the intake centrebody. An approximately linear relationship between centrebody position and both the normal shock position and additive drag in steady flow is demonstrated. Initial results from an unsteady analysis are also given, which show complex behaviours may be triggered by rapid motion of the centrebody in response to control input.
Axdahl, Erik; Kumar, Ajay; Wilhite, Alan
2011-01-01
A premixed, shock-induced combustion engine has been proposed in the past as a viable option for operating in the Mach 10 to 15 range in a single stage to orbit vehicle. In this approach, a shock is used to initiate combustion in a premixed fuel/air mixture. Apparent advantages over a conventional scramjet engine include a shorter combustor that, in turn, results in reduced weight and heating loads. There are a number of technical challenges that must be understood and resolved for a practical system: premixing of fuel and air upstream of the combustor without premature combustion, understanding and control of instabilities of the shock-induced combustion front, ability to produce sufficient thrust, and the ability to operate over a range of Mach numbers. This study evaluated the stability of the shock-induced combustion front in a model problem of a sphere traveling in a fuel/air mixture at high Mach numbers. A new, rapid analysis method was developed and applied to study such flows. In this method the axisymmetric, body-centric Navier-Stokes equations were expanded about the stagnation streamline of a sphere using the local similarity hypothesis in order to reduce the axisymmetric equations to a quasi-1D set of equations. These reduced sets of equations were solved in the stagnation region for a number of flow conditions in a premixed, hydrogen/air mixture. Predictions from the quasi-1D analysis showed very similar stable or unstable behavior of the shock-induced combustion front as compared to experimental studies and higher-fidelity computational results. This rapid analysis tool could be used in parametric studies to investigate effects of fuel rich/lean mixtures, non-uniformity in mixing, contaminants in the mixture, and different chemistry models.
Hall, J. L.
1974-01-01
A study of the effect of free-stream thermal-energy release from shock-induced exothermic reactions on boundary-layer development and transition is presented. The flow model is that of a boundary layer developing behind a moving shock wave in two-dimensional unsteady flow over a shock-tube wall. Matched sets of combustible hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen mixtures and inert hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures were used to obtain transition data over a range of transition Reynolds numbers from 1,100,000 to 21,300,000. The heat-energy is shown to significantly stabilize the boundary layer without changing its development character. A method for application of this data to flat-plate steady flows is included.
A Theory of Material Spike Formation in Flow Separation
Serra, Mattia; Haller, George
2017-11-01
We develop a frame-invariant theory of material spike formation during flow separation over a no-slip boundary in two-dimensional flows with arbitrary time dependence. This theory identifies both fixed and moving separation, is effective also over short-time intervals, and admits a rigorous instantaneous limit. Our theory is based on topological properties of material lines, combining objectively stretching- and rotation-based kinematic quantities. The separation profile identified here serves as the theoretical backbone for the material spike from its birth to its fully developed shape, and remains hidden to existing approaches. Finally, our theory can be used to rigorously explain the perception of off-wall separation in unsteady flows, and more importantly, provide the conditions under which such a perception is justified. We illustrate our results in several examples including steady, time-periodic and unsteady analytic velocity fields with flat and curved boundaries, and an experimental dataset.
Exact solution of planar and nonplanar weak shock wave problem in gasdynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, L.P.; Ram, S.D.; Singh, D.B.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → An exact solution is derived for a problem of weak shock wave in adiabatic gas dynamics. → The density ahead of the shock is taken as a power of the position from the origin of the shock wave. → For a planar and non-planar motion, the total energy carried by the wave varies with respect to time. → The solution obtained for the planer, and cylindrically symmetric flow is new one. → The results obtained are also presented graphically for different Mach numbers. - Abstract: In the present paper, an analytical approach is used to determine a new exact solution of the problem of one dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow of planer and non-planer weak shock waves in an inviscid ideal fluid. Here it is assumed that the density ahead of the shock front varies according to the power law of the distance from the source of disturbance. The solution of the problem is presented in the form of a power in the distance and the time.
Measurements of ion velocity separation and ionization in multi-species plasma shocks
Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Park, H.-S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Katz, J.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Vold, E. L.; Keenan, B. D.; Simakov, A. N.; Chacón, L.
2018-05-01
The ion velocity structure of a strong collisional shock front in a plasma with multiple ion species is directly probed in laser-driven shock-tube experiments. Thomson scattering of a 263.25 nm probe beam is used to diagnose ion composition, temperature, and flow velocity in strong shocks ( M ˜6 ) propagating through low-density ( ρ˜0.1 mg/cc) plasmas composed of mixtures of hydrogen (98%) and neon (2%). Within the preheat region of the shock front, two velocity populations of ions are observed, a characteristic feature of strong plasma shocks. The ionization state of the Ne is observed to change within the shock front, demonstrating an ionization-timescale effect on the shock front structure. The forward-streaming proton feature is shown to be unexpectedly cool compared to predictions from ion Fokker-Planck simulations; the neon ionization gradient is evaluated as a possible cause.
Three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae: from shock revival to shock breakout
Wongwathanarat, A.; Müller, E.; Janka, H.-Th.
2015-05-01
We present three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SN) from blast-wave initiation by the neutrino-driven mechanism to shock breakout from the stellar surface, using an axis-free Yin-Yang grid and considering two 15 M⊙ red supergiants (RSG) and two blue supergiants (BSG) of 15 M⊙ and 20 M⊙. We demonstrate that the metal-rich ejecta in homologous expansion still carry fingerprints of asymmetries at the beginning of the explosion, but the final metal distribution is massively affected by the detailed progenitor structure. The most extended and fastest metal fingers and clumps are correlated with the biggest and fastest-rising plumes of neutrino-heated matter, because these plumes most effectively seed the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at the C+O/He and He/H composition-shell interfaces after the passage of the SN shock. The extent of radial mixing, global asymmetry of the metal-rich ejecta, RT-induced fragmentation of initial plumes to smaller-scale fingers, and maximum Ni and minimum H velocities depend not only on the initial asphericity and explosion energy (which determine the shock and initial Ni velocities), but also on the density profiles and widths of C+O core and He shell and on the density gradient at the He/H transition, which leads to unsteady shock propagation and the formation of reverse shocks. Both RSG explosions retain a large global metal asymmetry with pronounced clumpiness and substructure, deep penetration of Ni fingers into the H-envelope (with maximum velocities of 4000-5000 km s-1 for an explosion energy around 1.5 bethe) and efficient inward H-mixing. While the 15 M⊙ BSG shares these properties (maximum Ni speeds up to ~3500 km s-1), the 20 M⊙ BSG develops a much more roundish geometry without pronounced metal fingers (maximum Ni velocities only ~2200 km s-1) because of reverse-shock deceleration and insufficient time for strong RT growth and fragmentation at the He
Chlorine decay under steady and unsteady-state hydraulic conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoianov, Ivan; Aisopou, Angeliki
2014-01-01
This paper describes a simulation framework for the scale-adaptive hydraulic and chlorine decay modelling under steady and unsteady-state flows. Bulk flow and pipe wall reaction coefficients are replaced with steady and unsteady-state reaction coefficients. An unsteady decay coefficient is defined...... which depends upon the absolute value of shear stress and the rate of change of shear stress for quasi-unsteady and unsteady-state flows. A preliminary experimental and analytical investigation was carried out in a water transmission main. The results were used to model monochloramine decay...... and these demonstrate that the dynamic hydraulic conditions have a significant impact on water quality deterioration and the rapid loss of disinfectant residual. © 2013 The Authors....
Broadband Shock Noise in Internally-Mixed Dual-Stream Jets
Bridges, James E.
2009-01-01
Broadband shock noise (BBSN) has been studied in some detail in single-flow jets and recently in dual-stream jets with separate flow exhaust systems. Shock noise is of great concern in these latter cases because of the noise created for the aircraft cabin by the underexpanded nozzle flow at cruise. Another case where shock noise is of concern is in the case of future supersonic aircraft that are expected to have bypass ratios small enough to justify internally mixed exhaust systems, and whose mission will push cycles to the point of imperfectly expanded flows. Dual-stream jets with internally mixed plume have some simplifying aspects relative to the separate flow jets, having a single shock structure given by the common nozzle pressure. This is used to separate the contribution of the turbulent shear layer to the broadband shock noise. Shock structure is held constant while the geometry and strength of the inner and merged shear layers are varying by changing splitter area ratio and core stream temperature. Flow and noise measurements are presented which document the efforts at separating the contribution of the inner shear layer to the broadband shock noise.
Unsteady Stokes equations: Some complete general solutions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
homogeneous unsteady Stokes equations are examined. A necessary and sufficient condition for a divergence-free vector to represent the velocity field of a possible unsteady Stokes flow in the absence of body forces is derived. Keywords. Complete ...
Transverse jet-cavity interactions with the influence of an impinging shock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zare-Behtash, H.; Lo, K.H.; Kontis, K.; Ukai, T.; Obayashi, S.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Experimental study of shock-jet-cavity in a supersonic freestream is conducted. • Shock impingement at the cavity leading edge lifts the shear layer, encouraging momentum transfer. • Shock impingement close to the jet location increases the number of smaller turbulent structures. - Abstract: For high-speed air breathing engines, fuel injection and subsequent mixing with air is paramount for combustion. The high freestream velocity poses a great challenge to efficient mixing both in macroscale and microscale. Utilising cavities downstream of fuel injection locations, as a means to hold the flow and stabilise the combustion, is one mechanism which has attracted much attention, requiring further research to study the unsteady flow features and interactions occurring within the cavity. In this study we combine the transverse jet injection upstream of a cavity with an impinging shock to see how this interaction influences the cavity flow, since impinging shocks have been shown to enhance mixing of transverse jets. Utilising qualitative and quantitative methods: schlieren, oilflow, PIV, and PSP the induced flowfield is analysed. The impinging shock lifts the shear layer over the cavity and combined with the instabilities generated by the transverse jet creates a highly complicated flowfield with numerous vertical structures. The interaction between the oblique shock and the jet leads to a relatively uniform velocity distribution within the cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell, C.T.; Mellott, M.M.; Smith, E.J.; King, J.H.
1983-01-01
ISEE 1,2,3 IMP8, and Prognoz 7 observations of interplanetary shocks in 1978 and 1979 provide five instances where a single shock is observed by four spacecraft. These observations are used to determine best-fit normals for these five shocks. In addition to providing well-documented shocks for furture techniques. When the angle between upstream and downstream magnetic field is greater than 20, magnetic coplanarity can be an accurate single spacecraft method. However, no technique based solely on the magnetic measurements at one or multiple sites was universally accurate. Thus, we recommend using overdetermined shock normal solutions whenever possible, utilizing plasma measurements, separation vectors, and time delays together with magnetic constraints
Physics of intermediate shocks: A review
Karimabadi, H.
1995-01-01
Intermediate shocks (ISs) lead to a transition from super-Alfvenic to sub-Alfvenic flow and are different from slow and fast shocks in that an IS rotates the component of the magnetic field tangent to the shock plane by 180 deg. Another peculiarity of ISs is that for the same upstream conditions an IS can have two different downstream states. There also exist a second class of ISs which rotate the magnetic field by an angle other than 180 deg. Due to their noncoplanar nature they cannot be time-stationary and are referred to as time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDIS). The existence of ISs has been the subject of much controversy over the years. Early studies questioned the physical reality of ISs. However, the studies of ISs found a new impetus when C.C. Wu showed that ISs do exist and are stable within the resistive MHD framework. In this paper, after a brief historical overview of the subject, we will review the latest developments in the study of ISs. In particular, we will address the questions of stability and structure of ISs and the relationship between ISs and other discontinuities. One of the recent developments has been the finding that ISs can be unsteady, reforming in time. Details of this process will be discussed. Finally, we examine the effect of anisotropy on the resolutions and discuss the relevance of ISs to the observed field rotations at the Earth's magnetopause.
Russell, C. T.; Mellott, M. M.; Smith, E. J.; King, J. H.
1983-01-01
ISEE 1, 2, 3, IMP 8, and Prognoz 7 observations of interplanetary shocks in 1978 and 1979 provide five instances where a single shock is observed by four spacecraft. These observations are used to determine best-fit normals for these five shocks. In addition to providing well-documented shocks for future investigations these data allow the evaluation of the accuracy of several shock normal determination techniques. When the angle between upstream and downstream magnetic field is greater than 20 deg, magnetic coplanarity can be an accurate single spacecraft method. However, no technique based solely on the magnetic measurements at one or multiple sites was universally accurate. Thus, the use of overdetermined shock normal solutions, utilizing plasma measurements, separation vectors, and time delays together with magnetic constraints, is recommended whenever possible.
Transitory Control of Unsteady Separation using Pulsed Actuation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woo, George T K; Glezer, Ari
2011-01-01
The dynamic mechanisms of transitory flow attachment effected by pulsed actuation of the separated flow over a stalled airfoil are investigated experimentally. Actuation is effected by momentary pulsed jets generated by a spanwise array of combustion-based actuators such that the characteristic time of jet duration is nominally an order of magnitude shorter than the flow's convective time scale. The transitory flow field in the cross stream plane above the airfoil and in its near wake is investigated using multiple high-resolution PIV images that are obtained phase-locked to the actuation for continuous tracking of vorticity concentrations. The brief actuation pulse leads to severing of the separated vorticity layer and the subsequent shedding of large-scale vortical structures owing to the collapse of the separated flow domain which is accompanied by strong changes in the circulation about the entire airfoil. By exploiting the disparity between the characteristic times of flow response to actuation and relaxation, it is shown that successive actuation pulses can extend the flow attachment and enhance the global aerodynamic performance. It is also shown that coupling of the actuation to the airfoil's motion during cyclical pitch enhances the effect of transitory flow control and leads to a significant suppression of dynamic stall.
Otto, Mathias; Kuhn, Alexander; Engelke, Wito; Theisel, Holger
2012-01-01
In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall that impede the pump's effectiveness. The winning entry split analysis of the pump into three parts based on the pump's functional behavior. It then applied local and integration-based methods to communicate the unsteady flow behavior in different regions of the dataset. This research formed the basis for a comparison of common vortex extractors and more recent methods. In particular, integration-based methods (separation measures, accumulated scalar fields, particle path lines, and advection textures) are well suited to capture the complex time-dependent flow behavior. This video (http://youtu.be/oD7QuabY0oU) shows simulations of unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump.
Unsteady hydraulic simulation of the cavitating part load vortex rope in Francis turbines
Brammer, J.; Segoufin, C.; Duparchy, F.; Lowys, P. Y.; Favrel, A.; Avellan, F.
2017-04-01
For Francis turbines at part load operation a helical vortex rope is formed due to the swirling nature of the flow exiting the runner. This vortex creates pressure fluctuations which can lead to power swings, and the unsteady loading can lead to fatigue damage of the runner. In the case that the vortex rope cavitates there is the additional risk that hydro-acoustic resonance can occur. It is therefore important to be able to accurately simulate this phenomenon to address these issues. In this paper an unsteady, multi-phase CFD model was used to simulate two part-load operating points, for two different cavitation conditions. The simulation results were validated with test-rig data, and showed very good agreement. These results also served as an input for FEA calculations and fatigue analysis, which are presented in a separate study.
Unsteady wake of a rotating tire
Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Moxey, Dave; Xu, Hui; Sherwin, Spencer; Sherwin Lab Team
2015-11-01
For open wheel race-cars, such as IndyCar and Formula One, the wheels are responsible for 40% of the total drag. For road cars drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 60% of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two or three pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative importance of which still remains an open question, that interact to form a complex wake. Traditional RANS based methods are typically not well equipped to deal with such highly unsteady flows which motivates research into more physical, unsteady models. Leveraging a high-fidelity spectral/hp element based method a Large Eddy Simulation is performed to give further insight into unsteady characteristics of the wake. In particular the unsteady nature of both the jetting and top vortex pair is reported as well as the time and length scales associated with the vortex core trajectories. Correlation with experimentally obtained particle image velocimetry is presented. The authors acknowledge support from the United Kingdom Turbulence Consortium (UKTC) as well as from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for access to ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service.
Unsteady potential flow past a propeller blade section
Takallu, M. A.
1990-01-01
An analytical study was conducted to predict the effect of an oscillating stream on the time dependent sectional pressure and lift coefficients of a model propeller blade. The assumption is that as the blade sections encounter a wake, the actual angles of attack vary in a sinusoidal manner through the wake, thus each blade is exposed to an unsteady stream oscillating about a mean value at a certain reduced frequency. On the other hand, an isolated propeller at some angle of attack can experience periodic changes in the value of the flow angle causing unsteady loads on the blades. Such a flow condition requires the inclusion of new expressions in the formulation of the unsteady potential flow around the blade sections. These expressions account for time variation of angle of attack and total shed vortices in the wake of each airfoil section. It was found that the final expressions for the unsteady pressure distribution on each blade section are periodic and that the unsteady circulation and lift coefficients exhibit a hysteresis loop.
El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
2011-01-01
simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re
Experimental and numerical investigations of shock wave propagation through a bifurcation
Marty, A.; Daniel, E.; Massoni, J.; Biamino, L.; Houas, L.; Leriche, D.; Jourdan, G.
2018-02-01
The propagation of a planar shock wave through a split channel is both experimentally and numerically studied. Experiments were conducted in a square cross-sectional shock tube having a main channel which splits into two symmetric secondary channels, for three different shock wave Mach numbers ranging from about 1.1 to 1.7. High-speed schlieren visualizations were used along with pressure measurements to analyze the main physical mechanisms that govern shock wave diffraction. It is shown that the flow behind the transmitted shock wave through the bifurcation resulted in a highly two-dimensional unsteady and non-uniform flow accompanied with significant pressure loss. In parallel, numerical simulations based on the solution of the Euler equations with a second-order Godunov scheme confirmed the experimental results with good agreement. Finally, a parametric study was carried out using numerical analysis where the angular displacement of the two channels that define the bifurcation was changed from 90° , 45° , 20° , and 0° . We found that the angular displacement does not significantly affect the overpressure experience in either of the two channels and that the area of the expansion region is the important variable affecting overpressure, the effect being, in the present case, a decrease of almost one half.
Study of the flow unsteadiness in the human airway using large eddy simulation
Bernate, Jorge A.; Geisler, Taylor S.; Padhy, Sourav; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2017-08-01
The unsteady flow in a patient-specific geometry of the airways is studied. The geometry comprises the oral cavity, orophrarynx, larynx, trachea, and the bronchial tree extending to generations 5-8. Simulations are carried out for a constant inspiratory flow rate of 60 liters/min, corresponding to a Reynolds number of 4213 for a nominal tracheal diameter of 2 cm. The computed mean flow field is compared extensively with magnetic resonance velocimetry measurements by Banko et al. [Exp. Fluids 56, 117 (2015), 10.1007/s00348-015-1966-y] carried out in the same computed-tomography-based geometry, showing good agreement. In particular, we focus on the dynamics of the flow in the bronchial tree. After becoming unsteady at a constriction in the oropharynx, the flow is found to be chaotic, exhibiting fluctuations with broad-band spectra even at the most distal airways in which the Reynolds numbers are as low as 300. An inertial range signature is present in the trachea but not in the bronchial tree where a narrower range of scales is observed. The unsteadiness is attributed to the convection of turbulent structures produced at the larynx as well as to local kinetic energy production throughout the bronchial tree. Production occurs predominantly at shear layers bounding geometry-induced separation regions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mateescu, D.
1985-01-01
A method of solution is developed in the present paper for studying the unsteady supersonic flow past a cruciform canard - conical body system, represented in the figure, which executes an oscillatory pitching motion of rotation. The generality of the analysis permits particular solutions such as the case of symmetrical cruciform canards (for l 1 =l 2 =l) used mainly in missile applications, and tail-body configurations (for l 2 =0 pr l 2 →∞ used in aeronautical applications, as well as more general solutions. Attached supersonic flow past the system, associated with small amplitude oscillations of reasonably low frequency with respect to a mean equilibrium position are assumed in this paper. As a result, the steady flow past the canard-body system at an attitude defined by the mean equilibrium position can be separated from the actual flow; general methods of solution for this steady flow have been established. The aim of the present analysis is to develop a method of solution for the unsteady motion resulting from the actual flow after the above separation, which incorporates the effects of the system oscillations. (author)
Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks
Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.
1985-01-01
An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx. 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity.
Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decker, R.B.; Vlahos, L.
1985-01-01
An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity
Development of a nonlinear unsteady transonic flow theory
Stahara, S. S.; Spreiter, J. R.
1973-01-01
A nonlinear, unsteady, small-disturbance theory capable of predicting inviscid transonic flows about aerodynamic configurations undergoing both rigid body and elastic oscillations was developed. The theory is based on the concept of dividing the flow into steady and unsteady components and then solving, by method of local linearization, the coupled differential equation for unsteady surface pressure distribution. The equations, valid at all frequencies, were derived for two-dimensional flows, numerical results, were obtained for two classses of airfoils and two types of oscillatory motions.
Qualification of a novel deepwater gas / liquid separator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abrand, Stephanie
2010-07-01
The implementation of subsea boosting and processing systems is becoming a common development scheme for the development of deep and ultra-deep water fields. Those subsea processing systems shall address the mechanical and functional constraints that are imposed by the deepwater installation and operation along with the obvious reliability requirements. Saipem has developed a deepwater gas separation and liquid boosting system that encompasses a good flexibility in handling a wide range of steady and unsteady multiphase input streams and a relatively simple mechanical arrangement. The system is composed of an array of vertical pipes that contributes in providing the required separation and liquid hold up volumes. The reduced diameter and wall thickness of the vertical pipes, as compared with the equivalent single separation vessel, is particularly suited in deep and ultra-deep water applications and/or high pressure services. Furthermore, the system relies on the gravity separation whose efficiency is ensured by its ability to accommodate large variety of input flowrate and un-steady regimes. In the continuous effort of providing reliable and proven process solutions to the market, Saipem has undertaken a qualification program focused to characterise and demonstrate the system versatility and separation performances, that will involve model testing in multiphase conditions. (Author)
A numerical study of fundamental shock noise mechanisms. Ph.D. Thesis - Cornell Univ.
Meadows, Kristine R.
1995-01-01
The results of this thesis demonstrate that direct numerical simulation can predict sound generation in unsteady aerodynamic flows containing shock waves. Shock waves can be significant sources of sound in high speed jet flows, on helicopter blades, and in supersonic combustion inlets. Direct computation of sound permits the prediction of noise levels in the preliminary design stage and can be used as a tool to focus experimental studies, thereby reducing cost and increasing the probability of a successfully quiet product in less time. This thesis reveals and investigates two mechanisms fundamental to sound generation by shocked flows: shock motion and shock deformation. Shock motion is modeled by the interaction of a sound wave with a shock. During the interaction, the shock wave begins to move and the sound pressure is amplified as the wave passes through the shock. The numerical approach presented in this thesis is validated by the comparison of results obtained in a quasi-one dimensional simulation with linear theory. Analysis of the perturbation energy demonstrated for the first time that acoustic energy is generated by the interaction. Shock deformation is investigated by the numerical simulation of a ring vortex interacting with a shock. This interaction models the passage of turbulent structures through the shock wave. The simulation demonstrates that both acoustic waves and contact surfaces are generated downstream during the interaction. Analysis demonstrates that the acoustic wave spreads cylindrically, that the sound intensity is highly directional, and that the sound pressure level increases significantly with increasing shock strength. The effect of shock strength on sound pressure level is consistent with experimental observations of shock noise, indicating that the interaction of a ring vortex with a shock wave correctly models a dominant mechanism of shock noise generation.
Kandil, Osama A.; Menzies, Margaret A.
1996-01-01
Unsteady, transonic vortex-breakdown flow over a 65 deg. sharp edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced coupled pitching and rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock which induces of the leading edge vortex cores to breakdown. The computational investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. The main focus is to analyze the effects of coupled motion on the wing response and vortex-breakdown flow by varying oscillation frequency and phase angle while keeping the maximum pitch and roll amplitude equal.
2011 IEEE Visualization Contest Winner: Visualizing Unsteady Vortical Behavior of a Centrifugal Pump
Otto, Mathias
2012-09-01
In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall that impede the pump\\'s effectiveness. The winning entry split analysis of the pump into three parts based on the pump\\'s functional behavior. It then applied local and integration-based methods to communicate the unsteady flow behavior in different regions of the dataset. This research formed the basis for a comparison of common vortex extractors and more recent methods. In particular, integration-based methods (separation measures, accumulated scalar fields, particle path lines, and advection textures) are well suited to capture the complex time-dependent flow behavior. This video (http://youtu.be/ oD7QuabY0oU) shows simulations of unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump. © 2012 IEEE.
Unsteady load on an oscillating Kaplan turbine runner
Puolakka, O.; Keto-Tokoi, J.; Matusiak, J.
2013-02-01
A Kaplan turbine runner oscillating in turbine waterways is subjected to a varying hydrodynamic load. Numerical simulation of the related unsteady flow is time-consuming and research is very limited. In this study, a simplified method based on unsteady airfoil theory is presented for evaluation of the unsteady load for vibration analyses of the turbine shaft line. The runner is assumed to oscillate as a rigid body in spin and axial heave, and the reaction force is resolved into added masses and dampings. The method is applied on three Kaplan runners at nominal operating conditions. Estimates for added masses and dampings are considered to be of a magnitude significant for shaft line vibration. Moderate variation in the added masses and minor variation in the added dampings is found in the frequency range of interest. Reference results for added masses are derived by solving the boundary value problem for small motions of inviscid fluid using the finite element method. Good correspondence is found in the added mass estimates of the two methods. The unsteady airfoil method is considered accurate enough for design purposes. Experimental results are needed for validation of unsteady load analyses.
Unsteady bio-fluid dynamics in flying and swimming
Liu, Hao; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Li, Gen
2017-08-01
Flying and swimming in nature present sophisticated and exciting ventures in biomimetics, which seeks sustainable solutions and solves practical problems by emulating nature's time-tested patterns, functions, and strategies. Bio-fluids in insect and bird flight, as well as in fish swimming are highly dynamic and unsteady; however, they have been studied mostly with a focus on the phenomena associated with a body or wings moving in a steady flow. Characterized by unsteady wing flapping and body undulation, fluid-structure interactions, flexible wings and bodies, turbulent environments, and complex maneuver, bio-fluid dynamics normally have challenges associated with low Reynolds number regime and high unsteadiness in modeling and analysis of flow physics. In this article, we review and highlight recent advances in unsteady bio-fluid dynamics in terms of leading-edge vortices, passive mechanisms in flexible wings and hinges, flapping flight in unsteady environments, and micro-structured aerodynamics in flapping flight, as well as undulatory swimming, flapping-fin hydrodynamics, body-fin interaction, C-start and maneuvering, swimming in turbulence, collective swimming, and micro-structured hydrodynamics in swimming. We further give a perspective outlook on future challenges and tasks of several key issues of the field.
Unsteady Aerodynamics of Deformable Thin Airfoils
Walker, William Paul
2009-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic theories are essential in the analysis of bird and insect flight. The study of these types of locomotion is vital in the development of flapping wing aircraft. This paper uses potential flow aerodynamics to extend the unsteady aerodynamic theory of Theodorsen and Garrick (which is restricted to rigid airfoil motion) to deformable thin airfoils. Frequency-domain lift, pitching moment and thrust expressions are derived for an airfoil undergoing harmonic oscillations and def...
Micro Ramps in Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers : An experimental and numerical study
Sun, Z.
2014-01-01
The micro vortex generator (MVG) is used extensively in low speed aerodynamic problems and is now extended into the supersonic flow regime to solve undesired flow features that are associated with shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) such as flow separation and associated unsteadiness of
Numerical investigation of unsteady detonation waves in combustion chamber using Shchelkin spirals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Repaka Ramesh
2016-09-01
Full Text Available : Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE is considered to be a propulsive system of future air vehicles. The main objective is to minimizing the Deflagration to Detonation transition run-up distance and time by placing Shchelkin spiral with varying pitch length. Here we have considered blockage-area ratio is 0.5 as optimal value from review of previous studies. In the present study the detonation initiation and propagation is modeled numerically using commercial CFD codes GAMBIT and FLUENT. The unsteady and two-dimensional compressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equation is used to simulate the model. Fuel-air mixture of Hydrogen-air is used for better efficiency of PDE. It is very simple straight tube with Shchelkin spirals, one of the methods which is used to initiate detonation is creation of high pressure and temperature chamber region with 0.5cm from closed end of tube where shock will generate and transition into low pressure and temperature region propagates towards end of the tube. Two different zones namely high and low pressure zones are used as interface in modeling and patching has been used to fill the zones with hydrogen and oxygen with different pressure and temperatures hence shock leads to propagate inside the combustion chamber.
A documentation of two- and three-dimensional shock-separated turbulent boundary layers
Brown, J. D.; Brown, J. L.; Kussoy, M. I.
1988-01-01
A shock-related separation of a turbulent boundary layer has been studied and documented. The flow was that of an axisymmetric turbulent boundary layer over a 5.02-cm-diam cylinder that was aligned with the wind tunnel axis. The boundary layer was compressed by a 30 deg half-angle conical flare, with the cone axis inclined at an angle alpha to the cylinder axis. Nominal test conditions were P sub tau equals 1.7 atm and M sub infinity equals 2.85. Measurements were confined to the upper-symmetry, phi equals 0 deg, plane. Data are presented for the cases of alpha equal to 0. 5. and 10 deg and include mean surface pressures, streamwise and normal mean velocities, kinematic turbulent stresses and kinetic energies, as well as reverse-flow intermittencies. All data are given in tabular form; pressures, streamwise velocities, turbulent shear stresses, and kinetic energies are also presented graphically.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilija Jegdic
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We consider a two-dimensional Riemann problem for the unsteady transonic small disturbance equation resulting in diverging rarefaction waves. We write the problem in self-similar coordinates and we obtain a mixed type (hyperbolic-elliptic system. Resolving the one-dimensional discontinuities in the far field, where the system is hyperbolic, and using characteristics, we formulate the problem in a semi-hyperbolic patch that is between the hyperbolic and the elliptic regions. A semi-hyperbolic patch is known as a region where one family out of two nonlinear families of characteristics starts on a sonic curve and ends on a transonic shock. We obtain existence of a smooth local solution in this semi-hyperbolic patch and we prove various properties of global smooth solutions based on a characteristic decomposition using directional derivatives.
AERFORCE: Subroutine package for unsteady blade-element/momentum calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjoerck, Anders
2000-05-01
A subroutine package, called AERFORCE, for the calculation of aerodynamic forces of wind turbine rotors has been written. The subroutines are written in FORTRAN. AERFORCE requires the input of airfoil aerodynamic data via tables as function of angle of attack, the turbine blade and rotor geometry and wind and blade velocities as input. The method is intended for use in an aeroelastic code. Wind and blade velocities are given at a sequence of time steps and blade forces are returned. The aerodynamic method is basically a Blade-Element/Momentum method. The method is fast and coded to be used in time simulations. In order to obtain a steady state solution a time simulation to steady state conditions has to be carried out. The BEM-method in AERFORCE includes extensions for: Dynamic inflow: Unsteady modeling of the inflow for cases with unsteady blade loading or unsteady wind. Extensions to BEM-theory for inclined flow to the rotor disc (yaw model). Unsteady blade aerodynamics: The inclusion of 2D attached flow unsteady aerodynamics and a semi-empirical model for 2D dynamic stall.
Unsteady Mixed Convection Boundary Layer from a Circular Cylinder in a Micropolar Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anati Ali
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Most industrial fluids such as polymers, liquid crystals, and colloids contain suspensions of rigid particles that undergo rotation. However, the classical Navier-Stokes theory normally associated with Newtonian fluids is inadequate to describe such fluids as it does not take into account the effects of these microstructures. In this paper, the unsteady mixed convection boundary layer flow of a micropolar fluid past an isothermal horizontal circular cylinder is numerically studied, where the unsteadiness is due to an impulsive motion of the free stream. Both the assisting (heated cylinder and opposing cases (cooled cylinder are considered. Thus, both small and large time solutions as well as the occurrence of flow separation, followed by the flow reversal are studied. The flow along the entire surface of a cylinder is solved numerically using the Keller-box scheme. The obtained results are compared with the ones from the open literature, and it is shown that the agreement is very good.
Unsteady computational fluid dynamics in aeronautics
Tucker, P G
2014-01-01
The field of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and hybrids is a vibrant research area. This book runs through all the potential unsteady modelling fidelity ranges, from low-order to LES. The latter is probably the highest fidelity for practical aerospace systems modelling. Cutting edge new frontiers are defined. One example of a pressing environmental concern is noise. For the accurate prediction of this, unsteady modelling is needed. Hence computational aeroacoustics is explored. It is also emerging that there is a critical need for coupled simulations. Hence, this area is also considered and the tensions of utilizing such simulations with the already expensive LES. This work has relevance to the general field of CFD and LES and to a wide variety of non-aerospace aerodynamic systems (e.g. cars, submarines, ships, electronics, buildings). Topics treated include unsteady flow techniques; LES and hybrids; general numerical methods; computational aeroacoustics; computational aeroelasticity; coupled simulations and...
SHOCK-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVABLES AND SATELLITE FORMATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 South Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Ju, Wenhua; Stone, James M., E-mail: zhzhu@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2016-12-01
Circumplanetary disks (CPDs) control the growth of planets, supply material for satellites to form, and provide observational signatures of young forming planets. We have carried out two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling to study CPDs and suggested a new mechanism to drive the disk accretion. Two spiral shocks are present in CPDs, excited by the central star. We find that spiral shocks can at least contribute to, if not dominate, the angular momentum transport and energy dissipation in CPDs. Meanwhile, dissipation and heating by spiral shocks have a positive feedback on shock-driven accretion itself. As the disk is heated up by spiral shocks, the shocks become more open, leading to more efficient angular momentum transport. This shock-driven accretion is, on the other hand, unsteady due to production and destruction of vortices in disks. After being averaged over time, a quasi-steady accretion is reached from the planet’s Hill radius all the way to the planet surface, and the disk α coefficient characterizing angular momentum transport is ∼0.001–0.02. The disk surface density ranges from 10 to 1000 g cm{sup −2} in our simulations, which is at least three orders of magnitude smaller than the “minimum-mass subnebula” model used to study satellite formation; instead it is more consistent with the “gas-starved” satellite formation model. Finally, we calculate the millimeter flux emitted by CPDs at ALMA and EVLA wavelength bands and predict the flux for several recently discovered CPD candidates, which suggests that ALMA is capable of discovering these accreting CPDs.
SHOCK-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVABLES AND SATELLITE FORMATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Zhaohuan; Ju, Wenhua; Stone, James M.
2016-01-01
Circumplanetary disks (CPDs) control the growth of planets, supply material for satellites to form, and provide observational signatures of young forming planets. We have carried out two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling to study CPDs and suggested a new mechanism to drive the disk accretion. Two spiral shocks are present in CPDs, excited by the central star. We find that spiral shocks can at least contribute to, if not dominate, the angular momentum transport and energy dissipation in CPDs. Meanwhile, dissipation and heating by spiral shocks have a positive feedback on shock-driven accretion itself. As the disk is heated up by spiral shocks, the shocks become more open, leading to more efficient angular momentum transport. This shock-driven accretion is, on the other hand, unsteady due to production and destruction of vortices in disks. After being averaged over time, a quasi-steady accretion is reached from the planet’s Hill radius all the way to the planet surface, and the disk α coefficient characterizing angular momentum transport is ∼0.001–0.02. The disk surface density ranges from 10 to 1000 g cm −2 in our simulations, which is at least three orders of magnitude smaller than the “minimum-mass subnebula” model used to study satellite formation; instead it is more consistent with the “gas-starved” satellite formation model. Finally, we calculate the millimeter flux emitted by CPDs at ALMA and EVLA wavelength bands and predict the flux for several recently discovered CPD candidates, which suggests that ALMA is capable of discovering these accreting CPDs.
Unsteady State Two Phase Flow Pressure Drop Calculations
Ayatollahi, Shahaboddin
1992-01-01
A method is presented to calculate unsteady state two phase flow in a gas-liquid line based on a quasi-steady state approach. A computer program for numerical solution of this method was prepared. Results of calculations using the computer program are presented for several unsteady state two phase flow systems
Separation of contaminated concrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakiewicz, J.L.; Reymer, A.P.S.
1990-01-01
Separating the contaminated parts from the non-contaminated parts from decommissioned nuclear facilities may strongly reduce the amount of contaminated concrete. The reduction in volume of the radioactive contaminated concrete is dependent on how much cementstone is in the concrete. This research program shows that the radioactive contamination is mostly in the cementstone. However the choice that the cementstone parts, (or better said the radioactive parts) are smaller than 1 mm may not always be true. Normally the cementstone takes about 30% of the total concrete volume. A separation procedure composed by a combination of milling and thermal shock has been assessed. Both the cold and hot thermal shock in combination with milling are not able to separate the cementstone from the larger aggregates completely. However, the cementstone from the concrete with a low nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination cold thermal shock/milling, while the cementstone from the concrete with a high nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination hot thermal shock/milling. After both methods a layer of cementstone was still visible on the aggregates. Washing followed by a nitric acid treatment removed each 2 wt% of cementstone
Numerical study of shock waves in non-ideal magnetogasdynamics (MHD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Addepalli Ramu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available One-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow of strong converging shock waves in cylindrical or spherical symmetry in MHD, which is propagating into plasma, is analyzed. The plasma is assumed to be non-ideal gas whose equation of state is of Mie–Gruneisen type. Suitable transformations reduce the governing equations into ordinary differential equations of Poincare type. In the present work, McQueen and Royce equations of state (EOS have been considered with suitable material constants and the spherical and cylindrical cases are worked out in detail to investigate the behavior and the influence on the shock wave propagation by energy input and β(ρ/ρ0, the measure of shock strength. The similarity solution is valid for adiabatic flow as long as the counter pressure is neglected. The numerical technique applied in this paper provides a global solution to the implosion problem for the flow variables, the similarity exponent α for different Gruneisen parameters. It is shown that increasing β(ρ/ρ0 does not automatically decelerate the shock front but the velocity and pressure behind the shock front increases quickly in the presence of the magnetic field and decreases slowly and become constant. This becomes true whether the piston is accelerated, is moving at constant speed or is decelerated. These results are presented through the illustrative graphs and tables. The magnetic field effects on the flow variables through a medium and total energy under the influence of strong magnetic field are also presented.
Factors influencing flow steadiness in laminar boundary layer shock interactions
Tumuklu, Ozgur; Levin, Deborah A.; Gimelshein, Sergey F.; Austin, Joanna M.
2016-11-01
The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method has been used to model laminar shock wave boundary interactions of hypersonic flow over a 30/55-deg double-wedge and "tick-shaped" model configurations studied in the Hypervelocity Expansion Tube facility and T-ADFA free-piston shock tunnel, respectively. The impact of thermochemical effects on these interactions by changing the chemical composition from nitrogen to air as well as argon for a stagnation enthalpy of 8.0 MJ/kg flow are investigated using the 2-D wedge model. The simulations are found to reproduce many of the classic features related to Edney Type V strong shock interactions that include the attached, oblique shock formed over the first wedge, the detached bow shock from the second wedge, the separation zone, and the separation and reattachment shocks that cause complex features such as the triple point for both cases. However, results of a reacting air flow case indicate that the size of the separation length, and the movement of the triple point toward to the leading edge is much less than the nitrogen case.
Frequency effects of upstream wake and blade interaction on the unsteady boundary layer flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Dong Jin; Bae, Sang Su
2002-01-01
Effects of the reduced frequency of upstream wake on downstream unsteady boundary layer flow were simulated by using a Navier-Stokes code. The Navier-Stokes code is based on an unstructured finite volume method and uses a low Reynolds number turbulence model to close the momentum equations. The geometry used in this paper is the MIT flapping foil experimental set-up and the reduced frequency of the upstream wake is varied in the range of 0.91 to 10.86 to study its effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow. Numerical solutions show that they can be divided into two categories. One is so called the low frequency solution, and behaves quite similar to a Stokes layer. Its characteristics is found to be quite similar to those due to either a temporal or spatial wave. The low frequency solutions are observed clearly when reduced frequency is smaller than 3.26. The other one is the high frequency solution. It is observed for the reduced frequency larger than 7.24. It shows a sudden shift of the phase angle of the unsteady velocity around the edge of the boundary layer. The shift of phase angle is about 180 degree, and leads to separation of the boundary layer flow from corresponding outer flow. The high frequency solution shows the characteristics of a temporal wave whose wave length is half of the upstream frequency. This characteristics of the high frequency solution is found to be caused by the strong interaction between unsteady vortices. This strong interaction also leads to destroy of the upstream wake stripe inside the viscous sublayer as well as the buffer layer
Fluid Mechanics of Wing Adaptation for Separation Control
Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Wilder, M. C.; Carr, L. W.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The unsteady fluid mechanics associated with use of a dynamically deforming leading edge airfoil for achieving compressible flow separation control has been experimentally studied. Changing the leading edge curvature at rapid rates dramatically alters the flow vorticity dynamics which is responsible for the many effects observed in the flow.
Analysis of Unsteady Tip and Endwall Heat Transfer in a Highly Loaded Transonic Turbine Stage
Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Chen, Jen-Ping
2010-01-01
In a previous study, vane-rotor shock interactions and heat transfer on the rotor blade of a highly loaded transonic turbine stage were simulated. The geometry consists of a high pressure turbine vane and downstream rotor blade. This study focuses on the physics of flow and heat transfer in the rotor tip, casing and hub regions. The simulation was performed using the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) code MSU-TURBO. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon model was utilized to model turbulence. The rotor blade in question has a tip gap height of 2.1 percent of the blade height. The Reynolds number of the flow is approximately 3x10(exp 6) per meter. Unsteadiness was observed at the tip surface that results in intermittent "hot spots". It is demonstrated that unsteadiness in the tip gap is governed by inviscid effects due to high speed flow and is not strongly dependent on pressure ratio across the tip gap contrary to published observations that have primarily dealt with subsonic tip flows. The high relative Mach numbers in the tip gap lead to a choking of the leakage flow that translates to a relative attenuation of losses at higher loading. The efficacy of new tip geometry is discussed to minimize heat flux at the tip while maintaining choked conditions. In addition, an explanation is provided that shows the mechanism behind the rise in stagnation temperature on the casing to values above the absolute total temperature at the inlet. It is concluded that even in steady mode, work transfer to the near tip fluid occurs due to relative shearing by the casing. This is believed to be the first such explanation of the work transfer phenomenon in the open literature. The difference in pattern between steady and time-averaged heat flux at the hub is also explained.
Screech Tones from Rectangular Jets with Spanwise Oblique Shock-Cell Structures
Raman, Ganesh
1996-01-01
Understanding screech is especially important for the design of advanced aircraft because screech can cause sonic fatigue failure of aircraft structures. Although the connection between shock-cell spacing and screech frequency is well understood, the relation between non-uniformities in the shock-cell structures and the resulting amplitude, mode, and steadiness of screech have remained unexplored. This paper addresses the above issues by intentionally producing spanwise (larger nozzle dimension) variations in the shock-cell structures and studying the resulting spanwise screech mode. The spanwise oblique shock-cell structures were produced using imperfectly expanded convergent-divergent rectangular nozzles (aspect ratio = 5) with nonuniform exit geometries. Three geometries were studied: (a) a nozzle with a spanwise uniform edge, (b) a nozzle with a spanwise oblique (single bevelled) edge, and (c) a nozzle that had two spanwise oblique (double bevelled) cuts to form an arrowhead-shaped nozzle. For all nozzles considered, the screech mode was antisymmetric in the transverse (smaller nozzle dimension) direction allowing focus on changes in the spanwise direction. Three types of spanwise modes were observed: symmetric (1), antisymmetric (2), and oblique (3). The following significant results emerged: (1) for all cases the screech mode corresponds with the spanwise shock-cell structure, (2) when multiple screech modes are present, the technique presented here makes it possible to distinguish between coexisting and mutually exclusive modes, (3) the strength of shocks 3 and 4 influences the screech source amplitude and determines whether screech is unsteady. The results presented here offer hope for a better understanding of screech and for tailoring shock-containing jets to minimize fatigue failure of aircraft components.
Unsteady flow model for circulation-control airfoils
Rao, B. M.
1979-01-01
An analysis and a numerical lifting surface method are developed for predicting the unsteady airloads on two-dimensional circulation control airfoils in incompressible flow. The analysis and the computer program are validated by correlating the computed unsteady airloads with test data and also with other theoretical solutions. Additionally, a mathematical model for predicting the bending-torsion flutter of a two-dimensional airfoil (a reference section of a wing or rotor blade) and a computer program using an iterative scheme are developed. The flutter program has a provision for using the CC airfoil airloads program or the Theodorsen hard flap solution to compute the unsteady lift and moment used in the flutter equations. The adopted mathematical model and the iterative scheme are used to perform a flutter analysis of a typical CC rotor blade reference section. The program seems to work well within the basic assumption of the incompressible flow.
A Coordinate Transformation for Unsteady Boundary Layer Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul G. A. CIZMAS
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new coordinate transformation for unsteady, incompressible boundary layer equations that applies to both laminar and turbulent flows. A generalization of this coordinate transformation is also proposed. The unsteady boundary layer equations are subsequently derived. In addition, the boundary layer equations are derived using a time linearization approach and assuming harmonically varying small disturbances.
THE EFFECTS OF AREA CONTRACTION ON SHOCK WAVE STRENGTH AND PEAK PRESSURE IN SHOCK TUBE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Mohsen
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the effects of area contraction on shock wave strength and peak pressure in a shock tube. The shock tube is an important component of the short duration, high speed fluid flow test facility, available at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN, Malaysia. The area contraction was facilitated by positioning a bush adjacent to the primary diaphragm section, which separates the driver and driven sections. Experimental measurements were performed with and without the presence of the bush, at various diaphragm pressure ratios, which is the ratio of air pressure between the driver (high pressure and driven (low pressure sections. The instantaneous static pressure variations were measured at two locations close to the driven tube end wall, using high sensitivity pressure sensors, which allow the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure to be analysed. The results reveal that the area contraction significantly reduces the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure. At a diaphragm pressure ratio of 10, the shock wave strength decreases by 18%, the peak pressure decreases by 30% and the shock wave speed decreases by 8%.
Generation of shockwave and vortex structures at the outflow of a boiling water jet
Alekseev, M. V.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Sorokin, A. L.
2014-12-01
Results of numerical simulation for shock waves and generation of vortex structures during unsteady outflow of boiling liquid jet are presented. The features of evolution of shock waves and vortex structures formation during unsteady outflow of boiling water are compared with corresponding structures during unsteady gas outflow.
Unsteady cavity flow around a rectangular cylinder; Kakuchu mawari no hiteijo cavitation nagare
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, T.; Kaga, T.; Ota, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Mori, T. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)
1995-08-25
Unsteady cavity flow around a rectangular cylinder was observed using a high-speed camera. To clarify the correlation between the cavity behavior and fluid dynamic characteristics in the transitional region and supercavitation, fluctuating forces and surface pressures on the cylinder surface were recorded simultaneously. The tested cylinder has a critical width-to-height ration 2.8, in which the shear layer separated from the leading edge intermittently reattaches near the trailing edge. Bubbly cloud originating from the separated region near the leading edge causes fluctuation of cavity termination and induces large oscillations of fluid forces and pressures. As the cavitation number decreases, the low-frequency fluctuation of the cavity developing downstream of the rear surface increases in the fluid dynamic behavior. 24 refs., 12 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bershader, D.; Hanson, R.
1986-01-01
A detailed survey is presented of shock tube experiments, theoretical developments, and applications being carried out worldwide. The discussions explore shock tube physics and the related chemical, physical and biological science and technology. Extensive attention is devoted to shock wave phenomena in dusty gases and other multiphase and heterogeneous systems, including chemically reactive mixtures. Consideration is given to techniques for measuring, visualizing and theoretically modeling flowfield, shock wave and rarefaction wave characteristics. Numerical modeling is explored in terms of the application of computational fluid dynamics techniques to describing flowfields in shock tubes. Shock interactions and propagation, in both solids, fluids, gases and mixed media are investigated, along with the behavior of shocks in condensed matter. Finally, chemical reactions that are initiated as the result of passage of a shock wave are discussed, together with methods of controlling the evolution of laminar separated flows at concave corners on advanced reentry vehicles
Suppressing unsteady flow in arterio-venous fistulae
Grechy, L.; Iori, F.; Corbett, R. W.; Shurey, S.; Gedroyc, W.; Duncan, N.; Caro, C. G.; Vincent, P. E.
2017-10-01
Arterio-Venous Fistulae (AVF) are regarded as the "gold standard" method of vascular access for patients with end-stage renal disease who require haemodialysis. However, a large proportion of AVF do not mature, and hence fail, as a result of various pathologies such as Intimal Hyperplasia (IH). Unphysiological flow patterns, including high-frequency flow unsteadiness, associated with the unnatural and often complex geometries of AVF are believed to be implicated in the development of IH. In the present study, we employ a Mesh Adaptive Direct Search optimisation framework, computational fluid dynamics simulations, and a new cost function to design a novel non-planar AVF configuration that can suppress high-frequency unsteady flow. A prototype device for holding an AVF in the optimal configuration is then fabricated, and proof-of-concept is demonstrated in a porcine model. Results constitute the first use of numerical optimisation to design a device for suppressing potentially pathological high-frequency flow unsteadiness in AVF.
Unsteady MHD stagnation flow over a moving wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumari, M.; Nath, G.
2006-01-01
The unsteady viscous stagnation flow of an electrically conducting fluid over a continuously moving wall with an applied magnetic field has been investigated when the free stream and wall velocities increase arbitrarily with time. The flow is initially (t = 0) steady and at time t > 0, it becomes unsteady. The semi-similar solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations along with the energy equation governing the flow and heat transfer has been obtained numerically. Also the self-similar solution is obtained when the surface and free stream velocities vary inversely as a linear function of time. The shear stress and the heat transfer increase with time and magnetic field. The surface shear stress vanishes for certain value of the ratio of the wall velocity to the free stream velocity. (author)
Separative performance transients in a gas centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olander, D.R.
1979-01-01
A general method has been developed to calculate the behavior of the exit compositions from a gas centrifuge under unsteady conditions. The method utilizes the basic enrichment gradient equations derived by Cohen, which, in this case, contain time derivatives of the partial 235 U inventories. These partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations by a linear approximation to the axial concentration distribution for use in the inventory terms only. With this simplification, analytical solution is possible for the feed concentration transient. The transient driven by a change in the feed flow rate, however, requires numerical solution. For analysis of ideal cascades in the unsteady state, the transient flow and separation characteristics of the centrifuge must be combined with total uranium and 235 U material balances on each stage
Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars
Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.
2014-11-01
Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.
A multiple shock model for common cause failures using discrete Markov chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Dae Wook; Kang, Chang Soon
1992-01-01
The most widely used models in common cause analysis are (single) shock models such as the BFR, and the MFR. But, single shock model can not treat the individual common cause separately and has some irrational assumptions. Multiple shock model for common cause failures is developed using Markov chain theory. This model treats each common cause shock as separately and sequently occuring event to implicate the change in failure probability distribution due to each common cause shock. The final failure probability distribution is evaluated and compared with that from the BFR model. The results show that multiple shock model which minimizes the assumptions in the BFR model is more realistic and conservative than the BFR model. The further work for application is the estimations of parameters such as common cause shock rate and component failure probability given a shock,p, through the data analysis
Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics
Gülçat, Ülgen
2016-01-01
In this book, the author introduces the concept of unsteady aerodynamics and its underlying principles. He provides the readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamental physics of free and forced unsteadiness, the terminology and basic equations of aerodynamics ranging from incompressible flow to hypersonics. The book also covers modern topics related to the developments made in recent years, especially in relation to wing flapping for propulsion. The book is written for graduate and senior year undergraduate students in aerodynamics and also serves as a reference for experienced researchers. Each chapter includes ample examples, questions, problems and relevant references. The treatment of these modern topics has been completely revised end expanded for the new edition. It now includes new numerical examples, a section on the ground effect, and state-space representation.
SELF-REGULATED SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STAR BINARY SYSTEMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkin, E. R.; Sim, S. A.
2013-01-01
In an early-type, massive star binary system, X-ray bright shocks result from the powerful collision of stellar winds driven by radiation pressure on spectral line transitions. We examine the influence of the X-rays from the wind-wind collision shocks on the radiative driving of the stellar winds using steady-state models that include a parameterized line force with X-ray ionization dependence. Our primary result is that X-ray radiation from the shocks inhibits wind acceleration and can lead to a lower pre-shock velocity, and a correspondingly lower shocked plasma temperature, yet the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the shocks, L X , remains largely unaltered, with the exception of a modest increase at small binary separations. Due to the feedback loop between the ionizing X-rays from the shocks and the wind driving, we term this scenario as self-regulated shocks. This effect is found to greatly increase the range of binary separations at which a wind-photosphere collision is likely to occur in systems where the momenta of the two winds are significantly different. Furthermore, the excessive levels of X-ray ionization close to the shocks completely suppress the line force, and we suggest that this may render radiative braking less effective. Comparisons of model results against observations reveal reasonable agreement in terms of log (L X /L bol ). The inclusion of self-regulated shocks improves the match for kT values in roughly equal wind momenta systems, but there is a systematic offset for systems with unequal wind momenta (if considered to be a wind-photosphere collision).
Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Sensing from Measured Strain
Pak, Chan-Gi
2016-01-01
A simple approach for computing unsteady aerodynamic forces from simulated measured strain data is proposed in this study. First, the deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the unsteady strain using the two-step approach. Velocities and accelerations of the structure are computed using the autoregressive moving average model, on-line parameter estimator, low-pass filter, and a least-squares curve fitting method together with analytical derivatives with respect to time. Finally, aerodynamic forces over the wing are computed using modal aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices, a rational function approximation, and a time-marching algorithm. A cantilevered rectangular wing built and tested at the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia, USA) in 1959 is used to validate the simple approach. Unsteady aerodynamic forces as well as wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and strains are computed using the CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an MSC/NASTRAN code (MSC Software Corporation, Newport Beach, California, USA), and these CFL3D-based results are assumed as measured quantities. Based on the measured strains, wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and aerodynamic forces are computed using the proposed approach. These computed deflections, velocities, accelerations, and unsteady aerodynamic forces are compared with the CFL3D/NASTRAN-based results. In general, computed aerodynamic forces based on the lifting surface theory in subsonic speeds are in good agreement with the target aerodynamic forces generated using CFL3D code with the Euler equation. Excellent aeroelastic responses are obtained even with unsteady strain data under the signal to noise ratio of -9.8dB. The deflections, velocities, and accelerations at each sensor location are independent of structural and aerodynamic models. Therefore, the distributed strain data together with the current proposed approaches can be used as distributed deflection
Unsteady Flame Embedding (UFE) Subgrid Model for Turbulent Premixed Combustion Simulations
El-Asrag, Hossam
2010-01-04
We present a formulation for an unsteady subgrid model for premixed combustion in the flamelet regime. Since chemistry occurs at the unresolvable scales, it is necessary to introduce a subgrid model that accounts for the multi-scale nature of the problem using the information available on the resolved scales. Most of the current models are based on the laminar flamelet concept, and often neglect the unsteady effects. The proposed model\\'s primary objective is to encompass many of the flame/turbulence interactions unsteady features and history effects. In addition it provides a dynamic and accurate approach for computing the subgrid flame propagation velocity. The unsteady flame embedding approach (UFE) treats the flame as an ensemble of locally one-dimensional flames. A set of elemental one dimensional flames is used to describe the turbulent flame structure at the subgrid level. The stretched flame calculations are performed on the stagnation line of a strained flame using the unsteady filtered strain rate computed from the resolved- grid. The flame iso-surface is tracked using an accurate high-order level set formulation to propagate the flame interface at the coarse resolution with minimum numerical diffusion. In this paper the solver and the model components are introduced and used to investigate two unsteady flames with different Lewis numbers in the thin reaction zone regime. The results show that the UFE model captures the unsteady flame-turbulence interactions and the flame propagation speed reasonably well. Higher propagation speed is observed for the lower than unity Lewis number flame because of the impact of differential diffusion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cahuzac, A; Boudet, J; Borgnat, P; Lévêque, E
2011-01-01
A dynamic method based on Kalman filtering is presented to isolate low-frequency unsteadiness from turbulent fluctuations in the large-eddy simulation (LES) of unsteady turbulent flows. The method can be viewed as an adaptive exponential smoothing, in which the smoothing factor adapts itself dynamically to the local behavior of the flow. Interestingly, the proposed method does not require any empirical tuning. In practice, it is used to estimate a shear-improved Smagorinsky viscosity, in which the low-frequency component of the velocity field is used to estimate a correction term to the Smagorinsky viscosity. The LES of the flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number Re D = 4.7 × 10 4 is examined as a challenging test case. Good comparisons are obtained with the experimental results, indicating the relevance of the shear-improved Smagorinsky model and the efficiency of the Kalman filtering. Finally, the adaptive cut-off of the Kalman filter is investigated, and shown to adapt locally and instantaneously to the complex flow around the cylinder.
Modeling of Unsteady Sheet Cavitation on Marine Propeller Blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Spyros A. Kinnas
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Unsteady sheet cavitation is very common on marine propulsor blades. The authors summarize a lifting-surface and a surface-panel model to solve for the unsteady cavitating flow around a propeller that is subject to nonaxisymmetric inflow. The time-dependent extent and thickness of the cavity were determined by using an iterative method. The cavity detachment was determined by applying the smooth detachment criterion in an iterative manner. A nonzeroradius developed vortex cavity model was utilized at the tip of the blade, and the trailing wake geometry was determined using a fully unsteady wake-alignment process. Comparisons of predictions by the two models and measurements from several experiments are given.
Shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes
Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, H. A.; Liu, C. H.
1992-01-01
Computational simulation and study of shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes are considered for bound (internal) and unbound (external) flow domains. The problem is formulated using the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations which are solved using an implicit, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. For the bound flow domain, a supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct and the problem is solved for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. For the unbound domain, a supersonic swirling flow issued from a nozzle into a uniform supersonic flow of lower Mach number is considered for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. The results show several modes of breakdown; e.g., no-breakdown, transient single-bubble breakdown, transient multi-bubble breakdown, periodic multi-bubble multi-frequency breakdown and helical breakdown.
Volpiani, Pedro S.; Bernardini, Matteo; Larsson, Johan
2017-11-01
The influence of wall thermal conditions on the properties of an impinging shock wave interacting with a turbulent supersonic boundary layer is a research topic that still remains underexplored. In the present study, direct numerical simulations (DNS) are employed to investigate the flow properties of a shock wave interacting with a turbulent boundary layer at free-stream Mach number M∞ = 2.28 with distinct wall thermal conditions and shock strengths. Instantaneous and mean flow fields, wall quantities and the low-frequency unsteadiness are analyzed. While heating contributes to increase the extent of the interaction zone, wall cooling turns out to be a good candidate for flow control. The distribution of the Stanton number shows a good agreement with prior experimental studies and confirms the strong heat transfer and complex pattern within the interaction region. Numerical results indicate that the changes in the interaction length are mainly linked to the incoming boundary layer as suggested in previous studies (Souverein et al., 2013 and Jaunet et al., 2014). This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant FA95501610385.
Helicopter Rotor Blade Computation in Unsteady Flows Using Moving Overset Grids
Ahmad, Jasim; Duque, Earl P. N.
1996-01-01
An overset grid thin-layer Navier-Stokes code has been extended to include dynamic motion of helicopter rotor blades through relative grid motion. The unsteady flowfield and airloads on an AH-IG rotor in forward flight were computed to verify the methodology and to demonstrate the method's potential usefulness towards comprehensive helicopter codes. In addition, the method uses the blade's first harmonics measured in the flight test to prescribe the blade motion. The solution was impulsively started and became periodic in less than three rotor revolutions. Detailed unsteady numerical flow visualization techniques were applied to the entire unsteady data set of five rotor revolutions and exhibited flowfield features such as blade vortex interaction and wake roll-up. The unsteady blade loads and surface pressures compare well against those from flight measurements. Details of the method, a discussion of the resulting predicted flowfield, and requirements for future work are presented. Overall, given the proper blade dynamics, this method can compute the unsteady flowfield of a general helicopter rotor in forward flight.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo, Zhifeng; Maekawa, Hiroshi
2014-01-01
The interaction between a moderate-strength shock wave and a near-wall vortex is studied numerically by solving the two-dimensional, unsteady compressible Navier–Stokes equations using a weighted compact nonlinear scheme with a simple low-dissipation advection upstream splitting method for flux splitting. Our main purpose is to clarify the development of the flow field and the generation of sound waves resulting from the interaction. The effects of the vortex–wall distance on the sound generation associated with variations in the flow structures are also examined. The computational results show that three sound sources are involved in this problem: (i) a quadrupolar sound source due to the shock–vortex interaction; (ii) a dipolar sound source due to the vortex–wall interaction; and (iii) a dipolar sound source due to unsteady wall shear stress. The sound field is the combination of the sound waves produced by all three sound sources. In addition to the interaction of the incident shock with the vortex, a secondary shock–vortex interaction is caused by the reflection of the reflected shock (MR2) from the wall. The flow field is dominated by the primary and secondary shock–vortex interactions. The generation mechanism of the third sound, which is newly discovered, due to the MR2–vortex interaction is presented. The pressure variations generated by (ii) become significant with decreasing vortex–wall distance. The sound waves caused by (iii) are extremely weak compared with those caused by (i) and (ii) and are negligible in the computed sound field. (paper)
Implicit time accurate simulation of unsteady flow
van Buuren, René; Kuerten, Hans; Geurts, Bernard J.
2001-03-01
Implicit time integration was studied in the context of unsteady shock-boundary layer interaction flow. With an explicit second-order Runge-Kutta scheme, a reference solution to compare with the implicit second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme was determined. The time step in the explicit scheme is restricted by both temporal accuracy as well as stability requirements, whereas in the A-stable implicit scheme, the time step has to obey temporal resolution requirements and numerical convergence conditions. The non-linear discrete equations for each time step are solved iteratively by adding a pseudo-time derivative. The quasi-Newton approach is adopted and the linear systems that arise are approximately solved with a symmetric block Gauss-Seidel solver. As a guiding principle for properly setting numerical time integration parameters that yield an efficient time accurate capturing of the solution, the global error caused by the temporal integration is compared with the error resulting from the spatial discretization. Focus is on the sensitivity of properties of the solution in relation to the time step. Numerical simulations show that the time step needed for acceptable accuracy can be considerably larger than the explicit stability time step; typical ratios range from 20 to 80. At large time steps, convergence problems that are closely related to a highly complex structure of the basins of attraction of the iterative method may occur. Copyright
Turbine-99 unsteady simulations - Validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cervantes, M J; Andersson, U; Loevgren, H M
2010-01-01
The Turbine-99 test case, a Kaplan draft tube model, aimed to determine the state of the art within draft tube simulation. Three workshops were organized on the matter in 1999, 2001 and 2005 where the geometry and experimental data were provided as boundary conditions to the participants. Since the last workshop, computational power and flow modelling have been developed and the available data completed with unsteady pressure measurements and phase resolved velocity measurements in the cone. Such new set of data together with the corresponding phase resolved velocity boundary conditions offer new possibilities to validate unsteady numerical simulations in Kaplan draft tube. The present work presents simulation of the Turbine-99 test case with time dependent angular resolved inlet velocity boundary conditions. Different grids and time steps are investigated. The results are compared to experimental time dependent pressure and velocity measurements.
Turbine-99 unsteady simulations - Validation
Cervantes, M. J.; Andersson, U.; Lövgren, H. M.
2010-08-01
The Turbine-99 test case, a Kaplan draft tube model, aimed to determine the state of the art within draft tube simulation. Three workshops were organized on the matter in 1999, 2001 and 2005 where the geometry and experimental data were provided as boundary conditions to the participants. Since the last workshop, computational power and flow modelling have been developed and the available data completed with unsteady pressure measurements and phase resolved velocity measurements in the cone. Such new set of data together with the corresponding phase resolved velocity boundary conditions offer new possibilities to validate unsteady numerical simulations in Kaplan draft tube. The present work presents simulation of the Turbine-99 test case with time dependent angular resolved inlet velocity boundary conditions. Different grids and time steps are investigated. The results are compared to experimental time dependent pressure and velocity measurements.
Orientation Dependence in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Shocked Single Crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Germann, Timothy C.; Holian, Brad Lee; Lomdahl, Peter S.; Ravelo, Ramon
2000-01-01
We use multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study shock wave propagation in fcc crystals. As shown recently, shock waves along the direction form intersecting stacking faults by slippage along {111} close-packed planes at sufficiently high shock strengths. We find even more interesting behavior of shocks propagating in other low-index directions: for the case, an elastic precursor separates the shock front from the slipped (plastic) region. Shock waves along the direction generate a leading solitary wave train, followed (at sufficiently high shock speeds) by an elastic precursor, and then a region of complex plastic deformation. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
High-Mach number, laser-driven magnetized collisionless shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaeffer, Derek B.; Fox, W.; Haberberger, D.; Fiksel, G.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2017-01-01
Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in space and astrophysical systems, and the class of supercritical shocks is of particular importance due to their role in accelerating particles to high energies. While these shocks have been traditionally studied by spacecraft and remote sensing observations, laboratory experiments can provide reproducible and multi-dimensional datasets that provide complementary understanding of the underlying microphysics. We present experiments undertaken on the OMEGA and OMEGA EP laser facilities that show the formation and evolution of high-Mach number collisionless shocks created through the interaction of a laser-driven magnetic piston and magnetized ambient plasma. Through time-resolved, 2-D imaging we observe large density and magnetic compressions that propagate at super-Alfvenic speeds and that occur over ion kinetic length scales. Electron density and temperature of the initial ambient plasma are characterized using optical Thomson scattering. Measurements of the piston laser-plasma are modeled with 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which are used to initialize 2-D particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction between the piston and ambient plasmas. The numerical results show the formation of collisionless shocks, including the separate dynamics of the carbon and hydrogen ions that constitute the ambient plasma and their effect on the shock structure. Furthermore, the simulations also show the shock separating from the piston, which we observe in the data at late experimental times.
SELF-REGULATED SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STAR BINARY SYSTEMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parkin, E. R.; Sim, S. A., E-mail: parkin@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: s.sim@qub.ac.uk [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)
2013-04-20
In an early-type, massive star binary system, X-ray bright shocks result from the powerful collision of stellar winds driven by radiation pressure on spectral line transitions. We examine the influence of the X-rays from the wind-wind collision shocks on the radiative driving of the stellar winds using steady-state models that include a parameterized line force with X-ray ionization dependence. Our primary result is that X-ray radiation from the shocks inhibits wind acceleration and can lead to a lower pre-shock velocity, and a correspondingly lower shocked plasma temperature, yet the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the shocks, L{sub X}, remains largely unaltered, with the exception of a modest increase at small binary separations. Due to the feedback loop between the ionizing X-rays from the shocks and the wind driving, we term this scenario as self-regulated shocks. This effect is found to greatly increase the range of binary separations at which a wind-photosphere collision is likely to occur in systems where the momenta of the two winds are significantly different. Furthermore, the excessive levels of X-ray ionization close to the shocks completely suppress the line force, and we suggest that this may render radiative braking less effective. Comparisons of model results against observations reveal reasonable agreement in terms of log (L{sub X}/L{sub bol}). The inclusion of self-regulated shocks improves the match for kT values in roughly equal wind momenta systems, but there is a systematic offset for systems with unequal wind momenta (if considered to be a wind-photosphere collision).
Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sim, Woo Gun
2006-01-01
To understand fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to two-phase flow, it is essential to get detailed information about the characteristics of two-phase flow. Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates have been studied to investigate the general characteristics of the flow related to flow-induced vibration. Based on the spectral collocation method, a numerical approach has been developed for the unsteady two-phase flow. The method is validated by comparing numerical result to analytical one given for a simple harmonic two-phase flow. The flow parameters for the steady two-phase flow, such as void fraction and two-phase frictional multiplier, are evaluated. The dynamic characteristics of the unsteady two-phase flow, including the void fraction effect on the complex unsteady pressure, are illustrated
Effect of a transverse plasma jet on a shock wave induced by a ramp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyu WANG
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We conducted experiments in a wind tunnel with Mach number 2 to explore the evolution of a transverse plasma jet and its modification effect on a shock wave induced by a ramp with an angle of 24Â°. The transverse plasma jet was created by arc discharge in a small cylindrical cavity with a 2â¯mm diameter orifice. Three group tests with different actuator arrangements in the spanwise or streamwise direction upstream from the ramp were respectively studied to compare their disturbances to the shock wave. As shown by a time-resolved schlieren system, an unsteady motion of the shock wave by actuation was found: the shock wave was significantly modified by the plasma jet with an upstream motion and a reduced angle. Compared to spanwise actuation, a more intensive impact was obtained with two or three streamwise actuators working together. From shock wave structures, the control effect of the plasma jet on the shock motion based on a thermal effect, a potential cause of shock modification, was discussed. Furthermore, we performed a numerical simulation by using the Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES method to simulate the evolution of the transverse plasma jet plume produced by two streamwise actuators. The results show that flow structures are similar to those identified in schlieren images. Two streamwise vortices were recognized, which indicates that the higher jet plume is the result of the overlap of two streamwise jets. Keywords: Flow control, Improved delayed detached eddy simulation (IDDES method, Plasma synthetic jet, Shock wave/boundary layer interaction, Time resolved schlieren system
Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics
Gülçat, Ülgen
2010-01-01
This introduction to the principles of unsteady aerodynamics covers all the core concepts, provides readers with a review of the fundamental physics, terminology and basic equations, and covers hot new topics such as the use of flapping wings for propulsion.
Nath, G.; Pathak, R. P.; Dutta, Mrityunjoy
2018-01-01
Similarity solutions for the flow of a non-ideal gas behind a strong exponential shock driven out by a piston (cylindrical or spherical) moving with time according to an exponential law is obtained. Solutions are obtained, in both the cases, when the flow between the shock and the piston is isothermal or adiabatic. The shock wave is driven by a piston moving with time according to an exponential law. Similarity solutions exist only when the surrounding medium is of constant density. The effects of variation of ambient magnetic field, non-idealness of the gas, adiabatic exponent and gravitational parameter are worked out in detail. It is shown that the increase in the non-idealness of the gas or the adiabatic exponent of the gas or presence of magnetic field have decaying effect on the shock wave. Consideration of the isothermal flow and the self-gravitational field increase the shock strength. Also, the consideration of isothermal flow or the presence of magnetic field removes the singularity in the density distribution, which arises in the case of adiabatic flow. The result of our study may be used to interpret measurements carried out by space craft in the solar wind and in neighborhood of the Earth's magnetosphere.
Shock Wave Diffraction Phenomena around Slotted Splitters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Gnani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the field of aerospace engineering, the study of the characteristics of vortical flows and their unsteady phenomena finds numerous engineering applications related to improvements in the design of tip devices, enhancement of combustor performance, and control of noise generation. A large amount of work has been carried out in the analysis of the shock wave diffraction around conventional geometries such as sharp and rounded corners, but the employment of splitters with lateral variation has hardly attracted the attention of researchers. The investigation of this phenomenon around two-dimensional wedges has allowed the understanding of the basic physical principles of the flow features. On the other hand, important aspects that appear in the third dimension due to the turbulent nature of the vortices are omitted. The lack of studies that use three-dimensional geometries has motivated the current work to experimentally investigate the evolution of the shock wave diffraction around two splitters with spike-shaped structures for Mach numbers of 1.31 and 1.59. Schlieren photography was used to obtain an insight into the sequential diffraction processes that take place in different planes. Interacting among them, these phenomena generate a complicated turbulent cloud with a vortical arrangement.
Ion species stratification within strong shocks in two-ion plasmas
Keenan, Brett D.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Taitano, William T.; Chacón, Luis
2018-03-01
Strong collisional shocks in multi-ion plasmas are featured in many environments, with Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments being one prominent example. Recent work [Keenan et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 053203 (2017)] answered in detail a number of outstanding questions concerning the kinetic structure of steady-state, planar plasma shocks, e.g., the shock width scaling by the Mach number, M. However, it did not discuss shock-driven ion-species stratification (e.g., relative concentration modification and temperature separation). These are important effects since many recent ICF experiments have evaded explanation by standard, single-fluid, radiation-hydrodynamic (rad-hydro) numerical simulations, and shock-driven fuel stratification likely contributes to this discrepancy. Employing the state-of-the-art Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP, along with multi-ion hydro simulations and semi-analytics, we quantify the ion stratification by planar shocks with the arbitrary Mach number and the relative species concentration for two-ion plasmas in terms of ion mass and charge ratios. In particular, for strong shocks, we find that the structure of the ion temperature separation has a nearly universal character across ion mass and charge ratios. Additionally, we find that the shock fronts are enriched with the lighter ion species and the enrichment scales as M4 for M ≫ 1.
DSMC Computations for Regions of Shock/Shock and Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction
Moss, James N.
2001-01-01
This paper presents the results of a numerical study of hypersonic interacting flows at flow conditions that include those for which experiments have been conducted in the Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel and the ONERA R5Ch low-density wind tunnel. The computations are made with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird. The focus is on Mach 9.3 to 11.4 flows about flared axisymmetric configurations, both hollow cylinder flares and double cones. The results presented highlight the sensitivity of the calculations to grid resolution, provide results concerning the conditions for incipient separation, and provide information concerning the flow structure and surface results for the extent of separation, heating, pressure, and skin friction.
Experimental validation of an ultrasonic flowmeter for unsteady flows
Leontidis, V.; Cuvier, C.; Caignaert, G.; Dupont, P.; Roussette, O.; Fammery, S.; Nivet, P.; Dazin, A.
2018-04-01
An ultrasonic flowmeter was developed for further applications in cryogenic conditions and for measuring flow rate fluctuations in the range of 0 to 70 Hz. The prototype was installed in a flow test rig, and was validated experimentally both in steady and unsteady water flow conditions. A Coriolis flowmeter was used for the calibration under steady state conditions, whereas in the unsteady case the validation was done simultaneously against two methods: particle image velocimetry (PIV), and with pressure transducers installed flush on the wall of the pipe. The results show that the developed flowmeter and the proposed methodology can accurately measure the frequency and amplitude of unsteady fluctuations in the experimental range of 0-9 l s-1 of the mean main flow rate and 0-70 Hz of the imposed disturbances.
Yang, Zhongwei; Lu, Quanming; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui
2018-04-01
Electron dynamics at low-Mach-number collisionless shocks are investigated by using two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various shock normal angles. We found: (1) The reflected ions and incident electrons at the shock front provide an effective mechanism for the quasi-electrostatic wave generation due to the charge-separation. A fraction of incident electrons can be effectively trapped and accelerated at the leading edge of the shock foot. (2) At quasi-perpendicular shocks, the electron trapping and reflection is nonuniform due to the shock rippling along the shock surface and is more likely to take place at some locations accompanied by intense reflected ion-beams. The electron trapping process has a periodical evolution over time due to the shock front self-reformation, which is controlled by ion dynamics. Thus, this is a cross-scale coupling phenomenon. (3) At quasi-parallel shocks, reflected ions can travel far back upstream. Consequently, quasi-electrostatic waves can be excited in the shock transition and the foreshock region. The electron trajectory analysis shows these waves can trap electrons at the foot region and reflect a fraction of them far back upstream. Simulation runs in this paper indicate that the micro-turbulence at the shock foot can provide a possible scenario for producing the reflected electron beam, which is a basic condition for the type II radio burst emission at low-Mach-number interplanetary shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Meng; Duan, YuFeng; Zhang, TieNan [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou 2, Nanjing 210096 (China)
2010-09-15
The purpose of this research was to investigate the dependence of effervescent spray unsteadiness on operational conditions and atomizer internal design by the ideal spray theory of Edwards and Marx. The convergent-divergent effervescent atomizer spraying water with air as atomizing medium in the ''outside-in'' gas injection was used in this study. Results demonstrated that droplet formation process at various air to liquid ratio (ALR) led to the spray unsteadiness and all droplet size classes exhibited unsteadiness behavior in spray. The spray unsteadiness reduced quickly at ALR of 3% and decreased moderately at ALR of other values as the axial distance increased. When the axial distance was 200 mm, the spray unsteadiness reduced dramatically with the increase in radial distance, but lower spray unsteadiness at the center of spray and higher spray unsteadiness at the edge of spray were shown as the axial distance increased. The spray unsteadiness at the center region of spray increased with the injection pressure. Low spray unsteadiness and good atomization performance can be obtained when the diameter of incline aeration holes increased at ALR of 10%. Although short mixing chamber with large discharge orifice diameter for convergent-divergent effervescent atomizer produced good atomization, the center region of spay showed high spray unsteadiness and maybe formed the droplet clustering. (author)
Shock disturbance of the I-Xe system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caffee, M.W.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Podosek, F.A.; Swindle, T.D.
1982-01-01
Three separate samples of the meteorite Bjurbole were artificially shocked at pressures of 70 kb, 200 kb, and 400 kb. Analysis of xenon released in stepwise heating shows that the I-Xe system of the 400 kb sample is substantially altered by the shock loading, and it is no longer possible to infer an age or trapped xenon composition for that sample. The 200-kb and 70-kb samples display isotopic structures progressively less altered demonstrating the gradations in shock disturbance likely to be found in natural systems. Interpretations of the I-Xe and Ar-40-Ar-39 systems for several naturally shocked meteorites are also presented. New data for Arapahoe do not confirm the previously reported age and trapped xenon composition, demonstrating instead that its I-Xe structure has been strongly disturbed by shock
Wind Turbines: Unsteady Aerodynamics and Inflow Noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Broe, Brian Riget
in order to estimate the lift fluctuations due to unsteady aerodynamics (Sears, W. R.: 1941, Some aspects of non-stationary airfoil theory and its practical application; Goldstein, M. E. and Atassi, H. M.: 1976, A complete second-order theory for the unsteady flow about an airfoil due to a periodic gust...... (Sears, W. R.: 1941; and Graham, J. M. R.: 1970). An acoustic model is investigated using a model for the lift distribution as input (Amiet, R. K.: 1975, Acoustic radiation from an airfoil in a turbulent stream). The two models for lift distribution are used in the acoustic model. One of the models...
Matthews, Megan; Sponberg, Simon
2017-11-01
Birds, insects, and many animals use unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms to achieve stable hovering flight. Natural environments are often characterized by unsteady flows causing animals to dynamically respond to perturbations while performing complex tasks, such as foraging. Little is known about how unsteady flow around an animal interacts with already unsteady flow in the environment or how this impacts performance. We study how the environment impacts maneuverability to reveal any coupling between body dynamics and aerodynamics for hawkmoths, Manduca sexta,tracking a 3D-printed robotic flower in a wind tunnel. We also observe the leading-edge vortex (LEV), a known lift-generating mechanism for insect flight with smoke visualization. Moths in still and unsteady air exhibit near perfect tracking at low frequencies, but tracking in the flower wake results in larger overshoot at mid-range. Smoke visualization of the flower wake shows that the dominant vortex shedding corresponds to the same frequency band as the increased overshoot. Despite the large effect on flight dynamics, the LEV remains bound to the wing and thorax throughout the wingstroke. In general, unsteady wind seems to decrease maneuverability, but LEV stability seems decoupled from changes in flight dynamics.
Numerical Investigations of Unsteady Flow in a Centrifugal Pump with a Vaned Diffuser
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olivier Petit
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses were made to study the unsteady three-dimensional turbulence in the ERCOFTAC centrifugal pump test case. The simulations were carried out using the OpenFOAM Open Source CFD software. The test case consists of an unshrouded centrifugal impeller with seven blades and a radial vaned diffuser with 12 vanes. A large number of measurements are available in the radial gap between the impeller and the diffuse, making this case ideal for validating numerical methods. Results of steady and unsteady calculations of the flow in the pump are compared with the experimental ones, and four different turbulent models are analyzed. The steady simulation uses the frozen rotor concept, while the unsteady simulation uses a fully resolved sliding grid approach. The comparisons show that the unsteady numerical results accurately predict the unsteadiness of the flow, demonstrating the validity and applicability of that methodology for unsteady incompressible turbomachinery flow computations. The steady approach is less accurate, with an unphysical advection of the impeller wakes, but accurate enough for a crude approximation. The different turbulence models predict the flow at the same level of accuracy, with slightly different results.
Numerical Investigation of Double-Cone Flows with High Enthalpy Effects
Nompelis, I.; Candler, G. V.
2009-01-01
A numerical study of shock/shock and shock/boundary layer interactions generated by a double-cone model that is placed in a hypersonic free-stream is presented. Computational results are compared with the experimental measurements made at the CUBRC LENS facility for nitrogen flows at high enthalpy conditions. The CFD predictions agree well with surface pressure and heat-flux measurements for all but one of the double-cone cases that have been studied by the authors. Unsteadiness is observed in computations of one of the LENS cases, however for this case the experimental measurements show that the flowfield is steady. To understand this discrepancy, several double-cone experiments performed in two different facilities with both air and nitrogen as the working gas are examined in the present study. Computational results agree well with measurements made in both the AEDC tunnel 9 and the CUBRC LENS facility for double-cone flows at low free-stream Reynolds numbers where the flow is steady. It is shown that at higher free- stream pressures the double-cone simulations develop instabilities that result in an unsteady separation.
Numerical simulation of the unsteady progress in centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Chunlin; Zeng Shi
2006-01-01
Unsteady flow equations for the centrifuge are solved on a staggered grid by a finite volume method. The transient process that the axial flow in the centrifuge is established under a steady thermal driving. It can be concluded that the influence which causes the perturbing fluid is different at the beginning and the end of the processing. The flow is caused by the imbalance of temperature which turns to be caused by the imbalance of pressure. The results show that the numerical simulation is effective at the unsteady fluid in a centrifuge. (authors)
Validation of a CFD code for Unsteady Flows with cyclic boundary Conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong-Tae; Kim, Sang-Baik; Lee, Won-Jae
2006-01-01
Currently Lilac code is under development to analyze thermo-hydraulics of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (GCR). Interesting thermo-hydraulic phenomena in a nuclear reactor are usually unsteady and turbulent. The analysis of the unsteady flows by using a three dimension CFD code is time-consuming if the flow domain is very large. Hopefully, flow domains commonly encountered in the nuclear thermo-hydraulics is periodic. So it is better to use the geometrical characteristics in order to reduce the computational resources. To get the benefits from reducing the computation domains especially for the calculations of unsteady flows, the cyclic boundary conditions are implemented in the parallelized CFD code LILAC. In this study, the parallelized cyclic boundary conditions are validated by solving unsteady laminar and turbulent flows past a circular cylinder
Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, Bil; Streett, Craig L; Glass, Christopher E.; Schuster, David M.
2015-01-01
Using the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics code, an unsteady, time-accurate flow field about a Space Launch System configuration was simulated at a transonic wind tunnel condition (Mach = 0.9). Delayed detached eddy simulation combined with Reynolds Averaged Naiver-Stokes and a Spallart-Almaras turbulence model were employed for the simulation. Second order accurate time evolution scheme was used to simulate the flow field, with a minimum of 0.2 seconds of simulated time to as much as 1.4 seconds. Data was collected at 480 pressure taps at locations, 139 of which matched a 3% wind tunnel model, tested in the Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed agreement within 5% in terms of location for peak RMS levels, and 20% for frequency and magnitude of power spectral densities. Grid resolution and time step sensitivity studies were performed to identify methods for improved accuracy comparisons to wind tunnel data. With limited computational resources, accurate trends for reduced vibratory loads on the vehicle were observed. Exploratory methods such as determining minimized computed errors based on CFL number and sub-iterations, as well as evaluating frequency content of the unsteady pressures and evaluation of oscillatory shock structures were used in this study to enhance computational efficiency and solution accuracy. These techniques enabled development of a set of best practices, for the evaluation of future flight vehicle designs in terms of vibratory loads.
Unsteady Probabilistic Analysis of a Gas Turbine System
Brown, Marilyn
2003-01-01
In this work, we have considered an annular cascade configuration subjected to unsteady inflow conditions. The unsteady response calculation has been implemented into the time marching CFD code, MSUTURBO. The computed steady state results for the pressure distribution demonstrated good agreement with experimental data. We have computed results for the amplitudes of the unsteady pressure over the blade surfaces. With the increase in gas turbine engine structural complexity and performance over the past 50 years, structural engineers have created an array of safety nets to ensure against component failures in turbine engines. In order to reduce what is now considered to be excessive conservatism and yet maintain the same adequate margins of safety, there is a pressing need to explore methods of incorporating probabilistic design procedures into engine development. Probabilistic methods combine and prioritize the statistical distributions of each design variable, generate an interactive distribution and offer the designer a quantified relationship between robustness, endurance and performance. The designer can therefore iterate between weight reduction, life increase, engine size reduction, speed increase etc.
Flow Measurements of a Plunging Wing in Unsteady Environment
Wengel, Jesse; Nathan, Rungun; Cheng, Bo; Eslam-Panah, Azar
2017-11-01
Despite the great progress in their design and control, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are tremendously troubled while flying in turbulent environments, which are common in the lower atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). A nominally 2D plunging wing was developed and tested in the presence of unsteady wake to investigate the effect of the flow disturbances on vorticity fields. The experiments were conducted in a water channel facility with test section width of 0.76 m, and a water depth of 0.6 m. The unsteady wake in the form of von Kármán Vortex Street was generated by a cylinder located upstream of the plunging wing. The plunge amplitude and frequency of the oscillation were adjusted to bracket the range of Strouhal numbers relevant to the biological locomotion (0.25PIV) was employed to quantitatively study the effect of unsteady wake on the flow measurements of the plunging wing.
MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF UNSTEADY HEAT TRANSFER OF PASSENGER CAR WITH HEATING SYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. V. Biloshytskyi
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The existing mathematical models of unsteady heat processes in a passenger car do not fully reflect the thermal processes, occurring in the car wits a heating system. In addition, unsteady heat processes are often studied in steady regime, when the heat fluxes and the parameters of the thermal circuit are constant and do not depend on time. In connection with the emergence of more effective technical solutions to the life support system there is a need for creating a new mathematical apparatus, which would allow taking into account these features and their influence on the course of unsteady heat processes throughout the travel time. The purpose of this work is to create a mathematical model of the heat regime of a passenger car with a heating system that takes into account the unsteady heat processes. Methodology. To achieve this task the author composed a system of differential equations, describing unsteady heat processes during the heating of a passenger car. For the solution of the composed system of equations, the author used the method of elementary balances. Findings. The paper presents the developed numerical algorithm and computer program for simulation of transitional heat processes in a locomotive traction passenger car, which allows taking into account the various constructive solutions of the life support system of passenger cars and to simulate unsteady heat processes at any stage of the trip. Originality. For the first time the author developed a mathematical model of heat processes in a car with a heating system, that unlike existing models, allows to investigate the unsteady heat engineering performance in the cabin of the car under different operating conditions and compare the work of various life support systems from the point of view their constructive solutions. Practical value. The work presented the developed mathematical model of the unsteady heat regime of the passenger car with a heating system to estimate
Axisymmetric, Ventilated Supercavitation in Unsteady, Horizontal Flow
Kawakami, Ellison; Lee, Seung-Jae; Arndt, Roger
2012-11-01
Drag reduction and/or speed augmentation of marine vehicles by means of supercavitation is a topic of great interest. During the initial launch of a supercavitating vehicle, an artificial supercavity is required until the vehicle can reach conditions at which a natural supercavity can be sustained. Previous studies at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) focused on the behavior of ventilated supercavities in steady horizontal flows. In open waters, vehicles can encounter unsteady flows, especially when traveling under waves. A study has been carried out at SAFL to investigate the effects of unsteady flow on axisymmetric supercavities. An attempt is made to duplicate sea states seen in open waters. In an effort to track cavity dimensions throughout a wave cycle, an automated cavity tracking script has been developed. Using a high speed camera and the proper software, it is possible to synchronize cavity dimensions with pressure measurements taken inside the cavity. Results regarding supercavity shape, ventilation demand, cavitation parameters and closure methods are presented. It was found that flow unsteadiness caused a decrease in the overall length of the supercavity while having only a minimal effect on the maximum diameter. The supercavity volume varied with cavitation number and a possible relationship between the two is being explored. (Supported by ONR)
Investigation into the behaviors of ventilated supercavities in unsteady flow
Shao, Siyao; Wu, Yue; Haynes, Joseph; Arndt, Roger E. A.; Hong, Jiarong
2018-05-01
A systematic investigation of ventilated supercavitation behaviors in an unsteady flow is conducted using a high-speed water tunnel at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. The cavity is generated with a forward facing model under varying ventilation rates and cavitator sizes. The unsteady flow is produced by a gust generator consisting of two hydrofoils flapping in unison with a varying angle of attack (AoA) and frequency (fg). The current experiment reveals five distinct cavity states, namely, the stable state, wavy state, pulsating state I, pulsating state II, and collapsing state, based on the variation of cavity geometry and pressure signatures inside the cavity. The distribution of cavity states over a broad range of unsteady conditions is summarized in a cavity state map. It shows that the transition of the supercavity from the stable state to pulsating and collapsing states is primarily induced by increasing AoA while the transition to the wavy state triggers largely by increasing fg. Remarkably, the state map over the non-dimensionalized half wavelength and wave amplitude of the perturbation indicates that the supercavity loses its stability and transitions to pulsating or collapsing states when the level of its distortion induced by the flow unsteadiness exceeds the cavity dimension under a steady condition. The state maps under different ventilation rates and cavitator sizes yield similar distribution but show that the occurrence of the cavity collapse can be suppressed with increasing ventilation coefficient or cavitator size. Such knowledge can be integrated into designing control strategies for the supercavitating devices operating under different unsteady conditions.
On the Unsteady-Motion Theory of Magnetic Forces for Maglev
1993-11-01
DivisionEnergy Technology Division Forces for Maglev Energy Technology DivisionEnergy Technology Division by S. S. Chen, S. Zhu, and Y. Cai APQ 4 袲...On the Unsteady-Motion Theory of Magnetic Forces for Maglev by S. S. Chen, S. Zhu, and Y. Cai Energy Technology Division November 1993 Work supported...vi On The Unsteady-Motion Theory of Magnetic Forces for Maglev by S. S
Influence of Unsteady Aerodynamics on Driving Dynamics of Passenger Cars
Huemer, J.; Stickel, T.; Sagan, E.; Schwarz, M.; Wall, W.A.
2015-01-01
Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with CFD-Methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared to steady state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore innovative vehicle concepts like electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve...
Certain Solutions Of Shock-Waves In Non-Ideal Gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanti Pandey
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In present paper non similar solutions for plane, cylindrical and spherical unsteady flows of non-ideal gas behind shock wave of arbitrary strength initiated by the instantaneous release of finite energy and propagating in a non-ideal gas is investigated. Asymptotic analysis is applied to obtain a solution up to second order. Solution for numerical calculation Runga-Kutta method of fourth order is applied and is concluded that for non-ideal case there is a decrease in velocity, pressure and density for 0th and IInd order in comparison to ideal gas but a increasing tendency in velocity, pressure and density for Ist order in comparison to ideal gas. The energy of explosion J0 for ideal gas is greater in comparison to non-ideal gas for plane, cylindrical and spherical waves.
Shock-acceleration of a pair of gas inhomogeneities
Navarro Nunez, Jose Alonso; Reese, Daniel; Oakley, Jason; Rothamer, David; Bonazza, Riccardo
2014-11-01
A shock wave moving through the interstellar medium distorts density inhomogeneities through the deposition of baroclinic vorticity. This process is modeled experimentally in a shock tube for a two-bubble interaction. A planar shock wave in nitrogen traverses two soap-film bubbles filled with argon. The two bubbles share an axis that is orthogonal to the shock wave and are separated from one another by a distance of approximately one bubble diameter. Atomization of the soap-film by the shock wave results in dispersal of droplets that are imaged using Mie scattering with a laser sheet through the bubble axis. Initial condition images of the bubbles in free-fall (no holder) are taken using a high-speed camera and then two post-shock images are obtained with two laser pulses and two cameras. The first post-shock image is of the early time compression stage when the sphere has become ellipsoidal, and the second image shows the emergence of vortex rings which have evolved due to vorticity depostion by the shock wave. Bubble morphology is characterized with length scale measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emanuel, G.
1986-01-01
This presentation of traditional and new material moves from an introductory discussion of compressible flow to graduate/practitioner level background on transonic or hypersonic flow and on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Applications include steady and unsteady flows with shock waves, minimum length nozzles, aerowindows, and waveriders. The contents are: Introduction; Thermodynamics; One dimensional conservation equations; steady streamtube flow; Normal and oblique shock waves; Prandtl-Meyer Flow and shock-expansion theory; Nozzle and diffuser flow; Ducts with area change, heat transfer, and friction; Unsteady, one-dimensional flow; Applications of unsteady, one-dimensional flow; Governing equations; Shock waves; Transformation of the conservation equations; Definitions and theorems; Exact solutions of steady homentropic flow of a perfect gas; Theory of characteristics; Minimum length nozzles; Aerodynamic window; Flows with shock waves; and Waverider aerodynamics
Shock Heating of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A521
Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Brunetti, G.
2013-01-01
A521 is an interacting galaxy cluster located at z = 0.247, hosting a low-frequency radio halo connected to an eastern radio relic. Previous Chandra observations hinted at the presence of an X-ray brightness edge at the position of the relic, which may be a shock front. We analyze a deep observation of A521 recently performed with XMM-Newton in order to probe the cluster structure up to the outermost regions covered by the radio emission. The cluster atmosphere exhibits various brightness and temperature anisotropies. In particular, two cluster cores appear to be separated by two cold fronts. We find two shock fronts, one that was suggested by Chandra and that is propagating to the east, and another to the southwestern cluster outskirt. The two main interacting clusters appear to be separated by a shock-heated region, which exhibits a spatial correlation with the radio halo. The outer edge of the radio relic coincides spatially with a shock front, suggesting that this shock is responsible for the generation of cosmic-ray electrons in the relic. The propagation direction and Mach number of the shock front derived from the gas density jump, M = 2.4 +/- 0.2, are consistent with expectations from the radio spectral index, under the assumption of Fermi I acceleration mechanism.
Shock ignition of thermonuclear fuel: principles and modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atzeni, S.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.; Schmitt, A.J.; Canaud, B.; Betti, R.; Perkins, L.J.
2014-01-01
Shock ignition is an approach to direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) in which the stages of compression and hot spot formation are partly separated. The fuel is first imploded at a lower velocity than in conventional ICF. Close to stagnation, an intense laser spike drives a strong converging shock, which contributes to hot spot formation. Shock ignition shows potentials for high gain at laser energies below 1 MJ, and could be tested on the National Ignition Facility or Laser MegaJoule. Shock ignition principles and modelling are reviewed in this paper. Target designs and computer-generated gain curves are presented and discussed. Limitations of present studies and research needs are outlined. (special topic)
NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND MODELING OF UNSTEADY FLOW AROUND AN AIRFOIL. (AERODYNAMIC FORM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Y. Habib
2015-07-01
Full Text Available During this work, we simulated an unsteady flow around an airfoil type NACA0012 using the Fluent software. The objective is to control the code on the one hand and on the other hand the simulation of unsteady flows. By simulating an unsteady flow Reynolds number (Re = 6.85 * 106 and Mach number (M = 0.3, we have the flowing with a grid (mesh adequate numerical results and experimental data are in good agreement. To represent the results of the simulation we have validated by comparing the values of aerodynamic coefficients with those of experimental data.
Visualization of unsteady computational fluid dynamics
Haimes, Robert
1994-11-01
A brief summary of the computer environment used for calculating three dimensional unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) results is presented. This environment requires a super computer as well as massively parallel processors (MPP's) and clusters of workstations acting as a single MPP (by concurrently working on the same task) provide the required computational bandwidth for CFD calculations of transient problems. The cluster of reduced instruction set computers (RISC) is a recent advent based on the low cost and high performance that workstation vendors provide. The cluster, with the proper software can act as a multiple instruction/multiple data (MIMD) machine. A new set of software tools is being designed specifically to address visualizing 3D unsteady CFD results in these environments. Three user's manuals for the parallel version of Visual3, pV3, revision 1.00 make up the bulk of this report.
A novel method for unsteady flow field segmentation based on stochastic similarity of direction
Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu
2018-04-01
Recent developments in fluid dynamics research have opened up the possibility for the detailed quantitative understanding of unsteady flow fields. However, the visualization techniques currently in use generally provide only qualitative insights. A method for dividing the flow field into physically relevant regions of interest can help researchers quantify unsteady fluid behaviors. Most methods at present compare the trajectories of virtual Lagrangian particles. The time-invariant features of an unsteady flow are also frequently of interest, but the Lagrangian specification only reveals time-variant features. To address these challenges, we propose a novel method for the time-invariant spatial segmentation of an unsteady flow field. This segmentation method does not require Lagrangian particle tracking but instead quantitatively compares the stochastic models of the direction of the flow at each observed point. The proposed method is validated with several clustering tests for 3D flows past a sphere. Results show that the proposed method reveals the time-invariant, physically relevant structures of an unsteady flow.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aisopou, Angeliki; Stoianov, Ivan; Graham, Nigel
2013-01-01
This paper investigates the impact of the dynamic hydraulic conditions on the kinetics of chlorine decay in water supply systems. A simulation framework has been developed for the scale-adaptive hydraulic and chlorine decay modelling under steady- and unsteady-state flows. An unsteady decay coeff...... of experimental data provides new insights for the near real-time modelling and management of water quality as well as highlighting the uncertainty and challenges of accurately modelling the loss of disinfectant in water supply networks.......This paper investigates the impact of the dynamic hydraulic conditions on the kinetics of chlorine decay in water supply systems. A simulation framework has been developed for the scale-adaptive hydraulic and chlorine decay modelling under steady- and unsteady-state flows. An unsteady decay...... coefficient is defined which depends upon the absolute value of shear stress and the rate of change of shear stress for quasi-unsteady and unsteady-state flows. By coupling novel instrumentation technologies for continuous hydraulic monitoring and water quality sensors for in-pipe water quality sensing...
Large-eddy simulation of passive shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasquariello, Vito; Grilli, Muzio; Hickel, Stefan; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The present study investigates a passive flow-control technique for shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. • The control configuration consists of local suction and injection through a pressure feedback duct. • Implicit LES have been conducted for three different suction locations. • Suction reduces the size of the separation zone. • Turbulence amplification and reflected shock dynamics can be significantly reduced. - Abstract: We investigate a passive flow-control technique for the interaction of an oblique shock generated by an 8.8° wedge with a turbulent boundary-layer at a free-stream Mach number of Ma ∞ =2.3 and a Reynolds number based on the incoming boundary-layer thickness of Re δ 0 =60.5×10 3 by means of large-eddy simulation (LES). The compressible Navier–Stokes equations in conservative form are solved using the adaptive local deconvolution method (ALDM) for physically consistent subgrid scale modeling. Emphasis is placed on the correct description of turbulent inflow boundary conditions, which do not artificially force low-frequency periodic motion of the reflected shock. The control configuration combines suction inside the separation zone and blowing upstream of the interaction region by a pressure feedback through a duct embedded in the wall. We vary the suction location within the recirculation zone while the injection position is kept constant. Suction reduces the size of the separation zone with strongest effect when applied in the rear part of the separation bubble. The analysis of wall-pressure spectra reveals that all control configurations shift the high-energy low-frequency range to higher frequencies, while the energy level is significantly reduced only if suction acts in the rear part of the separated zone. In that case also turbulence production within the interaction region is significantly reduced as a consequence of mitigated reflected shock dynamics and near-wall flow acceleration
Computational Study of Shock/Plume Interactions Between Multiple Jets in Supersonic Crossflow
Tylczak, Erik B.
The interaction of multiple jets in supersonic crossflow is simulated using hybrid Reynolds- Averaged Navier Stokes and Large Eddy Simulation turbulence models. The blockage of a jet generates a curved bow shock, and in multi-jet flows, each shock impinges on the other fuel plumes. The curved nature of each shock generates vorticity directly, and the impingement of each shock on the vortical structures within the adjacent fuel plumes strengthens vortical structures already present. These stirring motions are the major driver of fuel-air mixing, and so mixing enhancement is predicted to occur in multi-port configurations. The primary geometry considered is that of the combustion duct at the Calspan- University of Buffalo Research Center 48" Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. This geometry was developed to be representative of the geometry and flow physics of the Flight 2 test vehicle of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimenta- tion Program (HiFIRE-2). This geometry takes the form of a symmetric pair of external compression ramps that feed an isolator of approximately 4" x 1" cross-section. Nine interdigitated flush-wall injectors, four on one wall and five on the other, inject hydrogen at an angle of 30 degrees to the freestream. Two freestream flow conditions are consid- ered: approximately Mach 7.2 at a static temperature of 214K and a density of 0.039 kg/m3 for the five-injector case, and approximately Mach 8.9 at a static temperature of 167K and density of 0.014 kg/m 3 for the nine-injector case. Validation computations are performed on a single-port experiment with an imposed shock wave. Unsteady calculations are performed on five-port and nine-port configura- tions, and the five-port configuration is compared to calculations performed with only a single active port on the same geometry. Analysis of statistical data demonstrates enhanced mixing in the multi-port configurations in regions where shock impingement occurs.
Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.
1990-01-01
A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis is presented for unsteady, subsonic vortical flows around lifting airfoils. The analysis fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the imposed vortical disturbances. A frequency domain numerical scheme which implements this linearized approach is described, and numerical results are presented for a large variety of flow configurations. The results demonstrate the effects of airfoil thickness, angle of attack, camber, and Mach number on the unsteady lift and moment of airfoils subjected to periodic vortical gusts. The results show that mean flow distortion can have a very strong effect on the airfoil unsteady response, and that the effect depends strongly upon the reduced frequency, Mach number, and gust wave numbers.
Unsteady analytical solutions to the Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schönke, Johannes
2012-01-01
It is shown that the Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations for a single ion species can be formulated as one equation in terms of the electric field. This previously not analyzed equation shows similarities to the vector Burgers equation and is identical with it in the one dimensional case. Several unsteady exact solutions for one and multidimensional cases are presented. Besides new mathematical insights which these first known unsteady solutions give, they can serve as test cases in computer simulations to analyze numerical algorithms and to verify code. (paper)
Zhong, Jiaqi; Zeng, Cheng; Yuan, Yupeng; Zhang, Yuzhe; Zhang, Ye
2018-04-01
The aim of this paper is to present an explicit numerical algorithm based on improved spectral Galerkin method for solving the unsteady diffusion-convection-reaction equation. The principal characteristics of this approach give the explicit eigenvalues and eigenvectors based on the time-space separation method and boundary condition analysis. With the help of Fourier series and Galerkin truncation, we can obtain the finite-dimensional ordinary differential equations which facilitate the system analysis and controller design. By comparing with the finite element method, the numerical solutions are demonstrated via two examples. It is shown that the proposed method is effective.
Heat transfer analysis for unsteady MHD flow past a non-isothermal stretching surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhopadhyay, Swati
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► Unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a non-isothermal stretching sheet in a magnetic field are studied. ► Fluid velocity and temperature decrease for increasing unsteadiness parameter. ► Fluid velocity decreases but temperature increases with the increasing values of the Hartman number. ► The sheet temperature in respect of distance and time has analogous effects on the heat transfer. - Abstract: An analysis is made for the unsteady two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic flow of an incompressible viscous and electrically conducting fluid over a stretching surface having a variable and general form of surface temperature which removes the restrictions of the particular forms of prescribed surface temperature. Similarity solutions for the transformed governing equations are obtained. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically for some values of the involved parameters, namely the unsteadiness parameter, magnetic parameter, the temperature exponent parameters. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for different values of the governing parameters are analysed and discussed. It is found that the fluid velocity and temperature decrease for increasing unsteadiness parameter. Fluid velocity decreases with the increasing values of the Hartman number resulting an increase in the temperature field in steady as well in unsteady case. It is observed that the variation of the sheet temperature in respect of distance and time has analogous effects both on the free surface temperature and on the heat transfer rate (Nusselt number) at the sheet.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yannick Bousquet
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study concerns a 2.5 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor stage consisting of a splittered unshrouded impeller and a vaned diffuser. The aim of this paper is to investigate the modifications of the flow structure when the operating point moves from peak efficiency to near stall. The investigations are based on the results of unsteady three-dimensional simulations, in a calculation domain comprising all the blade. A detailed analysis is given in the impeller inducer and in the vaned diffuser entry region through time-averaged and unsteady flow field. In the impeller inducer, this study demonstrates that the mass flow reduction from peak efficiency to near stall leads to intensification of the secondary flow effects. The low momentum fluid accumulated near the shroud interacts with the main flow through a shear layer zone. At near stall condition, the interface between the two flow structures becomes unstable leading to vortices development. In the diffuser entry region, by reducing the mass flow, the high incidence angle from the impeller exit induces a separation on the diffuser vane suction side. At near stall operating point, vorticity from the separation is shed into vortex cores which are periodically formed and convected downstream along the suction side.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND MODELING OF UNSTEADY FLOW ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2014-06-30
Jun 30, 2014 ... objective of this study is to control the simulation of unsteady flows around structures. ... Aerospace, our results were in good agreement with experimental .... Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering.
Silva, Walter A.
1993-01-01
A methodology for modeling nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses, for subsequent use in aeroservoelastic analysis and design, using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems is presented. The methodology is extended to predict nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses of arbitrary frequency. The Volterra-Wiener theory uses multidimensional convolution integrals to predict the response of nonlinear systems to arbitrary inputs. The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code is used to generate linear and nonlinear unit impulse responses that correspond to each of the integrals for a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 section with pitch and plunge degrees of freedom. The computed kernels then are used to predict linear and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses via convolution and compared to responses obtained using the CAP-TSD code directly. The results indicate that the approach can be used to predict linear unsteady aerodynamic responses exactly for any input amplitude or frequency at a significant cost savings. Convolution of the nonlinear terms results in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses that compare reasonably well with those computed using the CAP-TSD code directly but at significant computational cost savings.
Bui, Trong T.; Mankbadi, Reda R.
1995-01-01
Numerical simulation of a very small amplitude acoustic wave interacting with a shock wave in a quasi-1D convergent-divergent nozzle is performed using an unstructured finite volume algorithm with a piece-wise linear, least square reconstruction, Roe flux difference splitting, and second-order MacCormack time marching. First, the spatial accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated for steady flows with and without the normal shock by running the simulation with a sequence of successively finer meshes. Then the accuracy of the Roe flux difference splitting near the sonic transition point is examined for different reconstruction schemes. Finally, the unsteady numerical solutions with the acoustic perturbation are presented and compared with linear theory results.
High-Gain Shock Ignition on the National Ignition Facility
Perkins, L. J.; Lafortune, K.; Bailey, D.; Lambert, M.; MacKinnon, A.; Blackfield, D.; Comley, A.; Schurtz, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Lebel, E.; Casner, A.; Craxton, R. S.; Betti, R.; McKenty, P.; Anderson, K.; Theobald, W.; Schmitt, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.
2010-11-01
Shock ignition offers the possibility for a near-term test of high-gain ICF on the NIF at less than 1MJ drive energy and with day-1 laser hardware. We will summarize the status of target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the R&D program to be performed in order to test the potential of a shock-ignited target on NIF. In shock ignition, compressed fuel is separately ignited by a late-time laser-driven shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, simulations indicate that fusion energy gains of 60 may be achievable at laser energies around 0.5MJ. Like fast ignition, shock ignition offers high gain but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and focusing requirements. Conventional symmetry and stability constraints apply, thus a key immediate step towards attempting shock ignition on NIF is to demonstrate adequacy of low-mode uniformity and shock symmetry under polar drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatterjee, Dipankar; Biswas, Gautam; Amiroudine, Sakir
2009-01-01
This paper presents the unsteady laminar forced convection heat transfer from a row of five isothermal square cylinders placed in a side-by-side arrangement at a Reynolds number of 150. The numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume code based on the PISO algorithm in a collocated grid system. Special attention is paid to investigate the effect of the spacing between the cylinders on the overall transport processes for the separation ratios (spacing to size ratio) between 0.2 and 10. No significant interaction between the wakes is observed for spacing greater than four times the diameter at this Reynolds number. However, at smaller spacing, the wakes interact in a complicated manner resulting different thermo-hydrodynamic regimes. The vortex structures and isotherm patterns obtained are systematically presented and discussed for different separation ratios. In addition, the mean and instantaneous drag and lift coefficients, mean and local Nusselt number and Strouhal number are determined and discussed for various separation ratios. A new correlation is derived for mean Nusselt number as a function of separation ratio for such flows.
Mazumdar, Sumit; Mazumdar, Papiya Guha; Kanjilal, Barun; Singh, Prashant Kumar
2014-01-01
Based on a household survey in Indian Sundarbans hit by tropical cyclone Aila in May 2009, this study tests for evidence and argues that health and climatic shocks are essentially linked forming a continuum and with exposure to a marginal one, coping mechanisms and welfare outcomes triggered in the response is significantly affected. The data for this study is based on a cross-sectional household survey carried out during June 2010. The survey was aimed to assess the impact of cyclone Aila on households and consequent coping mechanisms in three of the worst-affected blocks (a sub-district administrative unit), viz. Hingalganj, Gosaba and Patharpratima. The survey covered 809 individuals from 179 households, cross cutting age and gender. A separate module on health-seeking behaviour serves as the information source of health shocks defined as illness episodes (ambulatory or hospitalized) experienced by household members. Finding reveals that over half of the households (54%) consider that Aila has dealt a high, damaging impact on their household assets. Result further shows deterioration of health status in the period following the incidence of Aila. Finding suggests having suffered multiple shocks increases the number of adverse welfare outcomes by 55%. Whereas, suffering either from the climatic shock (33%) or the health shock (25%) alone increases such risks by a much lesser extent. The multiple-shock households face a significantly higher degree of difficulty to finance expenses arising out of health shocks, as opposed to their counterparts facing only the health shock. Further, these households are more likely to finance the expenses through informal loans and credit from acquaintances or moneylenders. This paper presented empirical evidence on how natural and health shocks mutually reinforce their resultant impact, making coping increasingly difficult and present significant risks of welfare loss, having short as well as long-run development manifestations.
Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-01-05
Jan 5, 2014 ... The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of ...
Application of unsteady airfoil theory to rotary wings
Kaza, K. R. V.; Kvaternik, R. G.
1981-01-01
A clarification is presented on recent work concerning the application of unsteady airfoil theory to rotary wings. The application of this theory may be seen as consisting of four steps: (1) the selection of an appropriate unsteady airfoil theory; (2) the resolution of that velocity which is the resultant of aerodynamic and dynamic velocities at a point on the elastic axis into radial, tangential and perpendicular components, and the angular velocity of a blade section about the deformed axis; (3) the expression of lift and pitching moments in terms of the three components; and (4) the derivation of explicit expressions for the components in terms of flight velocity, induced flow, rotor rotational speed, blade motion variables, etc.
Unsteady turbulent boundary layers in swimming rainbow trout.
Yanase, Kazutaka; Saarenrinne, Pentti
2015-05-01
The boundary layers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, swimming at 1.02±0.09 L s(-1) (mean±s.d., N=4), were measured by the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique at a Reynolds number of 4×10(5). The boundary layer profile showed unsteadiness, oscillating above and beneath the classical logarithmic law of the wall with body motion. Across the entire surface regions that were measured, local Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, which is the distance that is perpendicular to the fish surface through which the boundary layer momentum flows at free-stream velocity, were greater than the critical value of 320 for the laminar-to-turbulent transition. The skin friction was dampened on the convex surface while the surface was moving towards a free-stream flow and increased on the concave surface while retreating. These observations contradict the result of a previous study using different species swimming by different methods. Boundary layer compression accompanied by an increase in local skin friction was not observed. Thus, the overall results may not support absolutely the Bone-Lighthill boundary layer thinning hypothesis that the undulatory motions of swimming fish cause a large increase in their friction drag because of the compression of the boundary layer. In some cases, marginal flow separation occurred on the convex surface in the relatively anterior surface region, but the separated flow reattached to the fish surface immediately downstream. Therefore, we believe that a severe impact due to induced drag components (i.e. pressure drag) on the swimming performance, an inevitable consequence of flow separation, was avoided. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Multifidelity, multidisciplinary optimization of turbomachines with shock interaction
Joly, Michael Marie
Research on high-speed air-breathing propulsion aims at developing aircraft with antipodal range and space access. Before reaching high speed at high altitude, the flight vehicle needs to accelerate from takeoff to scramjet takeover. Air turbo rocket engines combine turbojet and rocket engine cycles to provide the necessary thrust in the so-called low-speed regime. Challenges related to turbomachinery components are multidisciplinary, since both the high compression ratio compressor and the powering high-pressure turbine operate in the transonic regime in compact environments with strong shock interactions. Besides, lightweight is vital to avoid hindering the scramjet operation. Recent progress in evolutionary computing provides aerospace engineers with robust and efficient optimization algorithms to address concurrent objectives. The present work investigates Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) of innovative transonic turbomachinery components. Inter-stage aerodynamic shock interaction in turbomachines are known to generate high-cycle fatigue on the rotor blades compromising their structural integrity. A soft-computing strategy is proposed to mitigate the vane downstream distortion, and shown to successfully attenuate the unsteady forcing on the rotor of a high-pressure turbine. Counter-rotation offers promising prospects to reduce the weight of the machine, with fewer stages and increased load per row. An integrated approach based on increasing level of fidelity and aero-structural coupling is then presented and allows achieving a highly loaded compact counter-rotating compressor.
Unsteady flow over a decelerating rotating sphere
Turkyilmazoglu, M.
2018-03-01
Unsteady flow analysis induced by a decelerating rotating sphere is the main concern of this paper. A revolving sphere in a still fluid is supposed to slow down at an angular velocity rate that is inversely proportional to time. The governing partial differential equations of motion are scaled in accordance with the literature, reducing to the well-documented von Kármán equations in the special circumstance near the pole. Both numerical and perturbation approaches are pursued to identify the velocity fields, shear stresses, and suction velocity far above the sphere. It is detected that an induced flow surrounding the sphere acts accordingly to adapt to the motion of the sphere up to some critical unsteadiness parameters at certain latitudes. Afterward, the decay rate of rotation ceases such that the flow at the remaining azimuths starts revolving freely. At a critical unsteadiness parameter corresponding to s = -0.681, the decelerating sphere rotates freely and requires no more torque. At a value of s exactly matching the rotating disk flow at the pole identified in the literature, the entire flow field around the sphere starts revolving faster than the disk itself. Increasing values of -s almost diminish the radial outflow. This results in jet flows in both the latitudinal and meridional directions, concentrated near the wall region. The presented mean flow results will be useful for analyzing the instability features of the flow, whether of a convective or absolute nature.
Unsteady, Cooled Turbine Simulation Using a PC-Linux Analysis System
List, Michael G.; Turner, Mark G.; Chen, Jen-Pimg; Remotigue, Michael G.; Veres, Joseph P.
2004-01-01
The fist stage of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) of the GE90 engine was simulated with a three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Sokes solver, MSU Turbo, which uses source terms to simulate the cooling flows. In addition to the solver, its pre-processor, GUMBO, and a post-processing and visualization tool, Turbomachinery Visual3 (TV3) were run in a Linux environment to carry out the simulation and analysis. The solver was run both with and without cooling. The introduction of cooling flow on the blade surfaces, case, and hub and its effects on both rotor-vane interaction as well the effects on the blades themselves were the principle motivations for this study. The studies of the cooling flow show the large amount of unsteadiness in the turbine and the corresponding hot streak migration phenomenon. This research on the GE90 turbomachinery has also led to a procedure for running unsteady, cooled turbine analysis on commodity PC's running the Linux operating system.
Airfoil optimization for unsteady flows with application to high-lift noise reduction
Rumpfkeil, Markus Peer
The use of steady-state aerodynamic optimization methods in the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) community is fairly well established. In particular, the use of adjoint methods has proven to be very beneficial because their cost is independent of the number of design variables. The application of numerical optimization to airframe-generated noise, however, has not received as much attention, but with the significant quieting of modern engines, airframe noise now competes with engine noise. Optimal control techniques for unsteady flows are needed in order to be able to reduce airframe-generated noise. In this thesis, a general framework is formulated to calculate the gradient of a cost function in a nonlinear unsteady flow environment via the discrete adjoint method. The unsteady optimization algorithm developed in this work utilizes a Newton-Krylov approach since the gradient-based optimizer uses the quasi-Newton method BFGS, Newton's method is applied to the nonlinear flow problem, GMRES is used to solve the resulting linear problem inexactly, and last but not least the linear adjoint problem is solved using Bi-CGSTAB. The flow is governed by the unsteady two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a one-equation turbulence model, which are discretized using structured grids and a finite difference approach. The effectiveness of the unsteady optimization algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to several problems of interest including shocktubes, pulses in converging-diverging nozzles, rotating cylinders, transonic buffeting, and an unsteady trailing-edge flow. In order to address radiated far-field noise, an acoustic wave propagation program based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) formulation is implemented and validated. The general framework is then used to derive the adjoint equations for a novel hybrid URANS/FW-H optimization algorithm in order to be able to optimize the shape of airfoils based on their calculated far
Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading
Yu, M.; Wang, S. Q.; Fu, J.; Peng, Y. X.
2013-02-01
So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.
Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, M; Fu, J; Wang, S Q; Peng, Y X
2013-01-01
So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.
Predicting wind-induced vibrations of high-rise buildings using unsteady CFD and modal analysis
Zhang, Yue; Habashi, Wagdi G (Ed); Khurram, Rooh Ul Amin
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the wind-induced vibration of the CAARC standard tall building model, via unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a structural modal analysis. In this numerical procedure, the natural unsteady wind in the atmospheric
Unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoarau, C.; Boree, J.; Laumonier, J.; Gervais, Y.
2008-01-01
The spatio-temporal properties of the unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex are studied in this paper by combining 2 component LDV measurements and multi-point pressure measurements using off-set microphones. The model body has sharp edges. Detailed LDV measurements are presented and discussed in the vortex region. The fluctuating velocities are the signature of both an unsteady behaviour of the organised vortical structure interacting with the wall and of finer scale turbulence carried by the unsteady flow. A spectral analysis of the fluctuating pressure under the vortex core is used to analyse the link between the temporal and spatial scales of the unsteady aerodynamics and the wall pressure field. We show that the conical vortex is a guide for the velocity perturbations and that their hydrodynamic pressure footprint is transported at the measured mean axial velocity in a local reference frame aligned with the vortex core. Two distinct peaks of coherence can then be associated with perturbations having (i) a length scale of the order of the full length of the conical structure; (ii) a length scale of the order of the width of the structure. These perturbations may correspond to a global meandering of the structure (low frequency contribution) and to large scale perturbations generated during the rolling-up of the unsteady vortex sheet. Notably, the energy containing higher frequency parts of the PSD are only weakly correlated when distant sensors are considered. The three distinct contributions extracted here have a significant impact as far as Cp' is concerned and should be transmitted in very different ways by the car structure because the frequency and length scale range is very distinct
Unsteady Characteristics of Laminar Separation Bubbles; An Experimental and Numerical Investigation
Baragona, M.
2004-01-01
Laminar separation bubbles may occur in a wide range of engineering applications such as turbomachinery flows, wind turbines, hydrofoils etc. Much attention has been given to their effect on the flow over airfoils because of the importance for an accurate prediction of lift, drag and heat transfer.
Tandem shock wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy
Loske, Achim M.; Prieto, Fernando E.; Fernández, Francisco; van Cauwelaert, Javier
2002-11-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater shock waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture mainly due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase of each shock wave. Bubbles expand, stabilize and finally collapse violently, creating stone-damaging secondary shock waves and microjets. Bubble collapse can be intensified by sending a second shock wave a few hundred microseconds after the first. A novel method of generating two piezoelectrically generated shock waves with an adjustable time delay between 50 and 950 µs is described and tested. The objective is to enhance cavitation-induced damage to kidney stones during ESWL in order to reduce treatment time. In vitro kidney stone model fragmentation efficiency and pressure measurements were compared with those for a standard ESWL system. Results indicate that fragmentation efficiency was significantly enhanced at a shock wave delay of about 400 and 250 µs using rectangular and spherical stone phantoms, respectively. The system presented here could be installed in clinical devices at relatively low cost, without the need for a second shock wave generator.
Study on the propagation law of shock wave resulting from coal and gas outburst
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Kai; ZHOU Ai-tao; ZHANG Pin; LI Chuan; GUO Yan-wei
2011-01-01
According to the formation of shock wave resulting from coal and gas outburst, the gas flow of coal and gas outburst was transformed from an unsteady flow to a steady one based on selected appropriate reference coordinates, and the mathematical expressions were then established by applying mass conservation, momentum conservation equation, and energy conservation equation. On this basis, analyzed gas flow mitigation of variable cross-section area and the outburst intensity, and the relations between cross-section area, velocity, and density; the relations between overpressures and outburst intensity were deduced. Furthermore, shock waves resulting from coal and gas outburst and outburst intensity were measured by experimental setup, the overpressure and outburst intensity of different gas pressures were obtained, and the similar conditions of the experiment were numerically simulated. The averaged overpressure and gas flow velocity of variable cross-section under different gas pressures were numerically derived. The results show that the averaged overpressure and outburst intensity obtained from simulation are in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the gas flow velocity of variable cross-sections approximates to the theoretical analysis.
The Numerical Simulation of the Shock Wave of Coal Gas Explosions in Gas Pipe*
Chen, Zhenxing; Hou, Kepeng; Chen, Longwei
2018-03-01
For the problem of large deformation and vortex, the method of Euler and Lagrange has both advantage and disadvantage. In this paper we adopt special fuzzy interface method(volume of fluid). Gas satisfies the conditions of conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. Based on explosion and three-dimension fluid dynamics theory, using unsteady, compressible, inviscid hydrodynamic equations and state equations, this paper considers pressure gradient’s effects to velocity, mass and energy in Lagrange steps by the finite difference method. To minimize transport errors of material, energy and volume in Finite Difference mesh, it also considers material transport in Euler steps. Programmed with Fortran PowerStation 4.0 and visualized with the software designed independently, we design the numerical simulation of gas explosion with specific pipeline structure, check the key points of the pressure change in the flow field, reproduce the gas explosion in pipeline of shock wave propagation, from the initial development, flame and accelerate the process of shock wave. This offers beneficial reference and experience to coal gas explosion accidents or safety precautions.
Numerical simulation of the interaction of charged particles with oblique magnetohydrodynamic shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, G.L.
1975-01-01
The motion of high energy charged particles in ideal oblique MHD shocks, characteristic of the interplanetary medium, has been studied extensively. The shock is treated as a plane surface across which the tangential component of magnetic field changes discontinuously. The orbits of charged particles can be solved exactly from Lorentz force equation and initial conditions of particles in each region, pre- and post-shock, separately. The essential procedure is to determine the crossings and that has been achieved by solving numerically for the times when the particle meets the shock. The position and velocity vectors are continuous across the shock. An ensemble of 1972 monoenergetic particles distributed isotropically in the shock frame are chosen to obtain collective results
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Minoru YAGA; Hiroyuki HIGA; MATSUDA; lzuru SENAHA
2009-01-01
eady behavior of the jets. After the confirmation of the cor-relation, a simple way to find the severe fluctuating region can be provided according to the two dimensional un-steady temperature images without a lot of unsteady pressure measurements.
Propagation of exponential shock wave in an axisymmetric rotating non-ideal dusty gas
Nath, G.
2016-09-01
One-dimensional unsteady isothermal and adiabatic flow behind a strong exponential shock wave propagating in a rotational axisymmetric mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles, which has variable azimuthal and axial fluid velocities, is analyzed. The shock wave is driven out by a piston moving with time according to exponential law. The azimuthal and axial components of the fluid velocity in the ambient medium are assumed to be varying and obeying exponential laws. In the present work, small solid particles are considered as pseudo-fluid with the assumption that the equilibrium flow-conditions are maintained in the flow-field, and the viscous-stress and heat conduction of the mixture are negligible. Solutions are obtained in both the cases, when the flow between the shock and the piston is isothermal or adiabatic by taking into account the components of vorticity vector and compressibility. It is found that the assumption of zero temperature gradient brings a profound change in the density, axial component of vorticity vector and compressibility distributions as compared to that of the adiabatic case. To investigate the behavior of the flow variables and the influence on the shock wave propagation by the parameter of non-idealness of the gas overline{b} in the mixture as well as by the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture Kp and by the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas G1 are worked out in detail. It is interesting to note that the shock strength increases with an increase in G1 ; whereas it decreases with an increase in overline{b} . Also, a comparison between the solutions in the cases of isothermal and adiabatic flows is made.
A review of recent developments in the understanding of transonic shock buffet
Giannelis, Nicholas F.; Vio, Gareth A.; Levinski, Oleg
2017-07-01
Within a narrow band of flight conditions in the transonic regime, interactions between shock-waves and intermittently separated shear layers result in large amplitude, self-sustained shock oscillations. This phenomenon, known as transonic shock buffet, limits the flight envelope and is detrimental to both platform handling quality and structural integrity. The severity of this instability has incited a plethora of research to ascertain an underlying physical mechanism, and yet, with over six decades of investigation, aspects of this complex phenomenon remain inexplicable. To promote continual progress in the understanding of transonic shock buffet, this review presents a consolidation of recent investigations in the field. The paper begins with a conspectus of the seminal literature on shock-induced separation and modes of shock oscillation. The currently prevailing theories for the governing physics of transonic shock buffet are then detailed. This is followed by an overview of computational studies exploring the phenomenon, where the results of simulation are shown to be highly sensitive to the specific numerical methods employed. Wind tunnel investigations on two-dimensional aerofoils at shock buffet conditions are then outlined and the importance of these experiments for the development of physical models stressed. Research considering dynamic structural interactions in the presence of shock buffet is also highlighted, with a particular emphasis on the emergence of a frequency synchronisation phenomenon. An overview of three-dimensional buffet is provided next, where investigations suggest the governing mechanism may differ significantly from that of two-dimensional sections. Subsequently, a number of buffet suppression technologies are described and their efficacy in mitigating shock oscillations is assessed. To conclude, recommendations for the direction of future research efforts are given.
Shock, diaschisis and von Monakow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliasz Engelhardt
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The concept of shock apparently emerged in the middle of the 18th century (Whyett as an occurrence observed experimentally after spinal cord transection, and identified as "shock" phenomenon one century later (Hall. The concept was extended (Brown-Séquard and it was suggested that brain lesions caused functional rupture in regions distant from the injured one ("action à distance". The term "diaschisis" (von Monakow, proposed as a new modality of shock, had its concept broadened, underpinned by observations of patients, aiming at distinguishing between symptoms of focal brain lesions and transitory effects they produced, attributable to depression of distant parts of the brain connected to the injured area. Presently, diaschisis is related mainly to cerebrovascular lesions and classified according to the connection fibers involved, as proposed by von Monakow. Depression of metabolism and blood flow in regions anatomically separated, but related by connections with the lesion, allows observing diaschisis with neuroimaging.
Unsteady Aerodynamics of Flapping Wing of a Bird
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Agoes Moelyadi
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The unsteady flow behavior and time-dependent aerodynamic characteristics of the flapping motion of a bird’s wing were investigated using a computational method. During flapping, aerodynamic interactions between bird wing surfaces and surrounding flow may occur, generating local time-dependent flow changes in the flow field and aerodynamic load of birds. To study the effect of flapping speed on unsteady aerodynamic load, two kinds of computational simulations were carried out, namely a quasi-steady and an unsteady simulation. To mimic the movement of the down-stroke and the upstroke of a bird, the flapping path accorded to a sinus function, with the wing attitude changing in dihedral angle and time. The computations of time-dependent viscous flow were based on the solution of the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by applying the k-e turbulence model. In addition, the discretization for the computational domain around the model used multi-block structured grid to provide more accuracy in capturing viscous flow, especially in the vicinity of the wing and body surfaces, to obtain a proper wing-body geometry model. For this research, the seagull bird was chosen, which has high aspect ratio wings with pointed wing-tips and a high camber wing section. The results include mesh movement, velocity contours as well as aerodynamic coefficients of the flapping motion of the bird at various flapping frequencies.
Unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoarau, C. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, LEA UMR CNRS/Universite de Poitiers/ENSMA 6609, Teleport 2, 1 Av. Clement Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France); Boree, J. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, LEA UMR CNRS/Universite de Poitiers/ENSMA 6609, Teleport 2, 1 Av. Clement Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)], E-mail: jacques.boree@lea.ensma.fr; Laumonier, J.; Gervais, Y. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, LEA UMR CNRS/Universite de Poitiers/ENSMA 6609, Teleport 2, 1 Av. Clement Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)
2008-06-15
The spatio-temporal properties of the unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex are studied in this paper by combining 2 component LDV measurements and multi-point pressure measurements using off-set microphones. The model body has sharp edges. Detailed LDV measurements are presented and discussed in the vortex region. The fluctuating velocities are the signature of both an unsteady behaviour of the organised vortical structure interacting with the wall and of finer scale turbulence carried by the unsteady flow. A spectral analysis of the fluctuating pressure under the vortex core is used to analyse the link between the temporal and spatial scales of the unsteady aerodynamics and the wall pressure field. We show that the conical vortex is a guide for the velocity perturbations and that their hydrodynamic pressure footprint is transported at the measured mean axial velocity in a local reference frame aligned with the vortex core. Two distinct peaks of coherence can then be associated with perturbations having (i) a length scale of the order of the full length of the conical structure; (ii) a length scale of the order of the width of the structure. These perturbations may correspond to a global meandering of the structure (low frequency contribution) and to large scale perturbations generated during the rolling-up of the unsteady vortex sheet. Notably, the energy containing higher frequency parts of the PSD are only weakly correlated when distant sensors are considered. The three distinct contributions extracted here have a significant impact as far as Cp' is concerned and should be transmitted in very different ways by the car structure because the frequency and length scale range is very distinct.
Steady and unsteady calculations on thermal striping phenomena in triple-parallel jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Y.Q., E-mail: yyu@anl.gov [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Merzari, E.; Thomas, J.W. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Obabko, A. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Aithal, S.M. [Computing, Environment and Life Sciences Directorate, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to study thermal striping. • The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results. • The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. - Abstract: The phenomenon of thermal striping is encountered in liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFR), in which temperature fluctuation due to convective mixing between hot and cold fluids can lead to a possibility of crack initiation and propagation in the structure due to high cycle thermal fatigue. Using sodium experiments of parallel triple jets configuration performed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as benchmark, numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the temperature fluctuation characteristics in fluid and the transfer characteristics of temperature fluctuation from fluid to structure, which is important to assess the potential thermal fatigue damage. In this study, both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to predict the temperature fluctuations of thermal striping. The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. The velocity, temperature and temperature fluctuation intensity distribution were compared with the experimental data. As expected, steady calculation has limited success in predicting the thermal–hydraulic characteristics of the thermal striping, highlighting the limitations of the RANS approach in unsteady heat transfer simulations. The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results for temperature fluctuation intensity, as well as the average temperature and velocity components at the measurement locations.
Steady and unsteady calculations on thermal striping phenomena in triple-parallel jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Y.Q.; Merzari, E.; Thomas, J.W.; Obabko, A.; Aithal, S.M.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to study thermal striping. • The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results. • The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. - Abstract: The phenomenon of thermal striping is encountered in liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFR), in which temperature fluctuation due to convective mixing between hot and cold fluids can lead to a possibility of crack initiation and propagation in the structure due to high cycle thermal fatigue. Using sodium experiments of parallel triple jets configuration performed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as benchmark, numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the temperature fluctuation characteristics in fluid and the transfer characteristics of temperature fluctuation from fluid to structure, which is important to assess the potential thermal fatigue damage. In this study, both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to predict the temperature fluctuations of thermal striping. The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. The velocity, temperature and temperature fluctuation intensity distribution were compared with the experimental data. As expected, steady calculation has limited success in predicting the thermal–hydraulic characteristics of the thermal striping, highlighting the limitations of the RANS approach in unsteady heat transfer simulations. The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results for temperature fluctuation intensity, as well as the average temperature and velocity components at the measurement locations.
Helicopter noise footprint prediction in unsteady maneuvers
Gennaretti, Massimo; Bernardini, Giovanni; Serafini, Jacopo; Anobile, A.; Hartjes, S.
2017-01-01
This paper investigates different methodologies for the evaluation of the acoustic disturbance emitted by helicopter’s main rotors during unsteady maneuvers. Nowadays, the simulation of noise emitted by helicopters is of great interest to designers, both for the assessment of the acoustic impact
Unsteady Particle Deposition in a Human Nasal Cavity during Inhalation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Camby M.K. Se
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The present study investigates the deposition efficiency during the unsteady inhalation cycle by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The unsteady inhalation profile was applied at the outlet of nasopharynx, which had a maximum flow rate of 40.3L/min which corresponds to an equivalent steady inhalation tidal volume flow rate of 24.6L/min. Aerodynamic particle sizes of 5μm and 20μm were studied in order to reflect contrasting Stokes numbered particle behaviour. Two particle deposition efficiencies in the nasal cavity versus time are presented. In general, the deposition of 5μm particles was much less than 20μm particles. The first 0.2 second of the inhalation cycle was found to be significant to the particle transport, since the majority of particles were deposited during this period (i.e. its residence time. Comparisons were also made with its equivalent steady inhalation flow rate which found that the unsteady inhalation produced lower deposition efficiency for both particle sizes.
Liu, Hongrui; Liu, Jun; Ji, Lucheng; Du, Qiang; Liu, Guang; Wang, Pei
2018-06-01
The ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan engine attracts more and more attention in modern commercial engine due to advantages of high efficiency and low Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC). One of the characteristics of ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan is the intermediate turbine duct which guides the flow leaving high pressure turbine (HPT) to low pressure turbine (LPT) at a larger diameter, and this kind of design will lead to aggressive intermediate turbine duct (AITD) design concept. Thus, it is important to design the AITD without any severe loss. From the unsteady flow's point of view, in actual operating conditions, the incoming wake generated by HPT is unsteady which will take influence on boundary layer's transition within the ITD and LPT. In this paper, the three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamics of an AITD taken from a real engine is studied. The results of fully unsteady three-dimensional numerical simulations, performed with ANSYS-CFX (RANS simulation with transitional model), are critically evaluated against experimental data. After validation of the numerical model, the physical mechanisms inside the flow channel are analyzed, with an aim to quantify the sensitivities of different Reynolds number effect on both the ITD and LPT nozzle. Some general physical mechanisms can be recognized in the unsteady environment. It is recognized that wake characteristics plays a crucial role on the loss within both the ITD and LPT nozzle section, determining both time-averaged and time-resolved characteristics of the flow field. Meanwhile, particular attention needs to be paid to the unsteady effect on the boundary layer of LPT nozzle's suction side surface.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothe, P.H.
1985-01-01
This book presents the papers given at a conference on fluid flow and hydraulics. Topics considered at the conference included a numerical study of pressure transients in a borehole due to pipe movement, laminar fluid transients in conduits of unconventional shape, water hammer analysis needs in nuclear power plant design, modeling blockage in unsteady slurry flow in conduits, and check valve slamming in a BWR feedwater system following a postulated pipe break
Gordon, Kathryn; Morris, Scott; Jemcov, Aleksandar; Cameron, Joshua
2013-11-01
The interaction of components in a compressible, internal flow often results in unsteady interactions between the wakes and moving blades. A prime example in which this flow feature is of interest is the interaction between the downstream rotor blades in a transonic axial compressor with the wake vortices shed from the upstream inlet guide vane (IGV). Previous work shows that a double row of counter-rotating vortices convects downstream into the rotor passage as a result of the rotor blade bow shock impinging on the IGV. The rotor-relative time-mean total pressure distribution has a region of high total pressure corresponding to the pathline of the vortices. The present work focuses on the relationship between the magnitude of the time-mean rotor-relative total pressure profile and the axial spacing between the IGV and the rotor. A survey of different axial gap sizes is performed in a two-dimensional computational study to obtain the sensitivity of the pressure profile amplitude to IGV-rotor axial spacing.
Experimental study of unsteady thermally stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Jun; Chung, Myung Kyoon
1985-01-01
Unsteady thermally stratified flow caused by two-dimensional surface discharge of warm water into a oblong channel was investigated. Experimental study was focused on the rapidly developing thermal diffusion at small Richardson number. The basic objectives were to study the interfacial mixing between a flowing layer of warm water and an underlying body of cold water and to accumulate experimental data to test computational turbulence models. Mean velocity field measurements were carried out by using NMR-CT(Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Computerized Tomography). It detects quantitative flow image of any desired section in any direction of flow in short time. Results show that at small Richardson number warm layer rapidly penetrates into the cold layer because of strong turbulent mixing and instability between the two layers. It is found that the transfer of heat across the interface is more vigorous than that of momentum. It is also proved that the NMR-CT technique is a very valuable tool to measure unsteady three dimensional flow field. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sicot, Christophe; Aubrun, Sandrine; Loyer, Stephane; Devinant, Philippe [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique, Orleans (France)
2006-10-15
Fluctuation of the separation point on an airfoil under high turbulence level is investigated using pressure measurements and flow visualisations. The characteristics of the unsteady loads induced by Karman vortex shedding are studied. This is related with a local approach based on the study of the oscillation zone. A method based on the pressure standard deviation is proposed to obtain the length of this zone, which is found to be independent of the turbulence level. This result is in agreement with that obtained by spectral analysis which shows no effect of the turbulence level on the Karman vortex shedding frequency. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Denghao; Ren, Yun; Mou, Jiegang; Gu, Yunqing [Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)
2017-05-15
Circulator pumps have wide engineering applications but the acoustics, vibration and unsteady flow structures of the circulator pump are still not fully understood. We investigated the noise and vibration characteristics and unsteady flow structures in a circulator pump at different flow rates. Three-dimensional, unsteady RANS equations were solved on high-quality structured meshes with SST k-ω turbulence model numerically. Measurements were made in a semi-anechoic chamber to get an overview of noise and vibration level of a pump at different flow rates. The 1/3 octave-band filter technique was applied to obtain the explicit frequency spectra of sound, pressure fluctuations and vibration signals and their principal frequencies were identified successfully. The air-borne noise level of the designed condition is lower than that of the off-design conditions, and the highest sound pressure level is found at part-load condition. The acoustic emission from the pump is mainly caused by unsteady flow structures and pressure fluctuations. In addition, both the link between air- borne noise and pressure fluctuation, and the correlation between vibration and unsteady hydrodynamic forces, were quantitatively examined and verified. This work offers good data to understand noise and vibration characteristics of circulator pumps and the relationships among the noise, vibration and unsteady flow structures.
Experimental investigation of unsteady fluid dynamic forces acting on tube array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Hiroki; Takahara, Shigeru; Tanaka, Mitsutoshi
1981-01-01
It is well-known that the cylinder bundle vibrates in cross flow. Many studies of the vibration have been made, and it has been clarified that the vibration is caused by fluid-elastic vibration coupling to neighboring cylinders. The theory given in this paper considers unsteady fluid dynamic forces to be composed of inertia forces due to added mass of fluid, damping forces of fluid which are in phase to cylinder vibrating velocity, and stiffness forces which are proportional to cylinder displacements. Furthermore, taking account of the influences of neighboring cylinder vibrations, ten kinds of unsteady fluid dynamic forces are considered to act on a cylinder in cylinder bundles. Equations of motion of cylinders were deduced and the critical velocities were calculated with the measured unsteady fluid dynamic forces. Critical velocity tests were also conducted with cylinders which were supported with elastic spars. The calculated critical velocities coincided well with the test results. (author)
Predicting wind-induced vibrations of high-rise buildings using unsteady CFD and modal analysis
Zhang, Yue
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the wind-induced vibration of the CAARC standard tall building model, via unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a structural modal analysis. In this numerical procedure, the natural unsteady wind in the atmospheric boundary layer is modeled with an artificial inflow turbulence generation method. Then, the turbulent flow is simulated by the second mode of a Zonal Detached-Eddy Simulation, and a conservative quadrature-projection scheme is adopted to transfer unsteady loads from fluid to structural nodes. The aerodynamic damping that represents the fluid-structure interaction mechanism is determined by empirical functions extracted from wind tunnel experiments. Eventually, the flow solutions and the structural responses in terms of mean and root mean square quantities are compared with experimental measurements, over a wide range of reduced velocities. The significance of turbulent inflow conditions and aeroelastic effects is highlighted. The current methodology provides predictions of good accuracy and can be considered as a preliminary design tool to evaluate the unsteady wind effects on tall buildings.
The Effects of Oil Price Shocks on real GDP in Iran
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Taghi Khosravi Larijani
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks on GDP have been investigated by co-integration analysis in Iran economy during the period 1960-2010. We used Hodrick-Prescott filtering to separate positive shocks from negative shocks. The results showed that in long run the negative shocks have stronger effects on output than positive ones that can have damaging repercussions on economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts
Unsteady heat transfer from a circular cylinder for Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 15,000
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Hajime; Igarashi, Tamotsu
2004-01-01
Unsteady heat transfer from a circular cylinder to the cross-flow of air was investigated experimentally for Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 15,000. Fluctuating heat transfer on the cylinder surface was measured using a heat flux sensor, and time-spatial characteristics of the heat transfer were measured using an infrared thermograph. The present measurements showed that the alternating rolling-up of the shear layers that separated from the cylinder forms an alternating reattached flow at the rear of the cylinder in the range of Re>5000-8000, due to the forward movement of the vortex formation region with increasing Reynolds number. This leads to a sharp increase in the time-averaged Nusselt number around the rear stagnation point of the cylinder. The heat transfer in the separated flow region has spanwise nonuniformity throughout the examined Reynolds number range. The wavelength of this nonuniformity corresponds to that of the streamwise vortices formed in the near-wake
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Nath
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Self-similar solutions are obtained for unsteady, one-dimensional isothermal flow behind a shock wave in a rotational axisymmetric non-ideal gas in the presence of an azimuthal magnetic field. The shock wave is driven out by a piston moving with time according to power law. The fluid velocities and the azimuthal magnetic field in the ambient medium are assumed to be varying and obeying a power law. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. The gas is assumed to be non-ideal having infinite electrical conductivity and the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assumed to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. It is expected that such an angular velocity may occur in the atmospheres of rotating planets and stars. The effects of the non-idealness of the gas and the Alfven-Mach number on the flow-field are obtained. It is shown that the presence of azimuthal magnetic field and the rotation of the medium has decaying effect on the shock wave. Also, a comparison is made between rotating and non-rotating cases.
Store Separations From a Supersonic Cone
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Simko, Richard J
2006-01-01
... analyses of supersonic store separations. Also included in this research is a study of supersonic base pressure profiles, near-wake velocity profiles, wind tunnel shock interactions and force/moment studies on a conical store and parent vehicle...
Unsteady two-dimensional potential-flow model for thin variable geometry airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaunaa, Mac
2010-01-01
In the present work, analytical expressions for distributed and integral unsteady two-dimensional forces on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by its camber line...... in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use of the present theory in problems employing the eigenvalue approach, such as stability analysis. The analytical expressions for the integral forces can be reduced to Munk's steady and Theodorsen's unsteady results for thin airfoils, and numerical evaluation shows...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Sandeep
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We analyzed the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic radiative flow and heat transfer characteristics of a dusty nanofluid over an exponentially permeable stretching surface in presence of volume fraction of dust and nano particles. We considered two types of nanofluids namely Cu-water and CuO-water embedded with conducting dust particles. The governing equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using Runge–Kutta based shooting technique. The effects of non-dimensional governing parameters namely magneticfield parameter, mass concentration of dust particles, fluid particle interaction parameter, volume fraction of dust particles, volume fraction of nano particles, unsteadiness parameter, exponential parameter, radiation parameter and suction/injection parameter on velocity profiles for fluid phase, dust phase and temperature profiles are discussed and presented through graphs. Also, friction factor and Nusselt numbers are discussed and presented for two dusty nanofluids separately. Comparisons of the present study were made with existing studies under some special assumptions. The present results have an excellent agreement with existing studies. Results indicated that the enhancement in fluid particle interaction increases the heat transfer rate and depreciates the wall friction. Also, radiation parameter has the tendency to increase the temperature profiles of the dusty nanofluid.
Advanced Computational Modeling Approaches for Shock Response Prediction
Derkevorkian, Armen; Kolaini, Ali R.; Peterson, Lee
2015-01-01
Motivation: (1) The activation of pyroshock devices such as explosives, separation nuts, pin-pullers, etc. produces high frequency transient structural response, typically from few tens of Hz to several hundreds of kHz. (2) Lack of reliable analytical tools makes the prediction of appropriate design and qualification test levels a challenge. (3) In the past few decades, several attempts have been made to develop methodologies that predict the structural responses to shock environments. (4) Currently, there is no validated approach that is viable to predict shock environments overt the full frequency range (i.e., 100 Hz to 10 kHz). Scope: (1) Model, analyze, and interpret space structural systems with complex interfaces and discontinuities, subjected to shock loads. (2) Assess the viability of a suite of numerical tools to simulate transient, non-linear solid mechanics and structural dynamics problems, such as shock wave propagation.
Experimental research on crossing shock wave boundary layer interactions
Settles, G. S.; Garrison, T. J.
1994-10-01
An experimental research effort of the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory on the subject of crossing shock wave boundary layer interactions is reported. This three year study was supported by AFOSR Grant 89-0315. A variety of experimental techniques were employed to study the above phenomena including planar laser scattering flowfield visualization, kerosene lampblack surface flow visualization, laser-interferometer skin friction surveys, wall static pressure measurements, and flowfield five-hole probe surveys. For a model configuration producing two intersecting shock waves, measurements were made for a range of oblique shock strengths at freestream Mach numbers of 3.0 and 3.85. Additionally, measurements were made at Mach 3.85 for a configuration producing three intersecting waves. The combined experimental dataset was used to formulate the first detailed flowfield models of the crossing-shock and triple-shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The structure of these interactions was found to be similar over a broad range of interaction strengths and is dominated by a large, separated, viscous flow region.
Wind turbine noise propagation modelling: An unsteady approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barlas, Emre; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong
2016-01-01
Wind turbine sound generation and propagation phenomena are inherently time dependent, hence tools that incorporate the dynamic nature of these two issues are needed for accurate modelling. In this paper, we investigate the sound propagation from a wind turbine by considering the effects of unste...... Pressure Level (SPL).......Wind turbine sound generation and propagation phenomena are inherently time dependent, hence tools that incorporate the dynamic nature of these two issues are needed for accurate modelling. In this paper, we investigate the sound propagation from a wind turbine by considering the effects...... of unsteady flow around it and time dependent source characteristics. For the acoustics modelling we employ the Parabolic Equation (PE) method while Large Eddy Simulation (LES) as well as synthetically generated turbulence fields are used to generate the medium flow upon which sound propagates. Unsteady...
Modelling and Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Behaviour of a Screw Compressor Plant
Chukanova, Ekatarina; Stosic, Nikola; Kovacevic, Ahmed
2014-01-01
Majority of air compressor plants installed worldwide operate permanently under unsteady conditions, however, there is still a lack of published papers which describe the plant dynamics and offer quantification parameters of the phenomenon. An experimental and analytical study of a screw compressor operation under unsteady conditions has been carried out. For this purpose a one dimensional model of the processes within a screw compressor based on the differential equations of conservation of ...
1975-10-01
afforded us the maximum shock layer thickness and thereby thu maximum resolution with high speed cinematography . The basic configuration had a...LOCATION, r/R-0.2 TO 3 ES T SU NZ 10 ■" P P )E 3 H. i I Ä | A \\ tu K m Art 1 W 1 ^wj ■N, 1 Ul GC a. "ö / r yi V V 1>\\ 1’ V ! ^: ’ P" h— TIME
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell, C.T.; Smith, E.J.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.
1982-01-01
All interplanetary shocks observed by ISEE-3 and either ISEE-1 or ISEE-2 or both in 1978 and 1979 are examined for evidence of upstream waves. In order to characterize the properties of these shocks it is necessary to determine accurate shock normals. We invert an overdetermined set of equations to obtain shock normals, velocities and error estimates for all these shocks. Tests of the method indicate it is quite reliable. Using these normals we then calculate the Mach number and angle between the interplanetary magnetic field and the shock normal for each shock. These parameters allow us to separate the upstream waves into two classes: whistler-mode precursors which occur at low Mach numbers and upstream turbulence whose amplitude at Mach numbers greater than 1.5 is controlled by the angle of the field to the shock normal. The former waves are right-hand circularly polarized and quite monochromatic. The latter waves are more linearly polarized and have a broadband featureless spectrum
Applications of Coupled Explicit–Implicit Solution of SWEs for Unsteady Flow in Yangtze River
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yufei Ding
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In engineering practice, the unsteady flows generated from the operation of hydropower station in the upstream region could significantly change the navigation system of waterways located in the middle-lower reaches of the river. In order to study the complex propagation, convergence and superposition characteristics of unsteady flows in a long channel with flow confluence, a numerical model based on the coupling of implicit and explicit solution algorithms of Shallow Water Equations (SWEs has been applied to two large rivers in the reach of Yangtze River, China, which covers the distance from Yibin to Chongqing located upstream side of the Three Gorges Dam. The accuracy of numerical model has been validated by both the steady and unsteady flows using the prototype hydrological data. It is found that the unsteady flows show much more complex water level and discharge behaviors than the steady ones. The studied unsteady flows arising from the water regulation of two upstream hydropower stations could influence the region as far as Zhutuo hydrologic station, which is close to the city of Chongqing. Meanwhile, the computed stage–discharge rating curves at all observation stations demonstrate multi-value loop patterns because of the presence of additional water surface gradient. The present numerical model proves to be robust for simulating complex flows in very long engineering rivers up to 400 km.
Numerical investigation of over expanded flow behavior in a single expansion ramp nozzle
Mousavi, Seyed Mahmood; Pourabidi, Reza; Goshtasbi-Rad, Ebrahim
2018-05-01
The single expansion ramp nozzle is severely over-expanded when the vehicle is at low speed, which hinders its ability to provide optimal configurations for combined cycle engines. The over-expansion leads to flow separation as a result of shock wave/boundary-layer interaction. Flow separation, and the presence of shocks themselves, result in a performance loss in the single expansion ramp nozzle, leading to reduced thrust and increased pressure losses. In the present work, the unsteady two dimensional compressible flow in an over expanded single expansion ramp nozzle has been investigated using finite volume code. To achieve this purpose, the Reynolds stress turbulence model and full multigrid initialization, in addition to the Smirnov's method for examining the errors accumulation, have been employed and the results are compared with available experimental data. The results show that the numerical code is capable of predicting the experimental data with high accuracy. Afterward, the effect of discontinuity jump in wall temperature as well as the length of straight ramp on flow behavior have been studied. It is concluded that variations in wall temperature and length of straight ramp change the shock wave boundary layer interaction, shock structure, shock strength as well as the distance between Lambda shocks.
Efficient self-consistent viscous-inviscid solutions for unsteady transonic flow
Howlett, J. T.
1985-01-01
An improved method is presented for coupling a boundary layer code with an unsteady inviscid transonic computer code in a quasi-steady fashion. At each fixed time step, the boundary layer and inviscid equations are successively solved until the process converges. An explicit coupling of the equations is described which greatly accelerates the convergence process. Computer times for converged viscous-inviscid solutions are about 1.8 times the comparable inviscid values. Comparison of the results obtained with experimental data on three airfoils are presented. These comparisons demonstrate that the explicitly coupled viscous-inviscid solutions can provide efficient predictions of pressure distributions and lift for unsteady two-dimensional transonic flows.
Study on the Temperature Separation Phenomenon in a Vortex Chamber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ye, A Ran; Guang, Zhang; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)
2014-09-15
A vortex chamber is a simple device that separates compressed gas into a high-temperature stream and a low-temperature stream. It is increasing in popularity as a next-generation heat exchanger, but the flow physics associated with it is not yet well understood. In the present study, both experimental and numerical analyses were performed to investigate the temperature separation phenomenon inside the vortex chamber. Static pressures and temperatures were measured using high-sensitivity pressure transducers and thermocouples, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics was applied to simulate 3D unsteady compressible flows. The simulation results showed that the temperature separation is strongly dependent on the diameter of the vortex chamber and the supply pressure at the inlet ports, where the latter is closely related to the viscous work. The previous concept of a pressure gradient wave may not be a reasoning for temperature separation phenomenon inside the vortex chamber.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rusanov, A V; Yershov, S V [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkov (Ukraine)
1998-12-31
The numerical method is suggested for the calculation of the 3D periodically unsteady viscous cascade flow evoked by the aerodynamics interaction of blade rows. Such flow is described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent effects are simulated with the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The problem statement allows to consider an unsteady flow through either a single turbo-machine stage or a multi stage turbomachine. The sliding mesh techniques and the time-space non-oscillatory square interpolation are used in axial spacings to calculate the flow in a computational domain that contains the reciprocally moving elements. The gasdynamical equations are integrated numerically with the implicit quasi-monotonous Godunov`s type ENO scheme of the second or third order of accuracy. The suggested numerical method is incorporated in the FlowER code developed by authors for calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows through multi stage turbomachines. The numerical results are presented for unsteady turbine stage throughflows. The method suggested is shown to simulate qualitatively properly the main unsteady cascade effects in particular the periodically blade loadings, the propagation of stator wakes through rotor blade passage and the unsteady temperature flowfields for stages with cooled stator blades. (author) 21 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rusanov, A.V.; Yershov, S.V. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkov (Ukraine)
1997-12-31
The numerical method is suggested for the calculation of the 3D periodically unsteady viscous cascade flow evoked by the aerodynamics interaction of blade rows. Such flow is described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent effects are simulated with the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The problem statement allows to consider an unsteady flow through either a single turbo-machine stage or a multi stage turbomachine. The sliding mesh techniques and the time-space non-oscillatory square interpolation are used in axial spacings to calculate the flow in a computational domain that contains the reciprocally moving elements. The gasdynamical equations are integrated numerically with the implicit quasi-monotonous Godunov`s type ENO scheme of the second or third order of accuracy. The suggested numerical method is incorporated in the FlowER code developed by authors for calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows through multi stage turbomachines. The numerical results are presented for unsteady turbine stage throughflows. The method suggested is shown to simulate qualitatively properly the main unsteady cascade effects in particular the periodically blade loadings, the propagation of stator wakes through rotor blade passage and the unsteady temperature flowfields for stages with cooled stator blades. (author) 21 refs.
Bajargaan, Ruchi; Patel, Arvind
2018-04-01
One-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow behind an exponential shock wave propagating in a self-gravitating, rotating, axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which has exponentially varying azimuthal and axial fluid velocities, is investigated. The shock wave is driven out by a piston moving with time according to an exponential law. The dusty gas is taken to be a mixture of a non-ideal gas and small solid particles. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. The equilibrium flow conditions are maintained and energy is varying exponentially, which is continuously supplied by the piston. The heat conduction is expressed in the terms of Fourier's law, and the radiation is assumed of diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density according to a power law. The effects of the variation of heat transfer parameters, gravitation parameter and dusty gas parameters on the shock strength, the distance between the piston and the shock front, and on the flow variables are studied out in detail. It is interesting to note that the similarity solution exists under the constant initial angular velocity, and the shock strength is independent from the self gravitation, heat conduction and radiation heat flux.
Unsteady Sail Dynamics in Olympic Class Sailboats
Williamson, Charles; Schutt, Riley
2016-11-01
Unsteady sailing techniques have evolved in competitive sailboat fleets, in cases where the relative weight of the sailor is sufficient to impart unsteady motions to the boat and sails. We will discuss three types of motion that are used by athletes to propel their boats on an Olympic race course faster than using the wind alone. In all of our cases, body weight movements induce unsteady sail motion, increasing driving force and speed through the water. In this research, we explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and a 6-GoPro camera array. We shall briefly discuss "sail flicking", whereby the helmsman periodically rolls the sail into the apparent wind, at an angle which is distinct from classical heave (in our case, the oscillations are not normal to the apparent flow). We also demonstrate "roll tacking", where there are considerable advantages to rolling the boat during such a maneuver, especially in light wind. In both of the above examples from on-the-water studies, corresponding experiments using a towing tank exhibit increases in the driving force, associated with the formation of strong vortex pairs into the flow. Finally, we focus on a technique known as "S-curving" in the case where the boat sails downwind. In contrast to the previous cases, it is drag force rather than lift force that the sailor is trying to maximise as the boat follows a zig-zag trajectory. The augmented apparent wind strength due to the oscillatory sail motion, and the growth of strong synchronised low-pressure wake vortices on the low-pressure side of the sail, contribute to the increase in driving force, and velocity-made-good downwind.
Performance Characteristics of a Cross-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine under Unsteady Conditions
Flack, Karen; Lust, Ethan; Bailin, Ben
2017-11-01
Performance characteristics are presented for a cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine designed for use in a riverine environment. The test turbine is a 1:6 scale model of a three-bladed device (9.5 m span, 6.5 m diameter) that has been proposed by the Department of Energy. Experiments are conducted in the large towing tank (116 m long, 7.9 m wide, 5 m deep) at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine is towed beneath a moving carriage at a constant speed in combination with a shaft motor to achieve the desired tip speed ratio (TSR) range. The measured quantities of turbine thrust, torque and RPM result in power and thrust coefficients for a range of TSR. Results will be presented for cases with quiescent flow at a range of Reynolds numbers and flow with mild surface waves, representative of riverine environments. The impact of unsteady flow conditions on the average turbine performance was not significant. Unsteady flow conditions did have an impact on instantaneous turbine performance which operationally would result in unsteady blade loading and instantaneous power quality.
Characterization of the low-frequency unsteadines in LES data of supersonic and hypersonic STBLI
Helm, Clara; Martin, Pino
2016-11-01
In a recent study, Priebe et al. (JFM 2016) used Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) to analyze DNS data of a Mach 3 ramp-generated shock and turbulent boundary layer interaction (STBLI). The authors found that the reconstructed low-frequency DMD modes took on the form of Görtler-like vortices downstream of separation. The five reconstructed modes reproduced the low-frequency dynamics of the separation bubble accurately. Martín et al. (AIAA2016-3341) and Martín et al. (APS, DFD 2016) show that the low-frequency unsteadiness in STBLI results from an inviscid centrifugal instability similar to that found in separated subsonic and laminar flows, and that the turbulence is modulated but passive to the global mode. In this work we further characterize the Görtler-like vortices using LES data of Mach 3 and Mach 7 separated STBLIs. We find that the Görtler-like vortices are unsteady, and we quantify the wavelength, amplitude and the aperiodic development of these structures. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant AF9550-15-1-0284.
Computational analysis of transient gas release from a high pressure vessel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedro, G.; Oshkai, P.; Djilali, N. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems; Penau, F. [CERAM Euro-American Inst. of Technology, Sophia Antipolis (France)
2006-07-01
Gas jets exiting from compressed vessels can undergo several regimes as the pressure in the vessel decreases, and a greater understanding of the characteristics of gas jets is needed to determine safety requirements in the transport, distribution, and use of hydrogen. This paper provided a study of the bow shock waves that typically occur during the initial stage of a gas jet incident. The transient behaviour of an initiated jet was investigated using unsteady, compressible flow simulations. The gas was considered to be ideal, and the domain was considered to be axisymmetric. Tank pressure for the analysis was set at a value of 100 atm. Jet structure was examined, as well as the shock structures and separation due to adverse pressure gradients at the nozzle. Shock structure displacement was also characterized.
Numerical investigation of unsteady vortex breakdown past 80°/65° double-delta wing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Jian
2014-06-01
Full Text Available An improved delayed detached eddy simulation (IDDES method based on the k-ω-SST (shear stress transport turbulence model was applied to predict the unsteady vortex breakdown past an 80°/65° double-delta wing (DDW, where the angles of attack (AOAs range from 30° to 40°. Firstly, the IDDES model and the relative numerical methods were validated by simulating the massively separated flow around an NACA0021 straight wing at the AOA of 60°. The fluctuation properties of the lift and pressure coefficients were analyzed and compared with the available measurements. For the DDW case, the computations were compared with such measurements as the mean lift, drag, pitching moment, pressure coefficients and breakdown locations. Furthermore, the unsteady properties were investigated in detail, such as the frequencies of force and moments, pressure fluctuation on the upper surface, typical vortex breakdown patterns at three moments, and the distributions of kinetic turbulence energy at a stream wise section. Two dominated modes are observed, in which their Strouhal numbers are 1.0 at the AOAs of 30°, 32° and 34° and 0.7 at the AOAs of 36°, 38° and 40°. The breakdown vortex always moves upstream and downstream and its types change alternatively. Furthermore, the vortex can be identified as breakdown or not through the mean pressure, root mean square of pressure, or even through correlation analysis.
Numerical simulation of 3D unsteady flow in a rotating pump by dynamic mesh technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, S; Guo, J; Yang, F X
2013-01-01
In this paper, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for three kinds of typical rotating pumps, roots blower, roto-jet pump and centrifugal pump, were performed using the three-dimensional Dynamic Mesh technique. In the unsteady simulation, all the computational domains, as stationary, were set in one inertial reference frame. The motions of the solid boundaries were defined by the Profile file in FLUENT commercial code, in which the rotational orientation and speed of the rotors were specified. Three methods (Spring-based Smoothing, Dynamic Layering and Local Re-meshing) were used to achieve mesh deformation and re-meshing. The unsteady solutions of flow field and pressure distribution were solved. After a start-up stage, the flow parameters exhibit time-periodic behaviour corresponding to blade passing frequency of rotor. This work shows that Dynamic Mesh technique could achieve numerical simulation of three-dimensional unsteady flow field in various kinds of rotating pumps and have a strong versatility and broad application prospects
MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF UNSTEADY HEAT TRANSFER OF PASSENGER CAR WITH HEATING SYSTEM
E. V. Biloshytskyi
2018-01-01
Purpose. The existing mathematical models of unsteady heat processes in a passenger car do not fully reflect the thermal processes, occurring in the car wits a heating system. In addition, unsteady heat processes are often studied in steady regime, when the heat fluxes and the parameters of the thermal circuit are constant and do not depend on time. In connection with the emergence of more effective technical solutions to the life support system there is a need for creating a new mathematical...
Topology of Flow Separation on Three-Dimensional Bodies
Chapman, Gary T.; Yates, Leslie A.
1991-01-01
In recent years there has been extensive research on three-dimensional flow separation. There are two different approaches: the phenomenological approach and a mathematical approach using topology. These two approaches are reviewed briefly and the shortcomings of some of the past works are discussed. A comprehensive approach applicable to incompressible and compressible steady-state flows as well as incompressible unsteady flow is then presented. The approach is similar to earlier topological approaches to separation but is more complete and in some cases adds more emphasis to certain points than in the past. To assist in the classification of various types of flow, nomenclature is introduced to describe the skin-friction portraits on the surface. This method of classification is then demonstrated on several categories of flow to illustrate particular points as well as the diversity of flow separation. The categories include attached, two-dimensional separation and three different types of simple, three-dimensional primary separation, secondary separation, and compound separation. Hypothetical experiments are utilized to illustrate the topological terminology and its role in characterizing these flows. These hypothetical experiments use colored oil injected onto the surface at singular points in the skin-friction portrait. Actual flow-visualization information, if available, is used to corroborate the hypothetical examples.
Diagnostic and prognostic value of procalcitonin in patients with septic shock.
Clec'h, Christophe; Ferriere, Françoise; Karoubi, Philippe; Fosse, Jean P; Cupa, Michel; Hoang, Philippe; Cohen, Yves
2004-05-01
To determine whether procalcitonin is a reliable diagnostic and prognostic marker in septic shock compared with nonseptic shock. Prospective controlled trial. Intensive care unit of the Avicenne Teaching Hospital, Bobigny, France. All patients admitted to our intensive care unit over a 12-month period with clinical evidence of shock. None. Echocardiography or pulmonary artery flotation catheter measurements were used to assess hemodynamics, and multiple specimens were obtained for microbiological studies. Standard criteria were used to diagnose septic shock. Serum concentrations of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and lactate were determined on the day of shock onset (day 1) and on days 3, 7, and 10. Seventy-five patients were included, 62 in the septic shock group and 13 in the cardiogenic shock group. Serum procalcitonin on day 1 was significantly higher in patients with than without septic shock (median, 14 [0.3-767] ng/mL vs. 1 [0.5-36] ng/mL, p < .01). A cutoff value of 1 ng/mL had 95% sensitivity and 54% specificity for separating patients with and without sepsis. C-reactive protein failed to discriminate between these two groups. Among patients with sepsis, procalcitonin concentrations were significantly higher in those who died than in the survivors, at all four measurement time points (median, 16 [0.15-767] ng/mL vs. 6 [0.2-123] ng/mL, p = .045 on day 1; 6.5 [0.3-135] ng/mL vs. 1.05 [0.11-53] ng/mL, p = .02 on day 10). A cutoff value of 6 ng/mL on day 1 separated patients who died from those who survived with 87.5% sensitivity and 45% specificity. C-reactive protein was not helpful for predicting mortality. Serum lactate was a nonspecific prognostic marker. These data indicate that procalcitonin may be a valuable early diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with septic shock.
Shock physics with the nova laser for ICF applications. Revision 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammel, B.A.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.
1995-01-01
The physics of high pressure shocks plays a central role in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In indirect drive ICF, x-rays from a gold cavity (hohlraum) are used to ablatively drive a series of high pressure shocks into a spherical target (capsule). These shocks converge at the center, compressing the fuel and forming a hot dense core. The target performance, such as peak fuel density and temperature and neutron yield, depends critically on hock timing, and material compressibility. Accurate predictions of NIF target performance depends critically on shock timing and material compressibility. Current measurement techniques enable us to accurately determine shock timing in planar samples of abator material as a function of laser drive. Although this technique does not separately address uncertainties in material EOS and opacity, it does allow us to tune the laser drive until the desired shock timing is achieved. Experiments to directly address the EOS of D 2 ice are planned to further increase the margin for ignition in current target designs
Interaction of a conical shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer
Teh, S. L.; Gai, S. L.
The paper reports an investigation on the interaction of an incident conical shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. Although a conical shock theoretically creates a hyperbolic shock trace on the flat plate, the line joining all the experimental interaction origins takes a different form due to varying upstream influence. The existence of strong pressure gradients in the spanwise direction after the shock leads to the boundary-layer twist. A model based on the upstream influence of the shock when combined with McCabe's secondary-flow theory showed separation to occur at an external flow deflection of 11.8 deg. The oil flow measurements however show this to occur at 9.2 deg. This discrepancy is of the same order as that found by McCabe. Detailed data involving Schlieren and shadowgraph photography, surface-flow visualization, and surface-pressure measurements are presented.
Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks
Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.
2016-01-01
We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press
Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks
Mostert, W.
2016-12-12
We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press
Carbothermal shock synthesis of high-entropy-alloy nanoparticles
Yao, Yonggang; Huang, Zhennan; Xie, Pengfei; Lacey, Steven D.; Jacob, Rohit Jiji; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fengjuan; Nie, Anmin; Pu, Tiancheng; Rehwoldt, Miles; Yu, Daiwei; Zachariah, Michael R.; Wang, Chao; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Li, Ju; Hu, Liangbing
2018-03-01
The controllable incorporation of multiple immiscible elements into a single nanoparticle merits untold scientific and technological potential, yet remains a challenge using conventional synthetic techniques. We present a general route for alloying up to eight dissimilar elements into single-phase solid-solution nanoparticles, referred to as high-entropy-alloy nanoparticles (HEA-NPs), by thermally shocking precursor metal salt mixtures loaded onto carbon supports [temperature ~2000 kelvin (K), 55-millisecond duration, rate of ~105 K per second]. We synthesized a wide range of multicomponent nanoparticles with a desired chemistry (composition), size, and phase (solid solution, phase-separated) by controlling the carbothermal shock (CTS) parameters (substrate, temperature, shock duration, and heating/cooling rate). To prove utility, we synthesized quinary HEA-NPs as ammonia oxidation catalysts with ~100% conversion and >99% nitrogen oxide selectivity over prolonged operations.
Newman, James C., III
1995-01-01
The limiting factor in simulating flows past realistic configurations of interest has been the discretization of the physical domain on which the governing equations of fluid flow may be solved. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, many Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodologies that are based on different grid generation and domain decomposition techniques have been developed. However, due to the costs involved and expertise required, very few comparative studies between these methods have been performed. In the present work, the two CFD methodologies which show the most promise for treating complex three-dimensional configurations as well as unsteady moving boundary problems are evaluated. These are namely the structured-overlapped and the unstructured grid schemes. Both methods use a cell centered, finite volume, upwind approach. The structured-overlapped algorithm uses an approximately factored, alternating direction implicit scheme to perform the time integration, whereas, the unstructured algorithm uses an explicit Runge-Kutta method. To examine the accuracy, efficiency, and limitations of each scheme, they are applied to the same steady complex multicomponent configurations and unsteady moving boundary problems. The steady complex cases consist of computing the subsonic flow about a two-dimensional high-lift multielement airfoil and the transonic flow about a three-dimensional wing/pylon/finned store assembly. The unsteady moving boundary problems are a forced pitching oscillation of an airfoil in a transonic freestream and a two-dimensional, subsonic airfoil/store separation sequence. Accuracy was accessed through the comparison of computed and experimentally measured pressure coefficient data on several of the wing/pylon/finned store assembly's components and at numerous angles-of-attack for the pitching airfoil. From this study, it was found that both the structured-overlapped and the unstructured grid schemes yielded flow solutions of
Cheng, Wan; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi
2015-01-01
We describe large-eddy simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of an unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation/reattachment bubble. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai Leonida NICULESCU
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD is applied to the analysis of the unsteady rotor-stator interaction in a low-pressure centrifugal compressor. Numerical simulations are carried out through finite volumes method using the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (URANS model. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition allows an accurate reconstruction of flow field using only a small number of modes; therefore, this method is one of the best tools for data storage. The POD results and the data obtained by the Adamczyk decomposition are compared. Both decompositions show the behavior of unsteady rotor-stator interaction, but the POD modes allow quantifying better the numerical errors.
Numerical simulation of unsteady free surface flow and dynamic performance for a Pelton turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, Y X; Wang, Z W; Yan, Z G; Cui, T
2012-01-01
Different from the reaction turbines, the hydraulic performance of the Pelton turbine is dynamic due to the unsteady free surface flow in the rotating buckets in time and space. This paper aims to present the results of investigations conducted on the free surface flow in a Pelton turbine rotating buckets. The unsteady numerical simulations were performed with the CFX code by using the Realizable k-ε turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. The unsteady free surface flow patterns and torque varying with the bucket rotating were analysed. The predicted relative performance at five operating conditions was compared with the field test results. The study was also conducted the interactions between the bucket rear and the water jet.
Numerical simulation of unsteady free surface flow and dynamic performance for a Pelton turbine
Xiao, Y. X.; Cui, T.; Wang, Z. W.; Yan, Z. G.
2012-11-01
Different from the reaction turbines, the hydraulic performance of the Pelton turbine is dynamic due to the unsteady free surface flow in the rotating buckets in time and space. This paper aims to present the results of investigations conducted on the free surface flow in a Pelton turbine rotating buckets. The unsteady numerical simulations were performed with the CFX code by using the Realizable k-ε turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. The unsteady free surface flow patterns and torque varying with the bucket rotating were analysed. The predicted relative performance at five operating conditions was compared with the field test results. The study was also conducted the interactions between the bucket rear and the water jet.
Two-state ion heating at quasi-parallel shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomsen, M.F.; Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; Onsager, T.G.; Russell, C.T.
1990-01-01
In a previous study of ion heating at quasi-parallel shocks, the authors showed a case in which the ion distributions downstream from the shock alternated between a cooler, denser, core/shoulder type and a hotter, less dense, more Maxwellian type. In this paper they further document the alternating occurrence of two different ion states downstream from several quasi-parallel shocks. Three separate lines of evidence are presented to show that the two states are not related in an evolutionary sense, but rather both are produced alternately at the shock: (1) the asymptotic downstream plasma parameters (density, ion temperature, and flow speed) are intermediate between those characterizing the two different states closer to the shock, suggesting that the asymptotic state is produced by a mixing of the two initial states; (2) examples of apparently interpenetrating (i.e., mixing) distributions can be found during transitions from one state to the other; and (3) examples of both types of distributions can be found at actual crossings of the shock ramp. The alternation between the two different types of ion distribution provides direct observational support for the idea that the dissipative dynamics of at least some quasi-parallel shocks is non-stationary and cyclic in nature, as demonstrated by recent numerical simulations. Typical cycle times between intervals of similar ion heating states are ∼2 upstream ion gyroperiods. Both the simulations and the in situ observations indicate that a process of coherent ion reflection is commonly an important part of the dissipation at quasi-parallel shocks
Simulating unsteady conduit flows with smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Hou, Q.
2012-01-01
Pipelines are widely used for transport and cooling in industries such as oil and gas, chemical, water supply and sewerage, and hydro, fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. Unsteady pipe flows with large pressure variations may cause a range of problems such as pipe rapture, support failure, pipe
Separation prediction in two dimensional boundary layer flows using artificial neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabetghadam, F.; Ghomi, H.A.
2003-01-01
In this article, the ability of artificial neural networks in prediction of separation in steady two dimensional boundary layer flows is studied. Data for network training is extracted from numerical solution of an ODE obtained from Von Karman integral equation with approximate one parameter Pohlhousen velocity profile. As an appropriate neural network, a two layer radial basis generalized regression artificial neural network is used. The results shows good agreements between the overall behavior of the flow fields predicted by the artificial neural network and the actual flow fields for some cases. The method easily can be extended to unsteady separation and turbulent as well as compressible boundary layer flows. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qijun ZHAO
2018-02-01
Full Text Available A robust unsteady rotor flowfield solver CLORNS code is established to predict the complex unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of rotor flowfield. In order to handle the difficult problem about grid generation around rotor with complex aerodynamic shape in this CFD code, a parameterized grid generated method is established, and the moving-embedded grids are constructed by several proposed universal methods. In this work, the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations with Spalart-Allmaras are selected as the governing equations to predict the unsteady flowfield of helicopter rotor. The discretization of convective fluxes is accomplished by employing the second-order central difference scheme, third-order MUSCL-Roe scheme, and fifth-order WENO-Roe scheme. Aimed at simulating the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of helicopter rotor, the dual-time scheme with implicit LU-SGS scheme is employed to accomplish the temporal discretization. In order to improve the computational efficiency of hole-cells and donor elements searching of the moving-embedded grid technology, the “disturbance diffraction method” and “minimum distance scheme of donor elements method” are established in this work. To improve the computational efficiency, Message Passing Interface (MPI parallel method based on subdivision of grid, local preconditioning method and Full Approximation Storage (FAS multi-grid method are combined in this code. By comparison of the numerical results simulated by CLORNS code with test data, it is illustrated that the present code could simulate the aerodynamic loads and aerodynamic noise characteristics of helicopter rotor accurately. Keywords: Aerodynamic characteristics, Helicopter rotor, Moving-embedded grid, Navier-Stokes equations, Upwind schemes
Minimum-domain impulse theory for unsteady aerodynamic force
Kang, L. L.; Liu, L. Q.; Su, W. D.; Wu, J. Z.
2018-01-01
We extend the impulse theory for unsteady aerodynamics from its classic global form to finite-domain formulation then to minimum-domain form and from incompressible to compressible flows. For incompressible flow, the minimum-domain impulse theory raises the finding of Li and Lu ["Force and power of flapping plates in a fluid," J. Fluid Mech. 712, 598-613 (2012)] to a theorem: The entire force with discrete wake is completely determined by only the time rate of impulse of those vortical structures still connecting to the body, along with the Lamb-vector integral thereof that captures the contribution of all the rest disconnected vortical structures. For compressible flows, we find that the global form in terms of the curl of momentum ∇ × (ρu), obtained by Huang [Unsteady Vortical Aerodynamics (Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, 1994)], can be generalized to having an arbitrary finite domain, but the formula is cumbersome and in general ∇ × (ρu) no longer has discrete structures and hence no minimum-domain theory exists. Nevertheless, as the measure of transverse process only, the unsteady field of vorticity ω or ρω may still have a discrete wake. This leads to a minimum-domain compressible vorticity-moment theory in terms of ρω (but it is beyond the classic concept of impulse). These new findings and applications have been confirmed by our numerical experiments. The results not only open an avenue to combine the theory with computation-experiment in wide applications but also reveal a physical truth that it is no longer necessary to account for all wake vortical structures in computing the force and moment.
A Wind Tunnel Model to Explore Unsteady Circulation Control for General Aviation Applications
Cagle, Christopher M.; Jones, Gregory S.
2002-01-01
Circulation Control airfoils have been demonstrated to provide substantial improvements in lift over conventional airfoils. The General Aviation Circular Control model is an attempt to address some of the concerns of this technique. The primary focus is to substantially reduce the amount of air mass flow by implementing unsteady flow. This paper describes a wind tunnel model that implements unsteady circulation control by pulsing internal pneumatic valves and details some preliminary results from the first test entry.
Unsteady Flow Dynamics and Acoustics of Two-Outlet Centrifugal Fan Design
Wong, I. Y. W.; Leung, R. C. K.; Law, A. K. Y.
2011-09-01
In this study, a centrifugal fan design with two flow outlets is investigated. This design aims to provide high mass flow rate but low noise performance. Two dimensional unsteady flow simulation with CFD code (FLUENT 6.3) is carried out to analyze the fan flow dynamics and its acoustics. The calculations were done using the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) approach in which effects of turbulence were accounted for using κ-ɛ model. This work aims to provide an insight how the dominant noise source mechanisms vary with a key fan geometrical paramters, namely, the ratio between cutoff distance and the radius of curvature of the fan housing. Four new fan designs were calculated. Simulation results show that the unsteady flow-induced forces on the fan blades are found to be the main noise sources. The blade force coefficients are then used to build the dipole source terms in Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) Equation for estimating their noise effects. It is found that one design is able to deliver a mass flow 34% more, but with sound pressure level (SPL) 10 dB lower, than the existing design .
Nath, G; Sahu, P K
2016-01-01
A self-similar model for one-dimensional unsteady isothermal and adiabatic flows behind a strong exponential shock wave driven out by a cylindrical piston moving with time according to an exponential law in an ideal gas in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field and variable density is discussed in a rotating atmosphere. The ambient medium is assumed to possess radial, axial and azimuthal component of fluid velocities. The initial density, the fluid velocities and magnetic field of the ambient medium are assumed to be varying with time according to an exponential law. The gas is taken to be non-viscous having infinite electrical conductivity. Solutions are obtained, in both the cases, when the flow between the shock and the piston is isothermal or adiabatic by taking into account the components of vorticity vector. The effects of the variation of the initial density index, adiabatic exponent of the gas and the Alfven-Mach number on the flow-field behind the shock wave are investigated. It is found that the presence of the magnetic field have decaying effects on the shock wave. Also, it is observed that the effect of an increase in the magnetic field strength is more impressive in the case of adiabatic flow than in the case of isothermal flow. The assumption of zero temperature gradient brings a profound change in the density, non-dimensional azimuthal and axial components of vorticity vector distributions in comparison to those in the case of adiabatic flow. A comparison is made between isothermal and adiabatic flows. It is obtained that an increase in the initial density variation index, adiabatic exponent and strength of the magnetic field decrease the shock strength.
Rahman, M. Mostaqur; Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique; Rabbi, M. S.
2017-06-01
In transonic flow conditions, self-sustained shock wave oscillation on biconvex airfoils is initiated by the complex shock wave boundary layer interaction which is frequently observed in several modern internal aeronautical applications such as inturbine cascades, compressor blades, butterfly valves, fans, nozzles, diffusers and so on. Shock wave boundary layer interaction often generates serious problems such as unsteady boundary layer separation, self-excited shock waveoscillation with large pressure fluctuations, buffeting excitations, aeroacoustic noise, nonsynchronous vibration, high cycle fatigue failure and intense drag rise. Recently, the control of the self-excited shock oscillation around an airfoil using passive control techniques is getting intense interest. Among the passive means, control using open cavity has found promising. In this study, the effect of cavity size on the control of self-sustained shock oscillation was investigated numerically. The present computations are validated with available experimental results. The results showed that the average root mean square (RMS) of pressure oscillation around the airfoil with open cavity has reduced significantly when compared to airfoil without cavity (clean airfoil).
On the Use of Surface Porosity to Reduce Unsteady Lift
Tinetti, Ana F.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Thomas, Russell H.
2001-01-01
An innovative application of existing technology is proposed for attenuating the effects of transient phenomena, such as rotor-stator and rotor-strut interactions, linked to noise and fatigue failure in turbomachinery environments. A computational study was designed to assess the potential of passive porosity technology as a mechanism for alleviating interaction effects by reducing the unsteady lift developed on a stator airfoil subject to wake impingement. The study involved a typical high bypass fan Stator airfoil (solid baseline and several porous configurations), immersed in a free field and exposed to the effects of a transversely moving wake. It was found that, for the airfoil under consideration, the magnitude of the unsteady lift could be reduced more than 18% without incurring significant performance losses.
Kandil, Osama A.; Menzies, Margaret A.
1996-01-01
Unsteady, transonic vortex dominated flow over a 65 deg. sharp edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced coupled pitching and rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The wing mean angle of attack is 20 deg. and the free stream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.85 and 3.23 x 10(exp 6), respectively. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock and vortex breakdown of the leading edge vortex cores. The computational investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The main focus is to analyze the effects of coupled motion on the wing response and vortex breakdown flow by varying oscillation frequency and phase angle while the maximum pitch and roll amplitude is kept constant at 4.0 deg. Four cases demonstrate the following: simultaneous motion at a frequency of 1(pi), motion with a 90 deg. phase lead in pitch, motion with a rolling frequency of twice the pitching frequency, and simultaneous motion at a frequency of 2(pi). Comparisons with single mode motion at these frequencies complete this study and illustrate the effects of coupling the oscillations.
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Greenblatt, David
2007-01-01
This is an expanded version of a limited-length paper that appeared at the 5th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena by the same authors. A computational study was performed for steady and oscillatory flow control over a hump model with flow separation to assess how well the steady and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations predict trends due to Reynolds number, control magnitude, and control frequency. As demonstrated in earlier studies, the hump model case is useful because it clearly demonstrates a failing in all known turbulence models: they under-predict the turbulent shear stress in the separated region and consequently reattachment occurs too far downstream. In spite of this known failing, three different turbulence models were employed to determine if trends can be captured even though absolute levels are not. Overall the three turbulence models showed very similar trends as experiment for steady suction, but only agreed qualitatively with some of the trends for oscillatory control.
Comparison of three methods for the estimation of cross-shock electric potential using Cluster data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. P. Dimmock
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Cluster four point measurements provide a comprehensive dataset for the separation of temporal and spatial variations, which is crucial for the calculation of the cross shock electrostatic potential using electric field measurements. While Cluster is probably the most suited among present and past spacecraft missions to provide such a separation at the terrestrial bow shock, it is far from ideal for a study of the cross shock potential, since only 2 components of the electric field are measured in the spacecraft spin plane. The present paper is devoted to the comparison of 3 different techniques that can be used to estimate the potential with this limitation. The first technique is the estimate taking only into account the projection of the measured components onto the shock normal. The second uses the ideal MHD condition E·B = 0 to estimate the third electric field component. The last method is based on the structure of the electric field in the Normal Incidence Frame (NIF for which only the potential component along the shock normal and the motional electric field exist. All 3 approaches are used to estimate the potential for a single crossing of the terrestrial bow shock that took place on the 31 March 2001. Surprisingly all three methods lead to the same order of magnitude for the cross shock potential. It is argued that the third method must lead to more reliable results. The effect of the shock normal inaccuracy is investigated for this particular shock crossing. The resulting electrostatic potential appears too high in comparison with the theoretical results for low Mach number shocks. This shows the variability of the potential, interpreted in the frame of the non-stationary shock model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eulitz, F
2000-04-01
The present work is devoted to the development of a computational technique for the Reynolds-averaged, time-resolved simulation of the undsteady, viscous flow in turbomachinery. After identification of model criteria, a novel turbulence and transition model, based on the extension of a one-equation turbulence model, is derived in order to incorporate the Reynolds-averaged effects of boundary-layer transition in unsteady turbomachinery flow. Preserving low numerical dissipation and dispersion errors, the explicit time integration method is accelerated through a time-consistent two-grid approach to allow for an efficient use of parallel computers. The model development is carefully assessed by considering various test cases of steady and unsteady turbine flow with various transition modes or of transonic channel flow with self-excited shock-oscillation. The application of the computational technique is demonstrated for the case of a single-stage, transonic compressor component and of a three-stage low-pressure turbine at low Reynolds-number operation. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit wird ein numerisches Verfahren zur zeitgenauen Simulation der instationaeren, reibungsbehafteten Stroemung in Turbomaschinen auf Grundlage der Reynolds-gemittelten Navier-Stokes-Gleichungen entwickelt. Nach Aufarbeitung der Modellierungsanforderungen wird basierend auf einem Eingleichungsturbulenzmodell ein neuartiges Turbulenz- und Transitionsmodell abgeleitet, mit dem verschiedene Transitionsmoden der instationaeren Turbomaschinenstroemung in ihrer Reynolds-gemittelten Wirkung beschrieben werden koennen. Durch einen zeitkonsistenten Zweigitter-Ansatz wird die Zeitintegration fuer Navier-Stokes-Simulationen auf Parallelrechnern unter Wahrung geringer numerischer Phasen- und Amplitudenfehler beschleunigt. Die Entwicklung wird an einer Reihe von Testfaellen, zur stationaeren und instationaeren Turbinenstroemung mit unterschiedlicher Grenzschichttransition oder zur transsonischen
Unsteady fluid dynamics around a hovering wing
Krishna, Swathi; Green, Melissa; Mulleners, Karen
2017-11-01
The unsteady flow around a hovering flat plate wing has been investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry and direct force measurements. The measurements are conducted on a wing that rotates symmetrically about the stroke reversal at a reduced frequency of k = 0.32 and Reynolds number of Re = 220 . The Lagrangian finite-time Lyapunov exponent method is used to analyse the unsteady flow fields by identifying dynamically relevant flow features such as the primary leading edge vortex (LEV), secondary vortices, and topological saddles, and their evolution within a flapping cycle. The flow evolution is divided into four stages that are characterised by the LEV (a)emergence, (b)growth, (c)lift-off, and (d)breakdown and decay. Tracking saddle points is shown to be helpful in defining the LEV lift-off which occurs at the maximum stroke velocity. The flow fields are correlated with the aerodynamic forces revealing that the maximum lift and drag are observed just before LEV lift-off. The end of wing rotation in the beginning of the stroke stimulates a change in the direction of the LEV growth and the start of rotation at the end of the stroke triggers the breakdown of the LEV.
Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves
Balogh, André
2013-01-01
The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...
Hah, Chunill; Hathaway, Michael; Katz, Joseph; Tan, David
2015-01-01
The primary focus of this paper is to investigate how a rotor's unsteady tip clearance flow structure changes in a low speed one and half stage axial compressor when the rotor tip gap size is increased from 0.5 mm (0.49% of rotor tip blade chord, 2% of blade span) to 2.4 mm (2.34% chord, 4% span) at the design condition are investigated. The changes in unsteady tip clearance flow with the 0.62 % tip gap as the flow rate is reduced to near stall condition are also investigated. A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is applied to calculate the unsteady flow field at these three flow conditions. Detailed Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) measurements of the current flow fields were also performed at the Johns Hopkins University in a refractive index-matched test facility which renders the compressor blades and casing optically transparent. With this setup, the unsteady velocity field in the entire flow domain, including the flow inside the tip gap, can be measured. Unsteady tip clearance flow fields from LES are compared with the PIV measurements and both LES and PIV results are used to study changes in tip clearance flow structures. The current study shows that the tip clearance vortex is not a single structure as traditionally perceived. The tip clearance vortex is formed by multiple interlaced vorticities. Therefore, the tip clearance vortex is inherently unsteady. The multiple interlaced vortices never roll up to form a single structure. When phased-averaged, the tip clearance vortex appears as a single structure. When flow rate is reduced with the same tip gap, the tip clearance vortex rolls further upstream and the tip clearance vortex moves further radially inward and away from the suction side of the blade. When the tip gap size is increased at the design flow condition, the overall tip clearance vortex becomes stronger and it stays closer to the blade suction side and the vortex core extends all the way to the exit of the blade passage. Measured and calculated unsteady flow
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling at high angles of attack using support vector machines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Qing
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Accurate aerodynamic models are the basis of flight simulation and control law design. Mathematically modeling unsteady aerodynamics at high angles of attack bears great difficulties in model structure determination and parameter estimation due to little understanding of the flow mechanism. Support vector machines (SVMs based on statistical learning theory provide a novel tool for nonlinear system modeling. The work presented here examines the feasibility of applying SVMs to high angle-of-attack unsteady aerodynamic modeling field. Mainly, after a review of SVMs, several issues associated with unsteady aerodynamic modeling by use of SVMs are discussed in detail, such as selection of input variables, selection of output variables and determination of SVM parameters. The least squares SVM (LS-SVM models are set up from certain dynamic wind tunnel test data of a delta wing and an aircraft configuration, and then used to predict the aerodynamic responses in other tests. The predictions are in good agreement with the test data, which indicates the satisfying learning and generalization performance of LS-SVMs.
The Impact of Commodity Price Shocks in a Major Producing Economy. The Case of Copper and Chile
Michael Pedersen
2015-01-01
The present study analyzes how copper price shocks affect macroeconomic variables in Chile, which is the largest producer in the world of this commodity. It is taken into account that shocks with different sources may have different impacts and a separation is made between supply, demand, and specific copper demand shocks. The empirical analysis is based on a structural VAR model, where shocks are identified by sign restrictions, i.e. restrictions are imposed on impulse-response functions. In...
Computation of airfoil buffet boundaries
Levy, L. L., Jr.; Bailey, H. E.
1981-01-01
The ILLIAC IV computer has been programmed with an implicit, finite-difference code for solving the thin layer compressible Navier-Stokes equation. Results presented for the case of the buffet boundaries of a conventional and a supercritical airfoil section at high Reynolds numbers are found to be in agreement with experimentally determined buffet boundaries, especially at the higher freestream Mach numbers and lower lift coefficients where the onset of unsteady flows is associated with shock wave-induced boundary layer separation.
Laser-generated shock wave attenuation aimed at microscale pyrotechnic device design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyeonju Yu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available To meet the rising demand for miniaturizing the pyrotechnic device that consists of donor/acceptor pair separated by a bulkhead or a thin gap, the shock initiation sensitivity in the microscale gap test configuration is investigated. For understanding the shock attenuation within a gap sample (304 stainless steel thickness of 10∼800 μm, the laser-generated shock wave in water confinement is adopted. The shock properties are obtained from the free surface velocity by making use of a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR. Analytical models for plasma generation in a confined geometry and for evolution and decay of shock waves during the propagation are considered. The shape and amplitude of the laser-driven initial pressure load and its attenuation pattern in the gap are effectively controlled for targeting the microscale propagation distance and subsequent triggering pressure for the acceptor charge. The reported results are important in the precise controlling of the shock strength during the laser initiation of microscale pyrotechnic devices.
1987-03-01
MACHI, K. 1905 Unsteady Plow in a Turbine Rotor, VDI -Berichte 572.2p 1 9,5, pp. 273-292. FRANSSON, T.1!. and SUTER, P. 1983 Two-Dimensional and...Schaufelreihen in Axialverdichtern und Axialturbinen, VDI -Berichte No. 361, pp. 33-43. I[;RA, T. and RANNIE, W.D. 1953 Observations of Propagating Stall in...NASA-CR-3940. VICTORY, M. 1943 Flutter at High Incidence. Brit. A.R.C. R & M 2048 . VOGELER, K. 1984 The Unsteady Pressure Distribution on Parabolic
The flows structure in unsteady gas flow in pipes with different cross-sections
Plotnikov Leonid; Nevolin Alexandr; Nikolaev Dmitrij
2017-01-01
The results of numerical simulation and experimental study of the structure of unsteady flows in pipes with different cross sections are presented in the article. It is shown that the unsteady gas flow in a circular pipe is axisymmetric without secondary currents. Steady vortex structures (secondary flows) are observed in pipes with cross sections in the form of a square and an equilateral triangle. It was found that these secondary flows have a significant impact on gas flows in pipes of com...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Younsi
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of design parameters on the unsteady flow in a forward-curved centrifugal fan and their impact on the aeroacoustic behavior. To do so, numerical and experimental studies have been carried out on four centrifugal impellers designed with various geometrical parameters. The same volute casing has been used to study these impellers. The effects on the unsteady flow behavior related to irregular blade spacing, blade count and radial distance between the impeller periphery and the volute tongue have been studied. The numerical simulations of the unsteady flow have been carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD tools based on the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (URANS approach. The study is focused on the unsteadiness induced by the aerodynamic interaction between the volute and the rotating impeller blades. In order to predict the acoustic pressure at far field, the unsteady flow variables provided by the CFD calculations have been used as inputs in the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations (FW-H. The experimental part of this work concerns measurement of aerodynamic performance of the fans using a test bench built according to ISO 5801 (1997 standard. In addition to this, pressure microphones have been flush mounted on the volute tongue surface in order to measure the wall pressure fluctuations. The sound pressure level (SPL measurements have been carried out in an anechoic room in order to remove undesired noise reflections. Finally, the numerical results have been compared with the experimental measurements and a correlation between the wall pressure fluctuations and the far field noise signals has been found.
Analysis of the computational methods on the equipment shock response based on ANSYS environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yu; Li Zhaojun
2005-01-01
With the developments and completions of equipment shock vibration theory, math calculation method simulation technique and other aspects, equipment shock calculation methods are gradually developing form static development to dynamic and from linearity to non-linearity. Now, the equipment shock calculation methods applied worldwide in engineering practices mostly include equivalent static force method, Dynamic Design Analysis Method (abbreviated to DDAM) and real-time simulation method. The DDAM is a method based on the modal analysis theory, which inputs the shock design spectrum as shock load and gets hold of the shock response of the integrated system by applying separate cross-modal integrating method within the frequency domain. The real-time simulation method is to carry through the computational analysis of the equipment shock response within the time domain, use the time-history curves obtained from real-time measurement or spectrum transformation as the equipment shock load and find an iterative solution of a differential equation of the system movement by using the computational procedure within the time domain. Conclusions: Using the separate DDAM and Real-time Simulation Method, this paper carried through the shock analysis of a three-dimensional frame floating raft in ANSYS environments, analyzed the result, and drew the following conclusion: Because DDAM does not calculate damping, non-linear effect and phase difference between mode responses, the result is much bigger than that of real-time simulation method. The coupling response is much complex when the mode result of 3-dimension structure is being calculated, and the coupling response of non-shock direction is also much bigger than that of real-time simulation method when DDAM is applied. Both DDAM and real-time simulation method has its good points and scope of application. The designers should select the design method that is economic and in point according to the features and anti-shock
Unsteady coupling effects of wet steam in steam turbines flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blondel, Frederic
2014-01-01
In addition to conventional turbomachinery problems, both the behavior and performances of steam turbines are highly dependent on the vapour thermodynamic state and the presence of a liquid phase. EDF, the main French electricity producer, is interested in further developing its' modelling capabilities and expertise in this area to allow for operational studies and long-term planning. This PhD thesis explores the modelling of wetness formation and growth in a steam turbine and an analysis of the coupling between the liquid phase and the main flow unsteadiness. To this end, the work in this thesis took the following approach. Wetness was accounted for using a homogeneous model coupled with transport equations to take into account the effects of non-equilibrium phenomena, such as the growth of the liquid phase and nucleation. The real gas attributes of the problem demanded adapted numerical methods. Before their implementation in the 3D elsA solver, the accuracy of the chosen models was tested using a developed one-dimensional nozzle code. In this manner, various condensation models were considered, including both poly-dispersed and monodispersed behaviours of the steam. Finally, unsteady coupling effects were observed from several perspectives (1D, 1D - 3D, 3D), demonstrating the ability of the method of moments to sustain unsteady phenomena which were not apparent in a simple monodispersed model. (author)
Diehl, Luisa A; Alvares, Lucas O; Noschang, Cristie; Engelke, Douglas; Andreazza, Ana C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; Dalmaz, Carla
2012-04-01
Adverse early life events, such as periodic maternal separation, may alter the normal pattern of brain development and subsequently the vulnerability to a variety of mental disorders in adulthood. Patients with a history of early adversities show higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation of pups from dams would affect memory and oxidative stress parameters after exposure to an animal model of PTSD. Nests of Wistar rats were divided into intact and subjected to maternal separation (incubator at 32°C, 3 h/day) during post-natal days 1-10. When adults, the animals were subdivided into exposed or not to a PTSD model consisting of exposure to inescapable footshock, followed by situational reminders. One month after exposure to the shock, the animals were exposed to a memory task (Morris water maze) and another month later animals were sacrificed and DNA breaks and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured in the hippocampus. Rats exposed to shock or maternal separation plus shock showed long-lasting effects on spatial memory, spending more time in the opposite quadrant of the water maze. This effect was higher in animals subjected to both maternal separation and shock. Both shock and maternal separation induced a higher score of DNA breaks in the hippocampus. No differences were observed on antioxidant enzymes activities. In conclusion, periodic maternal separation may increase the susceptibility to the effects of a stressor applied in adulthood on performance in the water maze. Increased DNA breaks in hippocampus was induced by both, maternal separation and exposure to shock.
Heat Transfer Enhancement in Separated and Vortex Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richard J. Goldstein
2004-05-27
This document summarizes the research performance done at the Heat Transfer Laboratory of the University of Minnesota on heat transfer and energy separation in separated and vortex flow supported by DOE in the period September 1, 1998--August 31, 2003. Unsteady and complicated flow structures in separated or vortex flows are the main reason for a poor understanding of heat transfer under such conditions. The research from the University of Minnesota focused on the following important aspects of understanding such flows: (1) Heat/mass transfer from a circular cylinder; (2) study of energy separation and heat transfer in free jet flows and shear layers; and (3) study of energy separation on the surface and in the wake of a cylinder in crossflow. The current study used three different experimental setups to accomplish these goals. A wind tunnel and a liquid tunnel using water and mixtures of ethylene glycol and water, is used for the study of prandtl number effect with uniform heat flux from the circular cylinder. A high velocity air jet is used to study energy separation in free jets. A high speed wind tunnel, same as used for the first part, is utilized for energy separation effects on the surface and in the wake of the circular cylinder. The final outcome of this study is a substantial advancement in this research area.
Unsteady axisymmetric flow of a micropolar fluid between the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The influence of several parameters on dimensionless velocities is presented through plots. The behavior of skin friction and couple stress coefficients is tabulated against various values of the pertinent parameters. Keywords: Unsteady flow, micropolar fluid, radial stretching, skin friction coefficient, couple stress coefficient
Experimental investigations of the unsteady flow in a Francis turbine draft tube cone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baya, A; Muntean, S; Campian, V C; Cuzmos, A; Diaconescu, M; Balan, G
2010-01-01
Operating Francis turbines at partial discharge is often hindered by the development of the helical vortex (so-called vortex rope) downstream the runner, in the draft tube cone. The unsteady pressure field induced by precessing vortex rope leads to pressure fluctuations. The paper presents the experimental investigations of the unsteady pressure field generated by precessing vortex rope and its associated pressure fluctuations into a draft tube of the Francis turbine operating at partial discharge. In situ measurements are performed in order to evaluate the pressure fluctuations and vortex rope frequency at partial load operation. Three pressure taps are installed on the cone wall of the draft tube in order to record the unsteady pressure. As a result, the Fourier spectra are obtained in order to evaluate the amplitude of pressure fluctuations and vortex rope frequency. Moreover, the wall pressure recovery along to the draft tube cone is acquired. Finally, conclusions are drawn in order to present the vortex rope effects.
Experimental investigations of the unsteady flow in a Francis turbine draft tube cone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baya, A [Department of Hydraulic Machinery, ' Politehnica' University of Timisoara Bv. Mihai Viteazu 1, RO-300222, Timisoara (Romania); Muntean, S [Centre of Advanced Research in Engineering Sciences, Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch Bv. Mihai Viteazu 24, RO-300223, Timisoara (Romania); Campian, V C; Cuzmos, A [Research Center in Hydraulics, Automation and Heat Transfer, ' Eftimie Murgu' University of Resita P-ta. Traian Vuia 1-4, RO-320085, Resita (Romania); Diaconescu, M; Balan, G, E-mail: abaya@mh.mec.upt.r [Ramnicu Valcea Subsidiary, S.C. Hidroelectrica S.A. Str. Decebal 11, RO-240255, Ramnicu Valcea (Romania)
2010-08-15
Operating Francis turbines at partial discharge is often hindered by the development of the helical vortex (so-called vortex rope) downstream the runner, in the draft tube cone. The unsteady pressure field induced by precessing vortex rope leads to pressure fluctuations. The paper presents the experimental investigations of the unsteady pressure field generated by precessing vortex rope and its associated pressure fluctuations into a draft tube of the Francis turbine operating at partial discharge. In situ measurements are performed in order to evaluate the pressure fluctuations and vortex rope frequency at partial load operation. Three pressure taps are installed on the cone wall of the draft tube in order to record the unsteady pressure. As a result, the Fourier spectra are obtained in order to evaluate the amplitude of pressure fluctuations and vortex rope frequency. Moreover, the wall pressure recovery along to the draft tube cone is acquired. Finally, conclusions are drawn in order to present the vortex rope effects.
Perbandingan Hasil Pemodelan Aliran Satu Dimensi Unsteady Flow dan Steady Flow pada Banjir Kota
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Tigor Oktaga
2016-06-01
Full Text Available One dimensional flow is often used as a flood simulation for the planning capacity of the river. Flood is a type of unsteady non-uniform flow, that can be simulated using HEC-RAS. HEC-RAS software is often used for flood modeling with a one-dimensional flow method. Unsteady flow modeling results in HEC-RAS sometimes refer to error and warning due to unstable analysis program. The stability program among others influenced bend in the river flow, the steep slope of the river bottom, and changes in cross-section shape. Because the flood handling required maximum discharge and maximum flood water level, then a steady flow is often used as an alternative to simulate the flood flow. This study aimed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of modeling unsteady non-uniform and steady non-uniform flow. The research location in the Kanal Banjir Barat, in the Semarang City. Hydraulics modeling uses HEC-RAS 4.1 and for discharge the plan is obtained from the HEC-HMS 3.5. Results of the comparison modeling hydraulics the modeling of steady non-uniform flow has a tendency water level is higher and modeling of unsteady non-uniform flow takes longer to analyze. Results of the comparison the average flood water level maximun is less than 15% (± 0,3 meters, that is 0.27 meters (13.16% for Q50, 0.25 meters (11.56% for Q100, dan 0.16 meters (4.73% for Q200. So the modeling steady non-uniform flow can still be used as a companion version the modeling unsteady non-uniform flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schnieder, M.
1998-11-01
In the free piston driven shock tunnel HEG the interaction of shock waves in front of a blunt body is studied in reacting high enthalpy flow. The influence of high temperature effects is of interest. The so called type IV interaction produces a free jet that impinges onto the body and creates high pressure and heat loads on the body surface. A cylinder wedge model is used. At the cylinder surface pressure and heat flux are measured. Holographic interferometry and schlieren optic are applied to visualize the flow. The measured loads show unsteady behaviour. At higher Reynolds numbers the upper bow shock shows a strong disturbance. It is assumed that this disturbance is caused by an unstable shear layer if the convective Mach number (i.e. the Mach number of the flow relative to a frame of reference moving with the shear layer structures) is larger than one. A study of the influence of dissociation on the convective Mach number shows, that the convective Mach number increases. Numerical calculations and an analytical model, which is based on the ideal dissociating gas model and the Fay Riddell solution to stagnation point flows are discussed in comparison with the experiments. (orig.)
The Grid Density Dependence of the Unsteady Pressures of the J-2X Turbines
Schmauch, Preston B.
2011-01-01
The J-2X engine was originally designed for the upper stage of the cancelled Crew Launch Vehicle. Although the Crew Launch Vehicle was cancelled the J-2X engine, which is currently undergoing hot-fire testing, may be used on future programs. The J-2X engine is a direct descendent of the J-2 engine which powered the upper stage during the Apollo program. Many changes including a thrust increase from 230K to 294K lbf have been implemented in this engine. As part of the design requirements, the turbine blades must meet minimum high cycle fatigue factors of safety for various vibrational modes that have resonant frequencies in the engine's operating range. The unsteady blade loading is calculated directly from CFD simulations. A grid density study was performed to understand the sensitivity of the spatial loading and the magnitude of the on blade loading due to changes in grid density. Given that the unsteady blade loading has a first order effect on the high cycle fatigue factors of safety, it is important to understand the level of convergence when applying the unsteady loads. The convergence of the unsteady pressures of several grid densities will be presented for various frequencies in the engine's operating range.
The effect of global oil price shocks on China's metal markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Chuanguo; Tu, Xiaohua
2016-01-01
This paper investigated the impacts of global oil price shocks on the whole metal market and two typical metal markets: copper and aluminum. We applied the autoregressive conditional jump intensity (ARJI) model, combining with the generalized conditional heteroscedasticity (GRACH) method, to describe the volatility process and jump behavior in the global oil market. We separated the oil price shocks into positive and negative parts, to analyze whether oil price volatility had symmetric impacts on China’s metal markets. We further used the likelihood ratio test to examine the symmetric effect of oil price shocks. In addition, we considered the jump behavior in oil prices as an input factor to investigate how China’s metal markets are affected when jumps occur in the global oil market, in contrast to the existing research paying little attention to this issue. Our results indicate that crude oil price shocks have significant impacts on China's metal markets and the impacts are symmetric. When compared with aluminum, copper is more easily affected by oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigated the effect of oil price shocks on China’s metal markets. • The oil price shocks had significant impacts on China's metal markets • The oil price shocks on China's metal markets were symmetric. • Copper is more easily affected by oil price shocks than aluminum.
A shock surface geometry: The February 15--16, 1967, event
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lepping, R.P.; Chao, J.K.
1976-01-01
The flare-associated interplanetary (IP) shock of February 15--16, 1967, observed by Explorer 33 and Pioneer 7 is analyzed to yield an estimation of the ecliptic plane geometry of the shock surface near 1 AU. These spacecraft were separated by 23degree in heliocentric longitude, and Pioneer 7 was at a distance of 1.12 AU from the sun. There was an 18.9-hour delay between the two observations. The estimated shock normal, obtained by using a least squares shock parameter fitting procedure for the Explorer 33 data, is found to be theta/subS//subE/=-53degree and phi/subS//subE/=198degree. The error cone angle for the shock normal of the Explorer 33 observation was approximately 7degree. This severely inclined shock normal is not typical of IP shocks. The shock normal at the Pioneer 7 position is found to be theta/subn/=-14degree and phi/subn/=161degree. However, the uncertainty is large (approx. =25degree for a 1sigma cone angle). Although a data gap occurred at the apparent time of passage of the disturbance at Pioneer 6,the recovered data did not suggest such a passage. A consistent picture of the shock propagation is given. The average shock speed from the sun to each spacecraft and the local speed at Explorer 33 and their relations to the position of the initiating solar flare are obtained and discussed. In the region of space between the earth and Pioneer 7 the shock surface radius of curvature in the ecliptic plane appears to have been 0.4 AU or less
A General Algorithm for Reusing Krylov Subspace Information. I. Unsteady Navier-Stokes
Carpenter, Mark H.; Vuik, C.; Lucas, Peter; vanGijzen, Martin; Bijl, Hester
2010-01-01
A general algorithm is developed that reuses available information to accelerate the iterative convergence of linear systems with multiple right-hand sides A x = b (sup i), which are commonly encountered in steady or unsteady simulations of nonlinear equations. The algorithm is based on the classical GMRES algorithm with eigenvector enrichment but also includes a Galerkin projection preprocessing step and several novel Krylov subspace reuse strategies. The new approach is applied to a set of test problems, including an unsteady turbulent airfoil, and is shown in some cases to provide significant improvement in computational efficiency relative to baseline approaches.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paik, Joongcheol [University of Minnesota; Sotiropoulos, Fotis [University of Minnesota; Sale, Michael J [ORNL
2005-06-01
A numerical method is developed for carrying out unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations and detached-eddy simulations (DESs) in complex 3D geometries. The method is applied to simulate incompressible swirling flow in a typical hydroturbine draft tube, which consists of a strongly curved 90 degree elbow and two piers. The governing equations are solved with a second-order-accurate, finite-volume, dual-time-stepping artificial compressibility approach for a Reynolds number of 1.1 million on a mesh with 1.8 million nodes. The geometrical complexities of the draft tube are handled using domain decomposition with overset (chimera) grids. Numerical simulations show that unsteady statistical turbulence models can capture very complex 3D flow phenomena dominated by geometry-induced, large-scale instabilities and unsteady coherent structures such as the onset of vortex breakdown and the formation of the unsteady rope vortex downstream of the turbine runner. Both URANS and DES appear to yield the general shape and magnitude of mean velocity profiles in reasonable agreement with measurements. Significant discrepancies among the DES and URANS predictions of the turbulence statistics are also observed in the straight downstream diffuser.
Simulations of Converging Shock Collisions for Shock Ignition
Sauppe, Joshua; Dodd, Evan; Loomis, Eric
2016-10-01
Shock ignition (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to achieving high gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. A central hot spot below the ignition threshold is created by an initial compression pulse, and a second laser pulse drives a strong converging shock into the fuel. The collision between the rebounding shock from the compression pulse and the converging shock results in amplification of the converging shock and increases the hot spot pressure above the ignition threshold. We investigate shock collision in SI drive schemes for cylindrical targets with a polystyrene foam interior using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RAGE code. The configuration is similar to previous targets fielded on the Omega laser. The CH interior results in a lower convergence ratio and the cylindrical geometry facilitates visualization of the shock transit using an axial X-ray backlighter, both of which are important for comparison to potential experimental measurements. One-dimensional simulations are used to determine shock timing, and the effects of low mode asymmetries in 2D computations are also quantified. LA-UR-16-24773.
Wall modeling for the simulation of highly non-isothermal unsteady flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devesa, A.
2006-12-01
Nuclear industry flows are most of the time characterized by their high Reynolds number, density variations (at low Mach numbers) and a highly unsteady behaviour (low to moderate frequencies). High Reynolds numbers are un-affordable by direct simulation (DNS), and simulations must either be performed by solving averaged equations (RANS), or by solving only the large eddies (LES), both using a wall model. A first investigation of this thesis dealt with the derivation and test of two variable density wall models: an algebraic law (CWM) and a zonal approach dedicated to LES (TBLE-ρ). These models were validated in quasi-isothermal cases, before being used in academic and industrial non-isothermal flows with satisfactory results. Then, a numerical experiment of pulsed passive scalars was performed by DNS, were two forcing conditions were considered: oscillations are imposed in the outer flow; oscillations come from the wall. Several frequencies and amplitudes of oscillations were taken into account in order to gain insights in unsteady effects in the boundary layer, and to create a database for validating wall models in such context. The temporal behaviour of two wall models (algebraic and zonal wall models) were studied and showed that a zonal model produced better results when used in the simulation of unsteady flows. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, W D; Fan, H G; Chen, N X
2012-01-01
To study the interaction between the transient flow in pipe and the unsteady turbulent flow in turbine, a coupled model of the transient flow in the pipe and three-dimensional unsteady flow in the turbine is developed based on the method of characteristics and the fluid governing equation in the accelerated rotational relative coordinate. The load-rejection process under the closing of guide vanes of the hydraulic power plant is simulated by the coupled method, the traditional transient simulation method and traditional three-dimensional unsteady flow calculation method respectively and the results are compared. The pressure, unit flux and rotation speed calculated by three methods show a similar change trend. However, because the elastic water hammer in the pipe and the pressure fluctuation in the turbine have been considered in the coupled method, the increase of pressure at spiral inlet is higher and the pressure fluctuation in turbine is stronger.
Huang, W. D.; Fan, H. G.; Chen, N. X.
2012-11-01
To study the interaction between the transient flow in pipe and the unsteady turbulent flow in turbine, a coupled model of the transient flow in the pipe and three-dimensional unsteady flow in the turbine is developed based on the method of characteristics and the fluid governing equation in the accelerated rotational relative coordinate. The load-rejection process under the closing of guide vanes of the hydraulic power plant is simulated by the coupled method, the traditional transient simulation method and traditional three-dimensional unsteady flow calculation method respectively and the results are compared. The pressure, unit flux and rotation speed calculated by three methods show a similar change trend. However, because the elastic water hammer in the pipe and the pressure fluctuation in the turbine have been considered in the coupled method, the increase of pressure at spiral inlet is higher and the pressure fluctuation in turbine is stronger.
Unsteady flow field in a mini VAWT with relative rotation blades: analysis of temporal results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayeul-Lainé, A C; Simonet, S; Bois, G
2013-01-01
The present wind turbine is a small one which can be used on roofs or in gardens. This turbine has a vertical axis. Each turbine blade combines a rotating movement around its own axis and around the main rotor axis. Due to this combination of movements, flow around this turbine is highly unsteady and needs to be modelled by unsteady calculation. The present work is an extended study starting in 2009. The benefits of combined rotating blades have been shown. The performance coefficient of this kind of turbine is very good for some blade stagger angles. Spectral analysis of unsteady results on specific points in the domain and temporal forces on blades was already presented for elliptic blades. The main aim here is to compare two kinds of blades in case of the best performances
Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: ro@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)
2017-05-20
Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.
Galaxy-Wide Shocks in the H$\\alpha$ Emission of Nearby Galaxy Mergers
Mortazavi, S. Alireza; Lotz, Jennifer M.
2018-01-01
We examine the properties of shocked gas produced as a result of binary galaxy interactions, using H$\\alpha$ emission in a sample 22 mergers observed with SparsePak Integral Field Unit (IFU) at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). Our sample consists of major and minor tidally interacting galaxies (mass ratio $1text{f}_\\text{shocked}$, and examine the spatial distribution of shocks. We find that close galaxy pairs have, on average, a higher shock fraction than wide pairs, and our coalesced mergers have the highest average $\\text{f}_\\text{shocked}$. Additionally, we find for the first time, correlations between mass ratio, mass of the companion, and $\\text{f}_\\text{shocked}$ in tidally interacting galaxy pairs. Among the non-coalesced systems in our sample, the galaxy pairs with more equal light ratio (stellar mass ratio) tend to have a higher average $\\text{f}_\\text{shocked}$. Also, the primary (more massive) companions are on average slightly more shocked than the secondary (less massive) ones. Utilizing dynamical models in the literature and this work, we inspect trends between $\\text{f}_\\text{shocked}$ and the reconstructed encounter parameters. In this very limited sample, we find that the orbital pericentric separation is correlated with shock fraction, consistent with shocks being produced by the chain of events caused by the tidal impulse during the first passage. These results lay a basis for furture analysis using the higher statistics provided by the on-going and future IFU galaxy surveys.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Gao
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design and application of a lever coupling mechanism to improve the shock resistance of a dual-mass silicon micro-gyroscope with drive mode coupled along the driving direction without sacrificing the mechanical sensitivity. Firstly, the mechanical sensitivity and the shock response of the micro-gyroscope are theoretically analyzed. In the mechanical design, a novel lever coupling mechanism is proposed to change the modal order and to improve the frequency separation. The micro-gyroscope with the lever coupling mechanism optimizes the drive mode order, increasing the in-phase mode frequency to be much larger than the anti-phase one. Shock analysis results show that the micro-gyroscope structure with the designed lever coupling mechanism can notably reduce the magnitudes of the shock response and cut down the stress produced in the shock process compared with the traditional elastic coupled one. Simulations reveal that the shock resistance along the drive direction is greatly increased. Consequently, the lever coupling mechanism can change the gyroscope’s modal order and improve the frequency separation by structurally offering a higher stiffness difference ratio. The shock resistance along the driving direction is tremendously enhanced without loss of the mechanical sensitivity.
MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF UNSTEADY HEAT EXCHANGE IN A PASSENGER CAR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Yu. Khomenko
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Purpose.Existing mathematicalmodelsofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercardonotsatisfytheneedofthedifferentconstructivedecisionsofthelifesupportsystemefficiencyestimation. They also don’t allow comparing new and old life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditions. Moreoverquite frequently unsteady heat exchange processes were studied at the initial car motion stage. Due to the new competitive engineering decisionsof the lifesupportsystemthe need of a new mathematical instrument that would satisfy the mentioned features and their influence on the unsteadyheatexchangeprocesses during the whole time of the road appeared. The purpose of this work is creation of the mathematicalmodel ofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarthatcan satisfythe above-listed requirements. Methodology. Fortheassigned task realizationsystemofdifferentialequationsthatcharacterizesunsteadyheatexchangeprocessesinapassengercarwascomposed; forthesystemof equationssolution elementary balance method was used. Findings. Computational algorithm was developed andcomputer program for modeling transitional heat processes in the car was designed. It allows comparing different life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditionsand unsteady heat exchange processes can be studied at every car motion stage. Originality.Mathematicalmodelofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarwasimproved. That is why it can be used for the heat engineering studying of the inner car state under various conditions and for the operation of the different life support systems of passenger cars comparison. Mathematicalmodelingofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarwas made by the elementary balance method. Practical value. Created mathematical model gives the possibility to simulate temperature changes in passenger car on unsteady thermal conditions with enough accuracy and to introduce and remove additional elements to the designed model. Thus different
On applications of chimera grid schemes to store separation
Cougherty, F. C.; Benek, J. A.; Steger, J. L.
1985-01-01
A finite difference scheme which uses multiple overset meshes to simulate the aerodynamics of aircraft/store interaction and store separation is described. In this chimera, or multiple mesh, scheme, a complex configuration is mapped using a major grid about the main component of the configuration, and minor overset meshes are used to map each additional component such as a store. As a first step in modeling the aerodynamics of store separation, two dimensional inviscid flow calculations were carried out in which one of the minor meshes is allowed to move with respect to the major grid. Solutions of calibrated two dimensional problems indicate that allowing one mesh to move with respect to another does not adversely affect the time accuracy of an unsteady solution. Steady, inviscid three dimensional computations demonstrate the capability to simulate complex configurations, including closely packed multiple bodies.
Study of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) Using Largely Separated Spacecraft
2016-12-31
the data were very noisy and there were no three consecutive times with increasing flux, we double the time over which the data were averaged until...can form piston -driven shocks, which is the main mechanism to accelerate SPEs. The importance of source longitude and angular width can be...of proton particles accelerated by the CME piston driven shocks have a tendency to increase with angular width. The angular separation is directly
Turangan, C. K.; Ball, G. J.; Jamaluddin, A. R.; Leighton, T. G.
2017-09-01
We present a study of shock-induced collapse of single bubbles near/attached to an elastic-plastic solid using the free-Lagrange method, which forms the latest part of our shock-induced collapse studies. We simulated the collapse of 40 μm radius single bubbles near/attached to rigid and aluminium walls by a 60 MPa lithotripter shock for various scenarios based on bubble-wall separations, and the collapse of a 255 μm radius bubble attached to aluminium foil with a 65 MPa lithotripter shock. The coupling of the multi-phases, compressibility, axisymmetric geometry and elastic-plastic material model within a single solver has enabled us to examine the impingement of high-speed liquid jets from the shock-induced collapsing bubbles, which imposes an extreme compression in the aluminium that leads to pitting and plastic deformation. For certain scenarios, instead of the high-speed jet, a radially inwards flow along the aluminium surface contracts the bubble to produce a `mushroom shape'. This work provides methods for quantifying which parameters (e.g. bubble sizes and separations from the solid) might promote or inhibit erosion on solid surfaces.
Unsteady axisymmetric flow and heat transfer over time-dependent radially stretching sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azeem Shahzad
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This article address the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of unsteady and incompressible viscous fluid over an unsteady stretching permeable surface. First of all modeled nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed to a system of ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations. Analytic solution of the reduced problem is constructed by using homotopy analysis method (HAM. To validate the constructed series solution a numerical counterpart is developed using shooting algorithm based on Runge-Kutta method. Both schemes are in an excellent agreement. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the velocity and energy profile are shown graphically and examined in detail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogl, D.F.
2000-10-01
The interaction of the solar wind with magnetized planets leads to the formation of the so-called magnetosphere, a cavity generated by the geomagnetic field. The supersonic, superalfvenic, and magnetized solar wind flow interacting with blunt bodies produces a detached bow shock, separating the solar wind from the magnetosheath, the region between the shock wave and the magnetopause. On approach to a planetary obstacle, the solar wind becomes subsonic at the bow shock and then flows past the planet in the magnetosheath. At the bow shock, the plasma parameters and the magnetic field strength change from upstream to downstream, i.e., an increase of plasma density, temperature, pressure, and magnetic field strength, and a decrease of the velocity across the shock. In this PhD thesis we mainly concentrate on the variations of all physical quantities across the bow shock taking into account pressure anisotropy, which is an important feature in space plasma physics and observed by various spacecraft missions in the solar wind as well as in the magnetosheath. Dealing with anisotropic plasma conditions, one has to introduce the so-called pressure tensor, characterized by two scalar pressures, the pressure perpendicular (P p erp) and the pressure parallel (P p arallel) with respect to the magnetic field and in general one speaks of anisotropic conditions for P p erp is not P p arallel. Many spacecraft observations of the solar wind show P p arallel > P p erp, whereas observations of the magnetosheath show the opposite case, P p arallel p erp. Therefore, dissipation of kinetic energy into thermal energy plays an important role in studying the variations of the relevant physical quantities across the shock. It has to be mentioned that planetary bow shocks are good examples for fast MHD shock waves. Therefore, the basic equations for describing the changes across the shock can be obtained by integrating the MHD equations in conservative form. We note that these equations, the
Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents a new numerical approach for solving unsteady two dimensional boundary layer flow past an infinite vertical porous surface with the flow generated by Newtonian heating and impulsive motion in the presence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid under ...
Heat and mass transfer in the unsteady hydromagnetic free ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Heat and mass transfer in the unsteady hydromagnetic free-convection flow in a rotating binary fluid I. ... By imposing a time dependent perturbation on the constant plate temperature and concentration and assuming a differential approximation for the radiative flux, the coupled non linear problem is solved for the ...
Unsteady lift forces on highly cambered airfoils moving through a gust
Atassi, H.; Goldstein, M.
1974-01-01
An unsteady airfoil theory in which the flow is linearized about the steady potential flow of the airfoil is presented. The theory is applied to an airfoil entering a gust. After transformation to the W-plane, the problem is formulated in terms of a Poisson's equation. The solutions are expanded in a Fourier-Bessel series. The theory is applied to a circular arc with arbitrary camber. Closed form expressions for the velocity and pressure on the surface of the airfoil are obtained. The unsteady aerodynamic forces are then calculated and shown to contain two terms. One in an explicit closed analytical form represents the contribution of the oncoming vortical disturbance, the other depends on a single quadrature and accounts for the effect of the wake.
Numerical Study on Blast Wave Propagation Driven by Unsteady Ionization Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogino, Yousuke; Sawada, Keisuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi
2008-01-01
Understanding the dynamics of laser-produced plasma is essential for increasing the available thrust and energy conversion efficiency from a pulsed laser to a blast wave in a gas-driven laser-propulsion system. The performance of a gas-driven laser-propulsion system depends heavily on the laser-driven blast wave dynamics as well as on the ionizing and/or recombining plasma state that sustains the blast wave. In this study, we therefore develop a numerical simulation code for a laser-driven blast wave coupled with time-dependent rate equations to explore the formation of unsteady ionizing plasma produced by laser irradiation. We will also examine the various properties of blast waves and unsteady ionizing plasma for different laser input energies
Lift hysteresis at stall as an unsteady boundary-layer phenomenon
Moore, Franklin K
1956-01-01
Analysis of rotating stall of compressor blade rows requires specification of a dynamic lift curve for the airfoil section at or near stall, presumably including the effect of lift hysteresis. Consideration of the magnus lift of a rotating cylinder suggests performing an unsteady boundary-layer calculation to find the movement of the separation points of an airfoil fixed in a stream of variable incidence. The consideration of the shedding of vorticity into the wake should yield an estimate of lift increment proportional to time rate of change of angle of attack. This increment is the amplitude of the hysteresis loop. An approximate analysis is carried out according to the foregoing ideas for a 6:1 elliptic airfoil at the angle of attack for maximum lift. The assumptions of small perturbations from maximum lift are made, permitting neglect of distributed vorticity in the wake. The calculated hysteresis loop is counterclockwise. Finally, a discussion of the forms of hysteresis loops is presented; and, for small reduced frequency of oscillation, it is concluded that the concept of a viscous "time lag" is appropriate only for harmonic variations of angle of attack with time at mean conditions other than maximum lift.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dugeai, A.; Sens, A.S. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France); Madec, A. [Societe Nationale d' Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d' Aviation SNECMA, 77 - Villaroche (France)
2001-07-01
A computational tool for the prediction of aeronautical machineries aeroelastic stability is presented. Numerical features of the quasi-3D Navier-Stokes unsteady solver are discussed: turbulence models, grid deformation techniques, specific boundary conditions. Isolated profile and cascade computational results are compared to experimental data, for steady and unsteady cases. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Hyeon Kyeong; Park, Jong Woon
2013-01-01
In this work, behavior of unsteady and oscillating flow through a typical tube bundle array are analyzed by unsteady computations: 2D unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and the results are compared with existing experimental data. In order to confirm appropriateness and limitations of CFD applications in the Korean VHTR design, two types of unsteady computations are performed such as 2D unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for the existing tube bundle array. The velocity component profiles are compared with the experimental data and it is concluded that the URANS with the standard k-ω model is reasonably appropriate for cost-effective VHTR lower plenum analysis. Nevertheless, if more accurate results are needed, the LES-Smagorinsky computation is recommended considering limitations in the time averaged RANS in capturing small eddies
Han, Ruoyu; Zhou, Haibin; Wu, Jiawei; Qiu, Aici; Ding, Weidong; Zhang, Yongmin
2017-09-01
An experimental study of pressure waves generated by an exploding copper wire in a water medium is performed. We examined the effects of energy deposited at different stages on the characteristics of the resulting shock waves. In the experiments, a microsecond time-scale pulsed current source was used to explode a 300-μm-diameter, 4-cm-long copper wire with initial stored energies ranging from 500 to 2700 J. Our experimental results indicated that the peak pressure (4.5-8.1 MPa) and energy (49-287 J) of the shock waves did not follow a simple relationship with any electrical parameters, such as peak voltage or deposited energy. Conversely, the impulse had a quasi-linear relationship with the parameter Π. We also found that the peak pressure was mainly influenced by the energy deposited before separation of the shock wave front and the discharge plasma channel (DPC). The decay time constant of the pressure waveform was affected by the energy injection after the separation. These phenomena clearly demonstrated that the deposited energy influenced the expansion of the DPC and affected the shock wave characteristics.
Slow shocks and their transition to fast shocks in the inner solar wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.C.
1987-01-01
The jump conditions of MHD shocks may be directly calculated as functions of three upstream conditions: the shock Alfven number based on the normal component of the relative shock speed, the shock angle, and the plasma β value. The shock Alfven number is less than 1 for a slow shock and greater than 1 for a fast shock. A traveling, forward shock can be a slow shock in coronal space, where the Alfven speed is of the order of 1000 km/s. The surface of a forward slow shock has a bow-shaped geometry with its nose facing toward the sun. The decrease in the Alfven speed at increasing heliocentric distance causes the shock Alfven number of a forward slow shock to become greater than 1, and the shock eventually evolves from a slow shock into a fast shock. During the transition the shock system consists of a slow shock, a fast shock, and a rotational discontinuity. They intersect along a closed transition line. As the system moves outward from the sun, the area enclosed by the transition line expands, the fast shock grows stronger, and the slow shock becomes weaker. Eventually, the slow shock diminishes, and the entire shock system evolves into a forward fast shock. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987
Shock Wave Propagation in Layered Planetary Interiors: Revisited
Arkani-Hamed, J.; Monteux, J.
2017-12-01
The end of the terrestrial planet accretion is characterized by numerous large impacts. About 90% of the mass of a large planet is accreted while the core mantle separation is occurring, because of the accretionary and the short-lived radio-isotope heating. The characteristics of the shockwave propagation, hence the existing scaling laws are poorly known within the layered planets. Here, we use iSALE-2D hydrocode simulations to calculate shock pressure in a differentiated Mars type body for impact velocities of 5-20 km/s, and impactor sizes of 100-400 km. We use two different rheologies for the target interior, an inviscid model ("no-stress model") and a pressure and damage-dependent strength model ("elaborated model"). To better characterize the shock pressure within the whole mantle as a function of distance from the impact site, we propose the following distribution: (1) a near field zone larger than the isobaric core that extends to 7-15 times the projectile radius into the target, where the peak shock pressure decays exponentially with increasing distance, (2) a far field zone where the pressure decays with distance following a power law. The shock pressure decreases more rapidly with distance in the near field for the elaborated model than for the no-stress model because of the influence of acoustic fluidization and damage. However to better illustrate the influence of the rheology on the shock propagation, we use the same expressions to fit the shock pressure with distance for both models. At the core-mantle boundary, CMB, the peak shock pressure jumps as the shock wave enters the core. We derived the boundary condition at CMB for the peak shock pressure. It is less sensitive to the impact velocity or the impactor size, but strongly depends on the rheology of the planet's mantle. Because of the lower shock wave velocity in the core compared to that in the mantle, the refracted shockwave propagates toward the symmetry axis of the planet, and the shock
Implementing unsteady friction in pressure-time measurements
Jonsson, Pontus; Ramdal, Jorgen; Cervantes, Michel; Nielsen, Torbjørn Kristian
2012-01-01
Laboratory measurements using the pressure‐time method showed a velocity or Reynolds number dependent error of the flow estimate. It was suspected that the quasi steady friction formulation of the method was the cause. This was investigated, and it was proved that implementing a model for unsteady friction into the calculations improved the result. This paper presents the process of this investigation, and proposes a new method for treatment of the friction term in the pressure‐time method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghui Xie
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Air turbines are widely used to convert kinetic energy into power output in power engineering. The unsteady performance of air turbines with partial admission not only influences the aerodynamic performance and thermodynamic efficiency of turbine but also generates strong excitation force on blades to impair the turbine safely operating. Based on three-dimensional viscous compressible Navier-stokes equations, the present study employs RNG (Renormalization group k-ε turbulence model with finite volume discretization on air turbine with partial admission. Numerical models of four different admission rates with full annulus are built and analyzed via CFD (computational fluid dynamics modeling unsteady flows. Results indicate that the unsteady time-averaged isentropic efficiency is lower than the steady isentropic efficiency, and this difference rises as unsteady isentropic efficiency fluctuates stronger when the admission rate is reduced. The rotor axial and tangential forces with time are provided for all four admission rates. The low frequency excitation forces generated by partial admission are extraordinarily higher than the high frequency excitation forces by stator wakes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Yang
Full Text Available A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions.
A Broyden numerical Kutta condition for an unsteady panel method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, P.; Bose, N.; Colbourne, B.
2003-01-01
In panel methods, numerical Kutta conditions are applied in order to ensure that pressure differences between the surfaces at the trailing edges of lifting surface elements are close to zero. Previous numerical Kutta conditions for 3-D panel methods have focused on use of the Newton-Raphson iterative procedure. For extreme unsteady motions, such as for oscillating hydrofoils or for a propeller behind a blockage, the Newton-Raphson procedure can have severe convergence difficulties. The Broyden iteration, a modified Newton-Raphson iteration procedure, is applied here to obtain improved convergence behavior. Using the Broyden iteration increases the reliability, robustness and in many cases computing efficiency for unsteady, multi-body interactive flows. This method was tested in a time domain code for an ice class propeller in both open water flow and during interaction with a nearby ice blockage. Predictions showed that the method was effective in these extreme flows. (author)
Shear stress from hot-film sensors in unsteady gas flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cole, K.D.
1991-01-01
In this paper a data analysis procedure is proposed for obtaining unsteady wall shear stress from flush-mounted hot-film anemometer measurements. The method is based on a two-dimensional heat transfer model of the unsteady heat transfer in both the hot-film sensor and in the gas flow. The sensor thermal properties are found from preliminary calibration experiments at zero flow. Numerical experiments are used to demonstrate the data analysis method using simulated sensor signals that are corrupted with noise. The numerical experiments show that noise in the data propagates into the results so that data smoothing may be important in analyzing experimental data. Because the data analysis procedure is linear, a linear digital filter is constructed that could be used for processing large amounts of experimental data. However, further refinements will be needed before the method can be applied to experimental data
Unsteady aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with and without a slat
Tung, Chee; Mcalister, Kenneth W.; Wang, Clin M.
1993-01-01
Unsteady flow behavior and load characteristics of a 2D VR-7 airfoil with and without a leading-edge slat were studied in the water tunnel of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center. Both airfoils were oscillated sinusoidally between 5 and 25 deg at Re = 200,000 to obtain the unsteady lift, drag, and pitching moment data. A fluorescent dye was released from an orifice located at the leading edge of the airfoil for the purpose of visualizing the boundary layer and wake flow. The flowfield and load predictions of an incompressible Navier-Stokes code based on a velocity-vorticity formulation were compared with the test data. The test and predictions both confirm that the slatted VR-7 airfoil delays both static and dynamic stall as compared to the VR-7 airfoil alone.
Caution: Precision Error in Blade Alignment Results in Faulty Unsteady CFD Simulation
Lewis, Bryan; Cimbala, John; Wouden, Alex
2012-11-01
Turbomachinery components experience unsteady loads at several frequencies. The rotor frequency corresponds to the time for one rotor blade to rotate between two stator vanes, and is normally dominant for rotor torque oscillations. The guide vane frequency corresponds to the time for two rotor blades to pass by one guide vane. The machine frequency corresponds to the machine RPM. Oscillations at the machine frequency are always present due to minor blade misalignments and imperfections resulting from manufacturing defects. However, machine frequency oscillations should not be present in CFD simulations if the mesh is free of both blade misalignment and surface imperfections. The flow through a Francis hydroturbine was modeled with unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) CFD simulations and a dynamic rotating grid. Spectral analysis of the unsteady torque on the rotor blades revealed a large component at the machine frequency. Close examination showed that one blade was displaced by 0 .0001° due to round-off errors during mesh generation. A second mesh without blade misalignment was then created. Subsequently, large machine frequency oscillations were not observed for this mesh. These results highlight the effect of minor geometry imperfections on CFD solutions. This research was supported by a grant from the DoE and a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship.
Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase V: Test Configuration and Available Data Campaigns; TOPICAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hand, M. M.; Simms, D. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.; Cotrell, J. R.
2001-01-01
The main objective of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment is to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional, unsteady aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). To accomplish this, an experimental wind turbine configured to meet specific research objectives was assembled and operated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The turbine was instrumented to characterize rotating-blade aerodynamic performance, machine structural responses, and atmospheric inflow conditions. Comprehensive tests were conducted with the turbine operating in an outdoor field environment under diverse conditions. Resulting data are used to validate aerodynamic and structural dynamics models, which are an important part of wind turbine design and engineering codes. Improvements in these models are needed to better characterize aerodynamic response in both the steady-state post-stall and dynamic-stall regimes. Much of the effort in the first phase of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment focused on developing required data acquisition systems. Complex instrumentation and equipment was needed to meet stringent data requirements while operating under the harsh environmental conditions of a wind turbine rotor. Once the data systems were developed, subsequent phases of experiments were then conducted to collect data for use in answering specific research questions. A description of the experiment configuration used during Phase V of the experiment is contained in this report
The Unsteady Variable – Viscosity Free Convection Flow on a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The unsteady variable-viscosity free convection flow of a viscous incompressible fluid near an infinite vertical plate (or wall) is investigated under an arbitrary timedependent heating of the plates, and the governing equations of motion and energy transformed into ordinary differential equations. Employing asymptotic ...
Regular shock refraction in planar ideal MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delmont, P; Keppens, R
2010-01-01
We study the classical problem of planar shock refraction at an oblique density discontinuity, separating two gases at rest, in planar ideal (magneto)hydrodynamics. In the hydrodynamical case, 3 signals arise and the interface becomes Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable due to vorticity deposition on the shocked contact. In the magnetohydrodynamical case, on the other hand, when the normal component of the magnetic field does not vanish, 5 signals will arise. The interface then typically remains stable, since the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions in ideal MHD do not allow for vorticity deposition on a contact discontinuity. We present an exact Riemann solver based solution strategy to describe the initial self similar refraction phase. Using grid-adaptive MHD simulations, we show that after reflection from the top wall, the interface remains stable.
Color surface-flow visualization of fin-generated shock wave boundary-layer interactions
Lu, F. K.; Settles, G. S.
1990-03-01
Kerosene-lampblack mixtures with addition of a ground colored chalk were used in an experiment on visualizing surface flows of swept shock boundary-layer interactions. The results show that contrasting colors intensify the visualization of different regions of the interaction surface, and help the eye in following the fine streaks to locate the upstream influence. The study confirms observations of the separation occurring at shock strength below accepted values. The superiority of the reported technique over the previous monochrome technique is demonstrated.
Shock compression and quasielastic release in tantalum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.N.; Hixson, R.S.; Tonks, D.L.; Gray, G.T. III
1994-01-01
Previous studies of quasielastic release in shock-loaded FCC metals have shown a strong influence of the defect state on the leading edge, or first observable arrival, of the release wave. This is due to the large density of pinned dislocation segments behind the shock front, their relatively large pinning separation, and a very short response time as determined by the drag coefficient in the shock-compressed state. This effect is entirely equivalent to problems associated with elastic moduli determination using ultrasonic methods. This is particularly true for FCC metals, which have an especially low Peierls stress, or inherent lattice resistance, that has little influence in pinning dislocation segments and inhibiting anelastic deformation. BCC metals, on the other hand, have a large Peierls stress that essentially holds dislocation segments in place at low net applied shear stresses and thus allows fully elastic deformation to occur in the complete absence of anelastic behavior. Shock-compression and release experiments have been performed on tantalum (BCC), with the observation that the leading release disturbance is indeed elastic. This conclusion is established by examination of experimental VISAR records taken at the tantalum/sapphire (window) interface in a symmetric-impact experiment which subjects the sample to a peak longitudinal stress of approximately 7.3 GPa, in comparison with characteristic code calculations. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...
Extended charge banking model of dual path shocks for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.
Dosdall, Derek J; Sweeney, James D
2008-08-01
Single path defibrillation shock methods have been improved through the use of the Charge Banking Model of defibrillation, which predicts the response of the heart to shocks as a simple resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit. While dual path defibrillation configurations have significantly reduced defibrillation thresholds, improvements to dual path defibrillation techniques have been limited to experimental observations without a practical model to aid in improving dual path defibrillation techniques. The Charge Banking Model has been extended into a new Extended Charge Banking Model of defibrillation that represents small sections of the heart as separate RC circuits, uses a weighting factor based on published defibrillation shock field gradient measures, and implements a critical mass criteria to predict the relative efficacy of single and dual path defibrillation shocks. The new model reproduced the results from several published experimental protocols that demonstrated the relative efficacy of dual path defibrillation shocks. The model predicts that time between phases or pulses of dual path defibrillation shock configurations should be minimized to maximize shock efficacy. Through this approach the Extended Charge Banking Model predictions may be used to improve dual path and multi-pulse defibrillation techniques, which have been shown experimentally to lower defibrillation thresholds substantially. The new model may be a useful tool to help in further improving dual path and multiple pulse defibrillation techniques by predicting optimal pulse durations and shock timing parameters.
Observations and Measurements on Unsteady Cloud Cavitation Flow Structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu, L X; Yan, G J; Huang, B
2015-01-01
The objectives of this paper are to investigate the unsteady structures and hydrodynamics of cavitating flows. Experimental results are presented for a Clark-Y hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=0°, 5° and 8°. The high-speed video camera and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are applied to investigate the transient flow structures. The dynamic measurement system is used to record the dynamic characteristics. The cloud cavitation exhibits noticeable unsteady characteristics. For the case of α=0°, there exit strong interactions between the attached cavity and the re-entrant flow. While for the case of α=8°, the re-entrant flow is relatively thin and the interaction between the cavity and re-entrant flow is limited. The results also present that the periodic collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavitation, which leads to substantial increase of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the cavity region. Experimental evidence indicates that the hydrodynamics are clearly affected by the cavitating flow structures, the amplitude of load fluctuation are much higher for the cloud cavitating cases. (paper)
Observations and Measurements on Unsteady Cloud Cavitation Flow Structures
Gu, L. X.; Yan, G. J.; Huang, B.
2015-12-01
The objectives of this paper are to investigate the unsteady structures and hydrodynamics of cavitating flows. Experimental results are presented for a Clark-Y hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=0°, 5° and 8°. The high-speed video camera and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are applied to investigate the transient flow structures. The dynamic measurement system is used to record the dynamic characteristics. The cloud cavitation exhibits noticeable unsteady characteristics. For the case of α=0°, there exit strong interactions between the attached cavity and the re-entrant flow. While for the case of α=8°, the re-entrant flow is relatively thin and the interaction between the cavity and re-entrant flow is limited. The results also present that the periodic collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavitation, which leads to substantial increase of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the cavity region. Experimental evidence indicates that the hydrodynamics are clearly affected by the cavitating flow structures, the amplitude of load fluctuation are much higher for the cloud cavitating cases.
Fast-shock ignition: a new approach to inertial confinement fusion
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AH Farahbod
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A new concept for inertial confinement fusion called fast-shock ignition (FSI is introduced as a credible scheme in order to obtain high target gain. In the proposed model, the separation of fuel ignition into two successive steps, under the suitable conditions, reduces required ignitor energy for the fuel ignition. The main procedure in FSI concept is compressing the fuel up to stagnation. Then, two high intensity short pulse laser spikes with energy and power lower than those required for shock ignition (SI and fast ignition (FI with a proper delay time are launched at the fuel which increases the central hot-spot temperature and completes the ignition of the precompressed fuel. The introduced semi-analytical model indicates that with fast-shock ignition, the total required energy for compressing and igniting the fuel can be slightly reduced in comparison to pure shock ignition. Furthermore, for fuel mass greater than , the target energy gain increases up to 15 percent and the contribution of fast ignitor under the proper conditions could be decreased about 20 percent compared with pure fast ignition. The FSI scheme is beneficial from technological considerations for the construction of short pulse high power laser drivers. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition over pure shock ignition in terms of figure of merit can be more than 1.3.
An artificial nonlinear diffusivity method for supersonic reacting flows with shocks
Fiorina, B.; Lele, S. K.
2007-03-01
A computational approach for modeling interactions between shocks waves, contact discontinuities and reactions zones with a high-order compact scheme is investigated. To prevent the formation of spurious oscillations around shocks, artificial nonlinear viscosity [A.W. Cook, W.H. Cabot, A high-wavenumber viscosity for high resolution numerical method, J. Comput. Phys. 195 (2004) 594-601] based on high-order derivative of the strain rate tensor is used. To capture temperature and species discontinuities a nonlinear diffusivity based on the entropy gradient is added. It is shown that the damping of 'wiggles' is controlled by the model constants and is largely independent of the mesh size and the shock strength. The same holds for the numerical shock thickness and allows a determination of the L2 error. In the shock tube problem, with fluids of different initial entropy separated by the diaphragm, an artificial diffusivity is required to accurately capture the contact surface. Finally, the method is applied to a shock wave propagating into a medium with non-uniform density/entropy and to a CJ detonation wave. Multi-dimensional formulation of the model is presented and is illustrated by a 2D oblique wave reflection from an inviscid wall, by a 2D supersonic blunt body flow and by a Mach reflection problem.
Hypersonic shock structure with Burnett terms in the viscous stress and heat flux
Chapman, Dean R.; Fiscko, Kurt A.
1988-01-01
The continuum Navier-Stokes and Burnett equations are solved for one-dimensional shock structure in various monatomic gases. A new numerical method is employed which utilizes the complete time-dependent continuum equations and obtains the steady-state shock structure by allowing the system to relax from arbitrary initial conditions. Included is discussion of numerical difficulties encountered when solving the Burnett equations. Continuum solutions are compared to those obtained utilizing the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. Shock solutions are obtained for a hard sphere gas and for argon from Mach 1.3 to Mach 50. Solutions for a Maxwellian gas are obtained from Mach 1.3 to Mach 3.8. It is shown that the Burnett equations yield shock structure solutions in much closer agreement to both Monte Carlo and experimental results than do the Navier-Stokes equations. Shock density thickness, density asymmetry, and density-temperature separation are all more accurately predicted by the Burnett equations than by the Navier-Stokes equations.
Isotopic separation by centrifugation. Rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perello, M.; Vigon, M. A.
1972-01-01
The motion of a gas simultaneously submitted to an electric discharge and magnetic field has been studied in order to analyze the possibility of producing isotopes separation by rotation of a plasma. Some experimental results obtained under different discharge conditions are also given. Differences of pressure up to 15 mm oil between both electrodes has been attained. No definite conclusion on separation factors could be reached because of the low reproducibility of results, probably due to the short duration of the discharge with a new chamber designed to support stronger thermal shocks more reliable data can be expected. (Author) 16 refs
Coronal mass ejection shock fronts containing the two types of intermediate shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinolfson, R.S.; Hundhausen, A.J.
1990-01-01
Numerical solutions of the time-dependent, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in two dimensions are used to demonstrate the formation of both types of intermediate shocks in a single shock front for physical conditions that are an idealization of those expected to occur in some observed coronal mass ejections. The key to producing such a shock configuration in the simulations is the use of an initial atmosphere containing a magnetic field representative of that in a coronal streamer with open field lines overlying a region of closed field lines. Previous attempts using just open field lines (perpendicular to the surface) produced shock configurations containing just one of the two intermediate shock types. A schematic of such a shock front containing both intermediate shock types has been constructed previously based solely on the known properties of MHD shocks from the Rankine-Hugoniot equations and specific requirements placed on the shock solution at points along the front where the shock normal and upstream magnetic field are aligned. The shock front also contains, at various locations along the front, a hydrodynamic (nonmagnetic) shock, a switch-on shock, and a fast shock in addition to the intermediate shocks. This particular configuration occurs when the shock front speed exceeds the upstream (preshock) intermediate wave speed but is less than a critical speed defined in the paper (equation 1) along at least some portion of the shock front. A distinctive feature of the front is that it is concave upward (away from the surface) near the region where the field in the preshock plasma is normal to the front of near the central portion of the shock front
Rule-Based Multidisciplinary Tool for Unsteady Reacting Real-Fluid Flows, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A design and analysis computational tool is proposed for simulating unsteady reacting flows in combustor devices used in reusable launch vehicles. Key aspects...
The impacts of global oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Chuanguo
2014-01-01
This paper investigated the impacts of oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries. In order to analyze the reactions of different industries to oil price shocks, we focused on four fundamental industries: grains, metals, petrochemicals and oil fats. We separated the oil price shocks into two parts, positive and negative parts, to investigate how commodity markets react when oil prices go up and down. We further studied the extreme price movements, called jumps, existing in the oil markets and how jump behavior has affected China's commodity markets. Our results suggest that asymmetric effects of oil price shocks did exist in the four markets and the negative oil price shocks had stronger influences on the four markets in China. The petrochemicals market suffered most from the oil price shocks, and the grains market was least sensitive to the shocks. When jumps occurred in the crude oil market, the four commodity markets would be affected differently. The oil fats market and petrochemicals market tended to “overreact” to jumps. - Highlights: • We investigate the impacts of oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries. • Jump behavior does exist in the crude oil market. • The impacts of oil price shocks are asymmetric. • China's four commodity markets are affected by the jump behavior
Soret and Hall effects on unsteady MHD free convection flow of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... effects on unsteady MHD free convection flow of radiating and chemically reactive fluid ... Expressions for shear stress, rate of heat transfer and rate of mass transfer at the plate ...
Numerical investigation of unsteady mixing mechanism in plate film cooling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuai Li
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A large-scale large eddy simulation in high performance personal computer clusters is carried out to present unsteady mixing mechanism of film cooling and the development of films. Simulation cases include a single-hole plate with the inclined angle of 30° and blowing ratio of 0.5, and a single-row plate with hole-spacing of 1.5D and 2D (diameters of the hole. According to the massive simulation results, some new unsteady phenomena of gas films are found. The vortex system is changed in different position with the development of film cooling with the time marching the process of a single-row plate film cooling. Due to the mutual interference effects including mutual exclusion, a certain periodic sloshing and mutual fusion, and the structures of a variety of vortices change between parallel gas films. Macroscopic flow structures and heat transfer behaviors are obtained based on 20 million grids and Reynolds number of 28600.
Vehicle Unsteady Dynamics Characteristics Based on Tire and Road Features
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Bin Ma
2013-01-01
Full Text Available During automotive related accidents, tire and road play an important role in vehicle unsteady dynamics as they have a significant impact on the sliding friction. The calculation of the rubber viscoelastic energy loss modulus and the true contact area model is improved based on the true contact area and the rubber viscoelastic theory. A 10 DOF full vehicle dynamic model in consideration of the kinetic sliding friction coefficient which has good accuracy and reality is developed. The stability test is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, and the simulation test is done in MATLAB to analyze the impact of tire feature and road self-affine characteristics on the sport utility vehicle (SUV unsteady dynamics under different weights. The findings show that it is a great significance to analyze the SUV dynamics equipped with different tire on different roads, which may provide useful insights into solving the explicit-implicit features of tire prints in systematically and designing active safety systems.
Measurement of unsteady convection in a complex fenestration using laser interferometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poulad, M.E.; Naylor, D. [Ryerson Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Oosthuizen, P.H. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
2009-06-15
Complex fenestration involving windows with between-panes louvered blinds is gaining interest as a means to control solar gains in buildings. However, the heat transfer performance of this type of shading system is not well understood, especially at high Rayleigh numbers. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used in this study to measure the unsteady convective heat transfer in a tall enclosure with between-panes blind that was heated to simulate absorbed solar radiation. Digital cinematography was combined with laser interferometry to make time-averaged measurements of unsteady and turbulent free convective heat transfer. This paper described the procedures used to measure the time-average local heat flux. Under strongly turbulent conditions, the average Nusselt number for the enclosure was found to compare well with empirical correlations. A total sampling time of about ten seconds was needed in this experiment to obtain a stationary time-average heat flux. The time-average heat flux was found to be relatively insensitive to the camera frame rate. The local heat flux was found to be unsteady and periodic. Heating of the blind made the flow more unstable, producing a higher amplitude heat flux variation than for the unheated blind condition. This paper reported on only a small set of preliminary measurements. This study is being extended to other blind angles and glazing spacings. The next phase will focus on flow visualization studies to characterize the nature of the flow. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.
demystifying the shock of shocking
African Journals Online (AJOL)
(with a pulse), atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. The energy dose in cardioversion is less (0.5. - 2 J/kg) than in defibrillation (2 - 4 J/kg). In cardioversion the shock is discharged synchronously with the native R wave of the patient. Without synchronisation,. VF can be induced if a shock is delivered during the refractory period ...
Flow and axial dispersion in a sinusoidal-walled tube: Effects of inertial and unsteady flows
Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Lambert, Adam; Wood, Brian D.
2013-12-01
In this work, we consider a sinusoidal-walled tube (a three-dimensional tube with sinusoidally-varying diameter) as a simplified conceptualization of flow in porous media. Direct numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods was used to compute velocity fields by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, and also to numerically solve the volume averaging closure problem, for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) spanning the low-Re to inertial flow regimes, including one simulation at Re=449 for which unsteady flow was observed. The longitudinal dispersion observed for the flow was computed using a random walk particle tracking method, and this was compared to the longitudinal dispersion predicted from a volume-averaged macroscopic mass balance using the method of volume averaging; the results of the two methods were consistent. Our results are compared to experimental measurements of dispersion in porous media and to previous theoretical results for both the low-Re, Stokes flow regime and for values of Re representing the steady inertial regime. In the steady inertial regime, a power-law increase in the effective longitudinal dispersion (DL) with Re was found, and this is consistent with previous results. This rapid rate of increase is caused by trapping of solute in expansions due to flow separation (eddies). One unsteady (but non-turbulent) flow case (Re=449) was also examined. For this case, the rate of increase of DL with Re was smaller than that observed at lower Re. Velocity fluctuations in this regime lead to increased rates of solute mass transfer between the core flow and separated flow regions, thus diminishing the amount of tailing caused by solute trapping in eddies and thereby reducing longitudinal dispersion. The observed tailing was further explored through analysis of concentration skewness (third moment) and its assymptotic convergence to conventional advection-dispersion behavior (skewness = 0). The method of volume averaging was
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.
1992-01-01
Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)
Nakamura, S.; Scott, J. N.
1993-01-01
A two-dimensional model to solve compressible Navier-Stokes equations for the flow through stator and rotor blades of a turbine is developed. The flow domains for the stator and rotor blades are coupled by the Chimera method that makes grid generation easy and enhances accuracy because the area of the grid that have high turning of grid lines or high skewness can be eliminated from the computational domain after the grids are generated. The results of flow computations show various important features of unsteady flows including the acoustic waves interacting with boundary layers, Karman vortex shedding from the trailing edge of the stator blades, pulsating incoming flow to a rotor blade from passing stator blades, and flow separation from both suction and pressure sides of the rotor blades.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eun Seok Lee
2003-01-01
Full Text Available An axial turbine rotor cascade-shape optimization with unsteady passing wakes was performed to obtain an improved aerodynamic performance using an unsteady flow, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations solver that was based on explicit, finite difference; Runge-Kutta multistage time marching; and the diagonalized alternating direction implicit scheme. The code utilized Baldwin-Lomax algebraic and k-ε turbulence modeling. The full approximation storage multigrid method and preconditioning were implemented as iterative convergence-acceleration techniques. An implicit dual-time stepping method was incorporated in order to simulate the unsteady flow fields. The objective function was defined as minimization of total pressure loss and maximization of lift, while the mass flow rate was fixed during the optimization. The design variables were several geometric parameters characterizing airfoil leading edge, camber, stagger angle, and inter-row spacing. The genetic algorithm was used as an optimizer, and the penalty method was introduced for combining the constraints with the objective function. Each individual's objective function was computed simultaneously by using a 32-processor distributedmemory computer. The optimization results indicated that only minor improvements are possible in unsteady rotor/stator aerodynamics by varying these geometric parameters.
Influence of transition on steady and unsteady wind-turbine airfoil aerodynamics
Paterson, Eric; Lavely, Adam; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Brasseur, James
2011-11-01
Laminar-flow airfoils for large stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines are designed to achieve a restrained maximum lift coefficient and a broad laminar low- drag bucket under steady flow conditions and at specific Reynolds numbers. Blind- comparisons of the 2000 NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment showed large discrepancies and illustrated the need for improved physics modeling. We have studied the S809 airfoil under static and dynamic (ramp-up, ramp-down, and oscillatory) conditions, using the four-equation transition model of Langtry and Menter (2009), which has been implemented as a library accessible by an OpenFOAM RANS solver. Model validation is performed using surface-pressure and lift/drag data from U. Glasgow (2009) and OSU (1995) wind tunnel experiments. Performance of the transition model is assessed by analyzing integrated performance metrics, as well as detailed surface pressure and pressure gradient, wall-shear stress, and boundary-layer profiles and separation points. Demonstration of model performance in the light- and deep-stall regimes of dynamic stall is an important step in reducing uncertainties in full 3D simulations of turbines operating in the atmospheric boundary layer. Supported by NSF Grant 0933647.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mingyang, Yang; Ricardo, Martines-botas; Kangyao, Deng; Yangjun, Zhang; Xinqian, Zheng
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Reduced order model proves flow flucturations in impeller to be downstream disturbance propagation. • Fluctuations depression is attributed by the effect of energy bypass via rear slot of SRCT. • Flow distortion in diffuser results in disturbance with swing flow direction due to unbalanced forces. - Abstract: Self-Recirculation-Casing-Treatment (SRCT) is a widely employed method to enhance aerodynamic stability of a centrifugal compressor. This paper investigated unsteady effects of SRCT on the flow in a transonic centrifugal compressor via numerical method validated by experimental test. Firstly the static pressure distribution in the compressor without SRCT is measured for information of boundary conditions as well as validation. Then a 1-D unsteady model of a single passage is built and validated based on the experimental results. Next, the 1-D model of a passage with SRCT is built to investigate the unsteady influence of the SRCT on the flow in the passage. Finally 3-D unsteady CFD is employed to investigate the detailed influence of SRCT on the flow field in impeller passages. Results show that the topology of the passage with SRCT can remarkably damp the distortion propagating from downstream, hence depress the magnitude of the inlet flow distortion. Furthermore, the width of the rear slot in SRCT is the key factor for the damping effect. The 3-D simulation results further show that the fluctuations of the re-circulated flow rate via the front slot is depressed by the SRCT which is attributed to the damping effect of its configuration.
Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers
Hausdorff, J. M.; Edelberg, H. K.; Mitchell, S. L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Wei, J. Y.
1997-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of gait unsteadiness are increased in community-dwelling elderly fallers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five community-dwelling elderly subjects older than 70 years of age who were capable of ambulating independently for 6 minutes were categorized as fallers (age, 82.2 +/- 4.9 yrs [mean +/- SD]; n = 18) and nonfallers (age, 76.5 +/- 4.0 yrs; n = 17) based on history; 22 young (age, 24.6 +/- 1.9 yrs), healthy subjects also participated as a second reference group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stride-to-stride variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of stride time, stance time, swing time, and percent stance time measured during a 6-minute walk. RESULTS: All measures of gait variability were significantly greater in the elderly fallers compared with both the elderly nonfallers and the young subjects (p elderly fallers was similar to that of the nonfallers. There were little or no differences in the variability measures of the elderly nonfallers compared with the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Stride-to-stride temporal variations of gait are relatively unchanged in community-dwelling elderly nonfallers, but are significantly increased in elderly fallers. Quantitative measurement of gait unsteadiness may be useful in assessing fall risk in the elderly.
Modeling unsteady forces and pressures on a rapidly pitching airfoil
Schiavone, Nicole K.; Dawson, Scott T. M.; Rowley, Clarence W.; Williams, David R.
2014-11-01
This work develops models to quantify and understand the unsteady aerodynamic forces arising from rapid pitching motion of a NACA0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 50 000. The system identification procedure applies a generalized DMD-type algorithm to time-resolved wind tunnel measurements of the lift and drag forces, as well as the pressure at six locations on the suction surface of the airfoil. Models are identified for 5-degree pitch-up and pitch-down maneuvers within the overall range of 0-20 degrees. The identified models can accurately capture the effects of flow separation and leading-edge vortex formation and convection. We demonstrate that switching between different linear models can give accurate prediction of the nonlinear behavior that is present in high-amplitude maneuvers. The models are accurate for a wide-range of motions, including pitch-and-hold, sinusoidal, and pseudo-random pitching maneuvers. Providing the models access to a subset of the measured data channels can allow for improved estimates of the remaining states via the use of a Kalman filter, suggesting that the modeling framework could be useful for aerodynamic control applications. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, under Award No. FA9550-12-1-0075.
Studies of the process of an unsteady formation of hard nitride coatings in an arc plasma flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zake, M.
1996-01-01
The kinetic studies of an unsteady formation of hard ZrN and TiN coatings on the surface of metallic (Zr, Ti) samples in an Ar-N plasma flow are carried out. The obtained result is that at the initial stage of an unsteady heating of titanium samples nitrogen atoms penetrate into metal lattice and form interstitial compounds of hard nitrogen solutions in α-phase of Ti. This process is followed by a growth of thin surface layers of titanium nitrides with subsequent changes of surface radiance of exposed samples. Unsteady formation of ZrN is a similar two-stage process which includes the ZrN film growth and formation of a α-hard solution with subsequent changes of total normal emissivity of the surface. (author). 1 ref., 1 fig
Collisionless electrostatic shocks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla
1970-01-01
An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...
Influence of power-law index on an unsteady exothermic reaction ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study presents the solution of an unsteady Arrhenius exothermic reaction where we reduced the exponential term to a power-law approximation. A numerical solution of the problem is obtained using shooting technique with second order Runge-Kuta scheme. It is shown that the temperature of the reactant depends on ...
Structure of Unsteady Partially Premixed Flames and the Existence of State Relationships
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suresh K. Aggarwal
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, we examine the structure and existence of state relationships in unsteady partially premixed flames (PPFs subjected to buoyancy-induced and external perturbations. A detailed numerical model is employed to simulate the steady and unsteady two-dimensional PPFs established using a slot burner under normal and zero-gravity conditions. The coflow velocity is parametrically varied. The methane-air chemistry is modeled using a fairly detailed mechanism that contains 81 elementary reactions and 24 species. Validation of the computational model is provided through comparisons of predictions with nonintrusive measurements. The combustion proceeds in two reaction zones, one a rich premixed zone and the other a nonpremixed zone. These reaction zones are spatially separated, but involve strong interactions between them due to thermochemistry and scalar transport. The fuel is mostly consumed in the premixed zone to produce CO and H2, which are transported to and consumed in the nonpremixed zone. The nonpremixed zone in turn provides heat and H-atoms to the premixed zone. For the range of conditions investigated, the zero-g partially premixed flames exhibit a stable behavior and a remarkably strong resistance to perturbations. In contrast, the corresponding normal-gravity flames exhibit oscillatory behavior at low coflow velocities but a stable behavior at high coflow velocities, and the behavior can be explained in terms of a global and convective instabilities. The effects of coflow and gravity on the flames are characterized through a parameter VR, defined as the ratio of coflow velocity to jet velocity. For VR ≤ 1 (low coflow velocity regime, the structures of both 0- and 1-g flames are strongly sensitive to changes in VR, while they are only mildly affected by coflow in the high coflow velocity regime (VR > 1. In addition, the spatio-temporal characteristics of the 0- and 1-g flames are markedly different in the first regime, but are
Topology optimization of unsteady flow problems using the lattice Boltzmann method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard, Sebastian Arlund; Sigmund, Ole; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov
2016-01-01
This article demonstrates and discusses topology optimization for unsteady incompressible fluid flows. The fluid flows are simulated using the lattice Boltzmann method, and a partial bounceback model is implemented to model the transition between fluid and solid phases in the optimization problems...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothe, P.H.
1984-01-01
Several devices involving unsteady flows are characterized, along with methods of modeling the flows. Analyses are presented of wave rotor propulsive device cycles, MHD channel flow in the presence of magnetic field transients, and propellant sloshing on board spacecraft. The influence of the wing nose radius on unsteady phenomena in large scale flows is examined and a collocation-finite element method is defined for solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
Unsteady thermal blooming of intense laser beams
Ulrich, J. T.; Ulrich, P. B.
1980-01-01
A four dimensional (three space plus time) computer program has been written to compute the nonlinear heating of a gas by an intense laser beam. Unsteady, transient cases are capable of solution and no assumption of a steady state need be made. The transient results are shown to asymptotically approach the steady-state results calculated by the standard three dimensional thermal blooming computer codes. The report discusses the physics of the laser-absorber interaction, the numerical approximation used, and comparisons with experimental data. A flowchart is supplied in the appendix to the report.
Unsteady Navier-Stokes computations over airfoils using both fixed and dynamic meshes
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Anderson, W. Kyle
1989-01-01
A finite volume implicit approximate factorization method which solves the thin layer Navier-Stokes equations was used to predict unsteady turbulent flow airfoil behavior. At a constant angle of attack of 16 deg, the NACA 0012 airfoil exhibits an unsteady periodic flow field with the lift coefficient oscillating between 0.89 and 1.60. The Strouhal number is 0.028. Results are similar at 18 deg, with a Strouhal number of 0.033. A leading edge vortex is shed periodically near maximum lift. Dynamic mesh solutions for unstalled airfoil flows show general agreement with experimental pressure coefficients. However, moment coefficients and the maximum lift value are underpredicted. The deep stall case shows some agreement with experiment for increasing angle of attack, but is only qualitatively comparable past stall and for decreasing angle of attack.
CFD calculations on the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a tilt-rotor in a conversion mode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Peng
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In order to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a tilt-rotor in a conversion mode, a virtual blade model (VBM and an real blade model (RBM are established respectively. A new multi-layer moving-embedded grid technique is proposed to reduce the numerical dissipation of the tilt-rotor wake in a conversion mode. In this method, a grid system generated abound the rotor accounts for rigid blade motions, and a new searching scheme named adaptive inverse map (AIM is established to search corresponding donor elements in the present moving-embedded grid system to translate information among the different computational zones. A dual-time method is employed to fulfill unsteady calculations on the flowfield of the tilt-rotor, and a second-order centered difference scheme considering artificial viscosity is used to calculate the flux. In order to improve the computing efficiency, the single program multiple data (SPMD model parallel acceleration technology is adopted, according to the characteristic of the current grid system. The lift and drag coefficients of an NACA0012 airfoil, the dynamic pressure distributions below a typical rotor plane, and the sectional pressure distributions on a three-bladed Branum–Tung tilt-rotor in hover flight are calculated respectively, and the present VBM and RBM are validated by comparing the calculated results with available experimental data. Then, unsteady aerodynamic forces and flowfields of an XV-15 tilt-rotor in different modes, such as a fixed conversion mode at different tilt angles (15°, 30°, 60° and a whole conversion mode which converses from 0° to 90°, are numerically simulated by the VBM and RBM respectively. By analyses and comparisons on the simulated results of unsteady aerodynamic forces of the tilt-rotor in different modes, some meaningful conclusions about distorted blade-tip vortex distribution and unsteady aerodynamic force variation in a conversion mode are obtained, and these
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Tong; An, Wei; Song, Xu; Liu, Liuchen; Liu, Hao
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An optimization model of ORC for the recovery of ICE exhaust heat is established. • Three unsteady parameters are considered for the design of ICE-ORC system. • The unsteady performances of ICE-ORC are illustrated using Monte Carlo simulation. - Abstract: An optimization model is developed to maximize the net power output of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with ten working fluids for exhaust heat recovery from an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) theoretically. The ICE-ORC system is influenced by several unsteady parameters which make it difficult to determine the optimal design parameters. Therefore, we introduce probability density functions in order to investigate the impacts of the ICE power output, the sink temperature and the pinch point temperature difference on the ORC performances. Each unsteady parameter is illustrated to analyze the performances of the ICE-ORC system. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to investigate the role played by the unsteady parameters, each of which obeys different probability distributions. By these methods, we obtained the convergence values, the frequency distributions and the cumulative probability distributions of various performance parameters. These results can provide valuable suggestions for the design of ICE-ORC system.
Effects of Atwood number on shock focusing in shock-cylinder interaction
Ou, Junfeng; Ding, Juchun; Luo, Xisheng; Zhai, Zhigang
2018-02-01
The evolution of shock-accelerated heavy-gas cylinder surrounded by the air with different Atwood numbers (A_t=0.28, 0.50, 0.63) is investigated, concentrating on shock focusing and jet formation. Experimentally, a soap film technique is used to generate an ideal two-dimensional discontinuous gas cylinder with a clear surface, which can guarantee the observation of shock wave movements inside the cylinder. Different Atwood numbers are realized by different mixing ratios of SF_6 and air inside the cylinder. A high-speed schlieren system is adopted to capture the shock motions and jet morphology. Numerical simulations are also performed to provide more information. The results indicate that an inward jet is formed for low Atwood numbers, while an outward jet is generated for high Atwood numbers. Different Atwood numbers will lead to the differences in the relative velocities between the incident shock and the refraction shock, which ultimately results in the differences in shock competition near the downstream pole. The morphology and feature of the jet are closely associated with the position and intensity of shock focusing. The pressure and vorticity contours indicate that the jet formation should be attributed to the pressure pulsation caused by shock focusing, and the jet development is ascribed to the vorticity induction. Finally, a time ratio proposed in the previous work for determining the shock-focusing type is verified by experiments.
Shock parameter calculations at weak interplanetary shock waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Gloag
2005-02-01
Full Text Available A large set of interplanetary shock waves observed using the Ulysses spacecraft is analysed in order to determine their local parameters. For the first time a detailed analysis is extended to the thermodynamic properties of a large number of events. The intention is to relate the shock parameters to the requirements set by MHD shock theory. A uniform approach is adopted in the selection of up and downstream regions for this analysis and applied to all the shock waves. Initially, the general case of a 3 component adiabatic plasma is considered. However, the calculation of magnetosonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers and the ratio of downstream to upstream entropy produce some unexpected results. In some cases there is no clear increase in entropy across the shock and also the magnetosonic Mach number can be less than 1. It is found that a more discerning use of data along with an empirical value for the polytropic index can raise the distribution of downstream to upstream entropy ratios to a more acceptable level. However, it is also realised that many of these shocks are at the very weakest end of the spectrum and associated phenomena may also contribute to the explanation of these results.
Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji; Ido, Atsushi
As the maximum speed of high-speed trains increases, flow-induced vibration of trains in tunnels has become a subject of discussion in Japan. In this paper, we report the result of a study on use of modifications of train shapes as a countermeasure for reducing an unsteady aerodynamic force by on-track tests and a wind tunnel test. First, we conduct a statistical analysis of on-track test data to identify exterior parts of a train which cause the unsteady aerodynamic force. Next, we carry out a wind tunnel test to measure the unsteady aerodynamic force acting on a train in a tunnel and examined train shapes with a particular emphasis on the exterior parts identified by the statistical analysis. The wind tunnel test shows that fins under the car body are effective in reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. Finally, we test the fins by an on-track test and confirmed its effectiveness.
Tseng, K.; Morino, L.
1975-01-01
A general theory for study, oscillatory or fully unsteady potential compressible aerodynamics around complex configurations is presented. Using the finite-element method to discretize the space problem, one obtains a set of differential-delay equations in time relating the potential to its normal derivative which is expressed in terms of the generalized coordinates of the structure. For oscillatory flow, the motion consists of sinusoidal oscillations around a steady, subsonic or supersonic flow. For fully unsteady flow, the motion is assumed to consist of constant subsonic or supersonic speed for time t or = 0 and of small perturbations around the steady state for time t 0.
The Universal Role of Tubulence in the Propagation of Strong Shocks and Detonation Waves
Lee, John H.
2001-06-01
The passage of a strong shock wave usually results in irreversible physical and chemical changes in the medium. If the chemical reactions are sufficiently exothermic, the shock wave can be self-propagating, i.e., sustained by the chemical energy release via the expansion work of the reaction products. Although shocks and detonations can be globally stable and propagate at constant velocities (in the direction of motion), their structure may be highly unstable and exhibit large hydrodynamic fluctuations, i.e., turbulence. Recent investigations on plastic deformation of polycrystalline material behind shock waves have revealed particle velocity dispersion at the mesoscopic level, a result of vortical rotational motion similar to that of turbulent fluid flows at high Reynolds number.1 Strong ionizing shocks in noble gases2, as well as dissociating shock waves in carbon dioxide,3 also demonstrate a turbulent density fluctuation in the non-equilibrium shock transition zone. Perhaps the most thoroughly investigated unstable structure is that of detonation waves in gaseous explosives.4 Detonation waves in liquid explosives such as nitromethane also take on similar unstable structure as gaseous detonations.5 There are also indications that detonations in solid explosives have a similar unsteady structure under certain conditions. Thus, it appears that it is more of a rule than an exception that the structure of strong shocks and detonations are unstable and exhibit turbulent-like fluctuations as improved diagnostics now permit us to look more closely at the meso- and micro-levels. Increasing attention is now devoted to the understanding of the shock waves at the micro-scale level in recent years. This is motivated by the need to formulate physical and chemical models that contain the correct physics capable of describing quantitatively the shock transition process. It should be noted that, in spite of its unstable 3-D structure, the steady 1-D conservation laws (in the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jawad Ahmed
Full Text Available This paper examines the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristic in power law fluid model over unsteady radially stretching sheet under the influence of convective boundary conditions. A uniform magnetic field is applied transversely to the direction of the flow. The governing time dependent nonlinear boundary layer equations are reduced into nonlinear ordinary differential equations with the help of similarity transformations. The transformed coupled ordinary differential equations are then solved analytically by homotopy analysis method (HAM and numerically by shooting procedure. Effects of various governing parameters like, power law index n, magnetic parameter M, unsteadiness A, suction/injection S, Biot number γ and generalized Prandtl number Pr on velocity, temperature, local skin friction and the local Nusselt number are studied and discussed. It is found from the analysis that the magnetic parameter diminishes the velocity profile and the corresponding thermal boundary layer thickness. Keywords: Axisymmetric flow, Power law fluid, Unsteady stretching, Convective boundary conditions
Parallel Computation of Unsteady Flows on a Network of Workstations
1997-01-01
Parallel computation of unsteady flows requires significant computational resources. The utilization of a network of workstations seems an efficient solution to the problem where large problems can be treated at a reasonable cost. This approach requires the solution of several problems: 1) the partitioning and distribution of the problem over a network of workstation, 2) efficient communication tools, 3) managing the system efficiently for a given problem. Of course, there is the question of the efficiency of any given numerical algorithm to such a computing system. NPARC code was chosen as a sample for the application. For the explicit version of the NPARC code both two- and three-dimensional problems were studied. Again both steady and unsteady problems were investigated. The issues studied as a part of the research program were: 1) how to distribute the data between the workstations, 2) how to compute and how to communicate at each node efficiently, 3) how to balance the load distribution. In the following, a summary of these activities is presented. Details of the work have been presented and published as referenced.
Shock Mechanism Analysis and Simulation of High-Power Hydraulic Shock Wave Simulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoqiu Xu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The simulation of regular shock wave (e.g., half-sine can be achieved by the traditional rubber shock simulator, but the practical high-power shock wave characterized by steep prepeak and gentle postpeak is hard to be realized by the same. To tackle this disadvantage, a novel high-power hydraulic shock wave simulator based on the live firing muzzle shock principle was proposed in the current work. The influence of the typical shock characteristic parameters on the shock force wave was investigated via both theoretical deduction and software simulation. According to the obtained data compared with the results, in fact, it can be concluded that the developed hydraulic shock wave simulator can be applied to simulate the real condition of the shocking system. Further, the similarity evaluation of shock wave simulation was achieved based on the curvature distance, and the results stated that the simulation method was reasonable and the structural optimization based on software simulation is also beneficial to the increase of efficiency. Finally, the combination of theoretical analysis and simulation for the development of artillery recoil tester is a comprehensive approach in the design and structure optimization of the recoil system.
Shock ignition targets: gain and robustness vs ignition threshold factor
Atzeni, Stefano; Antonelli, Luca; Schiavi, Angelo; Picone, Silvia; Volponi, Gian Marco; Marocchino, Alberto
2017-10-01
Shock ignition is a laser direct-drive inertial confinement fusion scheme, in which the stages of compression and hot spot formation are partly separated. The hot spot is created at the end of the implosion by a converging shock driven by a final ``spike'' of the laser pulse. Several shock-ignition target concepts have been proposed and relevant gain curves computed (see, e.g.). Here, we consider both pure-DT targets and more facility-relevant targets with plastic ablator. The investigation is conducted with 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations. We determine ignition threshold factors ITF's (and their dependence on laser pulse parameters) by means of 1D simulations. 2D simulations indicate that robustness to long-scale perturbations increases with ITF. Gain curves (gain vs laser energy), for different ITF's, are generated using 1D simulations. Work partially supported by Sapienza Project C26A15YTMA, Sapienza 2016 (n. 257584), Eurofusion Project AWP17-ENR-IFE-CEA-01.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malkov, M.A.; Kennel, C.F.; Wu, C.C.; Pellat, R.; Shapiro, V.D.
1991-01-01
The Cohen--Kulsrud--Burgers equation (CKB) is used to consider the nonlinear evolution of resistive, quasiparallel Alfven waves subject to a long-wavelength, plane-polarized, monochromatic instability. The instability saturates by nonlinear steepening, which proceeds until the periodic waveform develops an interior scale length comparable to the dissipation length; a fast or an intermediate shock then forms. The result is a periodic train of Alfven shocks of one or the other type. For propagation strictly parallel to the magnetic field, there will be two shocks per instability wavelength. Numerical integration of the time-dependent CKB equation shows that an initial, small-amplitude growing wave asymptotes to a stable, periodic stationary wave whose analytic solution specifies how the type of shock embedded in the shock train, and the amplitude and speed of the shock train, depend on the strength and phase of the instability. Waveforms observed upstream of the Earth's bowshock and cometary shocks resemble those calculated here
Schuster, David M.; Panda, Jayanta; Ross, James C.; Roozeboom, Nettie H.; Burnside, Nathan J.; Ngo, Christina L.; Kumagai, Hiro; Sellers, Marvin; Powell, Jessica M.; Sekula, Martin K.;
2016-01-01
This NESC assessment examined the accuracy of estimating buffet loads on in-line launch vehicles without booster attachments using sparse unsteady pressure measurements. The buffet loads computed using sparse sensor data were compared with estimates derived using measurements with much higher spatial resolution. The current method for estimating launch vehicle buffet loads is through wind tunnel testing of models with approximately 400 unsteady pressure transducers. Even with this relatively large number of sensors, the coverage can be insufficient to provide reliable integrated unsteady loads on vehicles. In general, sparse sensor spacing requires the use of coherence-length-based corrections in the azimuthal and axial directions to integrate the unsteady pressures and obtain reasonable estimates of the buffet loads. Coherence corrections have been used to estimate buffet loads for a variety of launch vehicles with the assumption methodology results in reasonably conservative loads. For the Space Launch System (SLS), the first estimates of buffet loads exceeded the limits of the vehicle structure, so additional tests with higher sensor density were conducted to better define the buffet loads and possibly avoid expensive modifications to the vehicle design. Without the additional tests and improvements to the coherence-length analysis methods, there would have been significant impacts to the vehicle weight, cost, and schedule. If the load estimates turn out to be too low, there is significant risk of structural failure of the vehicle. This assessment used a combination of unsteady pressure-sensitive paint (uPSP), unsteady pressure transducers, and a dynamic force and moment balance to investigate the integration schemes used with limited unsteady pressure data by comparing them with direct integration of extremely dense fluctuating pressure measurements. An outfall of the assessment was to evaluate the potential of using the emerging uPSP technique in a production
A Note on Unsteady Temperature Equation For Gravity Flow of A ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We present an analytical study of unsteady temperature energy equation for gravity of a fluid with non – Newtonian behaviour through a porous medium. For the case of radial axisymmetric flow, the governing partial differential equation is transformed into an ordinary differential equation through similarity variables.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cui Michael M.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available To reduce vibration and noise level, the impeller and diffuser blade numbers inside an industrial compressor are typically chosen without common divisors. The shapes of volutes or collectors in these compressors are also not axis-symmetric. When impeller blades pass these asymmetric structures, the flow field in the compressor is time-dependent and three-dimensional. To obtain a fundamental physical understanding of these three-dimensional unsteady flow fields and assess their impact on the compressor performance, the flow field inside the compressors needs to be studied as a whole to include asymmetric and unsteady interaction between the compressor components. In the current study, a unified three-dimensional numerical model was built for a transonic centrifugal compressor including impeller, diffusers, and volute. HFC 134a was used as the working fluid. The thermodynamic and transport properties of the refrigerant gas were modeled by the Martin-Hou equation of state and power laws, respectively. The three-dimensional unsteady flow field was simulated with a Navier-Stokes solver using the k−ϵ turbulent model. The overall performance parameters are obtained by integrating the field quantities. Both the unsteady flow field and the overall performance are analyzed comparatively for each component. The compressor was tested in a water chiller system instrumented to obtain both the overall performance data and local flow-field quantities. The experimental and numerical results agree well. The correlation between the overall compressor performance and local flow-field quantities is defined. The methodology developed and data obtained in these studies can be applied to the centrifugal compressor design and optimization.
A fully unsteady prescribed wake model for HAWT performance prediction in yawed flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coton, F.N.; Tongguang, Wang; Galbraith, R.A.M.; Lee, D. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)
1997-12-31
This paper describes the development of a fast, accurate, aerodynamic prediction scheme for yawed flow on horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). The method is a fully unsteady three-dimensional model which has been developed over several years and is still being enhanced in a number of key areas. The paper illustrates the current ability of the method by comparison with field data from the NREL combined experiment and also describes the developmental work in progress. In particular, an experimental test programme designed to yield quantitative wake convection information is summarised together with modifications to the numerical model which are necessary for meaningful comparison with the experiments. Finally, current and future work on aspects such as tower-shadow and improved unsteady aerodynamic modelling are discussed.
Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic hand and its flow field.
Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Ozaki, Takashi; Matsuuchi, Kazuo
2013-07-26
This study aims to clarify the mechanism of generating unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand during swimming in order to directly measure the forces, pressure distribution, and flow field around the hand by using a robotic arm and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The robotic arm consisted of the trunk, shoulder, upper arm, forearm, and hand, and it was independently computer controllable in five degrees of freedom. The elbow-joint angle of the robotic arm was fixed at 90°, and the arm was moved in semicircles around the shoulder joint in a plane perpendicular to the water surface. Two-component PIV was used for flow visualization around the hand. The data of the forces and pressure acting on the hand were sampled at 200Hz and stored on a PC. When the maximum resultant force acting on the hand was observed, a pair of counter-rotating vortices appeared on the dorsal surface of the hand. A vortex attached to the hand increased the flow velocity, which led to decreased surface pressure, increasing the hydrodynamic forces. This phenomenon is known as the unsteady mechanism of force generation. We found that the drag force was 72% greater and the lift force was 4.8 times greater than the values estimated under steady flow conditions. Therefore, it is presumable that swimmers receive the benefits of this unsteady hydrodynamic force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spherical strong-shock generation for shock-ignition inertial fusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Theobald, W.; Seka, W.; Lafon, M.; Anderson, K. S.; Hohenberger, M.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Edgell, D. H.; Yaakobi, B.; Shvydky, A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Nora, R.; Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Casner, A.; Reverdin, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Ribeyre, X.; Vallet, A. [Université de Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications) UMR 5107 F-33400 Talence (France); Peebles, J.; Beg, F. N. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); and others
2015-05-15
Recent experiments on the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' OMEGA laser have been carried out to produce strong shocks in solid spherical targets with direct laser illumination. The shocks are launched at pressures of several hundred Mbars and reach Gbar upon convergence. The results are relevant to the validation of the shock-ignition scheme and to the development of an OMEGA experimental platform to study material properties at Gbar pressures. The experiments investigate the strength of the ablation pressure and the hot-electron production at incident laser intensities of ∼2 to 6 × 10{sup 15 }W/cm{sup 2} and demonstrate ablation pressures exceeding 300 Mbar, which is crucial to developing a shock-ignition target design for the National Ignition Facility. The timing of the x-ray flash from shock convergence in the center of the solid plastic target is used to infer the ablation and shock pressures. Laser–plasma instabilities produce hot-electrons with a moderate temperature (<100 keV). The instantaneous conversion efficiencies of laser power into hot-electron power reached up to ∼15% in the intensity spike. The large amount of hot electrons is correlated with an earlier x-ray flash and a strong increase in its magnitude. This suggests that hot electrons contribute to the augmentation of the shock strength.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fottner, L.; Teusch, R.; Kampitsch, M.
2000-09-01
For the aerodynamic design of turbomachine blades current methods generally apply steady flow theory and consider unsteady effects like blade row interaction, shock-boundary layer interaction, potential effects and secondary flow effects only by means of empirical or semi-empirical correlations. In the context of a modern, cost-oriented blade design efforts are made to increase the aerodynamic blade loading by considering these unsteady effects whereby efficiency and performance are kept constant. This results in a blade count reduction and consequently a weight reduction, but entails a highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow field, which makes great demands on numerical design codes. The primary goals of this work was to investigate the unsteady flow behavior in compressor cascades with controlled diffusion blading under the influence of upstream wakes and to obtain a detailed insight into the physics of unsteady boundary layer behavior. With the obtained data base a validation of unsteady codes should be conducted. The investigated cascades V110 and V111 are representative for the mid section of stator blades in a high pressure compressors. At the investigated low Reynolds number a loss reduction up to 20% was observed, while at the high Reynolds number a loss increase up to 30% compared to the steady flow case was noted. The numerical results obtained by the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code TRACE{sub U} which includes a transition correlation showed a very good agreement with the experimental results. Further on indications for new design criteria considering unsteady flow effects were provided. (orig.) [German] Bei der aerodynamischen Auslegung von Turbomaschinenbeschaufelungen beruecksichtigten bisherige Verfahren instationaere Stroemungseffekte wie Schaufelreihen-Interaktion, Stoss-Grenzschicht-Wechselwirkung, Einfluss des Potentialfeldes und Sekundaerstroemungseffekte nur partiell ueber empirische und halbempirische Korrelationen. Im Rahmen
Is shock index associated with outcome in children with sepsis/septic shock?*.
Yasaka, Yuki; Khemani, Robinder G; Markovitz, Barry P
2013-10-01
To investigate the association between PICU shock index (the ratio of heart rate to systolic blood pressure) and PICU mortality in children with sepsis/septic shock. To explore cutoff values for shock index for ICU mortality, how change in shock index over the first 6 hours of ICU admission is associated with outcome, and how the use of vasoactive therapy may affect shock index and its association with outcome. Retrospective cohort. Single-center tertiary PICU. Five hundred forty-four children with the diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock. None. From January 2003 to December 2009, 544 children met International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference of 2005 criteria for sepsis/septic shock. Overall mortality was 23.7%. Among all patients, hourly shock index was associated with mortality: odds ratio of ICU mortality at 0 hour, 1.08, 95% CI (1.04-1.12); odds ratio at 1 hour, 1.09 (1.04-1.13); odds ratio at 2 hours, 1.09 (1.05-1.13); and odds ratio at 6 hours, 1.11 (1.06-1.15). When stratified by age, early shock index was associated with mortality only in children 1-3 and more than or equal to 12 years old. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in age 1-3 and more than or equal to 12 years old for shock index at admission was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.58-0.80) and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.52-0.72) respectively, indicating a fair predictive marker. Although higher shock index was associated with increased risk of mortality, there was no particular cutoff value with adequate positive or negative likelihood ratios to identify mortality in any age group of children. The improvement of shock index in the first 6 hours of ICU admission was not associated with outcome when analyzed in all patients. However, among patients whose shock index were above the 50th percentile at ICU admission for each age group, improvement of shock index was associated with lower ICU mortality in children between 1-3 and more than or equal to 12 years old (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). When
8th International Symposium on Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines
1998-01-01
Twenty-one years have passed since the first symposium in this series was held in Paris (1976). Since then there have been meetings in Lausanne (1980), Cambridge (1984), Aachen (1987), Beijing (1989), Notre Dame (1991) and Fukuoka (1994). During this period a tremendous development in the field of unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity in turbomachines has taken place. As steady-state flow conditions become better known, and as blades in the turbomachine are constantly pushed towards lower weight, and higher load and efficiency, the importance of unsteady phenomena appear more clearly. th The 8 Symposium was, as the previous ones, of high quality. Furthermore, it presented the audience with the latest developments in experimental, numerical and theoretical research. More papers than ever before were submitted to the conference. As the organising committee wanted to preserve the uniqueness of the symposium by having single sessions, and thus mingle speakers and audience with different backgrounds in this int...
Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.
2014-07-01
Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.
Phenomenology of reverse-shock emission in the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Japelj, J.; Kopač, D.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Harrison, R.; Virgili, F. J.; Mundell, C. G.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.
2014-01-01
We use a parent sample of 118 gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, with known redshift and host galaxy extinction, to separate afterglows with and without signatures of dominant reverse-shock (RS) emission and to determine which physical conditions lead to a prominent reverse-shock emission. We identify 10 GRBs with reverse-shock signatures: 990123, 021004, 021211, 060908, 061126, 080319B, 081007, 090102, 090424, and 130427A. By modeling their optical afterglows with reverse- and forward-shock analytic light curves and using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate the parameter space of the physical quantities describing the ejecta and circumburst medium. We find that physical properties cover a wide parameter space and do not seem to cluster around any preferential values. Comparing the rest-frame optical, X-ray, and high-energy properties of the larger sample of non-RS-dominated GRBs, we show that the early-time (<1 ks) optical spectral luminosity, X-ray afterglow luminosity, and γ-ray energy output of our reverse-shock dominated sample do not differ significantly from the general population at early times. However, the GRBs with dominant reverse-shock emission have fainter than average optical forward-shock emission at late times (>10 ks). We find that GRBs with an identifiable reverse-shock component show a high magnetization parameter R B = ε B,r /ε B,f ∼ 2-10 4 . Our results are in agreement with the mildly magnetized baryonic jet model of GRBs.
Ramamurti, Ravi; Sandberg, William C; Löhner, Rainald; Walker, Jeffrey A; Westneat, Mark W
2002-10-01
Many fishes that swim with the paired pectoral fins use fin-stroke parameters that produce thrust force from lift in a mechanism of underwater flight. These locomotor mechanisms are of interest to behavioral biologists, biomechanics researchers and engineers. In the present study, we performed the first three-dimensional unsteady computations of fish swimming with oscillating and deforming fins. The objective of these computations was to investigate the fluid dynamics of force production associated with the flapping aquatic flight of the bird wrasse Gomphosus varius. For this computational work, we used the geometry of the wrasse and its pectoral fin, and previously measured fin kinematics, as the starting points for computational investigation of three-dimensional (3-D) unsteady fluid dynamics. We performed a 3-D steady computation and a complete set of 3-D quasisteady computations for a range of pectoral fin positions and surface velocities. An unstructured, grid-based, unsteady Navier-Stokes solver with automatic adaptive remeshing was then used to compute the unsteady flow about the wrasse through several complete cycles of pectoral fin oscillation. The shape deformation of the pectoral fin throughout the oscillation was taken from the experimental kinematics. The pressure distribution on the body of the bird wrasse and its pectoral fins was computed and integrated to give body and fin forces which were decomposed into lift and thrust. The velocity field variation on the surface of the wrasse body, on the pectoral fins and in the near-wake was computed throughout the swimming cycle. We compared our computational results for the steady, quasi-steady and unsteady cases with the experimental data on axial and vertical acceleration obtained from the pectoral fin kinematics experiments. These comparisons show that steady state computations are incapable of describing the fluid dynamics of flapping fins. Quasi-steady state computations, with correct incorporation of
Unsteady Gas Dynamics Problems Related to Flight Vehicles
1979-05-01
vertical-axis wind turbines typified by the Darrieus machine (see Cha’. !. Ref. R9 and R10). When cUL.figured in the zero-bending- moment Tropeq.-!n...Performance Data for the Darrieus Wind Turbine with NASA 0012 Blades," Sandia Labs Energy Report, SAND 76-0130, May 1976. R11. Steele, C.R., "Application of...aspect!ratio wings proved often to be unfavorable. Improved steady and unsteady theories were published for the loading of vertical-axis wind turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" >Kuznetsov, I; Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" >Zakharov, A; Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" >Arm, V; Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power Machines - LMZ, Saint-Petersburg, str. Vatutina 3A (Russian Federation))" >Akulaev, R
2014-01-01
The upper partial load unsteady phenomena are often observed at model tests for Francis turbine with high and middle specific speed. It is appears approximately between 7085% of optima point discharge for constant unit speed value and has accompanied by additional phenomenon with much higher frequency than draft tube vortex precession frequency and also runner rotational frequency. There are some discussions about nature of this phenomena and transposition of unsteady model test results to the prototype. In this paper are presented the results of above mentioned phenomena model investigations and some results of investigation at prototype turbine. Based on the results of model tests the following extensive data have been obtained: pressure fluctuation in the draft tube cone and spiral case, axial force fluctuations, it is demonstrated the significant influence of cavitation on upper partial load unsteady phenomena. The result of measurements of bearing vibrations and pressure pulsations are presented for prototype turbine at corresponded or very close operation points to model. In accordance with obtained data it is demonstrated that at upper partial load operation the unsteady phenomenon is observed as for the model also for the prototype turbine. On the base of model investigation has been demonstrated the influence of air admission and special design solutions to diminish unsteady phenomena at upper partial load range. All investigations were based on the physical experiment. Thus, based on model and prototype experimental investigations it is obtained additional information about upper partial load unsteady phenomenon and confirmed the transposition of model results to prototype turbine
Cosmic-ray shock acceleration in oblique MHD shocks
Webb, G. M.; Drury, L. OC.; Volk, H. J.
1986-01-01
A one-dimensional, steady-state hydrodynamical model of cosmic-ray acceleration at oblique MHD shocks is presented. Upstream of the shock the incoming thermal plasma is subject to the adverse pressure gradient of the accelerated particles, the J x B force, as well as the thermal gas pressure gradient. The efficiency of the acceleration of cosmic-rays at the shock as a function of the upstream magnetic field obliquity and upstream plasma beta is investigated. Astrophysical applications of the results are briefly discussed.
Effects of Unsteady Flow Past An Infinite Vertical Plate With Variable ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effects of unsteady flow past an infinite vertical plate with variable temperature and constant mass flux are investigated. Laplace transform technique is used to obtain velocity and concentration fields. The computation of the results indicates that the velocity profiles increase with increase in Grashof numbers, mass ...
Unsteady aerodynamics simulation of a full-scale horizontal axis wind turbine using CFD methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai, Xin; Gu, Rongrong; Pan, Pan; Zhu, Jie
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A full-scale HAWT is simulated under operational conditions of wind shear and yaw. • The CFD method and sliding mesh are adopted to complete the calculation. • Thrust and torque of blades reach the peak and valley at the same time in wind shear. • The wind turbine produces yaw moment during the whole revolution in yaw case. • The torques and thrusts of the three blades present cyclical changes. - Abstract: The aerodynamic performance of wind turbines is significantly influenced by the unsteady flow around the rotor blades. The research on unsteady aerodynamics for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs) is still poorly understood because of the complex flow physics. In this study, the unsteady aerodynamic configuration of a full-scale HAWT is simulated with consideration of wind shear, tower shadow and yaw motion. The calculated wind turbine which contains tapered tower, rotor overhang and tilted rotor shaft is constructed by making reference of successfully commercial operated wind turbine designed by NEG Micon and Vestas. A validated CFD method is utilized to analyze unsteady aerodynamic characteristics which affect the performance on such a full-scale HAWT. The approach of sliding mesh is used to carefully deal with the interface between static and moving parts in the flow field. The annual average wind velocity and wind profile in the atmospheric border are applied as boundary conditions. Considering the effects of wind shear and tower shadow, the simulation results show that the each blade reaches its maximum and minimum aerodynamic loads almost at the same time during the rotation circle. The blade–tower interaction imposes great impact on the power output performance. The wind turbine produces yaw moment during the whole revolution and the maximum aerodynamic loads appear at the upwind azimuth in the yaw computation case.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bugalski Tomasz
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the summary of results of the numerical analysis of the unsteady propeller performance in the non-uniform ship wake modified by the different wake improvement devices. This analysis is performed using the lifting surface program DUNCAN for unsteady propeller analysis. Te object of the analysis is a 7000 ton chemical tanker, for which four different types of the wake improvement devices have been designed: two vortex generators, a pre-swirl stator, and a boundary layer alignment device. These produced five different cases of the ship wake structure: the original hull and hull equipped alternatively with four wake improvement devices. Two different propellers were analyzed in these five wake fields, one being the original reference propeller P0 and the other - a specially designed, optimized propeller P3. Te analyzed parameters were the pictures of unsteady cavitation on propeller blades, harmonics of pressure pulses generated by the cavitating propellers in the selected points and the fluctuating bearing forces on the propeller shaft. Some of the calculated cavitation phenomena were confronted with the experimental. Te objective of the calculations was to demonstrate the differences in the calculated unsteady propeller performance resulting from the application of different wake improvement devices. Te analysis and discussion of the results, together with the appropriate conclusions, are included in the paper.
Schairer, Edward T.; Heineck, James T.; Walker, Louise Ann; Kushner, Laura Kathryn; Zilliac, Gregory
2010-01-01
This paper describes simultaneous, synchronized, high-frequency measurements of both unsteady flow in the wake of a tension-cone decelerator in subsonic flow (by PIV) and the unsteady shape of the decelerator (by photogrammetry). The purpose of these measurements was to develop the test techniques necessary to validate numerical methods for computing fluid-structure interactions of flexible decelerators. A critical need for this effort is to map fabric surfaces that have buckled or wrinkled so that code developers can accurately represent them. This paper describes a new photogrammetric technique that performs this measurement. The work was done in support of the Entry, Descent, and Landing discipline within the Supersonics Project of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Jae Kyeong; Lee, Jung Ryul
2015-01-01
Separation mechanism of Space launch vehicles are used in various separation systems and pyrotechnic devices. The operation of these pyrotechnic devices generates Pyroshock that can cause failures in electronic components. The prediction of high frequency structural response, especially the shock response spectrum (SRS), is important. This paper presents a non-destructive visualization and simulation of linear explosive-induced Pyroshock using phase arrayed Laser-induced shock. The proposed method includes a laser shock test based on laser beam and filtering zone conditioning to predict the SRS of Pyroshock. A ballistic test based on linear explosive and non-contact Laser Doppler Vibrometers and a nondestructive Laser shock measurement using laser excitation and several PZT sensors, are performed using a carbon composite sandwich panel. The similarity of the SRS of the conditioned laser shock to that of the real explosive Pyroshock is evaluated with the Mean Acceleration Difference. The average of MADs over the two training points was 33.64%. And, MAD at verification point was improved to 31.99%. After that, experimentally found optimal conditions are applied to any arbitrary points in laser scanning area. Finally, it is shown that linear explosive-induced real Pyroshock wave propagation can be visualized with high similarity based on the proposed laser technology. (paper)
Analysis of flow instability in steam turbine control valves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pluviose, M.
1981-01-01
With the sponsorship of Electricite de France and the French steam turbine manufacturers, the Gas Turbine Laboratory of CETIM has started a research about the unsteady phenomena of flow in control valves of steam turbines. The existence of unsteady embossment in the valve cone at rise has been as certained, and a conventional computing procedure has been applied to locate the shock waves in the valve. These shock waves may suddenly arise at some valve lifts and give way to fluttering. Valve geometries attenuating instability of flow and increasing therefore the reliability of such equipment are proposed [fr
Thin-layer approximation and algebraic model for separated turbulent flows
Baldwin, B.; Lomax, H.
1978-01-01
An algebraic turbulence model for two- and three-dimensional separated flows is specified that avoids the necessity for finding the edge of the boundary layer. Properties of the model are determined and comparisons made with experiment for an incident shock on a flat plate, separated flow over a compression corner, and transonic flow over an airfoil. Separation and reattachment points from numerical Navier-Stokes solutions agree with experiment within one boundary-layer thickness. Use of law-of-the-wall boundary conditions does not alter the predictions significantly. Applications of the model to other cases are contained in companion papers.
Numerical simulation of unsteady compressible low Mach number flow in a channel
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Punčochářová-Pořízková, P.; Kozel, Karel; Horáček, Jaromír; Fürst, J.
2010-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 2 (2010), s. 83-97 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : CFD * finite volume method * unsteady flow * low Mach number Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Effect of chordwise deformation on unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms in hovering flapping flight
Noyon, T.A.; Tay, W.B.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Bijl, H.
2014-01-01
A three-dimensional simulation of hovering flapping wings was performed using an immersed boundary method. This was done to investigate the effects of chordwise wing deformation on three important unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms found in flapping flight, namely Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) shedding,
Morino, L.; Tseng, K.
1978-01-01
The Green's function method and the computer program SOUSSA (Steady Oscillatory and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics) are reviewed. The Green's function method is applied to the fully unsteady potential equation yielding an integro-differential-delay equation. This equation is approximated by a set of differential-delay equations in time using the finite element method. The Laplace transform is used to yield a matrix relating the velocity potential to the normal wash. The matrix of the generalized aerodynamic forces is obtained by premultiplying and postmultiplying the matrices relating generalized forces to the potential and the normal wash by the generalized coordinates. The program SOUSSA is compared with existing numerical results. Results indicate that the program is not only general, flexible, and easy to use, but also accurate and fast.
High Fidelity Simulations for Unsteady Flow Through the Orbiter LH2 Feedline Flowliner
Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey
2005-01-01
High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter M2 feedline flowliner. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. An incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.
Numerical investigation of unsteady cavitation around a NACA 66 hydrofoil using OpenFOAM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hidalgo, V H; Luo, X W; Ji, J; Escaler, X; Aguinaga, A
2014-01-01
The prediction and control of cavitation damage in pumps, propellers, hydro turbines and fluid machinery in general is necessary during the design stage. The present paper deals with a numerical investigation of unsteady cloud cavitation around a NACA 66 hydrofoil. The current study is focused on understanding the dynamic pressures generated during the cavity collapses as a fundamental characteristic in cavitation erosion. A 2D and 3D unsteady flow simulation has been carried out using OpenFOAM. Then, Paraview and Python programming language have been used to characterize dynamic pressure field. Adapted Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Zwart cavitation model have been implemented to improve the analysis of cloud motion and to visualize the bubble expansions. Additional results also confirm the correlation between cavity formation and generated pressures
Evaluation of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) for unsteady air loads prediction
Appa, Kari; Smith, Michael J. C.
1988-01-01
This paper evaluates the capability of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) code to predict unsteady aerodynamic pressures, lift and moment distributions, and generalized forces for general wing-body configurations in supersonic flow. Stability derivatives are computed and correlated for the X-29 and an Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and a flutter analysis is carried out for a wing wind tunnel test example. Most results are shown to correlate well with test or published data. Although the emphasis of this paper is on evaluation, an improvement in the CPM code's handling of intersecting lifting surfaces is briefly discussed. An attractive feature of the CPM code is that it shares the basic data requirements and computational arrangements of the doublet lattice method. A unified code to predict unsteady subsonic or supersonic airloads is therefore possible.
Cheng, Wan
2015-06-30
We describe large-eddy simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of an unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation/reattachment bubble. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the main flow domain combined with a wall-model that is a two-dimensional extension of that developed by Chung & Pullin (2009). Flow separation and re-attachment of the incoming boundary layer is induced by prescribing wall-normal velocity distribution on the upper boundary of the flow domain that produces an adverse-favorable stream-wise pressure distribution at the wall. The LES predicts the distribution of mean shear stress along the wall including the interior of the separation bubble. Several properties of the separation/reattachment flow are discussed.
Unsteady subsonic and supersonic potential aerodynamics for complex configurations
Morino, L.; Tseng, K.
1977-01-01
A recently developed general theory for unsteady compressible potential fluid dynamics for complex-configuration aircraft is reviewed. The method is based on a combination of the following techniques: Green's function method (to transform the differential equation into an integral differential-delay equation), finite element method (to transform the equation into a set of differential-delay equations in time), and the Laplace transform method (to transform the differential-delay equations into algebraic equations).
Printed Spacecraft Separation System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation
2016-10-01
In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.
Shock Producers and Shock Absorbers in the Crisis
Sinn, Hans-Werner
2009-01-01
It is not surprising that the U.S. has been by far the world’s largest shock producer in this crisis. The big shock absorbers on the other hand were Japan, Russia and Germany, whose exports shrank more than their imports.
Homogeneity of Continuum Model of an Unsteady State Fixed Bed Reactor for Lean CH4 Oxidation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Subagjo
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, the homogeneity of the continuum model of a fixed bed reactor operated in steady state and unsteady state systems for lean CH4 oxidation is investigated. The steady-state fixed bed reactor system was operated under once-through direction, while the unsteady-state fixed bed reactor system was operated under flow reversal. The governing equations consisting of mass and energy balances were solved using the FlexPDE software package, version 6. The model selection is indispensable for an effective calculation since the simulation of a reverse flow reactor is time-consuming. The homogeneous and heterogeneous models for steady state operation gave similar conversions and temperature profiles, with a deviation of 0.12 to 0.14%. For reverse flow operation, the deviations of the continuum models of thepseudo-homogeneous and heterogeneous models were in the range of 25-65%. It is suggested that pseudo-homogeneous models can be applied to steady state systems, whereas heterogeneous models have to be applied to unsteady state systems.
Asymmetric impacts of international energy shocks on macroeconomic activities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, Fang-Yu; Hu, Jin-Li; Lin, Cheng-Hsun
2012-01-01
While limited by its scarcity of natural resources, the impacts of energy price changes on Taiwan's economic activities have been an important issue for social public and government authorities. This study applies the multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. By separating energy price changes into the so-called decrease and increase regimes, we can realize different impacts of energy price changes and their shocks on economic output. The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for the energy-output nexus. The optimal threshold levels are exactly where the oil price change is at 2.48%, the natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and the coal price change is at 0.25%. The impulse response analysis suggests that oil price and natural gas shocks have a delayed negative impact on macroeconomic activities. - Highlights: ► This study applies multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. ► The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for energy-output nexus. ► The optimal threshold levels are exactly found where oil price change is at 2.48%, natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and coal price change is at 0.25%.
Aerodynamic analysis of potential use of flow control devices on helicopter rotor blades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tejero, F; Doerffer, P; Szulc, O
2014-01-01
The interest in the application of flow control devices has been rising in the last years. Recently, several passive streamwise vortex generators have been analysed in a configuration of a curved wall nozzle within the framework of the UFAST project (Unsteady Effects of Shock Wave Induced Separation, 2005 – 2009). Experimental and numerical results proved that the technology is effective in delaying flow separation. The numerical investigation has been extended to helicopter rotor blades in hover and forward flight applying the FLOWer solver (RANS approach) implementing the chimera overlapping grids technique and high performance computing. CFD results for hover conditions confirm that the proposed passive control method reduces the flow separation increasing the thrust over power consumption. The paper presents the numerical validation for both states of flight and the possible implementation of RVGs on helicopter rotor blades.
Shock loading predictions from application of indicial theory to shock-turbulence interactions
Keefe, Laurence R.; Nixon, David
1991-01-01
A sequence of steps that permits prediction of some of the characteristics of the pressure field beneath a fluctuating shock wave from knowledge of the oncoming turbulent boundary layer is presented. The theory first predicts the power spectrum and pdf of the position and velocity of the shock wave, which are then used to obtain the shock frequency distribution, and the pdf of the pressure field, as a function of position within the interaction region. To test the validity of the crucial assumption of linearity, the indicial response of a normal shock is calculated from numerical simulation. This indicial response, after being fit by a simple relaxation model, is used to predict the shock position and velocity spectra, along with the shock passage frequency distribution. The low frequency portion of the shock spectra, where most of the energy is concentrated, is satisfactorily predicted by this method.
Analytical Solution of Unsteady Gravity Flows of A Power-Law Fluid ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We present an analytical study of unsteady non-linear rheological effects of a power-law fluid under gravity. The fluid flows through a porous medium. The governing equations are derived and similarity solutions are determined. The results show the existence of traveling waves. It is assumed that the viscosity is temperature ...
Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.
SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.
Gravitational shock waves and extreme magnetomaterial shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichnerowicz, Andre.
1975-01-01
Within an astrophysical context corresponding to high densities, a self-gravitating model is studied, which is the set of an extreme material medium of infinite conductivity and of a magnetic field. Corresponding shock waves generate necessarily, in general, gravitational shock waves [fr
Meso-scale modelling of the heat conductivity effect on the shock response of a porous material
Resnyansky, A. D.
2017-06-01
Understanding of deformation mechanisms of porous materials under shock compression is important for tailoring material properties at the shock manufacturing of advanced materials from substrate powders and for studying the response of porous materials under shock loading. Numerical set-up of the present work considers a set of solid particles separated by air representing a volume of porous material. Condensed material in the meso-scale set-up is simulated with a viscoelastic rate sensitive material model with heat conduction formulated from the principles of irreversible thermodynamics. The model is implemented in the CTH shock physics code. The meso-scale CTH simulation of the shock loading of the representative volume reveals the mechanism of pore collapse and shows in detail the transition from a high porosity case typical for abnormal Hugoniot response to a moderate porosity case typical for conventional Hugoniot response. Results of the analysis agree with previous analytical considerations and support hypotheses used in the two-phase approach.
Studies on unsteady pressure fields in the region of separating and reattaching flows
Govinda Ram, H. S.; Arakeri, V. H.
1990-12-01
Experimental studies on the measurement of pressure fields in the region of separating and reattaching flows behind several two-dimensional fore-bodies and one axisymmetric body are reported. In particular, extensive measurements of mean pressure, surface pressure fluctuation, and pressure fluctuation within the flow were made for a series of two-dimensional fore-body shapes consisting of triangular nose with varying included angle. The measurements from different bodies are compared and one of the important findings is that the maximum values of rms pressure fluctuation levels in the shear layer approaching reattachment are almost equal to the maximum value of the surface fluctuation levels.
Energetic protons associated with a forward-reverse interplanetary shock pair at 1 A. U
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balogh, A [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK)
1977-10-01
A forward-reverse interplanetary shock was observed on 25 March 1969 by the magnetometer and plasma detector on the HEOS-1 satellite. This relatively rare event was described by Chao et al (1972) who concluded that the shock pair was formed at a distance 0.10 to 0.13 AU upstream of the Earth as a result of the interaction between a fast and a slow solar wind streams. Simultaneous observations of 1 MeV solar proton fluxes were also performed on HEOS-1. A characteristic intensity peak was observed as the forward shock passed by the spacecraft. The evolution of the proton intensity, together with a detailed analysis of anisotropies and pitch angle distributions show a complex dynamic picture of the effect of the forward shock on the ambient proton population. Significant changes in particle fluxes are seen to be correlated with fluctuations in the magnetic field. It is suggested that simple geometrical models of shock-assisted acceleration should be expanded to include the effect of magnetic fluctuations on particle fluxes. The interaction region limited by the forward and reverse shocks contained a large variety of magnetic fluctuations. Following the tangential discontinuity separating the fast solar wind stream from the preceding slow stream, a sunward flow was observed in the proton data, followed by a small but significant drop in intensity prior to the reverse shock.
Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data
Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.
2014-01-01
A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify deficiencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the measured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the definition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares fit of the predicted to the measured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new definition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.
MODEL FOR UNSTEADY OF DIFFUSION –ADVECTION OF RADON IN SOIL – ATMOSPHERE
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Parovik R.I.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model for unsteady transport of radon from the constant coefficients in the soil – atmosphere. An explicit analytical solution for this model and built at different times of his profiles.
Experimental study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability induced by a Mach 3 shock wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
BP Puranik; JG Oakley; MH Anderson; R Bonaazza
2003-01-01
OAK-B135 An experimental investigation of a shock-induced interfacial instability (Richtmyer-Meshkov instability) is undertaken in an effort to study temporal evolution of interfacial perturbations in the late stages of development. The experiments are performed in a vertical shock tube with a square cross-section. A membraneless interface is prepared by retracting a sinusoidally shaped metal plate initially separating carbon dioxide from air, with both gases initially at atmospheric pressure. With carbon dioxide above the plate, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability commences as the plate is retracted and the amplitude of the initial sinusoidal perturbation imposed on the interface begins to grow. The interface is accelerated by a strong shock wave (M=3.08) while its shape is still sinusoidal and before the Kelvin-Helmhotz instability distorts it into the well known mushroom-like structures; its initial amplitude to wavelength ratio is large enough that the interface evolution enters its nonlinear stage very shortly after shock acceleration. The pre-shock evolution of the interface due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the post-shock evolution of the interface due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability are visualized using planar Mie scattering. The pre-shock evolution of the interface is carried out in an independent set of experiments. The initial conditions for the Richtmyer-Meshkov experiment are determined from the pre-shock Rayleigh-Taylor growth. One image of the post-shock interface is obtained per experiment and image sequences, showing the post-shock evolution of the interface, are constructed from several experiments. The growth rate of the perturbation amplitude is measured and compared with two recent analytical models of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability
An Examination of Unsteady Airloads on a UH-60A Rotor: Computation Versus Measurement
Biedron, Robert T.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth
2012-01-01
An unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver for unstructured grids is used to simulate the flow over a UH-60A rotor. Traditionally, the computed pressure and shear stresses are integrated on the computational mesh at selected radial stations and compared to measured airloads. However, the corresponding integration of experimental data uses only the pressure contribution, and the set of integration points (pressure taps) is modest compared to the computational mesh resolution. This paper examines the difference between the traditional integration of computed airloads and an integration consistent with that used for the experimental data. In addition, a comparison of chordwise pressure distributions between computation and measurement is made. Examination of this unsteady pressure data provides new opportunities to understand differences between computation and flight measurement.
Investigation on steady and unsteady performance of a SCO2 centrifugal compressor with splitters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo Ding
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2 is widely concerned with its excellent physical properties. Its high density helps to achieve a compact mechanical structure, especially in all kinds of turbomachinery. In this paper, a SCO2 centrifugal compressor with splitter blades is displayed and numerically investigated. A thorough numerical analysis of the steady and unsteady performance of this SCO2 centrifugal compressor is performed in ANSYS-CFX with SST turbulence model. Streamlines, pressure and temperature under steady- and unsteady-state are compared and analyzed. Moreover, the trans-critical phenomenon at the leading edge of the rotor blade and the aerodynamic performance are covered. The results in this paper provide the foundation for the design and numerical investigation of SCO2 centrifugal compressors.
Asymptotic expansion of unsteady gravity flow of a power-law fluid ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We present a paper on the asymptotic expansion of unsteady non-linear rheological effects of a power-law fluid under gravity. The fluid flows through a porous medium. The asymptotic expansion is employed to obtain solution of the nonlinear problem. The results show the existence of traveling waves. It is assumed that the ...
Numerical method for the unsteady potential flow about pitching airfoils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parrouffe, J.-M.; Paraschivoiu, I.
1985-01-01
This paper presents a numerical method for the unsteady potential flow about an aerodynamic profile and in its wake. This study has many applications such as airplane wings and propellers, guide vanes, subcavitant hydrofoils and wind turbine blades. Typical of such nonstationary configurations is the rotor of the Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine whose blades are exposed to cyclic aerodynamic loads in the operating state
Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock
Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian
2016-04-01
We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.
LARGE-SCALE SHOCK-IONIZED AND PHOTOIONIZED GAS IN M83: THE IMPACT OF STAR FORMATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, Daniela; Dopita, Michael A.; Blair, William P.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard E.; Balick, Bruce; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I.; Trauger, John T.; Walker, Alistair R.
2011-01-01
We investigate the ionization structure of the nebular gas in M83 using the line diagnostic diagram, [O III](5007 A)/Hβ versus [S II](6716 A+6731 A)/Hα, with the newly available narrowband images from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We produce the diagnostic diagram on a pixel-by-pixel (0.''2 x 0.''2) basis and compare it with several photo- and shock-ionization models. We select four regions from the center to the outer spiral arm and compare them in the diagnostic diagram. For the photoionized gas, we observe a gradual increase of the log ([O III]/Hβ) ratios from the center to the spiral arm, consistent with the metallicity gradient, as the H II regions go from super-solar abundance to roughly solar abundance from the center out. Using the diagnostic diagram, we separate the photoionized from the shock-ionized component of the gas. We find that the shock-ionized Hα emission ranges from ∼2% to about 15%-33% of the total, depending on the separation criteria used. An interesting feature in the diagnostic diagram is a horizontal distribution around log ([O III]/Hβ) ∼ 0. This feature is well fit by a shock-ionization model with 2.0 Z sun metallicity and shock velocities in the range of 250-350 km s -1 . A low-velocity shock component, -1 , is also detected and is spatially located at the boundary between the outer ring and the spiral arm. The low-velocity shock component can be due to (1) supernova remnants located nearby, (2) dynamical interaction between the outer ring and the spiral arm, and (3) abnormal line ratios from extreme local dust extinction. The current data do not enable us to distinguish among those three possible interpretations. Our main conclusion is that, even at the HST resolution, the shocked gas represents a small fraction of the total ionized gas emission at less than 33% of the total. However, it accounts for virtually all of the mechanical energy produced by the central starburst in M83.
Problems of unsteady temperature measurements in a pulsating flow of gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olczyk, A
2008-01-01
Unsteady flow temperature is one of the most difficult and complex flow parameters to measure. Main problems concern insufficient dynamic properties of applied sensors and an interpretation of recorded signals, composed of static and dynamic temperatures. An attempt is made to solve these two problems in the case of measurements conducted in a pulsating flow of gas in the 0–200 Hz range of frequencies, which corresponds to real conditions found in exhaust pipes of modern diesel engines. As far as sensor dynamics is concerned, an analysis of requirements related to the thermometer was made, showing that there was no possibility of assuring such a high frequency band within existing solutions. Therefore, a method of double-channel correction of sensor dynamics was proposed and experimentally tested. The results correspond well with the calculations made by means of the proposed model of sensor dynamics. In the case of interpretation of the measured temperature signal, a method for distinguishing its two components was proposed. This decomposition considerably helps with a correct interpretation of unsteady flow phenomena in pipes
Continuous-time state-space unsteady aerodynamic modelling for efficient aeroelastic load analysis
Werter, N.P.M.; De Breuker, R.; Abdalla, M.M.
2015-01-01
Over the years, wings have become lighter and more flexible, making them more prone to aeroelastic effects. Thus, aeroelasticity in design becomes more important. In order to determine the response of an aircraft to, for example, a gust, an unsteady aerodynamic model is required to determine the
Wang, Hongyu; Li, Jun; Jin, Di; Tang, Mengxiao; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Lianghua
2018-01-01
We come up with a control strategy for suppression of supersonic flow separation based on high-frequency Counter-flow Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuator (CPSJA). The main purpose of this investigation is to verify if its control authority can be enhanced by the jet/shock interaction. We use a blunt nose to generate a bow shock, a step on a flat plate to introduce a massive separation in a Mach 2 wind tunnel, and the CPSJA to generate Plasma Synthetic Jet (PSJ). In this study, pulsed capacitive discharge is provided for an array of CPSJAs, which makes the actuation (discharge) frequency f1 = 1 kHz, f2 = 2 kHz and f3 = 3 kHz. We use the high-speed schlieren imaging and fast response pressure transducers as well as a numerical simulation to investigate the quiescent PSJ properties, the interaction between the jet and bow shock, and its disturbance effect on the downstream separated region. The schlieren images show that PSJ is characterized by a succession of vortex rings; the jet strength weakens with the increase of frequency. A 4.5 mN jet thrust is found for all the frequencies. The simulation results show that jet/shock interaction produces vorticity in the vortex ring of the jet, enhancing turbulent mixing in PSJ so that a great deal of momentum is produced into the flow. We found the downstream flow is significantly disturbed by the enhanced actuation. Actuation with frequency of f2, f3 which is close to the natural frequency fn of the separation bubble suppresses the separation with the upstream laminar boundary layer being periodically attenuated, which has a better control effect than f1. The control effect is sensitive to the position where PSJ interacts with the shear layer, but the amount of energy deposited in one pulse is not crucial in a separation reduction in the experiment.
Discrete Adjoint-Based Design Optimization of Unsteady Turbulent Flows on Dynamic Unstructured Grids
Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris; Yamaleev, Nail K.
2009-01-01
An adjoint-based methodology for design optimization of unsteady turbulent flows on dynamic unstructured grids is described. The implementation relies on an existing unsteady three-dimensional unstructured grid solver capable of dynamic mesh simulations and discrete adjoint capabilities previously developed for steady flows. The discrete equations for the primal and adjoint systems are presented for the backward-difference family of time-integration schemes on both static and dynamic grids. The consistency of sensitivity derivatives is established via comparisons with complex-variable computations. The current work is believed to be the first verified implementation of an adjoint-based optimization methodology for the true time-dependent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in a practical computational code. Large-scale shape optimizations are demonstrated for turbulent flows over a tiltrotor geometry and a simulated aeroelastic motion of a fighter jet.
Are Credit Shocks Supply or Demand Shocks?
Bijapur, Mohan
2013-01-01
This paper provides new insights into the relationship between the supply of credit and the macroeconomy. We present evidence that credit shocks constitute shocks to aggregate supply in that they have a permanent effect on output and cause inflation to rise in the short term. Our results also suggest that the effects on aggregate supply have grown stronger in recent decades.
Miniature shock tube for laser driven shocks.
Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel
2010-02-01
We describe in this paper the design of a miniature shock tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative shocks, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics."
Simulation of a 3D unsteady flow in an axial turbine stage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Straka Petr
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The contribution deals with a numerical simulation of an unsteady ﬂow in an axial turbine stage. The solution is performed using an in-house numerical code developed in the Aeronautical and Test Institute, Plc. in Prague. The numerical code is based on a ﬁnite volume discretization of governing equations (Favre averaged Navier-Stokes equations and a two-equations turbulence model. The temporal integration is based on the implicit second-order backward Euler formula, which is realized through the iteration process in dual time. The proposed numerical method is used for solution of the 3D, unsteady, viscous turbulent ﬂow of a perfect gas in the axial turbine stage. The ﬂow path consists of an input nozzle, stator blade-wheel, rotor blade-wheel, a shroud-seal gap and a diffuser. Attention is paid to the inﬂuence of a secondary ﬂow structures, such as generated vortices and ﬂow in shroud-seal gap.
Unsteady CFD modeling of micro-adaptive flow control for an axisymmetric body
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahu, J.; Heavey, K.R.
2005-01-01
This paper describes a computational study undertaken, as part of a grand challenge project, to consider the aerodynamic effect of micro-adaptive flow control as a means to provide the divert authority needed to maneuver a projectile at a low subsonic speed. A time-accurate Navier-Stokes computational technique has been used to obtain numerical solutions for the unsteady microjet-interaction flow field for the axisymmetric projectile body at subsonic speeds, Mach = 0.11 and 0.24 and angles of attack, 0 o to 4 o . Numerical solutions have been obtained using both Renolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and a hybrid RANS/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models. Unsteady numerical results show the effect of the jet on the flow field and the aerodynamic coefficients, in particular the lift force. This research has provided an increased fundamental understanding of the complex, three-dimensional, time-dependent, aerodynamic interactions associated with micro-jet control for yawing spin-stabilized munitions. (author)
Unsteady CFD modeling of micro-adaptive flow control for an axisymmetric body
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahu, J.; Heavey, K.R. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)]. E-mail: sahu@arl.army.mil
2005-07-01
This paper describes a computational study undertaken, as part of a grand challenge project, to consider the aerodynamic effect of micro-adaptive flow control as a means to provide the divert authority needed to maneuver a projectile at a low subsonic speed. A time-accurate Navier-Stokes computational technique has been used to obtain numerical solutions for the unsteady microjet-interaction flow field for the axisymmetric projectile body at subsonic speeds, Mach = 0.11 and 0.24 and angles of attack, 0{sup o} to 4{sup o}. Numerical solutions have been obtained using both Renolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and a hybrid RANS/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models. Unsteady numerical results show the effect of the jet on the flow field and the aerodynamic coefficients, in particular the lift force. This research has provided an increased fundamental understanding of the complex, three-dimensional, time-dependent, aerodynamic interactions associated with micro-jet control for yawing spin-stabilized munitions. (author)
Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.
1980-01-01
Asymptotic methods are used to calculate the shear stress at the wall for the interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. A mixing length model is used for the eddy viscosity. The shock wave is taken to be strong enough that the sonic line is deep in the boundary layer and the upstream influence is thus very small. It is shown that unlike the result found for laminar flow an asymptotic criterion for separation is not found; however, conditions for incipient separation are computed numerically using the derived solution for the shear stress at the wall. Results are compared with available experimental measurements.
Ramesh, Kiran; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael V.; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Edwards, Jack R.
2018-04-01
A leading-edge suction parameter (LESP) that is derived from potential flow theory as a measure of suction at the airfoil leading edge is used to study initiation of leading-edge vortex (LEV) formation in this article. The LESP hypothesis is presented, which states that LEV formation in unsteady flows for specified airfoil shape and Reynolds number occurs at a critical constant value of LESP, regardless of motion kinematics. This hypothesis is tested and validated against a large set of data from CFD and experimental studies of flows with LEV formation. The hypothesis is seen to hold except in cases with slow-rate kinematics which evince significant trailing-edge separation (which refers here to separation leading to reversed flow on the aft portion of the upper surface), thereby establishing the envelope of validity. The implication is that the critical LESP value for an airfoil-Reynolds number combination may be calibrated using CFD or experiment for just one motion and then employed to predict LEV initiation for any other (fast-rate) motion. It is also shown that the LESP concept may be used in an inverse mode to generate motion kinematics that would either prevent LEV formation or trigger the same as per aerodynamic requirements.
Active Control of Separation From the Flap of a Supercritical Airfoil
Melton, LaTunia Pack; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi
2006-01-01
Zero-mass-flux periodic excitation was applied at several regions on a simplified high-lift system to delay the occurrence of flow separation. The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) supercritical airfoil was equipped with a 15% chord simply hinged leading edge flap and a 25% chord simply hinged trailing edge flap. Detailed flow features were measured in an attempt to identify optimal actuator placement. The measurements included steady and unsteady model and tunnel wall pressures, wake surveys, arrays of surface hot-films, flow visualization, and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The current paper describes the application of active separation control at several locations on the deflected trailing edge flap. High frequency (F(+) approximately equal to 10) and low frequency amplitude modulation (F(+) sub AM approximately equal to 1) of the high frequency excitation were used for control. It was noted that the same performance gains were obtained with amplitude modulation and required only 30% of the momentum input required by pure sine excitation.
Radiation- and pair-loaded shocks
Lyutikov, Maxim
2018-06-01
We consider the structure of mildly relativistic shocks in dense media, taking into account the radiation and pair loading, and diffusive radiation energy transfer within the flow. For increasing shock velocity (increasing post-shock temperature), the first important effect is the efficient energy redistribution by radiation within the shock that leads to the appearance of an isothermal jump, whereby the flow reaches the final state through a discontinuous isothermal transition. The isothermal jump, on scales much smaller than the photon diffusion length, consists of a weak shock and a quick relaxation to the isothermal conditions. Highly radiation-dominated shocks do not form isothermal jump. Pair production can mildly increase the overall shock compression ratio to ≈10 (4 for matter-dominated shocks and 7 of the radiation-dominated shocks).
Multi-grid Beam and Warming scheme for the simulation of unsteady ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, a multi-grid algorithm is applied to a large-scale block matrix that is produced from a Beam and Warming scheme. The Beam and Warming scheme is used in the simulation of unsteady flow in an open channel. The Gauss-Seidel block-wise iteration method is used for a smoothing process with a few iterations.
Fabrication of visible-light-driven Ag/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction composites induced by shock wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Chunxiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen, Pengwan, E-mail: pwchen@bit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Jianjun [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Yin, Hao [Institute of Systems Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 612900, Sichuan Province (China); Gao, Xin; Mei, Xiaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)
2016-09-15
Using metatitanic acid (H{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) and silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) as titanium precursor and silver source respectively, a visible-light responsible Ag/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction photocatalyst is successfully prepared by shock wave with detonation-driven flyer impact. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra are employed to characterize the phase structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical property of the recovered samples. The results indicate the metatitanic acid transforms to pure rutile TiO{sub 2} phase by shock wave which possess large surface area. Ag nanoparticles cover on the surface of TiO{sub 2} uniformly and a nanojunction structure is formed efficiently, which play important roles as an electron-conduction bridge and in the surface plasmon resonance effect. Ag modification feasibly improves the separation efficiency for photoinduced electron–hole pairs and enhances the visible-light response. Furthermore, due to the further enhanced separation for photogenerated charges resulting from close interfacial contact of the hetero structure, the obtained Ag/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst exhibit remarkably improved photocatalytic activities (88% within 2 h) than that of P25 and shock induced pure TiO{sub 2} for the degradation of Rhodamine B under simulated sunlight irradiation. The experimental result shows the shock loading is an effective method to get Ag/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst and offers new ideas to fabricate other heterojunction composite materials. - Highlights: • Shock wave was a new method of material modification. • The Ag/TiO{sub 2} hetero structure was formed efficiently by shock loading. • The visible-light responsible sample showed an enhanced photocatalytic activity. • This work gave new ideas to fabricate other heterojunction materials.
Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand and its flow field during sculling motion.
Takagi, Hideki; Shimada, Shohei; Miwa, Takahiro; Kudo, Shigetada; Sanders, Ross; Matsuuchi, Kazuo
2014-12-01
The goal of this research is to clarify the mechanism by which unsteady forces are generated during sculling by a skilled swimmer and thereby to contribute to improving propulsive techniques. We used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to acquire data on the kinematics of the hand during sculling, such as fluid forces and flow field. By investigating the correlations between these data, we expected to find a new propulsion mechanism. The experiment was performed in a flow-controlled water channel. The participant executed sculling motions to remain at a fixed position despite constant water flow. PIV was used to visualize the flow-field cross-section in the plane of hand motion. Moreover, the fluid forces acting on the hand were estimated from pressure distribution measurements performed on the hand and simultaneous three-dimensional motion analysis. By executing the sculling motion, a skilled swimmer produces large unsteady fluid forces when the leading-edge vortex occurs on the dorsal side of the hand and wake capture occurs on the palm side. By using a new approach, we observed interesting unsteady fluid phenomena similar to those of flying insects. The study indicates that it is essential for swimmers to fully exploit vortices. A better understanding of these phenomena might lead to an improvement in sculling techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
INTERFERENCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL SHOCK WAVES
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P. V. Bulat
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.
Shock/shock interactions between bodies and wings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaoxiang XIANG
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the Shock/Shock Interactions (SSI between the body and wing of aircraft in supersonic flows. The body is simplified to a flat wedge and the wing is assumed to be a sharp wing. The theoretical spatial dimension reduction method, which transforms the 3D problem into a 2D one, is used to analyze the SSI between the body and wing. The temperature and pressure behind the Mach stem induced by the wing and body are obtained, and the wave configurations in the corner are determined. Numerical validations are conducted by solving the inviscid Euler equations in 3D with a Non-oscillatory and Non-free-parameters Dissipative (NND finite difference scheme. Good agreements between the theoretical and numerical results are obtained. Additionally, the effects of the wedge angle and sweep angle on wave configurations and flow field are considered numerically and theoretically. The influences of wedge angle are significant, whereas the effects of sweep angle on wave configurations are negligible. This paper provides useful information for the design and thermal protection of aircraft in supersonic and hypersonic flows. Keywords: Body and wing, Flow field, Hypersonic flow, Shock/shock interaction, Wave configurations
STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)
2013-06-13
We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.