Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.J. Uddin
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The two-dimensional unsteady laminar free convective heat and mass transfer fluid flow of a non-Newtonian fluid adjacent to a vertical plate has been analyzed numerically. The two parameters Lie group transformation method that transforms the three independent variables into a single variable is used to transform the continuity, the momentum, the energy and the concentration equations into a set of coupled similarity equations. The transformed equations have been solved by the Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg fourth-fifth order numerical method with shooting technique. Numerical calculations were carried out for the various parameters entering into the problem. The dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles were shown graphically and the skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates were given in tables. It is found that friction factor and heat transfer (mass transfer rate for methanol are higher (lower than those of hydrogen and water vapor. Friction factor decreases while heat and mass transfer rate increase as the Prandtl number increases. Friction (heat and mass transfer rate factor of Newtonian fluid is higher (lower than the dilatant fluid.
Unsteady non-Newtonian hydrodynamics in granular gases.
Astillero, Antonio; Santos, Andrés
2012-02-01
The temporal evolution of a dilute granular gas, both in a compressible flow (uniform longitudinal flow) and in an incompressible flow (uniform shear flow), is investigated by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method to solve the Boltzmann equation. Emphasis is laid on the identification of a first "kinetic" stage (where the physical properties are strongly dependent on the initial state) subsequently followed by an unsteady "hydrodynamic" stage (where the momentum fluxes are well-defined non-Newtonian functions of the rate of strain). The simulation data are seen to support this two-stage scenario. Furthermore, the rheological functions obtained from simulation are well described by an approximate analytical solution of a model kinetic equation. © 2012 American Physical Society
Non Newtonian gravity creeping flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gratton, J.; Mahajan, S.M.; Minotti, F.
1988-11-01
We derive the governing equations for creeping gravity currents of non Newtonian liquids having a power law rheology, using a lubrication approximation. We consider unidirectional and axisymmetric currents. The equations differ from those for Newtonian liquids, being nonlinear in the spatial derivative of the thickness of the current. However, many solutions are closely analogous to those for Newtonian rheology; in particular the spreading relations can also be expressed as power laws of time, with exponents that depend on the rheological index. Similarity solutions for currents whose volume varies as a power of time are obtained. For the spread of a constant volume of liquid, analytic solutions are found. We also derive solutions of the waiting-time type, as well as the ones describing steady flows from a constant source to a sink. General travelling wave solutions are given, and analytic formulae for a simple case are derived. A phase plane formalism, that allows the systematic derivation of self similar solutions, is introduced. The application of the Boltzmann transform is briefly discussed. Present results are closely analogous to those for Newtonian liquids; all the solutions obtained here have their counterparts in Newtonian flows. This happens because the power law rheology, like the Newtonian constitutive relation, involves a single dimensional parameter. Thus one finds similarity solutions whenever the analogous Newtonian problem is self similar. Although the spreading relations are rheology-dependent, in most cases the dependence is rather weak. The present results may be of interest for geophysics since the lithosphere deforms according to an average power law rheology. (author). 17 refs
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in 2D fracture networks
Zou, L.; Håkansson, U.; Cvetkovic, V.
2017-12-01
Modeling of non-Newtonian fluid (e.g., drilling fluids and cement grouts) flow in fractured rocks is of interest in many geophysical and industrial practices, such as drilling operations, enhanced oil recovery and rock grouting. In fractured rock masses, the flow paths are dominated by fractures, which are often represented as discrete fracture networks (DFN). In the literature, many studies have been devoted to Newtonian fluid (e.g., groundwater) flow in fractured rock using the DFN concept, but few works are dedicated to non-Newtonian fluids.In this study, a generalized flow equation for common non-Newtonian fluids (such as Bingham, power-law and Herschel-Bulkley) in a single fracture is obtained from the analytical solutions for non-Newtonian fluid discharge between smooth parallel plates. Using Monte Carlo sampling based on site characterization data for the distribution of geometrical features (e.g., density, length, aperture and orientations) in crystalline fractured rock, a two dimensional (2D) DFN model is constructed for generic flow simulations. Due to complex properties of non-Newtonian fluids, the relationship between fluid discharge and the pressure gradient is nonlinear. A Galerkin finite element method solver is developed to iteratively solve the obtained nonlinear governing equations for the 2D DFN model. Using DFN realizations, simulation results for different geometrical distributions of the fracture network and different non-Newtonian fluid properties are presented to illustrate the spatial discharge distributions. The impact of geometrical structures and the fluid properties on the non-Newtonian fluid flow in 2D DFN is examined statistically. The results generally show that modeling non-Newtonian fluid flow in fractured rock as a DFN is feasible, and that the discharge distribution may be significantly affected by the geometrical structures as well as by the fluid constitutive properties.
On Numerical Methods in Non-Newtonian Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fileas, G.
1982-12-01
The constitutive equations for non-Newtonian flows are presented and the various flow models derived from continuum mechanics and molecular theories are considered and evaluated. Detailed account is given of numerical simulation employing differential and integral models of different kinds of non-Newtonian flows using finite-difference and finite-element techniques. Appreciating the fact that no book or concentrated material on Numerical Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow exists at the present, procedures for computer set-ups are described and references are given for finite-difference, finite-element and molecular-theory based programmes for several kinds of flow. Achievements and unreached goals in the field of numerical simulation of non-Newtonian flows are discussed and the lack of numerical work in the fields of suspension flows and heat transfer is pointed out. Finally, FFOCUS is presented as a newly built computer program which can simulate freezing flows on Newtonian fluids through various geometries and is aimed to be further developed to handle non-Newtonian freezing flows and certain types of suspension phenomena involved in corium flow after a hypothetical core melt-down accident in a PWR. (author)
Numerical analysis of non-Newtonian rheology effect on hydrocyclone flow field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Yang
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In view of the limitations of the existing Newton fluid effects on the vortex flow mechanism study, numerical analysis of non Newton fluid effects was presented. Using Reynolds stress turbulence model (RSM and mixed multiphase flow model (Mixture of FLUENT (fluid calculation software and combined with the constitutive equation of apparent viscosity of non-Newtonian fluid, the typical non-Newtonian fluid (drilling fluid, polymer flooding sewage and crude oil as medium and Newton flow field (water as medium were compared by quantitative analysis. Based on the research results of water, the effects of non-Newtonian rheology on the key parameters including the combined vortex motion index n and tangential velocity were analyzed. The study shows that: non-Newtonian rheology has a great effect on tangential velocity and n value, and tangential velocity decreases with non-Newtonian increasing. The three kinds of n values (constant segment are: 0.564(water, 0.769(polymer flooding sewage, 0.708(drilling fluid and their variation amplitudes are larger than Newtonian fluid. The same time, non-Newtonian rheology will lead to the phenomenon of turbulent drag reduction in the vortex flow field. Compared with the existing formula calculation results shown, the calculation result of non-Newtonian rheology is most consistent with the simulation result, and the original theory has large deviations. The study provides reference for theory research of non-Newtonian cyclone separation flow field.
A boundary integral method for two-dimensional (non)-Newtonian drops in slow viscous flow
Toose, E.M.; Geurts, B.J.; Kuerten, J.G.M.
1995-01-01
A boundary integral method for the simulation of the time-dependent deformation of Newtonian or non-Newtonian drops suspended in a Newtonian fluid is developed. The boundary integral formulation for Stokes flow is used and the non-Newtonian stress is treated as a source term which yields an extra
On preconditioning incompressible non-Newtonian flow problems
He, X.; Neytcheva, M.; Vuik, C.
2013-01-01
This paper deals with fast and reliable numerical solution methods for the incompressible non-Newtonian Navier-Stokes equations. To handle the nonlinearity of the governing equations, the Picard and Newton methods are used to linearize these coupled partial differential equations. For space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Rahimi-Gorji
2015-06-01
Full Text Available An analytical investigation is applied for unsteady motion of a rigid spherical particle in a quiescent shear-thinning power-law fluid. The results were compared with those obtained from Collocation Method (CM and the established Numerical Method (Fourth order Runge–Kutta scheme. It was shown that CM gave accurate results. Collocation Method (CM and Numerical Method are used to solve the present problem. We obtained that the CM which was used to solve such nonlinear differential equation with fractional power is simpler and more accurate than series method such as HPM which was used in some previous works by others but the new method named Akbari-Ganji’s Method (AGM is an accurate and simple method which is slower than CM for solving such problems. The terminal settling velocity—that is the velocity at which the net forces on a falling particle eliminate—for three different spherical particles (made of plastic, glass and steel and three flow behavior index n, in three sets of power-law non-Newtonian fluids was investigated, based on polynomial solution (CM. Analytical results obtained indicated that the time of reaching the terminal velocity in a falling procedure is significantly increased with growing of the particle size that validated with Numerical Method. Further, with approaching flow behavior to Newtonian behavior from shear-thinning properties of flow (n → 1, the transient time to achieving the terminal settling velocity is decreased.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Garg, Rahul [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)
2013-08-19
The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.
Amiri Delouei, A.; Nazari, M.; Kayhani, M. H.; Kang, S. K.; Succi, S.
2016-04-01
In the current study, a direct-forcing immersed boundary-non-Newtonian lattice Boltzmann method (IB-NLBM) is developed to investigate the sedimentation and interaction of particles in shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. In the proposed IB-NLBM, the non-linear mechanics of non-Newtonian particulate flows is detected by combination of the most desirable features of immersed boundary and lattice Boltzmann methods. The noticeable roles of non-Newtonian behavior on particle motion, settling velocity and generalized Reynolds number are investigated by simulating benchmark problem of one-particle sedimentation under the same generalized Archimedes number. The effects of extra force due to added accelerated mass are analyzed on the particle motion which have a significant impact on shear-thinning fluids. For the first time, the phenomena of interaction among the particles, such as Drafting, Kissing, and Tumbling in non-Newtonian fluids are investigated by simulation of two-particle sedimentation and twelve-particle sedimentation. The results show that increasing the shear-thickening behavior of fluid leads to a significant increase in the kissing time. Moreover, the transverse position of particles for shear-thinning fluids during the tumbling interval is different from Newtonian and the shear-thickening fluids. The present non-Newtonian particulate study can be applied in several industrial and scientific applications, like the non-Newtonian sedimentation behavior of particles in food industrial and biological fluids.
MHD free convection flow of a non-Newtonian power-law fluid over ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... flow have been presented for various parameters such as Prandtl number, flow behavior index (n), porous plate parameter and magnetic parameter. The local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient is also presented graphically. Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamic flow; free convection flow; Non-Newtonian power-law
On approximation of non-Newtonian fluid flow by the finite element method
Svácek, Petr
2008-08-01
In this paper the problem of numerical approximation of non-Newtonian fluid flow with free surface is considered. Namely, the flow of fresh concrete is addressed. Industrial mixtures often behaves like non-Newtonian fluids exhibiting a yield stress that needs to be overcome for the flow to take place, cf. [R.B. Bird, R.C. Armstrong, O. Hassager, Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids, vol. 1, Fluid Mechanics, Wiley, New York, 1987; R.P. Chhabra, J.F. Richardson, Non-Newtonian Flow in the Process Industries, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, 1999]. The main interest is paid to the mathematical formulation of the problem and to discretization with the aid of finite element method. The described numerical procedure is applied onto the solution of several problems.
Modeling of flow of particles in a non-Newtonian fluid using lattice Boltzmann method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skocek, Jan; Svec, Oldrich; Spangenberg, Jon
2011-01-01
is necessary. In this contribution, the model at the scale of aggregates is introduced. The conventional lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flow is enriched with the immersed boundary method with direct forcing to simulate the flow of rigid particles in a non- Newtonian liquid. Basic ingredients of the model...
Free surface flow of a suspension of rigid particles in a non-Newtonian fluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svec, Oldrich; Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik
2012-01-01
A numerical framework capable of predicting the free surface flow of a suspension of rigid particles in a non-Newtonian fluid is described. The framework is a combination of the lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flow, the mass tracking algorithm for free surface representation, the immersed...
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in annular pipes and entropy generation ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
analytical solution for the flow of third-grade non-Newtonian fluid in a pipe .... where c1,c2,d1,d2,t0,1,2...7,h1,h2,k1,2... ,12,m1 and m2 are defined as ..... Yurusoy M 2004 Flow of a third grade fluid between concentric circular cylinders. Math.
A Lagrangian finite element method for the simulation of flow of non-newtonian liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Bisgaard, C
1983-01-01
A Lagrangian method for the simulation of flow of non-Newtonian liquids is implemented. The fluid mechanical equations are formulated in the form of a variational principle, and a discretization is performed by finite elements. The method is applied to the slow of a contravariant convected Maxwell...
Hydrodynamically Coupled Brownian Dynamics simulations for flow on non-Newtonian fluids
Ahuja, Vishal Raju
2018-01-01
This thesis deals with model development for particle-based flow simulations of non-Newtonian fluids such as polymer solutions. A novel computational technique called Hydrodynamically Coupled Brownian Dynamics (HCBD) is presented in this thesis. This technique essentially couples the Brownian motion
Controllability of Non-Newtonian Fluids Under Homogeneous Flows
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wilson, Lynda M
2007-01-01
.... The constitutive models are as follows: the Phan-Thien-Tanner model; the Johnson-Segalman model; and the Doi model. The effect of extensional flow on these models and the effect of shear flow on the Doi model have not been explored previous to this work...
Instrumentation to Monitor Transient Periodic Developing Flow in Non-Newtonian Slurries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.
2013-11-15
Staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have conducted mixing and mobilization experiments with non-Newtonian slurries that exhibit Bingham plastic and shear thinning behavior and shear strength. This paper describes measurement techniques applied to identify the interface between flowing and stationary regions of non-Newtonian slurries that are subjected to transient, periodic, developing flows. Techniques were developed to identify the boundary between the flowing and stationary regions, time to mix, characteristic velocities of the flow field produced by the symmetrically spaced nozzles, and the velocity of the upwell formed in the center of the tank by the intersection of flow from four symmetrically spaced nozzles that impinge upon the tank floor. Descriptions of the instruments and instrument performance are presented. These techniques were an effective approach to characterize mixing phenomena, determine mixing energy required to fully mobilize vessel contents and to determine mixing times for process evaluation.
Slip-flow and heat transfer of a non-newtonian nanofluid in a microtube.
Niu, Jun; Fu, Ceji; Tan, Wenchang
2012-01-01
The slip-flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian nanofluid in a microtube is theoretically studied. The power-law rheology is adopted to describe the non-Newtonian characteristics of the flow, in which the fluid consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index depend on the nanoparticle volume fraction. The velocity profile, volumetric flow rate and local Nusselt number are calculated for different values of nanoparticle volume fraction and slip length. The results show that the influence of nanoparticle volume fraction on the flow of the nanofluid depends on the pressure gradient, which is quite different from that of the Newtonian nanofluid. Increase of the nanoparticle volume fraction has the effect to impede the flow at a small pressure gradient, but it changes to facilitate the flow when the pressure gradient is large enough. This remarkable phenomenon is observed when the tube radius shrinks to micrometer scale. On the other hand, we find that increase of the slip length always results in larger flow rate of the nanofluid. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate of the nanofluid in the microtube can be enhanced due to the non-Newtonian rheology and slip boundary effects. The thermally fully developed heat transfer rate under constant wall temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions is also compared.
A DNS Investigation of Non-Newtonian Turbulent Open Channel Flow
Guang, Raymond; Rudman, Murray; Chryss, Andrew; Slatter, Paul; Bhattacharya, Sati
2010-06-01
The flow of non-Newtonian fluids in open channels has great significance in many industrial settings from water treatment to mine waste disposal. The turbulent behaviour during transportation of these materials is of interest for many reasons, one of which is keeping settleable particles in suspension. The mechanism governing particle transport in turbulent flow has been studied in the past, but is not well understood. A better understanding of the mechanism operating in the turbulent flow of non-Newtonian suspensions in open channel would lead to improved design of many of the systems used in the mining and mineral processing industries. The objective of this paper is to introduce our work on the Direct Numerical Simulation of turbulent flow of non-Newtonian fluids in an open channel. The numerical method is based on spectral element/Fourier formulation. The flow simulation of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid agrees qualitatively with experimental results. The simulation results over-predict the flow velocity by approximately 15% for the cases considered, although the source of the discrepancy is difficult to ascertain. The effect of variation in yield stress and assumed flow depth are investigated and used to assess the sensitivity of the flow to these physical parameters. This methodology is seen to be useful in designing and optimising the transport of slurries in open channels.
The effect of the expansion ratio on a turbulent non-Newtonian recirculating flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, A.S. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (Portugal); Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto (Portugal)
2002-04-01
Measurements of the mean and turbulent flow characteristics of shear-thinning moderately elastic 0.1% and 0.2% xanthan gum aqueous solutions were carried out in a sudden expansion having a diameter ratio of 2. The inlet flow was turbulent and fully developed, and the results were compared with data for water in the same geometry and with previous published Newtonian and non-Newtonian data in a smaller expansion of diameter ratio equal to 1.538. An increase in expansion ratio led to an increase in the recirculation length and in the axial normal Reynolds stress at identical normalised locations, but the difference between Newtonian and non-Newtonian characteristics was less intense than in the smaller expansion. An extensive comparison of mean and turbulent flow characteristics was carried out in order to understand the variation of flow features. (orig.)
Change in the flow curves of non-Newtonian oils due to a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veliev, F.G.
1979-01-01
The effect of a variable magnetic field on the rheological properties of non-Newtonian fluids is evaluated. Bituminous pitch oils were analyzed by recording the flow curves Q.Q(Δp) - the dependence of the volumetric flow rate on the pressure gradient - with and without a field. The results obtained indicate that variable magnetic fields can produce obvious changes in the rheological properties of bituminous pitch oils, although they are nonmagnetoactive and practically electrically nonconducting
Frolov, S V; Sindeev, S V; Liepsch, D; Balasso, A
2016-05-18
According to the clinical data, flow conditions play a major role in the genesis of intracranial aneurysms. The disorder of the flow structure is the cause of damage of the inner layer of the vessel wall, which leads to the development of cerebral aneurysms. Knowledge of the alteration of the flow field in the aneurysm region is important for treatment. The aim is to study quantitatively the flow structure in an patient-specific aneurysm model of the internal carotid artery using both experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. A patient-specific geometry of aneurysm of the internal carotid artery was used. Patient data was segmented and smoothed to obtain geometrical model. An elastic true-to-scale silicone model was created with stereolithography. For initial investigation of the blood flow, the flow was visualized by adding particles into the silicone model. The precise flow velocity measurements were done using 1D Laser Doppler Anemometer with a spatial resolution of 50 μ m and a temporal resolution of 1 ms. The local velocity measurements were done at a distance of 4 mm to each other. A fluid with non-Newtonian properties was used in the experiment. The CFD simulations for unsteady-state problem were done using constructed hexahedral mesh for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Using 1D laser Doppler Anemometer the minimum velocity magnitude at the end of systole -0.01 m/s was obtained in the aneurysm dome while the maximum velocity 1 m/s was at the center of the outlet segment. On central cross section of the aneurysm the maximum velocity value is only 20% of the average inlet velocity. The average velocity on the cross-section is only 11% of the inlet axial velocity. Using the CFD simulation the wall shear stresses for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid at the end of systolic phase (t= 0.25 s) were computed. The wall shear stress varies from 3.52 mPa (minimum value) to 10.21 Pa (maximum value) for the
Non-Newtonian Flow-Induced Deformation From Pressurized Cavities in Absorbing Porous Tissues
Ahmed, Aftab; Siddique, Javed
2017-11-01
We investigate the behavior of a spherical cavity in a soft biological tissue modeled as a deformable porous material during an injection of non-Newtonian fluid that follows a power law model. Fluid flows into the neighboring tissue due to high cavity pressure where it is absorbed by capillaries and lymphatics at a rate proportional to the local pressure. Power law fluid pressure and displacement of solid in the tissue are computed as function of radial distance and time. Numerical solutions indicate that shear thickening fluids exhibit less fluid pressure and induce small solid deformation as compared to shear thinning fluids. The absorption in the biological tissue increases as a consequence of flow induced deformation for power law fluids. In most cases non-Newtonian results are compared with viscous fluid case to magnify the differences.
Comparative PIV and LDA studies of Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows in an agitated tank.
Story, Anna; Jaworski, Zdzisław; Simmons, Mark J; Nowak, Emilia
2018-01-01
The paper presents results of an experimental study of the fluid velocity field in a stirred tank equipped with a Prochem Maxflo T (PMT) type impeller which was rotating at a constant frequency of N = 4.1 or 8.2 s -1 inducing transitional ( Re = 499 or 1307) or turbulent ( Re = 2.43 × 10 4 ) flow of the fluid. The experiments were performed for a Newtonian fluid (water) and a non-Newtonian fluid (0.2 wt% aqueous solution of carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC) exhibiting mild viscoelastic properties. Measurements were carried out using laser light scattering on tracer particles which follow the flow (2-D PIV). For both the water and the CMC solution one primary and two secondary circulation loops were observed within the fluid volume; however, the secondary loops were characterized by much lower intensity. The applied PMT-type impeller produced in the Newtonian fluid an axial primary flow, whilst in the non-Newtonian fluid the flow was more radial. The results obtained in the form of the local mean velocity components were in satisfactory agreement with the literature data from LDA. Distribution of the shear rate in the studied system was also analyzed. For the non-Newtonian fluid an area was computed where the elastic force dominates over the viscous one. The area was nearly matching the region occupied by the primary circulation loop.
Numerical methods for multi-scale modeling of non-Newtonian flows
Symeonidis, Vasileios
This work presents numerical methods for the simulation of Non-Newtonian fluids in the continuum as well as the mesoscopic level. The former is achieved with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) spectral h/p methods, while the latter employs the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) technique. Physical results are also presented as a motivation for a clear understanding of the underlying numerical approaches. The macroscopic simulations employ two non-Newtonian models, namely the Reiner-Ravlin (RR) and the viscoelastic FENE-P model. (1) A spectral viscosity method defined by two parameters ε, M is used to stabilize the FENE-P conformation tensor c. Convergence studies are presented for different combinations of these parameters. Two boundary conditions for the tensor c are also investigated. (2) Agreement is achieved with other works for Stokes flow of a two-dimensional cylinder in a channel. Comparison of the axial normal stress and drag coefficient on the cylinder is presented. Further, similar results from unsteady two- and three-dimensional turbulent flows past a flat plate in a channel are shown. (3) The RR problem is formulated for nearly incompressible flows, with the introduction of a mathematically equivalent tensor formulation. A spectral viscosity method and polynomial over-integration are studied. Convergence studies, including a three-dimensional channel flow with a parallel slot, investigate numerical problems arising from elemental boundaries and sharp corners. (4) The round hole pressure problem is presented for Newtonian and RR fluids in geometries with different hole sizes. Comparison with experimental data is made for the Newtonian case. The flaw in the experimental assumptions of undisturbed pressure opposite the hole is revealed, while good agreement with the data is shown. The Higashitani-Pritchard kinematical theory for RR, fluids is recovered for round holes and an approximate formula for the RR Stokes hole pressure is presented. The mesoscopic
El-Amin, Mohamed; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu
2012-01-01
The problem of thermal dispersion effects on unsteady free convection from an isothermal horizontal circular cylinder to a non-Newtonian fluid saturating a porous medium is examined numerically. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is employed to describe the flow field. The thermal diffusivity coefficient has been assumed to be the sum of the molecular diffusivity and the dynamic diffusivity due to mechanical dispersion. The simultaneous development of the momentum and thermal boundary layers are obtained by using finite difference method. The stability conditions are determined for each difference equation. Using an explicit finite difference scheme, solutions at each time-step have been found and then stepped forward in time until reaching steady state solution. Velocity and temperature profiles are shown graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of friction factor and heat transfer coefficient approach the steady state values.
El-Amin, Mohamed
2012-06-02
The problem of thermal dispersion effects on unsteady free convection from an isothermal horizontal circular cylinder to a non-Newtonian fluid saturating a porous medium is examined numerically. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is employed to describe the flow field. The thermal diffusivity coefficient has been assumed to be the sum of the molecular diffusivity and the dynamic diffusivity due to mechanical dispersion. The simultaneous development of the momentum and thermal boundary layers are obtained by using finite difference method. The stability conditions are determined for each difference equation. Using an explicit finite difference scheme, solutions at each time-step have been found and then stepped forward in time until reaching steady state solution. Velocity and temperature profiles are shown graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of friction factor and heat transfer coefficient approach the steady state values.
Soulis, Johannes V; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Lampri, Olga P; Giannoglou, George D
2016-04-01
The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta.
Nonisothermal flow of a non-Newtonian fluid with viscous heating between two parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imal, M.; Pinarbasi, A.
2004-01-01
In this study the pressure gradient-flow rate relationship for steady-state nonisothermal pressure-driven flow of a non-Newtonian fluid in a channel is investigated including the effect of viscous heating is taken into account. The viscosity of the fluid depends on both temperature and shear-rate. Exponential dependence of viscosity on temperature is modelled through Arrhenius law. Non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid is modelled according to the Carreau rheological equation, which reflects the characteristics of most polymers adequately with an exponential temperature dependence of viscosity. Flow governing motion and energy balance equations are coupled and solution of this non-linear boundary value problem is found iteratively using a pseudo spectral method based on Chebyshev polynomials. The effect of activation energy parameter and Brinkman number, as well as the power-law index and material time constant on the flow is studied. It is found that while the pressure gradient-flow rate graph is monotonic for certain ranges of flow controlling parameters, there is a large jump in the graph under certain values of these parameters.(1 table and 5 figures are included.)
Numerical investigation of non-Newtonian nanofluid flow in a converging microchannel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohsenian, S.; Ramiar, A.; Ranjbar, A. A. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-01-15
In the present study the flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid through a converging microchannel is investigated numerically. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with 10 nm diameter are dispersed in an aqueous solution of 0.5 %.wt Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to produce the nanofluid. Both nanofluid and the base fluid show pseudoplastic behavior. The equations have been solved with finite volume approach using collocated grid. It has been found that by increasing the volume fraction and Reynolds number and the convergence angle, the Nusselt number increases. Also, it has been observed that by increasing convergence angle and decreasing aspect ratio of the channel, the velocity of the channel increases.
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in an axisymmetric channel with porous wall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Hosseini
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In the present article Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM is used to obtain the solutions of momentum and heat transfer equations of non-Newtonian fluid flow in an axisymmetric channel with porous wall for turbine cooling applications. Numerical method is used for validity of this analytical method and excellent agreement is observed between the solutions obtained from OHAM and numerical results. Trusting to this validity, effects of some other parameters are discussed. The results show that Nusselt number increases with increase of Reynolds number, Prandtl number and power law index.
CFD simulation of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in anaerobic digesters.
Wu, Binxin
2010-07-01
This paper presents an Eulerian multiphase flow model that characterizes gas mixing in anaerobic digesters. In the model development, liquid manure is assumed to be water or a non-Newtonian fluid that is dependent on total solids (TS) concentration. To establish the appropriate models for different TS levels, twelve turbulence models are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from a correlation analysis. The commercial CFD software, Fluent12.0, is employed to simulate the multiphase flow in the digesters. The simulation results in a small-sized digester are validated against the experimental data from literature. Comparison of two gas mixing designs in a medium-sized digester demonstrates that mixing intensity is insensitive to the TS in confined gas mixing, whereas there are significant decreases with increases of TS in unconfined gas mixing. Moreover, comparison of three mixing methods indicates that gas mixing is more efficient than mixing by pumped circulation while it is less efficient than mechanical mixing.
The LS-STAG immersed boundary/cut-cell method for non-Newtonian flows in 3D extruded geometries
Nikfarjam, F.; Cheny, Y.; Botella, O.
2018-05-01
The LS-STAG method is an immersed boundary/cut-cell method for viscous incompressible flows based on the staggered MAC arrangement for Cartesian grids, where the irregular boundary is sharply represented by its level-set function, results in a significant gain in computer resources (wall time, memory usage) compared to commercial body-fitted CFD codes. The 2D version of LS-STAG method is now well-established (Cheny and Botella, 2010), and this paper presents its extension to 3D geometries with translational symmetry in the z direction (hereinafter called 3D extruded configurations). This intermediate step towards the fully 3D implementation can be applied to a wide variety of canonical flows and will be regarded as the keystone for the full 3D solver, since both discretization and implementation issues on distributed memory machines are tackled at this stage of development. The LS-STAG method is then applied to various Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows in 3D extruded geometries (axisymmetric pipe, circular cylinder, duct with an abrupt expansion) for which benchmark results and experimental data are available. The purpose of these investigations are (a) to investigate the formal order of accuracy of the LS-STAG method, (b) to assess the versatility of method for flow applications at various regimes (Newtonian and shear-thinning fluids, steady and unsteady laminar to turbulent flows) (c) to compare its performance with well-established numerical methods (body-fitted and immersed boundary methods).
Interplay between inertial and non-Newtonian effects on the flow in weakly modulated channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abu-Ramadan, E.; Khayat, R.E.
2002-01-01
The flow inside a spatially modulated channel is examined for shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. The modulation amplitude is assumed to be small. A regular perturbation expansion of the flow field is used, coupled to a variable-step finite-difference scheme, to solve the problem. Since this method is intended to provide a fast and accurate alternative to conventional methods in the limit of small modulation amplitude, establishing the accuracy of the solution is critical. Numerical accuracy and convergence will be assessed, therefore. The influence of the wall geometry, inertia and non-Newtonian effects are investigated systematically. In particular, the influence of the flow and fluid parameters is examined on the conditions for the onset of separation. (author)
El-Amin, Mohamed
2011-05-14
In this paper, a finite difference scheme is developed to solve the unsteady problem of combined heat and mass transfer from an isothermal curved surface to a porous medium saturated by a non-Newtonian fluid. The curved surface is kept at constant temperature and the power-law model is used to model the non-Newtonian fluid. The explicit finite difference method is used to solve simultaneously the equations of momentum, energy and concentration. The consistency of the explicit scheme is examined and the stability conditions are determined for each equation. Boundary layer and Boussinesq approximations have been incorporated. Numerical calculations are carried out for the various parameters entering into the problem. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are shown graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of wall shear, heat transfer coefficient and concentration gradient at the wall, which are entered in tables, approach the steady state values.
Coupled Effects of non-Newtonian Rheology and Aperture Variability on Flow in a Single Fracture
Di Federico, V.; Felisa, G.; Lauriola, I.; Longo, S.
2017-12-01
Modeling of non-Newtonian flow in fractured media is essential in hydraulic fracturing and drilling operations, EOR, environmental remediation, and to understand magma intrusions. An important step in the modeling effort is a detailed understanding of flow in a single fracture, as the fracture aperture is spatially variable. A large bibliography exists on Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow in variable aperture fractures. Ultimately, stochastic or deterministic modeling leads to the flowrate under a given pressure gradient as a function of the parameters describing the aperture variability and the fluid rheology. Typically, analytical or numerical studies are performed adopting a power-law (Oswald-de Waele) model. Yet the power-law model, routinely used e.g. for hydro-fracturing modeling, does not characterize real fluids at low and high shear rates. A more appropriate rheological model is provided by e.g. the four-parameter Carreau constitutive equation, which is in turn approximated by the more tractable truncated power-law model. Moreover, fluids of interest may exhibit yield stress, which requires the Bingham or Herschel-Bulkely model. This study employs different rheological models in the context of flow in variable aperture fractures, with the aim of understanding the coupled effect of rheology and aperture spatial variability with a simplified model. The aperture variation, modeled within a stochastic or deterministic framework, is taken to be one-dimensional and i) perpendicular; ii) parallel to the flow direction; for stochastic modeling, the influence of different distribution functions is examined. Results for the different rheological models are compared with those obtained for the pure power-law. The adoption of the latter model leads to overestimation of the flowrate, more so for large aperture variability. The presence of yield stress also induces significant changes in the resulting flowrate for assigned external pressure gradient.
Shear-induced structural transitions in Newtonian non-Newtonian two-phase flow
Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Colin, A.; Panizza, P.
2000-09-01
We show the existence under shear flow of steady states in a two-phase region of a brine-surfactant system in which lyotropic dilute lamellar (non-Newtonian) and sponge (Newtonian) phases are coexisting. At high shear rates and low sponge phase-volume fractions, we report on the existence of a dynamic transition corresponding to the formation of a colloidal crystal of multilamellar vesicles (or ``onions'') immersed in the sponge matrix. As the sponge phase-volume fraction increases, this transition exhibits a hysteresis loop leading to a structural bistability of the two-phase flow. Contrary to single phase lamellar systems where it is always 100%, the onion volume fraction can be monitored continuously from 0 to 100 %.
Zhao, Lifei; Li, Zhen; Caswell, Bruce; Ouyang, Jie; Karniadakis, George Em
2018-06-01
We simulate complex fluids by means of an on-the-fly coupling of the bulk rheology to the underlying microstructure dynamics. In particular, a continuum model of polymeric fluids is constructed without a pre-specified constitutive relation, but instead it is actively learned from mesoscopic simulations where the dynamics of polymer chains is explicitly computed. To couple the bulk rheology of polymeric fluids and the microscale dynamics of polymer chains, the continuum approach (based on the finite volume method) provides the transient flow field as inputs for the (mesoscopic) dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), and in turn DPD returns an effective constitutive relation to close the continuum equations. In this multiscale modeling procedure, we employ an active learning strategy based on Gaussian process regression (GPR) to minimize the number of expensive DPD simulations, where adaptively selected DPD simulations are performed only as necessary. Numerical experiments are carried out for flow past a circular cylinder of a non-Newtonian fluid, modeled at the mesoscopic level by bead-spring chains. The results show that only five DPD simulations are required to achieve an effective closure of the continuum equations at Reynolds number Re = 10. Furthermore, when Re is increased to 100, only one additional DPD simulation is required for constructing an extended GPR-informed model closure. Compared to traditional message-passing multiscale approaches, applying an active learning scheme to multiscale modeling of non-Newtonian fluids can significantly increase the computational efficiency. Although the method demonstrated here obtains only a local viscosity from the polymer dynamics, it can be extended to other multiscale models of complex fluids whose macro-rheology is unknown.
Study of microvascular non-Newtonian blood flow modulated by electroosmosis.
Tripathi, Dharmendra; Yadav, Ashu; Anwar Bég, O; Kumar, Rakesh
2018-05-01
An analytical study of microvascular non-Newtonian blood flow is conducted incorporating the electro-osmosis phenomenon. Blood is considered as a Bingham rheological aqueous ionic solution. An externally applied static axial electrical field is imposed on the system. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation for electrical potential distribution is implemented to accommodate the electrical double layer in the microvascular regime. With long wavelength, lubrication and Debye-Hückel approximations, the boundary value problem is rendered non-dimensional. Analytical solutions are derived for the axial velocity, volumetric flow rate, pressure gradient, volumetric flow rate, averaged volumetric flow rate along one time period, pressure rise along one wavelength and stream function. A plug swidth is featured in the solutions. Via symbolic software (Mathematica), graphical plots are generated for the influence of Bingham plug flow width parameter, electrical Debye length and Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity (maximum electro-osmotic velocity) on the key hydrodynamic variables. This study reveals that blood flow rate accelerates with decreasing the plug width (i.e. viscoplastic nature of fluids) and also with increasing the Debye length parameter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect on Non-Newtonian Rheology on Mixing in Taylor-Couette Flow
Cagney, Neil; Balabani, Stavroula
2017-11-01
Mixing processes within many industry applications are strongly affected by the rheology of the working fluid. This is particularly relevant for pharmaceutical, food and waste treatment industries, where the working fluids are often strongly non-Newtonian, and significant variations in rheology between batches may occur. We approach the question of how rheology affects mixing by focussing on a the classical case of Taylor-Couette flow, which exhibits a number of instabilities and flow regimes as a function of Reynolds number. We examine Taylor-Couette flow generated for a range of aqueous solutions of xantham gum or corn starch, such that the rheology varies from shear-thinning to shear-thickening. For each case, we measure the power consumption using a torque meter and the flow field using high speed, time-resolved Particle-Image Velocimetry. The mixing characteristics are quantified using a number of Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches, including the coarse grained density method and vortex strength. By comparing these metrics to the power number, we discuss how the mixing efficiency (ratio of mixing effectiveness to power input) varies with the flow index of the fluid.
Non-Newtonian fluids: Frictional pressure loss prediction for fully-developed flow in straight pipes
1991-10-01
ESDU 91025 discusses models used to describe the rheology of time independent pseudohomogeneous non-Newtonian fluids (power-law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley and a generalized model due to Metzner and Reed); they are used to calculate the laminar flow pressure drop (which is independent of pipe roughness in this regime). Values of a generalized Reynolds number are suggested to define transitional and turbulent flow. For turbulent flow in smooth pipes, pressure loss is estimated on the basis of an experimentally determined rheogram using either the Dodge-Metzner or Bowen approach depending on the available measurements. Bowen requires results for at least two pipe diameters. The choice of Dodge-Metzner when data are limited is discussed; seven possible methods are assessed against five sets of experimental results drawn from the literature. No method is given for transitional flow, which it is suggested should be avoided, but the turbulent correlation is recommended because it will yield an overestimate. Suggestions are made for the treatment of roughness effects. Several worked examples illustrate the use of the methods and a flowchart guides the user through the process from experimentally characterizing the behavior of the fluid to determining the pressure drop. A computer program, ESDUpac A9125, is also provided.
Lie group analysis of flow and heat transfer of non-Newtonian
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
law nanofluid over a stretching surface under convective boundary conditions and temperature-dependent fluid viscosity has been numerically investigated. The power-law rheology is adopted to describe non-Newtonian characteristics of the ...
A Numerical Study of Mesh Adaptivity in Multiphase Flows with Non-Newtonian Fluids
Percival, James; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Xie, Zhihua; Alberini, Federico; Simmons, Mark; Pain, Christopher; Matar, Omar
2014-11-01
We present an investigation into the computational efficiency benefits of dynamic mesh adaptivity in the numerical simulation of transient multiphase fluid flow problems involving Non-Newtonian fluids. Such fluids appear in a range of industrial applications, from printing inks to toothpastes and introduce new challenges for mesh adaptivity due to the additional ``memory'' of viscoelastic fluids. Nevertheless, the multiscale nature of these flows implies huge potential benefits for a successful implementation. The study is performed using the open source package Fluidity, which couples an unstructured mesh control volume finite element solver for the multiphase Navier-Stokes equations to a dynamic anisotropic mesh adaptivity algorithm, based on estimated solution interpolation error criteria, and conservative mesh-to-mesh interpolation routine. The code is applied to problems involving rheologies ranging from simple Newtonian to shear-thinning to viscoelastic materials and verified against experimental data for various industrial and microfluidic flows. This work was undertaken as part of the EPSRC MEMPHIS programme grant EP/K003976/1.
Kuchumov, Alex G.; Gilev, Valeriy; Popov, Vitaliy; Samartsev, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vasiliy
2014-02-01
The paper presents an experimental study of pathological human bile taken from the gallbladder and bile ducts. The flow dependences were obtained for different types of bile from patients with the same pathology, but of different age and sex. The parameters of the Casson's and Carreau's equations were found for bile samples. Results on the hysteretic bile behavior at loading-unloading tests are also presented, which proved that the pathologic bile is a non-Newtonian thixotropic liquid. The viscosity of the gallbladder bile was shown to be higher compared to the duct bile. It was found that at higher shear stress the pathological bile behaves like Newtonian fluid, which is explained by reorientation of structural components. Moreover, some pathological bile flow in the biliary system CFD simulations were performed. The velocity and pressure distributions as well as flow rates in the biliary segments during the gallbladder refilling and emptying phases are obtained. The results of CFD simulations can be used for surgeons to assess the patient's condition and choose an adequate treatment.
Non-Newtonian plastic flow of a Ni-Si-B metallic glass at low stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csach, K.; Fursova, Y.V.; Khonik, V.A.; Ocelik, V.
1998-01-01
The problem of the rheological behavior of metallic glasses (MGs) is quite important both from theoretical and practical viewpoints. Early experiments carried out on MGs at temperatures T > 300 K using low shear stress levels revealed plastic flow to be Newtonian while measurements at relative high shear stresses (more than 200 to 400 MPa, depending on temperature, thermal prehistory of samples and chemical composition) indicated a non-linear behavior with 1 < m < 12. Numerous investigations performed later both on as-cast and relaxed MGs of various chemical compositions using a number of testing methods (tensile creep, tensile and bend stress relaxation) showed that a transition from Newtonian behavior at low stresses to a non-linear flow at high stresses was observed. At present, such a situation is considered to be generally accepted. The authors performed precise creep measurements of a Ni-Si-B metallic glass. The results obtained indicate that plastic flow in this case at low tensile stress (12 le σ le 307 MPa) is clearly non-Newtonian and, consequently, the viscosity is stress dependent
Experimental investigation of non-Newtonian/Newtonian liquid-liquid flow in microchannel
Roumpea, Eynagelia-Panagiota; Weheliye, Weheliye; Chinaud, Maxime; Angeli, Panagiota; Lyes Kahouadji Collaboration; Omar. K. Matar Collaboration
2015-11-01
Plug flow of an organic phase and an aqueous non-Newtonian solution was investigated experimentally in a quartz microchannel with I.D. 200 μm. The aqueous phase was a glycerol solution where 1000 and 2000 ppm of xanthan gum was added while the organic phase was silicon oil with 155 and 5 cSt viscosity. The two phases were brought together in a T-junction and their flowrates varied from 0.3 to 6 ml/hr. High speed imaging was used to study the characteristics of the plugs and the effect of the liquid properties on the flow patterns while a two-colour micro-PIV technique was used to investigate velocity profiles and circulation patterns within the plugs. The experimental results revealed that plug length was affected by both flowrate and viscosity. In all cases investigated, a film of the continuous phase always surrounded the plugs and its thickness was compared with existing literature models. Circulation patterns inside plugs were obtained by subtracting the plug velocity and found to be depended on the plug length and the amount of xanthan gum in the aqueous phase. Finally, the dimensionless circulation time was calculated and plotted as a function of the plug length. Department of Chemical Engineering South Kensington Campus Imperial College London SW7 2AZ.
Diagnosis at a glance of biological non-Newtonian fluids with Film Interference Flow Imaging (FIFI)
Hidema, R.; Yamada, N.; Furukawa, H.
2012-04-01
In the human body, full of biological non-Newtonian fluids exist. For example, synovial fluids exist in our joints, which contain full of biopolymers, such as hyaluronan and mucin. It is thought that these polymers play critical roles on the smooth motion of the joint. Indeed, luck of biopolymers in synovial fluid cause joint pain. Here we study the effects of polymer in thin liquid layer by using an original experimental method called Film Interference Flow Imaging (FIFI). A vertically flowing soap film containing polymers is made as two-dimensional flow to observe turbulence. The thickness of water layer is about 4 μm sandwiched between surfactant mono-layers. The interference pattern of the soap film is linearly related to the flow velocity in the water layer through the change in the thickness of the film. Thus the flow velocity is possibly analyzed by the single image analysis of the interference pattern, that is, FIFI. The grid turbulence was made in the flowing soap films containing the long flexible polymer polyethyleneoxide (PEO, Mw=3.5x106), and rigid polymer hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, Mw > 1.0 x106). The decaying process of the turbulence is affected by PEO and HPC at several concentrations. The effects of PEO are sharply seen even at low concentrations, while the effects of HPC are gradually occurred at much higher concentration compared to the PEO. It is assumed that such a difference between PEO and HPC is due to the polymer stretching or polymer orientation under turbulence, which is observed and analyzed by FIFI. We believe the FIFI will be applied in the future to examine biological fluids such as synovial fluids quickly and quantitatively.
On Laminar Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Porous Media
Fayed, Hassan E.
2015-10-20
Flow of generalized Newtonian fluids in porous media can be modeled as a bundle of capillary tubes or a pore-scale network. In general, both approaches rely on the solution of Hagen–Poiseuille equation using power law to estimate the variations in the fluid viscosity due to the applied shear rate. Despite the effectiveness and simplicity, power law tends to provide unrealistic values for the effective viscosity especially in the limits of zero and infinite shear rates. Here, instead of using power law, Carreau model (bubbles, drops, and particles in non-Newtonian fluids. Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2007) is used to determine the effective viscosity as a function of the shear strain rate. Carreau model can predict accurately the variation in the viscosity at all shear rates and provide more accurate solution for the flow physics in a single pore. Using the results for a single pore, normalized Fanning friction coefficient has been calculated and plotted as a function of the newly defined Reynolds number based on pressure gradient. For laminar flow, the variation in the friction coefficient with Reynolds number has been plotted and scaled. It is observed that generalized Newtonian fluid flows show Newtonian nature up to a certain Reynolds number. At high Reynolds number, deviation from the Newtonian behavior is observed. The main contribution of this paper is to present a closed-form solution for the flow in a single pore using Carreau model, which allows for fast evaluation of the relationship between flux and pressure gradient in an arbitrary pore diameter. In this way, we believe that our development will open the perspectives for using Carreau models in pore-network simulations at low computational costs to obtain more accurate prediction for generalized Newtonian fluid flows in porous media.
On Laminar Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Porous Media
Fayed, Hassan E.; Sheikh, Nadeem A.; Iliev, Oleg
2015-01-01
Flow of generalized Newtonian fluids in porous media can be modeled as a bundle of capillary tubes or a pore-scale network. In general, both approaches rely on the solution of Hagen–Poiseuille equation using power law to estimate the variations in the fluid viscosity due to the applied shear rate. Despite the effectiveness and simplicity, power law tends to provide unrealistic values for the effective viscosity especially in the limits of zero and infinite shear rates. Here, instead of using power law, Carreau model (bubbles, drops, and particles in non-Newtonian fluids. Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2007) is used to determine the effective viscosity as a function of the shear strain rate. Carreau model can predict accurately the variation in the viscosity at all shear rates and provide more accurate solution for the flow physics in a single pore. Using the results for a single pore, normalized Fanning friction coefficient has been calculated and plotted as a function of the newly defined Reynolds number based on pressure gradient. For laminar flow, the variation in the friction coefficient with Reynolds number has been plotted and scaled. It is observed that generalized Newtonian fluid flows show Newtonian nature up to a certain Reynolds number. At high Reynolds number, deviation from the Newtonian behavior is observed. The main contribution of this paper is to present a closed-form solution for the flow in a single pore using Carreau model, which allows for fast evaluation of the relationship between flux and pressure gradient in an arbitrary pore diameter. In this way, we believe that our development will open the perspectives for using Carreau models in pore-network simulations at low computational costs to obtain more accurate prediction for generalized Newtonian fluid flows in porous media.
Sharifi, Alireza; Niazmand, Hamid
2015-10-01
Carotid siphon is known as one of the risky sites among the human intracranial arteries, which is prone to formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Indeed, scientists believe that accumulation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) inside the lumen is the major cause of atherosclerosis. To this aim, three types of internal carotid artery (ICA) siphon have been constructed to examine variations of hemodynamic parameters in different regions of the arteries. Providing real physiological conditions, blood considered as non-Newtonian fluid and real velocity and pressure waveforms have been employed as flow boundary conditions. Moreover, to have a better estimation of risky sites, the accumulation of LDL particles has been considered, which has been usually ignored in previous relevant studies. Governing equations have been discretized and solved via open source OpenFOAM software. A new solver has been built to meet essential parameters related to the flow and mass transfer phenomena. In contrast to the common belief regarding negligible effect of blood non-Newtonian behavior inside large arteries, current study suggests that the non-Newtonian blood behavior is notable, especially on the velocity field of the U-type model. In addition, it is concluded that neglecting non-Newtonian effects underestimates the LDL accumulation up to 3% in the U-type model at the inner side of both its bends. However, in the V and C type models, non-Newtonian effects become relatively small. Results also emphasize that the outer part of the second bend at the downstream is also at risk similar to the inner part of the carotid bends. Furthermore, from findings it can be implied that the risky sites strongly depend on the ICA shape since the extension of the risky sites are relatively larger for the V-type model, while the LDL concentrations are higher for the C-type model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Non-Newtonian stress tensor and thermal conductivity tensor in granular plane shear flow
Alam, Meheboob; Saha, Saikat
2014-11-01
The non-Newtonian stress tensor and the heat flux in the plane shear flow of smooth inelastic disks are analysed from the Grad-level moment equations using the anisotropic Gaussian as a reference. Closed-form expressions for shear viscosity, pressure, first normal stress difference (N1) and the dissipation rate are given as functions of (i) the density or the area fraction (ν), (ii) the restitution coefficient (e), (iii) the dimensionless shear rate (R), (iv) the temperature anisotropy [ η, the difference between the principal eigenvalues of the second moment tensor] and (v) the angle (ϕ) between the principal directions of the shear tensor and the second moment tensor. Particle simulation data for a sheared hard-disk system is compared with theoretical results, with good agreement for p, μ and N1 over a large range of density. In contrast, the predictions from a Navier-Stokes order constitutive model are found to deviate significantly from both the simulation and the moment theory even at moderate values of e. We show that the gradient of the deviatoric part of the kinetic stress drives a heat current and the thermal conductivity is characterized by an anisotropic 2nd rank tensor for which explicit expressions are derived.
On multiple solutions of non-Newtonian Carreau fluid flow over an inclined shrinking sheet
Khan, Masood; Sardar, Humara; Gulzar, M. Mudassar; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh
2018-03-01
This paper presents the multiple solutions of a non-Newtonian Carreau fluid flow over a nonlinear inclined shrinking surface in presence of infinite shear rate viscosity. The governing boundary layer equations are derived for the Carreau fluid with infinite shear rate viscosity. The suitable transformations are employed to alter the leading partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. The consequential non-linear ODEs are solved numerically by an active numerical approach namely Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method accompanied by shooting technique. Multiple solutions are presented graphically and results are shown for various physical parameters. It is important to state that the velocity and momentum boundary layer thickness reduce with increasing viscosity ratio parameter in shear thickening fluid while opposite trend is observed for shear thinning fluid. Another important observation is that the wall shear stress is significantly decreased by the viscosity ratio parameter β∗ for the first solution and opposite trend is observed for the second solution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Si-Ning; Zhang, Hong-Na; Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Qian; Li, Feng-Chen; Qian, Shizhi; Joo, Sang Woo
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Heat transfer performance of non-Newtonian fluid flow in a MHS is studied. • Pseudo-plastic fluid flow can clearly promote the heat transfer efficiency in MMC. • Heat transfer enhancement is attributed to the emergence of secondary flow. • The heat transfer uniformity can also be improved by pseudo-plastic fluid flow. - Abstract: As the miniaturization and integration become the leading trend of the micro-electro-mechanical systems, it is of great significance to improve the microscaled heat transfer performance. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation on the flow characteristics and heat transfer performance of non-Newtonian fluid flow in a manifold microchannel (MMC) heat sink and traditional microchannel (TMC) heat sink. The non-Newtonian fluid was described by the power-law model. The analyses concentrated on the non-Newtonian fluid effect on the heat transfer performance, including the heat transfer efficiency and uniformity of temperature distribution, as well as the influence of inlet/outlet configurations on fluid flow and heat transfer. Comparing with Newtonian fluid flow, pseudo-plastic fluid could reduce the drag resistance in both MMC and TMC, while the dilatant fluid brought in quite larger drag resistance. For the heat transfer performance, the introduction of pseudo-plastic fluid flow greatly improved the heat transfer efficiency owing to the generation of secondary flow due to the shear-thinning property. Besides, the temperature distribution in MMC was more uniform by using pseudo-plastic fluid. Moreover, the inlet/outlet configuration was also important for the design and arrangement of microchannel heat sinks, since the present work showed that the maximum temperature was prone to locating in the corners near the inlet and outlet. This work provides guidance for optimal design of small-scale heat transfer devices in many cooling applications, such as biomedical chips, electronic systems, and
Simulating non-Newtonian flows with the moving particle semi-implicit method with an SPH kernel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiang, Hao; Chen, Bin
2015-01-01
The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) are commonly used mesh-free particle methods for free surface flows. The MPS method has superiority in incompressible flow simulation and simple programing. However, the crude kernel function is not accurate enough for the discretization of the divergence of the shear stress tensor by the particle inconsistency when the MPS method is extended to non-Newtonian flows. This paper presents an improved MPS method with an SPH kernel to simulate non-Newtonian flows. To improve the consistency of the partial derivative, the SPH cubic spline kernel and the Taylor series expansion are combined with the MPS method. This approach is suitable for all non-Newtonian fluids that can be described with τ = μ(|γ|) Δ (where τ is the shear stress tensor, μ is the viscosity, |γ| is the shear rate, and Δ is the strain tensor), e.g., the Casson and Cross fluids. Two examples are simulated including the Newtonian Poiseuille flow and container filling process of the Cross fluid. The results of Poiseuille flow are more accurate than the traditional MPS method, and different filling processes are obtained with good agreement with previous results, which verified the validation of the new algorithm. For the Cross fluid, the jet fracture length can be correlated with We 0.28 Fr 0.78 (We is the Weber number, Fr is the Froude number). (paper)
Three-dimensional stability, receptivity and sensitivity of non-Newtonian flows inside open cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Citro, Vincenzo; Giannetti, Flavio; Pralits, Jan O
2015-01-01
We investigate the stability properties of flows over an open square cavity for fluids with shear-dependent viscosity. Analysis is carried out in context of the linear theory using a normal-mode decomposition. The incompressible Cauchy equations, with a Carreau viscosity model, are discretized with a finite-element method. The characteristics of direct and adjoint eigenmodes are analyzed and discussed in order to understand the receptivity features of the flow. Furthermore, we identify the regions of the flow that are more sensitive to spatially localized feedback by building a spatial map obtained from the product between the direct and adjoint eigenfunctions. Analysis shows that the first global linear instability of the steady flow is a steady or unsteady three-dimensionl bifurcation depending on the value of the power-law index n. The instability mechanism is always located inside the cavity and the linear stability results suggest a strong connection with the classical lid-driven cavity problem. (paper)
Entropy generation in non-Newtonian fluid flow in a slider bearing
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present study, entropy production in ﬂow ﬁelds due to slider bearings is formulated. The rate of entropy generation is computed for different ﬂuid properties and geometric conﬁgurations of the slider bearing. In order to account for the non-Newtonian effect, a special type of third-grade ﬂuid is considered. It is found that ...
Steady flow of non-Newtonian fluids - monotonicity methods in generalized orlicz spaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Wróblewska, Aneta
2010-01-01
Roč. 72, č. 11 (2010), s. 4136-4147 ISSN 0362-546X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-Newtonian fluid * Orlicz spaces * modular convergence of symmetric gradients * general ized Minty method * smart fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X10000568
Steady flow of non-Newtonian fluids - monotonicity methods in generalized orlicz spaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Wróblewska, Aneta
2010-01-01
Roč. 72, č. 11 (2010), s. 4136-4147 ISSN 0362-546X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-Newtonian fluid * Orlicz spaces * modular convergence of symmetric gradients * generalized Minty method * smart fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X10000568
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiankang Xin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, physical experiments and numerical simulations were applied to systematically investigate the non-Newtonian flow characteristics of heavy oil in porous media. Rheological experiments were carried out to determine the rheology of heavy oil. Threshold pressure gradient (TPG measurement experiments performed by a new micro-flow method and flow experiments were conducted to study the effect of viscosity, permeability and mobility on the flow characteristics of heavy oil. An in-house developed novel simulator considering the non-Newtonian flow was designed based on the experimental investigations. The results from the physical experiments indicated that heavy oil was a Bingham fluid with non-Newtonian flow characteristics, and its viscosity-temperature relationship conformed to the Arrhenius equation. Its viscosity decreased with an increase in temperature and a decrease in asphaltene content. The TPG measurement experiments was impacted by the flow rate, and its critical flow rate was 0.003 mL/min. The TPG decreased as the viscosity decreased or the permeability increased and had a power-law relationship with mobility. In addition, the critical viscosity had a range of 42–54 mPa∙s, above which the TPG existed for a given permeability. The validation of the designed simulator was positive and acceptable when compared to the simulation results run in ECLIPSE V2013.1 and Computer Modelling Group (CMG V2012 software as well as when compared to the results obtained during physical experiments. The difference between 0.0005 and 0.0750 MPa/m in the TPG showed a decrease of 11.55% in the oil recovery based on the simulation results, which demonstrated the largely adverse impact the TPG had on heavy oil production.
Secondary flow in a curved artery model with Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood-analog fluids
Najjari, Mohammad Reza; Plesniak, Michael W.
2016-11-01
Steady and pulsatile flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids through a 180°-curved pipe were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The experiment was inspired by physiological pulsatile flow through large curved arteries, with a carotid artery flow rate imposed. Sodium iodide (NaI) and sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) were added to the working fluids to match the refractive index (RI) of the test section to eliminate optical distortion. Rheological measurements revealed that adding NaI or NaSCN changes the viscoelastic properties of non-Newtonian solutions and reduces their shear-thinning property. Measured centerline velocity profiles in the upstream straight pipe agreed well with an analytical solution. In the pulsatile case, secondary flow structures, i.e. deformed-Dean, Dean, Wall and Lyne vortices, were observed in various cross sections along the curved pipe. Vortical structures at each cross section were detected using the d2 vortex identification method. Circulation analysis was performed on each vortex separately during the systolic deceleration phase, and showed that vortices split and rejoin. Secondary flow structures in steady flows were found to be morphologically similar to those in pulsatile flows for sufficiently high Dean number. supported by the George Washington University Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.
Non-Newtonian Hele-Shaw Flow and the Saffman-Taylor Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondic, L.; Shelley, M.J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.
1998-01-01
We explore the Saffman-Taylor instability of a gas bubble expanding into a shear thinning liquid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Using Darcy close-quote s law generalized for non-Newtonian fluids, we perform simulations of the full dynamical problem. The simulations show that shear thinning significantly influences the developing interfacial patterns. Shear thinning can suppress tip splitting, and produce fingers which oscillate during growth and shed side branches. Emergent length scales show reasonable agreement with a general linear stability analysis. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter
2015-01-01
The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear...... rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2016-01-01
In this paper, the migration of secondary particles in a non-Newtonian ceramic slurry inthe tape casting process is investigated with the purpose of understanding the particle distribution patterns along the casting direction. The Ostwald-de Waele power law model for the non-Newtonian flow...... the substratevelocity (casting speed) leads to a more uniform distribution of the particles inside the ceramic slurry, in which case the shear induced particle migration is dominating over the gravity induced one....
Point-of-care Devices: Non-Newtonian Whole Blood Behavior and Capillary Flow on Reagent-coated Walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean BERTHIER
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Most point-of-care (POC and patient self-testing (PST devices are based on the analysis of whole blood taken from a finger prick. Whole blood contains a bountiful of information about the donor’s health. We analyze here two particularities of microsystems for blood analysis: the blood non-Newtonian behavior, and the capillary flow in reagent-coated channels. Capillarity is the most commonly used method to move fluids in portable systems. It is shown first that the capillary flow of blood does not follow the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law when the capillary flow velocity is small, due to its non-Newtonian rheology and to the formation of rouleaux of RBCs. In a second step, the capillary flow of blood on reagent-coated surfaces is investigated; first experimentally by observing the spreading of a droplet of blood on different reagent-coated substrates; second theoretically and numerically using the general law for spontaneous capillary flows and the Evolver numerical program.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Memon, R.A.; Solangi, M.A.
2013-01-01
The impacts of rotational velocity and inertia on velocity gradients and stresses are addressed under present study. The non-Newtonian behaviour of inelastic rotating flows is predicted by employing Power law model. A numerical model has been developed for mixing flow within a cylindrical vessel along a couple of stirrers. A time marching FEM (Finite Element Method) is employed to predict the required solution. Predicted solutions are presented for minimum to maximum values in terms of contour plots of velocity gradients and shear stresses, over the range. The long term application of this research will be used to improve the design of mixers and processing products. The predicted results are used to generate the capability and are in good agreement with numerical results to the mixer design that will ultimately effect the processing of dough products. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamshid M. Nouri
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Mean and rms velocity characteristics of two Newtonian flows at Reynolds numbers of 12,800 (glycerin solution and 48,000 (water and of a non-Newtonian flow (0.2% CMC solution, at a power number similar to the Newtonian glycerin flow in a mixing vessel stirred by a 60° pitched blade impeller have been measured by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV. The velocity measurements, resolved over 360° and 1.08° of impeller rotation, showed that the mean flow of the two power number matched glycerin and CMC flows were similar to within 3% of the impeller tip velocity and the turbulence intensities generally lower in the CMC flow by up to 5% of the tip velocity. The calculated mean flow quantities showed similar discharge coefficient and pumping efficiency in all three flows and similar strain rate between the two power number matched glycerin and CMC flows; the strain rate of the higher Reynolds number Newtonian flow was found to be slightly higher. The energy balance around the impeller indicated that the CMC flow dissipated up to 9% more of the total input power and converted 7% less into the turbulence compared to the glycerin flow with the same power input which could lead to less effective mixing processes where the micro-mixing is important.
Eglit, M. E.; Yakubenko, A. E.; Yakubenko, T. A.
2017-10-01
This paper deals with the mathematical and numerical modeling of the propagation stage of geophysical gravity-driven flows, such as snow avalanches, mudflows, and rapid landslides. New mathematical models are presented which are based on full, not-depth-averaged equations of mechanics of continuous media. The models account for three important issues: non-Newtonian rheology of the moving material, entrainment of the bed material by the flow, and turbulence. The main objective is to investigate the effect of these three factors on the flow dynamics and on the value of the entrainment rate. To exclude the influence of many other factors, e.g., the complicated slope topography, only the motion down a long uniform slope with a constant inclination angle is studied numerically. Moreover, the entire flow from the front to the rear area was not modeled, but only its middle part where the flow is approximately uniform in length. One of the qualitative results is that in motion along homogeneous slope the mass entrainment increases the flow velocity and depth while the entrainment rate at large time tends to become constant which depends on the physical properties of the flow and the underlying material but not on the current values of the flow velocity and depth.
Fractional Flow Theory Applicable to Non-Newtonian Behavior in EOR Processes
Rossen, W.R.; Venkatraman, A.; Johns, R.T.; Kibodeaux, K.R.; Lai, H.; Moradi Tehrani, N.
2011-01-01
The method of characteristics, or fractional-flow theory, is extremely useful in understanding complex Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes and in calibrating simulators. One limitation has been its restriction to Newtonian rheology except in rectilinear flow. Its inability to deal with
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. H. Yazdi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study, the first and second law analyses of power-law non-Newtonian flow over embedded open parallel microchannels within micropatterned permeable continuous moving surface are examined at prescribed surface temperature. A similarity transformation is used to reduce the governing equations to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The dimensionless entropy generation number is formulated by an integral of the local rate of entropy generation along the width of the surface based on an equal number of microchannels and no-slip gaps interspersed between those microchannels. The velocity, the temperature, the velocity gradient, and the temperature gradient adjacent to the wall are substituted into this equation resulting from the momentum and energy equations obtained numerically by Dormand-Prince pair and shooting method. Finally, the entropy generation numbers, as well as the Bejan number, are evaluated. It is noted that the presence of the shear thinning (pseudoplastic fluids creates entropy along the surface, with an opposite effect resulting from shear thickening (dilatant fluids.
Entropy analysis of convective MHD flow of third grade non-Newtonian fluid over a stretching sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.M. Rashidi
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study and analyze the convective flow of a third grade non-Newtonian fluid due to a linearly stretching sheet subject to a magnetic field. The dimensionless entropy generation equation is obtained by solving the reduced momentum and energy equations. The momentum and energy equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations by a similarity method. The optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM is used to solve the resulting system of ordinary differential equations. The effects of the magnetic field, Biot number and Prandtl number on the velocity component and temperature are studied. The results show that the thermal boundary-layer thickness gets decreased with increasing the Prandtl number. In addition, Brownian motion plays an important role to improve thermal conductivity of the fluid. The main purpose of the paper is to study the effects of Reynolds number, dimensionless temperature difference, Brinkman number, Hartmann number and other physical parameters on the entropy generation. These results are analyzed and discussed.
Numerical solution of chemically reactive non-Newtonian fluid flow: Dual stratification
Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.; Khan, Abid Ali; Zehra, Iffat; Zahri, Mostafa; Tahir, M.
2017-12-01
We have found that only a few attempts are available in the literature relatively to the tangent hyperbolic fluid flow induced by stretching cylindrical surfaces. In particular, temperature and concentration stratification effects have not been investigated until now with respect to the tangent hyperbolic fluid model. Therefore, we have considered the tangent hyperbolic fluid flow induced by an acutely inclined cylindrical surface in the presence of both temperature and concentration stratification effects. To be more specific, the fluid flow is attained with the no slip condition, which implies that the bulk motion of the fluid particles is the same as the stretching velocity of a cylindrical surface. Additionally, the flow field situation is manifested with heat generation, mixed convection and chemical reaction effects. The flow partial differential equations give a complete description of the present problem. Therefore, to trace out the solution, a set of suitable transformations is introduced to convert these equations into ordinary differential equations. In addition, a self-coded computational algorithm is executed to inspect the numerical solution of these reduced equations. The effect logs of the involved parameters are provided graphically. Furthermore, the variations of the physical quantities are examined and given with the aid of tables. It is observed that the fluid temperature is a decreasing function of the thermal stratification parameter and a similar trend is noticed for the concentration via the solutal stratification parameter.
Numerical Modeling of the Side Flow in Tape Casting of a Non-Newtonian Fluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2013-01-01
in the tape casting process is modeled numerically with ANSYS FLUENT in combination with an Ostwald-de Waele power law constitutive equation. Based on rheometer experiments, the constants in the Ostwald-de Waele power law are identified for the considered LSM material and applied in the numerical modeling......One of the most common ways used to produce multilayer ceramics (MLC) is tape casting. In this process, the dried tape thickness is of great interest to control the desired products and applications. One of the parameters that influences the final tape thickness is the side flow factor (a) which...... is mostly measured at the end of the process by a volumetric comparison of the tape which flowed outside the casting width to the tape within the casting width. This phenomenon has not been predicted theoretically yet in the literature. In this study, the flow of (La0.85Sr0.15)0.9MnO3 (LSM) slurry...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Majumder, S.K.; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby
2013-01-01
Gas-Newtonian liquid two-phase flows (TPFs) are presented in several industrial processes (e.g. oil-gas industry). In spite of the common occurrence of these TPFs, the understanding of them is limited compared to single-phase flows. Various studies on TPF focus on developing empirical correlations...... based on large sets of experimental data for void fraction, which have proven accurate for specific conditions for which they were developed limiting their applicability. On the other hand, few studies focus on gas-non-Newtonian liquids TPFs, which are very common in chemical processes. The main reason...... is due to the characterization of the viscosity, which determines the hydraulic regime and flow behaviours of the system. The focus of this study is the analysis of the TPF (slug flow) for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids in a vertical pipe in terms of void fraction using computational fluid dynamics...
Numerical Modelling of Non-Newtonian Fluid in a Rotational Cross-Flow MBR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Ratkovic, Nicolas Rios; Rasmussen, Michael R.
2011-01-01
Fouling is the main bottleneck of the widespread of MBR systems. One way to decrease and/or control fouling is by process hydrodynamics. This can be achieved by the increase of liquid crossflow velocity. In rotational cross-flow MBR systems, this is attained by the spinning of e.g. impellers. Val...
Flow of a non-Newtonian fluid through channels with permeable wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martins-Costa, Maria Laura [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Matematica Teorica e Aplicada]. E-mail: laura@mec.uff.br; Gama, Rogerio M. Saldanha da [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica (LNCC), Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rsgama@domain.com.br; Frey, Sergio [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Estudos Termicos e Energeticos
2000-07-01
In the present work the momentum transport in two adjacent flow regions is described by means of a continuum theory of mixtures, specially developed to model multiphase phenomena. A generalized Newtonian fluid flows through the permeable wall channel, originating a pure fluid region and a mixture region - where the fluid saturates the porous matrix. The fluid and the porous matrix are treated as continuous constituents of a binary mixture coexisting superposed, each of them occupying simultaneously the whole volume of the mixture. An Ostwald-de Waele behavior is assumed for both the fluid constituent (in the mixture region) and the fluid (in the so-called pure fluid region), while the porous matrix, represented by the solid constituent, is assumed rigid, homogeneous, isotropic and at rest. Compatibility conditions at the interface (pure fluid-mixture) for momentum transfer are proposed and discussed. Assuming no flow across the interface, the velocity should be zero on the solid parts of the boundary and should match the fluid diffusing velocity on the fluid parts of the boundary. Also the shear stress at the pure fluid region is to be balanced by a multiple of the partial shear stress at the mixture region. A minimum principle for the above-described problem, assuming fully developed flow in both regions, is presented, providing an easy and reliable way for carrying out numerical simulations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narayan, A.P.; Rainwater, J.C.; Hanley, H.J.M.
1995-01-01
A study of the Weissenberg effect (rod climbing in a stirred system) based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is reported. Simulation results from a soft-sphere fluid are used to obtain a self-consistent free-surface profile of the fluid of finite compressibility undergoing Couette flow between concentric cylinders. A numerical procedure is then applied to calculate the height profile for a hypothetical fluid with thermophysical properties of the soft-sphere liquid and of a dense colloidal suspension. The height profile calculated is identified with shear thickening and the forms of the viscometric functions. The maximum climb occurs between the cylinders rather than at the inner cylinder
Thandlam, Anil Kumar; Das, Chiranjib; Majumder, Subrata Kumar
2017-04-01
Investigation of wall-liquid mass transfer and heat transfer phenomena with gas-Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in vertically helical coil reactor have been reported in this article. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various dynamic and geometric parameters on mass and heat transfer coefficients in the helical coil reactor. The flow pattern-based heat and mass transfer phenomena in the helical coil reactor are highlighted at different operating conditions. The study covered a wide range of geometric parameters such as diameter of the tube ( d t ), diameter of the coil ( D c ), diameter of the particle ( d p ), pitch difference ( p/D c ) and concentrations of non-Newtonian liquid. The correlation models for the heat and mass transfer coefficient based on the flow pattern are developed which may be useful in process scale-up of the helical coil reactor for industrial application. The frictional drag coefficient was also estimated and analyzed by mass transfer phenomena based on the electrochemical method.
Naseer, F.
2017-12-01
Contamination of soil and groundwater by adsorbent (persistent) contaminants have been a major concern. Mine tailings, Acid mine drainage, waste disposal areas, active or abandoned surface and underground mines are some major causes of soil and water contamination. It is need of the hour to develop cost effective and efficient remediation techniques for clean-up of soil and aquifers. The objective of this research is to study a methodology of using non-Newtonian fluids for effective remediation of adsorbent contaminants in porous media under non-isothermal flow regimes. The research comprises of three components. Since, non-Newtonian fluid rheology has not been well studied in cold temperatures, the first component of the objective is to expose a non-Newtonian fluid (Guar gum solution) to different temperatures ranging from 30 °C through -5 °C to understand the change in viscosity, shear strength and contact angle of the fluid. Study of the flow characteristic of non-Newtonian fluids in complex porous media has been limited. Hence, the second component of this study will focus on a comparison of flow characteristics of a Newtonian fluid, non-Newtonian fluid and a combination of both fluids in a glass-tube-bundle setup that will act as a synthetic porous media. The study of flow characteristics will also be done for different thermal regimes ranging from -5 °C to 30 °C. The third component of the research will be to compare the effectiveness Guar gum to remediate a surrogate adsorbed contaminant at a certain temperature from the synthetic porous media. Guar gum is biodegradable and hence it is benign to the environment. Through these experiments, the mobility and behavior of Guar gum under varying temperature ranges will be characterized and its effectiveness in removing contaminants from soils will be understood. The impact of temperature change on the fluid and flow stability in the porous medium will be examined in this research. Guar gum is good suspension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moh, Jeong Hah; Cho, Y. I.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the theoretical analysis of a flow driven by surface tension and gravity in an inclined circular tube. A governing equation is developed for describing the displacement of a non-Newtonian fluid(Power-law model) that continuously flows into a circular tube owing to surface tension, which represents a second-order, nonlinear, non-homogeneous, and ordinary differential form. It was found that quantitatively, the theoretical predictions of the governing equation were in excellent agreement with the solutions of the equation for horizontal tubes and the past experimental data. In addition, the predictions compared very well with the results of the force balance equation for steady
Walker, Andrew M; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E
2012-11-01
Although deployed in the vasculature to expand vessel diameter and improve blood flow, protruding stent struts can create complex flow environments associated with flow separation and oscillating shear gradients. Given the association between magnitude and direction of wall shear stress (WSS) and endothelial phenotype expression, accurate representation of stent-induced flow patterns is critical if we are to predict sites susceptible to intimal hyperplasia. Despite the number of stents approved for clinical use, quantification on the alteration of hemodynamic flow parameters associated with the Gianturco Z-stent is limited in the literature. In using experimental and computational models to quantify strut-induced flow, the majority of past work has assumed blood or representative analogs to behave as Newtonian fluids. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of this assumption. We present here the experimental quantification of flow through a Gianturco Z-stent wire in representative Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood analog environments using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Fluid analogs were circulated through a closed flow loop at physiologically appropriate flow rates whereupon PIV snapshots were acquired downstream of the wire housed in an acrylic tube with a diameter characteristic of the carotid artery. Hemodynamic parameters including WSS, oscillatory shear index (OSI), and Reynolds shear stresses (RSS) were measured. Our findings show that the introduction of the stent wire altered downstream hemodynamic parameters through a reduction in WSS and increases in OSI and RSS from nonstented flow. The Newtonian analog solution of glycerol and water underestimated WSS while increasing the spatial coverage of flow reversal and oscillatory shear compared to a non-Newtonian fluid of glycerol, water, and xanthan gum. Peak RSS were increased with the Newtonian fluid, although peak values were similar upon a doubling of flow rate. The introduction of the
Ignatenko, Yaroslav; Bocharov, Oleg; May, Roland
2017-10-01
Solids transport is a major issue in high angle wells. Bed-load forms by sediment while transport and accompanied by intermittent contact with stream-bed by rolling, sliding and bouncing. The study presents the results of a numerical simulation of a laminar steady-state flow around a particle at rest and in free motion in a shear flow of Herschel-Bulkley fluid. The simulation was performed using the OpenFOAM open-source CFD package. A criterion for particle incipient motion and entrainment into suspension from cuttings bed (Shields criteria) based on forces and torques balance is discussed. Deflection of the fluid parameters from the ones of Newtonian fluid leads to decreasing of the drag and lift forces and the hydrodynamic moment. Thus, the critical shear stress (Shields parameter) for the considered non-Newtonian fluid must be greater than the one for a Newtonian fluid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hady, F. M.; Ibrahim, F. S.; Abdel-Gaied, S. M.; Eid, M. R.
2011-01-01
The effect of yield stress on the free convective heat transfer of dilute liquid suspensions of nanofluids flowing on a vertical plate saturated in porous medium under laminar conditions is investigated considering the nanofluid obeys the mathematical model of power-law. The model used for non-Newtonian nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing boundary- layer equations are cast into dimensionless system which is solved numerically using a deferred correction technique and Newton iteration. This solution depends on yield stress parameter Ω, a power-law index n, Lewis number Le, a buoyancy-ratio number Nr, a Brownian motion number Nb, and a thermophoresis number Nt. Analyses of the results found that the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are decreasing functions of the higher yield stress parameter for each dimensionless numbers, n and Le, except the reduced Sherwood number is an increasing function of higher Nb for different values of yield stress parameter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hemeidia A. M.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Rheological properties of Saudi Arab-Light, Arab-Berri and Arab-Heavy crude oils were measured with Brookfield Viscometer (LVT Model at temperatures 10, 15, 20, 25, 38, 55 and 70°C. Saudi Arab-Light and Arab-Heavy exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at temperature less than or equal to 20°C, while Saudi Arab-Berri behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid at all temperatures. The main reason for this rheological behavior can be attributed to the thermal and shear histories; the relative amounts of wax and asphaltene content in Saudi crude oils as well. Therefore, Statistical Analysis (t-test was used to check the variability of the change in rheological behavior of Saudi non-Newtonian crude oils at a confidence level of 95%. The evaluation ensured that, all non-Newtonian data were statistically not different and were correlated with power-law model. Under turbulent flow conditions the pipeline design calculations were carried out through a computer program. Les propriétés rhéologiques des bruts séoudiens Arab-Light, Arab-Berri et Arab-Heavy ont été mesurées à l'aide d'un viscomètre Brookfield (modèle LVT à des températures de 10, 15, 20, 25, 38, 55 et 70°C. Les Saudi Arab-Light et Arab-Heavy présentent un comportement non newtonien à des températures égales ou inférieures à 20°C, tandis que le Saudi Arab-Berri se comporte comme un fluide non newtonien à toutes les températures. Ce comportement rhéologique est principalement dû aux historiques thermiques et de cisaillement, de même qu'aux quantités relatives de paraffine et à la teneur en asphaltène des bruts séoudiens. Une analyse statistique (essai t a donc été menée pour vérifier la variabilité des changements de comportement rhéologique des bruts séoudiens non newtoniens à un degré de fiabilité de 95%. Il en est ressorti que toutes les données non newtoniennes étaient statistiquement non différentes et étaient en corrélation avec le modèle de la loi des
Tembely, Moussa; Alsumaiti, Ali M.; Jouini, Mohamed S.; Rahimov, Khurshed; Dolatabadi, Ali
2017-11-01
Most of the digital rock physics (DRP) simulations focus on Newtonian fluids and overlook the detailed description of rock-fluid interaction. A better understanding of multiphase non-Newtonian fluid flow at pore-scale is crucial for optimizing enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The Darcy scale properties of reservoir rocks such as the capillary pressure curves and the relative permeability are controlled by the pore-scale behavior of the multiphase flow. In the present work, a volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with an adaptive meshing technique is used to perform the pore-scale simulation on a 3D X-ray micro-tomography (CT) images of rock samples. The numerical model is based on the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations along with a phase fraction equation incorporating the dynamics contact model. The simulations of a single phase flow for the absolute permeability showed a good agreement with the literature benchmark. Subsequently, the code is used to simulate a two-phase flow consisting of a polymer solution, displaying a shear-thinning power law viscosity. The simulations enable to access the impact of the consistency factor (K), the behavior index (n), along with the two contact angles (advancing and receding) on the relative permeability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothe, P.H.
1985-01-01
This book presents the papers given at a conference on fluid flow and hydraulics. Topics considered at the conference included a numerical study of pressure transients in a borehole due to pipe movement, laminar fluid transients in conduits of unconventional shape, water hammer analysis needs in nuclear power plant design, modeling blockage in unsteady slurry flow in conduits, and check valve slamming in a BWR feedwater system following a postulated pipe break
Unconfined Unsteady Laminar Flow of a Power-Law Fluid across a Square Cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asterios Pantokratoras
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The flow of a non-Newtonian, power-law fluid, directed normally to a horizontal cylinder with square cross-section (two-dimensional flow is considered in the present paper. The problem is investigated numerically with a very large calculation domain in order that the flow could be considered unconfined. The investigation covers the power-law index from 0.1 up to 2 and the Reynolds number ranges from 60 to 160. Over this range of Reynolds numbers the flow is unsteady. It is found that the drag coefficient and the Strouhal number are higher in a confined flow compared to those of an unconfined flow. In addition some flow characteristics are lost in a confined flow. Complete results for the drag coefficient and Strouhal number in the entire shear-thinning and shear-thickening region have been produced. In shear-thinning fluids chaotic structures exist which diminish at higher values of power-law index. This study represents the first investigation of unsteady, non-Newtonian power-law flow past a square cylinder in an unconfined field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Majumder, S.
Gas-liquid two-phase flows are presented everywhere in industrial processes (i.e. gas-oil pipelines). In spite of the common occurrence of these two-phase flows, their understanding is limited compared to single-phase flows. Different studies on two-phase flow have focus on developing empirical...... in the literature but none of them is enough robust and suitable for different conditions (i.e. flow patterns, gas-liquid combinations, pipe inclination angles, etc.). This clearly represents a drawback and more research in required on this field....... correlations based on large sets of experiment data for void fraction [1,2] and pressure drop [3,4] which have proven to be accurate for the specific condition that their where developed for. Currently, dozens of void fraction and pressure drop correlations for different flow patterns are available...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escudier, M.P.; Smith, S. [Department of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Oliveira, P.J. [Departamento de Engenharia Electromecanica, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marques D' Avila e Boloma, 6200 Covilha (Portugal); Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)
2002-07-01
Experimental data are reported for fully developed laminar flow of a shear-thinning liquid through both a concentric and an 80% eccentric annulus with and without centrebody rotation. The working fluid was an aqueous solution of 0.1% xanthan gum and 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose for which the flow curve is well represented by the Cross model. Comparisons are reported between numerical calculations and the flow data, as well as with other laminar annular-flow data for a variety of shear-thinning liquids previously reported in the literature. In general, the calculations are in good quantitative agreement with the experimental data, even in situations where viscoelastic effects, neglected in the calculations, would be expected to play a role. (orig.)
Almazmumy, Mariam; Ebaid, Abdelhalim
2017-08-01
In this article, the flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian nanofluid between two coaxial cylinders through a porous medium has been investigated. The velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration of the present mathematical model are governed by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The objective of this article is to obtain new exact solutions for the temperature and the nanoparticles concentration and, therefore, compare them with the previous approximate results in the literature. Moreover, the velocity equation has been numerically solved. The effects of the pressure gradient, thermophoresis, third-grade, Brownian motion, and porosity parameters on the included phenomena have been discussed through several tables and plots. It is found that the velocity profile is increased by increasing the pressure gradient parameter, thermophoresis parameter (slightly), third-grade parameter, and Brownian motion parameter (slightly); however, it decreases with an increase in the porosity parameter and viscosity power index. In addition, the temperature and the nanoparticles concentration reduce with the strengthen of the Brownian motion parameter, while they increase by increasing the thermophoresis parameter. Furthermore, the numerical solution and the physical interpretation in the literature for the same problem have been validated with the current exact analysis, where many remarkable differences and errors have been concluded. Therefore, the suggested analysis may be recommended with high trust for similar problems.
The flow of a non-Newtonian fluid induced due to the oscillations of a porous plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Asghar
2004-01-01
Full Text Available An analytic solution of the flow of a third-grade fluid on a porous plate is constructed. The porous plate is executing oscillations in its own plane with superimposed injection or suction. An increasing or decreasing velocity amplitude of the oscillating porous plate is also examined. It is also shown that in case of third-grade fluid, a combination of suction/injection and decreasing/increasing velocity amplitude is possible as well. Several limiting situations with their implications are given and discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Majumder, S.K.
2012-01-01
Gas-Newtonian liquid two-phase flows (TPFs) are presented in several industrial processes (i.e. oil-gas industry). In spite of the common occurrence of these TPFs, their understanding is limited compared to single-phase flows. Different studies on TPF have focus on developing empirical correlations...... based in large sets of experiment data for void fraction and pressure drop which have proven to be accurate for specific condition that their where developed for, which limit their applicability. On the other hand, scarce studies focus on gas-non-Newtonian liquids TPFs, which are very common in chemical...... processes. The main reason for it is due to the characterization of the viscosity, which determines the hydraulic regime and flow behaviours on the system. The focus of this study is the analysis of the TPF for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids in a vertical pipe in terms of void fraction and total...
Computational aspects of unsteady flows
Cebeci, T.; Carr, L. W.; Khattab, A. A.; Schimke, S. M.
1985-01-01
The calculation of unsteady flows and the development of numerical methods for solving unsteady boundary layer equations and their application to the flows around important configurations such as oscillating airfoils are presented. A brief review of recent work is provided with emphasis on the need for numerical methods which can overcome possible problems associated with flow reversal and separation. The zig-zag and characteristic box schemes are described in this context, and when embodied in a method which permits interaction between solutions of inviscid and viscous equations, the characteristic box scheme is shown to avoid the singularity associated with boundary layer equations and prescribed pressure gradient. Calculations were performed for a cylinder started impulsively from rest and oscillating airfoils. The results are presented and discussed. It is conlcuded that turbulence models based on an algebraic specification of eddy viscosity can be adequate, that location of translation is important to the calculation of the location of flow separation and, therefore, to the overall lift of an oscillating airfoil.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Mehala
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The hydrodynamic bearings are stressed by severe workings conditions, such as speed, load, and the oil will be increasingly solicit by pressure and shear. The Newtonian behavior is far from being awarded in this case, the most loaded bearings operating at very high speeds; the shear rate of the oil is of higher order. A numerical analysis of the behavior of non-Newtonian fluid for plain cylindrical journal bearing finite dimension coated with antifriction material with a high tin content, for to facilitate the accommodation of the surfaces and save the silk of the shaft in the case of a contact. this analyses is implemented using the code-ANSYS CFX, by solving the energy equation with the finite difference method, considering that laminar regime and the fluid is non Newtonian by using the power law Ostwald model, the coefficient n is equal to 1.25 and for different model such as Bingham, cross and Hereshek-Bulkley model. This study aims to better predict the non-Newtonian behavior of the oil film in bearings operating under more severe conditions. The purpose conducted during this study is to predict the effect of non-Newtonian behavior of the film; the journal bearing operating under severe conditions, the speed of rotation varies from 1000 to 9000 rpm and the bearing working under radial load 2 to 10 kN. Temperature and the pressure within the fluid film assumed non-Newtonian are high, with a coefficient n greater than 1 that is to say for viscoelastic fluids.
Boundary layer for non-newtonian fluids on curved surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenger, N.
1981-04-01
By using the basic equation of fluid motion (conservation of mass and momentum) the boundary layer parameters for a Non-Newtonian, incompressible and laminar fluid flow, has been evaluated. As a test, the flat plate boundary layer is first analized and afterwards, a case with pressure gradient, allowing separation, is studied. In the case of curved surfaces, the problem is first developed in general and afterwards particularized to a circular cylinder. Finally suction and slip in the flow interface are examined. The power law model is used to represent the stress strain relationship in Non-Newtonian flow. By varying the fluid exponent one can then, have an idea of how the Non-Newtonian behavior of the flow influences the parameters of the boundary layer. Two equations, in an appropriate coordinate system have been obtained after an order of magnitude analysis of the terms in the equations of motion is performed. (Author) [pt
Structural Optimization of non-Newtonian Microfluidics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg
2013-01-01
Many of the biological fluids analyzed in Lab-on-a-Chip systems contain elastic components, which gives the fluids elastic character. Such fluids are said to be non-Newtonian or, more precisely, viscoelastic. They can give rise to exotic effects on the macroscale, which are never seen for fluids...... with components relying on viscoelastic effects, but the non-intuitive nature of these fluids complicates the design process. This thesis combines the method of topology optimization with differential constitutive equations, which govern the flow of viscoelastic fluids. The optimization method iteratively...... finite element package. The code is capable of calculating the viscoelastic flow in a benchmark geometry, and we hope that it will help newcomers as well as experienced researchers in the field of differential constitutive equations. v...
NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND MODELING OF UNSTEADY FLOW ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2014-06-30
Jun 30, 2014 ... objective of this study is to control the simulation of unsteady flows around structures. ... Aerospace, our results were in good agreement with experimental .... Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering.
Reynolds averaged simulation of unsteady separated flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iaccarino, G.; Ooi, A.; Durbin, P.A.; Behnia, M.
2003-01-01
The accuracy of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models in predicting complex flows with separation is examined. The unsteady flow around square cylinder and over a wall-mounted cube are simulated and compared with experimental data. For the cube case, none of the previously published numerical predictions obtained by steady-state RANS produced a good match with experimental data. However, evidence exists that coherent vortex shedding occurs in this flow. Its presence demands unsteady RANS computation because the flow is not statistically stationary. The present study demonstrates that unsteady RANS does indeed predict periodic shedding, and leads to much better concurrence with available experimental data than has been achieved with steady computation
MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY FLOW BEHAVIOR IN DEEPWATER CONTROLLED MUD-CAP DRILLING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiwei Li
Full Text Available Abstract A new mathematical model was developed in this study to simulate the unsteady flow in controlled mud-cap drilling systems. The model can predict the time-dependent flow inside the drill string and annulus after a circulation break. This model consists of the continuity and momentum equations solved using the explicit Euler method. The model considers both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing inside the drill string and annular space. The model predicts the transient flow velocity of mud, the equilibrium time, and the change in the bottom hole pressure (BHP during the unsteady flow. The model was verified using data from U-tube flow experiments reported in the literature. The result shows that the model is accurate, with a maximum average error of 3.56% for the velocity prediction. Together with the measured data, the computed transient flow behavior can be used to better detect well kick and a loss of circulation after the mud pump is shut down. The model sensitivity analysis show that the water depth, mud density and drill string size are the three major factors affecting the fluctuation of the BHP after a circulation break. These factors should be carefully examined in well design and drilling operations to minimize BHP fluctuation and well kick. This study provides the fundamentals for designing a safe system in controlled mud-cap drilling operati.
Verification of vertically rotating flume using non-newtonian fluids
Huizinga, R.J.
1996-01-01
Three tests on non-Newtonian fluids were used to verify the use of a vertically rotating flume (VRF) for the study of the rheological properties of debris flow. The VRF is described and a procedure for the analysis of results of tests made with the VRF is presented. The major advantages of the VRF are a flow field consistent with that found in nature, a large particle-diameter threshold, inexpensive operation, and verification using several different materials; the major limitations are a lack of temperature control and a certain error incurred from the use of the Bingham plastic model to describe a more complex phenomenon. Because the VRF has been verified with non-Newtonian fluids as well as Newtonian fluids, it can be used to measure the rheological properties of coarse-grained debris-flow materials.
Unsteady flow over a decelerating rotating sphere
Turkyilmazoglu, M.
2018-03-01
Unsteady flow analysis induced by a decelerating rotating sphere is the main concern of this paper. A revolving sphere in a still fluid is supposed to slow down at an angular velocity rate that is inversely proportional to time. The governing partial differential equations of motion are scaled in accordance with the literature, reducing to the well-documented von Kármán equations in the special circumstance near the pole. Both numerical and perturbation approaches are pursued to identify the velocity fields, shear stresses, and suction velocity far above the sphere. It is detected that an induced flow surrounding the sphere acts accordingly to adapt to the motion of the sphere up to some critical unsteadiness parameters at certain latitudes. Afterward, the decay rate of rotation ceases such that the flow at the remaining azimuths starts revolving freely. At a critical unsteadiness parameter corresponding to s = -0.681, the decelerating sphere rotates freely and requires no more torque. At a value of s exactly matching the rotating disk flow at the pole identified in the literature, the entire flow field around the sphere starts revolving faster than the disk itself. Increasing values of -s almost diminish the radial outflow. This results in jet flows in both the latitudinal and meridional directions, concentrated near the wall region. The presented mean flow results will be useful for analyzing the instability features of the flow, whether of a convective or absolute nature.
Non-Newtonian fluid structure interaction in flexible biomimetic microchannels
Kiran, M.; Dasgupta, Sunando; Chakraborty, Suman
2017-11-01
To investigate the complex fluid structure interactions in a physiologically relevant microchannel with deformable wall and non-Newtonian fluid that flows within it, we fabricated cylindrical microchannels of various softness out of PDMS. Experiments to measure the transient pressure drop across the channel were carried out with high sampling frequencies to capture the intricate flow physics. In particular, we showed that the waveforms varies greatly for each of the non-Newtonian and Newtonian cases for both non-deformable and deformable microchannels in terms of the peak amplitude, r.m.s amplitude and the crest factor. In addition, we carried out frequency sweep experiments to evaluate the frequency response of the system. We believe that these results will aid in the design of polymer based microfluidic phantoms for arterial FSI studies, and in particular for studying blood analog fluids in cylindrical microchannels as well as developing frequency specific Lab-on-chip systems for medical diagnostics.
Tanaka, H.; Shiomi, Y.; Ma, K.-F.
2017-11-01
To understand the fault zone fluid flow-like structure, namely the ductile deformation structure, often observed in the geological field (e.g., Ramsay and Huber The techniques of modern structure geology, vol. 1: strain analysis, Academia Press, London, 1983; Hobbs and Ord Structure geology: the mechanics of deforming metamorphic rocks, Vol. I: principles, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2015), we applied a theoretical approach to estimate the rate of deformation, the shear stress and the time to form a streak-line pattern in the boundary layer of viscous fluids. We model the dynamics of streak lines in laminar boundary layers for Newtonian and pseudoplastic fluids and compare the results to those obtained via laboratory experiments. The structure of deformed streak lines obtained using our model is consistent with experimental observations, indicating that our model is appropriate for understanding the shear rate, flow time and shear stress based on the profile of deformed streak lines in the boundary layer in Newtonian and pseudoplastic viscous materials. This study improves our understanding of the transportation processes in fluids and of the transformation processes in fluid-like materials. Further application of this model could facilitate understanding the shear stress and time history of the fluid flow-like structure of fault zones observed in the field.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
A Lagrangian PFEM approach for non-Newtonian viscoplastic materials
Larese, A.
2017-01-01
This paper presents the application of a stabilized mixed Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) to the solution of viscoplastic non-Newtonian flows. The application of the proposed model to the deformation of granular non-cohesive material is analysed. A variable yield threshold modified Bingham model is presented, using a Mohr Coulomb resistance criterion. Since the granular material is expected to undergo severe deformation, a Lagrangian approach is preferred to a fixed mesh one. PFEM i...
Unsteady flow measurements in centrifugal compressors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bammert, K.; Mobarak, A.; Rautenberg, M.
1976-01-01
Centrifugal compressors and blowers are often used for recycling the coolant gas in gas-cooled reactors. To achieve the required high pressure ratios, highly loaded centrifugal compressors are built. The paper deals with unsteady flow measurements on highly loaded centrifugal impellers. Measurements of the approaching flow have been done with hot wires. The method of measurement enabled us to get the velocity distribution across the pitch ahead of the inducer. The static pressure signals along the shroud line has been discussed on the basis of some theoretical considerations. Accordingly the form of flow in the impeller and the wave flow or separation zones in the impeller can now be better interpreted. The importance of the unsteady nature of the relative flow, especially at impeller exit, is clearly demonstrated. Measurements with high responsive total pressure probes in the vicinity of impeller exit and the subsequent calculations have shown, that the instantaneous energy transfer at a certain point after the impeller may differ by more than 30% from the Euler work. Lastly, unsteady pressure measurements along the shroud line have been performed during surge and rotating stall. The surge signal have been analyzed in more detail and the mechanism of flow rupture and pressure recovery during a surge cycle is thoroughly discussed. (orig.) [de
Axisymmetric, Ventilated Supercavitation in Unsteady, Horizontal Flow
Kawakami, Ellison; Lee, Seung-Jae; Arndt, Roger
2012-11-01
Drag reduction and/or speed augmentation of marine vehicles by means of supercavitation is a topic of great interest. During the initial launch of a supercavitating vehicle, an artificial supercavity is required until the vehicle can reach conditions at which a natural supercavity can be sustained. Previous studies at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) focused on the behavior of ventilated supercavities in steady horizontal flows. In open waters, vehicles can encounter unsteady flows, especially when traveling under waves. A study has been carried out at SAFL to investigate the effects of unsteady flow on axisymmetric supercavities. An attempt is made to duplicate sea states seen in open waters. In an effort to track cavity dimensions throughout a wave cycle, an automated cavity tracking script has been developed. Using a high speed camera and the proper software, it is possible to synchronize cavity dimensions with pressure measurements taken inside the cavity. Results regarding supercavity shape, ventilation demand, cavitation parameters and closure methods are presented. It was found that flow unsteadiness caused a decrease in the overall length of the supercavity while having only a minimal effect on the maximum diameter. The supercavity volume varied with cavitation number and a possible relationship between the two is being explored. (Supported by ONR)
Effect of non-Newtonian viscosity on the fluid-dynamic characteristics in stenotic vessels
Huh, Hyung Kyu; Ha, Hojin; Lee, Sang Joon
2015-08-01
Although blood is known to have shear-thinning and viscoelastic properties, the effects of such properties on the hemodynamic characteristics in various vascular environments are not fully understood yet. For a quantitative hemodynamic analysis, the refractive index of a transparent blood analogue needs to be matched with that of the flowing conduit in order to minimize the errors according to the distortion of the light. In this study, three refractive index-matched blood analogue fluids with different viscosities are prepared—one Newtonian and two non-Newtonian analogues—which correspond to healthy blood with 45 % hematocrit (i.e., normal non-Newtonian) and obese blood with higher viscosity (i.e., abnormal non-Newtonian). The effects of the non-Newtonian rheological properties of the blood analogues on the hemodynamic characteristics in the post-stenosis region of an axisymmetric stenosis model are experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry velocity field measurement technique and pathline flow visualization. As a result, the centerline jet flow from the stenosis apex is suppressed by the shear-thinning feature of the blood analogues when the Reynolds number is smaller than 500. The lengths of the recirculation zone for abnormal and normal non-Newtonian blood analogues are 3.67 and 1.72 times shorter than that for the Newtonian analogue at Reynolds numbers smaller than 200. The Reynolds number of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow for all blood analogues increases as the shear-thinning feature increases, and the maximum wall shear stresses in non-Newtonian fluids are five times greater than those in Newtonian fluids. However, the shear-thinning effect on the hemodynamic characteristics is not significant at Reynolds numbers higher than 1000. The findings of this study on refractive index-matched non-Newtonian blood analogues can be utilized in other in vitro experiments, where non-Newtonian features dominantly affect the flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhopadhyay, Swati; Arif, M. Golam; Pk M Wazed Ali
2013-01-01
The aim of this article is to present the effects of transpiration on the unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian fluid passing through a stretching sheet in the presence of a first order constructive/destructive chemical reaction. The upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) model is used here to characterize the non-Newtonian behavior of the fluid. Using similarity solutions, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary ones and are then solved numerically by the shooting method. The flow fields and mass transfer are significantly influenced by the governing parameters. The fluid velocity initially decreases as the unsteadiness parameter increases and the concentration decreases significantly due to the increase in the unsteadiness. The effect of increasing values of transpiration (suction) and the Maxwell parameter is to suppress the velocity field; however, the concentration is enhanced as transpiration (suction) and the Maxwell parameter increase. Also, it is found that the fluid velocity decreases as the magnetic parameter increases; however, the concentration increases in this case. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Mahmoud, Mostafa A. A.; Megahed, Ahmed M.
2017-10-01
Theoretical and numerical outcomes of the non-Newtonian Casson liquid thin film fluid flow owing to an unsteady stretching sheet which exposed to a magnetic field, Ohmic heating and slip velocity phenomena is reported here. The non-Newtonian thermal conductivity is imposed and treated as it vary with temperature. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the non-Newtonian Casson thin film fluid are simplified into a group of highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using an adequate dimensionless transformations. With this in mind, the numerical solutions for the ordinary conservation equations are found using an accurate shooting iteration technique together with the Runge-Kutta algorithm. The lineaments of the thin film flow and the heat transfer characteristics for the pertinent parameters are discussed through graphs. The results obtained here detect many concern for the local Nusselt number and the local skin-friction coefficient in which they may be beneficial for the material processing industries. Furthermore, in some special conditions, the present problem has an excellent agreement with previously published work.
Experimental study of unsteady thermally stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Jun; Chung, Myung Kyoon
1985-01-01
Unsteady thermally stratified flow caused by two-dimensional surface discharge of warm water into a oblong channel was investigated. Experimental study was focused on the rapidly developing thermal diffusion at small Richardson number. The basic objectives were to study the interfacial mixing between a flowing layer of warm water and an underlying body of cold water and to accumulate experimental data to test computational turbulence models. Mean velocity field measurements were carried out by using NMR-CT(Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Computerized Tomography). It detects quantitative flow image of any desired section in any direction of flow in short time. Results show that at small Richardson number warm layer rapidly penetrates into the cold layer because of strong turbulent mixing and instability between the two layers. It is found that the transfer of heat across the interface is more vigorous than that of momentum. It is also proved that the NMR-CT technique is a very valuable tool to measure unsteady three dimensional flow field. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asma Khalid
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The unsteady free flow of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with constant wall temperature has been studied. The Casson fluid model is used to distinguish the non-Newtonian fluid behaviour. The governing partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations are transformed into linear ordinary differential equations by using nondimensional variables. Laplace transform method is used to find the exact solutions of these equations. Expressions for shear stress in terms of skin friction and the rate of heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number are also obtained. Numerical results of velocity and temperature profiles with various values of embedded flow parameters are shown graphically and their effects are discussed in detail.
Structural Optimization of Non-Newtonian Rectifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin
When the size of fluidic devices is scaled down, inertial effects start to vanish such that the governing equation becomes linear. Some microfluidic devices rely on the non-linear term related to the inertia of the fluid, and one example is fluid rectifiers (diodes) e.g. related to some micropumps....... These rectifiers rely on the device geometry for their working mechanism, but on further downscaling the inertial effect vanishes and the governing equation starts to show symmetry properties. These symmetry properties reduce the geometry influence to the point where fluid rectifiers cease to function....... In this context it is natural to look for other sources of non-linearity and one possibility is to introduce a non-Newtonian working fluid. Non-Newtonian properties are due to stretching of large particles/molecules in the fluid and this is commonly seen for biological samples in “lab-on-a-chip” systems...
Structural Optimization of non-Newtonian Microfluidics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin
2011-01-01
We present results for topology optimization of a non-Newtonian rectifier described with a differential constitutive model. The results are novel in the sense that a differential constitutive model has not been combined with topology optimization previously. We find that it is necessary to apply...... optimization of fluids. We test the method on a microfluidic rectifier and find solutions topologically different from experimentally realized designs....
Viumdal, Håkon; Mylvaganam, Saba
2017-01-01
In oil and gas and geothermal installations, open channels followed by sieves for removal of drill cuttings, are used to monitor the quality and quantity of the drilling fluids. Drilling fluid flow rate is difficult to measure due to the varying flow conditions (e.g., wavy, turbulent and irregular) and the presence of drilling cuttings and gas bubbles. Inclusion of a Venturi section in the open channel and an array of ultrasonic level sensors above it at locations in the vicinity of and above the Venturi constriction gives the varying levels of the drilling fluid in the channel. The time series of the levels from this array of ultrasonic level sensors are used to estimate the drilling fluid flow rate, which is compared with Coriolis meter measurements. Fuzzy logic, neural networks and support vector regression algorithms applied to the data from temporal and spatial ultrasonic level measurements of the drilling fluid in the open channel give estimates of its flow rate with sufficient reliability, repeatability and uncertainty, providing a novel soft sensing of an important process variable. Simulations, cross-validations and experimental results show that feedforward neural networks with the Bayesian regularization learning algorithm provide the best flow rate estimates. Finally, the benefits of using this soft sensing technique combined with Venturi constriction in open channels are discussed. PMID:29072595
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Bulatova, Regina; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2014-01-01
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the different interface capturing methods as well as to find the best approach for flow modeling of the ceramic slurry in the tape casting process. The conventional volume of fluid (VOF) method with three different interpolation methods for interface...... method for the free surface capturing during the flow of a ceramic slurry described by a constitutive power law equation in the tape casting process. First the developed model is tested against well-documented and relevant solutions from literature involving free surface tracking and subsequently...
Open mathematical problems regarding non-Newtonian fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, Helen J
2012-01-01
We present three open problems in the mathematical modelling of the flow of non-Newtonian fluids. The first problem is rather long standing: a discontinuity in the dependence of the rise velocity of a gas bubble on its volume. This is very well characterized experimentally but not, so far, fully reproduced either numerically or analytically. The other two are both instabilities. The first is observed experimentally but never predicted analytically or numerically. In the second instability, numerical studies reproduce the experimental observations but there is as yet no analytical or semi-analytical prediction of the linear instability which must be present. (invited article)
Manideep, P.; Raju, R. Srinivasa; Rao, T. Siva Nageswar; Reddy, G. Jithender
2018-05-01
This paper deals, an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic heat transfer natural convection flow of non-Newtonian Casson fluid over an inclined vertical plate embedded in a porous media with the presence of boundary conditions such as oscillating velocity, constant wall temperature. The governing dimensionless boundary layer partial differential equations are reduced to simultaneous algebraic linear equation for velocity, temperature of Casson fluid through finite element method. Those equations are solved by Thomas algorithm after imposing the boundary conditions through MATLAB for analyzing the behavior of Casson fluid velocity and temperature with various physical parameters. Also analyzed the local skin-friction and rate of heat transfer. Compared the present results with earlier reported studies, the results are comprehensively authenticated and robust FEM.
Abou-zeid, Mohamed Y.; Mohamed, Mona A. A.
2017-09-01
This article is an analytic discussion for the motion of power-law nanofluid with heat transfer under the effect of viscous dissipation, radiation, and internal heat generation. The governing equations are discussed under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. The solutions for temperature and nanoparticle profiles are obtained by using homotopy perturbation method. Results for the behaviours of the axial velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles as well as the skin friction coefficient, reduced Nusselt number, and Sherwood number with other physical parameters are obtained graphically and analytically. It is found that as the power-law exponent increases, both the axial velocity and temperature increase, whereas nanoparticles decreases. These results may have applicable importance in the research discussions of nanofluid flow in channels with small diameters under the effect of different temperature distributions.
Shcherbakov, V.; Ahlkrona, J.
2016-12-01
In this work we develop a highly efficient meshfree approach to ice sheet modeling. Traditionally mesh based methods such as finite element methods are employed to simulate glacier and ice sheet dynamics. These methods are mature and well developed. However, despite of numerous advantages these methods suffer from some drawbacks such as necessity to remesh the computational domain every time it changes its shape, which significantly complicates the implementation on moving domains, or a costly assembly procedure for nonlinear problems. We introduce a novel meshfree approach that frees us from all these issues. The approach is built upon a radial basis function (RBF) method that, thanks to its meshfree nature, allows for an efficient handling of moving margins and free ice surface. RBF methods are also accurate and easy to implement. Since the formulation is stated in strong form it allows for a substantial reduction of the computational cost associated with the linear system assembly inside the nonlinear solver. We implement a global RBF method that defines an approximation on the entire computational domain. This method exhibits high accuracy properties. However, it suffers from a disadvantage that the coefficient matrix is dense, and therefore the computational efficiency decreases. In order to overcome this issue we also implement a localized RBF method that rests upon a partition of unity approach to subdivide the domain into several smaller subdomains. The radial basis function partition of unity method (RBF-PUM) inherits high approximation characteristics form the global RBF method while resulting in a sparse system of equations, which essentially increases the computational efficiency. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RBF methods we model the velocity field of ice flow in the Haut Glacier d'Arolla. We assume that the flow is governed by the nonlinear Blatter-Pattyn equations. We test the methods for different basal conditions and for a free moving
Unsteady State Two Phase Flow Pressure Drop Calculations
Ayatollahi, Shahaboddin
1992-01-01
A method is presented to calculate unsteady state two phase flow in a gas-liquid line based on a quasi-steady state approach. A computer program for numerical solution of this method was prepared. Results of calculations using the computer program are presented for several unsteady state two phase flow systems
Applying Tiab’s direct synthesis technique to dilatant non-Newtonian/Newtonian fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Andrés Martínez
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Non-Newtonian fluids, such as polymer solutions, have been used by the oil industry for many years as fracturing agents and drilling mud. These solutions, which normally include thickened water and jelled fluids, are injected into the formation to enhanced oil recovery by improving sweep efficiency. It is worth noting that some heavy oils behave non-Newtonianly. Non-Newtonian fluids do not have direct proportionality between applied shear stress and shear rate and viscosity varies with shear rate depending on whether the fluid is either pseudoplastic or dilatant. Viscosity decreases as shear rate increases for the former whilst the reverse takes place for dilatants. Mathematical models of conventional fluids thus fail when applied to non-Newtonian fluids. The pressure derivative curve is introduced in this descriptive work for a dilatant fluid and its pattern was observed. Tiab’s direct synthesis (TDS methodology was used as a tool for interpreting pressure transient data to estimate effective permeability, skin factors and non-Newtonian bank radius. The methodology was successfully verified by its application to synthetic examples. Also, comparing it to pseudoplastic behavior, it was found that the radial flow regime in the Newtonian zone of dilatant fluids took longer to form regarding both the flow behavior index and consistency factor.
Development of a nonlinear unsteady transonic flow theory
Stahara, S. S.; Spreiter, J. R.
1973-01-01
A nonlinear, unsteady, small-disturbance theory capable of predicting inviscid transonic flows about aerodynamic configurations undergoing both rigid body and elastic oscillations was developed. The theory is based on the concept of dividing the flow into steady and unsteady components and then solving, by method of local linearization, the coupled differential equation for unsteady surface pressure distribution. The equations, valid at all frequencies, were derived for two-dimensional flows, numerical results, were obtained for two classses of airfoils and two types of oscillatory motions.
Binous, Housam
2007-01-01
We study four non-Newtonian fluid mechanics problems using Mathematica[R]. Constitutive equations describing the behavior of power-law, Bingham and Carreau models are recalled. The velocity profile is obtained for the horizontal flow of power-law fluids in pipes and annuli. For the vertical laminar film flow of a Bingham fluid we determine the…
Implicit time accurate simulation of unsteady flow
van Buuren, René; Kuerten, Hans; Geurts, Bernard J.
2001-03-01
Implicit time integration was studied in the context of unsteady shock-boundary layer interaction flow. With an explicit second-order Runge-Kutta scheme, a reference solution to compare with the implicit second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme was determined. The time step in the explicit scheme is restricted by both temporal accuracy as well as stability requirements, whereas in the A-stable implicit scheme, the time step has to obey temporal resolution requirements and numerical convergence conditions. The non-linear discrete equations for each time step are solved iteratively by adding a pseudo-time derivative. The quasi-Newton approach is adopted and the linear systems that arise are approximately solved with a symmetric block Gauss-Seidel solver. As a guiding principle for properly setting numerical time integration parameters that yield an efficient time accurate capturing of the solution, the global error caused by the temporal integration is compared with the error resulting from the spatial discretization. Focus is on the sensitivity of properties of the solution in relation to the time step. Numerical simulations show that the time step needed for acceptable accuracy can be considerably larger than the explicit stability time step; typical ratios range from 20 to 80. At large time steps, convergence problems that are closely related to a highly complex structure of the basins of attraction of the iterative method may occur. Copyright
Transition of unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow
Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H
1998-01-01
This paper deals with the stability and transition to turbulence of wall-bounded unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow. Such flows occur, for example, during unsteady boundary layer separation and in oscillating pipe flow. The main focus is on results from experiments in time-developing flow in a long pipe, which is decelerated rapidly. The flow is generated by the controlled motion of a piston. We obtain analytical solutions for laminar flow in the pipe and in a two-dimensional channe...
Negative wake behind bubbles in non-newtonian liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole
1979-01-01
Gas bubbles rising by gravity in non-Newtonian elastic liquids are different to gas bubbles in viscous Newtonian fluids in at least two ways. First, the bubbles in the non-Newtonian liquids often have a peculiar tip at the rear pole, and second, the terminal rise velocity versus volume curve ofte...
Non-newtonian deformation of co-based metallic glass at low stresses
Fursova, YV; Khonik, VA; Csach, K; Ocelik, Vaclav
2000-01-01
The results of precision measurements of creep in Co-based metallic glass are presented. It is shown that, in spite of generally accepted concepts, plastic flow at low stresses under intense structural relaxation conditions is of a non-Newtonian type. Consequences of this fact are considered. (C)
Characterization of the transition of regimes in a non-newtonian fluids in ducts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santana, C.C.; Ataide, C.H.; Massarani, G.
1983-01-01
By using own experimental data and also those obtained from the literature, the velocities at which transition from laminar to turbulent flows occurs are analysed in time-independent non-newtonian fluids, through the relationship between generalized Reynolds numbers and the rheological fluid parameters. (Author) [pt
Dan MATEESCU
2015-01-01
This paper presents the analysis of the unsteady flows past stationary airfoils equipped with Gurney flaps at low Reynolds numbers, aiming to study the unsteady behavior of the aerodynamic coefficients due to the flow separations occurring at these Reynolds numbers. The Gurney flaps are simple but very efficient lift-increasing devices, which due to their mechanical simplicity are of particular interest for the small size micro-air-vehicles (MAV) flying at low speed and very low Reynolds numb...
Unsteady Flow in a Supersonic Turbine with Variable Specific Heats
Dorney, Daniel J.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Huber, Frank; Sondak, Douglas L.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Modern high-work turbines can be compact, transonic, supersonic, counter-rotating, or use a dense drive gas. The vast majority of modern rocket turbine designs fall into these Categories. These turbines usually have large temperature variations across a given stage, and are characterized by large amounts of flow unsteadiness. The flow unsteadiness can have a major impact on the turbine performance and durability. For example, the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) fuel turbine, a high work, transonic design, was found to have an unsteady inter-row shock which reduced efficiency by 2 points and increased dynamic loading by 24 percent. The Revolutionary Reusable Technology Turbopump (RRTT), which uses full flow oxygen for its drive gas, was found to shed vortices with such energy as to raise serious blade durability concerns. In both cases, the sources of the problems were uncovered (before turbopump testing) with the application of validated, unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the designs. In the case of the RRTT and the Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) turbines, the unsteady CFD codes have been used not just to identify problems, but to guide designs which mitigate problems due to unsteadiness. Using unsteady flow analyses as a part of the design process has led to turbine designs with higher performance (which affects temperature and mass flow rate) and fewer dynamics problems. One of the many assumptions made during the design and analysis of supersonic turbine stages is that the values of the specific heats are constant. In some analyses the value is based on an average of the expected upstream and downstream temperatures. In stages where the temperature can vary by 300 to 500 K, however, the assumption of constant fluid properties may lead to erroneous performance and durability predictions. In this study the suitability of assuming constant specific heats has been investigated by performing three-dimensional unsteady Navier
Impinging jet spray formation using non-Newtonian liquids
Rodrigues, Neil S.
Over the past two decades there has been a heightened interest in implementing gelled propellants for rocket propulsion, especially for hypergolic bi-propellants such as monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer (NTO). Due to the very high level of toxicity of hypergolic liquid rocket propellants, increasing safety is an important area of need for continued space exploration and defense operations. Gelled propellants provide an attractive solution to meeting the requirements for safety, while also potentially improving performance. A gelling agent can be added to liquid propellants exhibiting Newtonian behavior to transform the liquid into a non-Newtonian fluid with some solid-like behavior, i.e. a gel. Non-Newtonian jet impingement is very different from its Newtonian counterpart in terms of fluid flow, atomization, and combustion. This is due to the added agents changing physical properties such as the bulk rheology (viscosity) and interfacial rheology (surface tension). Spray characterization of jet impingement with Newtonian liquids has been studied extensively in existing literature. However, there is a scarcity in literature of studies that consider the spray characterization of jet impingement with gelled propellants. This is a rather critical void since a major tradeoff of utilizing gelled propellants is the difficulty with atomization due to the increased effective viscosity. However, this difficulty can be overcome by using gels that exhibit shear-thinning behavior---viscosity decreases with increasing strain rate. Shear-thinning fluids are ideal because they have the distinct advantage of only flowing easily upon pressure. Thereby, greatly reducing the amount of propellant that could be accidentally leaked during both critical functions such as liftoff or engagement in the battlefield and regular tasks like refilling propellant tanks. This experimental work seeks to help resolve the scarcity in existing literature by providing drop size
Reddy, G. Janardhana; Hiremath, Ashwini; Kumar, Mahesh
2018-03-01
The present paper aims to investigate the effect of Prandtl number for unsteady third-grade fluid flow over a uniformly heated vertical cylinder using Bejan's heat function concept. The mathematical model of this problem is given by highly time-dependent non-linear coupled equations and are resolved by an efficient unconditionally stable implicit scheme. The time histories of average values of momentum and heat transport coefficients as well as the steady-state flow variables are displayed graphically for distinct values of non-dimensional control parameters arising in the system. As the non-dimensional parameter value gets amplified, the time taken for the fluid flow variables to attain the time-independent state is decreasing. The dimensionless heat function values are closely associated with an overall rate of heat transfer. Thermal energy transfer visualization implies that the heat function contours are compact in the neighborhood of the leading edge of the hot cylindrical wall. It is noticed that the deviations of flow-field variables from the hot wall for a non-Newtonian third-grade fluid flow are significant compared to the usual Newtonian fluid flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Das
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The influence of Newtonian heating on heat and mass transfer in unsteady hydromagnetic flow of a Casson fluid past a vertical plate in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction is studied. The Casson fluid model is used to distinguish the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. The fluid flow is induced due to periodic oscillations of the plate along its length and a uniform transverse magnetic field is applied in a direction which is normal to the direction of fluid flow. The partial differential equations governing the flow, heat, and mass transfer are transformed to non-dimensional form using suitable non-dimensional variables which are then solved analytically by using Laplace transform technique. The numerical values of the fluid velocity, fluid temperature, and species concentration are depicted graphically whereas the values of skin-friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are presented in tabular form. It is noticed that the fluid velocity and temperature decrease with increasing values of Casson parameter while concentration decreases with increasing values of chemical reaction parameter and Schmidt number. Such a fluid flow model has several industrial and medical applications such as in glass manufacturing, paper production, purification of crude oil and study of blood flow in the cardiovascular system.
Khan, Zeeshan; Khan, Ilyas; Ullah, Murad; Tlili, I.
2018-06-01
In this work, we discuss the unsteady flow of non-Newtonian fluid with the properties of heat source/sink in the presence of thermal radiation moving through a binary mixture embedded in a porous medium. The basic equations of motion including continuity, momentum, energy and concentration are simplified and solved analytically by using Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). The energy and concentration fields are coupled with Dankohler and Schmidt numbers. By applying suitable transformation, the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are converted to couple ordinary differential equations. The effect of physical parameters involved in the solutions of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed by assign numerical values and results obtained shows that the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are influenced appreciably by the radiation parameter, Prandtl number, suction/injection parameter, reaction order index, solutal Grashof number and the thermal Grashof. It is observed that the non-Newtonian parameter H leads to an increase in the boundary layer thickness. It was established that the Prandtl number decreases thee thermal boundary layer thickness which helps in maintaining system temperature of the fluid flow. It is observed that the temperature profiles higher for heat source parameter and lower for heat sink parameter throughout the boundary layer. Fromm this simulation it is analyzed that an increase in the Schmidt number decreases the concentration boundary layer thickness. Additionally, for the sake of comparison numerical method (ND-Solve) and Adomian Decomposition Method are also applied and good agreement is found.
Characteristics of gas-liquid dynamics in operation of oil fields producing non-Newtonian crude oils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Khasaev, A M; Gurbanov, R S; Akhmedov, Z M
1968-08-01
Experimental studies have shown that crude oils from Azerbaidzhan, Uzbekistan, Tataria, Kazakhstan and other areas have anomalous properties under reservoir conditions. Such crude oils are non-Newtonian and (1) obey Darcys Law at low velocities; (2) obey an exponential law at higher velocities; and (3) obey a modified Darcys Law at most velocities. A discussion is given of (1) flow of non-Newtonian crude oils together with gas or water; (2) flow of non-Newtonian crude oils in well tubing; (3) behavior of wells producing non-Newtonian crude oils; and (4) pumping of non-Newtonian oils in wells. Experiments have shown that a visco-plastic liquid does not fill pump inlets completely; as the diameter of the pump inlet decreases so also does the degree of liquid filling. A statistical analysis of production data from 160 fields with Newtonian oil and 129 fields with non- Newtonian oil has shown that much higher production is obtained from fields with Newtonian crude oils.
Theory and Low-Order Modeling of Unsteady Airfoil Flows
Ramesh, Kiran
Unsteady flow phenomena are prevalent in a wide range of problems in nature and engineering. These include, but are not limited to, aerodynamics of insect flight, dynamic stall in rotorcraft and wind turbines, leading-edge vortices in delta wings, micro-air vehicle (MAV) design, gust handling and flow control. The most significant characteristics of unsteady flows are rapid changes in the circulation of the airfoil, apparent-mass effects, flow separation and the leading-edge vortex (LEV) phenomenon. Although experimental techniques and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have enabled the detailed study of unsteady flows and their underlying features, a reliable and inexpensive loworder method for fast prediction and for use in control and design is still required. In this research, a low-order methodology based on physical principles rather than empirical fitting is proposed. The objective of such an approach is to enable insights into unsteady phenomena while developing approaches to model them. The basis of the low-order model developed here is unsteady thin-airfoil theory. A time-stepping approach is used to solve for the vorticity on an airfoil camberline, allowing for large amplitudes and nonplanar wakes. On comparing lift coefficients from this method against data from CFD and experiments for some unsteady test cases, it is seen that the method predicts well so long as LEV formation does not occur and flow over the airfoil is attached. The formation of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) in unsteady flows is initiated by flow separation and the formation of a shear layer at the airfoil's leading edge. This phenomenon has been observed to have both detrimental (dynamic stall in helicopters) and beneficial (high-lift flight in insects) effects. To predict the formation of LEVs in unsteady flows, a Leading Edge Suction Parameter (LESP) is proposed. This parameter is calculated from inviscid theory and is a measure of the suction at the airfoil's leading edge. It
Experimental validation of an ultrasonic flowmeter for unsteady flows
Leontidis, V.; Cuvier, C.; Caignaert, G.; Dupont, P.; Roussette, O.; Fammery, S.; Nivet, P.; Dazin, A.
2018-04-01
An ultrasonic flowmeter was developed for further applications in cryogenic conditions and for measuring flow rate fluctuations in the range of 0 to 70 Hz. The prototype was installed in a flow test rig, and was validated experimentally both in steady and unsteady water flow conditions. A Coriolis flowmeter was used for the calibration under steady state conditions, whereas in the unsteady case the validation was done simultaneously against two methods: particle image velocimetry (PIV), and with pressure transducers installed flush on the wall of the pipe. The results show that the developed flowmeter and the proposed methodology can accurately measure the frequency and amplitude of unsteady fluctuations in the experimental range of 0-9 l s-1 of the mean main flow rate and 0-70 Hz of the imposed disturbances.
Non-Newtonian Aspects of Artificial Intelligence
Zak, Michail
2016-05-01
The challenge of this work is to connect physics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e., in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self-supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of the information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. As a follow-up of the proposed concept, the following question is addressed: can artificial intelligence (AI) system composed only of physical components compete with a human? The answer is proven to be negative if the AI system is based only on simulations, and positive if digital devices are included. It has been demonstrated that there exists such a quantum neural net that performs simulations combined with digital punctuations. The universality of this quantum-classical hybrid is in capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics by moving from disorder to order without external resources. This advanced capability is illustrated by examples. In conclusion, a mathematical machinery of the perception that is the fundamental part of a cognition process as well as intelligence is introduced and discussed.
Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents a new numerical approach for solving unsteady two dimensional boundary layer flow past an infinite vertical porous surface with the flow generated by Newtonian heating and impulsive motion in the presence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid under ...
Increasing heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluid in rectangular microchannel with triangular ribs
Shamsi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari, Omid Ali; Marzban, Ali; Toghraie, Davood; Mashayekhi, Ramin
2017-09-01
In this study, computational fluid dynamics and the laminar flow of the non-Newtonian fluid have been numerically studied. The cooling fluid includes water and 0.5 wt% Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) making the non-Newtonian fluid. In order to make the best of non-Newtonian nanofluid in this simulation, solid nanoparticles of Aluminum Oxide have been added to the non-Newtonian fluid in volume fractions of 0-2% with diameters of 25, 45 and 100 nm. The supposed microchannel is rectangular and two-dimensional in Cartesian coordination. The power law has been used to speculate the dynamic viscosity of the cooling nanofluid. The field of numerical solution is simulated in the Reynolds number range of 5 nanoparticles as well as the use for nanoparticles with smaller diameters lead to greater heat transfer. Among all the studied forms, the triangular rib from with an angle of attack 30° has the biggest Nusselt number and the smallest pressure drop along the microchannel. Also, an increase in the angle of attack and as a result of a sudden contact between the fluid and the ribs and also a reduction in the coflowing length (length of the rib) cause a cut in heat transfer by the fluid in farther parts from the solid wall (tip of the rib).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeeshan Khan
2018-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, we discuss the unsteady flow of non-Newtonian fluid with the properties of heat source/sink in the presence of thermal radiation moving through a binary mixture embedded in a porous medium. The basic equations of motion including continuity, momentum, energy and concentration are simplified and solved analytically by using Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM. The energy and concentration fields are coupled with Dankohler and Schmidt numbers. By applying suitable transformation, the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are converted to couple ordinary differential equations. The effect of physical parameters involved in the solutions of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed by assign numerical values and results obtained shows that the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are influenced appreciably by the radiation parameter, Prandtl number, suction/injection parameter, reaction order index, solutal Grashof number and the thermal Grashof. It is observed that the non-Newtonian parameter H leads to an increase in the boundary layer thickness. It was established that the Prandtl number decreases thee thermal boundary layer thickness which helps in maintaining system temperature of the fluid flow. It is observed that the temperature profiles higher for heat source parameter and lower for heat sink parameter throughout the boundary layer. Fromm this simulation it is analyzed that an increase in the Schmidt number decreases the concentration boundary layer thickness. Additionally, for the sake of comparison numerical method (ND-Solve and Adomian Decomposition Method are also applied and good agreement is found. Keywords: Unsteady flow, Viscous fluid, Thermal radiation, Porous plate, Arrhenius kinetics, HAM and numerical method
Unsteady MHD stagnation flow over a moving wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumari, M.; Nath, G.
2006-01-01
The unsteady viscous stagnation flow of an electrically conducting fluid over a continuously moving wall with an applied magnetic field has been investigated when the free stream and wall velocities increase arbitrarily with time. The flow is initially (t = 0) steady and at time t > 0, it becomes unsteady. The semi-similar solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations along with the energy equation governing the flow and heat transfer has been obtained numerically. Also the self-similar solution is obtained when the surface and free stream velocities vary inversely as a linear function of time. The shear stress and the heat transfer increase with time and magnetic field. The surface shear stress vanishes for certain value of the ratio of the wall velocity to the free stream velocity. (author)
Studying mixing in Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions using color analysis.
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Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-Newtonian fluids occur in many relevant flow and mixing scenarios at the lab and industrial scale. The addition of acid or basic solutions to a non-Newtonian fluid is not an infrequent operation, particularly in Biotechnology applications where the pH of Non-Newtonian culture broths is usually regulated using this strategy. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We conducted mixing experiments in agitated vessels using Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions. Acid or basic pulses were injected to reveal mixing patterns and flow structures and to follow their time evolution. No foreign pH indicator was used as blue maize flours naturally contain anthocyanins that act as a native, wide spectrum, pH indicator. We describe a novel method to quantitate mixedness and mixing evolution through Dynamic Color Analysis (DCA in this system. Color readings corresponding to different times and locations within the mixing vessel were taken with a digital camera (or a colorimeter and translated to the CIELab scale of colors. We use distances in the Lab space, a 3D color space, between a particular mixing state and the final mixing point to characterize segregation/mixing in the system. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Blue maize suspensions represent an adequate and flexible model to study mixing (and fluid mechanics in general in Non-Newtonian suspensions using acid/base tracer injections. Simple strategies based on the evaluation of color distances in the CIELab space (or other scales such as HSB can be adapted to characterize mixedness and mixing evolution in experiments using blue maize suspensions.
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Dan MATEESCU
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the unsteady flows past stationary airfoils equipped with Gurney flaps at low Reynolds numbers, aiming to study the unsteady behavior of the aerodynamic coefficients due to the flow separations occurring at these Reynolds numbers. The Gurney flaps are simple but very efficient lift-increasing devices, which due to their mechanical simplicity are of particular interest for the small size micro-air-vehicles (MAV flying at low speed and very low Reynolds number. The unsteady aerodynamic analysis is performed with an efficient time-accurate numerical method developed for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations at low Reynolds numbers, which is second-order-accurate in time and space. The paper presents solutions for the unsteady aerodynamic coefficients of lift and drag and for the lift-to-drag ratio of several symmetric and cambered airfoils with Gurney flaps. It was found that although the airfoil is considered stationary, starting from a relatively small incidence (about 8 degrees the flow becomes unsteady due to the unsteadiness of the flow separations occurring at low Reynolds numbers, and the aerodynamic coefficients display periodic oscillations in time. A detailed study is presented in the paper on the influence of various geometric and flow parameters, such as the Gurney flap height, Reynolds number, airfoil relative thickness and relative camber, on the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag and lift-to-drag ratio. The flow separation is also studied with the aid of flow visualizations illustrating the changes in the flow pattern at various moments in time.
Unsteady potential flow past a propeller blade section
Takallu, M. A.
1990-01-01
An analytical study was conducted to predict the effect of an oscillating stream on the time dependent sectional pressure and lift coefficients of a model propeller blade. The assumption is that as the blade sections encounter a wake, the actual angles of attack vary in a sinusoidal manner through the wake, thus each blade is exposed to an unsteady stream oscillating about a mean value at a certain reduced frequency. On the other hand, an isolated propeller at some angle of attack can experience periodic changes in the value of the flow angle causing unsteady loads on the blades. Such a flow condition requires the inclusion of new expressions in the formulation of the unsteady potential flow around the blade sections. These expressions account for time variation of angle of attack and total shed vortices in the wake of each airfoil section. It was found that the final expressions for the unsteady pressure distribution on each blade section are periodic and that the unsteady circulation and lift coefficients exhibit a hysteresis loop.
Unsteady flow model for circulation-control airfoils
Rao, B. M.
1979-01-01
An analysis and a numerical lifting surface method are developed for predicting the unsteady airloads on two-dimensional circulation control airfoils in incompressible flow. The analysis and the computer program are validated by correlating the computed unsteady airloads with test data and also with other theoretical solutions. Additionally, a mathematical model for predicting the bending-torsion flutter of a two-dimensional airfoil (a reference section of a wing or rotor blade) and a computer program using an iterative scheme are developed. The flutter program has a provision for using the CC airfoil airloads program or the Theodorsen hard flap solution to compute the unsteady lift and moment used in the flutter equations. The adopted mathematical model and the iterative scheme are used to perform a flutter analysis of a typical CC rotor blade reference section. The program seems to work well within the basic assumption of the incompressible flow.
Flow Measurements of a Plunging Wing in Unsteady Environment
Wengel, Jesse; Nathan, Rungun; Cheng, Bo; Eslam-Panah, Azar
2017-11-01
Despite the great progress in their design and control, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are tremendously troubled while flying in turbulent environments, which are common in the lower atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). A nominally 2D plunging wing was developed and tested in the presence of unsteady wake to investigate the effect of the flow disturbances on vorticity fields. The experiments were conducted in a water channel facility with test section width of 0.76 m, and a water depth of 0.6 m. The unsteady wake in the form of von Kármán Vortex Street was generated by a cylinder located upstream of the plunging wing. The plunge amplitude and frequency of the oscillation were adjusted to bracket the range of Strouhal numbers relevant to the biological locomotion (0.25PIV) was employed to quantitatively study the effect of unsteady wake on the flow measurements of the plunging wing.
Hamid, Aamir; Hashim; Khan, Masood
2018-06-01
The main concern of this communication is to investigate the two-layer flow of a non-Newtonian rheological fluid past a wedge-shaped geometry. One remarkable aspect of this article is the mathematical formulation for two-dimensional flow of Williamson fluid by incorporating the effect of infinite shear rate viscosity. The impacts of heat transfer mechanism on time-dependent flow field are further studied. At first, we employ the suitable non-dimensional variables to transmute the time-dependent governing flow equations into a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. The converted conservation equations are numerically integrated subject to physically suitable boundary conditions with the aid of Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration procedure. The effects of involved pertinent parameters, such as, moving wedge parameter, wedge angle parameter, local Weissenberg number, unsteadiness parameter and Prandtl number on the non-dimensional velocity and temperature distributions have been evaluated. In addition, the numerical values of the local skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are compared and presented through tables. The outcomes of this study indicate that the rate of heat transfer increases with the growth of both wedge angle parameter and unsteadiness parameter. Moreover, a substantial rise in the fluid velocity is observed with enhancement in the viscosity ratio parameter while an opposite trend is true for the non-dimensional temperature field. A comparison is presented between the current study and already published works and results found to be in outstanding agreement. Finally, the main findings of this article are highlighted in the last section.
Unsteady axisymmetric flow of a micropolar fluid between the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The influence of several parameters on dimensionless velocities is presented through plots. The behavior of skin friction and couple stress coefficients is tabulated against various values of the pertinent parameters. Keywords: Unsteady flow, micropolar fluid, radial stretching, skin friction coefficient, couple stress coefficient
Simulating unsteady conduit flows with smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Hou, Q.
2012-01-01
Pipelines are widely used for transport and cooling in industries such as oil and gas, chemical, water supply and sewerage, and hydro, fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. Unsteady pipe flows with large pressure variations may cause a range of problems such as pipe rapture, support failure, pipe
The Unsteady Variable – Viscosity Free Convection Flow on a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The unsteady variable-viscosity free convection flow of a viscous incompressible fluid near an infinite vertical plate (or wall) is investigated under an arbitrary timedependent heating of the plates, and the governing equations of motion and energy transformed into ordinary differential equations. Employing asymptotic ...
The flows structure in unsteady gas flow in pipes with different cross-sections
Plotnikov Leonid; Nevolin Alexandr; Nikolaev Dmitrij
2017-01-01
The results of numerical simulation and experimental study of the structure of unsteady flows in pipes with different cross sections are presented in the article. It is shown that the unsteady gas flow in a circular pipe is axisymmetric without secondary currents. Steady vortex structures (secondary flows) are observed in pipes with cross sections in the form of a square and an equilateral triangle. It was found that these secondary flows have a significant impact on gas flows in pipes of com...
Are Non-Newtonian Effects Important in Hemodynamic Simulations of Patients With Autogenous Fistula?
Javid Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S M; Cassel, Kevin; Boghosian, Michael; Dhar, Promila; Hammes, Mary
2017-04-01
Given the current emphasis on accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of cardiovascular flows, which incorporates realistic blood vessel geometries and cardiac waveforms, it is necessary to revisit the conventional wisdom regarding the influences of non-Newtonian effects. In this study, patient-specific reconstructed 3D geometries, whole blood viscosity data, and venous pulses postdialysis access surgery are used as the basis for the hemodynamic simulations of renal failure patients with native fistula access. Rheological analysis of the viscometry data initially suggested that the correct choice of constitutive relations to capture the non-Newtonian behavior of blood is important because the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient cohort under observation experience drastic variations in hematocrit (Hct) levels and whole blood viscosity throughout the hemodialysis treatment. For this purpose, various constitutive relations have been tested and implemented in CFD practice, namely Quemada and Casson. Because of the specific interest in neointimal hyperplasia and the onset of stenosis in this study, particular attention is placed on differences in nonhomeostatic wall shear stress (WSS) as that drives the venous adaptation process that leads to venous geometric evolution over time in ESRD patients. Surprisingly, the CFD results exhibit no major differences in the flow field and general flow characteristics of a non-Newtonian simulation and a corresponding identical Newtonian counterpart. It is found that the vein's geometric features and the dialysis-induced flow rate have far greater influence on the WSS distribution within the numerical domain.
Are Non-Newtonian Effects Important in Hemodynamic Simulations of Patients With Autogenous Fistula?
Javid Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S. M.; Cassel, Kevin; Boghosian, Michael; Dhar, Promila; Hammes, Mary
2017-01-01
Given the current emphasis on accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of cardiovascular flows, which incorporates realistic blood vessel geometries and cardiac waveforms, it is necessary to revisit the conventional wisdom regarding the influences of non-Newtonian effects. In this study, patient-specific reconstructed 3D geometries, whole blood viscosity data, and venous pulses postdialysis access surgery are used as the basis for the hemodynamic simulations of renal failure patients with native fistula access. Rheological analysis of the viscometry data initially suggested that the correct choice of constitutive relations to capture the non-Newtonian behavior of blood is important because the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient cohort under observation experience drastic variations in hematocrit (Hct) levels and whole blood viscosity throughout the hemodialysis treatment. For this purpose, various constitutive relations have been tested and implemented in CFD practice, namely Quemada and Casson. Because of the specific interest in neointimal hyperplasia and the onset of stenosis in this study, particular attention is placed on differences in nonhomeostatic wall shear stress (WSS) as that drives the venous adaptation process that leads to venous geometric evolution over time in ESRD patients. Surprisingly, the CFD results exhibit no major differences in the flow field and general flow characteristics of a non-Newtonian simulation and a corresponding identical Newtonian counterpart. It is found that the vein's geometric features and the dialysis-induced flow rate have far greater influence on the WSS distribution within the numerical domain. PMID:28249082
Tazraei, Pedram; Riasi, Alireza; Takabi, Behrouz
2015-06-01
This work investigates a two dimensional numerical analysis of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery. The non-Newtonian and usual Newtonian blood models are compared in the case of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery to quantify the differences between the models. In this way, a validated CFD simulation is used to study non-Newtonian shear-thinning effects of blood. The governing equations for the modeling of two-dimensional transient flow are solved using a combination of characteristics and central finite difference methods, respectively for the hyperbolic and parabolic parts. Herein, the non-Newtonian viscosity characteristic of blood is incorporated by using the Carreau model. To convert the nonlinear terms available in the characteristics equation into the linear ones, the Newton-Kantorovich method is implemented. The verification and validation of the numerical results are carried out in detail. Hemodynamic characteristics of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery are derived with both the Newtonian and non-Newtonian models, and the results are meticulously compared and discussed. The results show that when blood hammer occurs, the non-Newtonian properties greatly influence the velocity and shear stress profiles. At the early stages of blood hammer, there is a 64% difference between magnitudes of wall shear stress in these two models, and the magnitude of the wall shear stress for the shear-thinning blood flow is lower than the Newtonian one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dynamic characteristics of Non Newtonian fluid Squeeze film damper
Palaksha, C. P.; Shivaprakash, S.; Jagadish, H. P.
2016-09-01
The fluids which do not follow linear relationship between rate of strain and shear stress are termed as non-Newtonian fluid. The non-Newtonian fluids are usually categorized as those in which shear stress depends on the rates of shear only, fluids for which relation between shear stress and rate of shear depends on time and the visco inelastic fluids which possess both elastic and viscous properties. It is quite difficult to provide a single constitutive relation that can be used to define a non-Newtonian fluid due to a great diversity found in its physical structure. Non-Newtonian fluids can present a complex rheological behaviour involving shear-thinning, viscoelastic or thixotropic effects. The rheological characterization of complex fluids is an important issue in many areas. The paper analyses the damping and stiffness characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids (waxy crude oil) used in squeeze film dampers using the available literature for viscosity characterization. Damping and stiffness characteristic will be evaluated as a function of shear strain rate, temperature and percentage wax concentration etc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Zhang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of steady, laminar, thermal Marangoni convection flow of non-Newtonian power law fluid along a horizontal surface with variable surface temperature is studied. The partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using a suitable similarity transformation and analytical approximate solutions are obtained by an efficient transformation, asymptotic expansion and Padé approximants technique. The effects of power law index and Marangoni number on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and discussed.
A new 3D immersed boundary method for non-Newtonian fluid-structure-interaction with application
Zhu, Luoding
2017-11-01
Motivated by fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) phenomena in life sciences (e.g., motions of sperm and cytoskeleton in complex fluids), we introduce a new immersed boundary method for FSI problems involving non-Newtonian fluids in three dimensions. The non-Newtonian fluids are modelled by the FENE-P model (including the Oldroyd-B model as an especial case) and numerically solved by a lattice Boltzmann scheme (the D3Q7 model). The fluid flow is modelled by the lattice Boltzmann equations and numerically solved by the D3Q19 model. The deformable structure and the fluid-structure-interaction are handled by the immersed boundary method. As an application, we study a FSI toy problem - interaction of an elastic plate (flapped at its leading edge and restricted nowhere else) with a non-Newtonian fluid in a 3D flow. Thanks to the support of NSF-DMS support under research Grant 1522554.
Investigation into the behaviors of ventilated supercavities in unsteady flow
Shao, Siyao; Wu, Yue; Haynes, Joseph; Arndt, Roger E. A.; Hong, Jiarong
2018-05-01
A systematic investigation of ventilated supercavitation behaviors in an unsteady flow is conducted using a high-speed water tunnel at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. The cavity is generated with a forward facing model under varying ventilation rates and cavitator sizes. The unsteady flow is produced by a gust generator consisting of two hydrofoils flapping in unison with a varying angle of attack (AoA) and frequency (fg). The current experiment reveals five distinct cavity states, namely, the stable state, wavy state, pulsating state I, pulsating state II, and collapsing state, based on the variation of cavity geometry and pressure signatures inside the cavity. The distribution of cavity states over a broad range of unsteady conditions is summarized in a cavity state map. It shows that the transition of the supercavity from the stable state to pulsating and collapsing states is primarily induced by increasing AoA while the transition to the wavy state triggers largely by increasing fg. Remarkably, the state map over the non-dimensionalized half wavelength and wave amplitude of the perturbation indicates that the supercavity loses its stability and transitions to pulsating or collapsing states when the level of its distortion induced by the flow unsteadiness exceeds the cavity dimension under a steady condition. The state maps under different ventilation rates and cavitator sizes yield similar distribution but show that the occurrence of the cavity collapse can be suppressed with increasing ventilation coefficient or cavitator size. Such knowledge can be integrated into designing control strategies for the supercavitating devices operating under different unsteady conditions.
Effect of couple stresses on hydromagnetic flow of blood through a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The function of the coronary network is to supply blood to the heart; however, in cases of Coronary Artery Disease, the geometry has great influence on the nature of the blood flow and the overall performance of the heart. In this paper, the unsteady non-Newtonian flow of blood under couple stresses and a uniform external ...
Fatin Jamil, Dzuliana; Roslan, Rozaini; Abdulhameed, Mohammed; Che-Him, Norziha; Sufahani, Suliadi; Mohamad, Mahathir; Ghazali Kamardan, Muhamad
2018-04-01
The effects of nanoparticles such as Fe 3O4,TiO2, and Cu on blood flow inside a stenosed artery are studied. In this study, blood was modelled as non-Newtonian Bingham plastic fluid subjected to periodic body acceleration and slip velocity. The flow governing equations were solved analytically by using the perturbation method. By using the numerical approaches, the physiological parameters were analyzed, and the blood flow velocity distributions were generated graphically and discussed. From the flow results, the flow speed increases as slip velocity increases and decreases as the values of yield stress increases.
Transition of unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow
Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
1998-11-01
This paper deals with the stability and transition to turbulence of wall-bounded unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow. Such flows occur, for example, during unsteady boundary layer separation and in oscillating pipe flow. The main focus is on results from experiments in time-developing flow in a long pipe, which is decelerated rapidly. The flow is generated by the controlled motion of a piston. We obtain analytical solutions for laminar flow in the pipe and in a two-dimensional channel for arbitrary piston motions. By changing the piston speed and the length of piston travel we cover a range of values of Reynolds number and boundary layer thickness. The velocity profiles during the decay of the flow are unsteady with reverse flow near the wall, and are highly unstable due to their inflectional nature. In the pipe, we observe from flow visualization that the flow becomes unstable with the formation of what appears to be a helical vortex. The wavelength of the instability [simeq R: similar, equals]3[delta] where [delta] is the average boundary layer thickness, the average being taken over the time the flow is unstable. The time of formation of the vortices scales with the average convective time scale and is [simeq R: similar, equals]39/([Delta]u/[delta]), where [Delta]u=(umax[minus sign]umin) and umax, umin and [delta] are the maximum velocity, minimum velocity and boundary layer thickness respectively at each instant of time. The time to transition to turbulence is [simeq R: similar, equals]33/([Delta]u/[delta]). Quasi-steady linear stability analysis of the velocity profiles brings out two important results. First that the stability characteristics of velocity profiles with reverse flow near the wall collapse when scaled with the above variables. Second that the wavenumber corresponding to maximum growth does not change much during the instability even though the velocity profile does change substantially. Using the results from the experiments and the
Suppressing unsteady flow in arterio-venous fistulae
Grechy, L.; Iori, F.; Corbett, R. W.; Shurey, S.; Gedroyc, W.; Duncan, N.; Caro, C. G.; Vincent, P. E.
2017-10-01
Arterio-Venous Fistulae (AVF) are regarded as the "gold standard" method of vascular access for patients with end-stage renal disease who require haemodialysis. However, a large proportion of AVF do not mature, and hence fail, as a result of various pathologies such as Intimal Hyperplasia (IH). Unphysiological flow patterns, including high-frequency flow unsteadiness, associated with the unnatural and often complex geometries of AVF are believed to be implicated in the development of IH. In the present study, we employ a Mesh Adaptive Direct Search optimisation framework, computational fluid dynamics simulations, and a new cost function to design a novel non-planar AVF configuration that can suppress high-frequency unsteady flow. A prototype device for holding an AVF in the optimal configuration is then fabricated, and proof-of-concept is demonstrated in a porcine model. Results constitute the first use of numerical optimisation to design a device for suppressing potentially pathological high-frequency flow unsteadiness in AVF.
Numerical method for the unsteady potential flow about pitching airfoils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parrouffe, J.-M.; Paraschivoiu, I.
1985-01-01
This paper presents a numerical method for the unsteady potential flow about an aerodynamic profile and in its wake. This study has many applications such as airplane wings and propellers, guide vanes, subcavitant hydrofoils and wind turbine blades. Typical of such nonstationary configurations is the rotor of the Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine whose blades are exposed to cyclic aerodynamic loads in the operating state
External gear pumps operating with non-Newtonian fluids: Modelling and experimental validation
Rituraj, Fnu; Vacca, Andrea
2018-06-01
External Gear Pumps are used in various industries to pump non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids like plastics, paints, inks, etc. For both design and analysis purposes, it is often a matter of interest to understand the features of the displacing action realized by meshing of the gears and the description of the behavior of the leakages for this kind of pumps. However, very limited work can be found in literature about methodologies suitable to model such phenomena. This article describes the technique of modelling external gear pumps that operate with non-Newtonian fluids. In particular, it explains how the displacing action of the unit can be modelled using a lumped parameter approach which involves dividing fluid domain into several control volumes and internal flow connections. This work is built upon the HYGESim simulation tool, conceived by the authors' research team in the last decade, which is for the first time extended for the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids. The article also describes several comparisons between simulation results and experimental data obtained from numerous experiments performed for validation of the presented methodology. Finally, operation of external gear pump with fluids having different viscosity characteristics is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Javorova
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the performance of a finite length journal bearing, taking into account effects of non-Newtonian Rabinowitsch flow rheology and elastic deformations of the bearing liner. According to the Rabinowitsch fluid model, the cubic-stress constitutive equation is used to account for the non-Newtonian effects of pseudoplastic and dilatant lubricants. Integrating the continuity equation across the film, the nonlinear non-Newtonian Reynolds-type equation is derived. The elasticity part of the problem is solved on the base of Vlassov model of an elastic foundation. The numerical solution of the modified Reynolds equation is carried out by using FDM with over-relaxation technique. The results for steady state bearing performance characteristics have been calculated for various values of nonlinear factor and elasticity parameters. It was concluded that in comparison with the Newtonian lubricants, higher values of film pressure and load carrying capacity have been obtained for dilatant lubricants, while the case was reversed for pseudoplastic lubricants.
Observations and Measurements on Unsteady Cloud Cavitation Flow Structures
Gu, L. X.; Yan, G. J.; Huang, B.
2015-12-01
The objectives of this paper are to investigate the unsteady structures and hydrodynamics of cavitating flows. Experimental results are presented for a Clark-Y hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=0°, 5° and 8°. The high-speed video camera and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are applied to investigate the transient flow structures. The dynamic measurement system is used to record the dynamic characteristics. The cloud cavitation exhibits noticeable unsteady characteristics. For the case of α=0°, there exit strong interactions between the attached cavity and the re-entrant flow. While for the case of α=8°, the re-entrant flow is relatively thin and the interaction between the cavity and re-entrant flow is limited. The results also present that the periodic collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavitation, which leads to substantial increase of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the cavity region. Experimental evidence indicates that the hydrodynamics are clearly affected by the cavitating flow structures, the amplitude of load fluctuation are much higher for the cloud cavitating cases.
Observations and Measurements on Unsteady Cloud Cavitation Flow Structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu, L X; Yan, G J; Huang, B
2015-01-01
The objectives of this paper are to investigate the unsteady structures and hydrodynamics of cavitating flows. Experimental results are presented for a Clark-Y hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=0°, 5° and 8°. The high-speed video camera and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are applied to investigate the transient flow structures. The dynamic measurement system is used to record the dynamic characteristics. The cloud cavitation exhibits noticeable unsteady characteristics. For the case of α=0°, there exit strong interactions between the attached cavity and the re-entrant flow. While for the case of α=8°, the re-entrant flow is relatively thin and the interaction between the cavity and re-entrant flow is limited. The results also present that the periodic collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavitation, which leads to substantial increase of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the cavity region. Experimental evidence indicates that the hydrodynamics are clearly affected by the cavitating flow structures, the amplitude of load fluctuation are much higher for the cloud cavitating cases. (paper)
Prediction of unsteady separated flows on oscillating airfoils
Mccroskey, W. J.
1978-01-01
Techniques for calculating high Reynolds number flow around an airfoil undergoing dynamic stall are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on predicting the values of lift, drag, and pitching moments. Methods discussed include: the discrete potential vortex method; thin boundary layer method; strong interaction between inviscid and viscous flows; and solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. Empirical methods for estimating unsteady airloads on oscillating airfoils are also described. These methods correlate force and moment data from wind tunnel tests to indicate the effects of various parameters, such as airfoil shape, Mach number, amplitude and frequency of sinosoidal oscillations, mean angle, and type of motion.
Unsteady resurgence flows in karstic media
Adler, Pierre; Drygas, Piotr; Mityushev, Vladimir
2017-04-01
Geological porous media are heterogeneous materials which in addition contain discontinuities such as fractures and conduits which facilitate fluid transport. Fractures are relatively plane objects which strongly interact with the surrounding porous medium because of their large contact surface. A different situation occurs in karsts where distant regions of the medium can be connected by relatively thin conduits which have little if any hydrodynamic interaction with the porous medium that they cross, except at their ends. This phenomenon is called resurgence because of the obvious analogy with rivers which suddenly disappear underground and go out at the ground surface again. Similar ideas have already been developed in other fields, such as Physics with random networks and Geophysics with electrical tomography. Media with resurgences are addressed in the following way. They consist of a double structure. The first one is the continuous porous medium described by the classical Darcy law. The second one is composed by the resurgences modeled by conduits with impermeable walls which relate distant points of the continuous medium. When non steady regimes are considered, it appears necessary to confer a capacity to these conduits in addition to their hydrodynamic resistance. Therefore, the conduits are able to store some quantity of fluid. In addition, two kinds of resurgence are addressed, namely punctual and extended; in the second case, the dimensions of the ends of the conduit are not negligible compared to the characteristic length scales of the embedding porous medium. Capacities and extended resurgences are new features which were not taken into account in our previous studies. The punctual resurgence is described by a spatial network with a finite number of conduits embedded in a continuous porous medium. The flow in the network is described by the classical Kirchhoff law (including capacities). The equations for flow in the network and in the continuous
Viscosity measurement in the capillary tube viscometer under unsteady flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Heung Jun; Yoo, Sang Sin; Suh, Sang Ho
2000-01-01
The objective of the present study is to develop a new device that the viscous characteristics of fluids are determined by applying the unsteady flow concept to the traditional capillary tube viscometer. The capillary tube viscometer consists of a small cylindrical reservoir, capillary tube, a load cell system that measures the mass flow rate, interfaces, and computer. Due to the small size of the reservoir the height of liquid in the reservoir decreases as soon as the liquid in the reservoir drains out through the capillary and the mass flow rate in the capillary decreases as the hydrostatic pressure in the reservoir decreases resulting in a decrease of the shear rate in the capillary tube. The instantaneous shear rate and driving force in the capillary tube are determined by measuring the mass flow rate through the capillary, and the fluid viscosity is determined from the measured flow rate and the driving force
Unsteady coupling effects of wet steam in steam turbines flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blondel, Frederic
2014-01-01
In addition to conventional turbomachinery problems, both the behavior and performances of steam turbines are highly dependent on the vapour thermodynamic state and the presence of a liquid phase. EDF, the main French electricity producer, is interested in further developing its' modelling capabilities and expertise in this area to allow for operational studies and long-term planning. This PhD thesis explores the modelling of wetness formation and growth in a steam turbine and an analysis of the coupling between the liquid phase and the main flow unsteadiness. To this end, the work in this thesis took the following approach. Wetness was accounted for using a homogeneous model coupled with transport equations to take into account the effects of non-equilibrium phenomena, such as the growth of the liquid phase and nucleation. The real gas attributes of the problem demanded adapted numerical methods. Before their implementation in the 3D elsA solver, the accuracy of the chosen models was tested using a developed one-dimensional nozzle code. In this manner, various condensation models were considered, including both poly-dispersed and monodispersed behaviours of the steam. Finally, unsteady coupling effects were observed from several perspectives (1D, 1D - 3D, 3D), demonstrating the ability of the method of moments to sustain unsteady phenomena which were not apparent in a simple monodispersed model. (author)
Flocking particles in a non-Newtonian shear thickening fluid
Mucha, Piotr B.; Peszek, Jan; Pokorný, Milan
2018-06-01
We prove the existence of strong solutions to the Cucker–Smale flocking model coupled with an incompressible viscous non-Newtonian fluid with the stress tensor of a power–law structure for . The fluid part of the system admits strong solutions while the solutions to the CS part are weak. The coupling is performed through a drag force on a periodic spatial domain . Additionally, we construct a Lyapunov functional determining the large time behavior of solutions to the system.
Efficient Unsteady Flow Visualization with High-Order Access Dependencies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru
2016-04-19
We present a novel high-order access dependencies based model for efficient pathline computation in unsteady flow visualization. By taking longer access sequences into account to model more sophisticated data access patterns in particle tracing, our method greatly improves the accuracy and reliability in data access prediction. In our work, high-order access dependencies are calculated by tracing uniformly-seeded pathlines in both forward and backward directions in a preprocessing stage. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through a parallel particle tracing framework with high-order data prefetching. Results show that our method achieves higher data locality and hence improves the efficiency of pathline computation.
Non-Newtonian ink transfer in gravure-offset printing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghadiri, Fatemeh; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan; Sung, Hyung Jin; Shirani, Ebrahim
2011-01-01
The inks used in gravure-offset printing are non-Newtonian fluids with higher viscosities and lower surface tensions than Newtonian fluids. This paper examines the transfer of a non-Newtonian ink between a flat plate and a groove when the plate is moved upward with a constant velocity while the groove is held fixed. Numerical simulations were carried out with the Carreau model to explore the behavior of this non-Newtonian ink in gravure-offset printing. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was implemented to capture the interface during the ink transfer process. The effects of varying the contact angle of the ink on the flat plate and groove walls and geometrical parameters such as the groove angle and the groove depth on the breakup time of the liquid filament that forms between the plate and the groove and the ink transfer ratio were determined. Our results indicate that increasing the groove contact angle and decreasing the flat plate contact angle enhance the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time. However, increasing the groove depth and the groove angle decreases the transfer ratio and the breakup time. By optimizing these parameters, it is possible to achieve an ink transfer from the groove to the flat plate of approximately 92%. Moreover, the initial width and the vertical velocity of the neck of the ink filament have significant influences on the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time.
Unsteady flow characteristics through a human nasal airway.
Lee, Jong-Hoon; Na, Yang; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Chung, Seung-Kyu
2010-07-31
Time-dependent characteristics of the flow in a human nasal airway constructed from the CT image of a healthy volunteer were investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. To capture the time-varying nature of the flow as well as pressure and temperature fields, the large eddy simulation (LES) technique instead of the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) approach was adopted. To make the present analysis more relevant to a real human breathing cycle, the flow was designed to be induced by the pressure difference and the time-varying pressure at the end of trachea was described to reproduce the flow rate data from the measurement. Comparison of the present results with those of typical steady simulations showed that the difference in flow characteristics is magnified in the expiration phase. This fact may suggest that the inertial effect associated with unsteady flow is more important during the expiration period. Also, the fact that the distribution of the flow rate in a given cross-section of the airway changes significantly with time implies the importance of unsteady data for clinical decision. The wall shear stress was found to have relatively high values at the locations near nasopharynx and larynx but the magnitude changes with time during the whole respiratory cycle. Analysis of the temperature field showed that most of the temperature change occurs in the nasal cavity when the air is incoming and thus, the nasal cavity acts as a very efficient heat exchanger during an inspiration period. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perbandingan Hasil Pemodelan Aliran Satu Dimensi Unsteady Flow dan Steady Flow pada Banjir Kota
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Tigor Oktaga
2016-06-01
Full Text Available One dimensional flow is often used as a flood simulation for the planning capacity of the river. Flood is a type of unsteady non-uniform flow, that can be simulated using HEC-RAS. HEC-RAS software is often used for flood modeling with a one-dimensional flow method. Unsteady flow modeling results in HEC-RAS sometimes refer to error and warning due to unstable analysis program. The stability program among others influenced bend in the river flow, the steep slope of the river bottom, and changes in cross-section shape. Because the flood handling required maximum discharge and maximum flood water level, then a steady flow is often used as an alternative to simulate the flood flow. This study aimed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of modeling unsteady non-uniform and steady non-uniform flow. The research location in the Kanal Banjir Barat, in the Semarang City. Hydraulics modeling uses HEC-RAS 4.1 and for discharge the plan is obtained from the HEC-HMS 3.5. Results of the comparison modeling hydraulics the modeling of steady non-uniform flow has a tendency water level is higher and modeling of unsteady non-uniform flow takes longer to analyze. Results of the comparison the average flood water level maximun is less than 15% (± 0,3 meters, that is 0.27 meters (13.16% for Q50, 0.25 meters (11.56% for Q100, dan 0.16 meters (4.73% for Q200. So the modeling steady non-uniform flow can still be used as a companion version the modeling unsteady non-uniform flow.
Physically based model for extracting dual permeability parameters using non-Newtonian fluids
Abou Najm, M. R.; Basset, C.; Stewart, R. D.; Hauswirth, S.
2017-12-01
Dual permeability models are effective for the assessment of flow and transport in structured soils with two dominant structures. The major challenge to those models remains in the ability to determine appropriate and unique parameters through affordable, simple, and non-destructive methods. This study investigates the use of water and a non-Newtonian fluid in saturated flow experiments to derive physically-based parameters required for improved flow predictions using dual permeability models. We assess the ability of these two fluids to accurately estimate the representative pore sizes in dual-domain soils, by determining the effective pore sizes of macropores and micropores. We developed two sub-models that solve for the effective macropore size assuming either cylindrical (e.g., biological pores) or planar (e.g., shrinkage cracks and fissures) pore geometries, with the micropores assumed to be represented by a single effective radius. Furthermore, the model solves for the percent contribution to flow (wi) corresponding to the representative macro and micro pores. A user-friendly solver was developed to numerically solve the system of equations, given that relevant non-Newtonian viscosity models lack forms conducive to analytical integration. The proposed dual-permeability model is a unique attempt to derive physically based parameters capable of measuring dual hydraulic conductivities, and therefore may be useful in reducing parameter uncertainty and improving hydrologic model predictions.
Numerical flow analysis of axial flow compressor for steady and unsteady flow cases
Prabhudev, B. M.; Satish kumar, S.; Rajanna, D.
2017-07-01
Performance of jet engine is dependent on the performance of compressor. This paper gives numerical study of performance characteristics for axial compressor. The test rig is present at CSIR LAB Bangalore. Flow domains are meshed and fluid dynamic equations are solved using ANSYS package. Analysis is done for six different speeds and for operating conditions like choke, maximum efficiency & before stall point. Different plots are compared and results are discussed. Shock displacement, vortex flows, leakage patterns are presented along with unsteady FFT plot and time step plot.
Deep learning of unsteady laminar flow over a cylinder
Lee, Sangseung; You, Donghyun
2017-11-01
Unsteady flow over a circular cylinder is reconstructed using deep learning with a particular emphasis on elucidating the potential of learning the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. A deep neural network (DNN) is employed for deep learning, while numerical simulations are conducted to produce training database. Instantaneous and mean flow fields which are reconstructed by deep learning are compared with the simulation results. Fourier transform of flow variables has been conducted to validate the ability of DNN to capture both amplitudes and frequencies of flow motions. Basis decomposition of learned flow is performed to understand the underlying mechanisms of learning flow through DNN. The present study suggests that a deep learning technique can be utilized for reconstruction and, potentially, for prediction of fluid flow instead of solving the Navier-Stokes equations. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government(Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning) (No. 2014R1A2A1A11049599, No. 2015R1A2A1A15056086, No. 2016R1E1A2A01939553).
Numerical Modeling of Unsteady Flow in Steam Turbine Stage
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Halama, Jan; Dobeš, J.; Fořt, Jaroslav; Fürst, J.; Kozel, Karel
2010-01-01
Roč. 234, č. 7 (2010), s. 2336-2341 ISSN 0377-0427 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA201/08/0012 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : stator-rotor interaction * unsteady flow * two - phase flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.029, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6TYH-4X1J73B-M-W&_cdi=5619&_user=640952&_pii=S0377042709005718&_origin=search&_coverDate=08%2F01%2F2010&_sk=997659992&view=c&wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkzS&md5=36ee785371868aebdcc6bd0d17263fc4&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
Investigation of Unsteady Flow Behavior in Transonic Compressor Rotors with LES and PIV Measurements
Hah, Chunill; Voges, Melanie; Mueller, Martin; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter
2009-01-01
In the present study, unsteady flow behavior in a modern transonic axial compressor rotor is studied in detail with large eddy simulation (LES) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The main purpose of the study is to advance the current understanding of the flow field near the blade tip in an axial transonic compressor rotor near the stall and peak-efficiency conditions. Flow interaction between the tip leakage vortex and the passage shock is inherently unsteady in a transonic compressor. Casing-mounted unsteady pressure transducers have been widely applied to investigate steady and unsteady flow behavior near the casing. Although many aspects of flow have been revealed, flow structures below the casing cannot be studied with casing-mounted pressure transducers. In the present study, unsteady velocity fields are measured with a PIV system and the measured unsteady flow fields are compared with LES simulations. The currently applied PIV measurements indicate that the flow near the tip region is not steady even at the design condition. This self-induced unsteadiness increases significantly as the compressor rotor operates near the stall condition. Measured data from PIV show that the tip clearance vortex oscillates substantially near stall. The calculated unsteady characteristics of the flow from LES agree well with the PIV measurements. Calculated unsteady flow fields show that the formation of the tip clearance vortex is intermittent and the concept of vortex breakdown from steady flow analysis does not seem to apply in the current flow field. Fluid with low momentum near the pressure side of the blade close to the leading edge periodically spills over into the adjacent blade passage. The present study indicates that stall inception is heavily dependent on unsteady behavior of the flow field near the leading edge of the blade tip section for the present transonic compressor rotor.
Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sim, Woo Gun
2006-01-01
To understand fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to two-phase flow, it is essential to get detailed information about the characteristics of two-phase flow. Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates have been studied to investigate the general characteristics of the flow related to flow-induced vibration. Based on the spectral collocation method, a numerical approach has been developed for the unsteady two-phase flow. The method is validated by comparing numerical result to analytical one given for a simple harmonic two-phase flow. The flow parameters for the steady two-phase flow, such as void fraction and two-phase frictional multiplier, are evaluated. The dynamic characteristics of the unsteady two-phase flow, including the void fraction effect on the complex unsteady pressure, are illustrated
Parallel Computation of Unsteady Flows on a Network of Workstations
1997-01-01
Parallel computation of unsteady flows requires significant computational resources. The utilization of a network of workstations seems an efficient solution to the problem where large problems can be treated at a reasonable cost. This approach requires the solution of several problems: 1) the partitioning and distribution of the problem over a network of workstation, 2) efficient communication tools, 3) managing the system efficiently for a given problem. Of course, there is the question of the efficiency of any given numerical algorithm to such a computing system. NPARC code was chosen as a sample for the application. For the explicit version of the NPARC code both two- and three-dimensional problems were studied. Again both steady and unsteady problems were investigated. The issues studied as a part of the research program were: 1) how to distribute the data between the workstations, 2) how to compute and how to communicate at each node efficiently, 3) how to balance the load distribution. In the following, a summary of these activities is presented. Details of the work have been presented and published as referenced.
Attractors of equations of non-Newtonian fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zvyagin, V G; Kondrat'ev, S K
2014-01-01
This survey describes a version of the trajectory-attractor method, which is applied to study the limit asymptotic behaviour of solutions of equations of non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. The trajectory-attractor method emerged in papers of the Russian mathematicians Vishik and Chepyzhov and the American mathematician Sell under the condition that the corresponding trajectory spaces be invariant under the translation semigroup. The need for such an approach was caused by the fact that for many equations of mathematical physics for which the Cauchy initial-value problem has a global (weak) solution with respect to the time, the uniqueness of such a solution has either not been established or does not hold. In particular, this is the case for equations of fluid dynamics. At the same time, trajectory spaces invariant under the translation semigroup could not be constructed for many equations of non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. In this connection, a different approach to the construction of trajectory attractors for dissipative systems was proposed in papers of Zvyagin and Vorotnikov without using invariance of trajectory spaces under the translation semigroup and is based on the topological lemma of Shura-Bura. This paper presents examples of equations of non-Newtonian fluid dynamics (the Jeffreys system describing movement of the Earth's crust, the model of motion of weak aqueous solutions of polymers, a system with memory) for which the aforementioned construction is used to prove the existence of attractors in both the autonomous and the non-autonomous cases. At the beginning of the paper there is also a brief exposition of the results of Ladyzhenskaya on the existence of attractors of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes system and the result of Vishik and Chepyzhov for the case of attractors of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes system. Bibliography: 34 titles
Viscosity of Heterogeneous Silicate Melts: A Non-Newtonian Model
Liu, Zhuangzhuang; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing
2017-12-01
The recently published viscosity data of heterogeneous silicate melts with well-documented structure and experimental conditions are critically re-analyzed and tabulated. By using these data, a non-Newtonian viscosity model incorporating solid fraction, solid shape, and shear rate is proposed on the basis of the power-law equation. This model allows calculating the viscosity of the heterogeneous silicate melts with solid fraction up to 34 vol pct. The error between the calculated and measured data is evaluated to be 32 pct, which is acceptable considering the large error in viscosity measurement of the completely liquid silicate melt.
Contribution to the study of unsteady condensation in transonic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collignan, B.; Laali, A.R.
1993-12-01
The aim of this thesis is the study of transonic steam flows with condensation, especially at high pressure. This study includes a numerical part an experimental one. The modelling has consisted of introducing a spontaneous condensation model in a one-dimensional Euler code using steam-water thermodynamic tables. Calculations, performed with this code, are in good agreement with experimental results at low pressure. The experimental study has been undertaken on a high pressure experimental loop installed at the Bugey nuclear power plant. We have studied steam flows in nozzles. The results obtained show that a partial heterogeneous condensation occurs in these flows. This proportion is stronger if the expansion rate of the flow is low and if the inlet pressure is high. However, a correction factor is obtained for high pressure nucleation rate model from experimental results. No unsteady condensation has been observed for flows between 15 bars and 50 bars with the steam available at Bugey power plant. (authors). figs., 71 refs., 6 annexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamsaadi, M.; Naimi, M.; Hasnaoui, M.
2006-01-01
A combined analytical and numerical study is conducted for two dimensional, steady state, buoyancy driven flows of non-Newtonian power law fluids confined in a shallow rectangular cavity submitted to uniform fluxes of heat along both its short vertical sides, while its long horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. The effect of the non-Newtonian behavior on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics is examined. An approximate theoretical solution is developed on the basis of the parallel flow assumption and validated numerically by solving the full governing equations
Gas holdup in a reciprocating plate bioreactor: Non-Newtonian - liquid phase
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naseva Olivera S.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The gas holdup was studied in non-newtonian liquids in a gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid reciprocating plate bioreactor. Aqueous solutions of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC; Lucel, Lučane, Yugoslavia of different degrees of polymerization (PP 200 and PP 1000 and concentration (0,5 and 1%, polypropylene spheres (diameter 8.3 mm; fraction of spheres: 3.8 and 6.6% by volume and air were used as the liquid, solid and gas phase. The gas holdup was found to be dependent on the vibration rate, the superficial gas velocity, volume fraction of solid particles and Theological properties of the liquid ohase. Both in the gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems studied, the gas holdup increased with increasing vibration rate and gas flow rate. The gas holdup was higher in three-phase systems than in two-phase ones under otter operating conditions being the same. Generally the gas holdup increased with increasing the volume fraction of solid particles, due to the dispersion action of the solid particles, and decreased with increasing non-Newtonian behaviour (decreasing flow index i.e. with increasing degree of polymerization and solution concentration of CMC applied, as a result of gas bubble coalescence.
Generation of Oil Droplets in a Non-Newtonian Liquid Using a Microfluidic T-Junction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrico Chiarello
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We have compared the formation of oil drops in Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in a T-junction microfluidic device. As Newtonian fluids, we used aqueous solutions of glycerol, while as non-Newtonian fluids we prepared aqueous solutions of xanthan, a stiff rod-like polysaccharide, which exhibit strong shear-thinning effects. In the squeezing regime, the formation of oil droplets in glycerol solutions is found to scale with the ratio of the dispersed flow rate to the continuous one and with the capillary number associated to the continuous phase. Switching to xanthan solutions does not seem to significantly alter the droplet formation process. Any quantitative difference with respect to the Newtonian liquid can be accounted for by a suitable choice of the capillary number, corresponding to an effective xanthan viscosity that depends on the flow rates. We have deduced ample variations in the viscosity, on the order of 10 and more, during normal operation conditions of the T-junction. This allowed estimating the actual shear rates experienced by the xanthan solutions, which go from tens to hundreds of s−1.
Prediction of unsteady airfoil flows at large angles of incidence
Cebeci, Tuncer; Jang, H. M.; Chen, H. H.
1992-01-01
The effect of the unsteady motion of an airfoil on its stall behavior is of considerable interest to many practical applications including the blades of helicopter rotors and of axial compressors and turbines. Experiments with oscillating airfoils, for example, have shown that the flow can remain attached for angles of attack greater than those which would cause stall to occur in a stationary system. This result appears to stem from the formation of a vortex close to the surface of the airfoil which continues to provide lift. It is also evident that the onset of dynamic stall depends strongly on the airfoil section, and as a result, great care is required in the development of a calculation method which will accurately predict this behavior.
Unsteady interfacial coupling of two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurisse, O.
2006-01-01
The primary coolant circuit in a nuclear power plant contains several distinct components (vessel, core, pipes,...). For all components, specific codes based on the discretization of partial differential equations have already been developed. In order to obtain simulations for the whole circuit, the interfacial coupling of these codes is required. The approach examined within this work consists in coupling codes by providing unsteady information through the coupling interface. The numerical technique relies on the use of an interface model, which is combined with the basic strategy that was introduced by Greenberg and Leroux in order to compute approximations of steady solutions of non-homogeneous hyperbolic systems. Three different coupling cases have been examined: (i) the coupling of a one-dimensional Euler system with a two-dimensional Euler system; (ii) the coupling of two distinct homogeneous two-phase flow models; (iii) the coupling of a four-equation homogeneous model with the standard two-fluid model. (author)
Unsteady flow analysis of combustion processes in a Davis gun
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, H.-C.; Shin, H.D. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.-K. [Hansung Univ., School of Industrial and System Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1999-09-01
The Davis gun, a type of recoilless gun, had the advantages of requiring less rear area and less powder than a conventional recoilless gun. The unsteady pressure and flow fields of a Davis gun were numerically simulated by using a two-phase fluid dynamic model. Numerical simulation results were compared with experimental values to evaluate the feasibility of the interior ballistic model. The interior ballistics in a Davis gun with a simple countermass were predicted with the computational model. It was shown that the pressure-time curves matched well between experimental data and numerical analysis except in the vicinity of the peak pressure and steep pressure gradient. The predicted muzzle velocity of projectile and countermass was closely similar to the experimental one. In this study, large pressure waves were not observed since the initial porosity was relatively high ({phi}{sub 0}0.867) and the charge was ignited at the centre of the granular bed. (Author)
Numerical solutions of unsteady flows with low inlet Mach numbers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Punčochářová, Petra; Furst, Jiří; Horáček, Jaromír; Kozel, Karel
2010-01-01
Roč. 80, č. 8 (2010), s. 1795-1805 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : finite volume method * unsteady flow * low Mach number * viscous compressible fluid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V0T-4Y0D67D-1-R&_cdi=5655&_user=640952&_pii=S0378475409003607&_origin=search&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2010&_sk=999199991&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlb-zSkzk&md5=ed6eaf0a050968ee978714fd54e7f131&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
Viscous-inviscid method for the simulation of turbulent unsteady wind turbine airfoil flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bermudez, L.; Velazquez, A.; Matesanz, A. [Thermal Engineering Area, Carlos III University of Madrid, Avd. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)
2002-06-01
A Viscous-inviscid interaction method is presented that allows for the simulation of unsteady airfoil flow in the context of wind turbine applications. The method couples a 2-D external unsteady potential flow to a 2-D unsteady turbulent boundary layer. The separation point on the airfoil leeward side is determined in a self-consistent way from the boundary-layer equations, and the separated flow region is modelled independently. Wake shape and motion are also determined in a self-consistent way, while an unsteady Kutta condition is implemented. The method is able to deal with attached flow and light stall situations characterised by unsteady turbulent boundary-layer separation size up to 50% of the airfoil chord length. The results of the validation campaign show that the method could be used for industrial design purposes because of its numerical robustness, reasonable accuracy, and limited computational time demands.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I.L. Animasaun
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Geometrically, the upper pointed surface of an aircraft and bonnet of a car are examples of upper horizontal surfaces of a paraboloid of revolution (uhspr. The motion of these objects strongly depends on the boundary layer that is formed within the immediate space on it. However, each of these surfaces is neither a horizontal/vertical nor cone/wedge and neither a cone nor a wedge. This article presents the motion of 2-dimensional Blasius flow of Carreau fluid on the surface of such object. The case in which the reaction between the Carreau fluid and catalyst at the surface produces significant temperature differences which consequently set up buoyancy-driven flows within the boundary layer is investigated. Single first-order Arrhenius kinetics is adopted to model the reaction on the surface of the catalyst situated on uhspr which initiates the free convection. Suitable similarity variables are applied to non-dimensionalized, parameterized and reduce the governing partial differential equations to a coupled ordinary differential equations (BVP. The BVP is solved numerically using the shooting technique. Temperature distribution in the flow of viscoelastic Carreau fluid is greater than that of a Newtonian fluid. Local heat transfer rate decreases faster when the Carreau fluid is characterized as shear-thinning. Maximum concentration is guaranteed at a small value of power-law index n and large value of thickness parameter. Keywords: Viscoelastic-Carreau fluid, Catalitic surface, Paraboloid of revolution, Numerical method, Uhspr, Boundary layer analysis
Unsteady Flow Interactions Between Pitching Wings In Schooling Arrangements
Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith
2017-11-01
In nature, many fish aggregate into large groups or schools for protection against predators, for social interactions and to save energy during migrations. Regardless of their prime motivation, fish experience three-dimensional flow interactions amongst themselves that can improve or hamper swimming performance and give rise to fluid-mediated forces between individuals. To date, the unsteady, three-dimensional flow interactions among schooling fish remains relatively unexplored. In order to study these interactions, the caudal fins of two interacting fish are idealized as two finite span pitching wings arranged in mixtures of canonical in-line and side-by-side arrangements. The forces and moments acting on the wings in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are quantified as the arrangement and the phase delay between the wings is altered. Particle image velocimetry is employed to characterize the flow physics during high efficiency locomotion. Finally, the forces and flowfields of two-dimensional pitching wings are compared with three-dimensional wings to distinguish how three-dimensionality alters the flow interactions in schools of fish.
Unsteady 3D flow simulations in cranial arterial tree
Grinberg, Leopold; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George
2008-11-01
High resolution unsteady 3D flow simulations in major cranial arteries have been performed. Two cases were considered: 1) a healthy volunteer with a complete Circle of Willis (CoW); and 2) a patient with hydrocephalus and an incomplete CoW. Computation was performed on 3344 processors of the new half petaflop supercomputer in TACC. Two new numerical approaches were developed and implemented: 1) a new two-level domain decomposition method, which couples continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the computational domain; and 2) a new type of outflow boundary conditions, which imposes, in an accurate and computationally efficient manner, clinically measured flow rates. In the first simulation, a geometric model of 65 cranial arteries was reconstructed. Our simulation reveals a high degree of asymmetry in the flow at the left and right parts of the CoW and the presence of swirling flow in most of the CoW arteries. In the second simulation, one of the main findings was a high pressure drop at the right anterior communicating artery (PCA). Due to the incompleteness of the CoW and the pressure drop at the PCA, the right internal carotid artery supplies blood to most regions of the brain.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND MODELING OF UNSTEADY FLOW AROUND AN AIRFOIL. (AERODYNAMIC FORM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Y. Habib
2015-07-01
Full Text Available During this work, we simulated an unsteady flow around an airfoil type NACA0012 using the Fluent software. The objective is to control the code on the one hand and on the other hand the simulation of unsteady flows. By simulating an unsteady flow Reynolds number (Re = 6.85 * 106 and Mach number (M = 0.3, we have the flowing with a grid (mesh adequate numerical results and experimental data are in good agreement. To represent the results of the simulation we have validated by comparing the values of aerodynamic coefficients with those of experimental data.
Pulsatile flow of viscous and viscoelastic fluids in constricted tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Javadzadegan, A.; Esmaeili, M.; Majidi, S. [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fakhimghanbarzadeh, B. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2009-09-15
The unsteady flow of blood through stenosed artery, driven by an oscillatory pressure gradient, is studied. An appropriate shape of the time-dependent stenoses which are overlapped in the realm of the formation of arterial narrowing is constructed mathematically. A mathematical model is developed by treating blood as a non-Newtonian fluid characterized by the Oldroyd-B and Cross models. A numerical scheme has been used to solve the unsteady nonlinear Navier- stokes equations in cylindrical coordinate system governing flow, assuming axial symmetry under laminar flow condition so that the problem effectively becomes two-dimensional. Finite difference technique was used to investigate the effects of parameters such as pulsatility, non-Newtonian properties and the flow time on the velocity components, the rate of flow, and the wall shear stress through their graphical representations quantitatively at the end of the paper in order to validate the applicability of the present improved mathematical model under consideration
Pulsatile flow of viscous and viscoelastic fluids in constricted tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Javadzadegan, A.; Esmaeili, M.; Majidi, S.; Fakhimghanbarzadeh, B.
2009-01-01
The unsteady flow of blood through stenosed artery, driven by an oscillatory pressure gradient, is studied. An appropriate shape of the time-dependent stenoses which are overlapped in the realm of the formation of arterial narrowing is constructed mathematically. A mathematical model is developed by treating blood as a non-Newtonian fluid characterized by the Oldroyd-B and Cross models. A numerical scheme has been used to solve the unsteady nonlinear Navier- stokes equations in cylindrical coordinate system governing flow, assuming axial symmetry under laminar flow condition so that the problem effectively becomes two-dimensional. Finite difference technique was used to investigate the effects of parameters such as pulsatility, non-Newtonian properties and the flow time on the velocity components, the rate of flow, and the wall shear stress through their graphical representations quantitatively at the end of the paper in order to validate the applicability of the present improved mathematical model under consideration
Unsteady characteristics of a slat-cove flow field
Pascioni, Kyle A.; Cattafesta, Louis N.
2018-03-01
The leading-edge slat of a multielement wing is a significant contributor to the acoustic signature of an aircraft during the approach phase of the flight path. An experimental study of the two-dimensional 30P30N geometry is undertaken to further understand the flow physics and specific noise source mechanisms. The mean statistics from particle image velocimetry (PIV) shows the differences in the flow field with angle of attack, including the interaction between the cove and trailing-edge flow. Phase-locked PIV successfully links narrow-band peaks found in the surface pressure spectrum to shear layer instabilities and also reveals that a bulk cove oscillation at a Strouhal number based on a slat chord of 0.15 exists, indicative of shear layer flapping. Unsteady surface pressure measurements are documented and used to estimate spanwise coherence length scales. A narrow-band frequency prediction scheme is also tested and found to agree well with the data. Furthermore, higher-order spectral analysis suggests that nonlinear effects cause additional peaks to arise in the power spectrum, particularly at low angles of attack.
Unsteady Flows Control Hydrologic Turnover Rates in Antarctic Hyporheic Zones
Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; McKnight, D. M.; Lyons, W. B.; Saelens, E.
2016-12-01
Hydrologic turnover of the hyporheic zone (HZ) is the process of HZ flowpaths receiving water and solutes from the stream channel while simultaneously contributing water and solutes from the HZ back to the stream channel. The influence of hydrologic turnover on HZ solute storage depends on the relative magnitude of hyporheic exchange rates (i.e. physical transport) and biogeochemical reaction rates. Because both exchange rates and reaction rates are unsteady in natural systems, the availability of solutes in the HZ is controlled by the legacy of hydraulic and biological conditions. In this study, we quantify the influence of unsteady flows on hydrologic turnover of the HZ. We study a glacial melt stream in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica (MDVs). The MDVs provide an ideal setting for investigating hydrologic and chemical storage characteristics of HZs, because nearly all streamflow is generated from glacier melt and the HZ is vertically bounded by continuous permafrost. A dense network of shallow groundwater wells and piezometers was installed along a 60-meter reach of Von Guerard Stream. 12 days of continuous water level data in each well was used to compute the magnitude and direction of 2D hydraulic gradients between the stream channel and lateral hyporheic aquifer. Piezometers were sampled daily for stable isotope abundances. The direction and magnitude of the cross-valley (CV), perpendicular to the thalweg, component of hydraulic gradients is sensitive to daily flood events and exhibits significant spatial heterogeneity. CV gradients are consistently oriented from the hyporheic aquifer towards the stream channel on 2 sections of the study reach, whereas CV gradients are consistently oriented from the stream channel towards the hyporheic aquifer on 1 section. Three sections show diel changes in orientation of CV gradients, coincident with the passage of daily flood events. During a 4-day period of low flows, the HZ is isotopically distinct from the stream
Numerical study of unsteady viscous flow past oscillating airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin Yan; Yuan Xin [Tsinghua Univ., Dept. of Thermal Engineering, Beijing (China)
2001-07-01
Accurate simulation of the dynamic stall of an oscillating airfoil is of major importance to wing and wind turbine blade design. However, dynamic stall is complicated and influenced by many factors, such as geometry shape of the airfoil, reduced frequency, etc. The difficulties of simulation are both mathematical (numerical method) and physical (turbulence model). The present paper has introduced a new numerical method (new LU-type scheme and fourth-order higher resolution MUSCL TVD scheme) and q-{omega} turbulence modelling to calculate the unsteady flowfields of an oscillating NACA0015 airfoil. The test targets include attached flow, light-stall and deep-stall of the airfoil. The calculated results for attached flow and light-stall are in good agreement with those of experiments. The calculated results for deep-stall also show improvement, especially during the downstroke of the oscillation. However, there is still a significant difference between the results of calculation and experiment in the hysteresis curves of the drag coefficient. One reason is that the q-{omega} turbulence model still has limitations. Another is that the drag coefficient is difficult to measure and the experiments are not reliable. (Author)
Validation of a CFD code for Unsteady Flows with cyclic boundary Conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong-Tae; Kim, Sang-Baik; Lee, Won-Jae
2006-01-01
Currently Lilac code is under development to analyze thermo-hydraulics of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (GCR). Interesting thermo-hydraulic phenomena in a nuclear reactor are usually unsteady and turbulent. The analysis of the unsteady flows by using a three dimension CFD code is time-consuming if the flow domain is very large. Hopefully, flow domains commonly encountered in the nuclear thermo-hydraulics is periodic. So it is better to use the geometrical characteristics in order to reduce the computational resources. To get the benefits from reducing the computation domains especially for the calculations of unsteady flows, the cyclic boundary conditions are implemented in the parallelized CFD code LILAC. In this study, the parallelized cyclic boundary conditions are validated by solving unsteady laminar and turbulent flows past a circular cylinder
Unsteady airfoil flows with application to aeroelastic stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johansen, Jeppe
1999-09-01
The present report describes numerical investigation of two-dimensional unsteady airfoil flows with application to aeroelastic stability. The report is divided in two parts. Part A describes the purely aerodynamic part, while Part B includes the aeroelastic part. In Part A a transition prediction algorithm based on a simplified version of the e{sup n} method is proposed. Laminar Boundary Layer instability data are stored in a database from which stability characteristics can be extracted by interpolation. Input to the database are laminar integral boundary layer parameters. These are computed from an integral boundary layer formulation coupled to a Navier-Stokes flow solver. Five different airfoils are considered at fixed angle of attack, and the flow is computed assuming both fully turbulent and transitional flow and compared with experimental data. Results indicate that using a transition model the drag prediction is improved considerably. Also the lift is slightly improved. At high angles of attack transition will affect leading edge separation which again will affect the overall vortex shedding. If the transition point is not properly predicted this will affect the whole hysteresis curve. The transition model developed in the present work showed more stable predictions compared to the empirical transition model. In Part B a simple three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) structural dynamics model is developed and coupled to the aerodynamics models from Part A. A 2nd order accurate time integration scheme is used to solve the equations of motion. Two airfoils are investigated. The aeroelastic models predict stable conditions well at low angle of attack. But at high angles of attack, and where unstable behaviour is expected, only the Navier-Stokes solver predict correct aeroelastic response. The semi-empirical dynamic stall model does not predict vortex shedding and moment correctly leading to an erroneous aerodynamic damping. (au) 5 tabs.; 55 ills., 52 refs.
A Wall Boundary Condition for the Simulation of a Turbulent Non-Newtonian Domestic Slurry in Pipes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhruv Mehta
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The concentration (using a lesser amount of water of domestic slurry promotes resource recovery (nutrients and biomass while saving water. This article is aimed at developing numerical methods to support engineering processes such as the design and implementation of sewerage for concentrated domestic slurry. The current industrial standard for computational fluid dynamics-based analyses of turbulent flows is Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS modelling. This is assisted by the wall function approach proposed by Launder and Spalding, which permits the use of under-refined grids near wall boundaries while simulating a wall-bounded flow. Most RANS models combined with wall functions have been successfully validated for turbulent flows of Newtonian fluids. However, our experiments suggest that concentrated domestic slurry shows a Herschel–Bulkley-type non-Newtonian behaviour. Attempts have been made to derive wall functions and turbulence closures for non-Newtonian fluids; however, the resulting laws or equations are either inconsistent across experiments or lack relevant experimental support. Pertinent to this study, laws or equations reported in literature are restricted to a class of non-Newtonian fluids called power law fluids, which, as compared to Herschel–Bulkley fluids, yield at any amount of applied stress. An equivalent law for Herschel–Bulkley fluids that require a minimum-yield stress to flow is yet to be reported in literature. This article presents a theoretically derived (with necessary approximations law of the wall for Herschel–Bulkley fluids and implements it in a RANS solver using a specified shear approach. This results in a more accurate prediction of the wall shear stress experienced by a circular pipe with a turbulent Herschel–Bulkley fluid flowing through it. The numerical results are compared against data from our experiments and those reported in literature for a range of Reynolds numbers and rheological
Simulation of forced convection in non-Newtonian fluid through sandstones
Gokhale, M. Y.; Fernandes, Ignatius
2017-11-01
Numerical simulation is carried out to study forced convection in non-Newtonian fluids flowing through sandstones. Simulation is carried out using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for both shear-thinning and shear-thickening, by varying the power law index from 0.5 to 1.5 in Carreau-Yasuda model. Parameters involved in LBM and Carreau model are identified to achieve numerical convergence. Permeability and porosity are varied in the range of 10-10-10-6 and 0.1-0.7, respectively, to match actual geometrical properties of sandstone. Numerical technology is validated by establishing Darcy's law by plotting the graph between velocity and pressure gradient. Consequently, investigation is carried out to study the influence of material properties of porous media on flow properties such as velocity profiles, temperature profiles, and Nusselt number.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Barakos, G
1998-01-01
The numerical simulation of unsteady separated turbulent flows around moving lifting surfaces is fueled by the industrial need to analyse and understand flow phenomena associated with the behaviour...
Modeling of Unsteady Flow through the Canals by Semiexact Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farshad Ehsani
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The study of free-surface and pressurized water flows in channels has many interesting application, one of the most important being the modeling of the phenomena in the area of natural water systems (rivers, estuaries as well as in that of man-made systems (canals, pipes. For the development of major river engineering projects, such as flood prevention and flood control, there is an essential need to have an instrument that be able to model and predict the consequences of any possible phenomenon on the environment and in particular the new hydraulic characteristics of the system. The basic equations expressing hydraulic principles were formulated in the 19th century by Barre de Saint Venant and Valentin Joseph Boussinesq. The original hydraulic model of the Saint Venant equations is written in the form of a system of two partial differential equations and it is derived under the assumption that the flow is one-dimensional, the cross-sectional velocity is uniform, the streamline curvature is small and the pressure distribution is hydrostatic. The St. Venant equations must be solved with continuity equation at the same time. Until now no analytical solution for Saint Venant equations is presented. In this paper the Saint Venant equations and continuity equation are solved with homotopy perturbation method (HPM and comparison by explicit forward finite difference method (FDM. For decreasing the present error between HPM and FDM, the st.venant equations and continuity equation are solved by HAM. The homotopy analysis method (HAM contains the auxiliary parameter ħ that allows us to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series. The study has highlighted the efficiency and capability of HAM in solving Saint Venant equations and modeling of unsteady flow through the rectangular canal that is the goal of this paper and other kinds of canals.
Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.
1990-01-01
A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis is presented for unsteady, subsonic vortical flows around lifting airfoils. The analysis fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the imposed vortical disturbances. A frequency domain numerical scheme which implements this linearized approach is described, and numerical results are presented for a large variety of flow configurations. The results demonstrate the effects of airfoil thickness, angle of attack, camber, and Mach number on the unsteady lift and moment of airfoils subjected to periodic vortical gusts. The results show that mean flow distortion can have a very strong effect on the airfoil unsteady response, and that the effect depends strongly upon the reduced frequency, Mach number, and gust wave numbers.
Soret and Hall effects on unsteady MHD free convection flow of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... effects on unsteady MHD free convection flow of radiating and chemically reactive fluid ... Expressions for shear stress, rate of heat transfer and rate of mass transfer at the plate ...
A High Order Accuracy Computational Tool for Unsteady Turbulent Flows and Acoustics, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this research effort is to develop a higher order unsteady turbulent flow solver based on the FDV method, and to exploit its attributes of...
Rule-Based Multidisciplinary Tool for Unsteady Reacting Real-Fluid Flows, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A design and analysis computational tool is proposed for simulating unsteady reacting flows in combustor devices used in reusable launch vehicles. Key aspects...
Unsteady flow phenomena in human undulatory swimming: a numerical approach.
Pacholak, Steffen; Hochstein, Stefan; Rudert, Alexander; Brücker, Christoph
2014-06-01
The undulatory underwater sequence is one of the most important phases in competitive swimming. An understanding of the recurrent vortex dynamics around the human body and their generation could therefore be used to improve swimming techniques. In order to produce a dynamic model, we applied human joint kinematics to three-dimensional (3D) body scans of a female swimmer. The flow around this dynamic model was then calculated using computational fluid dynamics with the aid of moving 3D meshes. Evaluation of the numerical results delivered by the various motion cycles identified characteristic vortex structures for each of the cycles, which exhibited increasing intensity and drag influence. At maximum thrust, drag forces appear to be 12 times higher than those of a passive gliding swimmer. As far as we know, this is the first disclosure of vortex rings merging into vortex tubes in the wake after vortex recapturing. All unsteady structures were visualized using a modified Q-criterion also incorporated into our methods. At the very least, our approach is likely to be suited to further studies examining swimmers engaging in undulatory swimming during training or competition.
Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Large Scale Separated Flow around Oscillating Airfoil
Isogai, Koji; 磯貝, 紘二
1991-01-01
Numerical simulations of dynamic stall phenomenon of NACA0012 airfoil oscillating in pitch near static stalling angle are performed by using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the present computations, a TVD scheme and an algebraic turbulence model are employed for the simulations of the unsteady separated flows at Reynolds number of 1.1x105. The hysteresis loops of the unsteady pitching moment during dynamic stall are compared with the existing experimental data. The flow pattern a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Denghao; Ren, Yun; Mou, Jiegang; Gu, Yunqing [Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)
2017-05-15
Circulator pumps have wide engineering applications but the acoustics, vibration and unsteady flow structures of the circulator pump are still not fully understood. We investigated the noise and vibration characteristics and unsteady flow structures in a circulator pump at different flow rates. Three-dimensional, unsteady RANS equations were solved on high-quality structured meshes with SST k-ω turbulence model numerically. Measurements were made in a semi-anechoic chamber to get an overview of noise and vibration level of a pump at different flow rates. The 1/3 octave-band filter technique was applied to obtain the explicit frequency spectra of sound, pressure fluctuations and vibration signals and their principal frequencies were identified successfully. The air-borne noise level of the designed condition is lower than that of the off-design conditions, and the highest sound pressure level is found at part-load condition. The acoustic emission from the pump is mainly caused by unsteady flow structures and pressure fluctuations. In addition, both the link between air- borne noise and pressure fluctuation, and the correlation between vibration and unsteady hydrodynamic forces, were quantitatively examined and verified. This work offers good data to understand noise and vibration characteristics of circulator pumps and the relationships among the noise, vibration and unsteady flow structures.
Experimental investigation of non-Newtonian droplet collisions : the role of extensional viscosity
Finotello, Giulia; De, Shauvik; Vrouwenvelder, Jeroen C.R.; Padding, J.T.; Buist, Kay A.; Jongsma, Alfred; Innings, Fredrik; Kuipers, J.
2018-01-01
We investigate the collision behaviour of a shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid xanthan, by binary droplet collision experiments. Droplet collisions of non-Newtonian fluids are more complex than their Newtonian counterpart as the viscosity no longer remains constant during the collision process.
Motion of Charged Suspended Particle in a Non-Newtonian Fluid between Two Long Parallel Plated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abd-El Khalek, M.M.
1998-01-01
The motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates is discussed. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The effects of solid particles on flow properties are discussed. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically
Motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abd Elkhalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)
1997-12-31
The motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates is discussed. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation and solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The effect of solid particles on flow properties are discussed. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically. 4 figs.
Acoustic waveform of continuous bubbling in a non-Newtonian fluid.
Vidal, Valérie; Ichihara, Mie; Ripepe, Maurizio; Kurita, Kei
2009-12-01
We study experimentally the acoustic signal associated with a continuous bubble bursting at the free surface of a non-Newtonian fluid. Due to the fluid rheological properties, the bubble shape is elongated, and, when bursting at the free surface, acts as a resonator. For a given fluid concentration, at constant flow rate, repetitive bubble bursting occurs at the surface. We report a modulation pattern of the acoustic waveform through time. Moreover, we point out the existence of a precursor acoustic signal, recorded on the microphone array, previous to each bursting. The time delay between this precursor and the bursting signal is well correlated with the bursting signal frequency content. Their joint modulation through time is driven by the fluid rheology, which strongly depends on the presence of small satellite bubbles trapped in the fluid due to the yield stress.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirani, E.; Zirak, S.
2001-01-01
Compressible flows for unsteady, inviscid and viscous cases have been studied. Important features of flows such as formation of shock waves across the flow in an unsteady flow as well as interaction of shock waves with boundary layers and their effects on the flow around the blades have been analyzed. Jameson control volume approach was used to spatially integrate the flow equations and the fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used for time integration. The obtained finite difference equations were used to simulate inviscid and viscous flows in V KI cascades and the effects of viscosity, angle of attack, bal de pitches and back pressure on the flow were obtained. It was shown that when the flow was assumed inviscid, the error on the distribution of pressure on the blades were about ten percent. Finally, unsteady flow were simulated and formation of shock waves and their motions were analyzed
Numerical Investigations of Unsteady Flow in a Centrifugal Pump with a Vaned Diffuser
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olivier Petit
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses were made to study the unsteady three-dimensional turbulence in the ERCOFTAC centrifugal pump test case. The simulations were carried out using the OpenFOAM Open Source CFD software. The test case consists of an unshrouded centrifugal impeller with seven blades and a radial vaned diffuser with 12 vanes. A large number of measurements are available in the radial gap between the impeller and the diffuse, making this case ideal for validating numerical methods. Results of steady and unsteady calculations of the flow in the pump are compared with the experimental ones, and four different turbulent models are analyzed. The steady simulation uses the frozen rotor concept, while the unsteady simulation uses a fully resolved sliding grid approach. The comparisons show that the unsteady numerical results accurately predict the unsteadiness of the flow, demonstrating the validity and applicability of that methodology for unsteady incompressible turbomachinery flow computations. The steady approach is less accurate, with an unphysical advection of the impeller wakes, but accurate enough for a crude approximation. The different turbulence models predict the flow at the same level of accuracy, with slightly different results.
Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry.
Fritz, Brad G
2006-08-01
Previous bench-scale experiments have provided data necessary for the development of empirical models that describe aerosol entrainment from bubble bursting. However, previous work has not been extended to non-Newtonian liquid slurries. Design of a waste treatment plant on the Hanford Site in Washington required an evaluation of the applicability of these models outside of their intended range. For this evaluation, aerosol measurements were conducted above an air-sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry possessing Bingham plastic rheological properties. Three aerosol-size fractions were measured at three sampling heights and for three different sparging rates. The measured entrainment was compared with entrainment models. One model developed based on bench-scale air-water experiments agreed well with measured entrainment. Another model did not agree well with the measured entrainment. It appeared that the source of discrepancy between measured and modeled entrainment stemmed from application beyond the range of data used to develop the model. A possible separation in entrainment coefficients between air-water and steam-water systems was identified. A third entrainment model was adapted to match experimental conditions and fit a posteri to the experimental data, resulting in a modified version that resulted in estimated entrainment rates similar to the first model.
A two-phase theory for non-Newtonian suspensions
Varsakelis, Christos
In this talk, a continuum and thermodynamically consistent theory for macroscopic particles immersed in a non-Newtonian fluid is presented. According to the employed methodology, each phase of the mixture is treated as a thermodynamic system, endowed with its own set of thermodynamic and kinetic variables, and is required to separately satisfy the equations for the balance of mass, momentum and energy. As both constituents of the mixture are not simple fluids, additional degrees of freedom are introduced for the proper description of their thermodynamic state. A subsequent exploitation of the entropy inequality asserts that the accommodation of the complicated rheological characteristics of both phases requires a departure from a linear current-force relationship. For this reason, a subtle nonlinear representation of the stress tensors is employed. Importantly, the inclusion of additional degrees of freedom allows us to obtain a rate equation for the evolution of the volume fraction of the particulate phase. Following a delineation of the fundamentals of the proposed theory, the talk concludes with the presentation of some limiting cases that also serve as preliminary, sanity tests.
Numerical investigation on vibration and noise induced by unsteady flow in an axial-flow pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Eryun; Ma, Zui Ling; Yang, Ai Ling; Nan, Guo Fang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Gai Ping [School of Medical Instruments and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Li, Guo Ping [Shanghai Marine Equipment Research Institute, Shanghai (China)
2016-12-15
Full-scale structural vibration and noise induced by flow in an axial-flow pump was simulated by a hybrid numerical method. An unsteady flow field was solved by a large eddy simulation-based computational fluid dynamics commercial code, Fluent. An experimental validation on pressure fluctuations was performed to impose an appropriate vibration exciting source. The consistency between the computed results and experimental tests were interesting. The modes of the axial-flow pump were computed by the finite element method. After that, the pump vibration and sound field were solved using a coupled vibro-acoustic model. The numerical results indicated that the the blade-passing frequency was the dominant frequency of the vibration acceleration of the pump. This result was consistent with frequency spectral characteristics of unsteady pressure fluctuation. Finally, comparisons of the vibration acceleration between the computed results and the experimental test were conducted. These comparisons validated the computed results. This study shows that using the hybrid numerical method to evaluate the flow-induced vibration and noise generated in an axial-flow pump is feasible.
The flows structure in unsteady gas flow in pipes with different cross-sections
Plotnikov, Leonid; Nevolin, Alexandr; Nikolaev, Dmitrij
2017-10-01
The results of numerical simulation and experimental study of the structure of unsteady flows in pipes with different cross sections are presented in the article. It is shown that the unsteady gas flow in a circular pipe is axisymmetric without secondary currents. Steady vortex structures (secondary flows) are observed in pipes with cross sections in the form of a square and an equilateral triangle. It was found that these secondary flows have a significant impact on gas flows in pipes of complex configuration. On the basis of experimental researches it is established that the strong oscillatory phenomena exist in the inlet pipe of the piston engine arising after the closing of the intake valve. The placement of the profiled plots (with a cross section of a square or an equilateral triangle) in the intake pipe leads to the damping of the oscillatory phenomena and a more rapid stabilization of pulsating flow. This is due to the stabilizing effect of the vortex structures formed in the corners of this configuration.
The flows structure in unsteady gas flow in pipes with different cross-sections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Plotnikov Leonid
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The results of numerical simulation and experimental study of the structure of unsteady flows in pipes with different cross sections are presented in the article. It is shown that the unsteady gas flow in a circular pipe is axisymmetric without secondary currents. Steady vortex structures (secondary flows are observed in pipes with cross sections in the form of a square and an equilateral triangle. It was found that these secondary flows have a significant impact on gas flows in pipes of complex configuration. On the basis of experimental researches it is established that the strong oscillatory phenomena exist in the inlet pipe of the piston engine arising after the closing of the intake valve. The placement of the profiled plots (with a cross section of a square or an equilateral triangle in the intake pipe leads to the damping of the oscillatory phenomena and a more rapid stabilization of pulsating flow. This is due to the stabilizing effect of the vortex structures formed in the corners of this configuration.
Applications of Coupled Explicit–Implicit Solution of SWEs for Unsteady Flow in Yangtze River
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yufei Ding
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In engineering practice, the unsteady flows generated from the operation of hydropower station in the upstream region could significantly change the navigation system of waterways located in the middle-lower reaches of the river. In order to study the complex propagation, convergence and superposition characteristics of unsteady flows in a long channel with flow confluence, a numerical model based on the coupling of implicit and explicit solution algorithms of Shallow Water Equations (SWEs has been applied to two large rivers in the reach of Yangtze River, China, which covers the distance from Yibin to Chongqing located upstream side of the Three Gorges Dam. The accuracy of numerical model has been validated by both the steady and unsteady flows using the prototype hydrological data. It is found that the unsteady flows show much more complex water level and discharge behaviors than the steady ones. The studied unsteady flows arising from the water regulation of two upstream hydropower stations could influence the region as far as Zhutuo hydrologic station, which is close to the city of Chongqing. Meanwhile, the computed stage–discharge rating curves at all observation stations demonstrate multi-value loop patterns because of the presence of additional water surface gradient. The present numerical model proves to be robust for simulating complex flows in very long engineering rivers up to 400 km.
A novel method for unsteady flow field segmentation based on stochastic similarity of direction
Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu
2018-04-01
Recent developments in fluid dynamics research have opened up the possibility for the detailed quantitative understanding of unsteady flow fields. However, the visualization techniques currently in use generally provide only qualitative insights. A method for dividing the flow field into physically relevant regions of interest can help researchers quantify unsteady fluid behaviors. Most methods at present compare the trajectories of virtual Lagrangian particles. The time-invariant features of an unsteady flow are also frequently of interest, but the Lagrangian specification only reveals time-variant features. To address these challenges, we propose a novel method for the time-invariant spatial segmentation of an unsteady flow field. This segmentation method does not require Lagrangian particle tracking but instead quantitatively compares the stochastic models of the direction of the flow at each observed point. The proposed method is validated with several clustering tests for 3D flows past a sphere. Results show that the proposed method reveals the time-invariant, physically relevant structures of an unsteady flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, W D; Fan, H G; Chen, N X
2012-01-01
To study the interaction between the transient flow in pipe and the unsteady turbulent flow in turbine, a coupled model of the transient flow in the pipe and three-dimensional unsteady flow in the turbine is developed based on the method of characteristics and the fluid governing equation in the accelerated rotational relative coordinate. The load-rejection process under the closing of guide vanes of the hydraulic power plant is simulated by the coupled method, the traditional transient simulation method and traditional three-dimensional unsteady flow calculation method respectively and the results are compared. The pressure, unit flux and rotation speed calculated by three methods show a similar change trend. However, because the elastic water hammer in the pipe and the pressure fluctuation in the turbine have been considered in the coupled method, the increase of pressure at spiral inlet is higher and the pressure fluctuation in turbine is stronger.
Huang, W. D.; Fan, H. G.; Chen, N. X.
2012-11-01
To study the interaction between the transient flow in pipe and the unsteady turbulent flow in turbine, a coupled model of the transient flow in the pipe and three-dimensional unsteady flow in the turbine is developed based on the method of characteristics and the fluid governing equation in the accelerated rotational relative coordinate. The load-rejection process under the closing of guide vanes of the hydraulic power plant is simulated by the coupled method, the traditional transient simulation method and traditional three-dimensional unsteady flow calculation method respectively and the results are compared. The pressure, unit flux and rotation speed calculated by three methods show a similar change trend. However, because the elastic water hammer in the pipe and the pressure fluctuation in the turbine have been considered in the coupled method, the increase of pressure at spiral inlet is higher and the pressure fluctuation in turbine is stronger.
Heat transfer analysis for unsteady MHD flow past a non-isothermal stretching surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhopadhyay, Swati
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► Unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a non-isothermal stretching sheet in a magnetic field are studied. ► Fluid velocity and temperature decrease for increasing unsteadiness parameter. ► Fluid velocity decreases but temperature increases with the increasing values of the Hartman number. ► The sheet temperature in respect of distance and time has analogous effects on the heat transfer. - Abstract: An analysis is made for the unsteady two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic flow of an incompressible viscous and electrically conducting fluid over a stretching surface having a variable and general form of surface temperature which removes the restrictions of the particular forms of prescribed surface temperature. Similarity solutions for the transformed governing equations are obtained. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically for some values of the involved parameters, namely the unsteadiness parameter, magnetic parameter, the temperature exponent parameters. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for different values of the governing parameters are analysed and discussed. It is found that the fluid velocity and temperature decrease for increasing unsteadiness parameter. Fluid velocity decreases with the increasing values of the Hartman number resulting an increase in the temperature field in steady as well in unsteady case. It is observed that the variation of the sheet temperature in respect of distance and time has analogous effects both on the free surface temperature and on the heat transfer rate (Nusselt number) at the sheet.
Matthews, Megan; Sponberg, Simon
2017-11-01
Birds, insects, and many animals use unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms to achieve stable hovering flight. Natural environments are often characterized by unsteady flows causing animals to dynamically respond to perturbations while performing complex tasks, such as foraging. Little is known about how unsteady flow around an animal interacts with already unsteady flow in the environment or how this impacts performance. We study how the environment impacts maneuverability to reveal any coupling between body dynamics and aerodynamics for hawkmoths, Manduca sexta,tracking a 3D-printed robotic flower in a wind tunnel. We also observe the leading-edge vortex (LEV), a known lift-generating mechanism for insect flight with smoke visualization. Moths in still and unsteady air exhibit near perfect tracking at low frequencies, but tracking in the flower wake results in larger overshoot at mid-range. Smoke visualization of the flower wake shows that the dominant vortex shedding corresponds to the same frequency band as the increased overshoot. Despite the large effect on flight dynamics, the LEV remains bound to the wing and thorax throughout the wingstroke. In general, unsteady wind seems to decrease maneuverability, but LEV stability seems decoupled from changes in flight dynamics.
Sandeep, N.; Animasaun, I. L.
2017-06-01
Within the last few decades, experts and scientists dealing with the flow of non-Newtonian fluids (most especially Casson fluid) have confirmed the existence of such flow on a stretchable surface with low heat energy (i.e. absolute zero of temperature). This article presents the motion of a three-dimensional of such fluid. Influence of uniform space dependent internal heat source on the intermolecular forces holding the molecules of Casson fluid is investigated. It is assumed that the stagnation flow was induced by an external force (pressure gradient) together with impulsive. Based on these assumptions, variable thermophysical properties are most suitable; hence modified kinematic viscosity model is presented. The system of governing equations of 3-dimensional unsteady Casson fluid was non-dimensionalized using suitable similarity transformation which unravels the behavior of the flow at full fledge short period. The numerical solution of the corresponding boundary value problem (ODE) was obtained using Runge-Kutta fourth order along with shooting technique. The intermolecular forces holding the molecules of Casson fluid flow in both horizontal directions when magnitude of velocity ratio parameters are greater than unity breaks continuously with an increase in Casson parameter and this leads to an increase in velocity profiles in both directions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandeep N.
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Within the last few decades, experts and scientists dealing with the flow of non-Newtonian fluids (most especially Casson fluid have confirmed the existence of such flow on a stretchable surface with low heat energy (i.e. absolute zero of temperature. This article presents the motion of a three-dimensional of such fluid. Influence of uniform space dependent internal heat source on the intermolecular forces holding the molecules of Casson fluid is investigated. It is assumed that the stagnation flow was induced by an external force (pressure gradient together with impulsive. Based on these assumptions, variable thermophysical properties are most suitable; hence modified kinematic viscosity model is presented. The system of governing equations of 3-dimensional unsteady Casson fluid was non-dimensionalized using suitable similarity transformation which unravels the behavior of the flow at full fledge short period. The numerical solution of the corresponding boundary value problem (ODE was obtained using Runge-Kutta fourth order along with shooting technique. The intermolecular forces holding the molecules of Casson fluid flow in both horizontal directions when magnitude of velocity ratio parameters are greater than unity breaks continuously with an increase in Casson parameter and this leads to an increase in velocity profiles in both directions.
Numerical simulation of unsteady free surface flow and dynamic performance for a Pelton turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, Y X; Wang, Z W; Yan, Z G; Cui, T
2012-01-01
Different from the reaction turbines, the hydraulic performance of the Pelton turbine is dynamic due to the unsteady free surface flow in the rotating buckets in time and space. This paper aims to present the results of investigations conducted on the free surface flow in a Pelton turbine rotating buckets. The unsteady numerical simulations were performed with the CFX code by using the Realizable k-ε turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. The unsteady free surface flow patterns and torque varying with the bucket rotating were analysed. The predicted relative performance at five operating conditions was compared with the field test results. The study was also conducted the interactions between the bucket rear and the water jet.
Numerical simulation of unsteady free surface flow and dynamic performance for a Pelton turbine
Xiao, Y. X.; Cui, T.; Wang, Z. W.; Yan, Z. G.
2012-11-01
Different from the reaction turbines, the hydraulic performance of the Pelton turbine is dynamic due to the unsteady free surface flow in the rotating buckets in time and space. This paper aims to present the results of investigations conducted on the free surface flow in a Pelton turbine rotating buckets. The unsteady numerical simulations were performed with the CFX code by using the Realizable k-ε turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. The unsteady free surface flow patterns and torque varying with the bucket rotating were analysed. The predicted relative performance at five operating conditions was compared with the field test results. The study was also conducted the interactions between the bucket rear and the water jet.
Characterization of the unsteady flow in the nacelle region of a modern wind turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.
2011-01-01
A three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver has been used to investigate the flow in the nacelle region of a wind turbine where anemometers are typically placed to measure the flow speed and the turbine yaw angle. A 500 kW turbine was modelled with rotor and nacelle geometry in order to capture...... the complex separated flow in the blade root region of the rotor. A number of steady state and unsteady simulations were carried out for wind speeds ranging from 6 m s−1 to 16 m s−1 as well as two yaw and tilt angles. The flow in the nacelle region was found to be highly unsteady, dominated by unsteady vortex...... anemometry showed significant dependence on both yaw and tilt angles with yaw errors of up to 10 degrees when operating in a tilted inflow. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Topology optimization of unsteady flow problems using the lattice Boltzmann method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard, Sebastian Arlund; Sigmund, Ole; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov
2016-01-01
This article demonstrates and discusses topology optimization for unsteady incompressible fluid flows. The fluid flows are simulated using the lattice Boltzmann method, and a partial bounceback model is implemented to model the transition between fluid and solid phases in the optimization problems...
Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading
Yu, M.; Wang, S. Q.; Fu, J.; Peng, Y. X.
2013-02-01
So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.
Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, M; Fu, J; Wang, S Q; Peng, Y X
2013-01-01
So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.
The influence of pH on gas-liquid mass transfer in non-Newtonian fluids
Li Shaobai; Fan Jungeng; Xu Shuang; Li Rundong; Luan Jingde
2017-01-01
In this study, the effect of pH on the mass transfer of oxygen bubble swarms in non-Newtonian fluids was experimentally studied. The volumetric liquid side mass transfer coefficient (kLa), liquid side mass transfer coefficient (kL), and specific interfacial area (a) were investigated. The pH was regulated by the addition of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). It was found that the kLa increased with the gas flow rate increasing and decreased with the apparent viscosity of the liqui...
Conceptual Models of the Climate 2003 Program of Study: Non-Newtonian Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Balmforth, NeiI
2004-01-01
Non-Newtonian fluids occur commonly in our world. These fluids, such as toothpaste, saliva, oils, mud and lava, exhibit a number of behaviors that are different from Newtonian fluids and have a number of additional material properties...
Examination of forced unsteady separated flow fields on a rotating wind turbine blade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huyer, S [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (US)
1993-04-01
The wind turbine industry faces many problems regarding the construction of efficient and predictable wind turbine machines. Steady state, two-dimensional wind tunnel data are generally used to predict aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades. Preliminary experimental evidence indicates that some of the underlying fluid dynamic phenomena could be attributed to dynamic stall, or more specifically to generation of forced unsteady separated flow fields. A collaborative research effort between the University of Colorado and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was conducted to systematically categorize the local and global effects of three- dimensional forced unsteady flow fields.
Experimental Study of Unsteady Flow Separation in a Laminar Boundary Layer
Bonacci, Andrew; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Santos, Leonardo
2017-11-01
Flow separation, caused by an adverse pressure gradient, is a major problem in many applications. Reversing flow near the wall is the first sign of incipient separation and can bristle shark scales which may be linked to a passive, flow actuated separation control mechanism. An investigation of how this backflow forms and how it interacts with shark skin is of interest due to the fact that this could be used as a bioinspired means of initiating flow control. A water tunnel experiment aims to study unsteady separation with a focus on the reversing flow development near the wall within a flat plate laminar boundary layer (Re on order of 105) as an increasing adverse pressure gradient is induced by a rotating cylinder. Unsteady reversing flow development is documented using DPIV. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation under the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program (EEC 1659710) and the Army Research Office.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Younsi
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of design parameters on the unsteady flow in a forward-curved centrifugal fan and their impact on the aeroacoustic behavior. To do so, numerical and experimental studies have been carried out on four centrifugal impellers designed with various geometrical parameters. The same volute casing has been used to study these impellers. The effects on the unsteady flow behavior related to irregular blade spacing, blade count and radial distance between the impeller periphery and the volute tongue have been studied. The numerical simulations of the unsteady flow have been carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD tools based on the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (URANS approach. The study is focused on the unsteadiness induced by the aerodynamic interaction between the volute and the rotating impeller blades. In order to predict the acoustic pressure at far field, the unsteady flow variables provided by the CFD calculations have been used as inputs in the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations (FW-H. The experimental part of this work concerns measurement of aerodynamic performance of the fans using a test bench built according to ISO 5801 (1997 standard. In addition to this, pressure microphones have been flush mounted on the volute tongue surface in order to measure the wall pressure fluctuations. The sound pressure level (SPL measurements have been carried out in an anechoic room in order to remove undesired noise reflections. Finally, the numerical results have been compared with the experimental measurements and a correlation between the wall pressure fluctuations and the far field noise signals has been found.
Computational simulation of a non-newtonian model of the blood separation process.
De Gruttola, Sandro; Boomsma, Kevin; Poulikakos, Dimos
2005-12-01
The aim of this work is to construct a computational fluid dynamics model capable of simulating the transient non-Newtonian process of apheresis. A Lagrangian-Eulerian model has been developed which tracks the blood particles within a two-dimensional flow configuration. Within the Eulerian method, the fluid mass and momentum conservation equations within the separator are solved using the density and the viscosity is calculated from the blood particle concentrations. Subsequently, the displacement of the blood particles is calculated with a Lagrangian method. Hawksley's model for the density of supensions is used in the variable density calculation. The viscosity is calculated with two models based on Vand's rigid particle suspension viscosity concepts, followed by the flow field calculation in the separator. Simulations were performed for various inlet hematocrit values and separator lengths. The simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results reported in literature, indicating a complete separation of plasma and red blood cells (RBCs), as well as nearly complete separation of red blood cells and platelets. No hemolysis was observed in the simulations because the shear rate remained under the critical value of 150 N/m2.
Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy
2015-01-01
Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.
computational study of Couette flow between parallel plates for steady and unsteady cases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rihan, Y.
2008-01-01
Couette flow between parallel plates is a classical problem that has important applications in various industrial processing. In this investigation an analytical solution was obtained to predict the steady and unsteady Couette flow between parallel plates. One of the plates was stationary and the other plate moved with constant velocity. The governing partial differential equations were solved numerically using Crank-Nicolson implicit method to represent the flow behavior of the fluid
Exact solution for flow in a porous pipe with unsteady wall suction and/or injection
Tsangaris, S.; Kondaxakis, D.; Vlachakis, N. W.
2007-10-01
This paper presents an extension of the exact solution of the steady laminar axisymmetric flow in a straight pipe of circular cross section with porous wall, given by R.M. Terrill, to the case of unsteady wall injection and/or suction. The cases of the pulsating parabolic profile and of the developed pulsating flow are investigated as examples. The pulsating flow in porous ducts has many applications in biomedical engineering and in other engineering areas.
Flow and axial dispersion in a sinusoidal-walled tube: Effects of inertial and unsteady flows
Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Lambert, Adam; Wood, Brian D.
2013-12-01
In this work, we consider a sinusoidal-walled tube (a three-dimensional tube with sinusoidally-varying diameter) as a simplified conceptualization of flow in porous media. Direct numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods was used to compute velocity fields by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, and also to numerically solve the volume averaging closure problem, for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) spanning the low-Re to inertial flow regimes, including one simulation at Re=449 for which unsteady flow was observed. The longitudinal dispersion observed for the flow was computed using a random walk particle tracking method, and this was compared to the longitudinal dispersion predicted from a volume-averaged macroscopic mass balance using the method of volume averaging; the results of the two methods were consistent. Our results are compared to experimental measurements of dispersion in porous media and to previous theoretical results for both the low-Re, Stokes flow regime and for values of Re representing the steady inertial regime. In the steady inertial regime, a power-law increase in the effective longitudinal dispersion (DL) with Re was found, and this is consistent with previous results. This rapid rate of increase is caused by trapping of solute in expansions due to flow separation (eddies). One unsteady (but non-turbulent) flow case (Re=449) was also examined. For this case, the rate of increase of DL with Re was smaller than that observed at lower Re. Velocity fluctuations in this regime lead to increased rates of solute mass transfer between the core flow and separated flow regions, thus diminishing the amount of tailing caused by solute trapping in eddies and thereby reducing longitudinal dispersion. The observed tailing was further explored through analysis of concentration skewness (third moment) and its assymptotic convergence to conventional advection-dispersion behavior (skewness = 0). The method of volume averaging was
The Chimera Method of Simulation for Unsteady Three-Dimensional Viscous Flow
Meakin, Robert L.
1996-01-01
The Chimera overset grid method is reviewed and discussed in the context of a method of solution and analysis of unsteady three-dimensional viscous flows. The state of maturity of the various pieces of support software required to use the approach is discussed. A variety of recent applications of the method is presented. Current limitations of the approach are defined.
Numerical simulation of unsteady compressible low Mach number flow in a channel
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Punčochářová-Pořízková, P.; Kozel, Karel; Horáček, Jaromír; Fürst, J.
2010-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 2 (2010), s. 83-97 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : CFD * finite volume method * unsteady flow * low Mach number Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Unsteady free convection MHD flow between two heated vertical parallel conducting plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanyal, D.C.; Adhikari, A.
2006-01-01
Unsteady free convection flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid between two heated conducting vertical parallel plates subjected to a uniform transverse magnetic field is considered. The approximate analytical solutions for velocity, induced field and temperature distribution are obtained for small and large values of magnetic Reynolds number. The problem is also extended to thermometric case. (author)
A Note on Unsteady Temperature Equation For Gravity Flow of A ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We present an analytical study of unsteady temperature energy equation for gravity of a fluid with non – Newtonian behaviour through a porous medium. For the case of radial axisymmetric flow, the governing partial differential equation is transformed into an ordinary differential equation through similarity variables.
Analytical Solution of Unsteady Gravity Flows of A Power-Law Fluid ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We present an analytical study of unsteady non-linear rheological effects of a power-law fluid under gravity. The fluid flows through a porous medium. The governing equations are derived and similarity solutions are determined. The results show the existence of traveling waves. It is assumed that the viscosity is temperature ...
Asymptotic expansion of unsteady gravity flow of a power-law fluid ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We present a paper on the asymptotic expansion of unsteady non-linear rheological effects of a power-law fluid under gravity. The fluid flows through a porous medium. The asymptotic expansion is employed to obtain solution of the nonlinear problem. The results show the existence of traveling waves. It is assumed that the ...
Numerical simulation of 3D unsteady flow in a rotating pump by dynamic mesh technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, S; Guo, J; Yang, F X
2013-01-01
In this paper, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for three kinds of typical rotating pumps, roots blower, roto-jet pump and centrifugal pump, were performed using the three-dimensional Dynamic Mesh technique. In the unsteady simulation, all the computational domains, as stationary, were set in one inertial reference frame. The motions of the solid boundaries were defined by the Profile file in FLUENT commercial code, in which the rotational orientation and speed of the rotors were specified. Three methods (Spring-based Smoothing, Dynamic Layering and Local Re-meshing) were used to achieve mesh deformation and re-meshing. The unsteady solutions of flow field and pressure distribution were solved. After a start-up stage, the flow parameters exhibit time-periodic behaviour corresponding to blade passing frequency of rotor. This work shows that Dynamic Mesh technique could achieve numerical simulation of three-dimensional unsteady flow field in various kinds of rotating pumps and have a strong versatility and broad application prospects
Formation of coherent structures in a class of realistic 3D unsteady flows
Speetjens, M.F.M.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Klapp, J.; Medina, A.; Cros, A.; Vargas, C.
2013-01-01
The formation of coherent structures in three-dimensional (3D) unsteady laminar flows in a cylindrical cavity is reviewed. The discussion concentrates on two main topics: the role of symmetries and fluid inertia in the formation of coherent structures and the ramifications for the Lagrangian
Effects of Unsteady Flow Past An Infinite Vertical Plate With Variable ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effects of unsteady flow past an infinite vertical plate with variable temperature and constant mass flux are investigated. Laplace transform technique is used to obtain velocity and concentration fields. The computation of the results indicates that the velocity profiles increase with increase in Grashof numbers, mass ...
High Fidelity Simulations for Unsteady Flow Through the Orbiter LH2 Feedline Flowliner
Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey
2005-01-01
High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter M2 feedline flowliner. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. An incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.
Unsteady two-dimensional potential-flow model for thin variable geometry airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaunaa, Mac
2010-01-01
In the present work, analytical expressions for distributed and integral unsteady two-dimensional forces on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by its camber line...... in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use of the present theory in problems employing the eigenvalue approach, such as stability analysis. The analytical expressions for the integral forces can be reduced to Munk's steady and Theodorsen's unsteady results for thin airfoils, and numerical evaluation shows...
Unsteady axisymmetric flow and heat transfer over time-dependent radially stretching sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azeem Shahzad
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This article address the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of unsteady and incompressible viscous fluid over an unsteady stretching permeable surface. First of all modeled nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed to a system of ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations. Analytic solution of the reduced problem is constructed by using homotopy analysis method (HAM. To validate the constructed series solution a numerical counterpart is developed using shooting algorithm based on Runge-Kutta method. Both schemes are in an excellent agreement. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the velocity and energy profile are shown graphically and examined in detail.
Unsteady flow field in a mini VAWT with relative rotation blades: analysis of temporal results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayeul-Lainé, A C; Simonet, S; Bois, G
2013-01-01
The present wind turbine is a small one which can be used on roofs or in gardens. This turbine has a vertical axis. Each turbine blade combines a rotating movement around its own axis and around the main rotor axis. Due to this combination of movements, flow around this turbine is highly unsteady and needs to be modelled by unsteady calculation. The present work is an extended study starting in 2009. The benefits of combined rotating blades have been shown. The performance coefficient of this kind of turbine is very good for some blade stagger angles. Spectral analysis of unsteady results on specific points in the domain and temporal forces on blades was already presented for elliptic blades. The main aim here is to compare two kinds of blades in case of the best performances
Helicopter Rotor Blade Computation in Unsteady Flows Using Moving Overset Grids
Ahmad, Jasim; Duque, Earl P. N.
1996-01-01
An overset grid thin-layer Navier-Stokes code has been extended to include dynamic motion of helicopter rotor blades through relative grid motion. The unsteady flowfield and airloads on an AH-IG rotor in forward flight were computed to verify the methodology and to demonstrate the method's potential usefulness towards comprehensive helicopter codes. In addition, the method uses the blade's first harmonics measured in the flight test to prescribe the blade motion. The solution was impulsively started and became periodic in less than three rotor revolutions. Detailed unsteady numerical flow visualization techniques were applied to the entire unsteady data set of five rotor revolutions and exhibited flowfield features such as blade vortex interaction and wake roll-up. The unsteady blade loads and surface pressures compare well against those from flight measurements. Details of the method, a discussion of the resulting predicted flowfield, and requirements for future work are presented. Overall, given the proper blade dynamics, this method can compute the unsteady flowfield of a general helicopter rotor in forward flight.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothe, P.H.
1984-01-01
Several devices involving unsteady flows are characterized, along with methods of modeling the flows. Analyses are presented of wave rotor propulsive device cycles, MHD channel flow in the presence of magnetic field transients, and propellant sloshing on board spacecraft. The influence of the wing nose radius on unsteady phenomena in large scale flows is examined and a collocation-finite element method is defined for solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
Airfoil optimization for unsteady flows with application to high-lift noise reduction
Rumpfkeil, Markus Peer
The use of steady-state aerodynamic optimization methods in the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) community is fairly well established. In particular, the use of adjoint methods has proven to be very beneficial because their cost is independent of the number of design variables. The application of numerical optimization to airframe-generated noise, however, has not received as much attention, but with the significant quieting of modern engines, airframe noise now competes with engine noise. Optimal control techniques for unsteady flows are needed in order to be able to reduce airframe-generated noise. In this thesis, a general framework is formulated to calculate the gradient of a cost function in a nonlinear unsteady flow environment via the discrete adjoint method. The unsteady optimization algorithm developed in this work utilizes a Newton-Krylov approach since the gradient-based optimizer uses the quasi-Newton method BFGS, Newton's method is applied to the nonlinear flow problem, GMRES is used to solve the resulting linear problem inexactly, and last but not least the linear adjoint problem is solved using Bi-CGSTAB. The flow is governed by the unsteady two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a one-equation turbulence model, which are discretized using structured grids and a finite difference approach. The effectiveness of the unsteady optimization algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to several problems of interest including shocktubes, pulses in converging-diverging nozzles, rotating cylinders, transonic buffeting, and an unsteady trailing-edge flow. In order to address radiated far-field noise, an acoustic wave propagation program based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) formulation is implemented and validated. The general framework is then used to derive the adjoint equations for a novel hybrid URANS/FW-H optimization algorithm in order to be able to optimize the shape of airfoils based on their calculated far
On a numerical strategy to compute gravity currents of non-Newtonian fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vola, D.; Babik, F.; Latche, J.-C.
2004-01-01
This paper is devoted to the presentation of a numerical scheme for the simulation of gravity currents of non-Newtonian fluids. The two dimensional computational grid is fixed and the free-surface is described as a polygonal interface independent from the grid and advanced in time by a Lagrangian technique. Navier-Stokes equations are semi-discretized in time by the Characteristic-Galerkin method, which finally leads to solve a generalized Stokes problem posed on a physical domain limited by the free surface to only a part of the computational grid. To this purpose, we implement a Galerkin technique with a particular approximation space, defined as the restriction to the fluid domain of functions of a finite element space. The decomposition-coordination method allows to deal without any regularization with a variety of non-linear and possibly non-differentiable constitutive laws. Beside more analytical tests, we revisit with this numerical method some simulations of gravity currents of the literature, up to now investigated within the simplified thin-flow approximation framework
Sjogreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.
2007-01-01
Flows containing steady or nearly steady strong shocks in parts of the flow field, and unsteady turbulence with shocklets on other parts of the flow field are difficult to capture accurately and efficiently employing the same numerical scheme even under the multiblock grid or adaptive grid refinement framework. On one hand, sixth-order or higher shock-capturing methods are appropriate for unsteady turbulence with shocklets. On the other hand, lower order shock-capturing methods are more effective for strong steady shocks in terms of convergence. In order to minimize the shortcomings of low order and high order shock-capturing schemes for the subject flows,a multi- block overlapping grid with different orders of accuracy on different blocks is proposed. Test cases to illustrate the performance of the new solver are included.
Unsteady Flow in a Horizontal Double-Sided Symmetric Thin Liquid Films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph G. ABDULAHAD
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper a mathematical model is constructed to describe a two dimensional incompressible flow in a symmetric horizontal thin liquid film for unsteadies flow. We apply the Navier-Stokes equations with specified boundary conditions and we obtain the equation of the film thickness by using the similarity method in which we can isolate the explicit time dependence and then the shape of the film will depend on one variable only.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, S.; Borkakati, A.K.
1999-01-01
An unsteady viscous incompressible free convection flow of an electrically conducting fluid between two heated vertical parallel plates is considered in presence of a uniform magnetic field applied transversely to the flow. The approximate analytical solutions for velocity, induced field and temperature distributions are obtained for small and large magnetic Reynolds number. The skin-friction on the two plates are obtained and plotted graphically. The problem is extended for thermometric case. (author)
Unsteady Flow Dynamics and Acoustics of Two-Outlet Centrifugal Fan Design
Wong, I. Y. W.; Leung, R. C. K.; Law, A. K. Y.
2011-09-01
In this study, a centrifugal fan design with two flow outlets is investigated. This design aims to provide high mass flow rate but low noise performance. Two dimensional unsteady flow simulation with CFD code (FLUENT 6.3) is carried out to analyze the fan flow dynamics and its acoustics. The calculations were done using the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) approach in which effects of turbulence were accounted for using κ-ɛ model. This work aims to provide an insight how the dominant noise source mechanisms vary with a key fan geometrical paramters, namely, the ratio between cutoff distance and the radius of curvature of the fan housing. Four new fan designs were calculated. Simulation results show that the unsteady flow-induced forces on the fan blades are found to be the main noise sources. The blade force coefficients are then used to build the dipole source terms in Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) Equation for estimating their noise effects. It is found that one design is able to deliver a mass flow 34% more, but with sound pressure level (SPL) 10 dB lower, than the existing design .
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cui Michael M.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available To reduce vibration and noise level, the impeller and diffuser blade numbers inside an industrial compressor are typically chosen without common divisors. The shapes of volutes or collectors in these compressors are also not axis-symmetric. When impeller blades pass these asymmetric structures, the flow field in the compressor is time-dependent and three-dimensional. To obtain a fundamental physical understanding of these three-dimensional unsteady flow fields and assess their impact on the compressor performance, the flow field inside the compressors needs to be studied as a whole to include asymmetric and unsteady interaction between the compressor components. In the current study, a unified three-dimensional numerical model was built for a transonic centrifugal compressor including impeller, diffusers, and volute. HFC 134a was used as the working fluid. The thermodynamic and transport properties of the refrigerant gas were modeled by the Martin-Hou equation of state and power laws, respectively. The three-dimensional unsteady flow field was simulated with a Navier-Stokes solver using the k−ϵ turbulent model. The overall performance parameters are obtained by integrating the field quantities. Both the unsteady flow field and the overall performance are analyzed comparatively for each component. The compressor was tested in a water chiller system instrumented to obtain both the overall performance data and local flow-field quantities. The experimental and numerical results agree well. The correlation between the overall compressor performance and local flow-field quantities is defined. The methodology developed and data obtained in these studies can be applied to the centrifugal compressor design and optimization.
Fundamentals of convection in non-Newtonian fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, J.L.S.; Ekmann, J.M.; Peterson, G.P.
1987-01-01
There are five papers in this book. They are: Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in Viscoelastic Duct Flow - A New Look, A Heat Transfer Correlation for Viscoelastic Pipe Flows under Constant Wall Heat Flux, Three-Dimensional Solidification and Flow of Polymers in Curved Square Ducts, Natural Convecon Heat Transfer Between a Power-Law Fluid and a Permeable Isothermal Vertical Wall, and On Nonisothermal Flows of Bingham Plastics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paik, Joongcheol [University of Minnesota; Sotiropoulos, Fotis [University of Minnesota; Sale, Michael J [ORNL
2005-06-01
A numerical method is developed for carrying out unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations and detached-eddy simulations (DESs) in complex 3D geometries. The method is applied to simulate incompressible swirling flow in a typical hydroturbine draft tube, which consists of a strongly curved 90 degree elbow and two piers. The governing equations are solved with a second-order-accurate, finite-volume, dual-time-stepping artificial compressibility approach for a Reynolds number of 1.1 million on a mesh with 1.8 million nodes. The geometrical complexities of the draft tube are handled using domain decomposition with overset (chimera) grids. Numerical simulations show that unsteady statistical turbulence models can capture very complex 3D flow phenomena dominated by geometry-induced, large-scale instabilities and unsteady coherent structures such as the onset of vortex breakdown and the formation of the unsteady rope vortex downstream of the turbine runner. Both URANS and DES appear to yield the general shape and magnitude of mean velocity profiles in reasonable agreement with measurements. Significant discrepancies among the DES and URANS predictions of the turbulence statistics are also observed in the straight downstream diffuser.
Borehole guided waves in a non-Newtonian (Maxwell) fluid-saturated porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhi-Wen, Cui; Jin-Xia, Liu; Ke-Xie, Wang; Gui-Jin, Yao
2010-01-01
The property of acoustic guided waves generated in a fluid-filled borehole surrounded by a non-Newtonian (Maxwell) fluid-saturated porous formation with a permeable wall is investigated. The influence of non-Newtonian effects on acoustic guided waves such as Stoneley waves, pseudo-Rayleigh waves, flexural waves, and screw waves propagations in a fluid-filled borehole is demonstrated based on the generalized Biot–Tsiklauri model by calculating their velocity dispersion and attenuation coefficients. The corresponding acoustic waveforms illustrate their properties in time domain. The results are also compared with those based on generalized Biot's theory. The results show that the influence of non-Newtonian effect on acoustic guided wave, especially on the attenuation coefficient of guided wave propagation in borehole is noticeable. (classical areas of phenomenology)
Determination of the Köthe-Toeplitz Duals over the Non-Newtonian Complex Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uğur Kadak
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The important point to note is that the non-Newtonian calculus is a self-contained system independent of any other system of calculus. Therefore the reader may be surprised to learn that there is a uniform relationship between the corresponding operators of this calculus and the classical calculus. Several basic concepts based on non-Newtonian calculus are presented by Grossman (1983, Grossman and Katz (1978, and Grossman (1979. Following Grossman and Katz, in the present paper, we introduce the sets of bounded, convergent, null series and p-bounded variation of sequences over the complex field C* and prove that these are complete. We propose a quite concrete approach based on the notion of Köthe-Toeplitz duals with respect to the non-Newtonian calculus. Finally, we derive some inclusion relationships between Köthe space and solidness.
Unsteady Simulations of the Flow in a Channel Flow and a Ventilated Room Using the SST-SAS Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davidson, Lars; Nielsen, Peter V.
The SAS model (Scale Adapted Simulation) was invented by Menter and his co-workers. The idea behind the SST-SAS model is to add an additional production term - the SAS term - in the w equation which is sensitive to resolved (i.e. unsteady) fluctuations. In regions where the flow is on the limit...
Discrete Adjoint-Based Design Optimization of Unsteady Turbulent Flows on Dynamic Unstructured Grids
Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris; Yamaleev, Nail K.
2009-01-01
An adjoint-based methodology for design optimization of unsteady turbulent flows on dynamic unstructured grids is described. The implementation relies on an existing unsteady three-dimensional unstructured grid solver capable of dynamic mesh simulations and discrete adjoint capabilities previously developed for steady flows. The discrete equations for the primal and adjoint systems are presented for the backward-difference family of time-integration schemes on both static and dynamic grids. The consistency of sensitivity derivatives is established via comparisons with complex-variable computations. The current work is believed to be the first verified implementation of an adjoint-based optimization methodology for the true time-dependent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in a practical computational code. Large-scale shape optimizations are demonstrated for turbulent flows over a tiltrotor geometry and a simulated aeroelastic motion of a fighter jet.
Study of the flow unsteadiness in the human airway using large eddy simulation
Bernate, Jorge A.; Geisler, Taylor S.; Padhy, Sourav; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2017-08-01
The unsteady flow in a patient-specific geometry of the airways is studied. The geometry comprises the oral cavity, orophrarynx, larynx, trachea, and the bronchial tree extending to generations 5-8. Simulations are carried out for a constant inspiratory flow rate of 60 liters/min, corresponding to a Reynolds number of 4213 for a nominal tracheal diameter of 2 cm. The computed mean flow field is compared extensively with magnetic resonance velocimetry measurements by Banko et al. [Exp. Fluids 56, 117 (2015), 10.1007/s00348-015-1966-y] carried out in the same computed-tomography-based geometry, showing good agreement. In particular, we focus on the dynamics of the flow in the bronchial tree. After becoming unsteady at a constriction in the oropharynx, the flow is found to be chaotic, exhibiting fluctuations with broad-band spectra even at the most distal airways in which the Reynolds numbers are as low as 300. An inertial range signature is present in the trachea but not in the bronchial tree where a narrower range of scales is observed. The unsteadiness is attributed to the convection of turbulent structures produced at the larynx as well as to local kinetic energy production throughout the bronchial tree. Production occurs predominantly at shear layers bounding geometry-induced separation regions.
Performance Characteristics of a Cross-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine under Unsteady Conditions
Flack, Karen; Lust, Ethan; Bailin, Ben
2017-11-01
Performance characteristics are presented for a cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine designed for use in a riverine environment. The test turbine is a 1:6 scale model of a three-bladed device (9.5 m span, 6.5 m diameter) that has been proposed by the Department of Energy. Experiments are conducted in the large towing tank (116 m long, 7.9 m wide, 5 m deep) at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine is towed beneath a moving carriage at a constant speed in combination with a shaft motor to achieve the desired tip speed ratio (TSR) range. The measured quantities of turbine thrust, torque and RPM result in power and thrust coefficients for a range of TSR. Results will be presented for cases with quiescent flow at a range of Reynolds numbers and flow with mild surface waves, representative of riverine environments. The impact of unsteady flow conditions on the average turbine performance was not significant. Unsteady flow conditions did have an impact on instantaneous turbine performance which operationally would result in unsteady blade loading and instantaneous power quality.
Minnowbrook IV: 2003 Workshop on Transition and Unsteady Aspects of Turbomachinery Flows
LaGraff, John E. (Editor); Ashpis, David E.
2004-01-01
This Minnowbrook IV 2003 workshop on Transition and Unsteady Aspects of Turbomachinery Flows includes the following topics: 1) Current Issues in Unsteady Turbomachinery Flows; 2) Global Instability and Control of Low-Pressure Turbine Flows; 3) Influence of End Wall Leakage on Secondary Flow Development in Axial Turbines; 4) Active and Passive Flow Control on Low Pressure Turbine Airfoils; 5) Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Transitional Flows as Affected by Passing Wakes; 6) Effects of Freestream Turbulence on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer; 7) Bypass Transition Via Continuous Modes and Unsteady Effects on Film Cooling; 8) High Frequency Surface Heat Flux Imaging of Bypass Transition; 9) Skin Friction and Heat Flux Oscillations in Upstream Moving Wave Packets; 10) Transition Mechanisms and Use of Surface Roughness to Enhance the Benefits of Wake Passing in LP Turbines; 11) Transient Growth Approach to Roughness-Induced Transition; 12) Roughness- and Freestream-Turbulence-Induced Transient Growth as a Bypass Transition Mechanism; 13) Receptivity Calculations as a Means to Predicting Transition; 14) On Streamwise Vortices in a Curved Wall Jet and Their Effect on the Mean Flow; 15) Plasma Actuators for Separation Control of Low Pressure Turbine Blades; 16) Boundary-Layer Separation Control Under Low-Pressure-Turbine Conditions Using Glow-Discharge Plasma Actuators; 17) Control of Separation for Low Pressure Turbine Blades: Numerical Simulation; 18) Effects of Elevated Free-Stream Turbulence on Active Control of a Separation Bubble; 19) Wakes, Calming and Transition Under Strong Adverse Pressure Gradients; 20) Transitional Bubble in Periodic Flow Phase Shift; 21) Modelling Spots: The Calmed Region, Pressure Gradient Effects and Background; 22) Modeling of Unsteady Transitional Flow on Axial Compressor Blades; 23) Challenges in Predicting Component Efficiencies in Turbomachines With Low Reynolds Number Blading; 24) Observations on the Causal Relationship Between
Hypersonic and Unsteady Flow Science Issues for Explosively Formed Penetrators
2006-08-01
under going real- time dynamic deformation. ACCOMPLISHMENTS/RESULTS • Completed initial assessment of flow chemistry • Completed initial stability... flow chemistry during rapid deformation •Cannot use static boundary conditions in CFD codes •Interfaces one approach to coupling with hydrocodes
Simulation of three-demensional unsteady flow in hydraulic pumps
van Esch, B.P.M.; van Esch, Bartholomeus Petrus Maria
1997-01-01
In this thesis it is shown that the flow in hydraulic pumps of the radial and mixedflow type, operating at conditions not too far from design point, can be considered as an incompressible potential flow, where the influence of viscosity is restricted to thin boundary layers, wakes and mixing areas.
Rubinato, Matteo; Martins, Ricardo; Kesserwani, Georges; Leandro, Jorge; Djordjević, Slobodan; Shucksmith, James
2017-09-01
The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.
Unsteady flow characteristic analysis of turbine based combined cycle (TBCC inlet mode transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Liu
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A turbine based combined cycle (TBCC propulsion system uses a turbine-based engine to accelerate the vehicle from takeoff to the mode transition flight condition, at which point, the propulsion system performs a “mode transition” from the turbine to ramjet engine. Smooth inlet mode transition is accomplished when flow is diverted from one flowpath to the other, without experiencing unstart or buzz. The smooth inlet mode transition is a complex unsteady process and it is one of the enabling technologies for combined cycle engine to become a functional reality. In order to unveil the unsteady process of inlet mode transition, the research of over/under TBCC inlet mode transition was conducted through a numerical simulation. It shows that during the mode transition the terminal shock oscillates in the inlet. During the process of inlet mode transition mass flow rate and Mach number of turbojet flowpath reduce with oscillation. While in ramjet flowpath the flow field is non-uniform at the beginning of inlet mode transition. The speed of mode transition and the operation states of the turbojet and ramjet engines will affect the motion of terminal shock. The result obtained in present paper can help us realize the unsteady flow characteristic during the mode transition and provide some suggestions for TBCC inlet mode transition based on the smooth transition of thrust.
Wall modeling for the simulation of highly non-isothermal unsteady flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devesa, A.
2006-12-01
Nuclear industry flows are most of the time characterized by their high Reynolds number, density variations (at low Mach numbers) and a highly unsteady behaviour (low to moderate frequencies). High Reynolds numbers are un-affordable by direct simulation (DNS), and simulations must either be performed by solving averaged equations (RANS), or by solving only the large eddies (LES), both using a wall model. A first investigation of this thesis dealt with the derivation and test of two variable density wall models: an algebraic law (CWM) and a zonal approach dedicated to LES (TBLE-ρ). These models were validated in quasi-isothermal cases, before being used in academic and industrial non-isothermal flows with satisfactory results. Then, a numerical experiment of pulsed passive scalars was performed by DNS, were two forcing conditions were considered: oscillations are imposed in the outer flow; oscillations come from the wall. Several frequencies and amplitudes of oscillations were taken into account in order to gain insights in unsteady effects in the boundary layer, and to create a database for validating wall models in such context. The temporal behaviour of two wall models (algebraic and zonal wall models) were studied and showed that a zonal model produced better results when used in the simulation of unsteady flows. (author)
Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic hand and its flow field.
Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Ozaki, Takashi; Matsuuchi, Kazuo
2013-07-26
This study aims to clarify the mechanism of generating unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand during swimming in order to directly measure the forces, pressure distribution, and flow field around the hand by using a robotic arm and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The robotic arm consisted of the trunk, shoulder, upper arm, forearm, and hand, and it was independently computer controllable in five degrees of freedom. The elbow-joint angle of the robotic arm was fixed at 90°, and the arm was moved in semicircles around the shoulder joint in a plane perpendicular to the water surface. Two-component PIV was used for flow visualization around the hand. The data of the forces and pressure acting on the hand were sampled at 200Hz and stored on a PC. When the maximum resultant force acting on the hand was observed, a pair of counter-rotating vortices appeared on the dorsal surface of the hand. A vortex attached to the hand increased the flow velocity, which led to decreased surface pressure, increasing the hydrodynamic forces. This phenomenon is known as the unsteady mechanism of force generation. We found that the drag force was 72% greater and the lift force was 4.8 times greater than the values estimated under steady flow conditions. Therefore, it is presumable that swimmers receive the benefits of this unsteady hydrodynamic force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand and its flow field during sculling motion.
Takagi, Hideki; Shimada, Shohei; Miwa, Takahiro; Kudo, Shigetada; Sanders, Ross; Matsuuchi, Kazuo
2014-12-01
The goal of this research is to clarify the mechanism by which unsteady forces are generated during sculling by a skilled swimmer and thereby to contribute to improving propulsive techniques. We used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to acquire data on the kinematics of the hand during sculling, such as fluid forces and flow field. By investigating the correlations between these data, we expected to find a new propulsion mechanism. The experiment was performed in a flow-controlled water channel. The participant executed sculling motions to remain at a fixed position despite constant water flow. PIV was used to visualize the flow-field cross-section in the plane of hand motion. Moreover, the fluid forces acting on the hand were estimated from pressure distribution measurements performed on the hand and simultaneous three-dimensional motion analysis. By executing the sculling motion, a skilled swimmer produces large unsteady fluid forces when the leading-edge vortex occurs on the dorsal side of the hand and wake capture occurs on the palm side. By using a new approach, we observed interesting unsteady fluid phenomena similar to those of flying insects. The study indicates that it is essential for swimmers to fully exploit vortices. A better understanding of these phenomena might lead to an improvement in sculling techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gass-Assisted Displacement of Non-Newtonian Fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard
2003-01-01
in a circular cylinder. This is a simple model system used to investigate the gas-fluid displacement, as the problem is reduced to an axis-symmetric flow problem. The understanding of this process is relevant for the geometrically much more complex polymer processing operation Gas-assisted injection moulding...... (GAIM). This is a process, where a mould is filled partly with a polymer melt followed by the injection of inert gas into the core of the polymer melt. The numerical analysis of the fluid flow concerning the experimental observations data in these publications is all based on Newtonian or general...... equation of Boger fluids is the Oldroyd-B model. This model has, with success, been able to describe the complex flow behaviours of Boger fluid. Though, refinements in the flow analysis can be obtained using more complex constitutive models. To keep the flow analysis as simple as possible the Oldroyd...
Effects of flow unsteadiness on the wall shear stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amiri, K; Cervantes, M J; Raisee, M
2012-01-01
Measurements were performed on pulsating fully turbulent flows in a pipe test rig with a diameter of 100 mm. Sinusoidal oscillatory flow at different frequencies was superimposed on a mean flow of averaged Reynolds number Re=20000 based on the pipe diameter. The measurements have been performed at different forcing frequencies (0.001 + < 0.08) covering all the oscillatory regimes; quasi-steady, relaxation, quasi laminar and high frequency. The amplitude of the flow oscillation was small enough to allow a linear response in the measurements, i.e., all flow parameters showed an oscillatory behavior at the frequency of the flow. The amplitude of the oscillatory flow was about 10% of the mean velocity in all cases. The results include mean and phase averaged values of different parameters. The centerline velocity was measured by a 2D LDA system. Hot film and constant temperature anemometry system was used to determine the wall shear stress. Bulk velocity and pressure gradient along the pipe were also acquired. The results showed a good agreement with the previous analytical, experimental and numerical results available in the literature.
Unsteady MHD flow in porous media past over exponentially ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... rotation and magnetic field on the flow past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate with ... Let (u, v, w) be the components of the velocity vector V. Then using the equation.
Unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology .... dimensional MHD boundary layer on the body with time varying temperature. ... flow of an electrically conducting fluid past an infinite vertical porous flat plate coinciding with.
Shear stress from hot-film sensors in unsteady gas flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cole, K.D.
1991-01-01
In this paper a data analysis procedure is proposed for obtaining unsteady wall shear stress from flush-mounted hot-film anemometer measurements. The method is based on a two-dimensional heat transfer model of the unsteady heat transfer in both the hot-film sensor and in the gas flow. The sensor thermal properties are found from preliminary calibration experiments at zero flow. Numerical experiments are used to demonstrate the data analysis method using simulated sensor signals that are corrupted with noise. The numerical experiments show that noise in the data propagates into the results so that data smoothing may be important in analyzing experimental data. Because the data analysis procedure is linear, a linear digital filter is constructed that could be used for processing large amounts of experimental data. However, further refinements will be needed before the method can be applied to experimental data
Schairer, Edward T.; Heineck, James T.; Walker, Louise Ann; Kushner, Laura Kathryn; Zilliac, Gregory
2010-01-01
This paper describes simultaneous, synchronized, high-frequency measurements of both unsteady flow in the wake of a tension-cone decelerator in subsonic flow (by PIV) and the unsteady shape of the decelerator (by photogrammetry). The purpose of these measurements was to develop the test techniques necessary to validate numerical methods for computing fluid-structure interactions of flexible decelerators. A critical need for this effort is to map fabric surfaces that have buckled or wrinkled so that code developers can accurately represent them. This paper describes a new photogrammetric technique that performs this measurement. The work was done in support of the Entry, Descent, and Landing discipline within the Supersonics Project of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program.
Non Newtonian Behavior of Blood in Presence of Arterial Occlusion
Dr.Arun Kumar Maiti
2016-01-01
The objective of the present numerical model is to investigate the effect of shape of stenosis on blood flow through an artery using Bingham plastic fluid model. Blood is modeled as Bingham plastic fluid in a uniform circular tube with an axially symmetric but radially non symmetric stenosis. The expressions for flux, dimensionless resistance to flow with stenosis shape parameter, stenosis length and stenosis size have been shown graphically
Frequency effects of upstream wake and blade interaction on the unsteady boundary layer flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Dong Jin; Bae, Sang Su
2002-01-01
Effects of the reduced frequency of upstream wake on downstream unsteady boundary layer flow were simulated by using a Navier-Stokes code. The Navier-Stokes code is based on an unstructured finite volume method and uses a low Reynolds number turbulence model to close the momentum equations. The geometry used in this paper is the MIT flapping foil experimental set-up and the reduced frequency of the upstream wake is varied in the range of 0.91 to 10.86 to study its effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow. Numerical solutions show that they can be divided into two categories. One is so called the low frequency solution, and behaves quite similar to a Stokes layer. Its characteristics is found to be quite similar to those due to either a temporal or spatial wave. The low frequency solutions are observed clearly when reduced frequency is smaller than 3.26. The other one is the high frequency solution. It is observed for the reduced frequency larger than 7.24. It shows a sudden shift of the phase angle of the unsteady velocity around the edge of the boundary layer. The shift of phase angle is about 180 degree, and leads to separation of the boundary layer flow from corresponding outer flow. The high frequency solution shows the characteristics of a temporal wave whose wave length is half of the upstream frequency. This characteristics of the high frequency solution is found to be caused by the strong interaction between unsteady vortices. This strong interaction also leads to destroy of the upstream wake stripe inside the viscous sublayer as well as the buffer layer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Punčochářová-Pořízková, P.; Kozel, K.; Horáček, Jaromír
2011-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 404-410 ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : finite volume method * unsteady flow * low Mach number * viscous compressible fluid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045793010003439
Five-point Element Scheme of Finite Analytic Method for Unsteady Groundwater Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiang Bo; Mi Xiao; Ji Changming; Luo Qingsong
2007-01-01
In order to improve the finite analytic method's adaptability for irregular unit, by using coordinates rotation technique this paper establishes a five-point element scheme of finite analytic method. It not only solves unsteady groundwater flow equation but also gives the boundary condition. This method can be used to calculate the three typical questions of groundwater. By compared with predecessor's computed result, the result of this method is more satisfactory.
Dynamic lift on an artificial static armor layer during highly unsteady open channel flow
Spiller, Stephan Mark; Ruther, Nils; Friedrich, Heide
2015-01-01
The dynamic lift acting on a 100 mm × 100 mm section of a static armor layer during unsteady flow is directly measured in a series of physical experiments. The static armor layer is represented by an artificial streambed mold, made from an actual gravel bed. Data from a total of 190 experiments are presented, undertaken in identical conditions. Results show that during rapid discharge increases, the dynamic lift on the streambed repeatedly exhibits three clear peaks. The magnitude of the obse...
Unsteady flow of an incompressible fluid in a horizontal porous medium with suction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bestman, A.R.
1988-04-01
A theoretical analysis of two-dimensional unsteady flow in a porous medium bounded by a horizontal wall is presented as a perturbation on a basic flow. It is assumed that the perturbation is occasioned by a sudden suction at the wall. Even for a highly permeable medium the characteristic Reynolds number in porous media flow is usually small and asymptotic solutions are developed by the Laplace transform technique. It is observed that the perturbed shear stress at the wall decays exponentially with time. (author). 5 refs
Unsteady supercritical/critical dual flowpath inlet flow and its control methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun LIU
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The characteristics of unsteady flow in a dual-flowpath inlet, which was designed for a Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC propulsion system, and the control methods of unsteady flow were investigated experimentally and numerically. It was characterized by large-amplitude pressure oscillations and traveling shock waves. As the inlet operated in supercritical condition, namely the terminal shock located in the throat, the shock oscillated, and the period of oscillation was about 50â¯ms, while the amplitude was 6â¯mm. The shock oscillation was caused by separation in the diffuser. This shock oscillation can be controlled by extending the length of diffuser which reduces pressure gradient along the flowpath. As the inlet operated in critical condition, namely the terminal shock located at the shoulder of the third compression ramp, the shock oscillated, and the period of oscillation was about 7.5â¯ms, while the amplitude was 12â¯mm. At this condition, the shock oscillation was caused by an incompatible backpressure in the bleed region. It can be controlled by increasing the backpressure of the bleed region. Keywords: Airbreathing hypersonic vehicle, Dual flowpath inlet, Terminal shock oscillation, Turbine based combined cycle, Unsteady flow
Unsteady flow simulations of Pelton turbine at different rotational speeds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minsuk Choi
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This article presents numerical simulations of a small Pelton turbine suitable for desalination system. A commercial flow solver was adopted to resolve difficulties in the numerical simulation for Pelton turbine such as the relative motion of the turbine runner to the injector and two-phase flow of water and air. To decrease the numerical diffusion of the water jet, a new topology with only hexagonal mesh was suggested for the computational mesh around the complex geometry of a bucket. The predicted flow coefficient, net head coefficient, and overall efficiency showed a good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validation of the numerical results, the pattern of wet area on the bucket inner surface has been analyzed at different rotational speeds, and an attempt to find the connection between rotational speeds, torque, and efficiency has been made.
Unsteady transonic flow analysis for low aspect ratio, pointed wings.
Kimble, K. R.; Ruo, S. Y.; Wu, J. M.; Liu, D. Y.
1973-01-01
Oswatitsch and Keune's parabolic method for steady transonic flow is applied and extended to thin slender wings oscillating in the sonic flow field. The parabolic constant for the wing was determined from the equivalent body of revolution. Laplace transform methods were used to derive the asymptotic equations for pressure coefficient, and the Adams-Sears iterative procedure was employed to solve the equations. A computer program was developed to find the pressure distributions, generalized force coefficients, and stability derivatives for delta, convex, and concave wing planforms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sivakumar Venkatachalam
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Many experiments have been conducted to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of column reactors and loop reactors. In this present work, a novel combined loop airlift fluidized bed reactor was developed to study the effect of superficial gas and liquid velocities, particle diameter, fluid properties on gas holdup by using Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. Compressed air was used as gas phase. Water, 5% n-butanol, various concentrations of glycerol (60 and 80% were used as Newtonian liquids, and different concentrations of carboxy methyl cellulose aqueous solutions (0.25, 0.6 and 1.0% were used as non-Newtonian liquids. Different sizes of spheres, Bearl saddles and Raschig rings were used as solid phases. From the experimental results, it was found that the increase in superficial gas velocity increases the gas holdup, but it decreases with increase in superficial liquid velocity and viscosity of liquids. Based on the experimental results a correlation was developed to predict the gas hold-up for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids for a wide range of operating conditions at a homogeneous flow regime where the superficial gas velocity is approximately less than 5 cm/s
Revisiting Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Using Computer Algebra
Knight, D. G.
2006-01-01
This article illustrates how a computer algebra system, such as Maple[R], can assist in the study of theoretical fluid mechanics, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The continuity equation, the stress equations of motion, the Navier-Stokes equations, and various constitutive equations are treated, using a full, but straightforward,…
Break-up of a non-Newtonian jet injected downwards in a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
atomization and spray coating, crop spraying, ink jet printing, printing of polymer transis- tors, and ... particular ones used in printing and coating, the liquids encountered are non-Newtonian. For breakup of ...... In-Press. Sussman M and Pukett E G 2000 A coupled level set and volume-of-fluid method for computing 3D and.
Similarity solution of axisymmetric non-Newtonian wall jets with swirl
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolář, Václav
2011-01-01
Roč. 12, č. 6 (2011), s. 3413-3420 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : similarity solution * wall jets * non-Newtonian fluids * power-law fluids * swirl Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.043, year: 2011
Visualisation of heat transfer in unsteady laminar flows
Speetjens, M.F.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.
2011-01-01
Heat transfer in fluid flows traditionally is examined in terms of temperature fields and heat-transfer coefficients. However, heat transfer may alternatively be considered as the transport of thermal energy by the total convective-conductive heat flux in a way analogous to the transport of fluid by
Visualisation of heat transfer in 3D unsteady flows
Speetjens, M.F.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.
2010-01-01
Heat transfer in fluid flows traditionally is examined in terms oftemperature field and heat-transfer coefficients at non-adiabaticwalls. However, heat transfer may alternatively be considered asthe transport of thermal energy by the total convective-conductiveheat flux in a way analogous to the
Partially Ventilated Transom Flow Elevations-Unsteady Analysis
2016-06-30
questions or concerns relating to this submittal. Sincerely ~o~"L Richard A. Royce, Ph.D. Director of Research James J. Henry Professor of Naval...Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Rome, Italy, September 2006. O’Dea, J. , Jenkins , D., and Nagle, T. "Flow Characteristics of a Transom Stem Ship
Unsteady MHD free convection flow and heat transfer along an ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Steady free convection flow of an electrically conducting fluid along an infinite vertical porous plate under Arrhenius kinetics are investigated in the presence of strong transverse magnetic field imposed perpendicularly to the plate .A similarity parameter length scale (h) as a function of time and the suction velocity are ...
Unsteady hydromagnetic Couette flow within a porous channel with ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. ... long parallel porous plates, taking Hall current into account, in the presence of a transverse ..... modified Hartmann boundary layer and the decaying oscillations excited by the ...... On flow of electrically conducting fluid over a flat plate in the presence of a ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rusanov, A V; Yershov, S V [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkov (Ukraine)
1998-12-31
The numerical method is suggested for the calculation of the 3D periodically unsteady viscous cascade flow evoked by the aerodynamics interaction of blade rows. Such flow is described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent effects are simulated with the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The problem statement allows to consider an unsteady flow through either a single turbo-machine stage or a multi stage turbomachine. The sliding mesh techniques and the time-space non-oscillatory square interpolation are used in axial spacings to calculate the flow in a computational domain that contains the reciprocally moving elements. The gasdynamical equations are integrated numerically with the implicit quasi-monotonous Godunov`s type ENO scheme of the second or third order of accuracy. The suggested numerical method is incorporated in the FlowER code developed by authors for calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows through multi stage turbomachines. The numerical results are presented for unsteady turbine stage throughflows. The method suggested is shown to simulate qualitatively properly the main unsteady cascade effects in particular the periodically blade loadings, the propagation of stator wakes through rotor blade passage and the unsteady temperature flowfields for stages with cooled stator blades. (author) 21 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rusanov, A.V.; Yershov, S.V. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkov (Ukraine)
1997-12-31
The numerical method is suggested for the calculation of the 3D periodically unsteady viscous cascade flow evoked by the aerodynamics interaction of blade rows. Such flow is described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent effects are simulated with the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The problem statement allows to consider an unsteady flow through either a single turbo-machine stage or a multi stage turbomachine. The sliding mesh techniques and the time-space non-oscillatory square interpolation are used in axial spacings to calculate the flow in a computational domain that contains the reciprocally moving elements. The gasdynamical equations are integrated numerically with the implicit quasi-monotonous Godunov`s type ENO scheme of the second or third order of accuracy. The suggested numerical method is incorporated in the FlowER code developed by authors for calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows through multi stage turbomachines. The numerical results are presented for unsteady turbine stage throughflows. The method suggested is shown to simulate qualitatively properly the main unsteady cascade effects in particular the periodically blade loadings, the propagation of stator wakes through rotor blade passage and the unsteady temperature flowfields for stages with cooled stator blades. (author) 21 refs.
Experimental model for non-Newtonian fluid viscosity estimation: Fit to mathematical expressions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillem Masoliver i Marcos
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The construction process of a viscometer, developed in collaboration with a final project student, is here presented. It is intended to be used by first year's students to know the viscosity as a fluid property, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows. Viscosity determination is crucial for the fluids behaviour knowledge related to their reologic and physical properties. These have great implications in engineering aspects such as friction or lubrication. With the present experimental model device three different fluids are analyzed (water, kétchup and a mixture with cornstarch and water. Tangential stress is measured versus velocity in order to characterize all the fluids in different thermal conditions. A mathematical fit process is proposed to be done in order to adjust the results to expected analytical expressions, obtaining good results for these fittings, with R2 greater than 0.88 in any case.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondal, Rabindra Nath, E-mail: rnmondal71@yahoo.com; Shaha, Poly Rani [Department of Mathematics, Jagannath University, Dhaka-1100 (Bangladesh); Roy, Titob [Department of Mathematics, Vikarunnesa Nun School and College, Boshundhara, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Yanase, Shinichiro, E-mail: yanase@okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)
2016-07-12
Unsteady laminar flow with convective heat transfer through a curved square duct rotating at a constant angular velocity about the center of curvature is investigated numerically by using a spectral method, and covering a wide range of the Taylor number −300≤Tr≤1000 for the Dean number Dn = 1000. A temperature difference is applied across the vertical sidewalls for the Grashof number Gr = 100, where the outer wall is heated and the inner wall cooled, the top and bottom walls being adiabatic. Flow characteristics are investigated with the effects of rotational parameter, Tr, and the pressure-driven parameter, Dn, for the constant curvature 0.001. Time evolution calculations as well as their phase spaces show that the unsteady flow undergoes through various flow instabilities in the scenario ‘multi-periodic → chaotic → steady-state → periodic → multi-periodic → chaotic’, if Tr is increased in the positive direction. For negative rotation, however, time evolution calculations show that the flow undergoes in the scenario ‘multi-periodic → periodic → steady-state’, if Tr is increased in the negative direction. Typical contours of secondary flow patterns and temperature profiles are obtained at several values of Tr, and it is found that the unsteady flow consists of two- to six-vortex solutions if the duct rotation is involved. External heating is shown to generate a significant temperature gradient at the outer wall of the duct. This study also shows that there is a strong interaction between the heating-induced buoyancy force and the centrifugal-Coriolis instability in the curved channel that stimulates fluid mixing and consequently enhances heat transfer in the fluid.
METHOD FOR NUMERICAL MODELING OF UNSTEADY SEPARATED FLOW AROUND AIRFOILS MOVING CLOSE TO FLAT SCREEN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Pogrebnaya Tamara
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this article an attempt is made to explain the nature of differences in measurements of forces and moments, which influence an aircraft at take-off and landing when testing on different types of stands. An algorithm for numerical simulation of unsteady separated flow around airfoil is given. The algorithm is based on the combination of discrete vortex method and turbulent boundary layer equations. An unsteady flow separation modeling has been used. At each interval vortex method was used to calculate the potential flow around airfoils located near a screen. Calculated pressures and velocities were then used in boundary layer calculations to determine flow separation points and separated vortex in- tensities. After that calculation were made to determine free vortex positions to next time step and the process was fulfilled for next time step. The proposed algorithm allows using numeric visualization to understand physical picture of flow around airfoil moving close to screen. Three different ways of flow modeling (mirror method, fixed or movable screens were tested. In each case the flow separation process, which determines pressure distribution over airfoil surface and influ- ences aerodynamic performance, was viewed. The results of the calculations showed that at low atitudes of airfoil over screen mirror method over predicts lift force compared with movable screen, while fixed screen under predicts it. The data obtained can be used when designing equipment for testing in wind tunnels.
The influence of pH on gas-liquid mass transfer in non-Newtonian fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Shaobai
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the effect of pH on the mass transfer of oxygen bubble swarms in non-Newtonian fluids was experimentally studied. The volumetric liquid side mass transfer coefficient (kLa, liquid side mass transfer coefficient (kL, and specific interfacial area (a were investigated. The pH was regulated by the addition of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. It was found that the kLa increased with the gas flow rate increasing and decreased with the apparent viscosity of the liquid increasing. In the case of pH 7 was attributed to the decomposition of the Xanthan molecular structure by the hydroxyl of NaOH.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omotayo Omosebi
2015-12-01
This article presents an analytic technique for interpreting pressure falloff tests of non-Newtonian Power-law fluids in wells that are located near boundaries in dual-porosity reservoirs. First, dimensionless pressure solutions are obtained and Stehfest inversion algorithm is used to develop new type curves. Subsequently, long-time analytic solutions are presented and interpretation procedure is proposed using direct synthesis. Two examples, including real field data from a heavy oil reservoir in Colombian eastern plains basin, are used to validate and demonstrate application of this technique. Results agree with conventional type-curve matching procedure. The approach proposed in this study avoids the use of type curves, which is prone to human errors. It provides a better alternative for direct estimation of formation and flow properties from falloff data.
Turbulent structures of non-Newtonian solutions containing rigid polymers
Mohammadtabar, M.; Sanders, R. S.; Ghaemi, S.
2017-10-01
The turbulent structure of a channel flow of Xanthan Gum (XG) polymer solution is experimentally investigated and compared with water flow at a Reynolds number of Re = 7200 (based on channel height and properties of water) and Reτ = 220 (based on channel height and friction velocity, uτ0). The polymer concentration is varied from 75, 100, and 125 ppm to reach the point of maximum drag reduction (MDR). Measurements are carried out using high-resolution, two-component Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to capture the inner and outer layer turbulence. The measurements showed that the logarithmic layer shifts away from the wall with increasing polymer concentration. The slopes of the mean velocity profile for flows containing 100 and 125 ppm XG are greater than that measured for XG at 75 ppm, which is parallel with the slope obtained for deionized water. The increase in slope results in thickening buffer layer. At MDR, the streamwise Reynolds stresses are as large as those of the Newtonian flow while the wall-normal Reynolds stresses and Reynolds shear stresses are significantly attenuated. The sweep-dominated region in the immediate vicinity of the wall extends further from the wall with increasing polymer concentration. The near-wall skewness intensifies towards positive streamwise fluctuations and covers a larger wall-normal length at larger drag reduction values. The quadrant analysis at y + 0 = 25 shows that the addition of polymers inclines the principal axis of v versus u plot to almost zero (horizontal) as the joint probability density function of fluctuations becomes symmetric with respect to the u axis at MDR. The reduction of turbulence production is mainly associated with the attenuation of the ejection motions. The spatial-correlation of the fluctuating velocity field shows that increasing the polymer concentration increases the spatial coherence of u fluctuations in the streamwise direction while they appear to have the opposite effect in the wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mey, Paula; Varges, Priscilla R.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do RJ (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br
2010-07-01
This research looked for a method to determine the binary diffusion coefficient D of salts in liquids (especially in drilling fluids) not only accurately, but in a reasonable time. We chose to use the Taylor Dispersion Method. This technique has been used for measuring binary diffusion coefficients in gaseous, liquid and supercritical fluids, due to its simplicity and accuracy. In the method, the diffusion coefficient is determined by the analysis of the dispersion of a pulse of soluble material in a solvent flowing laminarly through a tube. This work describes the theoretical basis and the experimental requirements for the application of the Taylor Dispersion Method, emphasizing the description of our experiment. A mathematical formulation for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is presented. The relevant sources of errors are discussed. The experimental procedure and associated analysis are validated by applying the method in well known systems, such as NaCl in water.D of salts in liquids (especially in drilling fluids) not only accurately, but in a reasonable time. We chose to use the Taylor Dispersion Method. This technique has been used for measuring binary diffusion coefficients in gaseous, liquid and supercritical fluids, due to its simplicity and accuracy. In the method, the diffusion coefficient is determined by the analysis of the dispersion of a pulse of soluble material in a solvent flowing laminarly through a tube. This work describes the theoretical basis and the experimental requirements for the application of the Taylor Dispersion Method, emphasizing the description of our experiment. A mathematical formulation for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is presented. The relevant sources of errors are discussed. The experimental procedure and associated analysis are validated by applying the method in well known systems, such as NaCl in water. (author)
Efficient self-consistent viscous-inviscid solutions for unsteady transonic flow
Howlett, J. T.
1985-01-01
An improved method is presented for coupling a boundary layer code with an unsteady inviscid transonic computer code in a quasi-steady fashion. At each fixed time step, the boundary layer and inviscid equations are successively solved until the process converges. An explicit coupling of the equations is described which greatly accelerates the convergence process. Computer times for converged viscous-inviscid solutions are about 1.8 times the comparable inviscid values. Comparison of the results obtained with experimental data on three airfoils are presented. These comparisons demonstrate that the explicitly coupled viscous-inviscid solutions can provide efficient predictions of pressure distributions and lift for unsteady two-dimensional transonic flows.
A fully unsteady prescribed wake model for HAWT performance prediction in yawed flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coton, F.N.; Tongguang, Wang; Galbraith, R.A.M.; Lee, D. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)
1997-12-31
This paper describes the development of a fast, accurate, aerodynamic prediction scheme for yawed flow on horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). The method is a fully unsteady three-dimensional model which has been developed over several years and is still being enhanced in a number of key areas. The paper illustrates the current ability of the method by comparison with field data from the NREL combined experiment and also describes the developmental work in progress. In particular, an experimental test programme designed to yield quantitative wake convection information is summarised together with modifications to the numerical model which are necessary for meaningful comparison with the experiments. Finally, current and future work on aspects such as tower-shadow and improved unsteady aerodynamic modelling are discussed.
Computation of steady and unsteady compressible quasi-axisymmetric vortex flow and breakdown
Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.
1991-01-01
The unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to compute and analyze compressible quasi-axisymmetric isolated vortices. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting finite-volume scheme. The developed three-dimensional solver has been verified by comparing its solution profiles with those of a slender, quasi-axisymmetric vortex solver for a subsonic, isolated quasi-axisymmetric vortex in an unbounded domain. The Navier-Stokes solver is then used to solve for a supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex flow in a configured circular duct. Steady and unsteady vortex-shock interactions and breakdown have been captured. The problem has also been calculated using the Euler solver of the same code and the results are compared with those of the Navier-Stokes solver. The effect of the initial swirl has been tentatively studied.
A modified hydrodynamic model for routing unsteady flow in a river having piedmont zone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patowary Sudarshan
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Existence of piedmont zone in a river bed is a critical parameter from among numerous variations of topographical, geological and geographical conditions that can significantly influence the river flow scenario. Downstream flow situation assessed by routing of upstream hydrograph may yield higher flow depth if existence of such high infiltration zone is ignored and therefore it is a matter of concern for water resources planning and flood management. This work proposes a novel modified hydrodynamic model that has the potential to accurately determine the flow scenario in presence of piedmont zone. The model has been developed using unsteady free surface flow equations, coupled with Green-Ampt infiltration equation as governing equation. For solution of the governing equations Beam and Warming implicit finite difference scheme has been used. The proposed model was first validated from the field data of Trout Creek River showing excellent agreement. The validated model was then applied to a hypothetical river reach commensurate with the size of major tributaries of Brahmaputra Basin of India. Results indicated a 10% and 14% difference in the maximum value of discharge and depth hydrograph in presence and absence of piedmont zone respectively. Overall this model was successfully used to accurately predict the effect of piedmont zone on the unsteady flow in a river.
Hall effects on unsteady MHD flow between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, R.N., E-mail: barik.rabinarayan@rediffmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Trident Academy of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Dash, G.C., E-mail: gcdash@indiatimes.com [Department of Mathematics, S.O.A. University, Bhubaneswar (India); Rath, P.K., E-mail: pkrath_1967@yahoo.in [Department of Mathematics, B.R.M. International Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)
2013-01-15
Hall effects on the unsteady MHD rotating flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes have been studied. There exists an axisymmetric solution to this problem. The governing equations are solved by applying Laplace transform method. It is found that the torque experienced by the disks decreases with an increase in either the Hall parameter, m or the rotation parameter, S{sup 2}. Further, the axis of rotation has no effect on the fluid flow. (author)
Hall effects on unsteady MHD flow between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, R.N.; Dash, G.C.; Rath, P.K.
2013-01-01
Hall effects on the unsteady MHD rotating flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes have been studied. There exists an axisymmetric solution to this problem. The governing equations are solved by applying Laplace transform method. It is found that the torque experienced by the disks decreases with an increase in either the Hall parameter, m or the rotation parameter, S 2 . Further, the axis of rotation has no effect on the fluid flow. (author)
Unsteady thin film flow of a fourth grade fluid over a vertical moving and oscillating belt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taza Gul
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This article studies the unsteady thin film flow of a fourth grade fluid over a moving and oscillating vertical belt. The problem is modeled in terms of non-nonlinear partial differential equations with some physical conditions. Both problems of lift and drainage are studied. Two different techniques namely the adomian decomposition method (ADM and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM are used for finding the analytical solutions. These solutions are compared and found in excellent agreement. For the physical analysis of the problem, graphical results are provided and discussed for various embedded flow parameters.
Effects of Oscillation Frequency and Amplitude on Separation in an Unsteady Turbulent Flow.
1980-09-01
be performed with much of the aircraft immersed in turbulent flow. When in operation near the ground or landing platform , unsteady, turbulent flow...34 - .-,...i ,aXa. 8O- IDa I"l N 0 N( ’A0 a r. 0 a 0.a " - M - if l’ . t 1 - o t I.- I.- I I I Ni ilNl 1i * 11 it O ag 0) - -i "NUm M CA myp WiX ~ U’iCL
Saffman-Taylor Instability for a non-Newtonian fluid
Daripa, Prabir
2013-11-01
Motivated by applications, we study classical Saffman-Taylor instability involving displacement of an Oldroyd-B fluid displaced by air in a Hele-Shaw cell. The lubrication approximation is used by neglecting the vertical component of the velocity. We obtain an explicit expression of one of the components of the extra-stress perturbations tensor in terms of the horizontal velocity perturbations. The main result is an explicit formula for the growth constant (in time) of perturbations, given by a ratio in which a term depending on the relaxation and retardation (time) constants appears in the denominator of the ratio. This exact result compares extremely well with known numerical results. It is found that flow is more unstable than the corresponding Newtonian case. This is a joint work with Gelu Pasa. The research has been made possible by an NPRP Grant # 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).
Control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic pitching of airfoils
Ahmed, Sajeer
1991-01-01
Although studies have been done to understand the dependence of parameters for the occurrence of deep stall, studies to control the flow for sustaining lift for a longer time has been little. To sustain the lift for a longer time, an understanding of the development of the flow over the airfoil is essential. Studies at high speed are required to study how the flow behavior is dictated by the effects of compressibility. When the airfoil is pitched up in ramp motion or during the upstroke of an oscillatory cycle, the flow development on the upper surface of the airfoil and the formation of the vortex dictates the increase in lift behavior. Vortex shedding past the training edge decreases the lift. It is not clear what is the mechanism associated with the unsteady separation and vortex formation in present unsteady environment. To develop any flow control device, to suppress the vortex formation or delay separation, it is important that this mechanism be properly understood. The research activities directed toward understanding these questions are presented and the results are summarized.
Predicted and experimental steady and unsteady transonic flows about a biconvex airfoil
Levy, L. L., Jr.
1981-01-01
Results of computer code time dependent solutions of the two dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations and the results of independent experiments are compared to verify the Mach number range for instabilities in the transonic flow field about a 14 percent thick biconvex airfoil at an angle of attack of 0 deg and a Reynolds number of 7 million. The experiments were conducted in a transonic, slotted wall wind tunnel. The computer code included an algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model developed for steady flows, and all computations were made using free flight boundary conditions. All of the features documented experimentally for both steady and unsteady flows were predicted qualitatively; even with the above simplifications, the predictions were, on the whole, in good quantitative agreement with experiment. In particular, predicted time histories of shock wave position, surface pressures, lift, and pitching moment were found to be in very good agreement with experiment for an unsteady flow. Depending upon the free stream Mach number for steady flows, the surface pressure downstream of the shock wave or the shock wave location was not well predicted.
Unsteady numerical simulation of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model
Javadi, Ardalan; Nilsson, Håkan
2014-03-01
The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the RNG k-ε turbulence model closure are utilized to simulate the unsteady turbulent flow throughout the whole flow passage of the U9 Kaplan turbine model. The U9 Kaplan turbine model comprises 20 stationary guide vanes and 6 rotating blades (696.3 RPM), working at best efficiency load (0.71 m3/s). The computations are conducted using a general finite volume method, using the OpenFOAM CFD code. A dynamic mesh is used together with a sliding GGI interface to include the effect of the rotating runner. The clearance is included in the guide vane. The hub and tip clearances are also included in the runner. An analysis is conducted of the unsteady behavior of the flow field, the pressure fluctuation in the draft tube, and the coherent structures of the flow. The tangential and axial velocity distributions at three sections in the draft tube are compared against LDV measurements. The numerical result is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, and the important flow physics close to the hub in the draft tube is captured. The hub and tip vortices and an on-axis forced vortex are captured. The numerical results show that the frequency of the forced vortex in 1/5 of the runner rotation.
Unsteady numerical simulation of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Javadi, Ardalan; Nilsson, Håkan
2014-01-01
The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the RNG k-ε turbulence model closure are utilized to simulate the unsteady turbulent flow throughout the whole flow passage of the U9 Kaplan turbine model. The U9 Kaplan turbine model comprises 20 stationary guide vanes and 6 rotating blades (696.3 RPM), working at best efficiency load (0.71 m 3 /s). The computations are conducted using a general finite volume method, using the OpenFOAM CFD code. A dynamic mesh is used together with a sliding GGI interface to include the effect of the rotating runner. The clearance is included in the guide vane. The hub and tip clearances are also included in the runner. An analysis is conducted of the unsteady behavior of the flow field, the pressure fluctuation in the draft tube, and the coherent structures of the flow. The tangential and axial velocity distributions at three sections in the draft tube are compared against LDV measurements. The numerical result is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, and the important flow physics close to the hub in the draft tube is captured. The hub and tip vortices and an on-axis forced vortex are captured. The numerical results show that the frequency of the forced vortex in 1/5 of the runner rotation
An efficient parallel simulation of unsteady blood flows in patient-specific pulmonary artery.
Kong, Fande; Kheyfets, Vitaly; Finol, Ender; Cai, Xiao-Chuan
2018-04-01
Simulation of blood flows in the pulmonary artery provides some insight into certain diseases by examining the relationship between some continuum metrics, eg, the wall shear stress acting on the vascular endothelium, which responds to flow-induced mechanical forces by releasing vasodilators/constrictors. V. Kheyfets, in his previous work, studies numerically a patient-specific pulmonary circulation to show that decreasing wall shear stress is correlated with increasing pulmonary vascular impedance. In this paper, we develop a scalable parallel algorithm based on domain decomposition methods to investigate an unsteady model with patient-specific pulsatile waveforms as the inlet boundary condition. The unsteady model offers tremendously more information about the dynamic behavior of the flow field, but computationally speaking, the simulation is a lot more expensive since a problem which is similar to the steady-state problem has to be solved many times, and therefore, the traditional sequential approach is not suitable anymore. We show computationally that simulations using the proposed parallel approach with up to 10 000 processor cores can be obtained with much reduced compute time. This makes the technology potentially usable for the routine study of the dynamic behavior of blood flows in the pulmonary artery, in particular, the changes of the blood flows and the wall shear stress in the spatial and temporal dimensions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Redolfi, M.; Bertoldi, W.; Tubino, M.; Welber, M.
2018-02-01
Measurement and estimation of bed load transport in gravel bed rivers are highly affected by its temporal fluctuations. Such variability is primarily driven by the flow regime but is also associated with a variety of inherent channel processes, such as flow turbulence, grain entrainment, and bed forms migration. These internal and external controls often act at comparable time scales, and are therefore difficult to disentangle, thus hindering the study of bed load variability under unsteady flow regime. In this paper, we report on laboratory experiments performed in a large, mobile bed flume where typical hydromorphological conditions of gravel bed rivers were reproduced. Data from a large number of replicated runs, including triangular and square-wave hydrographs, were used to build a statistically sound description of sediment transport processes. We found that the inherent variability of bed load flux strongly depends on the sampling interval, and it is significantly higher in complex, wandering or braided channels. This variability can be filtered out by computing the mean response over the experimental replicates, which allows us to highlight two distinctive phenomena: (i) an overshooting (undershooting) response of the mean bed load flux to a sudden increase (decrease) of discharge, and (ii) a clockwise hysteresis in the sediment rating curve. We then provide an interpretation of these findings through a conceptual mathematical model, showing how both phenomena are associated with a lagging morphological adaptation to unsteady flow. Overall, this work provides basic information for evaluating, monitoring, and managing gravel transport in morphologically active rivers.
Problems of unsteady temperature measurements in a pulsating flow of gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olczyk, A
2008-01-01
Unsteady flow temperature is one of the most difficult and complex flow parameters to measure. Main problems concern insufficient dynamic properties of applied sensors and an interpretation of recorded signals, composed of static and dynamic temperatures. An attempt is made to solve these two problems in the case of measurements conducted in a pulsating flow of gas in the 0–200 Hz range of frequencies, which corresponds to real conditions found in exhaust pipes of modern diesel engines. As far as sensor dynamics is concerned, an analysis of requirements related to the thermometer was made, showing that there was no possibility of assuring such a high frequency band within existing solutions. Therefore, a method of double-channel correction of sensor dynamics was proposed and experimentally tested. The results correspond well with the calculations made by means of the proposed model of sensor dynamics. In the case of interpretation of the measured temperature signal, a method for distinguishing its two components was proposed. This decomposition considerably helps with a correct interpretation of unsteady flow phenomena in pipes
Unsteady motion and transition to turbulence in developing curved duct flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnal, M.; Firmino, F.; Humphrey, J.A.C.
1987-01-01
An experiment was performed to further the understanding of developing flows in curved ducts of square cross-section. Unlike most earlier works, attention was paid to investigating the time-dependent character of the motion. Mean and unsteady flow characteristics were determined using flow visualization and a laser-Doppler velocimeter. Only one velocity component, that aligned in the longitudinal (streamwise) coordinate direction, was measured. Notwithstanding, the time histories, autocorrelations and spectra derived reveal a time-periodic motion that becomes turbulent with increasing Reynolds number. The results are of intrinsic fundamental value and also illustrate the danger of imposing symmetry of the conservation equations on numerical solutions of this flow. 24 references
Numerical Modeling of Mixing of Chemically Reacting, Non-Newtonian Slurry for Tank Waste Retrieval
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuen, David A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Rustad, James R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Ten, Arkady A.; Hier, Catherine A.
2000-01-01
Many highly radioactive wastes will be retrieved by installing mixer pumps that inject high-speed jets to stir up the sludge, saltcake, and supernatant liquid in the tank, blending them into a slurry. This slurry will then be pumped out of the tank into a waste treatment facility. Our objectives are to investigate interactions-chemical reactions, waste rheology, and slurry mixing-occurring during the retrieval operation and to provide a scientific basis for the waste retrieval decision-making process. Specific objectives are to: (1) Evaluate numerical modeling of chemically active, non-Newtonian tank waste mixing, coupled with chemical reactions and realistic rheology; (2) Conduct numerical modeling analysis of local and global mixing of non-Newtonian and Newtonian slurries; and (3) Provide the bases to develop a scientifically justifiable, decision-making support tool for the tank waste retrieval operation
Spreading of Non-Newtonian and Newtonian Fluids on a Solid Substrate under Pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choudhury, Moutushi Dutta; Chandra, Subrata; Nag, Soma; Tarafdar, Sujata [Condensed Matter Physics Research Centre, Physics Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Das, Shantanu, E-mail: mou15july@gmail.com [Reactor Control Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)
2011-09-15
Strongly non-Newtonian fluids namely, aqueous gels of starch, are shown to exhibit visco-elastic behavior, when subjected to a load. We study arrowroot and potato starch gels. When a droplet of the fluid is sandwiched between two glass plates and compressed, the area of contact between the fluid and plates increases in an oscillatory manner. This is unlike Newtonian fluids, where the area increases monotonically in a similar situation. The periphery moreover, develops an instability, which looks similar to Saffman Taylor fingers. This is not normally seen under compression. The loading history is also found to affect the manner of spreading. We attempt to describe the non-Newtonian nature of the fluid through a visco-elastic model incorporating generalized calculus. This is shown to reproduce qualitatively the oscillatory variation in the surface strain.
Non-newtonian heat transfer on a plate heat exchanger with generalized configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carezzato, A.; Tadini, C.C.; Gut, J.A.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Alcantara, M.R. [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Telis-Romero, J. [Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil)
2007-01-15
For the configuration optimization of plate heat exchangers (PHEs), the mathematical models for heat transfer and pressure drop must be valid for a wide range of operational conditions of all configurations of the exchanger or the design results may be compromised. In this investigation, the thermal model of a PHE is adjusted to fit experimental data obtained from non-Newtonian heat transfer for eight different configurations, using carboxymethylcellulose solutions (CMC) as test fluid. Although it is possible to successfully adjust the model parameters, Newtonian and non-Newtonian heat transfer cannot be represented by a single generalized correlation. In addition, the specific heat, thermal conductivity and power-law rheological parameters of CMC solutions were correlated with temperature, over a range compatible with a continuous pasteurization process. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Dynamics of an inline tube array in steam-water flow. Part 2: Unsteady fluid forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mureithi, N.W.; Nakamura, T.; Hirota, K.; Murata, M.; Utsumi, S.
1996-01-01
The existence of fluidelastic instability in two-phase flow has been confirmed by a number of investigators to date. In essentially homogeneous two-phase flow, e.g., bubbly flow, it appears that the mechanisms underlying fluidelastic instability and the instability phenomenon are the same as those observed in single phase flow. The more general case of non-homogeneous two-phase flow, e.g., slug flow, is less amenable to straight forward interpretation by direct comparison with single phase flow mechanisms. In this paper, experimental results of unsteady fluid force measurement are reported. Important deviations of the measured fluid force from their single phase flow counterparts were uncovered. Most importantly, the resulting force coefficients are not simple functions of the reduced velocity U/fD, as is the case for single phase flow. Test results at 0.5 MPa challenge the basic assumption of the existence of a time invariant linear transfer function between tube displacement and the resulting fluid forces. Time-frequency analysis using Wignerville transforms shows that the phase difference between tube displacement and the fluid force (an indicator of stabilizing or destabilizing fluid effects) undergoes significant variation under what may be considered steady flow conditions. This variation may explain the previously reported phenomenon of intermittent fluidelastic instability in two-phase flows
Experimental study on unsteady open channel flow and bedload transport based on a physical model
Cao, W.
2015-12-01
Flow in a nature river are usually unsteady, while nearly all the theories about bedload transport are on the basis of steady, uniform flow, and also with supposed equilibrium state of sediment transport. This is may be one of the main reasons why the bedload transport formulas are notoriously poor accuracy to predict the bedload. The aim of this research is to shed light on the effect of unsteadiness on the bedload transport based on experimental studies. The novel of this study is that the experiments were not carried out in a conventional flume but in a physical model, which are more similar to the actual river. On the other hand, in our experiments, multiple consecutive flood wave were reproduced in the physical model, and all the flow and sediment parameters are based on a large number of data obtained from many of identical flood waves. This method allow us to get more data for one flood, efficiently avoids the uncertainty of bedload rate only for one single flood wave, due to the stochastic fluctuation of the bedload transport. Three different flood waves were selected in the experiments. During each run of experiment, the water level of five different positions along the model were measured by ultrasonic water level gauge, flow velocity at the middle of the channel were measured by two dimensional electromagnetic current meter. Moreover, the bedload transport rate was measured by a unique automatic trap collecting and weighing system at the end of the physical model. The results shows that the celerity of flood wave propagate varies for different flow conditions. The velocity distribution was approximately accord with log-law profile during the entire rising and falling limb of flood. The bedload transport rate show intensity fluctuation in all the experiments, moreover, for different flood waves, the moment when the shear stress reaches its maximum value is not the exact moment when the sediment transport rate reaches its maximum value, which indicates
Supersoft Symmetry Energy Encountering Non-Newtonian Gravity in Neutron Stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Dehua; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen
2009-01-01
Considering the non-Newtonian gravity proposed in grand unification theories, we show that the stability and observed global properties of neutron stars cannot rule out the supersoft nuclear symmetry energies at suprasaturation densities. The degree of possible violation of the inverse-square law of gravity in neutron stars is estimated using an equation of state of neutron-rich nuclear matter consistent with the available terrestrial laboratory data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makinde, O.D.
2005-10-01
In this paper, the first and second law of thermodynamics are employed in order to study the inherent irreversibility for a gravity driven non-Newtonian Ostwald-de Waele power law liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate. Based on some simplified assumptions, the governing equations are obtained and solved analytically. Expressions for fluid velocity, temperature, volumetric entropy generation numbers, irreversibility distribution ratio and the Bejan number are also determined. (author)
Unsteady 2D potential-flow forces on a thin variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaunaa, M.
2006-01-01
In this report analytical expressions for the unsteady 2D force distribution on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by itscamberline as in classic thin-airfoil theory...... using an indicial function approach, making the practical calculation of the aerodynamic response numerically very efficient by use ofDuhamel superposition. Furthermore, the indicial function expressions for the time-lag terms are formulated in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two parallel plates due to the normal motion of the plates is investigated. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a nonlinear fourth-order differential equation by using similarity solutions. Homotopy analysis method (HAM is used to solve this nonlinear equation analytically. The convergence of the obtained series solution is carefully analyzed. The validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results obtained by fourth-order Runge-Kutta.
Unsteady natural convection flow past an accelerated vertical plate in a thermally stratified fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deka Rudra Kt.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available An exact solution to one-dimensional unsteady natural convection flow past an infinite vertical accelerated plate, immersed in a viscous thermally stratified fluid is investigated. Pressure work term and the vertical temperature advection are considered in the thermodynamic energy equation. The dimensionless governing equations are solved by Laplace Transform techniques for the Prandtl number unity. The velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer are presented graphically and discussed the effects of the Grashof number Gr, stratification parameter S at various times t.
Unsteady response of flow system around balance piston in a rocket pump
Kawasaki, S.; Shimura, T.; Uchiumi, M.; Hayashi, M.; Matsui, J.
2013-03-01
In the rocket engine turbopump, a self-balancing type of axial thrust balancing system using a balance piston is often applied. In this study, the balancing system in liquid-hydrogen (LH2) rocket pump was modeled combining the mechanical structure and the flow system, and the unsteady response of the balance piston was investigated. The axial vibration characteristics of the balance piston with a large amplitude were determined, sweeping the frequency of the pressure fluctuation on the inlet of the balance piston. This vibration was significantly affected by the compressibility of LH2.
Numerical Leak Detection in a Pipeline Network of Complex Structure with Unsteady Flow
Aida-zade, K. R.; Ashrafova, E. R.
2017-12-01
An inverse problem for a pipeline network of complex loopback structure is solved numerically. The problem is to determine the locations and amounts of leaks from unsteady flow characteristics measured at some pipeline points. The features of the problem include impulse functions involved in a system of hyperbolic differential equations, the absence of classical initial conditions, and boundary conditions specified as nonseparated relations between the states at the endpoints of adjacent pipeline segments. The problem is reduced to a parametric optimal control problem without initial conditions, but with nonseparated boundary conditions. The latter problem is solved by applying first-order optimization methods. Results of numerical experiments are presented.
Conceptual coherence of non-Newtonian worldviews in Force Concept Inventory data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Terry F. Scott
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The Force Concept Inventory is one of the most popular and most analyzed multiple-choice concept tests used to investigate students’ understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The correct answers poll a set of underlying Newtonian concepts and the coherence of these underlying concepts has been found in the data. However, this inventory was constructed after several years of research into the common preconceptions held by students and using these preconceptions as distractors in the questions. Their sole purpose is to deflect non-Newtonian candidates away from the correct answer. Alternatively, one can argue that the responses could also be treated as polling these preconceptions. In this paper we shift the emphasis of the analysis away from the correlation structure of the correct answers and look at the latent traits underlying the incorrect responses. Our analysis models the data employing exploratory factor analysis, which uses regularities in the data to suggest the existence of underlying structures in the cognitive processing of the students. This analysis allows us to determine whether the data support the claim that there are alternate non-Newtonian worldviews on which students’ incorrect responses are based. The existence of such worldviews, and their coherence, could explain the resilience of non-Newtonian preconceptions and would have significant implications to the design of instruction methods. We find that there are indeed coherent alternate conceptions of the world which can be categorized using the results of the research that led to the construction of the Force Concept Inventory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.I. Orisaleye
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Extruders have found application in the food, polymer and pharmaceutical industries. Rheological characteristics of materials are important in the specification of design parameters of screw extruders. Biopolymers, which consist of proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, are shear-thinning (pseudoplastic within normal operating ranges. However, analytical models to predict and design screw extruders for non-Newtonian pseudoplastic materials are rare. In this study, an analytical model suitable to design a screw extruder for slightly non-Newtonian materials was developed. The model was used to predict the performance of the screw extruder while processing materials with power law indices slightly deviating from unity (the Newtonian case. Using non-dimensional analysis, the effects of design and operational parameters were investigated. Expressions to determine the optimum channel depth and helix angle were also derived. The model is capable of predicting the performance of the screw extruder within the range of power law indices considered (1/2⩽n⩽1. The power law index influences the choice of optimum channel depth and helix angle of the screw extruder. Keywords: Screw extruder, Slightly non-Newtonian, Shear-thinning, Pseudoplastic, Biopolymer, Power law
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salah, Anis Bousbia; Vlassenbroeck, Jacques [Bel V - Subsidiary of the Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Contro, Brussels (Belize)
2017-04-15
Coolant mixing under natural circulation flow regime constitutes a key parameter that may play a role in the course of an accidental transient in a nuclear pressurized water reactor. This issue has motivated some experimental investigations carried out within the OECD/NEA PKL projects. The aim was to assess the coolant mixing phenomenon in the reactor pressure vessel downcomer and the core lower plenum under several asymmetric steady and unsteady flow conditions, and to provide experimental data for code validations. Former studies addressed the mixing phenomenon using, on the one hand, one-dimensional computational approaches with cross flows that are not fully validated under transient conditions and, on the other hand, expensive computational fluid dynamic tools that are not always justified for large-scale macroscopic phenomena. In the current framework, an unsteady coolant mixing experiment carried out in the Rossendorf coolant mixing test facility is simulated using the three-dimensional porous media capabilities of the thermal–hydraulic system CATHARE code. The current study allows highlighting the current capabilities of these codes and their suitability for reproducing the main phenomena occurring during asymmetric transient natural circulation mixing conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ibukun Sarah Oyelakin
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we report on combined Dufour and Soret effects on the heat and mass transfer in a Casson nanofluid flow over an unsteady stretching sheet with thermal radiation and heat generation. The effects of partial slip on the velocity at the boundary, convective thermal boundary condition, Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion coefficients on the concentration boundary condition are investigated. The model equations are solved using the spectral relaxation method. The results indicate that the fluid flow, temperature and concentration profiles are significantly influenced by the fluid unsteadiness, the Casson parameter, magnetic parameter and the velocity slip. The effect of increasing the Casson parameter is to suppress the velocity and temperature growth. An increase in the Dufour parameter reduces the flow temperature, while an increase in the value of the Soret parameter causes increase in the concentration of the fluid. Again, increasing the velocity slip parameter reduces the velocity profile whereas increasing the heat generation parameter increases the temperature profile. A validation of the work is presented by comparing the current results with existing literature.
Investigation of Unsteady Flow Interaction Between an Ultra-Compact Inlet and a Transonic Fan
Hah, Chunill; Rabe, Douglas; Scribben, Angie
2015-01-01
In the present study, unsteady flow interaction between an ultra-compact inlet and a transonic fan stage is investigated. Future combat aircraft require ultra-compact inlet ducts as part of an integrated, advanced propulsion system to improve air vehicle capability and effectiveness to meet future mission needs. The main purpose of the study is to advance the current understanding of the flow interaction between two different ultra-compact inlets and a transonic fan for future design applications. Both URANS and LES approaches are used to calculate the unsteady flow field and are compared with the available measured data. The present study indicates that stall inception is mildly affected by the distortion pattern generated by the inlet with the current test set-up. The numerical study indicates that the inlet distortion pattern decays significantly before it reaches the fan face for the current configuration. Numerical results with a shorter distance between the inlet and fan show that counter-rotating vortices near the rotor tip due to the serpentine diffuser affects fan characteristics significantly.
Unsteady CFD modeling of micro-adaptive flow control for an axisymmetric body
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahu, J.; Heavey, K.R.
2005-01-01
This paper describes a computational study undertaken, as part of a grand challenge project, to consider the aerodynamic effect of micro-adaptive flow control as a means to provide the divert authority needed to maneuver a projectile at a low subsonic speed. A time-accurate Navier-Stokes computational technique has been used to obtain numerical solutions for the unsteady microjet-interaction flow field for the axisymmetric projectile body at subsonic speeds, Mach = 0.11 and 0.24 and angles of attack, 0 o to 4 o . Numerical solutions have been obtained using both Renolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and a hybrid RANS/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models. Unsteady numerical results show the effect of the jet on the flow field and the aerodynamic coefficients, in particular the lift force. This research has provided an increased fundamental understanding of the complex, three-dimensional, time-dependent, aerodynamic interactions associated with micro-jet control for yawing spin-stabilized munitions. (author)
Unsteady CFD modeling of micro-adaptive flow control for an axisymmetric body
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahu, J.; Heavey, K.R. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)]. E-mail: sahu@arl.army.mil
2005-07-01
This paper describes a computational study undertaken, as part of a grand challenge project, to consider the aerodynamic effect of micro-adaptive flow control as a means to provide the divert authority needed to maneuver a projectile at a low subsonic speed. A time-accurate Navier-Stokes computational technique has been used to obtain numerical solutions for the unsteady microjet-interaction flow field for the axisymmetric projectile body at subsonic speeds, Mach = 0.11 and 0.24 and angles of attack, 0{sup o} to 4{sup o}. Numerical solutions have been obtained using both Renolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and a hybrid RANS/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models. Unsteady numerical results show the effect of the jet on the flow field and the aerodynamic coefficients, in particular the lift force. This research has provided an increased fundamental understanding of the complex, three-dimensional, time-dependent, aerodynamic interactions associated with micro-jet control for yawing spin-stabilized munitions. (author)
Dorney, Suzanne; Dorney, Daniel J.; Huber, Frank; Sheffler, David A.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The advent of advanced computer architectures and parallel computing have led to a revolutionary change in the design process for turbomachinery components. Two- and three-dimensional steady-state computational flow procedures are now routinely used in the early stages of design. Unsteady flow analyses, however, are just beginning to be incorporated into design systems. This paper outlines the transition of a three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow analysis from the research environment into the design environment. The test case used to demonstrate the analysis is the full turbine system (high-pressure turbine, inter-turbine duct and low-pressure turbine) from an advanced turboprop engine.
Numerical Modeling of Mixing of Chemically Reacting, Non-Newtonian Slurry for Tank Waste Retrieval
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuen, D.A.; Onishi, Y.
2001-01-01
In the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, 100 million gallons of radioactive and chemical wastes from plutonium production are stored in 281 underground storage tanks. Retrieval of the wastes from the tanks is the first step in its ultimate treatment and disposal. Because billions of dollars are being spent on this effort, waste retrieval demands a strong scientific basis for its successful completion. As will be discussed in Section 4.2, complex interactions among waste chemical reactions, rheology, and mixing of solid and liquid tank waste (and possibly with a solvent) will occur in DSTs during the waste retrieval (mixer pump) operations. The ultimate goal of this study was to develop the ability to simulate the complex chemical and rheological changes that occur in the waste during processing for retrieval. This capability would serve as a scientific assessment tool allowing a priori evaluation of the consequences of proposed waste retrieval operations. Hanford tan k waste is a multiphase, multicomponent, high-ionic strength, and highly basic mixture of liquids and solids. Wastes stored in the 4,000-m3 DSTs will be mixed by 300-hp mixer pumps that inject high-speed (18.3 m/s) jets to stir up the sludge and supernatant liquid for retrieval. During waste retrieval operations, complex interactions occur among waste mixing, chemical reactions, and associated rheology. Thus, to determine safe and cost-effective operational parameters for waste retrieval, decisions must rely on new scientific knowledge to account for physical mixing of multiphase flows, chemical reactions, and waste rheology. To satisfy this need, we integrated a computational fluid dynamics code with state-of-the-art equilibrium and kinetic chemical models and non-Newtonian rheology (Onishi (and others) 1999). This development is unique and holds great promise for addressing the complex phenomena of tank waste retrieval. The current model is, however, applicable only to idealized tank waste
An autonomous dynamical system captures all LCSs in three-dimensional unsteady flows.
Oettinger, David; Haller, George
2016-10-01
Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) are material surfaces that shape the finite-time tracer patterns in flows with arbitrary time dependence. Depending on their deformation properties, elliptic and hyperbolic LCSs have been identified from different variational principles, solving different equations. Here we observe that, in three dimensions, initial positions of all variational LCSs are invariant manifolds of the same autonomous dynamical system, generated by the intermediate eigenvector field, ξ 2 (x 0 ), of the Cauchy-Green strain tensor. This ξ 2 -system allows for the detection of LCSs in any unsteady flow by classical methods, such as Poincaré maps, developed for autonomous dynamical systems. As examples, we consider both steady and time-aperiodic flows, and use their dual ξ 2 -system to uncover both hyperbolic and elliptic LCSs from a single computation.
Unsteady magnetohydrodynamics mixed convection flow in a rotating medium with double diffusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiann, Lim Yeou; Ismail, Zulkhibri; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)
2015-05-15
Exact solutions of an unsteady Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow over an impulsively started vertical plate in a rotating medium are presented. The effects of thermal radiative and thermal diffusion on the fluid flow are also considered. The governing equations are modelled and solved for velocity, temperature and concentration using Laplace transforms technique. Expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained and their numerical results are presented graphically. Skin friction, Sherwood number and Nusselt number are also computed and presented in tabular forms. The determined solutions can generate a large class of solutions as special cases corresponding to different motions with technical relevance. The results obtained herein may be used to verify the validation of obtained numerical solutions for more complicated fluid flow problems.
Extreme-Scale Stochastic Particle Tracing for Uncertain Unsteady Flow Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Hanqi; He, Wenbin; Seo, Sangmin; Shen, Han-Wei; Peterka, Tom
2016-11-13
We present an efficient and scalable solution to estimate uncertain transport behaviors using stochastic flow maps (SFM,) for visualizing and analyzing uncertain unsteady flows. SFM computation is extremely expensive because it requires many Monte Carlo runs to trace densely seeded particles in the flow. We alleviate the computational cost by decoupling the time dependencies in SFMs so that we can process adjacent time steps independently and then compose them together for longer time periods. Adaptive refinement is also used to reduce the number of runs for each location. We then parallelize over tasks—packets of particles in our design—to achieve high efficiency in MPI/thread hybrid programming. Such a task model also enables CPU/GPU coprocessing. We show the scalability on two supercomputers, Mira (up to 1M Blue Gene/Q cores) and Titan (up to 128K Opteron cores and 8K GPUs), that can trace billions of particles in seconds.
Unsteady MHD blood flow through porous medium in a parallel plate channel
Latha, R.; Rushi Kumar, B.
2017-11-01
In this study, we have analyzed heat and mass transfer effects on unsteady blood flow through parallel plate channel in a saturated porous medium in the presence of a transverse magnetic field with thermal radiation. The governing higher order nonlinear PDE’S are converted to dimensionless equations using dimensionless variables. The dimensionless equations are then solved analytically using boundary conditions by choosing the axial flow transport and the fields of concentration and temperature apart from the normal velocity as a function of y and t. The effects of different pertinent parameters appeared in this model viz thermal radiation, Prandtl number, Heat source parameter, Hartmann number, Permeability parameter, Decay parameter on axial flow transport and the normal velocity are analyzed in detail.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jawad Ahmed
Full Text Available This paper examines the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristic in power law fluid model over unsteady radially stretching sheet under the influence of convective boundary conditions. A uniform magnetic field is applied transversely to the direction of the flow. The governing time dependent nonlinear boundary layer equations are reduced into nonlinear ordinary differential equations with the help of similarity transformations. The transformed coupled ordinary differential equations are then solved analytically by homotopy analysis method (HAM and numerically by shooting procedure. Effects of various governing parameters like, power law index n, magnetic parameter M, unsteadiness A, suction/injection S, Biot number γ and generalized Prandtl number Pr on velocity, temperature, local skin friction and the local Nusselt number are studied and discussed. It is found from the analysis that the magnetic parameter diminishes the velocity profile and the corresponding thermal boundary layer thickness. Keywords: Axisymmetric flow, Power law fluid, Unsteady stretching, Convective boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Ying, E-mail: 13110290008@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, Xiangying, E-mail: 13110190068@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, Jiping, E-mail: jphuang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ni, Yushan, E-mail: niyushan@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2016-04-22
For manipulating heat flow efficiently, recently we established a theory of temperature-dependent transformation thermotics which holds for steady-state cases. Here, we develop the theory to unsteady-state cases by considering the generalized Fourier's law for transient thermal conduction. As a result, we are allowed to propose a new class of intelligent thermal metamaterial — switchable concentrator, which is made of inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. When environmental temperature is below or above a critical value, the concentrator is automatically switched on, namely, it helps to focus heat flux in a specific region. However, the focusing does not affect the distribution pattern of temperature outside the concentrator. We also perform finite-element simulations to confirm the switching effect according to the effective medium theory by assembling homogeneous isotropic materials, which bring more convenience for experimental fabrication than inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. This work may help to figure out new intelligent thermal devices, which provide more flexibility in controlling heat flow, and it may also be useful in other fields that are sensitive to temperature gradient, such as the Seebeck effect. - Highlights: • Established the unsteady-state temperature dependent transformation thermotics. • A thermal concentrator with switchable functionality. • An effective-medium design for experimental realization.
Twin Tail/Delta Wing Configuration Buffet Due to Unsteady Vortex Breakdown Flow
Kandil, Osama A.; Sheta, Essam F.; Massey, Steven J.
1996-01-01
The buffet response of the twin-tail configuration of the F/A-18 aircraft; a multidisciplinary problem, is investigated using three sets of equations on a multi-block grid structure. The first set is the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations. The second set is the coupled aeroelastic equations for bending and torsional twin-tail responses. The third set is the grid-displacement equations which are used to update the grid coordinates due to the tail deflections. The computational model consists of a 76 deg-swept back, sharp edged delta wing of aspect ratio of one and a swept-back F/A-18 twin-tails. The configuration is pitched at 32 deg angle of attack and the freestream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.2 and 0.75 x 10(exp 6) respectively. The problem is solved for the initial flow conditions with the twin tail kept rigid. Next, the aeroelastic equations of the tails are turned on along with the grid-displacement equations to solve for the uncoupled bending and torsional tails response due to the unsteady loads produced by the vortex breakdown flow of the vortex cores of the delta wing. Two lateral locations of the twin tail are investigated. These locations are called the midspan and inboard locations.
Numerical and experimental research on unsteady cavitating flow around NACA 2412 hydrofoil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedlář, M; Komárek, M; Rudolf, P; Kozák, J; Huzlík, R
2015-01-01
This work deals with the numerical and experimental investigation of unsteady cavitating flow around a prismatic NACA 2412 hydrofoil. The main attention is focussed on the dependence of cavitation dynamics on the cavitation number at high incidence angles. The experimental research is carried out in the cavitation water tunnel the rectangular test section of which has inner dimensions 150×150×500 mm. Currently tested hydrofoils have a chord length of 120 mm and are equipped with pressure transducers at the leading edge and on the suction side. The PVDF hydrophone enables to measure high-frequency pressure pulses behind the hydrofoil trailing edge. The visualizations are based on two simultaneous high-speed cameras, recording the hydrofoil from the top and from one side. A comprehensive CFD analysis has been done with the ANSYS CFX package for a wide range of flow regimes. Different turbulence models including SAS-SST and Reynolds-stress models have been tested to capture highly unsteady phenomena on the hydrofoil. The numerical simulations show, that the dominant frequency of the cavity oscillation depends on the cavitation number and that there is a certain range of this number in which the 'resonance' effect can be reached. In such regime the amplitudes of the pressure pulses on the suction side of the hydrofoil dramatically increase. The calculated results have been verified by both the visualizations and the pressure measurements carried out at the hydrofoil incidence angle of 8 degrees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. J. Uwanta
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the unsteady natural convection and mass transfer flow of viscous reactive, heat generating/absorbing fluid in a vertical channel formed by two infinite parallel porous plates having temperature dependent thermal conductivity. The motion of the fluid is induced due to natural convection caused by the reactive property as well as the heat generating/absorbing nature of the fluid. The solutions for unsteady state temperature, concentration, and velocity fields are obtained using semi-implicit finite difference schemes. Perturbation techniques are used to get steady state expressions of velocity, concentration, temperature, skin friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number. The effects of various flow parameters such as suction/injection (γ, heat source/sinks (S, Soret number (Sr, variable thermal conductivity δ, Frank-Kamenetskii parameter λ, Prandtl number (Pr, and nondimensional time t on the dynamics are analyzed. The skin friction, heat transfer coefficients, and Sherwood number are graphically presented for a range of values of the said parameters.
Characterization of Unsteady Flow Structures Near Leading-Edge Slat. Part 1; PIV Measurements
Jenkins, Luther N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan
2004-01-01
A comprehensive computational and experimental study has been performed at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program to investigate the unsteady flow near a leading-edge slat of a two-dimensional, high-lift system. This paper focuses on the experimental effort conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART) where Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data was acquired in the slat cove and at the slat trailing edge of a three-element, high-lift model at 4, 6, and 8 degrees angle of attack and a freestream Mach Number of 0.17. Instantaneous velocities obtained from PIV images are used to obtain mean and fluctuating components of velocity and vorticity. The data show the recirculation in the cove, reattachment of the shear layer on the slat lower surface, and discrete vortical structures within the shear layer emanating from the slat cusp and slat trailing edge. Detailed measurements are used to examine the shear layer formation at the slat cusp, vortex shedding at the slat trailing edge, and convection of vortical structures through the slat gap. Selected results are discussed and compared with unsteady, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations for the same configuration in a companion paper by Khorrami, Choudhari, and Jenkins (2004). The experimental dataset provides essential flow-field information for the validation of near-field inputs to noise prediction tools.
Nesvizhevsky, V V; Protasov, K V
2005-01-01
An upper limit to non-Newtonian attractive forces is obtained from the measurement of quantum states of neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field. This limit improves the existing constraints in the nanometer range.
Flow structure and unsteadiness in the supersonic wake of a generic space launcher
Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Stephan, Sören; Radespiel, Rolf
2015-11-01
At the junction between the rocket engine and the main body of a classical space launcher, a separation-dominated and highly unstable flow field develops and induces strong wall-pressure oscillations. These can excite structural vibrations detrimental to the launcher. It is desirable to minimize these effects, for which a better understanding of the flow field is required. We study the wake flow of a generic axisymmetric space-launcher model with and without propulsive jet (cold air). Experimental investigations are performed at Mach 2.9 and a Reynolds number ReD = 1 . 3 .106 based on model diameter D. The jet exits the nozzle at Mach 2.5. Velocity measurements by means of Particle Image Velocimetry and mean and unsteady wall-pressure measurements on the main-body base are performed simultaneously. Additionally, we performed hot-wire measurements at selected points in the wake. We can thus observe the evolution of the wake flow along with its spectral content. We describe the mean and turbulent flow topology and evolution of the structures in the wake flow and discuss the origin of characteristic frequencies observed in the pressure signal at the launcher base. The influence of a propulsive jet on the evolution and topology of the wake flow is discussed in detail. The German Research Foundation DFG is gratefully acknowledged for funding this research within the SFB-TR40 ``Technological foundations for the design of thermally and mechanically highly loaded components of future space transportation systems.''
Discrete Adjoint-Based Design for Unsteady Turbulent Flows On Dynamic Overset Unstructured Grids
Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris
2012-01-01
A discrete adjoint-based design methodology for unsteady turbulent flows on three-dimensional dynamic overset unstructured grids is formulated, implemented, and verified. The methodology supports both compressible and incompressible flows and is amenable to massively parallel computing environments. The approach provides a general framework for performing highly efficient and discretely consistent sensitivity analysis for problems involving arbitrary combinations of overset unstructured grids which may be static, undergoing rigid or deforming motions, or any combination thereof. General parent-child motions are also accommodated, and the accuracy of the implementation is established using an independent verification based on a complex-variable approach. The methodology is used to demonstrate aerodynamic optimizations of a wind turbine geometry, a biologically-inspired flapping wing, and a complex helicopter configuration subject to trimming constraints. The objective function for each problem is successfully reduced and all specified constraints are satisfied.
Flow field analysis of a pentagonal-shaped bridge deck by unsteady RANS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Naimul Haque
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Long-span cable-stayed bridges are susceptible to dynamic wind effects due to their inherent flexibility. The fluid flow around the bridge deck should be well understood for the efficient design of an aerodynamically stable long-span bridge system. In this work, the aerodynamic features of a pentagonal-shaped bridge deck are explored numerically. The analytical results are compared with past experimental work to assess the capability of two-dimensional unsteady RANS simulation for predicting the aerodynamic features of this type of deck. The influence of the bottom plate slope on aerodynamic response and flow features was investigated. By varying the Reynolds number (2 × 104 to 20 × 104 the aerodynamic behavior at high wind speeds is clarified.
Jodko, Daniel; Obidowski, Damian; Reorowicz, Piotr; Jóźwik, Krzysztof
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the blood flow in the end-to-side arteriovenous (a-v) fistula, taking into account its pulsating nature and the patient-specific geometry of blood vessels. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were used for this analysis. DICOM images of the fistula, obtained from the angio-computed tomography, were a source of the data applied to develop a 3D geometrical model of the fistula. The model was meshed, then the ANSYS CFX v. 15.0 code was used to perform simulations of the flow in the vessels under analysis. Mesh independence tests were conducted. The non-Newtonian rheological model of blood and the Shear Stress Transport model of turbulence were employed. Blood vessel walls were assumed to be rigid. Flow patterns, velocity fields, the volume flow rate, the wall shear stress (WSS) propagation on particular blood vessel walls were shown versus time. The maximal value of the blood velocity was identified in the anastomosis - the place where the artery is connected to the vein. The flow rate was calculated for all veins receiving blood. The blood flow in the geometrically complicated a-v fistula was simulated. The values and oscillations of the WSS are the largest in the anastomosis, much lower in the artery and the lowest in the cephalic vein. A strong influence of the mesh on the results concerning the maximal and area-averaged WSS was shown. The relation between simulations of the pulsating and stationary flow under time-averaged flow conditions was presented.
Numerical studies of unsteady coherent structures and transport in two-dimensional flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hesthaven, J.S.
1995-08-01
The dynamics of unsteady two-dimensional coherent structures in various physical systems is studied through direct numerical solution of the dynamical equations using spectral methods. The relation between the Eulerian and the Lagrangian auto-correlation functions in two-dimensional homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is studied. A simple analytic expression for the Eulerian and Lagrangian auto-correlation function for the fluctuating velocity field is derived solely on the basis of the one-dimensional power spectrum. The long-time evolution of monopolar and dipolar vortices in anisotropic systems relevant for geophysics and plasma physics is studied by direct numerical solution. Transport properties and spatial reorganization of vortical structures are found to depend strongly on the initial conditions. Special attention is given to the dynamics of strong monopoles and the development of unsteady tripolar structures. The development of coherent structures in fluid flows, incompressible as well as compressible, is studied by novel numerical schemes. The emphasis is on the development of spectral methods sufficiently advanced as to allow for detailed and accurate studies of the self-organizing processes. (au) 1 ill., 94 refs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Sandeep
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We analyzed the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic radiative flow and heat transfer characteristics of a dusty nanofluid over an exponentially permeable stretching surface in presence of volume fraction of dust and nano particles. We considered two types of nanofluids namely Cu-water and CuO-water embedded with conducting dust particles. The governing equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using Runge–Kutta based shooting technique. The effects of non-dimensional governing parameters namely magneticfield parameter, mass concentration of dust particles, fluid particle interaction parameter, volume fraction of dust particles, volume fraction of nano particles, unsteadiness parameter, exponential parameter, radiation parameter and suction/injection parameter on velocity profiles for fluid phase, dust phase and temperature profiles are discussed and presented through graphs. Also, friction factor and Nusselt numbers are discussed and presented for two dusty nanofluids separately. Comparisons of the present study were made with existing studies under some special assumptions. The present results have an excellent agreement with existing studies. Results indicated that the enhancement in fluid particle interaction increases the heat transfer rate and depreciates the wall friction. Also, radiation parameter has the tendency to increase the temperature profiles of the dusty nanofluid.
Unsteady 2D potential-flow forces and a thin variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaunaa, M.
2006-07-15
In this report analytical expressions for the unsteady 2D force distribution on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by its camberline as in classic thin-airfoil theory, and the deflection of the airfoil is given by superposition of chordwise deflection mode shapes. It is shown from the expressions for the forces, that the influence from the shed vorticity in the wake is described by the same time-lag for all chordwise positions on the airfoil. This time-lag term can be approximated using an indicial function approach, making the practical calculation of the aerodynamic response numerically very efficient by use of Duhamel superposition. Furthermore, the indicial function expressions for the time-lag terms are formulated in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use of the present theory in problems employing the eigenvalue approach, such as stability analysis. The analytical expressions for the forces simplify to all previously known steady and unsteady thin-airfoil solutions. Apart from the obvious applications within active load control/reduction, the current theory can be used for various applications which up to now have been possible only using much more computational costly methods. The propulsive performance of a soft heaving propulsor, and the influence of airfoil camberline elasticity on the flutter limit are two computational examples given in the report that highlight this feature. (au)
Deposition Velocities of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poloski, Adam P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrefah, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hohimer, Ryan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nigl, Franz [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Toth, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yokuda, Satoru T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2009-03-01
correlation used in the WTP design guide has been shown to be inaccurate for Hanford waste feed materials. The use of the Thomas (1979) correlation in the design guide is not conservative—In cases where 100% of the particles are smaller than 74 μm or particles are considered to be homogeneous due to yield stress forces suspending the particles the homogeneous fraction of the slurry can be set to 100%. In such cases, the predicted critical velocity based on the conservative Oroskar and Turian (1980) correlation is reduced to zero and the design guide returns a value from the Thomas (1979) correlation. The measured data in this report show that the Thomas (1979) correlation predictions often fall below that measured experimental values. A non-Newtonian deposition velocity design guide should be developed for the WTP— Since the WTP design guide is limited to Newtonian fluids and the WTP expects to process large quantities of such materials, the existing design guide should be modified address such systems. A central experimental finding of this testing is that the flow velocity required to reach turbulent flow increases with slurry rheological properties due to viscous forces dampening the formation of turbulent eddies. The flow becomes dominated by viscous forces rather than turbulent eddies. Since the turbulent eddies necessary for particle transport are not present, the particles will settle when crossing this boundary called the transitional deposition boundary. This deposition mechanism should be expected and designed for in the WTP.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Nak-Geun; Lee, Kye-Bock [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong [Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-07-15
Numerical analysis on the flow induced vibration and flow characteristics in the water gate has been carried out by 2-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation when sea water flows into the port in the river. Effect of gate opening on the frequency and the mean velocity and the vortex shedding under the water gate were studied. The streamlines were compared for various gate openings. To get the frequency spectrum, Fourier transform should be performed. Spectral analysis of the excitation force signals permitted identification of the main characteristics of the interaction process. The results show that the sources of disturbed frequency are the vortex shedding from under the water gate. As the gate opening ratio increases, the predicted vibration frequency decreases. The bottom scouring occurs for large gate opening rather than smaller one. The unstable operation conditions can be estimated by using the CFD results and the Strouhal number results for various gate opening gaps.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Nak-Geun; Lee, Kye-Bock; Cho, Yong
2017-01-01
Numerical analysis on the flow induced vibration and flow characteristics in the water gate has been carried out by 2-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation when sea water flows into the port in the river. Effect of gate opening on the frequency and the mean velocity and the vortex shedding under the water gate were studied. The streamlines were compared for various gate openings. To get the frequency spectrum, Fourier transform should be performed. Spectral analysis of the excitation force signals permitted identification of the main characteristics of the interaction process. The results show that the sources of disturbed frequency are the vortex shedding from under the water gate. As the gate opening ratio increases, the predicted vibration frequency decreases. The bottom scouring occurs for large gate opening rather than smaller one. The unstable operation conditions can be estimated by using the CFD results and the Strouhal number results for various gate opening gaps.
Downhole Temperature Modeling for Non-Newtonian Fluids in ERD Wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Sui
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Having precise information of fluids' temperatures is a critical process during planning of drilling operations, especially for extended reach drilling (ERD. The objective of this paper is to develop an accurate temperature model that can precisely calculate wellbore temperature distributions. An established semi-transient temperature model for vertical wellbores is extended and improved to include deviated wellbores and more realistic scenarios using non-Newtonian fluids. The temperature model is derived based on an energy balance between the formation and the wellbore. Heat transfer is considered steady-state in the wellbore and transient in the formation through the utilization of a formation cooling effect. In this paper, the energy balance is enhanced by implementing heat generation from the drill bit friction and contact friction force caused by drillpipe rotation. A non-linear geothermal gradient as a function of wellbore inclination, is also introduced to extend the model to deviated wellbores. Additionally, the model is improved by considering temperature dependent drilling fluid transport and thermal properties. Transport properties such as viscosity and density are obtained by lab measurements, which allows for investigation of the effect of non-Newtonian fluid behavior on the heat transfer. Furthermore, applying a non-Newtonian pressure loss model enables an opportunity to evaluate the impact of viscous forces on fluid properties and thus the overall heat transfer. Results from sensitivity analysis of both drilling fluid properties and other relevant parameters will be presented. The main application area of this model is related to optimization of drilling fluid, hydraulics, and wellbore design parameters, ultimately leading to safe and cost efficient operations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Laskin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents the results of numerical investigation of kinetic energy (KE loss and blading efficiency of the single-stage axial turbine under different operating conditions, characterized by the ratio u/C0. The calculations are performed by stationary (Stage method and nonstationary (Transient method methods using ANSYS CFX. The novelty of this work lies in the fact that the numerical simulation of steady and unsteady flows in a turbine stage is conducted, and the results are obtained to determine the loss of KE, both separately by the elements of the flow range and their total values, in the stage efficiency as well. The results obtained are compared with the calculated efficiency according to one-dimensional theory.To solve these problems was selected model of axial turbine stage with D/l = 13, blade profiles of rotor and stator of constant cross-section, similar to tested ones in inverted turbine when = 0.3. The degree of reactivity ρ = 0.27, the rotor speed was varied within the range 1000 ÷ 1800 rev/min.Results obtained allow us to draw the following conclusions:1. The level of averaged coefficients of total KE losses in the range of from 0.48 to 0.75 is from 18% to 21% when calculating by the Stage method and from 21% to 25% by the Transient one.2. The level of averaged coefficients of KE losses with the output speed of in the specified range is from 9% to 13%, and almost the same when in calculating by Stage and Transient methods.3. Levels of averaged coefficients of KE loss in blade tips (relative to the differential enthalpies per stage are changed in the range: from 4% to 3% (Stage and are stored to be equal to 5% (Transient; from 5% to 6% (Stage and from 6% to 8% (Transient.4. Coefficients of KE losses in blade tips GV and RB are higher in calculations of the model stage using the Transient method than the Stage one, respectively, by = 1.5 ÷ 2.5% and = 4 ÷ 5% of the absolute values. These are values to characterize the KE
Nonlinear shear wave in a non Newtonian visco-elastic medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, D.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Chaudhuri, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching (Germany)
2012-06-15
An analysis of nonlinear transverse shear wave has been carried out on non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquid using generalized hydrodynamic model. The nonlinear viscoelastic behavior is introduced through velocity shear dependence of viscosity coefficient by well known Carreau-Bird model. The dynamical feature of this shear wave leads to the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem. Numerical solution has been obtained which shows that initial periodic solutions reoccur after passing through several patterns of periodic waves. A possible explanation for this periodic solution is given by constructing modified Korteweg de Vries equation. This model has application from laboratory to astrophysical plasmas as well as in biological systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michel, A.; Heinecke, E.; Decken, C.B. von der.
1986-01-01
Unsteady flow forces arising in heat exchangers with cross-flow may lead to serious vibrations of the tubes. These vibrations can destroy the tubes in the end supports or in the baffles, which would require expensive repairs. The flow forces reach unexpectedly by high values if the vibration of the tube intensifies these forces. To clear up this coupling mechanism the flow forces and the vibration amplitude were measured simultaneously in a staggered and in an inline tube bundle. Considering the tube as a one-mass oscillator excited by the flow force, the main parameters can be derived, i.e. dynamic pressure, reduced mass, eigenfrequency and damping. These parameters form a dimensionless model number describing the coherence of the vibration amplitude and the force coefficient. The validity of this number has been confirmed by varying the test conditions. With the aid of this model number, the expected force coefficient can be calculated and then using a finite-element program information can be obtained about mechanical tensions and the lifetime of the heat exchanger tubes. With this model number the results of other authors, who measured the vibration amplitude only, could be confirmed in good agreement. The experiments were carried out in air with Reynolds numbers 10 4 5 . (orig.) [de
Pratomo, Rizky Verdyanto; Widodo, Basuki; Adzkiya, Dieky
2017-12-01
Research about fluid flow was very interesting because have a lot of advantages and it can be applied in many aspects of life. The study on fluid flow which is now widely studied is on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). Magnetohydrodynamic is a conductive and electrical in a magnetic field. This paper considers the effect of unsteady magnetic fields on the flow of magneto-hydrodynamic fluid on the boundary layer that flows past a sphere in micropolar fluid influenced by magnetic field. Our approach is as follows. First, we construct a mathematical model and then the system of equations obtained will be solved numerically using the Keller-Box scheme. Then the system is simulated to assess its effect on the fluid flow velocity profile and the profile of microrotation particles. The result of this research indicates, that when the magnetic parameters increase, then velocity profile increases. If material parameters increase, then velocity profile decreases and magnetic parameters increase for n = 0. For n = 0.5, if magnetic parameters increase, then microrotation profile decreases.
Lawless, Patrick B.; Fleeter, Sanford
1991-01-01
A mathematical model is developed to analyze the suppression of rotating stall in an incompressible flow centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser, thereby addressing the important need for centrifugal compressor rotating stall and surge control. In this model, the precursor to to instability is a weak rotating potential velocity perturbation in the inlet flow field that eventually develops into a finite disturbance. To suppress the growth of this potential disturbance, a rotating control vortical velocity disturbance is introduced into the impeller inlet flow. The effectiveness of this control is analyzed by matching the perturbation pressure in the compressor inlet and exit flow fields with a model for the unsteady behavior of the compressor. To demonstrate instability control, this model is then used to predict the control effectiveness for centrifugal compressor geometries based on a low speed research centrifugal compressor. These results indicate that reductions of 10 to 15 percent in the mean inlet flow coefficient at instability are possible with control waveforms of half the magnitude of the total disturbance at the inlet.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, R N; Wang, H Y; Han, W; Shen, Z J; Ma, W
2013-01-01
The screw centrifugal pump is used as an object, and the unsteady numerical simulation of solid-liquid two-phase flow is carried out under different flow rate conditions in one circle by choosing the two-phase flow of sand and water as medium, using the software FLUENT based on the URANS equations, combining with sliding mesh method, and choosing the Mixture multiphase flow model and the SIMPLE algorithm. The results show that, with the flow rate increasing, the change trends for the pressure on volute outlet are almost constant, the fluctuation trends of the impeller axial force have a little change, the pressure and the axial force turn to decrease on the whole, the radial force gradually increases when the impeller maximum radius passes by half a cycle near the volute outlet, and the radial force gradually decreases when the maximum radius passes by the other half a cycle in a rotation cycle. The distributions of the solid particles are very uneven under a small flow rate condition on the face. The solid particles under a big flow rate condition are distributed more evenly than the ones under a small flow rate condition on the back. The theoretical basis and reference are provided for improving its working performance
Angelidis, Dionysios; Chawdhary, Saurabh; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2016-11-01
A novel numerical method is developed for solving the 3D, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on locally refined fully unstructured Cartesian grids in domains with arbitrarily complex immersed boundaries. Owing to the utilization of the fractional step method on an unstructured Cartesian hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout, flux mismatch and pressure discontinuity issues are avoided and the divergence free constraint is inherently satisfied to machine zero. Auxiliary/hanging nodes are used to facilitate the discretization of the governing equations. The second-order accuracy of the solver is ensured by using multi-dimension Lagrange interpolation operators and appropriate differencing schemes at the interface of regions with different levels of refinement. The sharp interface immersed boundary method is augmented with local near-boundary refinement to handle arbitrarily complex boundaries. The discrete momentum equation is solved with the matrix free Newton-Krylov method and the Krylov-subspace method is employed to solve the Poisson equation. The second-order accuracy of the proposed method on unstructured Cartesian grids is demonstrated by solving the Poisson equation with a known analytical solution. A number of three-dimensional laminar flow simulations of increasing complexity illustrate the ability of the method to handle flows across a range of Reynolds numbers and flow regimes. Laminar steady and unsteady flows past a sphere and the oblique vortex shedding from a circular cylinder mounted between two end walls demonstrate the accuracy, the efficiency and the smooth transition of scales and coherent structures across refinement levels. Large-eddy simulation (LES) past a miniature wind turbine rotor, parameterized using the actuator line approach, indicates the ability of the fully unstructured solver to simulate complex turbulent flows. Finally, a geometry resolving LES of turbulent flow past a complete hydrokinetic turbine illustrates
Similarity solutions for unsteady free-convection flow from a continuous moving vertical surface
Abd-El-Malek, Mina B.; Kassem, Magda M.; Mekky, Mohammad L.
2004-03-01
The transformation group theoretic approach is applied to present an analysis of the problem of unsteady free convection flow over a continuous moving vertical sheet in an ambient fluid. The thermal boundary layer induced within a vertical semi-infinite layer of Boussinseq fluid by a constant heated bounding plate. The application of two-parameter groups reduces the number of independent variables by two, and consequently the system of governing partial differential equations with the boundary conditions reduces to a system of ordinary differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The obtained ordinary differential equations are solved analytically for the temperature and numerically for the velocity using the shooting method. Effect of Prandtl number on the thermal boundary-layer and velocity boundary-layer are studied and plotted in curves.
Unsteady free convection flow of a micropolar fluid with Newtonian heating: Closed form solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hussanan Abid
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This article investigates the unsteady free convection flow of a micropolar fluid over a vertical plate oscillating in its own plane with Newtonian heating condition. The problem is modelled in terms of partial differential equations with some physical conditions. Closed form solutions in terms of exponential and complementary error functions of Gauss are obtained by using the Laplace transform technique. They satisfy the governing equations and impose boundary and initial conditions. The present solution in the absence of microrotation reduces to well-known solutions of Newtonian fluid. Graphs are plotted to study the effects of various physical parameters on velocity and microrotation. Numerical results for skin friction and wall couple stress is computed in tables. Apart from the engineering point of view, the present article has strong advantage over the published literature as the exact solutions obtained here can be used as a benchmark for comparison with numerical/ approximate solutions and experimental data.
Unsteady cavity flow around a rectangular cylinder; Kakuchu mawari no hiteijo cavitation nagare
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, T.; Kaga, T.; Ota, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Mori, T. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)
1995-08-25
Unsteady cavity flow around a rectangular cylinder was observed using a high-speed camera. To clarify the correlation between the cavity behavior and fluid dynamic characteristics in the transitional region and supercavitation, fluctuating forces and surface pressures on the cylinder surface were recorded simultaneously. The tested cylinder has a critical width-to-height ration 2.8, in which the shear layer separated from the leading edge intermittently reattaches near the trailing edge. Bubbly cloud originating from the separated region near the leading edge causes fluctuation of cavity termination and induces large oscillations of fluid forces and pressures. As the cavitation number decreases, the low-frequency fluctuation of the cavity developing downstream of the rear surface increases in the fluid dynamic behavior. 24 refs., 12 figs.
An investigation of noise produced by unsteady gas flow through silencer elements
Mawhinney, Graeme Hugh
This thesis presents an investigation of the noise produced by unsteady gas flow through silencer elements. The central aim of the research project was to produce a tool for assistance in the design of the exhaust systems of diesel powered electrical generator sets, with the modelling techniques developed having a much wider application in reciprocating internal combustion engine exhaust systems. An automotive cylinder head was incorporated in a purpose built test rig to supply exhaust pulses, typical of those found in the exhaust system of four stroke diesel engines, to various experimental exhaust systems. Exhaust silencer elements evaluated included expansion, re- entrant, concentric tube resonator and absorptive elements. Measurements taken on the test rig included, unsteady superposition pressure in the exhaust ducting, cyclically averaged mass flow rate through the system and exhaust noise levels radiated into a semi-anechoic measurement chamber. The entire test rig was modelled using the 1D finite volume method developed previously developed at Queen's University Belfast. Various boundary conditions, developed over the years, were used to model the various silencer elements being evaluated. The 1D gas dynamic simulation thus estimated the mass flux history at the open end of the exhaust system. The mass flux history was then broken into its harmonic components and an acoustic radiation model was developed to model the sound pressure level produced by an acoustic monopole over a reflecting plane. The accuracy of the simulation technique was evaluated by correlation of measured and simulated superposition pressure and noise data. In general correlation of superposition pressure was excellent for all of the silencer elements tested. Predicted sound pressure level radiated from the open end of the exhaust tailpipe was seen to be accurate in the 100 Hz to 1 kHz frequency range for all of the silencer elements tested.
Hydrodynamic pressure sensing with an artificial lateral line in steady and unsteady flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venturelli, Roberto; Akanyeti, Otar; Visentin, Francesco; Fiorini, Paolo; Ježov, Jaas; Toming, Gert; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Chambers, Lily D; Brown, Jennifer; Megill, William M
2012-01-01
With the overall goal being a better understanding of the sensing environment from the local perspective of a situated agent, we studied uniform flows and Kármán vortex streets in a frame of reference relevant to a fish or swimming robot. We visualized each flow regime with digital particle image velocimetry and then took local measurements using a rigid body with laterally distributed parallel pressure sensor arrays. Time and frequency domain methods were used to characterize hydrodynamically relevant scenarios in steady and unsteady flows for control applications. Here we report that a distributed pressure sensing mechanism has the capability to discriminate Kármán vortex streets from uniform flows, and determine the orientation and position of the platform with respect to the incoming flow and the centre axis of the Kármán vortex street. It also enables the computation of hydrodynamic features which may be relevant for a robot while interacting with the flow, such as vortex shedding frequency, vortex travelling speed and downstream distance between vortices. A Kármán vortex street was distinguished in this study from uniform flows by analysing the magnitude of fluctuations present in the sensor measurements and the number of sensors detecting the same dominant frequency. In the Kármán vortex street the turbulence intensity was 30% higher than that in the uniform flow and the sensors collectively sensed the vortex shedding frequency as the dominant frequency. The position and orientation of the sensor platform were determined via a comparative analysis between laterally distributed sensor arrays; the vortex travelling speed was estimated via a cross-correlation analysis among the sensors. (paper)
Unsteady Magnetized Flow and Heat Transfer of a Viscoelastic fluid over a Stretching Surface
Ghosh, Sushil Kumar
2017-12-01
This paper is to study the flow of heated ferro-fluid over a stretching sheet under the influence of magnetic field. The fluid considered in the present investigation is a mixture of blood as well as fluid-dispersed magnetic nano particles and under this context blood is found to be the appropriate choice of viscoelastic, Walter's B fluid. The objective of the present work is to study the effect of various parameters found in the mathematical analysis. Taking into account the blood has zero electrical conductivity, magnetization effect has been considered in the governing equation of the present study with the use of ferro-fluid dynamics principle. By introducing appropriate non-dimensional variables into the governing equations of unsteady two-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid with heat transfer are converted to a set of ordinary differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. Newton's linearization technique has been employed for the solution of non-linear ordinary differential equations. Important results found in the present investigation are the substantial influence of ferro-magnetic parameter, Prandlt number and the parameter associated with the thermal conductivity on the flow and heat transfer. It is observed that the presence of magnetic dipole essentially reduces the flow velocity in the vertical direction and that helps to damage the cancer cells in the tumor region.
Studies of the process of an unsteady formation of hard nitride coatings in an arc plasma flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zake, M.
1996-01-01
The kinetic studies of an unsteady formation of hard ZrN and TiN coatings on the surface of metallic (Zr, Ti) samples in an Ar-N plasma flow are carried out. The obtained result is that at the initial stage of an unsteady heating of titanium samples nitrogen atoms penetrate into metal lattice and form interstitial compounds of hard nitrogen solutions in α-phase of Ti. This process is followed by a growth of thin surface layers of titanium nitrides with subsequent changes of surface radiance of exposed samples. Unsteady formation of ZrN is a similar two-stage process which includes the ZrN film growth and formation of a α-hard solution with subsequent changes of total normal emissivity of the surface. (author). 1 ref., 1 fig
CFD-PBM Coupled Simulation of an Airlift Reactor with Non-Newtonian Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Mei
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Hydrodynamics of an AirLift Reactor (ALR with tap water and non-Newtonian fluid was studied experimentally and by numerical simulations. The Population Balance Model (PBM with multiple breakup and coalescence mechanisms was used to describe bubble size characteristics in the ALR. The interphase forces for closing the two-fluid model were formulated by considering the effect of Bubble Size Distribution (BSD. The BSD in the ALR obtained from the coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-PBM model was validated against results from digital imaging measurements. The simulated velocity fields of both the gas and liquid phases were compared to measured fields obtained with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV. The simulated results show different velocity field profile features at the top of the ALR between tap water and non-Newtonian fluid, which are in agreement with experiments. In addition, good agreement between simulations and experiments was obtained in terms of overall gas holdup and bubble Sauter mean diameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaha, Poly Rani; Poddar, Nayan Kumar; Mondal, Rabindra Nath, E-mail: rnmondal71@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Jagannath University, Dhaka-1100 (Bangladesh); Rudro, Sajal Kanti [Department of Mathematics, Notredame Colleage, Motijheel, Dhaka (Bangladesh)
2016-07-12
The study of flows through coiled ducts and channels has attracted considerable attention not only because of their ample applications in Chemical, Mechanical, Civil, Nuclear and Biomechanical engineering but also because of their ample applications in other areas, such as blood flow in the veins and arteries of human and other animals. In this paper, a numerical study is presented for the fully developed two-dimensional flow of viscous incompressible fluid through a loosely coiled rectangular duct of large aspect ratio. Numerical calculations are carried out by using a spectral method, and covering a wide range of the Dean number, Dn, for two types of curvatures of the duct. The main concern of the present study is to find out effects of curvature as well as formation of secondary vortices on unsteady solutions whether the unsteady flow is steady-state, periodic, multi-periodic or chaotic, if Dn is increased. Time evolution calculations as well as their phase spaces are performed with a view to study the non-linear behavior of the unsteady solutions, and it is found that the steady-state flow turns into chaotic flow through various flow instabilities, if Dn is increased no matter what the curvature is. It is found that the unsteady flow is a steady-state solution for small Dn’s and oscillates periodically or non-periodically (chaotic) between two- and twelve-vortex solutions, if Dn is increased. It is also found that the chaotic solution is weak for small Dn’s but strong as Dn becomes large. Axial flow distribution is also investigated and shown in contour plots.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaha, Poly Rani; Poddar, Nayan Kumar; Mondal, Rabindra Nath; Rudro, Sajal Kanti
2016-01-01
The study of flows through coiled ducts and channels has attracted considerable attention not only because of their ample applications in Chemical, Mechanical, Civil, Nuclear and Biomechanical engineering but also because of their ample applications in other areas, such as blood flow in the veins and arteries of human and other animals. In this paper, a numerical study is presented for the fully developed two-dimensional flow of viscous incompressible fluid through a loosely coiled rectangular duct of large aspect ratio. Numerical calculations are carried out by using a spectral method, and covering a wide range of the Dean number, Dn, for two types of curvatures of the duct. The main concern of the present study is to find out effects of curvature as well as formation of secondary vortices on unsteady solutions whether the unsteady flow is steady-state, periodic, multi-periodic or chaotic, if Dn is increased. Time evolution calculations as well as their phase spaces are performed with a view to study the non-linear behavior of the unsteady solutions, and it is found that the steady-state flow turns into chaotic flow through various flow instabilities, if Dn is increased no matter what the curvature is. It is found that the unsteady flow is a steady-state solution for small Dn’s and oscillates periodically or non-periodically (chaotic) between two- and twelve-vortex solutions, if Dn is increased. It is also found that the chaotic solution is weak for small Dn’s but strong as Dn becomes large. Axial flow distribution is also investigated and shown in contour plots.
Water Flow Testing and Unsteady Pressure Analysis of a Two-Bladed Liquid Oxidizer Pump Inducer
Schwarz, Jordan B.; Mulder, Andrew; Zoladz, Thomas
2011-01-01
The unsteady fluid dynamic performance of a cavitating two-bladed oxidizer turbopump inducer was characterized through sub-scale water flow testing. While testing a novel inlet duct design that included a cavitation suppression groove, unusual high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed. With potential implications for inducer blade loads, these high-frequency components were analyzed extensively in order to understand their origins and impacts to blade loading. Water flow testing provides a technique to determine pump performance without the costs and hazards associated with handling cryogenic propellants. Water has a similar density and Reynolds number to liquid oxygen. In a 70%-scale water flow test, the inducer-only pump performance was evaluated. Over a range of flow rates, the pump inlet pressure was gradually reduced, causing the flow to cavitate near the pump inducer. A nominal, smooth inducer inlet was tested, followed by an inlet duct with a circumferential groove designed to suppress cavitation. A subsequent 52%-scale water flow test in another facility evaluated the combined inducer-impeller pump performance. With the nominal inlet design, the inducer showed traditional cavitation and surge characteristics. Significant bearing loads were created by large side loads on the inducer during synchronous cavitation. The grooved inlet successfully mitigated these loads by greatly reducing synchronous cavitation, however high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed over a range of frequencies. Analytical signal processing techniques showed these oscillations to be created by a rotating, multi-celled train of pressure pulses, and subsequent CFD analysis suggested that such pulses could be created by the interaction of rotating inducer blades with fluid trapped in a cavitation suppression groove. Despite their relatively low amplitude, these high-frequency pressure oscillations posed a design concern due to their sensitivity to flow conditions and
Tumuklu, Ozgur; Levin, Deborah A.; Theofilis, Vassilis
2018-04-01
Shock-dominated hypersonic laminar flows over a double cone are investigated using time accurate direct simulation Monte Carlo combined with the residuals algorithm for unit Reynolds numbers gradually increasing from 9.35 × 104 to 3.74 × 105 m-1 at a Mach number of about 16. The main flow features, such as the strong bow-shock, location of the separation shock, the triple point, and the entire laminar separated region, show a time-dependent behavior. Although the separation shock angle is found to be similar for all Re numbers, the effects of Reynolds number on the structure and extent of the separation region are profound. As the Reynolds number is increased, larger pressure values in the under-expanded jet region due to strong shock interactions form more prominent λ-shocklets in the supersonic region between two contact surfaces. Likewise, the surface parameters, especially on the second cone surface, show a strong dependence on the Reynolds number, with skin friction, pressure, and surface heating rates increasing and velocity slip and temperature jump values decreasing for increasing Re number. A Kelvin-Helmholtz instability arising at the shear layer results in an unsteady flow for the highest Reynolds number. These findings suggest that consideration of experimental measurement times is important when it comes to determining the steady state surface parameters even for a relatively simple double cone geometry at moderately large Reynolds numbers.
Experimental investigation of the unsteady one-phase flow through perforated plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casadei, F.
1982-07-01
The flow of the coolant through the perforated dip-plate during a hypothetical core-disruptive accident in a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor was simulated in a one-dimensional model. Several experiments with water as fluid and with various perforation ratios of the dip-plate and different initial heights of the fluid head over the dip plate were run. The pressure drop through the dip-plate and the forces acting on the dip-plate and on the upper plug of the reactor vessel in a wide range of the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers were measured. The flow pattern downstreams the perforated plate was filmed with high-speed cameras. The resistance coefficients for the unsteady flow of the coolant through the perforated plate were obtained as a function of the acceleration. The forces acting on the upper plug and their time integral were compared with those acting on the dip-plate. Finally, using the high-speed film pictures the formation of fluid jets downstream the dip-plate was investigated. (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lok, Y.Y. [Center for Academic Services, Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia, 75450 Ayer Keroh, Melaka (Malaysia); Amin, N. [Department of Mathematics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Pop, I. [Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cluj, R-3400 Cluj, CP 253 (Romania)
2006-12-15
The unsteady mixed convection boundary-layer flow of a micro-polar fluid near the region of the stagnation point on a double-infinite vertical flat plate is studied. It is assumed that the unsteadiness is caused by the impulsive motion of the free stream velocity and by sudden increase or sudden decrease in the surface temperature from the uniform ambient temperature. The problem is reduced to a system of non-dimensional partial differential equations, which is solved numerically using the Keller-box method. This method may present well-behaved solutions for the transient (small time) solution and those of the steady-state flow (large time) solution. It was found that there is a smooth transition from the small-time solution (initial unsteady-state flow) to the large-time solution (final steady-state flow). Further, it is shown that for both assisting and opposing cases and a fixed value of the Prandtl number, the reduced steady-state skin friction and the steady-state heat transfer from the wall (or Nusselt number) decrease with the increase of the material parameter. On the other hand, it is shown that with the increase of the Prandtl number and a fixed value of the material parameter, the reduced steady-state skin friction decreases when the flow is assisting and it increases when the flow is opposing. (author)
Di Nucci, Carmine
2018-05-01
This note examines the two-dimensional unsteady isothermal free surface flow of an incompressible fluid in a non-deformable, homogeneous, isotropic, and saturated porous medium (with zero recharge and neglecting capillary effects). Coupling a Boussinesq-type model for nonlinear water waves with Darcy's law, the two-dimensional flow problem is solved using one-dimensional model equations including vertical effects and seepage face. In order to take into account the seepage face development, the system equations (given by the continuity and momentum equations) are completed by an integral relation (deduced from the Cauchy theorem). After testing the model against data sets available in the literature, some numerical simulations, concerning the unsteady flow through a rectangular dam (with an impermeable horizontal bottom), are presented and discussed.
Ramesh, Kiran; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael V.; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Edwards, Jack R.
2018-04-01
A leading-edge suction parameter (LESP) that is derived from potential flow theory as a measure of suction at the airfoil leading edge is used to study initiation of leading-edge vortex (LEV) formation in this article. The LESP hypothesis is presented, which states that LEV formation in unsteady flows for specified airfoil shape and Reynolds number occurs at a critical constant value of LESP, regardless of motion kinematics. This hypothesis is tested and validated against a large set of data from CFD and experimental studies of flows with LEV formation. The hypothesis is seen to hold except in cases with slow-rate kinematics which evince significant trailing-edge separation (which refers here to separation leading to reversed flow on the aft portion of the upper surface), thereby establishing the envelope of validity. The implication is that the critical LESP value for an airfoil-Reynolds number combination may be calibrated using CFD or experiment for just one motion and then employed to predict LEV initiation for any other (fast-rate) motion. It is also shown that the LESP concept may be used in an inverse mode to generate motion kinematics that would either prevent LEV formation or trigger the same as per aerodynamic requirements.
Possible evidence for non-Newtonian gravity in the Greenland ice gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ander, M.E.
1988-01-01
An Airy-type geophysical experiment was conducted down a 2 km deep hole in the Greenland ice cap in order to test for possible violations of Newton's inverse square law by making gravity measurements over a range of 213 m to 1460 m. A significant departure from Newtonian gravity was observed. This result can be explained by the existence of an attractive non-Newtonian component of gravity with a strength of about 3.4% that of Newtonian gravity at a scale of 1460 m. Unfortunately, we cannot completely, unambiguously attribute it to a breakdown of Newtonian gravity because we have shown that lateral density variations in the bedrock beneath the ice can cause such apparent departures. If such variations existed, they would have to be rather unusual but certainly no impossible. 8 refs
Development of a new continuous process for mixing of complex non-Newtonian fluids
Migliozzi, Simona; Mazzei, Luca; Sochon, Bob; Angeli, Panagiota; Thames Multiphase Team; Coral Project Collaboration
2017-11-01
Design of new continuous mixing operations poses many challenges, especially when dealing with highly viscous non-Newtonian fluids. Knowledge of complex rheological behaviour of the working mixture is crucial for development of an efficient process. In this work, we investigate the mixing performance of two different static mixers and the effects of the mixture rheology on the manufacturing of novel non-aqueous-based oral care products using experimental and computational fluid dynamic methods. The two liquid phases employed, i.e. a carbomer suspension in polyethylene glycol and glycerol, start to form a gel when they mix. We studied the structure evolution of the liquid mixture using time-resolved rheometry and we obtained viscosity rheograms at different phase ratios from pressure drop measurements in a customized mini-channel. The numerical results and rheological model were validated with experimental measurements carried out in a specifically designed setup. EPSRS-CORAL.
Force effects on rotor of squeeze film damper using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid
Dominik, Šedivý; Petr, Ferfecki; Simona, Fialová
2017-09-01
This article presents the evaluation of force effects on rotor of squeeze film damper. Rotor is eccentric placed and its motion is translate-circular. The amplitude of rotor motion is smaller than its initial eccentricity. The force effects are calculated from pressure and viscous forces which were gained by using computational modeling. Two types of fluid were considered as filling of damper. First type of fluid is Newtonian (has constant viscosity) and second type is magnetorheological fluid (does not have constant viscosity). Viscosity of non-Newtonian fluid is given using Bingham rheology model. Yield stress is a function of magnetic induction which is described by many variables. The most important variables of magnetic induction are electric current and gap width which is between rotor and stator. Comparison of application two given types of fluids is shown in results.
Calculation of the Pitot tube correction factor for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
Etemad, S Gh; Thibault, J; Hashemabadi, S H
2003-10-01
This paper presents the numerical investigation performed to calculate the correction factor for Pitot tubes. The purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids with the power-law model constitutive equation were considered. It was shown that the power-law index, the Reynolds number, and the distance between the impact and static tubes have a major influence on the Pitot tube correction factor. The problem was solved for a wide range of these parameters. It was shown that employing Bernoulli's equation could lead to large errors, which depend on the magnitude of the kinetic energy and energy friction loss terms. A neural network model was used to correlate the correction factor of a Pitot tube as a function of these three parameters. This correlation is valid for most Newtonian, pseudoplastic, and dilatant fluids at low Reynolds number.
Microrheological observations of the onset of non-Newtonian behavior in suspensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondy, L A; Graham, A L; Gottlieb, M
1988-01-01
As the column fraction of solids increases above about 0.30, suspensions of non-Brownian, uniform spheres in Newtonian liquids begin to exhibit shear-thinning, normal stresses, and other non- Newtonian behavior. Here, we report on observations obtained from falling-ball and capillary rheometry at these high volume fractions. Specifically, we find that measured viscosity values are dependent on the size-scale of the viscometer (cylinder diameter, D, and falling- ball diameter, d) relative to the diameter of the suspended spheres d/sub s/. We report the dependence of the measured viscosity on the ratios d/d/sub s/, D/d, and D/d/sub s/, as well as critical values of these ratios above which the apparent viscosity is constant. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Development of a Robust and Efficient Parallel Solver for Unsteady Turbomachinery Flows
West, Jeff; Wright, Jeffrey; Thakur, Siddharth; Luke, Ed; Grinstead, Nathan
2012-01-01
The traditional design and analysis practice for advanced propulsion systems relies heavily on expensive full-scale prototype development and testing. Over the past decade, use of high-fidelity analysis and design tools such as CFD early in the product development cycle has been identified as one way to alleviate testing costs and to develop these devices better, faster and cheaper. In the design of advanced propulsion systems, CFD plays a major role in defining the required performance over the entire flight regime, as well as in testing the sensitivity of the design to the different modes of operation. Increased emphasis is being placed on developing and applying CFD models to simulate the flow field environments and performance of advanced propulsion systems. This necessitates the development of next generation computational tools which can be used effectively and reliably in a design environment. The turbomachinery simulation capability presented here is being developed in a computational tool called Loci-STREAM [1]. It integrates proven numerical methods for generalized grids and state-of-the-art physical models in a novel rule-based programming framework called Loci [2] which allows: (a) seamless integration of multidisciplinary physics in a unified manner, and (b) automatic handling of massively parallel computing. The objective is to be able to routinely simulate problems involving complex geometries requiring large unstructured grids and complex multidisciplinary physics. An immediate application of interest is simulation of unsteady flows in rocket turbopumps, particularly in cryogenic liquid rocket engines. The key components of the overall methodology presented in this paper are the following: (a) high fidelity unsteady simulation capability based on Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) in conjunction with second-order temporal discretization, (b) compliance with Geometric Conservation Law (GCL) in order to maintain conservative property on moving meshes for
Dholey, S.
2018-04-01
In this paper, we have investigated numerically the laminar unsteady separated stagnation-point flow and heat transfer of a viscous fluid over a moving flat surface in the presence of a time dependent free stream velocity which causes the unsteadiness of this flow problem. The plate is assumed to move in the same or opposite direction of the free stream velocity. The flow is therefore governed by the velocity ratio parameter λ (ratio of the plate velocity to the free stream velocity) and the unsteadiness parameter β. When the plate surface moves in the same direction of the free stream velocity (i.e., when λ > 0), the solution of this flow problem continues for any given value of β. On the other hand, when they move in opposite directions (i.e., when λ heat transfer analysis is that for a given value of λ(= 0), first the heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the Prandtl number Pr and after attaining a maximum value, it decreases and finally tends to be zero for large values of Pr depending upon the values of β > 0. On the contrary, for a given value of β(≤ 0), the rate of heat transfer increases consistently with the increase of Pr.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gedik, Engin; Recebli, Ziyaddin; Kurt, Hueseyin; Kecebas, Ali
2012-01-01
The unsteady viscous incompressible and electrically conducting of two-phase fluid flow in circular pipes with external magnetic and electrical field is considered in this present study. Effects of both uniform transverse external magnetic and electrical fields applied perpendicular to the fluid and each other on the two-phase (solid/liquid) unsteady flow is investigated numerically. While iron powders are being used as the first phase of two-phase fluid, pure water was used as the second phase. The system of the derived governing equations, which are based on the Navier-Stokes equations including Maxwell equations, are solved numerically by using Pdex4 function on the Matlab for both phases. The originality of this study is that, in addition to magnetic field, the effect of electrical field on two-phase unsteady fluids is being examined. The magnetic field which is applied on flow decreases the velocity of both phases, whereas the electrical field applied along with magnetic field acted to increase and decrease the velocity values depending on the direction of electrical field. Electrical field alone did not display any impact on two-phase flow. On the other hand, analytical and numerical results are compared and favorable agreements have been obtained. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Berta
2010-05-01
Full Text Available During the floods, the effects of sediment transport in river beds are particulary significant and can be studied through the evolution of the water-sediment layer which moves in the lower part of a flow, named "moving layer". Moving layer variations along rivers lead to depositions and erosions and are typically unsteady, but are often tackled with expressions developed for steady (equilibrium conditions. In this paper, we develop an expression for the moving layer in unsteady conditions and calibrate it with experimental data. During laboratory tests, we have in fact reproduced a rapidly changing unsteady flow by the erosion of a granular steep slope. Results have shown a clear tendency of the moving layer, for fixed discharges, toward equilibrium conditions. Knowing the equilibrium achievement has presented many difficulties, being influenced by the choice of the equilibrium expression and moreover by the estimation of the parameters involved (for example friction angle. Since we used only data relevant to hyper-concentrated mono-dimensional flows for the calibration – occurring for slope gradients in the range 0.03–0.20 – our model can be applied both on open channels and on embankments/dams, providing that the flows can be modelled as mono-dimensional, and that slopes and applied shear stress levels fall within the considered ranges.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghui Xie
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Air turbines are widely used to convert kinetic energy into power output in power engineering. The unsteady performance of air turbines with partial admission not only influences the aerodynamic performance and thermodynamic efficiency of turbine but also generates strong excitation force on blades to impair the turbine safely operating. Based on three-dimensional viscous compressible Navier-stokes equations, the present study employs RNG (Renormalization group k-ε turbulence model with finite volume discretization on air turbine with partial admission. Numerical models of four different admission rates with full annulus are built and analyzed via CFD (computational fluid dynamics modeling unsteady flows. Results indicate that the unsteady time-averaged isentropic efficiency is lower than the steady isentropic efficiency, and this difference rises as unsteady isentropic efficiency fluctuates stronger when the admission rate is reduced. The rotor axial and tangential forces with time are provided for all four admission rates. The low frequency excitation forces generated by partial admission are extraordinarily higher than the high frequency excitation forces by stator wakes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyun Ju Jung
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The two-dimensional unsteady flow around a vertical axis turbine for tidal stream energy conversion was investigated using a computational fluid dynamics tool solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The geometry of the turbine blade section was NACA653-018 airfoil. The computational analysis was done at several different angles of attack and the results were compared with the corresponding experimental data for validation and calibration. Simulations were then carried out for the two-dimensional cross section of a vertical axis turbine. The simulation results demonstrated the usefulness of the method for the typical unsteady flows around vertical axis turbines. The optimum turbine efficiency was achieved for carefully selected combinations of the number of blades and tip speed ratios.
Alesbe, Israa; Abdel-Maksoud, Moustafa; Aljabair, Sattar
2017-06-01
Environmental effects have an important influence on Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) power generation efficiency and the structural stability of such turbines. In this study, we use an in-house Boundary Element (BEM)— panMARE code—to simulate the unsteady flow behavior of a full OWT with various combinations of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads in the time domain. This code is implemented to simulate potential flows for different applications and is based on a three-dimensional first-order panel method. Three different OWT configurations consisting of a generic 5 MW NREL rotor with three different types of foundations (Monopile, Tripod, and Jacket) are investigated. These three configurations are analyzed using the RANSE solver which is carried out using ANSYS CFX for validating the corresponding results. The simulations are performed under the same environmental atmospheric wind shear and rotor angular velocity, and the wave properties are wave height of 4 m and wave period of 7.16 s. In the present work, wave environmental effects were investigated firstly for the two solvers, and good agreement is achieved. Moreover, pressure distribution in each OWT case is presented, including detailed information about local flow fields. The time history of the forces at inflow direction and its moments around the mudline at each OWT part are presented in a dimensionless form with respect to the mean value of the last three loads and the moment amplitudes obtained from the BEM code, where the contribution of rotor force is lower in the tripod case and higher in the jacket case and the calculated hydrodynamic load that effect on jacket foundation type is lower than other two cases.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Israa Alesbe; Moustafa Abdel-Maksoud; Sattar Aljabair
2017-01-01
Environmental effects have an important influence on Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) power generation efficiency and the structural stability of such turbines.In this study,we use an in-house Boundary Element (BEM)-panMARE code-to simulate the unsteady flow behavior of a full OWT with various combinations of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads in the time domain.This code is implemented to simulate potential flows for different applications and is based on a three-dimensional first-order panel method.Three different OWT configurations consisting of a generic 5 MW NREL rotor with three different types of foundations (Monopile,Tripod,and Jacket) are investigated.These three configurations are analyzed using the RANSE solver which is carried out using ANSYS CFX for validating the corresponding results.The simulations are performed under the same environmental atmospheric wind shear and rotor angular velocity,and the wave properties are wave height of 4 m and wave period of 7.16 s.In the present work,wave environmental effects were investigated firstly for the two solvers,and good agreement is achieved.Moreover,pressure distribution in each OWT case is presented,including detailed information about local flow fields.The time history of the forces at inflow direction and its moments around the mudline at each OWT part are presented in a dimensionless form with respect to the mean value of the last three loads and the moment amplitudes obtained from the BEM code,where the contribution of rotor force is lower in the tripod case and higher in the jacket case and the calculated hydrodynamic load that effect on jacket foundation type is lower than other two cases.
ali shokrgozar abbasi; Asghar Baradaran Rahimi; Hamidreza Mozayeni
2016-01-01
General formulation and solution of Navier-Stokes and energy equations are sought in the study of threedimensional axisymmetric unsteady stagnation-point flow and heat transfer impinging on a flat plate when the plate is moving with variable velocity and acceleration towards the main stream or away from it. As an application, among others, this accelerated plate can be assumed as a solidification front which is being formed with variable velocity. An external fluid, along z - directi...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isa, Sharena Mohamad; Ali, Anati [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia sharena-ina@yahoo.com, anati@utm.my (Malaysia)
2015-10-22
In this paper, the hydromagnetic flow of dusty fluid over a vertical stretching sheet with thermal radiation is investigated. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. These nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method (RKF45 Method). The behavior of velocity and temperature profiles of hydromagnetic fluid flow of dusty fluid is analyzed and discussed for different parameters of interest such as unsteady parameter, fluid-particle interaction parameter, the magnetic parameter, radiation parameter and Prandtl number on the flow.
Unsteady convection flow and heat transfer over a vertical stretching surface.
Cai, Wenli; Su, Ning; Liu, Xiangdong
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of thermal radiation on unsteady convection flow and heat transfer over a vertical permeable stretching surface in porous medium, where the effects of temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity are also considered. By using a similarity transformation, the governing time-dependent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy are first transformed into coupled, non-linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. Numerical solutions to these equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions are obtained by the numerical shooting technique with fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta scheme. Numerical results show that as viscosity variation parameter increases both the absolute value of the surface friction coefficient and the absolute value of the surface temperature gradient increase whereas the temperature decreases slightly. With the increase of viscosity variation parameter, the velocity decreases near the sheet surface but increases far away from the surface of the sheet in the boundary layer. The increase in permeability parameter leads to the decrease in both the temperature and the absolute value of the surface friction coefficient, and the increase in both the velocity and the absolute value of the surface temperature gradient.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khan A.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available An exact solution and analysis of an initial unsteady two dimensional free convection flow, heat and mass transfer in the presence of thermal radiation along an infinite fixed vertical plate when the plate temperature is instantaneously raised, is presented. The fluid considered is a gray, absorbing emitting radiation but a nonscattering medium. Three cases have been discussed, in particular, namely, (i when, the plate temperature is instantaneously raised to a higher constant value, (ii when, the plate temperature varies linearly with time and (iii when, the plate temperature varies non-linearly with time. A close form general solution for all the cases has been obtained in terms of repeated integrals of error functions. In two particular cases, the solutions in terms of the repeated integrals of error functions have been further simplified to forms containing only error functions. It is observed that for an increase in the radiation parameter N or a decrease in the Grashof number Gr or Gm, there is a fall in the velocity or temperature, but compared to the no radiation case or no diffusing species, there is a rise in the velocity and temperature of the fluid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatterjee, Dipankar; Biswas, Gautam; Amiroudine, Sakir
2009-01-01
This paper presents the unsteady laminar forced convection heat transfer from a row of five isothermal square cylinders placed in a side-by-side arrangement at a Reynolds number of 150. The numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume code based on the PISO algorithm in a collocated grid system. Special attention is paid to investigate the effect of the spacing between the cylinders on the overall transport processes for the separation ratios (spacing to size ratio) between 0.2 and 10. No significant interaction between the wakes is observed for spacing greater than four times the diameter at this Reynolds number. However, at smaller spacing, the wakes interact in a complicated manner resulting different thermo-hydrodynamic regimes. The vortex structures and isotherm patterns obtained are systematically presented and discussed for different separation ratios. In addition, the mean and instantaneous drag and lift coefficients, mean and local Nusselt number and Strouhal number are determined and discussed for various separation ratios. A new correlation is derived for mean Nusselt number as a function of separation ratio for such flows.
Gohari, Iman; Korobenko, Artem; Yan, Jinhui; Bazilevs, Yuri; Sarkar, Sutanu
2016-11-01
Wind is a renewable energy resource that offers several advantages including low pollutant emission and inexpensive construction. Wind turbines operate in conditions dictated by the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and that motivates the study of coupling ABL simulations with wind turbine dynamics. The ABL simulations can be used for realistic modeling of the environment which, with the use of fluid-structure interaction, can give realistic predictions of extracted power, rotor loading, and blade structural response. The ABL simulations provide inflow boundary conditions to the wind-turbine simulator which uses arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian variational multiscale formulation. In the present work, ABL simulations are performed to examine two different scenarios: (i) A neutral ABL with zero heat-flux and inversion layer at 350m, in which the wind turbine experiences maximum mean shear; (2) A shallow ABL with the surface cooling-rate of -1 K/hr, in which the wind turbine experiences maximum mean velocity at the low-level-jet nose height. We will discuss differences in the unsteady flow between the two different ABL conditions and their impact on the performance of the wind turbine cluster in the coupled ABL-wind turbine simulations.
Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu, E-mail: omata@nakl.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sirayama@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)
2017-10-15
We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively. (paper)
Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu
2017-01-01
We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Hyeon Kyeong; Park, Jong Woon
2013-01-01
In this work, behavior of unsteady and oscillating flow through a typical tube bundle array are analyzed by unsteady computations: 2D unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and the results are compared with existing experimental data. In order to confirm appropriateness and limitations of CFD applications in the Korean VHTR design, two types of unsteady computations are performed such as 2D unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for the existing tube bundle array. The velocity component profiles are compared with the experimental data and it is concluded that the URANS with the standard k-ω model is reasonably appropriate for cost-effective VHTR lower plenum analysis. Nevertheless, if more accurate results are needed, the LES-Smagorinsky computation is recommended considering limitations in the time averaged RANS in capturing small eddies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moussa Tembely
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Most of the pore-scale imaging and simulations of non-Newtonian fluid are based on the simplifying geometry of network modeling and overlook the fluid rheology and heat transfer. In the present paper, we developed a non-isothermal and non-Newtonian numerical model of the flow properties at pore-scale by simulation of the 3D micro-CT images using a Finite Volume Method (FVM. The numerical model is based on the resolution of the momentum and energy conservation equations. Owing to an adaptive mesh generation technique and appropriate boundary conditions, rock permeability and mobility are accurately computed. A temperature and concentration-dependent power-law viscosity model in line with the experimental measurement of the fluid rheology is adopted. The model is first applied at isothermal condition to 2 benchmark samples, namely Fontainebleau sandstone and Grosmont carbonate, and is found to be in good agreement with the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM. Finally, at non-isothermal conditions, an effective mobility is introduced that enables to perform a numerical sensitivity study to fluid rheology, heat transfer, and operating conditions. While the mobility seems to evolve linearly with polymer concentration in agreement with a derived theoretical model, the effect of the temperature seems negligible by comparison. However, a sharp contrast is found between carbonate and sandstone under the effect of a constant temperature gradient. Besides concerning the flow index and consistency factor, a master curve is derived when normalizing the mobility for both the carbonate and the sandstone.
Nakamura, S.; Scott, J. N.
1993-01-01
A two-dimensional model to solve compressible Navier-Stokes equations for the flow through stator and rotor blades of a turbine is developed. The flow domains for the stator and rotor blades are coupled by the Chimera method that makes grid generation easy and enhances accuracy because the area of the grid that have high turning of grid lines or high skewness can be eliminated from the computational domain after the grids are generated. The results of flow computations show various important features of unsteady flows including the acoustic waves interacting with boundary layers, Karman vortex shedding from the trailing edge of the stator blades, pulsating incoming flow to a rotor blade from passing stator blades, and flow separation from both suction and pressure sides of the rotor blades.
A complete second-order theory for the unsteady flow about an airfoil due to a periodic gust
Goldstein, M. E.; Atassi, H.
1976-01-01
A uniformly valid second-order theory is developed for calculating the unsteady incompressible flow that occurs when an airfoil is subjected to a convected sinusoidal gust. Explicit formulas for the airfoil response functions (i.e., fluctuating lift) are given. The theory accounts for the effect of the distortion of the gust by the steady-state potential flow around the airfoil, and this effect is found to have an important influence on the response functions. A number of results relevant to the general theory of the scattering of vorticity waves by solid objects are also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroshilin, A.E.; Kroshilin, V.E.; Nigmatulin, B.I.
1984-01-01
A one-dimensional unsteady hydrodynamic model of vapour-liquid disperse-annular flows in channels with heated fuel rod clusters has been constructed. Regularities in the appearance of critical heat transfer due to the dryout of a near-wall liquid film on rod surfaces in such channels are investigated. The model developed takes into account the main flow regularities in the channels with heated rod clusters. The calculations made have shown that the time before crisis appearance agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data
Kassem, M.
2006-03-01
The problem of heat and mass transfer in an unsteady free-convection flow over a continuous moving vertical sheet in an ambient fluid is investigated for constant heat flux using the group theoretical method. The nonlinear coupled partial differential equation governing the flow and the boundary conditions are transformed to a system of ordinary differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The obtained ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using the shooting method. The effect of Prandlt number on the velocity and temperature of the boundary-layer is plotted in curves. A comparison with previous work is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bestman, A.R.; Adjepong, S.K.
1987-11-01
We study the unsteady free convection flow near a moving infinite flat plate in a rotating medium by imposing a time dependent perturbation on a constant plate temperature. The temperatures involved are assumed to be very large so that radiative heat transfer is significant, which renders the problem very nonlinear even on the assumption of a differential approximation for the radiative flux. When the perturbation is small, the transient flow is tackled by the Laplace transform technique. Complete first order solutions are deduced for an impulsive motion. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs
Newman, James C., III
1995-01-01
The limiting factor in simulating flows past realistic configurations of interest has been the discretization of the physical domain on which the governing equations of fluid flow may be solved. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, many Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodologies that are based on different grid generation and domain decomposition techniques have been developed. However, due to the costs involved and expertise required, very few comparative studies between these methods have been performed. In the present work, the two CFD methodologies which show the most promise for treating complex three-dimensional configurations as well as unsteady moving boundary problems are evaluated. These are namely the structured-overlapped and the unstructured grid schemes. Both methods use a cell centered, finite volume, upwind approach. The structured-overlapped algorithm uses an approximately factored, alternating direction implicit scheme to perform the time integration, whereas, the unstructured algorithm uses an explicit Runge-Kutta method. To examine the accuracy, efficiency, and limitations of each scheme, they are applied to the same steady complex multicomponent configurations and unsteady moving boundary problems. The steady complex cases consist of computing the subsonic flow about a two-dimensional high-lift multielement airfoil and the transonic flow about a three-dimensional wing/pylon/finned store assembly. The unsteady moving boundary problems are a forced pitching oscillation of an airfoil in a transonic freestream and a two-dimensional, subsonic airfoil/store separation sequence. Accuracy was accessed through the comparison of computed and experimentally measured pressure coefficient data on several of the wing/pylon/finned store assembly's components and at numerous angles-of-attack for the pitching airfoil. From this study, it was found that both the structured-overlapped and the unstructured grid schemes yielded flow solutions of
Physics of non-Newtonian fluids and interdisciplinary relations (biology and criminology)
Holubova, R.
2018-03-01
The aim of the paper is the presentation of an interdisciplinary topic that allows applying content knowledge in physics, mathematics and biology in real life environment. Students use to play games and view crime scenes but in common they have little knowledge about the science used during crime scene investigation. In this paper the science background of blood spatter analysis is presented—the physics of non-Newtonian fluids, the biology of blood and mathematics—the measurement and calculation of the angle of inpact, the relationship between height and spatter diameter. This topic was choosen according to the analysis of interviews with secondary and high school learners realized at four schools in Moravia, Czech Republic. The topic can be taught at secondary schools so as at a higher level at high schools. Hands-on activities are included. The teaching strategy supports group work. The appropriateness and reasonableness of the topic was checked in the real teaching process and the activities have had a positive feedback.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luís Felipe Gomes Marinho
Full Text Available Abstract The economics of a mining operation is directly influenced by blasting outcomes, where blasting aims to comminute the rock mass in order to attain smaller grain sizes to be loaded and hauled at a minimum cost for its first processing stage. In order to promote adequate rock breakage, the stemming structure needs to provide proper confinement for the borehole charged with explosives, reflecting the energy released during the detonation in form of shock waves and gases to act throughout the in situ rock mass, enlarging its failures and fractures, and also creating new ones. To build up a stemming column, literature recommends the usage of dry granular materials instead of elements with plastic behavior. However, a study was performed using Gypsum plaster as stemming; a kind of material that exhibits solid-like behavior when it is dry. Following this theory, this test verified improvements regarding confinement effectiveness and energy propagation throughout the rock mass when a non-Newtonian mixture (NNM was applied as stemming; a material that shows a solid-like behavior when is under shear stress. When the stemming arrangement was composed of NNM, it was able to reduce energy and gas losses to the atmosphere, because of the liquid's property of filling voids into the borehole. The NNM yielded high results due to its better confinement effectiveness, a reduction of air overpressure, and an increase of the strain propagation and ground vibration throughout the rock.
Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved annular pipe: The impact of the annulus on the flow physics
Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Karahalios, George T.
2017-02-01
The motivation of the present study is threefold. Mainly, the etiological explanation of the Womersley number based on physical reasoning. Next, the extension of a previous work [Messaris, Hadjinicolaou, and Karahalios, "Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution," Phys. Fluids 28, 081901 (2016)] to the annular pipe flow. Finally, the discussion of the effect of the additional stresses generated by a catheter in an artery and exerted on the arterial wall during an in vivo catheterization. As it is known, the square of the Womersley number may be interpreted as an oscillatory Reynolds number which equals to the ratio of the inertial to the viscous forces. The adoption of a modified Womersley number in terms of the annular gap width seems therefore more appropriate to the description of the annular flow than an ordinary Womersley number defined in terms of the pipe radius. On this ground, the non-dimensional equations of motion are approximately solved by two analytical methods: a matched asymptotic expansions method and a single. In the first method, which is valid for very large values of the Womersley number, the flow region consists of the main core and the two boundary layers formed at the inner and outer boundaries. In the second, the fluid is considered as one region and the Womersley number can vary from finite values, such that they fit to the blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries, to infinity. The single solution predicts increasing circumferential and decreasing axial stresses with increasing catheter radius at a prescribed value of the Womersley parameter in agreement with analogous results from other theoretical and numerical solutions. It also predicts the formation of pinches on the secondary flow streamlines and a third boundary layer, additional to those formed at the boundary walls. Finally, we show that the insertion of a catheter in an
Mirels, Harold
1959-01-01
A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.
Experimental investigations of the unsteady flow in a Francis turbine draft tube cone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baya, A; Muntean, S; Campian, V C; Cuzmos, A; Diaconescu, M; Balan, G
2010-01-01
Operating Francis turbines at partial discharge is often hindered by the development of the helical vortex (so-called vortex rope) downstream the runner, in the draft tube cone. The unsteady pressure field induced by precessing vortex rope leads to pressure fluctuations. The paper presents the experimental investigations of the unsteady pressure field generated by precessing vortex rope and its associated pressure fluctuations into a draft tube of the Francis turbine operating at partial discharge. In situ measurements are performed in order to evaluate the pressure fluctuations and vortex rope frequency at partial load operation. Three pressure taps are installed on the cone wall of the draft tube in order to record the unsteady pressure. As a result, the Fourier spectra are obtained in order to evaluate the amplitude of pressure fluctuations and vortex rope frequency. Moreover, the wall pressure recovery along to the draft tube cone is acquired. Finally, conclusions are drawn in order to present the vortex rope effects.
Experimental investigations of the unsteady flow in a Francis turbine draft tube cone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baya, A [Department of Hydraulic Machinery, ' Politehnica' University of Timisoara Bv. Mihai Viteazu 1, RO-300222, Timisoara (Romania); Muntean, S [Centre of Advanced Research in Engineering Sciences, Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch Bv. Mihai Viteazu 24, RO-300223, Timisoara (Romania); Campian, V C; Cuzmos, A [Research Center in Hydraulics, Automation and Heat Transfer, ' Eftimie Murgu' University of Resita P-ta. Traian Vuia 1-4, RO-320085, Resita (Romania); Diaconescu, M; Balan, G, E-mail: abaya@mh.mec.upt.r [Ramnicu Valcea Subsidiary, S.C. Hidroelectrica S.A. Str. Decebal 11, RO-240255, Ramnicu Valcea (Romania)
2010-08-15
Operating Francis turbines at partial discharge is often hindered by the development of the helical vortex (so-called vortex rope) downstream the runner, in the draft tube cone. The unsteady pressure field induced by precessing vortex rope leads to pressure fluctuations. The paper presents the experimental investigations of the unsteady pressure field generated by precessing vortex rope and its associated pressure fluctuations into a draft tube of the Francis turbine operating at partial discharge. In situ measurements are performed in order to evaluate the pressure fluctuations and vortex rope frequency at partial load operation. Three pressure taps are installed on the cone wall of the draft tube in order to record the unsteady pressure. As a result, the Fourier spectra are obtained in order to evaluate the amplitude of pressure fluctuations and vortex rope frequency. Moreover, the wall pressure recovery along to the draft tube cone is acquired. Finally, conclusions are drawn in order to present the vortex rope effects.
El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
2011-01-01
simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re
Sviridenkov, A. A.; Toktaliev, P. D.; Tretyakov, V. V.
2018-03-01
Numerical and experimental research of atomization and propagation of drop-liquid phase in swirling flow behind the frontal device of combustion chamber was performed. Numerical procedure was based on steady and unsteady Reynolds equations solution. It's shown that better agreement with experimental data could be obtained with unsteady approach. Fractional time step method was implemented to solve Reynolds equations. Models of primary and secondary breakup of liquid fuel jet in swirling flows are formulated and tested. Typical mean sizes of fuel droplets for base operational regime of swirling device and combustion chamber were calculated. Comparison of main features of internal swirling flow in combustion chamber with unbounded swirling flow was made.
Entropy generation in a pipe due to non-Newtonian fluid flow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
pipes. They indicated that although the power-law model adequately agreed with the shear stress and shear rate ... In this case, it was shown that the power-law model was not capable of predicting the nor- mal stress effects that .... The dimensional volumetric entropy generation is defined as (Bejan 1995):. Sgen = k. ¯θ2. 0.
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in annular pipes and entropy generation ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Author Affiliations. M Yürüsoy1 B S Yilbaş2 M Pakdemirli2. Technical Education Faculty, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyon, Turkey; Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia ...
Shape sensitivity analysis of time-dependent flows of incompressible non-Newtonian fluids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sokolowski, J.; Stebel, Jan
2011-01-01
Roč. 40, č. 4 (2011), s. 1077-1097 ISSN 0324-8569 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : shape optimization * shape gradient * incompressible viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.300, year: 2010
Entropy generation in a pipe due to non-Newtonian fluid flow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-08-26
Aug 26, 2016 ... Author Affiliations. M Pakdemirli1 B S Yilbas2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey; Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1913, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia ...
Lie group analysis of flow and heat transfer of non-Newtonian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-01-09
Jan 9, 2017 ... of its industrial and engineering applications. In view of all these ... fluids). Applying nanotechnology to heat transfer, the new concept of ..... The set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of. (28) and (32) subject to the ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belkheir, N. [Khemis Miliana Univ., Ain Defla (Algeria); Dizene, R. [Univ. des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria). Laboratoire de Mecanique Avancee; Khelladi, S.; Massouh, F.; Dobrev, I. [Arts et Metiers Paris Tech., Paris (France)
2010-07-01
The shape of an airfoil is designed to achieve the best aerodynamic performance. An aerofoil section undergoes dynamic stall when subjected to any form of unsteady angle of pitch. The study of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) under wind operating conditions is complex because it is subject to instantaneous speed and wind direction variation. When turbine blades are driven into a dynamic stall, the lift coefficient drops suddenly resulting in a degradation in aerodynamic performance. This study presented steady and unsteady wind load predictions over an oscillating S809 airfoil tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. A model of sinusoidal pitch oscillations was used. The values for the angles of attack in steady state ranged from -20 to +40 degrees. The model considered 3 frequencies and 2 amplitudes. The two-dimensional numerical model simulated the instantaneous change of wind direction with respect to the turbine blade. Results were compared with data measurements of S809 aerofoil. Reasonable deviations were obtained between the predicted and experimental results for pitch oscillations. The URANS approach was used to predict the stall while the software FLUENT was used for the numerical solution. It was concluded that the behaviour of the unsteady flow in the wind farm must be considered in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the wind turbine aerodynamic load. 12 refs., 5 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, I.; Mahendra, A.K.; Chandresh, B.G.; Srikanthan, M.R.; Bera, T.K.
2010-01-01
A spiral pump uses two interleaved spirals (it can be involutes of a circle, involutes of a square, hybrid wraps, Archimedean spiral, logarithmic spirals and so on). Interleaved spiral orbits eccentrically without rotation around a fixed scroll, thereby trapping and compressing pockets of fluids between the spirals. Another method of providing the compression motion is by virtue of co-rotating the spirals synchronously with an offset in centers of rotation thereby providing relative motion similar to orbiting. Recently spiral pumps for low-pressure application have become popular. Since spiral pumps contain gas volumes, whose shapes and size change continuously, the flow fields inside the pumps is time dependent. The unsteadiness controls the mechanisms responsible for the behavior of the spiral pump components. To improve the spiral pump design for better performance as per our process requirement and reliability, information is required to understand the detailed physics of the unsteady flows inside the spiral pumps. The unsteady flows in a pump are studied numerically. The system simulated includes one side gap between fixed and moving spirals as the other side lies just in the reverse symmetry of the one side. Heavy molecular weight, condensable gas is used as the moving fluid. The mesh free Least Square Kinetic Upwind Method (LSKUM) for moving node is applied for numerical analysis of wobbling spiral. Nodes and boundaries change their positions, for every real time step hence at every iteration nodes take new coordinates. Our work consists of identifying various spiral dimensions and geometry, geometric modeling of suction process, identifying the eccentric orbiting motion of the moving spiral, formation of variable velocity moving nodes. Flow analysis of the spiral pump is done with a view to design and develop new pump as per our requirement. Experimental data from an existing spiral pump is used to carryout validation of the code. (author)
1987-03-01
MACHI, K. 1905 Unsteady Plow in a Turbine Rotor, VDI -Berichte 572.2p 1 9,5, pp. 273-292. FRANSSON, T.1!. and SUTER, P. 1983 Two-Dimensional and...Schaufelreihen in Axialverdichtern und Axialturbinen, VDI -Berichte No. 361, pp. 33-43. I[;RA, T. and RANNIE, W.D. 1953 Observations of Propagating Stall in...NASA-CR-3940. VICTORY, M. 1943 Flutter at High Incidence. Brit. A.R.C. R & M 2048 . VOGELER, K. 1984 The Unsteady Pressure Distribution on Parabolic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Mei
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The application of a multivariable predictive controller to the mixing process for the production of a non-Newtonian fluid is discussed in this work. A data-driven model has been developed to describe the dynamic behaviour of the rheological properties of the fluid as a function of the operating conditions using experimental data collected in a pilot plant. The developed model provides a realistic process representation and it is used to test and verify the multivariable controller, which has been designed to maintain viscosity curves of the non-Newtonian fluid within a given region of the viscosity-vs-shear rate plane in presence of process disturbances occurring in the mixing process.
Influence of a k-type Roughness on the Behaviour of Turbulence in an Unsteady Channel Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seddighi, Mehdi; He Shuisheng; Vardy, Alan E; Orlandi, Paolo
2011-01-01
Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) have been carried out for a spatially fully developed turbulent channel flow with one smooth wall and one k-type rough-wall surface to study the influence of a square bar roughness on the behaviour of unsteady turbulent flow. The flow state under investigation is a uniform acceleration from an initially steady turbulent flow. Results are compared with simulations of flows in a smooth wall channel undergoing a similar acceleration, and with quasi-steady behaviour obtained using steady flow simulations. The turbulence in the wall region and the buffer layer of an accelerating flow with a rough wall shows strikingly different behaviour from that of corresponding flows with smooth walls. The characteristic long delays in the response of the streamwise turbulent velocity and the different behaviours of the three turbulent velocity components that are exhibited in smooth wall flows are not seen in the rough wall flow. This is attributed to different turbulent production mechanisms in the two types of flows. Important differences are also seen in the wall shear stress responses one wall is rough and when both walls are smooth.
Physics of Life: A Model for Non-Newtonian Properties of Living Systems
Zak, Michail
2010-01-01
This innovation proposes the reconciliation of the evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics via the introduction of the First Principle for modeling behavior of living systems. The structure of the model is quantum-inspired: it acquires the topology of the Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced with the information potential. As a result, the model captures the most fundamental property of life: the progressive evolution; i.e. the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The mathematical structure of the model can be obtained from the Newtonian equations of motion (representing the motor dynamics) coupled with the corresponding Liouville equation (representing the mental dynamics) via information forces. All these specific non-Newtonian properties equip the model with the levels of complexity that matches the complexity of life, and that makes the model applicable for description of behaviors of ecological, social, and economical systems. Rather than addressing the six aspects of life (organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli, and reproduction), this work focuses only on biosignature ; i.e. the mechanical invariants of life, and in particular, the geometry and kinematics of behavior of living things. Living things obey the First Principles of Newtonian mechanics. One main objective of this model is to extend the First Principles of classical physics to include phenomenological behavior on living systems; to develop a new mathematical formalism within the framework of classical dynamics that would allow one to capture the specific properties of natural or artificial living systems such as formation of the collective mind based upon abstract images of the selves and non-selves; exploitation of this collective mind for communications and predictions of future expected characteristics of evolution; and for making decisions and implementing the corresponding corrections if
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boričić Zoran
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with laminar, unsteady flow of viscous, incompressible and electro conductive fluid caused by variable motion of flat plate. Fluid electro conductivity is variable. Velocity of the plate is time function. Plate moves in its own plane and in "still" fluid. Present external magnetic filed is perpendicular to the plate. Plate temperature is a function of longitudinal coordinate and time. Viscous dissipation, Joule heat, Hole and polarization effects are neglected. For obtaining of universal equations system general similarity method is used as well as impulse and energy equation of described problem.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.
2009-05-11
The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review’s executive summary, “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 μm in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.
2009-01-01
The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review's executive summary, ''Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.'' To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 (micro)m in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, K.; Rawat, S. K.; Kumar, M.
2016-01-01
Heat and mass transfer behavior of unsteady flow of squeezing between two parallel plates in the sight of uniform magnetic field with slip velocity effect is investigated. The governing equations representing fluid flow have been transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The equations thus obtained have been solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method with shooting technique. Effects on the behavior of velocity, temperature, and concentration for various values of relevant parameters are illustrated graphically. The skin-friction coefficient and heat and mass transfer rate are also tabulated for various governing parameters. The results indicate that, for nano fluid flow, the rates of heat and mass transfer are inversely proportional to nanoparticle volume fraction and magnetic parameter. The rate of mass transfer increases with increasing values of Schmidt number and squeeze number.
Unsteady Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Liquid Through a Channel Variable Pressure Gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, C.B.
1998-01-01
The article studies the unsteady motion of an electrically conducting, viscous incompressible fluid along a channel in the presence of imposed transverse magnetic field, when the walls do not conduct current, under the influence of pressure gradient which varies linearly with respect to time. Analytical expressions for the velocity of the fluid for various values of Hartman numbers and at different times has been obtained
(YIP 2011) Unsteady Output-based Adaptive Simulation of Separated and Transitional Flows
2015-03-19
Investigator Aerospace Eng. U. Michigan Marco Ceze Ph.D. student/postdoctoral associate Aerospace Eng. U. Michigan Steven Kast Ph.D. student Aerospace...13] S. M. Kast , M. A. Ceze, and K. J. Fidkowski. Output-adaptive solution strategies for unsteady aerodynamics on deformable domains. Seventh...International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics ICCFD7-3802, 2012. [14] S. M. Kast and K. J. Fidkowski. Output-based mesh adaptation for high order
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pořízková, P.; Kozel, Karel; Horáček, Jaromír
2014-01-01
Roč. 270, November (2014), s. 323-329 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/10/1329 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : compressible * incompressible * unsteady * CFD * acoustic * vocal tract Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377042713007188#
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ginter, F.
1997-12-31
The unsteady flow in a hydraulic machinery, affected by the interaction between guide vane and impeller, is simulated by a Finite-Element program. Based on the standard-k-{epsilon}-model modifications are investigated to model the turbulent flow. The low-Re-model of Lam-Brenhorst and a two-layer model is implemented for the calculation of the boundary layer. An algebraic Reynolds stress model is investigated for the simulation of the anisotropy of the turbulence structure. The turbulence models are compared by flows with characteristic properties. The pressure field of the incompressible flow is calculated by the mixed formulation and by solving the Poisson equation. The mixed formulation shows oscillations for the pressure field using elements with bilinear shape functions for the velocity and constant shape functions for the pressure, which are eliminated with a smoothing algorithm. An algorithm is implemented for the calculation of the unsteady interaction between fixed and moved blade rows, based on the method of overlapping regions, and is applied to the two-dimensional flow in an axial expansion turbine. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die instationaere Stroemung in einer hydraulischen Stroemungsmaschine, beruhend auf den Wechselwirkungen zwischen Leitrad und Laufrad, wird mit einem Finite-Elemente-Programm berechnet. Ausgehend vom Standard-k-{epsilon}-Modell werden Erweiterungen zur Modellierung der turbulenten Stroemung untersucht. Fuer die Berechnung der Grenzschicht werden das Low-Re-Modell nach Lam-Brenhorst und ein Zweischichtenmodell implementiert. Zur Erfassung der Anisotropie der Turbulenzstruktur wird ein algebraisches Reynoldsspannungsmodell untersucht. Die Turbulenzmodelle werden anhand von Stroemungen mit charakterischen Eigenschaften verglichen. Die Druckberechnung der inkompressiblen Stroemung erfolgt auf der Bais der gemischten Formulierung bzw. durch Loesung der Poissongleichung. Fuer die gemischte Formulierung zeigt das Druckfeld Oszillationen fuer
Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Luk, Daniel F.; Chen, Jen-Ping
2010-01-01
Unsteady three-dimensional RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as experiment. A low Reynolds number k- turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the periodic direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.
Boutsioukis, C; Verhaagen, B; Versluis, M; Kastrinakis, E; van der Sluis, L W M
2010-05-01
To compare the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the irrigant flow within a prepared root canal, during final irrigation with a syringe and a needle, with experimental high-speed visualizations and theoretical calculations of an identical geometry and to evaluate the effect of off-centre positioning of the needle inside the root canal. A CFD model was created to simulate irrigant flow from a side-vented needle inside a prepared root canal. Calculations were carried out for four different positions of the needle inside a prepared root canal. An identical root canal model was made from poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS). High-speed imaging of the flow seeded with particles and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) were combined to obtain the velocity field inside the root canal experimentally. Computational, theoretical and experimental results were compared to assess the validity of the computational model. Comparison between CFD computations and experiments revealed good agreement in the velocity magnitude and vortex location and size. Small lateral displacements of the needle inside the canal had a limited effect on the flow field. High-speed imaging experiments together with PIV of the flow inside a simulated root canal showed a good agreement with the CFD model, even though the flow was unsteady. Therefore, the CFD model is able to predict reliably the flow in similar domains.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abid Hussanan
Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.
Rawi, N. A.; Ilias, M. R.; Lim, Y. J.; Isa, Z. M.; Shafie, S.
2017-09-01
The influence of nanoparticles on the unsteady mixed convection flow of Casson fluid past an inclined stretching sheet is investigated in this paper. The effect of gravity modulation on the flow is also considered. Carboxymethyl cellulose solution (CMC) is chosen as the base fluid and copper as nanoparticles. The basic governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed using appropriate similarity transformation and solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme by means of the Keller-box method. The effect of nanoparticles volume fraction together with the effect of inclination angle and Casson parameter on the enhancement of heat transfer of Casson nanofluid is discussed in details. The velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number are presented and analyzed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isaac Lare Animasaun
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The problem of unsteady convective with thermophoresis, chemical reaction and radiative heat transfer in a micropolar fluid flow past a vertical porous surface moving through binary mixture considering temperature dependent dynamic viscosity and constant vortex viscosity has been investigated theoretically. For proper and correct analysis of fluid flow along vertical surface with a temperature lesser than that of the free stream, Boussinesq approximation and temperature dependent viscosity model were modified and incorporated into the governing equations. The governing equations are converted to systems of ordinary differential equations by applying suitable similarity transformations and solved numerically using fourth-order Runge–Kutta method along with shooting technique. The results of the numerical solution are presented graphically and in tabular forms for different values of parameters. Velocity profile increases with temperature dependent variable fluid viscosity parameter. Increase of suction parameter corresponds to an increase in both temperature and concentration within the thin boundary layer.
Javed, T.; Ghaffari, A.; Ahmad, H.
2016-05-01
The unsteady stagnation point flow impinging obliquely on a flat plate in presence of a uniform applied magnetic field due to an oscillating stream has been studied. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless form and the stream function is expressed in terms of Hiemenz and tangential components. The dimensionless partial differential equations are solved numerically by using well-known implicit finite difference scheme named as Keller-box method. The obtained results are compared with those available in the literature. It is observed that the results are in excellent agreement with the previous studies. The effects of pertinent parameters involved in the problem namely magnetic parameter, Prandtl number and impinging angle on flow and heat transfer characteristics are illustrated through graphs. It is observed that the influence of magnetic field strength increases the fluid velocity and by the increase of obliqueness parameter, the skin friction increases.
Khan, Kashif Ali; Butt, Asma Rashid; Raza, Nauman
2018-03-01
In this study, an endeavor is to observe the unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow with heat and mass transfer behavior of Casson fluid past a stretching sheet in presence of wall mass transfer by ignoring the effects of viscous dissipation. Chemical reaction of linear order is also invoked here. Similarity transformation have been applied to reduce the governing equations of momentum, energy and mass into non-linear ordinary differential equations; then Homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to solve these equations. Numerical work is done carefully with a well-known software MATHEMATICA for the examination of non-dimensional velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles, and then results are presented graphically. The skin friction (viscous drag), local Nusselt number (rate of heat transfer) and Sherwood number (rate of mass transfer) are discussed and presented in tabular form for several factors which are monitoring the flow model.
Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas
2014-01-01
In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taza Gul
Full Text Available This article aims to study the thin film layer flowing on a vertical oscillating belt. The flow is considered to satisfy the constitutive equation of unsteady second grade fluid. The governing equation for velocity and temperature fields with subjected initial and boundary conditions are solved by two analytical techniques namely Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM and Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The comparisons of ADM and OHAM solutions for velocity and temperature fields are shown numerically and graphically for both the lift and drainage problems. It is found that both these solutions are identical. In order to understand the physical behavior of the embedded parameters such as Stock number, frequency parameter, magnetic parameter, Brinkman number and Prandtl number, the analytical results are plotted graphically and discussed.
Gul, Taza; Islam, Saeed; Shah, Rehan Ali; Khan, Ilyas; Khalid, Asma; Shafie, Sharidan
2014-01-01
This article aims to study the thin film layer flowing on a vertical oscillating belt. The flow is considered to satisfy the constitutive equation of unsteady second grade fluid. The governing equation for velocity and temperature fields with subjected initial and boundary conditions are solved by two analytical techniques namely Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) and Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The comparisons of ADM and OHAM solutions for velocity and temperature fields are shown numerically and graphically for both the lift and drainage problems. It is found that both these solutions are identical. In order to understand the physical behavior of the embedded parameters such as Stock number, frequency parameter, magnetic parameter, Brinkman number and Prandtl number, the analytical results are plotted graphically and discussed. PMID:25383797
Narahari, Marneni
2018-04-01
The unsteady free convective flow of nanofluids past a semi-infinite vertical plate with uniform heat flux has been investigated numerically. An implicit finite difference technique of Crank-Nicolson scheme has been employed to solve the governing partial differential equations. Five different types of water based nanofluids containing Cu, Ag, Al2O3, CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles are considered to study the fluid flow characteristics with various time and solid volume fraction parameters. It is found that the local as well as the average Nusselt number for nanofluids is higher than the pure fluid (water). The local skin-friction is higher for pure fluid as compared to the nanofluids. The present numerical results obtained for local Nusselt number are validated with the previously published correlation results for a limiting case and it is found that the results are in good agreement.
Mettot, Clément; Sipp, Denis; Bézard, Hervé
2014-04-01
This article presents a quasi-laminar stability approach to identify in high-Reynolds number flows the dominant low-frequencies and to design passive control means to shift these frequencies. The approach is based on a global linear stability analysis of mean-flows, which correspond to the time-average of the unsteady flows. Contrary to the previous work by Meliga et al. ["Sensitivity of 2-D turbulent flow past a D-shaped cylinder using global stability," Phys. Fluids 24, 061701 (2012)], we use the linearized Navier-Stokes equations based solely on the molecular viscosity (leaving aside any turbulence model and any eddy viscosity) to extract the least stable direct and adjoint global modes of the flow. Then, we compute the frequency sensitivity maps of these modes, so as to predict before hand where a small control cylinder optimally shifts the frequency of the flow. In the case of the D-shaped cylinder studied by Parezanović and Cadot [J. Fluid Mech. 693, 115 (2012)], we show that the present approach well captures the frequency of the flow and recovers accurately the frequency control maps obtained experimentally. The results are close to those already obtained by Meliga et al., who used a more complex approach in which turbulence models played a central role. The present approach is simpler and may be applied to a broader range of flows since it is tractable as soon as mean-flows — which can be obtained either numerically from simulations (Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES), unsteady Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS), steady RANS) or from experimental measurements (Particle Image Velocimetry - PIV) — are available. We also discuss how the influence of the control cylinder on the mean-flow may be more accurately predicted by determining an eddy-viscosity from numerical simulations or experimental measurements. From a technical point of view, we finally show how an existing compressible numerical simulation code may be used in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eulitz, F
2000-04-01
The present work is devoted to the development of a computational technique for the Reynolds-averaged, time-resolved simulation of the undsteady, viscous flow in turbomachinery. After identification of model criteria, a novel turbulence and transition model, based on the extension of a one-equation turbulence model, is derived in order to incorporate the Reynolds-averaged effects of boundary-layer transition in unsteady turbomachinery flow. Preserving low numerical dissipation and dispersion errors, the explicit time integration method is accelerated through a time-consistent two-grid approach to allow for an efficient use of parallel computers. The model development is carefully assessed by considering various test cases of steady and unsteady turbine flow with various transition modes or of transonic channel flow with self-excited shock-oscillation. The application of the computational technique is demonstrated for the case of a single-stage, transonic compressor component and of a three-stage low-pressure turbine at low Reynolds-number operation. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit wird ein numerisches Verfahren zur zeitgenauen Simulation der instationaeren, reibungsbehafteten Stroemung in Turbomaschinen auf Grundlage der Reynolds-gemittelten Navier-Stokes-Gleichungen entwickelt. Nach Aufarbeitung der Modellierungsanforderungen wird basierend auf einem Eingleichungsturbulenzmodell ein neuartiges Turbulenz- und Transitionsmodell abgeleitet, mit dem verschiedene Transitionsmoden der instationaeren Turbomaschinenstroemung in ihrer Reynolds-gemittelten Wirkung beschrieben werden koennen. Durch einen zeitkonsistenten Zweigitter-Ansatz wird die Zeitintegration fuer Navier-Stokes-Simulationen auf Parallelrechnern unter Wahrung geringer numerischer Phasen- und Amplitudenfehler beschleunigt. Die Entwicklung wird an einer Reihe von Testfaellen, zur stationaeren und instationaeren Turbinenstroemung mit unterschiedlicher Grenzschichttransition oder zur transsonischen
Exact solution of unsteady flow generated by sinusoidal pressure gradient in a capillary tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Abdulhameed
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the mathematical modeling of unsteady second grade fluid in a capillary tube with sinusoidal pressure gradient is developed with non-homogenous boundary conditions. Exact analytical solutions for the velocity profiles have been obtained in explicit forms. These solutions are written as the sum of the steady and transient solutions for small and large times. For growing times, the starting solution reduces to the well-known periodic solution that coincides with the corresponding solution of a Newtonian fluid. Graphs representing the solutions are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Revathi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Non-similar solutions are found numerically to a system of coupled non-linear partial differential equations indicating, unsteady laminar water boundary layer flow over yawed cylinder using implicit finite difference scheme along with Quasi-linearization technique. The fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are considered as an inverse function of temperature. Unsteadiness is caused by upstream velocity in and directions and non-uniform mass transfer (suction/injection which is applied through slot on the surface of the geometry. The effect of yaw angle, variable fluid properties and non-uniform mass transfer on skin friction and heat transfer coefficients is analyzed. It is found that non-uniform slot suction and downstream movement of the slot cause the point of vanishing skin friction moves downstream, but non-uniform slot injection produces the opposite result of that corresponding to the suction case. When the yaw angle increases, both the skin friction coefficient in the – direction and the heat transfer coefficient decrease but the skin friction coefficient in the – direction increases for all times. The effect of the yaw angle is very little on the point of vanishing skin friction.
Unsteady Stokes equations: Some complete general solutions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
homogeneous unsteady Stokes equations are examined. A necessary and sufficient condition for a divergence-free vector to represent the velocity field of a possible unsteady Stokes flow in the absence of body forces is derived. Keywords. Complete ...
Electro-osmosis of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media using lattice Poisson-Boltzmann method.
Chen, Simeng; He, Xinting; Bertola, Volfango; Wang, Moran
2014-12-15
Electro-osmosis in porous media has many important applications in various areas such as oil and gas exploitation and biomedical detection. Very often, fluids relevant to these applications are non-Newtonian because of the shear-rate dependent viscosity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behaviors and physical mechanism of electro-osmosis of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. Model porous microstructures (granular, fibrous, and network) were created by a random generation-growth method. The nonlinear governing equations of electro-kinetic transport for a power-law fluid were solved by the lattice Poisson-Boltzmann method (LPBM). The model results indicate that: (i) the electro-osmosis of non-Newtonian fluids exhibits distinct nonlinear behaviors compared to that of Newtonian fluids; (ii) when the bulk ion concentration or zeta potential is high enough, shear-thinning fluids exhibit higher electro-osmotic permeability, while shear-thickening fluids lead to the higher electro-osmotic permeability for very low bulk ion concentration or zeta potential; (iii) the effect of the porous medium structure depends significantly on the constitutive parameters: for fluids with large constitutive coefficients strongly dependent on the power-law index, the network structure shows the highest electro-osmotic permeability while the granular structure exhibits the lowest permeability on the entire range of power law indices considered; when the dependence of the constitutive coefficient on the power law index is weaker, different behaviors can be observed especially in case of strong shear thinning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simulation of a 3D unsteady flow in an axial turbine stage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Straka Petr
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The contribution deals with a numerical simulation of an unsteady ﬂow in an axial turbine stage. The solution is performed using an in-house numerical code developed in the Aeronautical and Test Institute, Plc. in Prague. The numerical code is based on a ﬁnite volume discretization of governing equations (Favre averaged Navier-Stokes equations and a two-equations turbulence model. The temporal integration is based on the implicit second-order backward Euler formula, which is realized through the iteration process in dual time. The proposed numerical method is used for solution of the 3D, unsteady, viscous turbulent ﬂow of a perfect gas in the axial turbine stage. The ﬂow path consists of an input nozzle, stator blade-wheel, rotor blade-wheel, a shroud-seal gap and a diffuser. Attention is paid to the inﬂuence of a secondary ﬂow structures, such as generated vortices and ﬂow in shroud-seal gap.
Vasanth, K. R.; Hanumagowda, B. N.; Santhosh Kumar, J.
2018-04-01
Squeeze film investigations focus upon film pressure, load bearing quantity and the minimum thickness of film. The combined effect of pressure viscous dependent and non- Newtonian couple stress in porous annular plate is studied. The modified equations of one dimensional pressure, load bearing quantity, non dimensional squeeze time are obtained. The conclusions obtained in the study are found to be in very good agreement compared to the previous results which are published. The load carrying capacity is increased due to the variation in the pressure dependent viscosity and also due to the couple stress effect. Finally this results in change in the squeeze film timings.
Linking the fractional derivative and the Lomnitz creep law to non-Newtonian time-varying viscosity
Pandey, Vikash; Holm, Sverre
2016-01-01
Many of the most interesting complex media are non-Newtonian and exhibit time-dependent behavior of thixotropy and rheopecty. They may also have temporal responses described by power laws. The material behavior is represented by the relaxation modulus and the creep compliance. On the one hand, it is shown that in the special case of a Maxwell model characterized by a linearly time-varying viscosity, the medium's relaxation modulus is a power law which is similar to that of a fractional deriva...
Rana, B. M. Jewel; Ahmed, Rubel; Ahmmed, S. F.
2017-06-01
Unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical porous plate in porous medium with radiation, diffusion thermo, thermal diffusion and heat source are analyzed. The governing non-linear, partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless by using non-dimensional quantities. Then the resultant dimensionless equations are solved numerically by applying an efficient, accurate and conditionally stable finite difference scheme of explicit type with the help of a computer programming language Compaq Visual Fortran. The stability and convergence analysis has been carried out to establish the effect of velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, stream lines and isotherms line. Finally, the effects of various parameters are presented graphically and discussed qualitatively.
Ahmed, Rubel; Rana, B. M. Jewel; Ahmmed, S. F.
2017-06-01
The effects of magnetic, radiation and chemical reaction parameters on the unsteady heat and mass transfer boundary layer flow past an oscillating cylinder is considered. The dimensionless momentum, energy and concentration equations are solved numerically by using explicit finite difference method with the help of a computer programming language Compaq visual FORTRAN 6.6a. The obtained results of this study have been discussed for different values of well-known parameters with different time steps. The effect of these parameters on the velocity field, temperature field and concentration field, skin-friction, Nusselt number, streamlines and isotherms has been studied and results are presented by graphically represented by the tabular form quantitatively. The stability and convergence analysis of the solution parameters that have been used in the mathematical model have been tested.
Devakar, M.; Raje, Ankush
2018-05-01
The unsteady flow of two immiscible micropolar and Newtonian fluids through a horizontal channel is considered. In addition to the classical no-slip and hyper-stick conditions at the boundary, it is assumed that the fluid velocities and shear stresses are continuous across the fluid-fluid interface. Three cases for the applied pressure gradient are considered to study the problem: one with constant pressure gradient and the other two cases with time-dependent pressure gradients, viz. periodic and decaying pressure gradient. The Crank-Nicolson approach has been used to obtain numerical solutions for fluid velocity and microrotation for diverse sets of fluid parameters. The nature of fluid velocities and microrotation with various values of pressure gradient, Reynolds number, ratio of viscosities, micropolarity parameter and time is illustrated through graphs. It has been observed that micropolarity parameter and ratio of viscosities reduce the fluid velocities.
Colera, Manuel; Pérez-Saborid, Miguel
2017-09-01
A finite differences scheme is proposed in this work to compute in the time domain the compressible, subsonic, unsteady flow past an aerodynamic airfoil using the linearized potential theory. It improves and extends the original method proposed in this journal by Hariharan, Ping and Scott [1] by considering: (i) a non-uniform mesh, (ii) an implicit time integration algorithm, (iii) a vectorized implementation and (iv) the coupled airfoil dynamics and fluid dynamic loads. First, we have formulated the method for cases in which the airfoil motion is given. The scheme has been tested on well known problems in unsteady aerodynamics -such as the response to a sudden change of the angle of attack and to a harmonic motion of the airfoil- and has been proved to be more accurate and efficient than other finite differences and vortex-lattice methods found in the literature. Secondly, we have coupled our method to the equations governing the airfoil dynamics in order to numerically solve problems where the airfoil motion is unknown a priori as happens, for example, in the cases of the flutter and the divergence of a typical section of a wing or of a flexible panel. Apparently, this is the first self-consistent and easy-to-implement numerical analysis in the time domain of the compressible, linearized coupled dynamics of the (generally flexible) airfoil-fluid system carried out in the literature. The results for the particular case of a rigid airfoil show excellent agreement with those reported by other authors, whereas those obtained for the case of a cantilevered flexible airfoil in compressible flow seem to be original or, at least, not well-known.
Sajben, Miklos; Freund, Donald D.
1998-01-01
The ability to predict the dynamics of integrated inlet/compressor systems is an important part of designing high-speed propulsion systems. The boundaries of the performance envelope are often defined by undesirable transient phenomena in the inlet (unstart, buzz, etc.) in response to disturbances originated either in the engine or in the atmosphere. Stability margins used to compensate for the inability to accurately predict such processes lead to weight and performance penalties, which translate into a reduction in vehicle range. The prediction of transients in an inlet/compressor system requires either the coupling of two complex, unsteady codes (one for the inlet and one for the engine) or else a reliable characterization of the inlet/compressor interface, by specifying a boundary condition. In the context of engineering development programs, only the second option is viable economically. Computations of unsteady inlet flows invariably rely on simple compressor-face boundary conditions (CFBC's). Currently, customary conditions include choked flow, constant static pressure, constant axial velocity, constant Mach number or constant mass flow per unit area. These conditions are straightforward extensions of practices that are valid for and work well with steady inlet flows. Unfortunately, it is not at all likely that any flow property would stay constant during a complex system transient. At the start of this effort, no experimental observation existed that could be used to formulate of verify any of the CFBC'S. This lack of hard information represented a risk for a development program that has been recognized to be unacceptably large. The goal of the present effort was to generate such data. Disturbances reaching the compressor face in flight may have complex spatial structures and temporal histories. Small amplitude disturbances may be decomposed into acoustic, vorticity and entropy contributions that are uncoupled if the undisturbed flow is uniform. This study
Lightbody, A.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Kang, S.; Diplas, P.
2009-12-01
Despite their widespread application to prevent lateral river migration, stabilize banks, and promote aquatic habitat, shallow transverse flow training structures such as rock vanes and stream barbs lack quantitative design guidelines. Due to the lack of fundamental knowledge about the interaction of the flow field with the sediment bed, existing engineering standards are typically based on various subjective criteria or on cross-sectionally-averaged shear stresses rather than local values. Here, we examine the performance and stability of in-stream structures within a field-scale single-threaded sand-bed meandering stream channel in the newly developed Outdoor StreamLab (OSL) at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL). Before and after the installation of a rock vane along the outer bank of the middle meander bend, high-resolution topography data were obtained for the entire 50-m-long reach at 1-cm spatial scale in the horizontal and sub-millimeter spatial scale in the vertical. In addition, detailed measurements of flow and turbulence were obtained using acoustic Doppler velocimetry at twelve cross-sections focused on the vicinity of the structure. Measurements were repeated at a range of extreme events, including in-bank flows with an approximate flow rate of 44 L/s (1.4 cfs) and bankfull floods with an approximate flow rate of 280 L/s (10 cfs). Under both flow rates, the structure reduced near-bank shear stresses and resulted in both a deeper thalweg and near-bank aggradation. The resulting comprehensive dataset has been used to validate a large eddy simulation carried out by SAFL’s computational fluid dynamics model, the Virtual StreamLab (VSL). This versatile computational framework is able to efficiently simulate 3D unsteady turbulent flows in natural streams with complex in-stream structures and as a result holds promise for the development of much-needed quantitative design guidelines.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. D. Makinde
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the unsteady hydromagnetic-free convection of an incompressible electrical conducting Boussinesq’s radiating fluid past a moving vertical plate in an optically thin environment with the Navier slip, viscous dissipation, and Ohmic and Newtonian heating. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the transient problem are obtained and tackled numerically using a semidiscretization finite difference method coupled with Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration technique. Numerical data for the local skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number have been tabulated for various values of parametric conditions. Graphical results for the fluid velocity, temperature, skin friction, and the Nusselt number are presented and discussed. The results indicate that the skin friction coefficient decreases while the heat transfer rate at the plate surface increases as the slip parameter and Newtonian heating increase.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janetzky, B.
2001-07-01
A numerical model for the transient, free surface flow is implemented in a Finite-Element program for the unsteady calculation of incompressible flow with free surface. The program is used to calculate the flow in different components of a hydraulic turbine, the Pelton turbine. The movement of the fluid with free surface is described mathematically by introducing a partial differential equation for the volume fraction. This equation is simply a transport equation for f, i.e. the volume fraction is advected with the flow in time. The equations is solved numerically. (orig.) [German] Es wird ein Verfahren zur Modellierung von veraenderlichen, freien Oberflaechen vorgestellt und in einem Finite-Elemente-Programm zur numerischen Berechnung von instationaeren, inkompressiblen Stroemungen implementiert. Die veraenderliche, freie Oberflaeche wird mit einem Volume-Of-Fluid Ansatz erfasst. Zur Approximierung der freien Oberflaeche werden stueckweise konstante oder gestufte Verlaeufe im Element angesetzt. Es werden die Eigenschaften des Verfahrens an ausgewaehlten Beispielen mit freier Oberflaeche untersucht. Das erweiterte Programm wird auf instationaere Stroemungen mit freier Oberflaeche in einer hydraulischen Maschine, der Peltonturbine, angewandt. (orig.)
Kang, Seokkoo; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2008-11-01
Unsteady 3D simulations of flows in natural streams is a challenging task due to the complexity of the bathymetry, the shallowness of the flow, and the presence of multiple nature- and man-made obstacles. This work is motivated by the need to develop a powerful numerical method for simulating such flows using coherent-structure-resolving turbulence models. We employ the curvilinear immersed boundary method of Ge and Sotiropoulos (Journal of Computational Physics, 2007) and address the critical issue of numerical efficiency in large aspect ratio computational domains and grids such as those encountered in long and shallow open channels. We show that the matrix-free Newton-Krylov method for solving the momentum equations coupled with an algebraic multigrid method with incomplete LU preconditioner for solving the Poisson equation yield a robust and efficient procedure for obtaining time-accurate solutions in such problems. We demonstrate the potential of the numerical approach by carrying out a direct numerical simulation of flow in a long and shallow meandering stream with multiple hydraulic structures.
Iwamatsu, Masao
2017-07-01
The spreading of a cap-shaped spherical droplet of non-Newtonian power-law liquids, both shear-thickening and shear-thinning liquids, that completely wet a spherical substrate is theoretically investigated in the capillary-controlled spreading regime. The crater-shaped droplet model with the wedge-shaped meniscus near the three-phase contact line is used to calculate the viscous dissipation near the contact line. Then the energy balance approach is adopted to derive the equation that governs the evolution of the contact line. The time evolution of the dynamic contact angle θ of a droplet obeys a power law θ∼t^{-α} with the spreading exponent α, which is different from Tanner's law for Newtonian liquids and those for non-Newtonian liquids on a flat substrate. Furthermore, the line-tension dominated spreading, which could be realized on a spherical substrate for late-stage of spreading when the contact angle becomes low and the curvature of the contact line becomes large, is also investigated.
Hah, Chunill; Hathaway, Michael; Katz, Joseph; Tan, David
2015-01-01
The primary focus of this paper is to investigate how a rotor's unsteady tip clearance flow structure changes in a low speed one and half stage axial compressor when the rotor tip gap size is increased from 0.5 mm (0.49% of rotor tip blade chord, 2% of blade span) to 2.4 mm (2.34% chord, 4% span) at the design condition are investigated. The changes in unsteady tip clearance flow with the 0.62 % tip gap as the flow rate is reduced to near stall condition are also investigated. A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is applied to calculate the unsteady flow field at these three flow conditions. Detailed Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) measurements of the current flow fields were also performed at the Johns Hopkins University in a refractive index-matched test facility which renders the compressor blades and casing optically transparent. With this setup, the unsteady velocity field in the entire flow domain, including the flow inside the tip gap, can be measured. Unsteady tip clearance flow fields from LES are compared with the PIV measurements and both LES and PIV results are used to study changes in tip clearance flow structures. The current study shows that the tip clearance vortex is not a single structure as traditionally perceived. The tip clearance vortex is formed by multiple interlaced vorticities. Therefore, the tip clearance vortex is inherently unsteady. The multiple interlaced vortices never roll up to form a single structure. When phased-averaged, the tip clearance vortex appears as a single structure. When flow rate is reduced with the same tip gap, the tip clearance vortex rolls further upstream and the tip clearance vortex moves further radially inward and away from the suction side of the blade. When the tip gap size is increased at the design flow condition, the overall tip clearance vortex becomes stronger and it stays closer to the blade suction side and the vortex core extends all the way to the exit of the blade passage. Measured and calculated unsteady flow
Grid-converged solution and analysis of the unsteady viscous flow in a two-dimensional shock tube
Zhou, Guangzhao; Xu, Kun; Liu, Feng
2018-01-01
The flow in a shock tube is extremely complex with dynamic multi-scale structures of sharp fronts, flow separation, and vortices due to the interaction of the shock wave, the contact surface, and the boundary layer over the side wall of the tube. Prediction and understanding of the complex fluid dynamics are of theoretical and practical importance. It is also an extremely challenging problem for numerical simulation, especially at relatively high Reynolds numbers. Daru and Tenaud ["Evaluation of TVD high resolution schemes for unsteady viscous shocked flows," Comput. Fluids 30, 89-113 (2001)] proposed a two-dimensional model problem as a numerical test case for high-resolution schemes to simulate the flow field in a square closed shock tube. Though many researchers attempted this problem using a variety of computational methods, there is not yet an agreed-upon grid-converged solution of the problem at the Reynolds number of 1000. This paper presents a rigorous grid-convergence study and the resulting grid-converged solutions for this problem by using a newly developed, efficient, and high-order gas-kinetic scheme. Critical data extracted from the converged solutions are documented as benchmark data. The complex fluid dynamics of the flow at Re = 1000 are discussed and analyzed in detail. Major phenomena revealed by the numerical computations include the downward concentration of the fluid through the curved shock, the formation of the vortices, the mechanism of the shock wave bifurcation, the structure of the jet along the bottom wall, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability near the contact surface. Presentation and analysis of those flow processes provide important physical insight into the complex flow physics occurring in a shock tube.
2017-07-31
ultimately, may lead to revolutionary practical methods for the prediction and control of unsteady and turbulent flow. Recent work suggests a class...Recent work suggests a class of exact Navier-Stokes solutions termed “Exact Coherent Structures” (ECS) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12] may...velocimetry. In the Taylor-Couette geometry, walls are always in close proximity to the flows of interest; thus, interrogation of fluorescing particles
Schobeiri, M. T.; Ozturk, B.; Ashpis, David E.
2007-01-01
The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nor Athirah Mohd Zin
Full Text Available In this article, the influence of thermal radiation on unsteady magnetohydrodynamics (MHD free convection flow of rotating Jeffrey nanofluid passing through a porous medium is studied. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are dispersed in the Kerosene Oil (KO which is chosen as conventional base fluid. Appropriate dimensionless variables are used and the system of equations is transformed into dimensionless form. The resulting problem is solved using the Laplace transform technique. The impact of pertinent parameters including volume fraction Ï, material parameters of Jeffrey fluid Î»1, Î», rotation parameter r, Hartmann number Ha, permeability parameter K, Grashof number Gr, Prandtl number Pr, radiation parameter Rd and dimensionless time t on velocity and temperature profiles are presented graphically with comprehensive discussions. It is observed that, the rotation parameter, due to the Coriolis force, tends to decrease the primary velocity but reverse effect is observed in the secondary velocity. It is also observed that, the Lorentz force retards the fluid flow for both primary and secondary velocities. The expressions for skin friction and Nusselt number are also evaluated for different values of emerging parameters. A comparative study with the existing published work is provided in order to verify the present results. An excellent agreement is found. Keywords: Jeffrey nanofluid, AgNPs, MHD and Porosity, Rotating flow, Laplace transform technique
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Greenblatt, David
2007-01-01
This is an expanded version of a limited-length paper that appeared at the 5th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena by the same authors. A computational study was performed for steady and oscillatory flow control over a hump model with flow separation to assess how well the steady and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations predict trends due to Reynolds number, control magnitude, and control frequency. As demonstrated in earlier studies, the hump model case is useful because it clearly demonstrates a failing in all known turbulence models: they under-predict the turbulent shear stress in the separated region and consequently reattachment occurs too far downstream. In spite of this known failing, three different turbulence models were employed to determine if trends can be captured even though absolute levels are not. Overall the three turbulence models showed very similar trends as experiment for steady suction, but only agreed qualitatively with some of the trends for oscillatory control.