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Sample records for unsafe road crossing

  1. The effects of peer influence on adolescent pedestrian road-crossing decisions.

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    Pfeffer, K; Hunter, E

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a high-risk period for pedestrian injury. It is also a time of heightened susceptibility to peer influence. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of peer influence on the pedestrian road-crossing decisions of adolescents. Using 10 videos of road-crossing sites, 80 16- to 18-year-olds were asked to make pedestrian road-crossing decisions. Participants were assigned to one of 4 experimental conditions: negative peer (influencing unsafe decisions), positive peer (influencing cautious decisions), silent peer (who observed but did not comment), and no peer (the participant completed the task alone). Peers from the adolescent's own friendship group were recruited to influence either an unsafe or a cautious decision. Statistically significant differences were found between peer conditions. Participants least often identified safe road-crossing sites when accompanied by a negative peer and more frequently identified dangerous road-crossing sites when accompanied by a positive peer. Both cautious and unsafe comments from a peer influenced adolescent pedestrians' decisions. These findings showed that road-crossing decisions of adolescents were influenced by both unsafe and cautious comments from their peers. The discussion highlighted the role that peers can play in both increasing and reducing adolescent risk-taking.

  2. Road-Crossing Safety in Virtual Reality: A Comparison of Adolescents With and Without ADHD

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    Clancy, Tamera A.; Rucklidge, Julia J.; Owen, Dean

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the potential accident-proneness of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a hazardous road-crossing environment. An immersive virtual reality traffic gap-choice task was used to determine whether ADHD adolescents show more unsafe road-crossing behavior than controls. Participants (ages 13 to…

  3. Cognitive function and unsafe driving acts during an on-road test among community-dwelling older adults with cognitive impairments.

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    Hotta, Ryo; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Nakakubo, Sho; Makino, Keitaro; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-19

    To examine the relationship between cognitive function and unsafe driving acts among community-dwelling older adults with cognitive impairments. Participants (n = 160) were older residents of Obu, Japan, aged ≥65 years with cognitive impairments. They regularly drove and were assessed for the number of unsafe driving acts without adequate verification during an on-road test. We also evaluated cognitive function (attention, executive function and processing speed). Other examined variables included demographics, driving characteristics and visual condition. Participants were classified into two groups according to the number of unsafe driving acts as follows: high group (≥4 unsafe driving acts) and low group (≤3 unsafe driving acts). The high group participants were older in age (P age (r = 0.396, P age group. Processing speed was associated with unsafe driving acts that became worse with increasing age. Future study will be required to longitudinally examine the influence of processing speed on traffic accidents for those with cognitive impairments. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Road-crossing safety in virtual reality: a comparison of adolescents with and without ADHD.

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    Clancy, Tamera A; Rucklidge, Julia J; Owen, Dean

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the potential accident-proneness of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a hazardous road-crossing environment. An immersive virtual reality traffic gap-choice task was used to determine whether ADHD adolescents show more unsafe road-crossing behavior than controls. Participants (ages 13 to 17) were identified with (n = 24) or without (n = 24) ADHD according to a standardized protocol (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and Conners' Scales), with equal number of boys (n = 12) and girls (n = 12) in each group. ADHD adolescents did not take stimulant medication on the day of testing. Participants with ADHD had a lower margin of safety, walked slower, underutilized the available gap in incoming traffic, showed greater variability in road-crossing behavior, and evidenced twice as many collisions as compared to controls. No sex differences were found. Virtual reality may help identify and educate those at higher risk of being involved in dangerous traffic situations.

  5. Predictors of road crossing safety in pedestrians with Parkinson's disease.

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    Lin, Chin-Hsien; Ou, Yang-Kun; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Road-crossing safety is an important issue in an aging society. Information regarding the risk of crossing the street to pedestrians with Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited. To assess the risk and predictors of unsafe crossing behaviors in patients with PD, we compared 31 pedestrians with mild-to-moderate PD to 50 age/gender/education-matched controls using a battery of cognitive, visual, and motor tests. With a simulated simple street-crossing situation, we determined the remaining time and safety margin for each participant in different traffic situations, including variable motor vehicle speed, time gap, and time of the day. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression models. We found that pedestrians with PD were more vulnerable to traffic accidents than controls (OR 1.61 [1.28-2.02], P=0.01). The risk of crossing road correlated in a dose-dependent manner with the severity of PD, based on both Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stages and unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) motor scores (OR 1.13 for each increasing point of UPDSR, Psafety errors, rather than executive function. Environmental factors, such as fast approaching motor vehicle speed (OR 4.50 [2.92-6.95], Proad-crossing safety. Future large sample studies are needed to confirm our findings. Training programs or portable stimulator devices that compensate for the visual-spatial disabilities of PD patients are required to improve road safety for PD patients. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of conformity tendency on pedestrians' road-crossing intentions in China: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

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    Zhou, Ronggang; Horrey, William J; Yu, Ruifeng

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a survey investigating the effects of age, gender and conformity tendency on Chinese pedestrians' intention to cross the road in potentially dangerous situations. A sample of 426 respondents completed a demographic questionnaire, a scale measuring their tendency towards social conformity, and a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This questionnaire measured people's intentions to cross the road in two different road crossing situations, their attitude towards the behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, anticipated affect, moral norms, and perceived risk. The two scenarios depicted (i) a situation where the crossing was consistent with other pedestrians' behavior (Conformity scenario) and (ii) a situation where the road crossing was inconsistent with other pedestrians (Non-Conformity scenario). Pedestrians reported greater likelihood in crossing the road when other pedestrians were crossing the road. People who showed greater tendencies towards social conformity also had stronger road crossing intentions than low conformity people for both scenarios. The predictive model explained 36% and 48% of the variance in the Non-Conformity and Conformity scenarios, respectively. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and perceived risk emerged as the common predictors for both situations. The results have a number of theoretical and practical implications. In particular, interventions should focus on perceptions of risk that inform road users that crossing with other pedestrians against the signal is also unsafe and prohibited, and may lead to negative outcomes.

  7. Relationship between religion and school students' road behavior in southern Iran

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    Reza Tabrizi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Unsafe behaviors are an important cause of accidents in adolescent age groups. This study was designed to examine the behaviors of adolescent pedestrians in southern Iran. Methods: This is a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of high school students in Shiraz, capital city of Fars Province, Iran. Five hundred and sixteen students were selected by multi-stage sampling. Data were collected by the use of three questionnaires, which included Persian copies of adolescent road user behavior questionnaire (ARBQ, Duke University Religious Index (DUREL, as well as the context and independent variables questionnaire. Results: The results showed that a decrease in dangerous behaviors on the road resulted in an increase in respondents' intrinsic religiosity. Also, engagement in unsafe crossing behavior in the road decreased with increasing respondents' intrinsic religiosity. Another finding showed that female students were less involved in dangerous play and planned protective behaviors on the road. Conclusion: Findings clearly indicate that intrinsic religiosity has a significant role in reducing the risky road behaviors of students. Hence, religion may improve road safety in school students' road behavior in Iran. Keywords: Religion, Traffic accidents, Road behaviors, Students

  8. Injury-related unsafe behavior among households from different socioeconomic strata in Pune city

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    Mirkazemi Roksana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavior pattern influences the risk of unintentional injuries. This study was conducted to identify the pattern of household unsafe behavior in different socioeconomic strata, in Pune city, India. Materials and Method: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Behaviors influencing the risk of burn, poisoning, drowning, and road traffic injuries were questioned from 200 randomly selected households. Results: Nearly 28% of the households did not have a separate kitchen, 37.5% cooked at the ground level, 33.5% used a kerosene pressure stove, 12% used unprotected open fire as a source of warmth in winter, and 34.5% stored inflammable substances at home. Ninety one percent of the households reported storing poisonous chemicals in places that could not be locked. In 68.3% of the households with children below five years, these chemicals were kept in places accessible to children. Nearly 21% of the individuals, who could swim, did so in unsafe places and 25.2% of them were not trained in swimming. In 35.5% of the households, children used streets as playgrounds. Among all two-wheeled vehicle riders, 35.6% reported not having a helmet and 57.7% of those who had a helmet did not use it regularly. Socioeconomic status was strongly associated with the unsafe behaviors related to burns, drowning, and road traffic injuries. Conclusion: The study identifies the sociocultural and behavioral factors leading to unsafe behaviors, placing individuals at risk of unintentional injuries, which can be used as a first step toward prevention.

  9. Relationship between religion and school students' road behavior in southern Iran.

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    Tabrizi, Reza; Akbari, Maryam; Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Masoudi, Alireza; Shams, Amir Hossein; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Moalemi, Saba; Mehr, Maryam Mahmoodi; Sadati, Ahmad Kalateh; Peymani, Payam

    2017-10-01

    Unsafe behaviors are an important cause of accidents in adolescent age groups. This study was designed to examine the behaviors of adolescent pedestrians in southern Iran. This is a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of high school students in Shiraz, capital city of Fars Province, Iran. Five hundred and sixteen students were selected by multi-stage sampling. Data were collected by the use of three questionnaires, which included Persian copies of adolescent road user behavior questionnaire (ARBQ), Duke University Religious Index (DUREL), as well as the context and independent variables questionnaire. The results showed that a decrease in dangerous behaviors on the road resulted in an increase in respondents' intrinsic religiosity. Also, engagement in unsafe crossing behavior in the road decreased with increasing respondents' intrinsic religiosity. Another finding showed that female students were less involved in dangerous play and planned protective behaviors on the road. Findings clearly indicate that intrinsic religiosity has a significant role in reducing the risky road behaviors of students. Hence, religion may improve road safety in school students' road behavior in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Time to unsafe sexual practice among cross-border female sex workers in Metemma Yohannes, North West Ethiopia.

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    Gezie, Lemma Derseh; Taye, Belaynew Wassie; Ayele, Tadesse Awoke

    2015-07-28

    Because of the nature of their work, female sex workers are at risk of sexually transmitted diseases. Cross-border areas are places where this situation becomes worse. In Ethiopia, there has been a serious scarcity of studies on the time at which unsafe sexual practice starts and on factors which determine the practice among female sex workers there. Therefore, this study aimed to fill this identified gap. A total of 467 women who had been sex workers at least for three months prior to the resumption of the study were included. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from July-August, 2010. Descriptive statistics was used to explore the data, and the Extended Cox-Regression model was employed to identify the predictors of time-to-unsafe sexual practice. The study participants were followed for 6, 643 person-months. The overall incidence density of unsafe sexual practice was 44.71 persons per 1000 persons-months. The hazard of unsafe sexual practice increased by 3.0 % every month (p-value =0.040) due to problem-drinking. Those female sex workers with familiarized clients had a two-fold hazard of practicing unsafe sex compared to their counterparts (AHR = 1.94 95 % CI 1.49, 2.53). The predominant sexual client type and the work place of sex workers were the other significant predictors of unsafe sexual practice. The incidence of unsafe sexual practice was found to be high among sex workers in the cross-border area. Time-to-unsafe sexual practice was significantly associated with female sex workers' status of familiarity with their clients, predominant sexual client type, their work place, and the interaction term of time and problem-drinking. Interventions need to be made on these controllable social and behavioral characteristics to help sex workers extend the duration of their safe sexual practice beyond the time they will quit sex work.

  11. Drivers' social-work relationships as antecedents of unsafe driving: A social network perspective.

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    Arizon Peretz, Renana; Luria, Gil

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce road accidents rates, studies around the globe have attempted to shed light on the antecedents for unsafe road behaviors. The aim of the current research is to contribute to this literature by offering a new organizational antecedent of driver's unsafe behavior: The driver's relationships with his or her peers, as reflected in three types of social networks: negative relationships network, friendship networks and advice networks (safety consulting). We hypothesized that a driver's position in negative relationship networks, friendship networks, and advice networks will predict unsafe driving. Additionally, we hypothesized the existence of mutual influences among the driver's positions in these various networks, and suggested that the driver's positions interact to predict unsafe driving behaviors. The research included 83 professional drivers from four different organizations. Driving behavior data were gathered via the IVDR (In-Vehicle Data Recorder) system, installed in every truck to measure and record the driver's behavior. The findings indicated that the drivers' position in the team networks predicts safe driving behavior: Centrality in negative relationship networks is positively related to unsafe driving, and centrality in friendship networks is negatively related to unsafe driving, while centrality in advice networks is not related to unsafe driving. Furthermore, we found an interaction effect between negative network centrality and centrality in friendship networks. The relation between negative networks and unsafe behavior is weaker when high levels of friendship network centrality exist. The implications will be presented in the Discussion section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of traffic signal solutions on self-reported road-crossing behavior.

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    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Megías, Alberto; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Catena, Andrés

    2015-01-07

    Injury to pedestrians is a major safety hazard in many countries. Since the beginning of the last century, modern cities have been designed around the use of motor vehicles despite the unfavourable interactions between the vehicles and pedestrians. This push towards urbanization resulted in a substantial number of crashes and fatalities involving pedestrians every day, all over the world. Thus, improving the design of urban cities and townships is a pressing issue for modern society. The study presented here provides a characterization of pedestrian safety problems, with the emphasis on signalized crosswalks (i.e. traffic signal) design solutions. We tested the impact of seven different traffic light configurations (steady [green, yellow, and red], flashing [green, yellow, and red], and light off) on pedestrian self-reported road-crossing behavior, using a 11-point scale -ranging from 0 ("I never cross in this situation") to 10 ("I always cross in this situation"). Results showed that mandatory solutions (steady green vs. steady red) are the best solutions to avoid unsafe pedestrian behaviors while crossing controlled intersections (frequency of crossing: Mgreen = 9.4 ± 1 vs. Mred = 2.6 ± 2). These findings offer important guidelines for the design of future traffic signals for encouraging a pedestrian/transit-friendly environment.

  13. To cross or not to cross: modeling wildlife road crossings as a binary response variable with contextual predictors

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    Siers, Shane R.; Reed, Robert N.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Roads are significant barriers to landscape-scale movements of individuals or populations of many wildlife taxa. The decision by an animal near a road to either cross or not cross may be influenced by characteristics of the road, environmental conditions, traits of the individual animal, and other aspects of the context within which the decision is made. We considered such factors in a mixed-effects logistic regression model describing the nightly road crossing probabilities of invasive nocturnal Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) through short-term radiotracking of 691 snakes within close proximity to 50 road segments across the island of Guam. All measures of road magnitude (traffic volume, gap width, surface type, etc.) were significantly negatively correlated with crossing probabilities. Snake body size was the only intrinsic factor associated with crossing rates, with larger snakes crossing roads more frequently. Humidity was the only environmental variable affecting crossing rate. The distance of the snake from the road at the start of nightly movement trials was the most significant predictor of crossings. The presence of snake traps with live mouse lures during a portion of the trials indicated that localized prey cues reduced the probability of a snake crossing the road away from the traps, suggesting that a snake's decision to cross roads is influenced by local foraging opportunities. Per capita road crossing rates of Brown Treesnakes were very low, and comparisons to historical records suggest that crossing rates have declined in the 60+ yr since introduction to Guam. We report a simplified model that will allow managers to predict road crossing rates based on snake, road, and contextual characteristics. Road crossing simulations based on actual snake size distributions demonstrate that populations with size distributions skewed toward larger snakes will result in a higher number of road crossings. Our method of modeling per capita road crossing

  14. Sediment deposition from forest roads at stream crossings as influenced by road characteristics

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    A.J. Lang; W.M. Aust; M.C. Bolding; K.J. McGuire

    2015-01-01

    Recent controversies associated with ditched forest roads and stream crossings in the Pacific Northwest have focused national attention on sediment production and best management practices (BMPs) at stream crossings. Few studies have quantified soil erosion rates at stream crossings as influenced by road characteristics and compared them to modeled rates. Soil erosion...

  15. Invasive Brown Treesnake movements at road edges indicate road-crossing avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siers, Shane R.; Savidge, Julie S; Reed, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Roads have significant impacts on the dispersal of wildlife. Although this poses a threat to the abundance and diversity of desirable flora and fauna, it also affords some opportunity for enhancing control of invasive species. Roads are the most common terrain features that may affect the rate of landscape-scale movements of invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) throughout Guam. We radio tracked 45 free-ranging Brown Treesnakes in close proximity to two roads in Guam and recorded instances where daily relocations of snakes spanned roads. Then we reconstructed observed movement histories with randomized turning angles, which served as a useful null hypothesis for assessing the effect of roads or road edge habitat on Brown Treesnake movement patterns. Random walk simulations demonstrated that Brown Treesnakes crossed these roads at a rate far lower than would be expected if snake movement was random with respect to roads and road edge habitat. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for these results: 1) habitat gaps posed by roads physically or behaviorally restrict snake movement; or 2) road edges provide preferred foraging habitat from which snakes are reluctant to depart. Because roads often form the boundaries of jurisdictional and management units, the effects of roads on the movement of invasive Brown Treesnakes will influence the prospects for success of future landscape-level suppression efforts.

  16. Large Gaps in Canopy Reduce Road Crossing by a Gliding Mammal

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    Rodney van der Ree

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic reduce landscape connectivity and increase rates of mortality for many species of wildlife. Species that glide from tree to tree may be strongly affected by roads and traffic if the size of the gap between trees exceeds their gliding capability. Not only are wide roads likely to reduce crossing rates, but mortality may also be increased if gliders that do cross have poor landing opportunities. The road-crossing behavior of 47 squirrel gliders (Petaurus norfolcensis was investigated in southeast Australia using radio-tracking. The proportion of gliders crossing one or both roadways of a freeway where trees were present or absent from the center median was compared to that at single-lane country roads (control. The proportion of gliders crossing the road at control sites (77% was similar to the proportion that crossed one or both roadways at the freeway with trees in the median (67%, whereas only a single male (6% crossed the freeway where trees were absent from the median. The frequency of crossing for each individual was also similar at control sites and freeway sites with trees in the median. The almost complete lack of crossing at sites where trees were absent from the median was attributed to the wider gap in canopy (50 - 64 m vs. 5 - 13 m at sites with trees in the median. This suggests that traffic volume, up to 5,000 vehicles per day on each roadway, and the other characteristics of the freeway we studied are not in themselves complete deterrents to road crossing by squirrel gliders. This study demonstrates that retaining and facilitating the growth of tall trees in the center median of two-way roads may mitigate the barrier effect of roads on gliders, thus contributing positively to mobility and potentially to connectivity. This information will be essential for the assessment of road impacts on gliding species using population viability models.

  17. Fish passage at road crossings: an annotated bibliography.

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    Lynette Anderson; Mason. Bryant

    1980-01-01

    A report of special interest to fishery biologists, resource managers, hydrologists, and road engineers, this bibliography lists publications pertinent to road crossings of salmon and trout streams. Topics include bridge and culvert installation, design criteria, mechanics, hydraulics, and economics, as well as their biological effects.

  18. TOWARDS FINANCING AND PLANNING ROAD SAFETY AUDIT OPERATIONS IN NIGERIA

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    Joshua Adetunji ODELEYE, M.Sc.

    2000-01-01

    Finally, this paper suggests commissioning of a National Road Research Fund, with a view to developing an efficient road safety audit operational system. Also, the introduction of private initiatives and a Community-based Approach in road administration, as well as decentralization of road administration framework at all levels, will greatly help “engineer out” potentially unsafe features across Nigerian roads, towards a better road traffic environment in the 21st century.

  19. Exploiting automatically generated databases of traffic signs and road markings for contextual co-occurrence analysis

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    Hazelhoff, Lykele; Creusen, Ivo M.; Woudsma, Thomas; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-11-01

    Combined databases of road markings and traffic signs provide a complete and full description of the present traffic legislation and instructions. Such databases contribute to efficient signage maintenance, improve navigation, and benefit autonomous driving vehicles. A system is presented for the automated creation of such combined databases, which additionally investigates the benefit of this combination for automated contextual placement analysis. This analysis involves verification of the co-occurrence of traffic signs and road markings to retrieve a list of potentially incorrectly signaled (and thus potentially unsafe) road situations. This co-occurrence verification is specifically explored for both pedestrian crossings and yield situations. Evaluations on 420 km of road have shown that individual detection of traffic signs and road markings denoting these road situations can be performed with accuracies of 98% and 85%, respectively. Combining both approaches shows that over 95% of the pedestrian crossings and give-way situations can be identified. An exploration toward additional co-occurrence analysis of signs and markings shows that inconsistently signaled situations can successfully be extracted, such that specific safety actions can be directed toward cases lacking signs or markings, while most consistently signaled situations can be omitted from this analysis.

  20. Development of roads in the area of the international border crossing Vrtojba

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    Alojzij Juvanec

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Slovenia is part of the European Union. With the abolishment of borders (free flow of goods also the traffic functions in the areas of international border crossings between member countries are changing. Among such border crossings is also the international border crossing (IBC between the Republic of Italy and the Republic of Slovenia in Vrtojba. The bordering communities of Šempeter-Vrtojba and Gorizia (Italy are therefore already preparing a development plan related to the use of space to ensure traffic access to the wider area of this border crossing ,when the “Schengen border” is abolished (free flow of people. Especially important is adequate design of roads that should allow this space to be uniformly and equally included into the road systems of both neighbouring countries. Owing to this change, the existing “communal” road, which today leads to the border crossing, will attain the status of the expressway Ljubljana–Venice via Gorizia, which means that high travelling speeds and changed regime of connecting roads can be expected. The existing arrangement has too many individual connections, and there is the possibility of turning or even parking (in Italy. The paper presents solutions or proposals for a systematic rearrangement of the present road through the IBC to the motorway and the principle of connecting the road networks of both neighbouring communities to it. Presented are also proposals how to rearrange or complete the existing local road networks and the railway infrastructure (arrangement of an intermodal terminal, and the traffic regime on roads to achieve as efficient use of space as possible at the present IBC Vrtojba with the least possible burden to the space.

  1. Systematic screening for unsafe driving due to medical conditions: Still debatable

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    Lagarde Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing people's ability to drive has become a public health concern in most industrialized countries. Although age itself is not a predictive factor of an increased risk for dangerous driving, the prevalence of medical conditions that may impair driving increases with age. Because the implementation of a screening for unsafe driving due to medical conditions is a public health issue, its usefulness should be judged using standardised criteria already proposed for screening for chronic disease. The aim of this paper is to propose standardised criteria suitable to assess the scientific validity of screening for unsafe driving due to medical conditions, and identify potential issues to be clarified before screening can be implemented and effective. Discussion Using criteria developed for screening for chronic diseases and published studies on driving with medical conditions, we specify six criteria to judge the opportunity of screening for unsafe driving due to medical conditions. This adaptation was needed because of the complexity of the natural history of medical conditions and their potential consequences on driving and road safety. We then illustrate that published studies pleading for or against screening for unsafe driving due to medical conditions fail to provide the needed documentation. Individual criteria were mentioned in 3 to 72% of 36 papers pleading for or against screening. Quantitative estimates of relevant indicators were provided in at most 42% of papers, and some data, such as the definition of an appropriate unsafe driving period were never provided. Summary The standardised framework described in this paper provides a template for assessing the effectiveness (or lack of effectiveness of proposed measures for screening for unsafe driving due to medical conditions. Even if most criteria were mentioned in the published literature pleading for or against such a screening, the failure to find quantitative and

  2. Road crossing in bank voles and yellow-necked mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rico, Adriana; Kindlmann, Pavel; Sedláček, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2007), s. 85-94 ISSN 0001-7051 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0254; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H034; GA MŠk LC06073 Keywords : APODEMUS FLAVICOLLIS * CLETHRIONOMYS GLAREOLUS * LINEAR CLEARINGS * ROAD BARRIERS * ROAD CROSSING RATES * TRANSFERRED ANIMALS Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.740, year: 2007

  3. Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-04

    In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation

  4. Child pedestrian safety knowledge, behaviour and road injury in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Hydrogeomorphic connectivity on roads crossing in rural headwaters and its effect on stream dynamics.

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    Thomaz, Edivaldo L; Peretto, Gustavo T

    2016-04-15

    Unpaved roads are ubiquitous features that have been transforming the landscape through human history. Unpaved roads affect the water and sediment pathways through a catchment and impacts the aquatic ecosystem. In this study, we describe the effect of unpaved road on the hydrogeomorphic connectivity at the rural headwater scale. Measurement was based on the stream crossing approach, i.e., road superimposing the drainage system. We installed a Parshall flume coupled with single-stage suspended sediment sampler at each stream crossing. In addition, we displayed our monitoring scheme with an upscaling perspective from second-order to third-order stream. We concluded that the road-stream coupling dramatically changed the stream dynamic. The increase of discharge caused by roads at the headwater was 50% larger compared to unaffected streams. Additionally, suspended sediment concentration enhancement at stream crossings ranged from to 413% at second-order streams to 145% at third-order streams. The landform characteristics associated with the road network produced an important hydrogeomorphic disruption in the landscape. As a result, the sediment filter function of the riparian zone was reduced dramatically. Therefore, we recommend that projects for aquatic system restoration or conservation in rural landscape consider the role of the road network on stream dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Incorporating Road Crossing Data into Vehicle Collision Risk Models for Moose (Alces americanus) in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Katherine A; Wattles, David W; DeStefano, Stephen

    2018-05-09

    Wildlife-vehicle collisions are a human safety issue and may negatively impact wildlife populations. Most wildlife-vehicle collision studies predict high-risk road segments using only collision data. However, these data lack biologically relevant information such as wildlife population densities and successful road-crossing locations. We overcome this shortcoming with a new method that combines successful road crossings with vehicle collision data, to identify road segments that have both high biological relevance and high risk. We used moose (Alces americanus) road-crossing locations from 20 moose collared with Global Positioning Systems as well as moose-vehicle collision (MVC) data in the state of Massachusetts, USA, to create multi-scale resource selection functions. We predicted the probability of moose road crossings and MVCs across the road network and combined these surfaces to identify road segments that met the dual criteria of having high biological relevance and high risk for MVCs. These road segments occurred mostly on larger roadways in natural areas and were surrounded by forests, wetlands, and a heterogenous mix of land cover types. We found MVCs resulted in the mortality of 3% of the moose population in Massachusetts annually. Although there have been only three human fatalities related to MVCs in Massachusetts since 2003, the human fatality rate was one of the highest reported in the literature. The rate of MVCs relative to the size of the moose population and the risk to human safety suggest a need for road mitigation measures, such as fencing, animal detection systems, and large mammal-crossing structures on roadways in Massachusetts.

  7. Why Did the Snake Cross the Road? Effects of Roads on Movement and Location of Mates by Garter Snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shine

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available If animals avoid road surfaces or are unable to follow conspecific trails across such surfaces, previously continuous populations may be fragmented. We gathered data on the effects of a small (4-m wide gravel road on the behavior and trail-following abilities of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis in Manitoba, central Canada. As expected, the road surface had less vegetation cover, a more open canopy and, thus, higher incident radiation than did the surrounding grassland. Contrary to expectations, however, substrate temperatures were lower on the road than in its surrounds, because of the higher reflectivity of the road's surface. On a nearby asphalt road, substrate temperatures were relatively high on the road surface only in the evening, as surrounding areas cooled. Focal sampling showed that snakes avoided the gravel road, typically changing direction when they encountered it. If they crossed the road, they did so by the shortest possible route (straight across. Mate-searching male snakes were less able to follow substrate-deposited pheromonal trails left by females if those trails crossed a road than if the trails were entirely within the surrounding grassland. Thus, roads may significantly modify snake movement patterns, as well as the ability of males to locate reproductive females. Our study provides the first detailed information on the effects of roads on snake behavior.

  8. Unsafe abortion in urban and rural Tanzania: method, provider and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Kipingili, Rose

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe unsafe abortion methods and associated health consequences in Tanzania, where induced abortion is restricted by law but common and known to account for a disproportionate share of hospital admissions. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of women admitted with alleged miscarriage...

  9. Temporal patterns in road crossing behaviour in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus at sites with wildlife warning reflectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim-Lino Kämmerle

    Full Text Available Every year, there are millions of documented vehicle collisions involving cervids across Europe and North America. While temporal patterns in collision occurrence are relatively well described, few studies have targeted deer behaviour as a critical component of collision prevention. In this study, we investigated weekly and daily patterns in road crossing behaviour in roe deer. Using road crossing events and movement data obtained from GPS telemetry, we employed mixed-effect models to explain frequency and timing of crossings at five road segments by a number of predictors including traffic volume, deer movement activity and the presence of wildlife warning reflectors. We analysed 13,689 road crossing events by 32 study animals. Individual variation in crossing frequency was high but daily patterns in crossing events were highly consistent among animals. Variation in the intensity of movement activity on a daily and seasonal scale was the main driver of road crossing behaviour. The seasonal variation in crossing frequency reflected differences in movement activity throughout the reproductive cycle, while daily variation in the probability to cross exhibited a clear nocturnal emphasis and reflected crepuscular activity peaks. The frequency of road crossings increased as a function of road density in the home-range, while traffic volume only exerted marginal effects. Movement activity of roe deer in our study coincided with commuter traffic mainly in the early morning and late afternoon during winter and during periods of high spatial activity such as the rut. Both timing and frequency of crossing events remained unchanged in the presence of reflectors. Our results emphasise the importance of behavioural studies for understanding roe deer vehicle-collision patterns and thus provide important information for collision prevention. We suggest that mitigation of collision risk should focus on strategic seasonal measures and animal warning systems

  10. Unsafe Abortion- A Tragic Saga of Maternal Suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Regmi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries despite provision of adequate care and legalization of abortion. The aim of this study was to find out the contribution of unsafe abortion in maternal mortality and its other consequences. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in BPKIHS between 2005 April to 2008 September analyzing all the unsafe abortion related admissions. RESULTS: There were 70 unsafe abortion patients. Majority of them (52.8% were of high grade. Most of them recovered but there were total 8maternal deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Unsafe abortion is still a significant medical and social problem even in post legalization era of this country. Keywords: abortion, legalization, maternal death, unsafe.

  11. MICRO SIMULATION OF PELICAN CROSSING AT THE ROAD SECTION OF COLOMBO STREET, YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggraeni Hapsari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yogyakarta has a problem related to pedestrians. The inappropriate implementation of crossing facility and disobedience of pedestrians while crossing the street leads to conflicts between pedestrians and vehicular traffic. Taking the road section of Colombo Street as the case study, this research proposed pelican crossing with independent and coordination time signal operation. Using Aimsun software, the existing traffic signal, geometric design, traffic flow and turning proportion were taken into account to build the initial model. Afterwards, a calibration of queue length and a validation of vehicle speed were carried out to obtain a basic model which represents the existing condition of the system. Comparing the basic model and the alternatives in terms of performances of junctions, road section and pedestrians in the pelican, this research resulted in setting double cycling of pelican as 100 seconds for the independent operation and setting common cycle time 120 seconds for the coordination operation as the best alternatives. In addition, the implementation of pelican crossing brought about the reduction of vehicle speed in the road section so that the safety of pedestrian increased. Keywords: Pedestrian, pelican crossing, Aimsun, signal time, speed

  12. Unsafe abortion: a tragic saga of maternal suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, M C; Rijal, P; Subedi, S S; Uprety, D; Budathoki, B; Agrawal, A

    2010-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries despite provision of adequate care and legalization of abortion. The aim of this study was to find out the contribution of unsafe abortion in maternal mortality and its other consequences. A retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in BPKIHS between 2005 April to 2008 September analyzing all the unsafe abortion related admissions. There were 70 unsafe abortion patients. Majority of them (52.8%) were of high grade. Most of them recovered but there were total 8 maternal deaths. Unsafe abortion is still a significant medical and social problem even in post legalization era of this country.

  13. Tackling unsafe abortion in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyong'o, D; Oodit, G

    1996-01-01

    Despite a contraceptive prevalence rate of 75% Mauritius has a high incidence of unsafe abortions because of unprotected intercourse experienced by many young women in a rapidly industrializing environment. The Mauritius Family Planning Association (MFPA) tackled the issue of unsafe abortion in 1993. Abortion is illegal in the country, and the Catholic Church also strongly opposes modern family planning methods, thus the use of withdrawal and/or calendar methods have been increasing. The MFPA organized an advocacy symposium in 1993 on unsafe abortion with the result of revealing the pressure the Church was exerting relative to abortion and contraceptives. The advocacy campaign of the MFPA consists of having abortion legalized on health grounds and improving family planning services, especially for young unmarried women and men. The full support of the media was secured on the abortion issue: articles appeared, meetings were attended by the press, and public relations support was also received from them. The MFPA worked closely with parliamentarians. A motion was tabled in 1994 in the National Assembly which called for legalization of abortion on health grounds, but the Church squelched its debate. In March 1994 MFPA hosted the IPPF African Regional Conference on Unsafe Abortion in Mauritius with the participation of over 100 representatives from 20 countries, and subsequently a second motion was tabled without parliamentary debate. The deliberations were covered by the media and the Ministry of Women's Rights recognized abortion as an urgent issue as outlined in a white paper prepared for the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995. The campaign changed the policy climate favorably making the public more conscious of unsafe abortion. The Ministry of Health decided to collect more data and the newly elected government seems to be more open about this issue.

  14. Maternal near-miss in a great grandmultipara following unsafe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unsafe abortion and its complications have been limited to adolescents lacking family and partner support without attention to older, married women and their peculiarities regarding unsafe abortions. Main objective of the study was to focus on uncommon contributing factors to unsafe abortion in older women. A 40year old ...

  15. the effect of road crossing on river morphology and riverine aquatic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... The objective of this paper is to explain the local level impact of a road crossing on .... determine the local level changes in channel .... two significant features are spacing successively .... (EIA) of that construction over river.

  16. Comparison of Unsafe Driving Across Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sanghee; Ranchet, Maud; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; Devos, Hannes

    2017-09-01

    To compare risks of unsafe driving in patients with medical conditions. This large population-based study included all patients who were referred for a fitness-to-drive evaluation at an official driving evaluation center in 2013 and 2014. Risks of unsafe driving included physician's fitness-to-drive recommendation, comprehensive fitness-to-drive decision, motor vehicle crash history, and traffic violation history. A total of 6584 patients were included in the study. Risks of unsafe driving were significantly different across medical conditions (Pdriving. Patients with psychiatric conditions or substance abuse did worse on most driving safety outcomes, despite their low representation in the total sample (359 [6%] and 46 [1%], respectively). The risk of unsafe driving varied greatly across medical conditions. Sensitization campaigns, education, and medical guidelines for physicians and driver licensing authorities are warranted to identify patients at risk, especially for those with psychiatric conditions and substance abuse problems. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of pedestrian mid-block road crossing behaviour using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raghuram Kadali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians usually cross the road at mid-block locations in India because of the ease and convenience to reach their destination as compared to intersection locations. It is important to evaluate the pedestrian gap acceptance behavior at mid-block locations because of inadequate vehicular gaps under mixed traffic condition, which translates into the pedestrian road crossing behavior. The present study examines the pedestrian gap acceptance behaviour by employing an artificial neural network (ANN model for understanding the decision making process of pedestrians, i.e., acceptance or rejection of vehicular gaps at a mid-block location. From the results it has been found that the pedestrian rolling gap, frequency of attempt, vehicular gap size, pedestrian speed change condition and vehicle speed have major role in pedestrian gap acceptance. These results can lead to a better design of pedestrian crossing facilities where adequate gaps are not available in vehicular flow at mid-block crosswalk locations.

  18. Analysis of Traffic Safety Factors at Level Rail-Road Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mlinarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main factors of traffic safety andreliabilityat level crossings. The number and causes of accidentsare stated, that result from ignorance, insufficient training ofthe traffic participants, their ilnsponsibility and insufficient orincomplete legislation, as well as from insufficiently professionaland scientifically not serious enough approach to solvingthis cardinal problem in road and railway traffic. Based on theanalysis the causes are determined and solutions proposed, aswell as more efficient methods to improve safety and reduce thenumber of traffic accidents at level crossings.

  19. Maternal mortality and morbidity of unsafe abortion in a university teaching hospital of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, N.; Hossain, N.; Khan, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the mortality and morbidity of unsafe abortion in a University Teaching Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit III, Dow Medical College and Civil Hospital Karachi from January 2005 to December 2009. Data regarding the socio demographic characteristics, reasons and methods of abortion, nature of provider, complications and treatment were collected for 43 women, who were admitted with complications of unsafe abortion, and an analysis was done. Results: The frequency of unsafe abortion was 1.35% and the case fatality rate was 34.9%. Most of the women belonged to a very poor socioeconomic group (22/43; 51.2%) and were illiterate (27/43; 62.8%). Unsafe abortion followed an induced abortion in 29 women and other miscarriages in 14 women. The majority of women who had an induced abortion were married (19/29, 65.5%). A completed family was the main reason for induced abortion (14/29; 48.2%) followed by being unmarried (8/29, 27.5%) and domestic violence in 5/29 cases (17.2%). Instruments were the commonest method used for unsafe abortion (26/43;68.4%).The most frequent complication was septicaemia (34; 79%) followed by uterine perforation with or without bowel perforation (13, 30.2%) and haemorrhage (9; 20.9%). Majority of induced abortions were performed by untrained providers (22/26; 84.6%) compared to only 3/14 cases (21.4%) of other miscarriages (p=0.0001). Conclusion: The high maternal mortality and morbidity of unsafe abortion in our study highlights the need for improving contraceptive and safe abortion services in Pakistan. (author)

  20. Association between unsafe driving performance and cognitive-perceptual dysfunction in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si-Woon; Choi, Eun Seok; Lim, Mun Hee; Kim, Eun Joo; Hwang, Sung Il; Choi, Kyung-In; Yoo, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Kuem Ju; Jung, Hi-Eun

    2011-03-01

    To find an association between cognitive-perceptual problems of older drivers and unsafe driving performance during simulated automobile driving in a virtual environment. Cross-sectional study. A driver evaluation clinic in a rehabilitation hospital. Fifty-five drivers aged 65 years or older and 48 drivers in their late twenties to early forties. All participants underwent evaluation of cognitive-perceptual function and driving performance, and the results were compared between older and younger drivers. The association between cognitive-perceptual function and driving performance was analyzed. Cognitive-perceptual function was evaluated with the Cognitive Perceptual Assessment for Driving (CPAD), a computer-based assessment tool consisting of depth perception, sustained attention, divided attention, the Stroop test, the digit span test, field dependency, and trail-making test A and B. Driving performance was evaluated with use of a virtual reality-based driving simulator. During simulated driving, car crashes were recorded, and an occupational therapist observed unsafe performances in controlling speed, braking, steering, vehicle positioning, making lane changes, and making turns. Thirty-five older drivers did not pass the CPAD test, whereas all of the younger drivers passed the test. When using the driving simulator, a significantly greater number of older drivers experienced car crashes and demonstrated unsafe performance in controlling speed, steering, and making lane changes. CPAD results were associated with car crashes, steering, vehicle positioning, and making lane changes. Older drivers who did not pass the CPAD test are 4 times more likely to experience a car crash, 3.5 times more likely to make errors in steering, 2.8 times more likely to make errors in vehicle positioning, and 6.5 times more likely to make errors in lane changes than are drivers who passed the CPAD test. Unsafe driving performance and car crashes during simulated driving were more

  1. Unsafe abortion: a cruel way of birth control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir,. Unsafe abortion refers to a procedure for terminating an unintended pregnancy performed either by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards, or both.1 Although definition refers to the process, unsafe abortion actually reflects unsuitable situations ...

  2. Road crossing behavior under traffic light conflict: Modulating effects of green light duration and signal congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Haiduk, Michael; Boos, Moritz; Tinschert, Peter; Schwarze, Anke; Eggert, Frank

    2016-10-01

    A large number of pedestrians and cyclists regularly ignore the traffic lights to cross the road illegally. In a recent analysis, illegal road crossing behavior has been shown to be enhanced in the presence of incongruent stimulus configurations. Pedestrians and cyclists are more likely to cross against a red light when exposed to an irrelevant conflicting green light. Here, we present experimental and observational data on the factors moderating the risk associated with incongruent traffic lights. In an observational study, we demonstrated that the conflict-related increase in illegal crossing rates is reduced when pedestrian and cyclist green light periods are long. In a laboratory experiment, we manipulated the color of the irrelevant signals to expose participants to different degrees of incongruency. Results revealed that individuals' performance gradually varied as a function of incongruency, suggesting that the negative impact of a conflicting green light can be reduced by slightly adjusting its color. Our findings highlight that the observation of real-world behavior at intersections and the experimental analysis of psychological processes under controlled laboratory conditions can complement each other in identifying risk factors of risky road crossing behavior. Based on this combination, our study elaborates on promising measures to improve safety at signalized intersections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of lane width, shoulder width, and road cross-sectional reallocation on drivers' behavioral adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecheri, Sami; Rosey, Florence; Lobjois, Régis

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has shown that lane-width reduction makes drivers operate vehicles closer to the center of the road whereas hard-shoulder widening induces a position farther away from the road's center. The goal of the present driving-simulator study was twofold. First, it was aimed at further investigating the respective effects of lane and shoulder width on in-lane positioning strategies, by examining vehicle distance from the center of the lane. The second aim was to assess the impact on safety of three possible cross-sectional reallocations of the width of the road (i.e., three lane-width reductions with concomitant shoulder widening at a fixed cross-sectional width) as compared to a control road. The results confirmed that lane-width reduction made participants drive closer to the road's center. However, in-lane position was affected differently by lane narrowing, depending on the traffic situation. In the absence of oncoming traffic, lane narrowing gave rise to significant shifts in the car's distance from the lane's center toward the edge line, whereas this distance remained similar across lane widths during traffic periods. When the shoulders were at least 0.50m wide, participants drove farther away from both the road center and the lane center. Road reallocation operations resulted in vehicles positioned farther away from the edge of the road and less swerving behavior, without generating higher driving speeds. Finally, it is argued that road-space reallocation may serve as a good low-cost tool for providing a recovery area for steering errors, without impairing drivers' behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unsafe abortion and postabortion care-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    countries where women do not have legal access to abortion. Postabortion care focuses on treatment of incomplete abortion and provision of postabortion contraceptive services. To enhance women's access to postabortion care, focus is increasingly being placed on upgrading midlevel providers to provide......Forty percent of the world's women are living in countries with restrictive abortion laws, which prohibit abortion or only allow abortion to protect a woman's life or her physical or mental health. In countries where abortion is restricted, women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have...... an unwanted pregnancy terminated. As a consequence, high rates of unsafe abortion are seen, such as in sub-Saharan Africa where unsafe abortion occurs at rates of 18-39/1 000 women. The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on traditional methods known and type of providers...

  5. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a

  6. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina Rytwinski

    Full Text Available Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill. For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we

  7. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a

  8. Why did the meerkat cross the road? Flexible adaptation of phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to modern-day threats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Perony

    Full Text Available Risk-sensitive adaptive spatial organisation during group movement has been shown to efficiently minimise the risks associated with external ecological threats. Whether animals can draw on such behaviours when confronted with man-made threats is generally less clear. We studied road-crossing in a wild, but habituated, population of meerkats living in the Kalahari Desert, South Africa. We found that dominant females, the core member in meerkat social systems, led groups to the road significantly more often than subordinates, yet were consistently less likely to cross first. Our results suggest that a reshuffling occurs in progression order when meerkat groups reach the road. By employing a simple model of collective movement, we have shown that risk aversion alone may be sufficient to explain this reshuffling, but that the risk aversion of dominant females toward road crossing is significantly higher than that of subordinates. It seems that by not crossing first, dominant females avoid occupying the most risky, exposed locations, such as at the front of the group--a potential selfish strategy that also promotes the long-term stability and hence reproductive output of their family groups. We argue that our findings support the idea that animals can flexibly apply phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to deal with emerging modern-day problems.

  9. Youth often risk unsafe abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B

    1993-10-01

    The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to

  10. Predictors of unsafe sex among HIV patients in Denmark: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Engsig, Frederik; Kronborg, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    and reasons for unsafe sex in a nationwide cohort of adult Danish HIV-1-positive patients. Differences in characteristics between those who practiced safe and unsafe sex were estimated by binary logistic regression. The fraction with detectable viral load was determined in the 2 groups, and reasons for unsafe...... associated with unsafe sex (odds ratio 3.24, 95% confidence interval 1.72-6.12). The main reason for practicing unsafe sex was that the partner did not wish to use a condom (53%). Conclusions: A high proportion of HIV-positive patients engage in unsafe sex, especially MSM. The reasons for unsafe sex......Abstract Background: Sexual transmission continues to be the primary mode of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Western Europe. We aimed to describe predictors of unsafe sex and reasons given for such behaviour. Methods: We performed a survey examining sexual risk behaviours...

  11. Effect of Flood Water Diffuser on Flow Pattern of Water during Road Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods to reduce the velocity of flood water flow across roads is to design obstacle objects as diffusers and place them alongside the road shoulder. The velocity reduction of water flow depends on the diffusion pattern of water. The pattern of diffused water depends on the design of the obstacle objects. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the design of obstacle objects and their water diffusing patterns and their capability to reduce the velocity of the flood water flow during road crossing. Variety of designs and orientation of the obstacle objects were tested in the environmental laboratory on a scale of 1:20. The results are classified into three distinguishable patterns of diffusion. Finally, two diffuser shapes and arrangements are recommended for further investigations in full scale or CFD model.

  12. 12 CFR 563g.10 - Unsafe or unsound practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unsafe or unsound practices. 563g.10 Section 563g.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.10 Unsafe or unsound practices. (a) No person shall directly or indirectly, (1) Employ any device...

  13. Recognition and Reconstruction of Zebra Crossings on Roads from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zebra crossings provide guidance and warning to pedestrians and drivers, thereby playing an important role in traffic safety management. Most previous studies have focused on detecting zebra stripes but have not provided full information about the areas, which is critical to both driver assistance systems and guide systems for blind individuals. This paper presents a stepwise procedure for recognizing and reconstructing zebra crossings using mobile laser scanning data. First, we propose adaptive thresholding based on road surface partitioning to reduce the impact of intensity unevenness and improve the accuracy of road marking extraction. Then, dispersion degree filtering is used to reduce the noise. Finally, zebra stripes are recognized according to the rectangular feature and fixed size, which is followed by area reconstruction according to arrangement patterns. We test our method on three datasets captured by an Optech Lynx mobile mapping system. The total recognition rate of 90.91% demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.

  14. Unsafe abortion: the silent scourge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David A

    2003-01-01

    An estimated 19 million unsafe abortions occur worldwide each year, resulting in the deaths of about 70,000 women. Legalization of abortion is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health. Without skilled providers, adequate facilities and easy access, the promise of safe, legal abortion will remain unfulfilled, as in India and Zambia. Both suction curettage and pharmacological abortion are safe methods in early pregnancy; sharp curettage is inferior and should be abandoned. For later abortions, either dilation and evacuation or labour induction are appropriate. Hysterotomy should not be used. Timely and appropriate management of complications can reduce morbidity and prevent mortality. Treatment delays are dangerous, regardless of their origin. Misoprostol may reduce the risks of unsafe abortion by providing a safer alternative to traditional clandestine abortion methods. While the debate over abortion will continue, the public health record is settled: safe, legal, accessible abortion improves health.

  15. An educational intervention in road safety among children and teenagers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Siller, S; Pacheco-Magaña, L E; Bonilla-Fernández, P; Rueda-Neria, C; Arenas-Monreal, L

    2017-02-17

    The purpose of this article is to describe a public school-based educational intervention (EI) designed to increase knowledge, improve attitudes, and change practices related to road safety. We used a mixed-methods evaluation of a road traffic safety baseline diagnosis conducted in 4 public schools, 2 primary and 2 secondary. Research was organized into 4 phases: (1) diagnosis, (2) EI design, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation. We used convenience sampling (n = 219 students) across schools and applied a pre-/posttest design based on quantitative and qualitative data. The former related to surveys on road safety experiences, knowledge, attitudes, and practice and the latter to observation checklists, community mapping, ethnography, and focus groups. To compare pre-post scores, we used multilevel mixed-effect ordinal logistic regressions. We developed data matrices, field notes, and systematized community mapping. We also transcribed focus group discussions, generated categories, and carried out thematic analysis. Ethnography indicated poor sidewalk conditions, no helmet or seat belt use, overcrowded public transportation, and no traffic lights or proper signals. Pedestrians did not use sidewalks and crossed streets unsafely. Subsequent to the intervention, however, the study population showed significant changes in their knowledge, practices, and attitudes. They identified road traffic incidents (RTIs) as the first cause of death among children and youth, and most understood that the solution to the problem was incumbent upon each and every individual. They also displayed increased perceptions of danger in practices such as traveling on overcrowded public transportation, failing to wear seat belts in cars and helmets on motorcycles, crossing the street while using mobile phones or playing with friends, and riding with drunk drivers. Changes varied according to gender, and students reported being able to carry out safe practices only when they were in control of

  16. Economic development's effect on road transport-related mortality among different types of road users: a cross-sectional international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulozzi, Leonard J; Ryan, George W; Espitia-Hardeman, Victoria E; Xi, Yongli

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between a country's stage of economic development and its motor vehicle crash (MVC) mortality rate is not defined for different road users. This paper presents a cross-sectional regression analysis of recent national mortality in 44 countries using death certificate data provided by the World Health Organization. For five types of road users, MVC mortality is expressed as deaths per 100,000 people and per 1000 motor vehicles. Economic development is measured as gross national income (GNI) per capita in U.S. dollars and as motor vehicles per 1000 people. Results showed overall MVC mortality peaked among low-income countries at about US$ 2000 GNI per capita and at about 100 motor vehicles per 1000 people. Overall mortality declined at higher national incomes up to about US$ 24,000. Most changes in MVC mortality associated with economic development were explained by changes in rates among nonmotorized travelers, especially pedestrians. Overall MVC rates were lowest when pedestrian exposure was low because there were few motor vehicles or few pedestrians, and were highest during a critical transition to motorized travel, when many pedestrians and other vulnerable road users vied for use of the roadways with many motor vehicles.

  17. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and lack of sanitation and hygiene in South Africa in 2000. ... Disease burden from diarrhoeal diseases, intestinal parasites and schistosomiasis, measured by deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results. 13 434 deaths were attributable to unsafe ...

  18. The Unsafe Acts and the Decision-to-Err Factors of Thai Construction Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Thanet Aksorn; B.H.W. Hadikusumo

    2007-01-01

    The unsafe acts of workers are considered as major contributors of work-related accidents and injuries on construction sites. However, not much work has been done to address the reasons why unsafe acts of workers occur particularly in construction industry. The aim of this paper therefore, is to investigate the major unsafe acts (i.e., at-risk behavior), and the decision-to-err factors causing unsafe acts. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data from a total of 214 workers from 2...

  19. Evaluation of the relationship between unsafe acts and occupational accidents in a vehicle manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fatemi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Vehicle manufacturing industries are as critical sites from points of safety. Unsafe acts and unsafe conditions have been recognized as effective factors in increasing the risk of occupational accidents. In order to promote of safety conditions, it's necessary to evaluate unsafe acts of workers as the main reason of accidents. The main goal of research is evaluation of relationship between unsafe Acts with occupational accidents.   Methods   Safety behavior sampling (SBS technique was employed to conduct this study. After doing a pilot study, the number of samples and views were determined 195 and 3456  respectively. The information was then analyzed using Excel, SPSS and statistic tests.   Results   The results of the study showed that the rate of unsafe acts of studying workers was  35.4% .The study of the relationship between unsafe acts and occupational accidents via Regression Logistic test showed that if one percent increases on unsafe acts, the rate of accidents  multiply three.   Conclusion   Therefore in view of this significant correlation between unsafe acts and  occupational accidents and kind of unsafe acts, reducing or eliminating requires the investment and implementation of a program. It should be associated with behavioral safety principles and emphasis should be placed on implementing safety culture fundamentals at all organizational levels.

  20. CORELATION BETWEEN PORNOGRAPHIC MEDIA AND INFLUENCE OF PEERS WITH UNSAFE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENT OF SOUTH SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdiningsih Murdiningsih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problems associated with unsafe sexual behavior in adolescents are caused by premarital sexual intercourse with a partner of their own age. One of the problems caused by premarital sex is a pregnancy outside of marriage. Increased incidence of premarital sex is caused by the development through media depictions of sex scenes in the form of television, magazines, video clips, online media, and films. In Musi Banyuasin there are 7754 high school students, many students have dropped out of school because they get pregnant before marriage so that in adolescence their parents are forced to marry or have abortions. The aim study is determined the factors associated with unsafe sexual behavior in adolescents in high school. Method: Observational research with cross sectional and quantitative approach. The population is high school students. Sampling technique was using multistage random sampling obtained 393 samples. Bivariate analysis, chi-square Result: the result showed a correlation between the influence of peers with adolescent sexual behavior has p-value (0,000. There was no relationship between media pornography with sexual behavior because the result more than p-value (0,05. Conclusion: Necessary to be given knowledge and assistance to adolescents about positively and creatively thing and supervision of parents to their children in order to have a friends and avoid unsafe sexual behavior.   Key words: The Influence of Peers, Pornographic Media, Unsafe Sexual, Adolescent

  1. Application of dotmocracy technique in assessment and management of unsafe behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Industrial accident is one of the most minatory elements for worker’s health, productivity and organizational performance. Unsafe behavior is the main reason associated with occurrence of accidents. The main goal of this study was application of participatory techniques to achieve control measures of these behaviors. .Material and Method: Using safety behavior sampling technique in this study, behaviors of staffs were evaluated and then the most risky behaviors were determined by paired comparison method. By application of participatory approach of dotmocracy in six steps, controlling ideas were derived by participation of operators, supervisors, engineers, HSE team and managers. .Result: 48.8% of the behaviors were unsafe. Misuse or notusing of the personal protective equipments with 63.4% was the most frequent unsafe behavior. Awkward postures, aggregation or passing under suspended loads were also followed by the unsafe behaviors. By application of participatory approach of dotmocracy, several applicable ideas in personal protective equipment, education, reinforcementand punishment, aggregation or passing under suspended loads and other ideas were achieved. . Conclusion: Dotmocracy participatory technique is an effective way to achieve various practical solutions in control of worker’s unsafe behaviors.

  2. Wildlife friendly roads: the impacts of roads on wildlife in urban areas and potential remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Seth P D; Brown, Justin L.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Schoonmaker, Catherine M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Roads are one of the most important factors affecting the ability of wildlife to live and move within an urban area. Roads physically replace wildlife habitat and often reduce habitat quality nearby, fragment the remaining habitat, and cause increased mortality through vehicle collisions. Much ecological research on roads has focused on whether animals are successfully crossing roads, or if the road is a barrier to wildlife movement, gene flow, or functional connectivity. Roads can alter survival and reproduction for wildlife, even among species such as birds that cross roads easily. Here we examine the suite of potential impacts of roads on wildlife, but we focus particularly on urban settings. We report on studies, both in the literature and from our own experience, that have addressed wildlife and roads in urban landscapes. Although road ecology is a growing field of study, relatively little of this research, and relatively few mitigation projects, have been done in urban landscapes. We also draw from the available science on road impacts in rural areas when urban case studies have not fully addressed key topics.

  3. The Unsafe Acts and the Decision-to-Err Factors of Thai Construction Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanet Aksorn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The unsafe acts of workers are considered as major contributors of work-related accidents and injuries on construction sites. However, not much work has been done to address the reasons why unsafe acts of workers occur particularly in construction industry. The aim of this paper therefore, is to investigate the major unsafe acts (i.e., at-risk behavior, and the decision-to-err factors causing unsafe acts. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data from a total of 214 workers from 20 building construction projects in Thailand. The findings revealed that the failure of workers to wear personal protective equipment (PPE, improper lifting or handling of materials, and keeping sharp objects in dangerous locations, are the major unsafe acts which frequently occur on construction sites in Thailand. In addition, the paper reported that the top three most frequent unsafe acts are statistically associated with several decision-to-err factors, including lack of management support, management pressure, group norms, overconfidence, being uncomfortable, past experience and laziness.

  4. Maternal Near-Miss Due to Unsafe Abortion and Associated Short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Little is known about maternal near-miss (MNM) due to unsafe abortion in Nigeria. We used the WHO criteria to identify near-miss events and the proportion due to unsafe abortion among women of childbearing age in eight large secondary and tertiary hospitals across the six geo-political zones. We also explored ...

  5. Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, S.; Hafeez, M.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

  6. Birds and Roads: Reduced Transit for Smaller Species over Roads within an Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Johnson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Roads provide humans with a means of mobility between destinations, be it for transportation of goods and services or as a means of connecting with others. However, roads are also known to contribute toward a number of deleterious landscape processes, such as habitat destruction and fragmentation, pollution (e.g., chemical, noise and light and animal mortality. Few studies however have investigated their effects on avifauna. We investigated the influence of road width on movements of nearby bird assemblages in Australia by comparing crossing counts of four species guilds and sizes over roads of varying widths in Southern Brisbane. In addition, we also sought to determine the association of seasonality with species crossing richness and abundance. Species guild affiliations were based on definitions from previous literature: small forest dependent, large forest dependent, honeyeater, and urban tolerant; whereas body size classifications were arbitrarily defined: small (< 20 cm, medium (20–29 cm, and large (>30 cm. Road sites were selected based on their vegetation likeness, both within and between sites, and this was assessed using the Specht classification system. We detected strong, negative correlations between road width and forest species richness, crossing species richness and species crossing abundance. In particular, analysis of species guild classifications revealed species richness and crossing likelihoods of the small forest dependent guild to be consistently lower than those of large forest dependent, honeyeater and urban tolerant guilds. Analysis of species by body size classification yielded similar outcomes: small birds were consistently less likely to be present nearby and cross over roads of all widths compared to medium and large birds. We believe gap permeability, particularly changes in vegetation structure and complexity that may restrict a species ability to access to the gap, as well as competition and predation, play an

  7. Influence of the medication environment on the unsafe medication behavior of nurses: A path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xi; Li, Ce; Gao, Xueqin; Liu, Furong; Lin, Ping

    2018-04-20

    To explore the relationship between the medication environment and the unsafe medication behavior of nurses and to analyze its influence path. Unsafe medication behavior is the direct cause of medication error. The organizational environment is the foundation of and plays a guiding role in work behavior. Whether the medication environment correlates with the unsafe medication behavior of nurses remains unclear. This study used a correlative design with self-administered questionnaires, and the SHEL model, an acronym of its elements of software, hardware, environment, and liveware, was used as the framework for the medication environment. A survey was conducted among 1012 clinical nurses from five tertiary hospitals in China using the nurse unsafe medication behavior scale (NUMBS) and the nurses' perceptions of the medication environment scale (NPMES). Data were collected from January to February 2017. Path analyses were used to examine the hypothesized model. The medication environment correlated negatively with unsafe medication behavior (r=-0.48, pbehavior. Software, hardware and the environment indirectly influenced unsafe medication behavior, and nurses' personal factors played a mediating role in the relationships of unsafe medication behavior with software, hardware, and the environment. The unsafe medication behavior of nurses should be further improved. The medication environment was a predictor of unsafe medication behavior. Care managers should actively improve the medication environment to reduce the incidence of unsafe medication behaviors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of unsafe behaviors among city bus drivers in Hamadan, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Because of high percent of unsafe acts and considering importance of its consequences in drivers, reducing unsafe acts trough investment and utilization of behavioral safety principles is required. In this regard, holding educational careers are suggested to increasing driver’s awareness.

  9. TRUPACT-I over-the-road test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; Gwinn, K.W.

    1987-10-01

    The TRUPACT-I was subjected to an over-the-road test to determine the package response to normal road environments. This test consisted of six road events: a rough primary road, a railroad grade crossing, an asphalt primary road, a concrete primary road, a bridge approach, and a rough secondary road. The package was instrumented with four vertical accelerometers to determine the package response to road vibration and shock. The results are given in the form of time histories, spectral densities, root mean square, and maximum accelerations for all accelerometers during each event. The results indicated that the railroad grade crossing produced the maximum average vertical accelerations. The maximum accelerations for all events were less than 1 g, and the root mean square loads remained below 0.25 g. 4 refs., 57 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Naturalistic validation of an on-road driving test of older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian R; Papandonatos, George D; Davis, Jennifer D; Barco, Peggy P

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to compare a standardized road test to naturalistic driving by older people who may have cognitive impairment to define improvements that could potentially enhance the validity of road testing in this population. Road testing has been widely adapted as a tool to assess driving competence of older people who may be at risk for unsafe driving because of dementia; however, the validity of this approach has not been rigorously evaluated. For 2 weeks, 80 older drivers (38 healthy elders and 42 with cognitive impairment) who passed a standardized road test were video recorded in their own vehicles. Using a standardized rating scale, 4 hr of video was rated by a driving instructor. The authors examine weighting of individual road test items to form global impressions and to compare road test and naturalistic driving using factor analyses of these two assessments. The road test score was unidimensional, reflecting a major factor related to awareness of signage and traffic behavior. Naturalistic driving reflected two factors related to lane keeping as well as traffic behavior. Maintenance of proper lane is an important dimension of driving safety that appears to be relatively underemphasized during the highly supervised procedures of the standardized road test. Road testing in this population could be improved by standardized designs that emphasize lane keeping and that include self-directed driving. Additional information should be sought from observers in the community as well as crash evidence when advising older drivers who may be cognitively impaired.

  11. TRANSIT TIME THROUGH THE BORDER-CROSSING POINTS: THE CASE STUDY OF THE EU'S ROAD BCP WITH MOLDAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available . This paper provides an overview on the ACROSSEE project (funded by the ERDF under the SEE program, its objectives, general methodology, and the main results. Moreover, the main survey results are presented as they relate to the Romanian road and rail border-crossing points (BCPs with the Eastern neighbourly country, Moldavia. Results include the actual status of the road BCP, surveys on exiting and entering traffic flows, answers to specific questionnaires of the truck and car drivers in relation with origin-destination of the trips, average waiting time in queue and time required for procedures and controls. Discussion on the mathematical modelling is presented and a provisional simulation model is developed, using ARENA software. The early results are used in order to introduce the need for future assessment of the transit time in a road BCP, with the main purpose: the substantiation of the strategic and operational actions for improvements in trade and transport crossings of the EU borders, considering the need for more vigilant and less time-consuming checks at the outside borders of the EU.

  12. Patients' identification and reporting of unsafe events at six hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomonori; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika

    2011-11-01

    Hospitals and other health care organizations have increasingly recognized the need to engage patients as participants in patient safety. A study was conducted to compare patients' and health care staff's identification and reporting of such events. A questionnaire was administered at six hospitals in Japan to outpatients and inpatients from November 2004 through February 2007. Patients were asked to respond to questions about experiences of possibly unsafe events. Patients experiencing such events were then asked about the events and whether they had reported their experience to health care staff. A specialist panel classified reported events as "uneasy-dissatisfying" or "unsafe." The response rates of outpatients and inpatients were 85.4% (1,506/1,764) and 54.3% (1,738/3,198), respectively. Among the respondents (> or = 20 years of age), 125 (8.7%) of the outpatients and 185 (10.9%) of the inpatients experienced uneasy-dissatisfying or unsafe events; 35 (2.4%) of the outpatients and 67 (4.0%) of the inpatients experienced unsafe events, the percent increasing with hospital stay. Only 38 (30.4%) of the outpatients and 62 (33.5%) of the inpatients reported the unsafe events to health care staff Only 17.1% of unsafe events reported by inpatients were identified by the in-house reporting systems of adverse events and near misses. For the uneasy-dissatisfying or unsafe events that patients did not think necessary to report, the patients often felt they were self-evident or easily identifiable by health care staff, had difficulty evaluating the event, did not expect their report to bring any improvement, or even felt that reporting it would create some disadvantage in their medical treatment. Patient reporting programs and in-house reporting systems, among other detection methods, should be regarded as complementary sources of information.

  13. Response of moose to a high‐density road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattles, David W.; Zeller, Katherine A.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Road networks and the disturbance associated with vehicle traffic alter animal behavior, movements, and habitat selection. The response of moose (Alces americanus) to roads has been documented in relatively rural areas, but less is known about moose response to roads in more highly roaded landscapes. We examined road‐crossing frequencies and habitat use of global positioning system (GPS)‐collared moose in Massachusetts, USA, where moose home ranges have road densities approximately twice that of previous studies. We compared seasonal road‐crossing frequencies of moose with a null movement model. We estimated moose travel speeds during road‐crossing events and compared them with speeds during other home range movements. To estimate the extent of the road effect zone and determine how roads influenced moose habitat use, we fit a third‐order resource selection function. With the exception of the lowest use road class (roads less than expected based on the null movement model and frequency decreased with increasing road size and traffic. Moose crossed roads faster than they traveled during other times. This effect increased with increasing road use intensity. Overall, roads were a major factor determining what portions of Massachusetts moose used and how they moved among habitat patches. Our results suggest that moose in Massachusetts can adapt to a high‐density road network, but the road effect is still strongly negative and, in some cases, is more pronounced than in study areas with lower road densities. Future road construction and the expansion of road networks may have a large effect on moose and other wildlife.

  14. From rectilinear road to the cross: the opening of strada Maqueda in Palermo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Vesco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Strada Maqueda has until the present day been subjected almost exclusively to critical interpretations, which have correctly highlighted its symbolic value, especially with reference to the showing-off of the cross. This is an expression of an increasingly orthodox and extremist Catholicism on an unprecedented urban scale. Little has been said, on the other hand, about issues related to the actual construction of this urban space, to all the gutting that was necessary related to the opening of the building site in the dense, compact area of one of the most important Mediterranean capitals, of a road which is one and a half kilometres long and more than 11 metres wide; in the year 1600, this rectilinear road was an extremely complex urban intervention on the European scene. This research, with the aid of new archival documentation, aims to focus on the protagonists of this architectural achievement, on the progressive steps taken, the timing and organization of the construction site, as well as the  tools and techniques used to plan the urban space in order to properly lay out the new road through the medieval neighbourhoods. Keywords: Sicily, Palermo, strada Maqueda, city planning, XVIIth century

  15. Naturalistic Validation of an On-Road Driving Test of Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Davis, Jennifer D.; Barco, Peggy P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective was to compare a standardized road test to naturalistic driving by older people who may have cognitive impairment to define improvements that could potentially enhance the validity of road testing in this population. Background Road testing has been widely adapted as a tool to assess driving competence of older people who may be at risk for unsafe driving because of dementia; however, the validity of this approach has not been rigorously evaluated. Method For 2 weeks, 80 older drivers (38 healthy elders and 42 with cognitive impairment) who passed a standardized road test were video recorded in their own vehicles. Using a standardized rating scale, 4 hr of video was rated by a driving instructor. The authors examine weighting of individual road test items to form global impressions and to compare road test and naturalistic driving using factor analyses of these two assessments. Results The road test score was unidimensional, reflecting a major factor related to awareness of signage and traffic behavior. Naturalistic driving reflected two factors related to lane keeping as well as traffic behavior. Conclusion Maintenance of proper lane is an important dimension of driving safety that appears to be relatively underemphasized during the highly supervised procedures of the standardized road test. Application Road testing in this population could be improved by standardized designs that emphasize lane keeping and that include self-directed driving. Additional information should be sought from observers in the community as well as crash evidence when advising older drivers who may be cognitively impaired. PMID:22908688

  16. Road accident fatality risks for "vulnerable" versus "protected" road users in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2017-10-03

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic that claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. The unfavorable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure, and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users. The objective of this research was to establish the relative risk of death among road users in northern Ghana. Crash data from police reports between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed for the Upper Regions of Ghana. Conditional probabilities and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to report proportions and adjusted odds ratios (AORs), respectively. Generally, crashes in northern Ghana were extremely severe; that is, 35% of all injury related collisions were fatal. The proportion of fatal casualties ranged between 21% among victims of sideswipe collisions and 41% among pedestrians and victims of rear-end collisions. Though males were 6 times more likely to die than females overall, females were more likely to die as pedestrians (90% of all female casualty deaths) and males were more likely to die as riders/drivers (78% of all male casualty deaths). Pedestrians were 3 times more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 4.1) compared with drivers/riders. Compared with drivers, the odds of death among cyclists was about 4 times higher (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6) and about 2 times higher among motorcyclists (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2). Compared with casualties aged between 30 and 59 years, children under 10 years and those aged 60 years and above were independently 2 times more likely to die in traffic collisions. Provision of requisite road infrastructure is vital

  17. Sex, price and preferences: accounting for unsafe sexual practices in prostitution markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Stef; Hendrickx, Jef

    2012-06-01

    Unsafe sexual practices are persistent in prostitution interactions: one in four contacts can be called unsafe. The determinants of this are still matter for debate. We account for the roles played by clients' preferences and the hypothetical price premium of unsafe sexual practices with the help of a large dataset of clients' self-reported commercial sexual transactions in Belgium and The Netherlands. Almost 25,000 reports were collected, representing the whole gamut of prostitution market segments. The first set of explanations consists of an analysis of the price-fixing elements of paid sex. With the help of the so-called hedonic pricing method we test for the existence of a price incentive for unsafe sex. In accordance with the results from studies in some prostitution markets in the developing world, the study replicates a significant wage penalty for condom use of an estimated 7.2 per cent, confirmed in both multilevel and fixed-effects regressions. The second part of the analysis reconstructs the demand side basis of this wage penalty: the consistent preference of clients of prostitution for unsafe sex. This study is the first to document empirically clients' preference for intercourse without a condom, with the help of a multilevel ordinal regression. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Estimating the number of secondary Ebola cases resulting from an unsafe burial and risk factors for transmission during the West Africa Ebola epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Tiffany

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Safely burying Ebola infected individuals is acknowledged to be important for controlling Ebola epidemics and was a major component of the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola response. Yet, in order to understand the impact of safe burial programs it is necessary to elucidate the role of unsafe burials in sustaining chains of Ebola transmission and how the risk posed by activities surrounding unsafe burials, including care provided at home prior to death, vary with human behavior and geography.Interviews with next of kin and community members were carried out for unsafe burials in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea, in six districts where the Red Cross was responsible for safe and dignified burials (SDB. Districts were randomly selected from a district-specific sampling frame comprised of villages and neighborhoods that had experienced cases of Ebola. An average of 2.58 secondary cases were potentially generated per unsafe burial and varied by district (range: 0-20. Contact before and after death was reported for 142 (46% contacts. Caregivers of a primary case were 2.63 to 5.92 times more likely to become EVD infected compared to those with post-mortem contact only. Using these estimates, the Red Cross SDB program potentially averted between 1,411 and 10,452 secondary EVD cases, reducing the epidemic by 4.9% to 36.5%.SDB is a fundamental control measure that limits community transmission of Ebola; however, for those individuals having contact before and after death, it was impossible to ascertain the exposure that caused their infection. The number of infections prevented through SDB is significant, yet greater impact would be achieved by early hospitalization of the primary case during acute illness.

  19. Robust control of drag and lateral dynamic response for road vehicles exposed to cross-wind gusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens; King, Rudibert

    2018-03-01

    A robust closed-loop active flow control strategy for road vehicles under unsteady cross-wind conditions is presented. It is designed based on black-box models identified from experimental data for a 3D bluff body equipped with Coanda actuators along the rear edges. The controller adjusts the blowing rates of the actuators individually, achieving a drag reduction of about 15% while simultaneously improving cross-wind sensitivity. Hereby, the lateral vehicle dynamics and driver behavior are taken into account and replicated in the wind tunnel via a novel model support system. The effectiveness of the control strategy is demonstrated via cross-wind gust experiments.

  20. 49 CFR 396.7 - Unsafe operations forbidden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.7 Unsafe operations forbidden. (a) General. A motor vehicle shall not be operated in such a condition as to likely cause an accident or a breakdown of the vehicle. (b) Exemption. Any motor vehicle...

  1. Preceptorship: using an ethical lens to reflect on the unsafe student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle-Foley, Vicki; Myrick, Florence; Luhanga, Florence; Yonge, Olive

    2012-01-01

    Patient safety has become a worldwide health concern, and health care professionals have a moral and ethical responsibility to promote patient safety. The clinical education of many health care professionals often involves a preceptorship or field experience wherein students are assigned to work one-to-one with a preceptor or field educator so that they can be socialized into the profession and receive a reality-oriented experience. Health care professionals who accept the responsibility of being a preceptor face additional workload and stress, especially when the students to whom they are assigned are not meeting the expectations of safe, professional practice. Taking a stand against unsafe students is an important way for preceptors to promote patient safety. Given the nature of the stress and the inherent ethical issues associated with precepting an unsafe student, it is useful to examine this experience through an ethical lens. Included in this article is a brief overview of preceptorship as a model of clinical education, together with a discussion of the nature of the ethical decisions that preceptors face when precepting an unsafe student. Ethical theories, namely, virtue ethics and utilitarianism, are also explored and serve to provide the ethical lens through which preceptors can reflect upon their experiences with unsafe students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Model of relationship between personal factors and Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) management toward unsafe actions: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamtinningrum, M. D. P.; Partiwi, S. G.; Dewi, D. S.

    2018-04-01

    One indicator of a good company is when a safe business environment can be well maintained. In this work environment, the number of industrial accidents is minimum. Industrial accidents are the incidents that occurred in the workplace, especially in industrial area. Industrial accidents are generally caused by two main reasons, unsafe actions & unsafe conditions. Some research indicates that unsafe actions significantly affect the incidence in the workplace. Unsafe action is a failure to follow the proper procedures and requirements, which is led into accidents. From several previous studies it can be concluded that personal factors & OHS management are two most influential factors that affect unsafe actions. However, their relationship in influencing unsafe actions is not fully understood. Based on this reason the authors want to investigate the effect of personal factors and OHS management toward unsafe actions to workers. For this purpose, a company is selected as a case study. In this research, analyses were done by using univariate test, bivariate correlation and linear regression. The results of this study proves that two indicators of personal factors (i.e. knowledge of OHS & OHS training) and OHS management have significant effect on unsafe actions but in negative direction, while two indicators of personal factors (i.e. workload & fatigue) have positive direction of effect on unsafe actions. In addition, this research has developed a mathematical model that can be used to calculate and predict the value of unsafe actions performed by the worker. By using this model, the company will able to take preventive actions toward unsafe actions to reduce workers accidents.

  3. An immersive virtual peer for studying social influences on child cyclists' road-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sabarish V; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Chihak, Benjamin; Ziemer, Christine; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our work is to develop a programmatically controlled peer to bicycle with a human subject for the purpose of studying how social interactions influence road-crossing behavior. The peer is controlled through a combination of reactive controllers that determine the gross motion of the virtual bicycle, action-based controllers that animate the virtual bicyclist and generate verbal behaviors, and a keyboard interface that allows an experimenter to initiate the virtual bicyclist's actions during the course of an experiment. The virtual bicyclist's repertoire of behaviors includes road following, riding alongside the human rider, stopping at intersections, and crossing intersections through specified gaps in traffic. The virtual cyclist engages the human subject through gaze, gesture, and verbal interactions. We describe the structure of the behavior code and report the results of a study examining how 10- and 12-year-old children interact with a peer cyclist that makes either risky or safe choices in selecting gaps in traffic. Results of our study revealed that children who rode with a risky peer were more likely to cross intermediate-sized gaps than children who rode with a safe peer. In addition, children were significantly less likely to stop at the last six intersections after the experience of riding with the risky than the safe peer during the first six intersections. The results of the study and children's reactions to the virtual peer indicate that our virtual peer framework is a promising platform for future behavioral studies of peer influences on children's bicycle riding behavior. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  4. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  5. Factors influencing the detection of unsafe hangingwall conditions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peake, AV

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available This project reports on the findings of an investigation into reasons why hanging wall examination procedures fail to prevent fall of ground accidents on gold and platinum mines. Ideally, these procedures should identify every unsafe hanging wall...

  6. 33 CFR 177.07 - Other unsafe conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discretion, the continued operation of the vessel would create an unsafe condition. (c) Has a fuel leakage... applies to boats built after July 31, 1980); (e) Does not meet the requirements for backfire flame control... from the lowest point along the upper strake edge to the surface of the water. W=Maximum wave height in...

  7. Erosion and sediment delivery following removal of forest roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    Erosion control treatments were applied to abandoned logging roads in California, with the goal of reducing road-related sediment input to streams and restoring natural hydrologic patterns on the landscape. Treatment of stream crossings involved excavating culverts and associated road fill and reshaping streambanks. A variety of techniques were applied to road benches, which included decompacting the road surface, placing unstable road fill in more stable locations, and re-establishing natural surface drainage patterns. Following treatment and a 12-year recurrence-interval storm, some road reaches and excavated stream crossings showed evidence of mass movement failures, gullying, bank erosion and channel incision. Post-treatment erosion from excavated stream crossings was related to two variables: a surrogate for stream power (drainage area × channel gradient) and the volume of fill excavated from the channel. Post-treatment erosion on road reaches was related to four explanatory variables: method of treatment, hillslope position (upper, mid-slope or lower), date of treatment, and an interaction term (hillslope position × method of treatment). Sediment delivery from treated roads in upper, middle and lower hillslope positions was 10, 135 and 550 m3 of sediment per kilometre of treated roads, respectively. In contrast, inventories of almost 500 km of forest roads in adjacent catchments indicate that untreated roads produced 1500 to 4700 m3 of sediment per kilometre of road length. Erosion from 300 km of treated roads contributed less than 2 per cent of the total sediment load of Redwood Creek during the period 1978 to 1998. Although road removal treatments do not completely eliminate erosion associated with forest roads, they do substantially reduce sediment yields from abandoned logging roads.

  8. Recognizing pedestrian's unsafe behaviors in far-infrared imagery at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ko, Byoung Chul; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian behavior recognition is important work for early accident prevention in advanced driver assistance system (ADAS). In particular, because most pedestrian-vehicle crashes are occurred from late of night to early of dawn, our study focus on recognizing unsafe behavior of pedestrians using thermal image captured from moving vehicle at night. For recognizing unsafe behavior, this study uses convolutional neural network (CNN) which shows high quality of recognition performance. However, because traditional CNN requires the very expensive training time and memory, we design the light CNN consisted of two convolutional layers and two subsampling layers for real-time processing of vehicle applications. In addition, we combine light CNN with boosted random forest (Boosted RF) classifier so that the output of CNN is not fully connected with the classifier but randomly connected with Boosted random forest. We named this CNN as randomly connected CNN (RC-CNN). The proposed method was successfully applied to the pedestrian unsafe behavior (PUB) dataset captured from far-infrared camera at night and its behavior recognition accuracy is confirmed to be higher than that of some algorithms related to CNNs, with a shorter processing time.

  9. Individual spatial responses towards roads: implications for mortality risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grilo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the ecological consequences of roads and developing ways to mitigate their negative effects has become an important goal for many conservation biologists. Most mitigation measures are based on road mortality and barrier effects data. However, studying fine-scale individual spatial responses in roaded landscapes may help develop more cohesive road planning strategies for wildlife conservation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated how individuals respond in their spatial behavior toward a highway and its traffic intensity by radio-tracking two common species particularly vulnerable to road mortality (barn owl Tyto alba and stone marten Martes foina. We addressed the following questions: 1 how highways affected home-range location and size in the immediate vicinity of these structures, 2 which road-related features influenced habitat selection, 3 what was the role of different road-related features on movement properties, and 4 which characteristics were associated with crossing events and road-kills. The main findings were: 1 if there was available habitat, barn owls and stone martens may not avoid highways and may even include highways within their home-ranges; 2 both species avoided using areas near the highway when traffic was high, but tended to move toward the highway when streams were in close proximity and where verges offered suitable habitat; and 3 barn owls tended to cross above-grade highway sections while stone martens tended to avoid crossing at leveled highway sections. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality may be the main road-mediated mechanism that affects barn owl and stone marten populations. Fine-scale movements strongly indicated that a decrease in road mortality risk can be realized by reducing sources of attraction, and by increasing road permeability through measures that promote safe crossings.

  10. Study on safety educations against individual causal factors of unsafe acts and specification of target trainees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Ayako; Takeda, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Many accidents and incidents are caused by unsafe acts. It is important to reduce these unsafe acts for preventing the accidents. The countermeasures for each causal factor behind unsafe acts are needed, however, comparing with improvement of facilities, workers-oriented measures such as safety educations are not sufficient. Then the purposes of this study are as follows: 1) to investigate the individual factors which have great impact of unsafe acts and the existing safety educations which aim to mitigate the impact of these factors, 2) to specify the target trainees to perform these safety educations. To identify common factors that affect unsafe act significantly, a web survey was conducted to 500 workers who have regularly carried out accident prediction training (i.e. Kiken-Yochi training). They were asked the situation which they were apt to act unsafely by free description. As the result, the following three main factors were extracted: impatience, overconfidence, and bothersome. Also, it was found that there were few existing safety educations which aim to mitigate the impact of these factors except for overconfidence. To specify the target trainees to perform safety educations which aim to mitigate the impact of these three factors, another web survey was conducted to 200 personnel in charge of safety at the workplace. They were asked the features of workers who tended to act unsafely by age group. The relationship between the factor that need to mitigate and the trainee who need to receive the education were clarified from the survey. (author)

  11. Pattern of Complicated Unsafe Abortions in Niger Delta University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    of cases of complicated unsafe abortion managed at the. Niger Delta University ... previous termination of pregnancy and 87.3% of the patients had ... and outcome were obtained. ... life-threatening complications, post- abortion family planning.

  12. Pre-hospital care time intervals among victims of road traffic injuries in Iran. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigdeli Maryam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem, requiring concerted efforts both for their prevention and a reduction of their consequences. Timely arrival of the Emergency Medical Service (EMS at the crash scene followed by speedy victim transportation by trained personnel may reduce the RTIs' consequences. The first 60 minutes after injury occurrence - referred to as the "golden hour"- are vital for the saving of lives. The present study was designed to estimate the average of various time intervals occurring during the pre-hospital care process and to examine the differences between these time intervals as regards RTIs on urban and interurban roads. Method A retrospective cross-sectional study was designed and various time intervals in relation to pre-hospital care of RTIs identified in the ambulance dispatch centre in Urmia, Iran from 20 March 2005 to 20 March 2007. All cases which resulted in ambulance dispatches were reviewed and those that had complete data on time intervals were analyzed. Results In total, the cases of 2027 RTI victims were analysed. Of these, 61.5 % of the subjects were injured in city areas. The mean response time for city locations was 5.0 minutes, compared with 10.6 minutes for interurban road locations. The mean on-scene time on the interurban roads was longer than on city roads (9.2 vs. 6.1 minutes, p Conclusion The response, transport and total time intervals among EMS responding to RTI incidents were longer for interurban roads, compared to the city areas. More research should take place on needs-to and access-for EMS on city and interurban roads. The notification interval seems to be a hidden part of the post-crash events and indirectly affects the "golden hour" for victim management and it needs to be measured through the establishment of the surveillance systems.

  13. 12 CFR 1731.3 - Unsafe and unsound conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS MORTGAGE FRAUD REPORTING § 1731.3 Unsafe and unsound conduct. An Enterprise may not require the repurchase of or may not decline to purchase a mortgage, mortgage backed security, or similar financial instrument because of possible mortgage fraud without promptly reporting to the...

  14. Changes in perception-action tuning over long time scales: How children and adults perceive and act on dynamic affordances when crossing roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Elizabeth E; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Franzen, Lucas J; Rahimian, Pooya; Yon, Junghum Paul; Kearney, Joseph K; Plumert, Jodie M

    2018-01-01

    This investigation examined developmental change in how children perceive and act on dynamic affordances when crossing roads on foot. Six- to 14-year-olds and adults crossed roads with continuous cross-traffic in a large-screen, immersive pedestrian simulator. We observed change both in children's gap choices and in their ability to precisely synchronize their movement with the opening of a gap. Younger children were less discriminating than older children and adults, choosing fewer large gaps and more small gaps. Interestingly, 12-year-olds' gap choices were significantly more conservative than those of 6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds, and adults. Timing of entry behind the lead vehicle in the gap (a key measure of movement coordination) improved steadily with development, reaching adultlike levels by age 14. Coupled with their poorer timing of entry, 6-, 8-, and 10-year-olds' gap choices resulted in significantly less time to spare and more collisions than 14-year-olds and adults. Time to spare did not differ between 12-year-olds, 14-year-olds, and adults, indicating that 12-year-olds' more conservative gap choices compensated for their poorer timing of entry. The findings show that children's ability to perceive and act on dynamic affordances undergoes a prolonged period of development, and that older children appear to compensate for their poorer movement timing skills by adjusting their gap decisions to match their crossing actions. Implications for the development of perception-action tuning and road-crossing skills are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. [Heavy episodic drinking, cannabis use and unsafe sex among university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco

    To determine the incidence of unsafe sex among university students and its association with heavy episodic drinking (HED) and cannabis use. A cohort study was carried out from 2005 to 2011 among university students of the Compostela Cohort (n=517). HED was measured using the third question of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Unsafe sex was considered to be sex under the influence of alcohol (SUA) and sex without a condom (SWC). Logistic regression models were created. The incidence of SUA was 40.9% for women and 53.0% for men, while the SWC incidence ranged from 13.7% for women to 25.7% for men. HED and cannabis use were associated with SUA in both women (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.03-4.21; OR=2.78, 95%CI: 1.57-4.92) and men (OR=4.74 (95%CI: 1.49-15.09; OR=4.37, 95%CI: 1.17- 16.36). Moreover, cannabis use in women was associated with SWC (OR=2.96, 95%CI: 1.52-5.75). The population attributable fractions of SUA for HED were 24.7% and 52.9% for women and men, respectively. HED and cannabis use represent a public health problem due to their association with a variety of problems, including engagement in unsafe sex. Our results suggest that a significant proportion of unsafe sex could be avoided by reducing this consumption pattern of alcohol. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental damages of forest road construction by bulldozer on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... In this study, forest road construction technique by using bulldozer was investigated in forested lands ... example, sediment yield delivered from forest roads to ... minimize the erosional impact of roads on the environ- ... 951 mm. 4570 kg. Figure 2. Proportion of environmental damages on road cross section.

  17. Dynamic simulation of road vehicle door window regulator mechanism of cross arm type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklos, I. Zs; Miklos, C.; Alic, C.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents issues related to the dynamic simulation of a motor-drive operating mechanism of cross arm type, for the manipulation of road vehicle door windows, using Autodesk Inventor Professional software. The dynamic simulation of the mechanism involves a 3D modelling, kinematic coupling, drive motion parameters and external loads, as well as the graphically view of the kinematic and kinetostatic results for the various elements and kinematic couplings of the mechanism, under real operating conditions. Also, based on the results, the analysis of the mechanism components has been carried out using the finite element method.

  18. Is three the magic number? The role of ergonomic principles in cross country comprehension of road traffic signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamson, Samantha; Mrozek, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Road sign comprehension plays an important part in road safety management, particularly for those drivers who are travelling in an unfamiliar country. Previous research has established that comprehension can be improved if signs are designed to adhere to ergonomic principles. However, it may be difficult for sign designers to incorporate all the principles into a single sign and may thus have to make a judgement as to the most effective ones. This study surveyed drivers in three countries to ascertain their understanding of a range of road signs, each of which conformed in varying degrees and combinations to the ergonomic principles. We found that using three of the principles was the most effective and that the most important one was that relating to standardisation; the colours and shapes used were key to comprehension. Other concepts which related to physical and spatial characteristics were less important, whilst conceptual compatibility did not aid comprehension at all. Practitioner Summary: This study explores how road sign comprehension can be improved using ergonomic principles, with particular reference to cross-border drivers. It was found that comprehension can be improved significantly if standardisation is adhered to and if at least three principles are used.

  19. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling the factors affecting unsafe behavior in the construction industry from safety supervisors' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Yahya; Asilian-Mahabadi, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hassanzadeh-Rangi, Narmin; Bastani, Hamid; Khavanin, Ali; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher

    2014-01-01

    There can be little doubt that the construction is the most hazardous industry in the worldwide. This study was designed to modeling the factors affecting unsafe behavior from the perspective of safety supervisors. The qualitative research was conducted to extract a conceptual model. A structural model was then developed based on a questionnaire survey (n=266) by two stage Structural Equation Model (SEM) approach. An excellent confirmed 12-factors structure explained about 62% of variances unsafe behavior in the construction industry. A good fit structural model indicated that safety climate factors were positively correlated with safety individual factors (Pconstruction workers' engagement in safe or unsafe behavior. In order to improve construction safety performance, more focus on the workplace condition is required.

  1. Promoting Road Safety for Preadolescent Boys with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: The Effect of Cognitive Style and the Role of Attention in the Identification of Safe and Dangerous Road-Crossing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Alevriadou

    2010-01-01

    An important pedestrian skill that young people with intellectual disabilities (ID) (mental retardation) find difficult is the ability to find a safe place to cross the road. Safe pedestrian behaviour relies on cognitive skills, including the ability to focus attention on the traffic environment and ignore irrelevant stimuli. Individuals with ID…

  2. Understanding abortion-related stigma and incidence of unsafe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young unmarried women bore the brunt of being stigmatized. They reported a lack of a supportive environment that provides guidance on correct information on how to prevent unwanted pregnancy and where to get help. Abortion-related stigma plays a major role in women's decision on whether to have a safe or unsafe ...

  3. Automatic discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing using a reputation-based classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikjoo Mohammad S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swallowing accelerometry has been suggested as a potential non-invasive tool for bedside dysphagia screening. Various vibratory signal features and complementary measurement modalities have been put forth in the literature for the potential discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing. To date, automatic classification of swallowing accelerometry has exclusively involved a single-axis of vibration although a second axis is known to contain additional information about the nature of the swallow. Furthermore, the only published attempt at automatic classification in adult patients has been based on a small sample of swallowing vibrations. Methods In this paper, a large corpus of dual-axis accelerometric signals were collected from 30 older adults (aged 65.47 ± 13.4 years, 15 male referred to videofluoroscopic examination on the suspicion of dysphagia. We invoked a reputation-based classifier combination to automatically categorize the dual-axis accelerometric signals into safe and unsafe swallows, as labeled via videofluoroscopic review. From these participants, a total of 224 swallowing samples were obtained, 164 of which were labeled as unsafe swallows (swallows where the bolus entered the airway and 60 as safe swallows. Three separate support vector machine (SVM classifiers and eight different features were selected for classification. Results With selected time, frequency and information theoretic features, the reputation-based algorithm distinguished between safe and unsafe swallowing with promising accuracy (80.48 ± 5.0%, high sensitivity (97.1 ± 2% and modest specificity (64 ± 8.8%. Interpretation of the most discriminatory features revealed that in general, unsafe swallows had lower mean vibration amplitude and faster autocorrelation decay, suggestive of decreased hyoid excursion and compromised coordination, respectively. Further, owing to its performance-based weighting of component classifiers, the static

  4. Unsafe and violent behavior in commercials aired during televised major sporting events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburro, Robert F; Gordon, Patricia L; D'Apolito, James P; Howard, Scott C

    2004-12-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of death in children, and media exposure seems to increase children's risk-taking behavior. Televised sports are commonly viewed by children. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of commercials that depict violence or other unsafe behavior during major televised sporting events that are aired before 9:00 pm. We obtained a list of the 50 sports programs that were most highly rated by Nielsen Media Research and that were televised between September 1, 2001, and September 1, 2002. These 50 programs included Winter Olympics events (n = 15), National Football League (NFL) regular season games (n = 14), NFL playoff games (n = 10), Major League Baseball World Series and playoff games (n = 7), the NFL Super Bowl (n = 1), the National Basketball Association Western Conference Final Game (n = 1), the College Football Rose Bowl (n = 1), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association Basketball Championship game (n = 1). Two other events were reviewed as well: the final round of the Masters Golf Championship, because it was the only sporting event rated in the top 50 of the previous year that was not represented by a similar sporting event in the study year, and the Daytona 500 National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing race, because it was the only event rated among the top 75 of the study year that was not represented by a similar event (ie, there were no other golfing or auto racing events reviewed). These events were included because different sporting events may attract different viewers and different advertisements; thus, their inclusion provides a more comprehensive evaluation of the topic. For sporting events with >3 programs in the top 50 (NFL regular season games, NFL playoff games, Winter Olympic events, and Major League Baseball World Series), representative samples of events were assessed. Surrogate events were analyzed for programs that were aired after 9:00 PM (Eastern Time) to control for the reduced

  5. Sociotechnical factors influencing unsafe use of hospital information systems: A qualitative study in Malaysian government hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Lizawati; Ismail, Zuraini; Hashim, Ummi Rabaah; Raja Ikram, Raja Rina; Ismail, Nor Haslinda; Naim Mohayat, Mohd Hariz

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to identify factors influencing unsafe use of hospital information systems in Malaysian government hospitals. Semi-structured interviews with 31 medical doctors in three Malaysian government hospitals implementing total hospital information systems were conducted between March and May 2015. A thematic qualitative analysis was performed on the resultant data to deduce the relevant themes. A total of five themes emerged as the factors influencing unsafe use of a hospital information system: (1) knowledge, (2) system quality, (3) task stressor, (4) organization resources, and (5) teamwork. These qualitative findings highlight that factors influencing unsafe use of a hospital information system originate from multidimensional sociotechnical aspects. Unsafe use of a hospital information system could possibly lead to the incidence of errors and thus raises safety risks to the patients. Hence, multiple interventions (e.g. technology systems and teamwork) are required in shaping high-quality hospital information system use.

  6. Pre-hospital care time intervals among victims of road traffic injuries in Iran. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Mohammadi, Reza

    2010-07-09

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health problem, requiring concerted efforts both for their prevention and a reduction of their consequences. Timely arrival of the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) at the crash scene followed by speedy victim transportation by trained personnel may reduce the RTIs' consequences. The first 60 minutes after injury occurrence--referred to as the "golden hour"--are vital for the saving of lives. The present study was designed to estimate the average of various time intervals occurring during the pre-hospital care process and to examine the differences between these time intervals as regards RTIs on urban and interurban roads. A retrospective cross-sectional study was designed and various time intervals in relation to pre-hospital care of RTIs identified in the ambulance dispatch centre in Urmia, Iran from 20 March 2005 to 20 March 2007. All cases which resulted in ambulance dispatches were reviewed and those that had complete data on time intervals were analyzed. In total, the cases of 2027 RTI victims were analysed. Of these, 61.5% of the subjects were injured in city areas. The mean response time for city locations was 5.0 minutes, compared with 10.6 minutes for interurban road locations. The mean on-scene time on the interurban roads was longer than on city roads (9.2 vs. 6.1 minutes, p transport times from the scene to the hospital were also significantly longer for interurban incidents (17.1 vs. 6.3 minutes, p transport and total time intervals among EMS responding to RTI incidents were longer for interurban roads, compared to the city areas. More research should take place on needs-to and access-for EMS on city and interurban roads. The notification interval seems to be a hidden part of the post-crash events and indirectly affects the "golden hour" for victim management and it needs to be measured through the establishment of the surveillance systems.

  7. Unsafe Abortion and its Ethical, Sexual and Reproductive Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unsafe abortion is an important cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly marked in developing countries with restrictive abortion laws. It has both bioethical and human rights implications, violating their key principles and components. Objective: To highlight the magnitude of complications of ...

  8. Near misses and unsafe conditions reported in a Pediatric Emergency Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Richard M; Chamberlain, James M; Mahajan, Prashant V; Funai, Tomohiko; O'Connell, Karen J; Blumberg, Stephen; Lichenstein, Richard; Gramse, Heather L; Shaw, Kathy N

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient safety may be enhanced by using reports from front-line staff of near misses and unsafe conditions to identify latent safety events. We describe paediatric emergency department (ED) near-miss events and unsafe conditions from hospital reporting systems in a 1-year observational study from hospitals participating in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Design This is a secondary analysis of 1 year of incident reports (IRs) from 18 EDs in 2007–2008. Using a prior taxonomy and established method, this analysis is of all reports classified as near-miss (events not reaching the patient) or unsafe condition. Classification included type, severity, contributing factors and personnel involved. In-depth review of 20% of IRs was performed. Results 487 reports (16.8% of eligible IRs) are included. Most common were medication-related, followed by laboratory-related, radiology-related and process-related IRs. Human factors issues were related to 87% and equipment issues to 11%. Human factor issues related to non-compliance with procedures accounted for 66.4%, including 5.95% with no or incorrect ID. Handoff issues were important in 11.5%. Conclusions Medication and process-related issues are important causes of near miss and unsafe conditions in the network. Human factors issues were highly reported and non-compliance with established procedures was very common, and calculation issues, communications (ie, handoffs) and clinical judgment were also important. This work should enable us to help improve systems within the environment of the ED to enhance patient safety in the future. PMID:26338681

  9. Students' Perceptions of Unsafe Schools: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of several school shooting incidents in recent years, students' perceptions of unsafe schools has been a major concern for parents, teachers, school officials, school practitioners, and policy-makers. Using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems framework, we examined the micro-, meso-, and exosystem level factors associated with…

  10. Uncovering high rates of unsafe injection equipment reuse in rural Cameroon: validation of a survey instrument that probes for specific misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Savanna R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe reuse of injection equipment in hospitals is an on-going threat to patient safety in many parts of Africa. The extent of this problem is difficult to measure. Standard WHO injection safety assessment protocols used in the 2003 national injection safety assessment in Cameroon are problematic because health workers often behave differently under the observation of visitors. The main objective of this study is to assess the extent of unsafe injection equipment reuse and potential for blood-borne virus transmission in Cameroon. This can be done by probing for misconceptions about injection safety that explain reuse without sterilization. These misconceptions concern useless precautions against cross-contamination, i.e. "indirect reuse" of injection equipment. To investigate whether a shortage of supply explains unsafe reuse, we compared our survey data against records of purchases. Methods All health workers at public hospitals in two health districts in the Northwest Province of Cameroon were interviewed about their own injection practices. Injection equipment supply purchase records documented for January to December 2009 were compared with self-reported rates of syringe reuse. The number of HIV, HBV and HCV infections that result from unsafe medical injections in these health districts is estimated from the frequency of unsafe reuse, the number of injections performed, the probability that reused injection equipment had just been used on an infected patient, the size of the susceptible population, and the transmission efficiency of each virus in an injection. Results Injection equipment reuse occurs commonly in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, practiced by 44% of health workers at public hospitals. Self-reported rates of syringe reuse only partly explained by records on injection equipment supplied to these hospitals, showing a shortage of syringes where syringes are reused. Injection safety interventions could

  11. Influence of management behavior on the skilled labor migrations’ unsafe behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to summarize safety management of manager into two aspects (design behavior and management behavior and to figure out the different impact these two behaviors might have. Design/methodology/approach: In order to verify the reasonableness of the assumptions, expert investigation was used by the means of semi-structured interview. And the Structural Equation Modeling?SEM? is estimated using 850 individual questionnaire responses from five companies in the form of Likert-type scale. What’s more, taking the measurement error causing by common method biases into consideration, Univariate Testing was taken to measure the deviation effect. Findings: The results obtained with this description showed that certain measures should be adopt by managers to develop purposively the safety knowledge and safety motivation of the skilled labor migrations (SLMs. Research limitations/implications: Unsafe behavior, which has aroused extensive concern in recent years, is the subject of many safety management studies. However, there have not been any studies on the influence of management behavior on SLMs unsafe behavior. Practical implications: As the unsafe behavior of SLMs is the most important accident reason, this paper may help reduce the incidence of accidents. Originality/value: The conclusion of this study will certainly provide the beneficial reference views on the management behavior.

  12. Factors influencing unsafe behaviors and accidents on construction sites: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Yahya; Asilian-Mahabadi, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hassanzadeh-Rangi, Narmin; Bastani, Hamid; Behzadan, Amir H

    2014-01-01

    Construction is a hazardous occupation due to the unique nature of activities involved and the repetitiveness of several field behaviors. The aim of this methodological and theoretical review is to explore the empirical factors influencing unsafe behaviors and accidents on construction sites. In this work, results and findings from 56 related previous studies were investigated. These studies were categorized based on their design, type, methods of data collection, analytical methods, variables, and key findings. A qualitative content analysis procedure was used to extract variables, themes, and factors. In addition, all studies were reviewed to determine the quality rating and to evaluate the strength of provided evidence. The content analysis identified 8 main categories: (a) society, (b) organization, (c) project management, (d) supervision, (e) contractor, (f) site condition, (g) work group, and (h) individual characteristics. The review highlighted the importance of more distal factors, e.g., society and organization, and project management, that may contribute to reducing the likelihood of unsafe behaviors and accidents through the promotion of site condition and individual features (as proximal factors). Further research is necessary to provide a better understanding of the links between unsafe behavior theories and empirical findings, challenge theoretical assumptions, develop new applied theories, and make stronger recommendations.

  13. Identification of motivations for unsafe driving actions and potential countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a preliminary investigation of drivers' motivations for selected unsafe driving actions (UDAs). The general objective of the study was to develop the test methods, procedures, and materials for collecting data for...

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Unsafe Abortion and Alternative First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To explore the policy implications of increasing access to safe abortion in Nigeria and Ghana, we developed a computer-based decision analytic model which simulates induced abortion and its potential complications in a cohort of women, and comparatively assessed the cost-effectiveness of unsafe abortion and three ...

  15. Smartphone Based Approach For Monitoring Inefficient And Unsafe Driving Behavior And Recognizing Drink And Drive Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Mane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many automobile drivers having knowledge of the driving behaviours and habits that can lead to inefficient and unsafe driving. However it is often the case that these same drivers unknowingly manifest these inefficient and unsafe driving behaviours in their everyday driving activity. The proposed system proposes a practical and economical way to capture measure and alert drives of inefficient and unsafe driving as well as highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The upcoming solution consists of a mobile application running on a modern smartphone device paired with a compatible OBDII On-board diagnostics II reader.

  16. Geometric and Road Environmental Effects against Total Number of Traffic Accidents in Kendari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdin, M. Akbar; Welendo, La; Annisa, Nur

    2017-05-01

    From the large number of traffic accidents that occurred, the carrying of Kendari as the biggest contributor to accidents in the Southeast. The number of accidents in Kendari row since 2011 was recorded at 18 accidents due to the influence of geometric road, in 2012 registered at 13 accident and in 2013 amounted to 6 accidents, with accident data because of the influence Geometric recorded for 3 consecutive years the biggest contributor to accidents because of the influence of geometric is Abeli districts. This study aimed to determine the road which common point of accident-prone (Black spot) in Kecamatan Abeli as accident-prone areas in Kendari, analyze the influence of geometric and road environment against accidents on roads in Kecamatan Abeli, provide alternative treatment based on the causes of accidents on the location of the accident-prone points (blackspot) to reduce the rate of traffic accidents. From the results of a study of 6 curve the accident-prone locations, that the curve I, II, and VI is the “Black Spot” influenced by the amount and condition of traffic accidents, while at the curve II, a traffic accident that occurred also be caused by unsafe geometric where the type of geometric should be changed from Spiral-Spiral type to Spiral-Circle-Spiral type. This indicates geometric effect on the number of accidents.

  17. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  18. Poor, Unsafe, and Overweight: The Role of Feeling Unsafe at School in Mediating the Association Among Poverty Exposure, Youth Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Séguin, Louise; Barnett, Tracie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study applied socioecological and cumulative risk exposure frameworks to test the hypotheses that 1) the experience of poverty is associated with feeling less safe at school, and 2) feeling less safe is associated with engaging in poorer weight-related behaviors, as well as an increased probability of being overweight or obese. Data were from the ongoing Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, initiated in 1998 with a population-based cohort of 2,120 Québec (Canada) infants 5 months of age and their parent or primary caregiver. Measures of youths' (age, 13 years) self-reported feelings of safety, screen time, physical activity, and objectively assessed not overweight/obese (70%), overweight (22%), and obese (8%) weight status were collected in 2011. Family poverty trajectory from birth was assessed by using latent growth modeling. As hypothesized, exposure to poverty was associated with feeling less safe at school and, in turn, with an increased probability of being overweight or obese. The association was most pronounced for youths who experienced chronic poverty. Compared with youths who experienced no poverty and felt unsafe, those who experienced chronic poverty and felt unsafe were nearly 18% more likely to be obese (9.2% vs. 11.2%). Although feeling unsafe was associated with screen time, screen time did not predict weight status. PMID:25921649

  19. 46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and... of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers. (a) Before making repairs to a boiler of a nautical school ship the engineer in charge shall report, in writing, the nature of such...

  20. The Research on the Impact of Management Level's Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level's charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises.

  1. Investigating social consequences of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Malawi: the role of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandowski, Brooke A; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Kachale, Fannie; Awah, Paschal; Kangaude, Godfrey; Mhango, Chisale

    2012-09-01

    Malawian women in all sectors of society are suffering from social implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion. Unwanted pregnancies occur among women who have limited access to family planning and safe abortion. A legally restrictive setting for safe abortion services leads many women to unsafe abortion, which has consequences for them and their families. In-depth interviews were conducted with 485 Malawian stakeholders belonging to different political and social structures. Interviewees identified the impact of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion to be the greatest on young women. Premarital and extramarital pregnancies were highly stigmatized; stigma directly related to abortion was also found. Community-level discussions need to focus on reduction of stigma. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Appropriateness of different pedagogical approaches to road safety education for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, C; Romijn, A R

    2017-11-01

    In 2016, 29% of pedestrians killed or seriously injured on the roads in Great Britain were under 15 years of age. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a chronic disorder affecting the acquisition and execution of motor skills, may be more vulnerable at the roadside than typically developing (TD) children. Current methods used to teach road safety are typically knowledge-based and do not necessarily improve behaviour in real traffic situations. Virtual reality road crossing tasks may be a viable alternative. The present study aimed to test the road crossing accuracy of children with and without DCD in virtual reality tasks that varied the viewpoint to simulate the teaching methods currently used in road safety educational programmes. Twenty-one children with DCD and twenty-one age and gender matched TD peers were required to locate the safest road crossing sites in two conditions: allocentric (aerial viewpoint) and egocentric (first-person viewpoint). All children completed both conditions and were required to navigate either themselves or an avatar across the road using the safest crossing route. The primary outcome was accuracy defined as the number of trials, out of 10, on which the child successfully identified and used the safest crossing route. Children with DCD performed equally poorly in both conditions, while TD children were significantly more accurate in the egocentric condition. This difference cannot be explained by self-reported prior road crossing education, practice or confidence. While TD children may benefit from the development of an egocentric virtual reality road crossing task, multimodal methods may be needed to effectively teach road safety to children with DCD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Get In and Get Out: Assessing Stream Sediment Loading from Short Duration Forest Harvest Operations and Rapid Haul Road Decommissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, A.; Silins, U.; Stone, M.

    2016-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) and associated erosion control measures for mitigating sediment impacts from forestry roads and road-stream crossings are well documented. While rapid road decommissioning after forestry operations may serve to limit broader impacts on sediment production in high value headwater streams, few studies have evaluated the combined effects of accelerated harvest operations and rapid retirement of logging roads and road-stream crossings on stream sediment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the initial impacts of these strategies on fine sediment loading and fate during a short duration harvesting operation in 3 headwater sub-catchments in the southwestern Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. A multi-pronged sampling approach (ISCOs, event focused grab sampling, continuous wash load sampling, and stream bed sediment intrusion measurements) was used to measure sediment loading and deposition in streambeds upstream and downstream of road-stream bridge crossings during harvest operations (2015) and after road and bridge crossing retirement (2016). Sediment production from forestry roads was generally much lower than has been reported from other studies in similar settings. Average total suspended solids (TSS) downstream of the bridge crossings were actually lower (-3.28 g/L; -0.704 g/L) than upstream of two bridge crossings while in-stream sediment sources contributed to elevated sediment downstream of a third road-stream crossing. Minimal in stream sediment impacts from forest harvest and road-stream crossings was likely a reflection of combined factors including a) employment of erosion control BMPs to roads and bridge crossings, b) rapid decommissioning of roads and crossings to limit exposure of linear land disturbance features, and c) drier El Niño climatic conditions during the study.

  4. Frequency of unsafe storage, use, and disposal practices of opioids among cancer patients presenting to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Julio; Reddy, Akhila; de la Cruz, Maxine; Wu, Jimin; Liu, Diane; Bruera, Eduardo; Todd, Knox H

    2017-12-01

    Approximately 75% of prescription opioid abusers obtain the drug from an acquaintance, which may be a consequence of improper opioid storage, use, disposal, and lack of patient education. We aimed to determine the opioid storage, use, and disposal patterns in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) of a comprehensive cancer center. We surveyed 113 patients receiving opioids for at least 2 months upon presenting to the ED and collected information regarding opioid use, storage, and disposal. Unsafe storage was defined as storing opioids in plain sight, and unsafe use was defined as sharing or losing opioids. The median age was 53 years, 55% were female, 64% were white, and 86% had advanced cancer. Of those surveyed, 36% stored opioids in plain sight, 53% kept them hidden but unlocked, and only 15% locked their opioids. However, 73% agreed that they would use a lockbox if given one. Patients who reported that others had asked them for their pain medications (p = 0.004) and those who would use a lockbox if given one (p = 0.019) were more likely to keep them locked. Some 13 patients (12%) used opioids unsafely by either sharing (5%) or losing (8%) them. Patients who reported being prescribed more pain pills than required (p = 0.032) were more likely to practice unsafe use. Most (78%) were unaware of proper opioid disposal methods, 6% believed they were prescribed more medication than required, and 67% had unused opioids at home. Only 13% previously received education about safe disposal of opioids. Overall, 77% (87) of patients reported unsafe storage, unsafe use, or possessed unused opioids at home. Many cancer patients presenting to the ED improperly and unsafely store, use, or dispose of opioids, thus highlighting a need to investigate the impact of patient education on such practices.

  5. Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

    2014-10-01

    While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Mekelle town, northern Ethiopia, 2014: a cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigus Gebremedhin Asefa

    Full Text Available The 2013 World Health Organization Status Report on Road Safety estimated that approximately 1.24 million deaths occur annually due to road traffic crashes with most of the burden falling on low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of road traffic crashes in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia and to identify risk factors with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies.This study used a cross-sectional design to measure the prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among 4-wheeled minibus (n = 130 and 3-wheeled Bajaj (n = 582 taxi drivers in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between risk factors and drivers' involvement in a road traffic crash within the 3 years prior to the survey.Among the 712 taxi drivers, 26.4% (n = 188 of them reported involvement in a road traffic crash within the past 3 years. Drivers who listened to mass media had decreased likelihood of road traffic crash involvement (AOR = 0.51, 0.33-0.78, while speedy driving (AOR = 4.57, 3.05-7.44, receipt of a prior traffic punishment (AOR = 4.57, 2.67-7.85, and driving a mechanically faulty taxi (AOR = 4.91, 2.81-8.61 were strongly associated with road traffic crash involvement. Receiving mobile phone calls while driving (AOR = 1.91, 1.24-2.92 and history of alcohol use (AOR = 1.51, 1.00-2.28 were also associated with higher odds of road traffic crash involvement.The results of this study show that taxi drivers in Mekelle habitually place themselves at increased risk of road traffic crashes by violating traffic laws, especially related to speedy driving, mobile phone use, and taxi maintenance. This research can be used to support re-evaluation of the type, severity, and enforcement of traffic violation penalties.

  7. Comparisons of sediment losses from a newly constructed cross-country natural gas pipeline and an existing in-road pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Bridget M. Harrison; Daniel J. Holz; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2014-01-01

    Sediment loads were measured for about one year from natural gas pipelines in two studies in north central West Virginia. One study involved a 1-year-old pipeline buried within the bed of a 25-year-old skid road, and the other involved a newly constructed cross-country pipeline. Both pipelines were the same diameter and were installed using similar trenching and...

  8. Analyzing injury severity factors at highway railway grade crossing accidents involving vulnerable road users: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomi, Haniyeh; Bagheri, Morteza; Fu, Liping; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2016-11-16

    The main objective of this study is to identify the main factors associated with injury severity of vulnerable road users (VRUs) involved in accidents at highway railroad grade crossings (HRGCs) using data mining techniques. This article applies an ordered probit model, association rules, and classification and regression tree (CART) algorithms to the U.S. Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) HRGC accident database for the period 2007-2013 to identify VRU injury severity factors at HRGCs. The results show that train speed is a key factor influencing injury severity. Further analysis illustrated that the presence of illumination does not reduce the severity of accidents for high-speed trains. In addition, there is a greater propensity toward fatal accidents for elderly road users compared to younger individuals. Interestingly, at night, injury accidents involving female road users are more severe compared to those involving males. The ordered probit model was the primary technique, and CART and association rules act as the supporter and identifier of interactions between variables. All 3 algorithms' results consistently show that the most influential accident factors are train speed, VRU age, and gender. The findings of this research could be applied for identifying high-risk hotspots and developing cost-effective countermeasures targeting VRUs at HRGCs.

  9. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  10. An application of a theory of planned behaviour to determine the association between behavioural intentions and safe road-crossing in college students: perspective from Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Mahaki, Behzad; Delpisheh, Ali; Rad, Gholamreza Sharifi

    2015-07-01

    To identify the determinants of behavioural intention towards safe road-crossing among college students. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013-14 and comprised students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed among the subjects related to road-crossing based on the theory of planned behaviour. Data was analysed using SPSS 21. Of the 300 questionnaires distributed, 278(92.66%) were returned completed. The mean age of the subjects was 23.16±3.66 years. There were 149(53.6%) females and 129(46.4%) males, with females crossing the street more safely than the males. There was a significant difference between the genders for subjective norms (p=0.001), perceived behavioural control (p=0.002) and behavioural intention (p=0.001), but no differences were traced with respect to attitude towards safe crossing (p=0.597). Results showed a direct and positive correlation between attitude towards safe crossing (r=0.276; p=0.001), subjective norms (r=0.368; p=0.001) and perceived behavioural control (r=0.419; p=0.000) with behavioural intention to safe crossing. The attitude towards safe crossing and perceived behavioural control had significant effect on behavioural intention among college students.

  11. Effect of the Road Environment on Road Safety in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences

  12. Entero-utero-vaginal fistula: a rare complication of unsafe abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pregnancy whether wanted or not poses significant risks for women especially in developing countries with wide spread ignorance, poverty and limited facilities. Unsafe abortion exposes them to increased morbidity and mortality. Aim: To report a case of entero-utero-vaginal fistula in a teenager following ...

  13. Epidemiologic study of road traffic injuries by road user type characteristics and road environment in Iran: a community-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Vafaee, Reza; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Abdalvand, Ali; Esnaashari, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Crash injuries in traffic accidents are affected by a variety of factors. In this study we analyzed road user type information based on different contributing factors. Data from all of the road traffic victims on a road extending from the east of the city of Tehran to Mazandaran province were included prospectively over a one-year period (May 2008 to May 2009). Data collected included the crash time, patient's age and sex, road user category, helmet or seat belt use, anatomical site of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and mortality. Prevalence and cross-tabulations were included in the analysis. There were 433 patients, of whom 345 were hospitalized and 33 died either before or after arriving at the hospital. Sixty-nine percent of injured patients were vehicle occupants. Mean and median of ISS were higher for pedestrians, who accounted for 49 percent of the deaths. Head injury was the most common injury and injury to upper and lower extremities was the most common cause of admission. A significant difference in lower extremity injuries between vehicle occupants and nonoccupants was found. Sex and age group did not have a significant effect on mortality. Mortality was significantly higher in pedestrians (P road user type. Because pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, stricter legislation and law enforcement should be used to protect them. Greater protection can also be reached by holding effective public awareness campaigns on how to use different roads safely. On the other hand, because rear seat passengers are at the same risk for road traffic injuries as front seat passengers, employment of newer laws and preventive measures targeting this group of occupants can prevent many road traffic injuries (RTIs).

  14. The Study on In-City Capacity Affected by Pedestrian Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jiang Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the urban road traffic congestion is serious and the traffic accident is happening at a high frequency; thus it has not satisfied the travel needs of security and affects the quality of urban trips. In order to effectively relieve the confliction of people and motor vehicle, to make sure of the safety of pedestrians crossing the road, and to improve the capacity of urban roads, this passage focuses on studying the influence of pedestrians crossing the roads on the capacity of urban roads in three pedestrian crossing approaches including freely crossing the street, uncontrolled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk, and controlled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk. Firstly, it confirms the general formula of the road capacity when pedestrians are crossing the road based on three preassumptions, combined with the survey data, and then constructs the empirical mathematical model of pedestrian crossing on the capacity impact. Lastly, it takes the step of case calculation and simulation evaluation and calculates errors between them, finding that the error between the model calculation and software simulation is small. The efficiency of the model is validated and improved.

  15. Maternal Near-Miss Due to Unsafe Abortion and Associated Short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, ... induced abortion procedures. ... cases of MNM were identified through a ... system was put in place in each hospital to help ... that were due to unsafe abortion we used a variant ... based on 13 cases that had provider's information.

  16. Why Women are dying from unsafe Abortion: Narratives of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...

  17. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) by age group for South Africa in 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment methodology was used to estimate the disease burden attributable to an exposure by comparing the observed risk ...

  18. Evolution of the global burden of viral infections from unsafe medical injections, 2000-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pépin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2000, the World Health Organization estimated that, in developing and transitional countries, unsafe injections accounted for respectively 5%, 32% and 40% of new infections with HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Safe injection campaigns were organized worldwide. The present study sought to measure the progress in reducing the transmission of these viruses through unsafe injections over the subsequent decade. METHODS: A mass action model was updated, to recalculate the number of injection-related HIV, HCV and HBV infections acquired in 2000 and provide estimates for 2010. Data about the annual number of unsafe injections were updated. HIV prevalence in various regions in 2000 and 2010 were calculated from UNAIDS data. The ratio of HIV prevalence in healthcare settings compared to the general population was estimated from a literature review. Improved regional estimates of the prevalence of HCV seropositivity, HBsAg and HBeAg antigenemia were used for 2000 and 2010. For HIV and HCV, revised estimates of the probability of transmission per episode of unsafe injection were used, with low and high values allowing sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Despite a 13% population growth, there was a reduction of respectively 87% and 83% in the absolute numbers of HIV and HCV infections transmitted through injections. For HBV, the reduction was more marked (91% due to the additional impact of vaccination. While injections-related cases had accounted for 4.6%-9.1% of newly acquired HIV infections in 2000, this proportion decreased to 0.7%-1.3% in 2010, when unsafe injections caused between 16,939 and 33,877 HIV infections, between 157,592 and 315,120 HCV infections, and 1,679,745 HBV infections. CONCLUSION: From 2000 to 2010, substantial progress was made in reducing the burden of HIV, HCV and HBV infections transmitted through injections. In some regions, their elimination might become a reasonable public health goal.

  19. Driving and off-road impairments underlying failure on road testing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Hannes; Vandenberghe, Wim; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; De Weerdt, Willy; Nieuwboer, Alice; Uc, Ergun Y

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects driving ability. We aimed to determine the most critical impairments in specific road skills and in clinical characteristics leading to failure on a road test in PD. In this cross-sectional study, certified driving assessment experts evaluated specific driving skills in 104 active, licensed drivers with PD using a standardized, on-road checklist and issued a global decision of pass/fail. Participants also completed an off-road evaluation assessing demographic features, disease characteristics, motor function, vision, and cognition. The most important driving skills and off-road predictors of the pass/fail outcome were identified using multivariate stepwise regression analyses. Eighty-six (65%) passed and 36 (35%) failed the on-road driving evaluation. Persons who failed performed worse on all on-road items. When adjusted for age and gender, poor performances on lateral positioning at low speed, speed adaptations at high speed, and left turning maneuvers yielded the best model that determined the pass/fail decision (R(2) = 0.56). The fail group performed poorer on all motor, visual, and cognitive tests. Measures of visual scanning, motor severity, PD subtype, visual acuity, executive functions, and divided attention were independent predictors of pass/fail decisions in the multivariate model (R(2) = 0.60). Our study demonstrated that failure on a road test in PD is determined by impairments in specific driving skills and associated with deficits in motor, visual, executive, and visuospatial functions. These findings point to specific driving and off-road impairments that can be targeted in multimodal rehabilitation programs for drivers with PD. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  20. [Factors associated with road accidents in the city of Lubumbashi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandolo, Simon Ilunga; Matungulu, Charles Matungulu; Mukanya, Pascal Kimba; Umba, Irène Kabange; Kabamba, Julie Ndayi; Numbi, Oscar Luboya; Ilunga, Benjamin Kabyla; Kaj, Françoise Malonga; Lubaba, Célestin Banza; Ngongo, Ghislain Mashini

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective non-comparative cross-sectional study in Lubumbashi on factors associated with road accidents. To contribute to the reduction of morbidity and mortality related to road accidents based on a better understanding of this phenomenon in the city of Lubumbashi, to assess the frequency and the growth of road accidents in the city of Lubumbashi and to determine the factors predisposing to these accidents. This non-controlled retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study covered the period from 1st January to 31st December 2008, and included all cases of vehicles registered by the police department after an accident. A total of 1,915 road traffic were reported, mostly caused by public transport vehicles (59%) driven by young adult males (89% of cases) with a mean age of 28 years. The main cause was speeding combined with other factors (34% of cases). The majority of these accidents occurred in the city of Lubumbashi (52.9% of cases) between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. (74% of cases). Transit vehicles were exposed to a greater risk of road accidents (59%). There is an urgent need for accurate information on the rules of the road for drivers and road users to reduce the mortality and morbidity due to road accidents.

  1. Road Cycling and Mountain Biking Produces Adaptations on the Spine and Hamstring Extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, J M; Zabala, M

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were as follows: 1) to analyse the influence of training in road cycling or cross-country mountain biking on sagittal spinal curvatures, pelvic tilt and trunk inclination in cyclists of both cycling modalities; 2) to evaluate the specific spinal posture and pelvic tilt adopted on the road bicycle and cross-country mountain bike; and 3) to compare the spinal sagittal capacity of flexion and pelvic tilt mobility as well as hamstring muscle extensibility among road cyclists, cross-country mountain bikers and non-cyclists. Thirty matched road cyclists, 30 mountain bikers and 30 non-cyclists participated in this study. The road cyclists showed significantly greater thoracic kyphosis and trunk inclination than did the mountain bikers and non-cyclists in a standing posture. On the bicycle, the road bicycling posture was characterised by greater lumbar flexion and more significant anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination compared with the mountain biking posture. The thoracic spine was more flexed in mountain biking than in road cycling. Road cyclists had significantly greater hamstring muscle extensibility in the active knee extension test, and showed greater anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination capacity in the sit-and-reach test, compared with mountain bikers and non-cyclists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Crossing Behaviour of Pedestrians Along Urban Streets in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bargi Walid A.; David Daniel Basil; Prasetijo Joewono; Rohani Munzilah Md; Mohamad Nor Siti Naquiyah

    2017-01-01

    Road crossings are considered as an unavoidable part of walking in which the desirable route of pedestrians interacts with vehicles. These interactions may expose the pedestrians to risks or delays. In Malaysia, road accident statistics show that pedestrian casualties are fairly high. Inappropriate gap acceptance when pedestrians cross roads is a main contributing element to this situation. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop realistic models for pedestrian road crossing...

  3. Unsafe abortion: A cruel way of birth control | Shrivastava | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unsafe abortion refers to a procedure for terminating an unintended pregnancy performed either by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards, or both. Objectives: The objectives of the study are to assess the factors attributing to practice of ...

  4. Factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries, Thika, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district ...

  5. Lane assignment traffic control devices on frontage roads and conventional roads at interchanges : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The intersection and mandatory movement lane control signs placed on intersection approaches are critical to : safe and efficient intersection operations. Ramp, frontage road, and cross-street approaches to interchanges : often widen at intersections...

  6. Traffic safety program for school children through safe action and safe condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono, Mahmudah, Amirotul Musthofiah Hidayah; Santoso, Anjar Budi

    2017-06-01

    The facts indicate that the rights of pedestrians is on the wane. Many motorists are unwilling to provide a space for pedestrians, even when they want to cross the road at zebra-cross facility. The data of traffic accident in Surakarta City showed that 7.0% of accident victims in 2014 to 2015 were children aged 5-15 or the group of school-aged children. In general, the location of schools is on the edge of the road where a lot of vehicles run at high speed. Hence, it is very dangerous for the school children to cross the road. Pertaining to this issue, the Department of Transportation implements a program named School Safety Zone (ZoSS). ZoSS is a time-dependent speed control zone consisting of road markings, traffic signs, optional traffic signals, and rumble strips. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ZoSS based on the perception of the users, including the students, teachers, parents, and community. This study was conducted through a series of activities including the distribution of questionnaire to obtain the road users' perceptions. The results showed that most of the respondents understood the meaning, aim, and benefit of ZoSS. However, it also found that traffic sign and method of cross the road (Four-T) was not recognized appropriately by the respondents. ZoSS program was generally ineffective since the pedestrians felt unsafe to cross the road due to the high-speed vehicles.

  7. Opportunities and challenges of smart mobile applications in transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidi Siuhi

    2016-12-01

    Significant usage of smart mobile applications can be potentially very beneficial, particularly in automobile travel mode to reduce travel time, cost, and vehicle emissions. In the end this would make travel safer and living environments greener and healthier. However, road users' interactions with these applications could manually, visually, and cognitively divert their attention from the primary task of driving or walking. Distracted road users expose themselves and others to unsafe behavior than undistracted. Road safety education and awareness programs are vital to discourage the use of applications that stimulate unsafe driving/walking behaviors. Educating the traveling public about the dangers of unsafe driving/walking behavior could have significant safety benefits to all road users. Future research needs to compare accuracies of the applications and provide guidelines for selecting them for certain transportation related applications.

  8. THE INTRODUCTION OF THE METHODOLOGY TO IMPROVE ROAD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for improving the road safety and quality of road traffic controlled junctions(crossings on individual parameters of traffic light control, improvement of traffic light control by optimizing the length of the transition interval in the traffic light cycle, increase awareness and early warning drivers about the upcoming change traffic lights division of transport and pedestrian traffic, road conditions , transportation planning and technical aids of road  traffic, as well as recommendations for the use of the hump in the settlements, etc.

  9. An observational study of road safety around selected primary schools in Ibadan municipality, Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangowawa, Adesola O; Adebiyi, Akindele O; Faseru, Babalola; Popoola, Olusola J

    2012-01-01

    Child pedestrians have been identified as vulnerable road users. Although walking as a means of transport has health and other benefits, it exposes children to the risk of road traffic injuries. This study was conducted to assess the availability of road safety features around government-owned primary schools in Ibadan municipality. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 46 of the 74 schools in the study area. Some (11) of the selected schools were sited within the same premises and shared a common entrance; thus a total of 35 school premises were eventually observed. Trained research assistants observed the school environment around the selected schools for road safety features such as location of schools, presence of "school", "child crossing" and "speed limit" road signs, and presence of traffic calming devices (road bumps or zebra crossing). Five (14%) of the schools were located on major roads and eight (23%) had road signs indicating that a school was nearby. Seven (20%) had road bumps close to the school, 15 (43%) had a warden who assisted children to cross, and none had a zebra crossing. Five (14%) schools had pedestrian sidewalks. The study revealed that the environment around a number of the observed schools in the municipality compromised the pupils' road safety. The local government, school authorities, parents, and road safety professionals need to institute definite measures to enhance the road safety environment around schools in the municipality.

  10. At the cross-roads: an on-road examination of driving errors at intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    A significant proportion of road trauma occurs at intersections. Understanding the nature of driving errors at intersections therefore has the potential to lead to significant injury reductions. To further understand how the complexity of modern intersections shapes behaviour of these errors are compared to errors made mid-block, and the role of wider systems failures in intersection error causation is investigated in an on-road study. Twenty-five participants drove a pre-determined urban route incorporating 25 intersections. Two in-vehicle observers recorded the errors made while a range of other data was collected, including driver verbal protocols, video, driver eye glance behaviour and vehicle data (e.g., speed, braking and lane position). Participants also completed a post-trial cognitive task analysis interview. Participants were found to make 39 specific error types, with speeding violations the most common. Participants made significantly more errors at intersections compared to mid-block, with misjudgement, action and perceptual/observation errors more commonly observed at intersections. Traffic signal configuration was found to play a key role in intersection error causation, with drivers making more errors at partially signalised compared to fully signalised intersections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential Effects of Roads and Traffic on Space Use and Movements of Native Forest-Dependent and Introduced Edge-Tolerant Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Ling Chen

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic infrastructure such as roads and non-native species are major causes of species endangerment. Understanding animal behavioral responses to roads and traffic provides insight into causes and mechanisms of effects of linear development on wildlife and aids effective mitigation and conservation. We investigated effects of roads and traffic on space use and movements of two forest-dwelling species: endemic, forest-dependent Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis and introduced, edge-tolerant Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti. To assess the effects of roads on space use and movement patterns, we compared the probability that a squirrel home range included roads and random lines in forests, and assessed effects of traffic intensity on rate of road crossing and movement patterns. Red squirrels avoided areas adjacent to roads and rarely crossed roads. In contrast, Abert's squirrels were more likely to include roads in their home ranges compared to random lines in forests. Both red squirrels and Abert's squirrels increased speed when crossing roads, compared to before and after road crossings. Increased hourly traffic volume reduced the rate of road crossings by both species. Behavioral responses of red squirrels to roads and traffic resemble responses to elevated predation risk, including reduced speed near roads and increased tortuosity of movement paths with increased traffic volume. In contrast, Abert's squirrels appeared little affected by roads and traffic with tortuosity of movement paths reduced as distance to roads decreased. We found that species with similar body size category (<1 kg but different habitat preference and foraging strategy responded to roads differently and demonstrated that behavior and ecology are important when considering effects of roads on wildlife. Our results indicate that roads restricted movements and space use of a native forest-dependent species while creating habitat preferred

  12. Differential Effects of Roads and Traffic on Space Use and Movements of Native Forest-Dependent and Introduced Edge-Tolerant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang Ling; Koprowski, John L

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic infrastructure such as roads and non-native species are major causes of species endangerment. Understanding animal behavioral responses to roads and traffic provides insight into causes and mechanisms of effects of linear development on wildlife and aids effective mitigation and conservation. We investigated effects of roads and traffic on space use and movements of two forest-dwelling species: endemic, forest-dependent Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) and introduced, edge-tolerant Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti). To assess the effects of roads on space use and movement patterns, we compared the probability that a squirrel home range included roads and random lines in forests, and assessed effects of traffic intensity on rate of road crossing and movement patterns. Red squirrels avoided areas adjacent to roads and rarely crossed roads. In contrast, Abert's squirrels were more likely to include roads in their home ranges compared to random lines in forests. Both red squirrels and Abert's squirrels increased speed when crossing roads, compared to before and after road crossings. Increased hourly traffic volume reduced the rate of road crossings by both species. Behavioral responses of red squirrels to roads and traffic resemble responses to elevated predation risk, including reduced speed near roads and increased tortuosity of movement paths with increased traffic volume. In contrast, Abert's squirrels appeared little affected by roads and traffic with tortuosity of movement paths reduced as distance to roads decreased. We found that species with similar body size category (roads differently and demonstrated that behavior and ecology are important when considering effects of roads on wildlife. Our results indicate that roads restricted movements and space use of a native forest-dependent species while creating habitat preferred by an introduced, edge-tolerant species.

  13. Safe and unsafe duration of fasting for children with MCAD deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Terry G J; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Rake, Jan Peter; van der Hilst, Christian S; Span, Mark M; Smit, G Peter A

    OBJECTIVE: To study the safe and unsafe duration of fasting in children with medium chain acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, the literature and the database on Dutch MCAD-deficient patients were searched for data on fasting studies in patients with MCAD deficiency. MATERIALS AND

  14. Attitudinal segmentaion of drivers in Pakistan: The potential for effective road safety campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Zahara; Carsten, Oliver

    2018-05-01

    Deviant driving behaviors are considered as the main cause of Road Traffic Accidents in Pakistan. This research is founded on the premise that driving behaviors are mediated by attitudinal and motivational factors. It advocates that rather than simply aggregating drivers' responses or a-priori classification of them based on their personal characteristics, adoption of segmentation technique is more useful to look at multiple factors provoking aberrant driving behavior in combination and not just in isolation. For this, the study generated an Attitudinal Questionnaire, inspired by the Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB: Ajzen, 1991), and extended violation-scale of modified Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ: Lawton et al., 1997). Attitudinal and behavioral items are first factor analyzed. Then, cluster analysis is performed on extracted attitudinal factors which classified sample driving population into four relatively homogenous and distinct groups of drivers. The results demonstrated the explanatory utility of the market segmentation approach to systematically relate the interaction between attitudes, behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics of drivers. It is concluded that the approach is successful in distinguishing safe drivers from unsafe driver and therefore, can legitimately form the basis of road safety interventions. Finally, the findings are used to recommend targeted information-based road safety solutions with a focus on the diverse characteristics of each of the identified segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unsafe abortion in Tanzania and the need for involving men in postabortion contraceptive counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Lyaruu, Mathias A

    2005-01-01

    Targeting male partners involved in unsafe abortions for contraceptive counseling could be an important strategy for decreasing the incidence of unwanted pregnancies, yet few postabortion-care programs have attempted to involve these men. To assess the need for and determine the content of postab......Targeting male partners involved in unsafe abortions for contraceptive counseling could be an important strategy for decreasing the incidence of unwanted pregnancies, yet few postabortion-care programs have attempted to involve these men. To assess the need for and determine the content...... counseling, which should be sensitive to the nature of the partners' relationship, the risk of HIV transmission, and the importance of promoting gender...

  16. MANAGEMENT OF UNSAFE FOOD RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Górna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the essence of eff ective management to recall unsafe food. The implementation of the development is refl ected in its individual parts. Legal requirements oblige companies to take immediate action when an available product poses a threat to the consumer’s health or life. These actions imply blocking of a suspicious batch or a possible product recall, as well as eff ective communication with supervisory authorities and consumers, if a product has already been available to them. The scope of these regulations is scrupulously listed in private safety standards and food quality, such as BRC, IFS, or in an international norm ISO 22000. The article emphasized the importance of the traceability system to ensure eff ective recall, also analysed the results of the research into the causes and evaluated the eff ectiveness of the food recall.

  17. Path Tortuosity and the Permeability of Roads and Trails to Wolf Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Whittington

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the effects of human development on fine-scale movement behavior, yet understanding animal movement through increasingly human-dominated landscapes is essential for the persistence of many wild populations, especially wary species. In mountainous areas, roads and trails may be particularly deserving of study because they are concentrated in the valley bottoms where they can impede animal movement both across and between valleys. In this study, we tracked wolf (Canis lupus movement in the snow for two winters in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada to examine how wolves navigate through or around human-use features. We quantified the effects of human development and topography on the tortuosity of wolf paths and then tested the permeability of roads, trails, and a railway line to wolf movement by comparing the frequency with which actual wolf paths and a null model of random paths crossed these features. Wolf path tortuosity increased near high-use trails, within areas of high-trail and road density, near predation sites, and in rugged terrain. Wolves crossed all roads, trails, and the railway line 9.7% less often than expected, but avoided crossing high-use roads more than low-use trails. Surprisingly, trails affected movement behavior of wolves equally, if not more, than roads. These results suggest that although roads and trails in this study were not absolute barriers to wolf movement, they altered wolf movements across their territories.

  18. Directly observed road safety compliance by Motor Cycle Riders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the extent of compliance with road safety regulations by motorcycle riders following a five year road safety campaign in Naivasha town, Kenya. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: Naivasha town, Nakuru county, Kenya. Results: A total of 9,280 MCs ferrying 13,733 people were observed. Less than ...

  19. THE GREAT SILK ROAD BECOMES THE GREAT OIL AND GAS ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Zonn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Great Silk Road (GSR called so in the late 19th century by German geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen started shaping in the 2nd century B.C. In the minds of peoples the Silk Road is a generalized symbol of trade caravan routes crossing Central Asia, connecting until the 16th century the Far East, in particular Japan, China, with Middle Asia. Appearance in the early 21st century of new independent states in Central Asia along the GSR route was a powerful impetus for revival of the ancient trade route. In September 2013 Xi Jinping, President of the People's Republic of China, during his visit to the Central Asian countries offered the strategic concept of joint construction of the “economic corridor along the Silk Road” based on innovative cooperation in order to revive and consolidate the economic contacts among the Eurasian countries. Establishment of the modern analog of GSR, a powerful transport and pipeline corridor includes the integrated system of railroads and automobile roads, oil and gas pipelines, airlines, and sea lines.

  20. ROAD AND ROADSIDE FEATURE EXTRACTION USING IMAGERY AND LIDAR DATA FOR TRANSPORTATION OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ural

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation agencies require up-to-date, reliable, and feasibly acquired information on road geometry and features within proximity to the roads as input for evaluating and prioritizing new or improvement road projects. The information needed for a robust evaluation of road projects includes road centerline, width, and extent together with the average grade, cross-sections, and obstructions near the travelled way. Remote sensing is equipped with a large collection of data and well-established tools for acquiring the information and extracting aforementioned various road features at various levels and scopes. Even with many remote sensing data and methods available for road extraction, transportation operation requires more than the centerlines. Acquiring information that is spatially coherent at the operational level for the entire road system is challenging and needs multiple data sources to be integrated. In the presented study, we established a framework that used data from multiple sources, including one-foot resolution color infrared orthophotos, airborne LiDAR point clouds, and existing spatially non-accurate ancillary road networks. We were able to extract 90.25% of a total of 23.6 miles of road networks together with estimated road width, average grade along the road, and cross sections at specified intervals. Also, we have extracted buildings and vegetation within a predetermined proximity to the extracted road extent. 90.6% of 107 existing buildings were correctly identified with 31% false detection rate.

  1. Effect of tailored on-road driving lessons on driving safety in older adults: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Kiely, Kim M; Price, Jasmine

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of individually tailored driving lessons compared with a road rules refresher course for improving older driver safety. Two arm parallel randomised controlled trial, involving current drivers aged 65 and older (Mean age 72.0, 47.4% male) residing in Canberra, Australia. The intervention group (n = 28) received a two-hour class-based road rules refresher course, and two one-hour driving lessons tailored to improve poor driving skills and habits identified in a baseline on-road assessment. The control group (n = 29) received the road rules refresher course only. Tests of cognitive performance, and on-road driving were conducted at baseline and at 12-weeks. Main outcome measure was the Driver safety rating (DSR) on the on-road driving test. The number of Critical Errors made during the on-road was also recorded. 55 drivers completed the trial (intervention group: 27, control group: 28). Both groups showed reduction in dangerous/hazardous driver errors that required instructor intervention. From baseline to follow-up there was a greater reduction in the number of critical errors made by the intervention group relative to the control group (IRR = 0.53, SE = 0.1, p = .008). The intervention group improved on the DSR more than the control group (intervention mean change = 1.07 SD = 2.00, control group mean change = 0.32 SD = 1.61). The intervention group had 64% remediation of unsafe driving, where drivers who achieved a score of 'fail' at baseline, 'passed' at follow-up. The control group had 25% remediation. Tailored driving lessons reduced the critical driving errors made by older adults. Longer term follow-up and larger trials are required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Econometric models of road use, accidents, and road investment decisions. Volume 2 : an econometric model of car ownership, road use, accidents, and their severity (Essay 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Using a fairly large cross-section/time-series data base, covering all provinces of Norway and all months between January 1973 and December 1994, we estimate non-linear (Box-Cox) regression equations explaining aggregate car ownership, road use, seat...

  3. 3D road marking reconstruction from street-level calibrated stereo pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheilian, Bahman; Paparoditis, Nicolas; Boldo, Didier

    This paper presents an automatic approach to road marking reconstruction using stereo pairs acquired by a mobile mapping system in a dense urban area. Two types of road markings were studied: zebra crossings (crosswalks) and dashed lines. These two types of road markings consist of strips having known shape and size. These geometric specifications are used to constrain the recognition of strips. In both cases (i.e. zebra crossings and dashed lines), the reconstruction method consists of three main steps. The first step extracts edge points from the left and right images of a stereo pair and computes 3D linked edges using a matching process. The second step comprises a filtering process that uses the known geometric specifications of road marking objects. The goal is to preserve linked edges that can plausibly belong to road markings and to filter others out. The final step uses the remaining linked edges to fit a theoretical model to the data. The method developed has been used for processing a large number of images. Road markings are successfully and precisely reconstructed in dense urban areas under real traffic conditions.

  4. Risk of unsafe abortion associated with long-term contraception behaviour: a case control study from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Arambepola, Carukshi; Rajapaksa, Lalini C

    2017-01-01

    Background When faced with an unintended pregnancy, some women choose to undergo an unsafe abortion, while others do not. This choice may depend on long-term contraception that shapes the fertility goals of women, along with many other risk factors. We assessed the risk for unsafe abortion associated with contraceptive practices based on women?s long-term behaviour, and its likely modification by the use of different types of contraceptives among women in Sri Lanka. Methods An unmatched case-...

  5. DNA-based hair sampling to identify road crossings and estimate population size of black bears in Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    The planned widening of U.S. Highway 17 along the east boundary of Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GDSNWR) and a lack of knowledge about the refugeâ s bear population created the need to identify potential sites for wildlife crossings and estimate the size of the refugeâ s bear population. I collected black bear hair in order to collect DNA samples to estimate population size, density, and sex ratio, and determine road crossing locations for black bears (Ursus americanus) in G...

  6. ANALYZE THE IMPACT OF HABITAT PATCHES ON WILDLIFE ROAD-KILL

    OpenAIRE

    Seok, S.; Lee, J.

    2015-01-01

    The ecosystem fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure causes a road-kill phenomenon. When making policies for mitigating road-kill it is important to select target-species in order to enhance its efficiency. However, many wildlife crossing structures have been questioned regarding their effectiveness due to lack of considerations such as target-species selection, site selection, management, etc. The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of habitat patches on wildlife road-...

  7. Road traffic noise and hypertension: results from a cross-sectional public health survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östergren Per-Olof

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from studies of road traffic noise and hypertension are heterogeneous with respect to effect size, effects among males and females and with respect to effects across age groups. Our objective was to further explore these associations. Methods The study used cross-sectional public health survey data from southern Sweden, including 24,238 adults (18 - 80 years old. We used a geographic information system (GIS to assess the average road noise (LAeq 24 hr at the current residential address. Effects on self-reported hypertension were estimated by logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, alcohol intake, exercise, education, smoking and socioeconomic status. Results Modest exposure effects (OR ≈ 1.1 were generally noted in intermediate exposure categories (45 -64 dB(A, and with no obvious trend. The effect was more pronounced at > 64 dB(A (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04 - 2.02. Age modified the relative effect (p = 0.018. An effect was seen among middle-aged (40 - 59 years old at noise levels 60 - 64 dB(A (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.58 and at > 64 dB(A (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.19 - 3.06. An effect was also indicated among younger adults but not among elderly. No apparent effect modification by gender, country of origin, disturbed sleep or strained economy was noted. Conclusion The study supports an association between road traffic noise at high average levels and self-reported hypertension in middle-aged. Future studies should use age group -specific relative effect models to account for differences in prevalence.

  8. 12 CFR 16.32 - Fraudulent transactions and unsafe and unsound practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operates as a fraud or deceit upon any person, in connection with the purchase or sale of any security of a... SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.32 Fraudulent transactions and unsafe and unsound practices. (a) No person in the offer or sale of bank securities shall directly or indirectly: (1) Employ any device...

  9. Traffic control on a railway crossing with elements of utility theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramova L.S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the management of vehicles at a railway crossing in order to improve the road safety is considered. To do this, it is suggested to introduce the dynamic motion control modes on the road, which consist in reducing the speed at a certain distance from the railway crossing and depends on its condition. The value of the recommended speed is displayed on the managed road signs and is calculated in real-time traffic controller at the railway crossing control point. The mark location is determined based on traffic intensity equalization that affects both the traffic intensity of the railway crossing and the road section on the approach to it. To analyze such events directed to improve the traffic on level crossings it is suggested to use the elements of utility theory to further develop the traffic control algorithm. For this purpose there was built a decision tree for the existing conditions at the railway crossing and at the introduction of the dynamic management, which indicates the result of decision taken by the change in the selected criteria of efficiency of traffic management at the railway crossing. Such an approach can reduce the number of road accidents and to increase the capacity of vehicular traffic at a particular road section to the technical means of attracting the driver's attention to the complex road by forced reduction in speed not only before the railway crossing, but also in at the approach to it.

  10. A qualitative exploration of the relationship between racism and unsafe sex among Asian Pacific Islander gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk

    2008-10-01

    Although reported cases of HIV/AIDS among gay Asian Pacific Islander (API) American men and API men who have sex with men (MSM) are still relatively low, current research findings indicate that incidences of unsafe sexual activity may be higher for this group than for any other group. Among the explanations offered to explain the levels of increasing unsafe sex among gay API men have been sexual norms found in Asian cultures, the lack of culturally relevant and/or linguistically appropriate intervention material, lack of integration into the mainstream gay community, and internalized homophobia. What are often ignored in these analyses are the contextual norms in which sexual behavior for gay API men occur. In this article, I develop the argument that racism within the gay community leads to socially and contextually prescribed sexual roles for gay API men that may also contribute to the practice of unsafe sex among this group.

  11. USE OF UNSAFE COOKING FUELS AND BOILING PRACTICE AMONG INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLDS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE 2012 DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Irianti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved drinking-water sources need not be microbiologically safe. Hence, households usually boil their water prior to drinking. However, this practice can potentially harm health when households rely on unsafe cooking fuels. In Indonesia, little is known about the association of use of unsafe fuels with boiling practice. Hence, an analysis was carried out to elicit information regarding boiling practice using unsafe fuels. Such information would be useful in determining appropriate household water treatments. Data from the 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS were analysed to examine the relationship between the use of unsafe cooking fuel and choosing boiling as household water treatment. Bivariate and multivariate probit regression models (PRM were fitted and compared using average marginal effects (AME and its respective 95 per cent confidence interval (95% CI as measures of association. The results suggest that using kerosene as cooking fuel is positively significantly associated with higher probability of practicing boiling (p = 0.006; AME: 0.019; 95% CI: 0.0056, 0.0333. This is also true for use of solid fuel (p< 0.001; AME: 0.3115; 95% CI: 0.3026, 0.3203. These association holds, albeit attenuated (Kerosene, p< 0.001; AME: 0.02706; 95% CI: 0.0186, 0.0355; Solid fuel, p< 0.001; AME: 0.0373; 95% CI: 0.02839, 0.0463, after the control variables are included. The authors suggest that stakeholders should promote the use of other household water treatment technologies to reduce the boiling practice using unsafe cooking fuels as to minimize the risk of smoke related infections. Moreover, universal access and equity to safe drinking water and sanitation facility in Indonesia should be realised to reduce demand of boiling water using unsafe cooking fuels.

  12. Analysis of Pedestrian Gap Acceptance and Crossing Decision in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Nor Siti Naquiyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are most vulnerable of all road users. This research aims to investigate and model pedestrian road crossing behaviour at crossing facilities. In particular, they have two aspects of pedestrians crossing behaviour are examined, namely the size of traffic gaps acceptance by pedestrians and the decision of pedestrians either to cross the road or not. A fields survey was carried out at six crossing facilities which from a zebra crossing at midblock. In this survey, the data were recorded in real traffic condition using video recorder. Determine the associations between characteristics of pedestrians, crossing facilities and vehicular traffic through on-site observations of pedestrian behaviour. This data will analysis using statistical analysis which is multiple regression and binary logit regression method. It is hope that through this research, the model of pedestrian gap acceptance and pedestrian crossing decision can be reached and what are the indicators that pedestrians look for when accepting gaps to cross the road.

  13. Cross-border shipment route selection utilizing analytic hierarchy process (AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeris Ammarapala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a member of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC, Thailand expects a growth of cross-border trade with neighboring countries, especially the agricultural products shipment. To facilitate this, a number of strategies are set, such as the utilization of single check point, the Asian Highway (AH route development, and the truck lane initiation. However, majority of agricultural products traded through the borders are transported using the rural roads, from growing area to the factory, before continuing to the borders using different highways. It is, therefore, necessary for the Department of Rural Roads (DRR to plan for rural road improvement to accommodate the growth of the cross-border trades in the near future. This research, thus, aims to select potential rural roads to support cross-border shipment utilizing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method. Seven key factors affecting rural roads selection, with references from transport and other related literatures, are extracted. They include:1 cross-border trade value, 2 distance from border to rural road, 3 agriculture and processed agriculture goods transported across the border, 4 compatibility with national strategies, 5 area characteristics around the rural road, 6 truck volume, and 7 number of rural roads in the radius of 50 kilometers from the border. Interviews are conducted with the experts based on seven key factors to collect data for the AHP analysis. The results identify the weight of each factor with an acceptable consistency ratio. It shows that the cross-border trade value is the most important factor as it achieves the highest weight. The distance from border to rural road and the compatibility with national strategies are also found crucial when making rural road selection decision. The Department of Rural Roads could use the results to select suitable roads, and plan for road improvement to support the crossborder shipment when the AEC is fully implemented.

  14. 29 CFR 1960.28 - Employee reports of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... make a report of the unsafe or unhealthful working condition to an appropriate agency safety and health... conditions, and within 20 working days for other than serious safety and health conditions. However, an... conditions. 1960.28 Section 1960.28 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND...

  15. SafeNet: a methodology for integrating general-purpose unsafe devices in safe-robot rehabilitation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Federico; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Malosio, Matteo; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Robot-assisted neurorehabilitation often involves networked systems of sensors ("sensory rooms") and powerful devices in physical interaction with weak users. Safety is unquestionably a primary concern. Some lightweight robot platforms and devices designed on purpose include safety properties using redundant sensors or intrinsic safety design (e.g. compliance and backdrivability, limited exchange of energy). Nonetheless, the entire "sensory room" shall be required to be fail-safe and safely monitored as a system at large. Yet, sensor capabilities and control algorithms used in functional therapies require, in general, frequent updates or re-configurations, making a safety-grade release of such devices hardly sustainable in cost-effectiveness and development time. As such, promising integrated platforms for human-in-the-loop therapies could not find clinical application and manufacturing support because of lacking in the maintenance of global fail-safe properties. Under the general context of cross-machinery safety standards, the paper presents a methodology called SafeNet for helping in extending the safety rate of Human Robot Interaction (HRI) systems using unsafe components, including sensors and controllers. SafeNet considers, in fact, the robotic system as a device at large and applies the principles of functional safety (as in ISO 13489-1) through a set of architectural procedures and implementation rules. The enabled capability of monitoring a network of unsafe devices through redundant computational nodes, allows the usage of any custom sensors and algorithms, usually planned and assembled at therapy planning-time rather than at platform design-time. A case study is presented with an actual implementation of the proposed methodology. A specific architectural solution is applied to an example of robot-assisted upper-limb rehabilitation with online motion tracking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. GIS Data Based Automatic High-Fidelity 3D Road Network Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road. centerline in formation. The proposed method first builds parametric representations of the road centerlines through segmentation and fitting . A basic set of civil engineering rules (e.g., cross slope, superelevation, grade) for road design are then selected in order to generate realistic road surfaces in compliance with these rules. While the proposed method applies to any types of roads, this paper mainly addresses automatic generation of complex traffic interchanges and intersections which are the most sophisticated elements in the road networks

  17. Effects of logging road removal on suspended sediment loads and turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy D. Klein; Vicki Ozaki

    2017-01-01

    Poorly designed and unmaintained logging roads pose serious risks to aquatic ecosystems through sediment delivery from stream crossing failures and landslides. Redwood National Park (RNP) in northern coastal California has been implementing a restoration program for almost four decades, focused primarily on removing (decommissioning) abandoned logging roads on former...

  18. Barrier effects of roads on movements of small mammals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rico, Adriana; Kindlmann, Pavel; Sedláček, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-12 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0254; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H034; GA MŠk LC06073 Keywords : Apodemus flavicollis * Clethrionomys glareolus * habitat fragmentation * linear clearings * road barriers * road crossing rates * Sorex araneus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.376, year: 2007

  19. Childhood road safety behaviors in China: a cross-sectional study of Guangzhou city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Zou, Nan; Liu, Yue; Fu, Lianning; Liu, Liya; Yuan, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article examines traffic safety behaviors for different types of road users among children aged 0 to 17 years in Guangzhou, China. A stratified cluster sample of 7034 children from pediatric clinics (816 children aged 0-2 years who are receiving vaccines), kindergartens (1148 children aged 3-5 years), primary schools (2410 children aged 6-11 years), and secondary schools (2660 children aged 12-17 years) was collected by self-reported questionnaire surveys. The respondents were instructed to respond to each behavior question, using response choices scoring from 0 to 3. An 18-item-weighted Road Safety Behavior Index (RSBI), including 5 items for walking, 7 items for cycling, 2 items for public transport, and 4 items for private motor vehicles, was developed to quantify the child road safety behaviors and further investigate their interrelations with the sociodemographic factors among different age groups and travel categories. A higher RSBI indicates a lower risk of childhood road safety. Results from statistical analysis indicate that (1) the effects of children's sociodemographic characteristics on the RSBIs differ greatly concerning each particular travel category; and (2) RSBIs are associated more with child-related characteristics than with parent-related characteristics as the age of the children's group increases. The research findings from analyzing the self-report questionnaires were further validated with field observational records, medical records, and police records. The article concludes with some recommendations for preventing the increasing toll of road traffic injury among Chinese children, which include (1) continuing educational efforts to increase knowledge of road safety and reduce traffic risk behaviors for children and their parents; (2) creating a safe and convenient environment for walking, cycling, and public transport travelers; and (3) promoting legislation and enforcement such as the mandatory usage of bicycle helmets and child

  20. The Agony of Unsafe Abortion in A Teenager: A Case Report | Akani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report represents a rare case of omental prolapse through posterior vaginal fornix laceration following an induced unsafe abortion. Miss T.R, a 14 year old orphan and junior secondary school 3 student had three different attempts at termination of 15 weeks pregnancy by a medical doctor in a private clinic. Physical ...

  1. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  2. Study on the complex network characteristics of urban road system based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhonghua; Chen, Zhenjie; Liu, Yongxue; Huang, Kang

    2007-06-01

    Urban road system is the basic bone of urban transportation and one of the most important factors that influent and controls the urban configuration. In this paper, an approach of modeling, analyzing and optimizing urban road system is described based on complex network theory and GIS technology. The urban road system is studied on three focuses: building the urban road network, modeling the computational procedures based on urban road networks and analyzing the urban road system of Changzhou City as the study case. The conclusion is that the urban road network is a scale-free network with small-world characteristic, and there is still space for development of the whole network as a small-world network, also the key road crosses should be kept expedite.

  3. A Study of the Unsafe Actions of Staff in the Maintenance and Overhaul Unit at a Petrochemical Complex and the Presentation of Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Today, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries are of strategic significance in the macro-development of oil-rich countries. These industries, given the nature of the work and the technical complexity of the various processes, are hazardous and susceptible to occupational accidents. More than 90% of the accidents are related to the faults and unsafe actions of personnel, either directly or indirectly. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the unsafe actions of staff working in the maintenance unit of a petrochemical complex. Materials and Methods This is a descriptive and analytical study conducted on 167 morning-shift workers at the Mahshahr petrochemical complex. The data were collected based on a checklist of unsafe actions prepared through a direct observation of their activities and an analysis of work instructions, documents, and incident reports. SPSS statistical software was also used for data analysis and relevant testing. Results According to the results of this study, the mean number of unsafe actions performed by the employees was 42%. The highest number of unsafe actions achieved in the maintenance mechanical unit was 52.8%, 47.1% in repair services, and 43.8% in machinery. The highest frequency of unsafe actions were caused by indiscretion and negligence, a failure to use a face shield and goggles, and non-compliance with safety principles. Conclusions According to the findings, there has been a rise in the number of unsafe actions in machinery and maintenance service units compared to other maintenance units. As such, training courses based on the behavior-based safety principles at the beginning of employment, close monitoring of health safety environment (HSE officials on the implementation of regulations, and provision of appropriate scheduling based on weather conditions and the nature of maintenance services are recommended. In addition, a refrainment from hastiness in performing duties, enhanced

  4. Hypothesis-driven and field-validated method to prioritize fragmentation mitigation efforts in road projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Nzamba, Brave S; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    The active field of connectivity conservation has provided numerous methods to identify wildlife corridors with the aim of reducing the ecological effect of fragmentation. Nevertheless, these methods often rely on untested hypotheses of animal movements, usually fail to generate fine-scale predictions of road crossing sites, and do not allow managers to prioritize crossing sites for implementing road fragmentation mitigation measures. We propose a new method that addresses these limitations. We illustrate this method with data from southwestern Gabon (central Africa). We used stratified random transect surveys conducted in two seasons to model the distribution of African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii) in a mosaic landscape along a 38.5 km unpaved road scheduled for paving. Using a validation data set of recorded crossing locations, we evaluated the performance of three types of models (local suitability, local least-cost movement, and regional least-cost movement) in predicting actual road crossings for each species, and developed a unique and flexible scoring method for prioritizing road sections for the implementation of road fragmentation mitigation measures. With a data set collected in method was able to identify seasonal changes in animal movements for buffalo and sitatunga that shift from a local exploitation of the site in the wet season to movements through the study site in the dry season, whereas elephants use the entire study area in both seasons. These three species highlighted the need to use species- and season-specific modeling of movement. From these movement models, the method ranked road sections for their suitability for implementing fragmentation mitigation efforts, allowing managers to adjust priority thresholds based on budgets and management goals. The method relies on data that can be obtained in a period compatible with environmental impact assessment

  5. Part-time farmers and accidents with agricultural machinery: a moderated mediated model on the role played by frequency of use and unsafe beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Roccato, Michele; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2018-01-25

    We aimed at testing a model of the direct and indirect effects of being a part-time farmer on the probability of being involved in an agricultural machinery-related accident, considering the role played by unsafe beliefs and the frequency of use of machinery. Two-hundred and fifty-two Italian men, regular users of agricultural machinery (age: Mean = 45.1 years, standard Deviation = 17.5), were administered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire addressing their relation with work, unsafe beliefs, and previous experience of machinery-related accidents. Being a part-time farmer showed a positive association with unsafe beliefs only among occasional machinery users. Unsafe beliefs in turn showed a positive association with accidents. The study gave a novel contribution to the knowledge of the chain of events connecting part-time farmers with machinery-related accidents. Preventive training interventions targeting part-timer farmers using agricultural machinery just occasionally should be developed.

  6. ANALYZE THE IMPACT OF HABITAT PATCHES ON WILDLIFE ROAD-KILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seok

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure causes a road-kill phenomenon. When making policies for mitigating road-kill it is important to select target-species in order to enhance its efficiency. However, many wildlife crossing structures have been questioned regarding their effectiveness due to lack of considerations such as target-species selection, site selection, management, etc. The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of habitat patches on wildlife road-kill and to suggest that spatial location of habitat patches should be considered as one of the important factors when making policies for mitigating road-kill. Habitat patches were presumed from habitat variables and a suitability index on target-species that was chosen by literature review. The road-kill hotspot was calculated using Getis-Ord Gi*. After that, we performed a correlation analysis between Gi Z-score and the distance from habitat patches to the roads. As a result, there is a low negative correlation between two variables and it increases the Gi Z-score if the habitat patches and the roads become closer.

  7. Analyze the Impact of Habitat Patches on Wildlife Road-Kill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, S.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    The ecosystem fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure causes a road-kill phenomenon. When making policies for mitigating road-kill it is important to select target-species in order to enhance its efficiency. However, many wildlife crossing structures have been questioned regarding their effectiveness due to lack of considerations such as target-species selection, site selection, management, etc. The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of habitat patches on wildlife road-kill and to suggest that spatial location of habitat patches should be considered as one of the important factors when making policies for mitigating road-kill. Habitat patches were presumed from habitat variables and a suitability index on target-species that was chosen by literature review. The road-kill hotspot was calculated using Getis-Ord Gi*. After that, we performed a correlation analysis between Gi Z-score and the distance from habitat patches to the roads. As a result, there is a low negative correlation between two variables and it increases the Gi Z-score if the habitat patches and the roads become closer.

  8. Children Road Safety Training with Augmented Reality (AR) [Demo

    OpenAIRE

    Lugmayr, Artur; Tsang, Joyce; Williams, Toby; Lim, Casey X; Teo, Yeet Yung; Farmer, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Children killed or seriously injured through road accidents can be avoided through an appropriate safety training. Through play and engagement children learn and understand hazards at i.e. railway stations, bus stops, crossings, school zones, train stations, footpaths, or while cycling. We developed a rapid prototype of an Augmented Reality (AR) safety training proof-of-concept demonstrator for a scaled real-world model of dangerous road hazards. Two scenarios have been picked to give childre...

  9. Roads at risk - the impact of debris flows on road network reliability and vulnerability in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nele Kristin; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Norwegian's road network is frequently affected by debris flows. Both damage repair and traffic interruption generate high economic losses and necessitate a rigorous assessment of where losses are expected to be high and where preventive measures should be focused on. In recent studies, we have developed susceptibility and trigger probability maps that serve as input into a hazard calculation at the scale of first-order watersheds. Here we combine these results with graph theory to assess the impact of debris flows on the road network of southern Norway. Susceptibility and trigger probability are aggregated for individual road sections to form a reliability index that relates to the failure probability of a link that connects two network vertices, e.g., road junctions. We define link vulnerability as a function of traffic volume and additional link failure distance. Additional link failure distance is the extra length of the alternative path connecting the two associated link vertices in case the network link fails and is calculated by a shortest-path algorithm. The product of network reliability and vulnerability indices represent the risk index. High risk indices identify critical links for the Norwegian road network and are investigated in more detail. Scenarios demonstrating the impact of single or multiple debris flow events are run for the most important routes between seven large cities in southern Norway. First results show that the reliability of the road network is lowest in the central and north-western part of the study area. Road network vulnerability is highest in the mountainous regions in central southern Norway where the road density is low and in the vicinity of cities where the traffic volume is large. The scenarios indicate that city connections that have their shortest path via routes crossing the central part of the study area have the highest risk of route failure.

  10. Roads influence movement and home ranges of a fragmentation-sensitive carnivore, the bobcat, in an urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon A; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Alonso, Robert S.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Roads in urbanized areas can impact carnivore populations by constraining their movements and increasing mortality. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are felids capable of living in urban environments, but are sensitive to habitat fragmentation and, thus, useful indicators of landscape connectivity; in particular, bobcat habitat selection, movement, and mortality may be affected by roads. We analyzed movement patterns of 52 bobcats in southern California in three study sites and investigated: (1) how bobcats responded to two types of roads within their home ranges; (2) how they placed their home ranges with respect to roads within the study area; and (3) whether male and female bobcats differed in their behavioral responses to roads. Within home ranges, primary and secondary roads did not influence movements, but bobcats more frequently crossed secondary roads when road densities were higher within their home ranges, thus increasing mortality risk. However, road densities within each study site were several times higher than road densities within home ranges, suggesting bobcats selected against roaded areas in home-range placement. Male home ranges bordering roads were smaller than home ranges for other males, but male home ranges containing roads were larger than those without roads. Male bobcats also were more likely to cross roads than females, potentially reflecting larger male home range sizes. Our results suggest roads have important impacts on urban bobcats, with stronger effects on males than females, and continued efforts to mitigate the effects of roads on carnivores and other fragmentation-sensitive species would help promote connectivity conservation in urban systems.

  11. Impact of Conflict Management Strategies on the Generation Mechanism of Miners' Unsafe Behavior Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Zu; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Yao-Long; Wang, Tian-Ri

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between the generation mechanism of miners' unsafe behavior tendency and conflict management strategies, including cooperative conflict management strategy, competitive conflict management strategy and avoidant conflict management strategy. Miners from 3 collieries in Shanxi province completed a…

  12. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Stachová Darina

    2017-01-01

    Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  13. Acceptance of contraceptives among women who had an unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel; Yambesi, Fortunata

    2004-01-01

    . Of these, 86% stated they were still using contraception 1-6 months after discharge. Initially, 55% of the women accepted to use condoms either alone or as part of double protection. After 1-6 months this proportion had dropped to 18%. Single women were significantly more likely to use condoms. CONCLUSION......OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for post-abortion contraception and to determine if women who had an unsafe abortion will use a contraceptive method to avoid repeated unwanted pregnancies and STDs/HIV. METHOD: Women attending Temeke Municipal Hospital, Dar es Salaam, after an unsafe abortion...... or an induced abortion performed at the hospital (n=788) were counselled about contraception and the risk of contracting STDs/HIV. A free ward-based contraceptive service was offered and the women were asked to return for follow-up. RESULTS: Participants (90%) accepted the post-abortion contraceptive service...

  14. Radar Cross Section (RCS) Simulation for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    wind turbines are unsafe to operate. Also, helical wind turbines generally have less environmental concerns such as killing birds , especially in...SECTION (RCS) SIMULATION FOR WIND TURBINES by Cuong Ton June 2013 Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn Second Reader: Ric Romero THIS PAGE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS) SIMULATION FOR WIND TURBINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Cuong Ton 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  15. Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C.; Bissonette, J.A.; Santos-Reis, M.

    2009-01-01

    mitigation measures should help to reduce WVC in Portugal. The first involves the improvement of existing crossings with buried and small mesh size fence to guide the individuals towards to the passages, in road segments with high traffic volume (>1200 vehicles/night) and located in preferred carnivore habitats. The second mitigation involves cutting or removal of dense vegetation in verges of road segments with curves to aid motorists in seeing animals about to cross. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Towards Reducing the Dangers Associated with Road Traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents empirical results from a cross-sectional survey of car users in ... road side observations simultaneously with short self-reported attitudinal surveys. ... In addition, the vehicle usage type, driving location and driving times were ...

  17. Risk assessment on an Argentinean road with a dynamic traffic simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Baumann, Valérie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Penna, Ivanna

    2014-05-01

    The National Route 7 in Argentina is one of the most important corridors crossing the Andean Cordillera. It concentrates most of the traffic related to the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), it also connects Mendoza city (the fourth most populated in Argentina) with Santiago de Chile (the Chile capital city), and is used by tourists to access to the Aconcagua National park, Puente del Inca natural monument, skiing resorts, and to local displacements for the villages along the Mendoza valley. The road crosses the Andes through the Mendoza river valley at an elevation between 2'000 and 3'000 m. The traffic (2500 vehicles/day) is composed of motorcycles, cars and pickup trucks, trucks without trailer, buses, and semi-trailer trucks. Debris flows developed along tributaries of the Mendoza River, and due to remobilization of talus materials, impact frequently the road, causing traffic disruptions, bridges damages, etc. Rock falls detached from highly fractured outcrops also impact frequently the road, causing sometimes casualties. The aim of this study is to evaluate risk along sections of the National Road 7 develop along the Mendoza river, using a dynamic traffic simulator based on MATLAB© routine. The dynamic traffic simulator developed for natural hazards events on roads consider different scenarios based on traffic speeds, vehicle types, interactions types, road properties and natural processes. Here we show that vehicle types and traffic variations may influence the risk estimation. The analyzed risk on several critical sections of the National Route 7 demonstrates that risk may significantly increase: 1) on sinuous sections, steep sections and because of road conditions changes (exit of tunnel, bridges, road width, etc.) because of decreasing vehicle speed, particularly with semi-trailer trucks; 2) when an event, such a debris flow, occurs and generates a vehicle tailback increasing their duration presence in the risk area.

  18. Understanding abortion-related stigma and incidence of unsafe abortion: experiences from community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia counties Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegon, Erick Kiprotich; Kabanya, Peter Mwaniki; Echoka, Elizabeth; Osur, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The rate of unsafe abortions in Kenya has increased from 32 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2002 to 48 per 1000 women in 2012. This is one of the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Kenya changed its Constitution to include a more enabling provision regarding the provision of abortion services. Abortion-related stigma has been identified as a key driver in silencing women's ability to reproductive choice leading to seeking to unsafe abortion. We sought to explore abortion-related stigma at the community level as a barrier to women realizing their rights to a safe, legal abortion and compare manifestations of abortion stigma at two communities from regions with high and low incidence of unsafe abortion. A qualitative study using 26 focus group discussions with general community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia Counties. We used thematic and content analysis to analyze and compare community member's responses regarding abortion-related stigma. Although abortion is recognized as being very common within communities, community members expressed various ways that stigmatize women seeking an abortion. This included being labeled as killers and are perceived to be a bad influence for women especially young women. Women reported that they were poorly treated by health providers in health facilities for seeking abortion especially young unmarried women. Institutionalization of stigma especially when Ministry of Health withdrew of standards and guidelines only heightened how stigma presents at the facilities and drives women seeking an abortion to traditional birth attendants who offer unsafe abortions leading to increased morbidity and mortality as a result of abortion-related complications. Community members located in counties in regions with high incidence of unsafe abortion also reported higher levels of how they would stigmatize a woman seeking an abortion compared to community members from counties in low incidence region. Young unmarried women bore the

  19. Safer Roads: Comparisons Between Road Assessment Program and Composite Road Safety Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessment Program (RAP have emerged. This research aim to compare two proactive methods that have been tested in Malaysian roads ; road assessment program and road environment risk index which was developed based on composite index theory in defining road’s safety level. Composite road environment risk index was combining several crucial environment indicators, assigning weight and aggregating the individual index together to form a single value representing the road’s safety level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both road assessment program and composite road environment risk index are contradicted in six different ways such as type of speed used, type of analysis used and their final outcomes. However, with an aim to promote safer roads, these two methods can be used concurrently as the outcomes in both methods seems to fulfil each other’s gap very well.

  20. Pedestrians’ Beliefs about Road Crossing in Bogotá: Questionnaire Development / Puntos de Vista de peatones en un cruce de vías en Bogotá: desarrollo de cuestionario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lope Hugo Barrero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the pedestrian choices is essential for the design of safe road systems. This study develops methods for self-reported assessment of pedestrian behavior. A self-report instrument was developed to investigate the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB constructs in relation to pedestrians’ road crossing using a convenient sample. Internal consistency and factor analysis were conducted to test the reliability and construct validity of the instrument. Self-reported intention to execute risky behavior was compared with observed behaviors. The developed questionnaire showed high internal consistency for most of the TPB constructs (Chronbach’s alpha>0.7. Factor analyses confirmed that questions grouped in constructs, as hypothesized. Pedestrians’ intention to execute risky behavior was related to pedestrians’ perceived physical capability and to the simultaneous crossing of other pedestrians. However, this intention correlated moderately with observed risky behavior (Rs=0.35. The potential to understand the mechanisms of pedestrian choices using the developed instrument are considered exploratory, yet promising.

  1. In vivo charge injection limits increased after 'unsafe' stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; Sørensen, Søren; Rechendorff, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    was not observed with any of the stimulation protocols and no tissue damage was observed for the 20 mA – 200 Hz stimulation group. This indicates that the ‘safe potential window’ may not be applicable in vivo, as no damage was done stimulating with 20 mA at 200 Hz, while damage was done using the same current......The effect of unsafe stimulation on charge injection limits (Qinj) and pulsing capacitance (Cpulse) was investigated. Four stimulation protocols were applied: 20 mA – 200 and 400 Hz, 50 mA – 200 and 400 Hz. Increasing Qinj and Cpulse were observed for all stimulation protocols. Corrosion...

  2. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuqing Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.

  3. Feature Fusion Based Road Extraction for HJ-1-C SAR Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ping-ping

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Road network extraction in SAR images is one of the key tasks of military and civilian technologies. To solve the issues of road extraction of HJ-1-C SAR images, a road extraction algorithm is proposed based on the integration of ratio and directional information. Due to the characteristic narrow dynamic range and low signal to noise ratio of HJ-1-C SAR images, a nonlinear quantization and an image filtering method based on a multi-scale autoregressive model are proposed here. A road extraction algorithm based on information fusion, which considers ratio and direction information, is also proposed. By processing Radon transformation, main road directions can be extracted. Cross interferences can be suppressed, and the road continuity can then be improved by the main direction alignment and secondary road extraction. The HJ-1-C SAR image acquired in Wuhan, China was used to evaluate the proposed method. The experimental results show good performance with correctness (80.5% and quality (70.1% when applied to a SAR image with complex content.

  4. Head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads: a public health concern in road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Marta; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Novoa, Ana M; Borrell, Carme; Pérez, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    To describe the magnitude and characteristics of crashes and drivers involved in head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads in Spain between 2007 and 2012, and to identify the factors associated with the likelihood of head-on crashes on these roads compared with other types of crash. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Crash Register. The dependent variables were head-on crashes with injury (yes/no) and drivers involved in head-on crashes (yes/no). Factors associated with head-on crashes and with being a driver involved in a head-on crash versus other types of crash were studied using a multivariate robust Poisson regression model to estimate proportion ratios (PR) and confidence intervals (95% CI). There were 9,192 head-on crashes on two-way Spanish interurban roads. A total of 15,412 men and 3,862 women drivers were involved. Compared with other types of crash, head-on collisions were more likely on roads 7 m or more wide, on road sections with curves, narrowings or drop changes, on wet or snowy surfaces, and in twilight conditions. Transgressions committed by drivers involved in head-on crashes were driving in the opposite direction and incorrectly overtaking another vehicle. Factors associated with a lower probability of head-on crashes were the existence of medians (PR=0.57; 95%CI: 0.48-0.68) and a paved shoulder of less than 1.5 meters (PR=0.81; 95%CI: 0.77-0.86) or from 1.5 to 2.45 meters (PR=0.90; 95%CI: 0.84-0.96). This study allowed the characterization of crashes and drivers involved in head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads. The lower probability observed on roads with median strips point to these measures as an effective way to reduce these collisions. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure to long-term air pollution and road traffic noise in relation to cholesterol: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Ketzel, Matthias; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with cardiovascular disease, though the mechanisms behind are not yet clear. We aimed to investigate whether the two exposures were associated with levels of cholesterol in a cross-sectional design. In 1993–1997, 39,863 participants aged 50–64 year and living in the Greater Copenhagen area were enrolled in a population-based cohort study. For each participant, non-fasting total cholesterol was determined in whole blood samples on the day of enrolment. Residential addresses 5-years preceding enrolment were identified in a national register and road traffic noise (Lden) were modeled for all addresses. For air pollution, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was modeled at all addresses using a dispersion model and PM2.5 was modeled at all enrolment addresses using a land-use regression model. Analyses were done using linear regression with adjustment for potential confounders as well as mutual adjustment for the three exposures. Baseline residential exposure to the interquartile range of road traffic noise,NO2 and PM2.5 was associated with a 0.58 mg/dl (95% confidence interval: −0.09; 1.25), a 0.68 mg/dl (0.22; 1.16) and a 0.78 mg/dl (0.22; 1.34) higher level of total cholesterol in single pollutant models, respectively. In two pollutant models with adjustment for noise in air pollution models and vice versa, the association between air pollution and cholesterol remained for both air pollution variables (NO2: 0.72 (0.11; 1.34); PM2.5: 0.70 (0.12; 1.28) mg/dl), whereas there was no association for noise (−0.08mg/dl). In three-pollutant models (NO2, PM2.5 and road traffic noise), estimates for NO2 and PM2.5 were slightly diminished (NO2: 0.58 (−0.05; 1.22); PM2.5: 0.57 (−0.02; 1.17) mg/dl). Air pollution and possibly also road traffic noise may be associated with slightly higher levels of cholesterol, though associations for the two exposures were difficult to separate.

  6. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mitigating Reptile Road Mortality: Fence Failures Compromise Ecopassage Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Gilbert, James H.; Riley, Julia L.; Lesbarrères, David; Litzgus, Jacqueline D.

    2015-01-01

    Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures). Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively evaluate road

  8. Mitigating reptile road mortality: fence failures compromise ecopassage effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Baxter-Gilbert

    Full Text Available Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures. Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively

  9. Verification of road databases using multiple road models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new approach for automatic road database verification based on remote sensing images is presented. In contrast to existing methods, the applicability of the new approach is not restricted to specific road types, context areas or geographic regions. This is achieved by combining several state-of-the-art road detection and road verification approaches that work well under different circumstances. Each one serves as an independent module representing a unique road model and a specific processing strategy. All modules provide independent solutions for the verification problem of each road object stored in the database in form of two probability distributions, the first one for the state of a database object (correct or incorrect), and a second one for the state of the underlying road model (applicable or not applicable). In accordance with the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a new state space comprising the classes correct, incorrect and unknown. Statistical reasoning is applied to obtain the optimal state of a road object. A comparison with state-of-the-art road detection approaches using benchmark datasets shows that in general the proposed approach provides results with larger completeness. Additional experiments reveal that based on the proposed method a highly reliable semi-automatic approach for road data base verification can be designed.

  10. Crossing Behaviour of Pedestrians Along Urban Streets in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bargi Walid A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road crossings are considered as an unavoidable part of walking in which the desirable route of pedestrians interacts with vehicles. These interactions may expose the pedestrians to risks or delays. In Malaysia, road accident statistics show that pedestrian casualties are fairly high. Inappropriate gap acceptance when pedestrians cross roads is a main contributing element to this situation. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop realistic models for pedestrian road crossing behaviour using the regression technique for mid-block street crossing. A choice model was produced to capture the decision making process of pedestrians whereas rejected or accepted vehicular gaps was based on the discrete choice theory. Gap acceptance data under real mix traffic conditions was collected using video camera on a typical unsignalised two lane one way urban street section in the city center of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The lognormal regression model developed for the crossing behaviour model shows that traffic speed, pedestrian waiting time, gender, crossing distance, age group, frequency of attempts and pedestrian number are the significant factors which are able to predict 77.0% of variance or changes in accepted gap size at 0.05 significance level. Higher traffic speed, lower waiting time, being a male, wider crossing distance, older age group, lower frequency of attempts and higher number of pedestrian were found to influence pedestrians to accept a bigger gap size. The binary logistic regression developed for the crossing choice model was found to be influenced by traffic speed, driver yield, pedestrian number and age group. Furthermore, lower traffic speed, willingness of drivers to slow down, more pedestrian crossings at the same time and a younger age group lead to a higher chance or probability of crossing roads. The model was validated again using 100 isolated samples and an accuracy of 98% was obtained compared to the calibrated

  11. Small-scale geodiversity and dirt road management, Ede (NL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2016-04-01

    A large part of the countryside roads on the Pleistocene sands of The Netherlands are dirt roads. Most are footpaths, but a small percentage are relatively heavily used by motorized vehicles. These latter roads are a cause subject of debate. Puddles and potholes develop during periods of wet weather, while dust whirls from the roads form during spells of dry weather as do washboard ripples. They cause problems for people living along these roads and tourists (walkers and bikers. The community of Ede (NL), like many other communities on the sand, wants to keep its 80 km of dirt roads because of the natural values they harbour as well as for their characteristic landscape quality and cultural heritage value. A part of the dirt roads in Ede is heavily used. In 2009, the community of Ede developed a decision model to support management of the dirt roads. Ede acknowledges that each dirt road is unique and asks for a tailor-made solution. Road maintenance measures include grading, making a camber, digging pits, applying loam or sandy loam. If problems become too large, one-way traffic can be an option. In more and more cases the dirt roads are barred for motorized through traffic (Gemeente Ede, 2009). As a reconnaissance we have studied the dirt roads of the Horabos/Horalaan over the last year. Incidentally we looked at other parts of the main Horalaan and the footpaths in the adjacent forest of Hoekelum. All dirt roads lie near the top of a Saalian push-moraine in which the upper course of dry valleys are present. Some results of the reconnaissance: - Most dirt roads sections in the Horabos lie lower than the surrounding terrain; - The problems develop in a short period of time during special weather conditions; - Certain dirt road sections e.g. those sections crossing a slight depression are quickly developing potholes; - Even a small slope of the road (differences that have consequences for its maintenance. Knowledge of geodiversity of the terrain and study of small

  12. Strabo's roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    in the Geography, and the world-view, of Strabo. Strabo did not take much interest in roads as artefacts or monuments, in the technology of road construction, or in the mythological and historical background of individual roads. He is primarily interested in roads from a functional point of view. For the general......To ancient geographers, roads were important not only as arteries of communication, but also as sources of information, since mileages measured along the Roman highways were among the very few precise distances available to the ancient geographer. This chapter explores the place of roads...... or the statesman, roads provide routes of communication; for the systematic geographer, they provide measured distances and directions. Through case studies of Spain, Gaul, Italy, Greece and Anatolia, this chapter attempts to reach a better understanding of the place of roads in Strabo’s universe, especially two...

  13. Road profile estimation of city roads using DTPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Sun, Nian X.; Wang, Ming L.

    2013-04-01

    This work presents a non-destructive and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring road profile of road and bridge deck with vehicles running at normal speed without stopping traffic. This approach uses an instantaneous and real-time dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) that can measure dynamic response of the tire-road interaction and increases the efficiency of currently used road profile measuring systems with vehicle body-mounted profilers and axle-mounted accelerometers. In this work, a prototype of real-time DTPS system has been developed and demonstrated on a testing van at speeds from 5 to 80 miles per hour (mph). A data analysis algorithm has been developed to remove axle dynamic motions from the measured DTPS data and to find the transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and the road profile. Field test has been performed to estimate road profiles. The road profile resolution is approximately 5 to 10 cm in width and sensitivity is 0. 3 cm for the height road surface features at driving speeds of 5 to 80 mph.

  14. Road to the Future: Strategies for Wildlife Crossings and Youth Empowerment to Improve Wildlife Habitat in Roaded Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dawn Renee

    2010-01-01

    As the footprint of human society expands upon the earth, habitat loss and landscape fragmentation is an increasing global problem. That problem includes loss of native habitats as these areas are harvested, converted to agricultural crops, and occupied by human settlement. Roads increase human access to previously inaccessible areas, encourage…

  15. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akway M. Cham

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic accidents (RTAs are a major cause of death and disability in South Sudan. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether violation of traffic rules is the main cause of RTAs. Method: A cross sectional study design was used with quantitative data covering January – December 2014. The main objective of the research was to understand the epidemiology of RTAs in order to develop preventive measures. A total of 1725cases from road RTAs data were extracted from the directorate of traffic police Central Equatoria state Juba and Juba teaching hospital. Results: Most (99.5% of the RTA drivers were not under the influence of alcohol. Most accidents were caused by male drivers (99%. The highest number of RTAs took place in August (11%. Drivers of private vehicles caused most accidents (37%. Most drivers (46% were aged 20-30 years. RTAs occurred most often on city roads (89.83%. Conclusion: This leads us to conclude that a comprehensive safety system is needed that are premised on the idea of community-based awareness of traffic rules and safety regulations. Resources are limited so there is a need to harness local resources including the local community. More efforts are needed to improve road safety education among the youth/integrate safety into road design.

  16. Investigating the Influences of Tree Coverage and Road Density on Property Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Ye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS, crime mapping has become an effective approach for investigating the spatial pattern of crime in a defined area. Understanding the relationship between crime and its surrounding environment reveals possible strategies for reducing crime in a neighborhood. The relationship between vegetation density and crime has long been under debate. The convenience of a road network is another important factor that can influence a criminal’s selection of locations. This research is conducted to investigate the correlations between tree coverage and property crime, and road density and property crime in the City of Vancouver. High spatial resolution airborne LiDAR data and road network data collected in 2013 were used to extract tree covered areas for cross-sectional analysis. The independent variables were inserted into Ordinary Least-Squares (OLS regression, Spatial Lag regression, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR models to examine their relationships to property crime rates. The results of the cross-sectional analysis provide statistical evidence that there are negative correlations between property crime rates and both tree coverage and road density, with the stronger correlations occurring around Downtown Vancouver.

  17. Schatting van de werkelijke omvang van de verkeersonveiligheid 1994 t/m 1996 : methodiek en resultaten voor ziekenhuisopnamen en Eerste-Hulp-gewonden. In opdracht van het Directoraat-Generaal Rijkswaterstaat, Adviesdienst Verkeer en Vervoer AVV, Afdeling Basisgegevens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van Polak, P.H. Blokpoel, A. & Bos, J.M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport and Public Works wishes to arrive at a new approach for registering data concerning road traffic accidents to be able to determine the actual extent of unsafe road traffic conditions. Within this context, the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research has developed and

  18. Relationship of family formation characteristics with unsafe abortion: is it confounded by women's socio-economic status? - A case-control study from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambepola, Carukshi; Rajapaksa, Lalini C; Attygalle, Deepika; Moonasinghe, Loshan

    2016-06-17

    Literature shows that choice for unsafe abortion is often driven by poverty. However, factors related to the family formation behaviour of women are also implied as determinants of this decision. This study assessed which family formation characteristics of women are associated with the risk of unsafe abortion, without being confounded by their low socio-economic status among Sri Lankan women admitted to hospital following post-abortion complications. An unmatched case-control study was conducted in nine hospitals in eight districts in Sri Lanka among 171 women with post-abortion complications following unsafe abortion (Cases) and 600 postpartum mothers admitted to same hospitals during the same period for delivery of term unintended pregnancies (Controls). Interviewer-administered-questionnaires obtained demographic, socio-economic and family formation related characteristics. Risk factors of abortion were assessed by odds-ratio (OR), adjusted for their socio-economic status in logistic regression analysis. Low socio-economic status, characterised by low-education (adjusted OR = 1.5; 95 % CI = 1.1-2.4) and less/unskilled occupations (2.3; 1.4-3.6) was a significant risk factor for unsafe abortion. Independent of this risk, being unmarried (9.3; 4.0-21.6), failure in informed decisions about desired family size (2.2; 1.4-3.5), not having a girl-child (2.2; 1.4-3.4) and longer average birth intervals (0.7 years; 0.6-0.8) signified the vulnerability of women for unsafe abortion. Cases were as fast as the controls in their family completion (4.3 versus 4.5 years; p = 0.4), but were at increased risk for abortion, if their average birth intervals (including the last one) were longer. Previous contraceptive use, age at reproductive events or partners' characteristics did not impart any risk for abortion. Low socio-economic status is not the most influencing risk factor for unsafe abortions leading to complications, but many other factors in relation to

  19. INFLUENCE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF PEDESTRIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at  the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper. 

  20. Road Network Extraction from Dsm by Mathematical Morphology and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Jianliang; Zhu, Lin; Tachibana, Kikuo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is the automatic extraction of the road network in a scene of the urban area from a high resolution digital surface model (DSM). Automatic road extraction and modeling from remote sensed data has been studied for more than one decade. The methods vary greatly due to the differences of data types, regions, resolutions et al. An advanced automatic road network extraction scheme is proposed to address the issues of tedium steps on segmentation, recognition and grouping. It is on the basis of a geometric road model which describes a multiple-level structure. The 0-dimension element is intersection. The 1-dimension elements are central line and side. The 2-dimension element is plane, which is generated from the 1-dimension elements. The key feature of the presented approach is the cross validation for the three road elements which goes through the entire procedure of their extraction. The advantage of our model and method is that linear elements of the road can be derived directly, without any complex, non-robust connection hypothesis. An example of Japanese scene is presented to display the procedure and the performance of the approach.

  1. The safety of pedestrian crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, M. de; Groenewoud, C.; Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2010-01-01

    More than half of all severe traffic accidents in which pedestrians or cyclists are involved, occur during road crossing. In this chapter insights, based on previous studies and literature, concerning requirements for safe and comfortable crossing facilities are discussed. In order to develop

  2. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  3. Assessment of rockfall risk along roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budetta, P.

    2004-03-01

    This paper contains a method for the analysis of rockfall risk along roads and motorways. The method is derived from the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) developed by Pierson et al. (1990) at the Oregon State Highway Division. The RHRS provides a rational way to make informed decisions on where and how to spend construction funds. Exponential scoring functions are used to represent the increases, respectively, in hazard and in vulnerability that are reflected in the nine categories forming the classification. The resulting total score contains the essential elements regarding the evaluation of the degree of the exposition to the risk along roads. In the modified method, the ratings for the categories "ditch effectiveness", "geologic characteristic", "volume of rockfall/block size", "climate and water circulation" and "rockfall history" have been rendered more easy and objective. The main modifications regard the introduction of Slope Mass Rating by Romana (1985, 1988, 1991) improving the estimate of the geologic characteristics, of the volume of the potentially unstable blocks and the underground water circulation. Other modifications regard the scoring for the categories "decision sight distance" and "road geometry". For these categories, the Italian National Council's standards (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR) have been used (CNR, 1980). The method must be applied in both the traffic directions because the percentage of reduction in the decision sight distance greatly affects the results. An application of the modified method to a 2km long section of the Sorrentine road (no 145) in Southern Italy was developed. A high traffic intensity affects the entire section of the road and rockfalls periodically cause casualties, as well as a large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. The method was applied to seven cross sections of slopes adjacent to the Sorrentine road. For these slopes, the analysis shows that the risk is unacceptable and it should

  4. Sensorimotor and postural control factors associated with driving safety in a community-dwelling older driver population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacherez, Philippe; Wood, Joanne M; Anstey, Kaarin J; Lord, Stephen R

    2014-02-01

    To establish whether sensorimotor function and balance are associated with on-road driving performance in older adults. The performance of 270 community-living adults aged 70-88 years recruited via the electoral roll was measured on a battery of peripheral sensation, strength, flexibility, reaction time, and balance tests and on a standardized measure of on-road driving performance. Forty-seven participants (17.4%) were classified as unsafe based on their driving assessment. Unsafe driving was associated with reduced peripheral sensation, lower limb weakness, reduced neck range of motion, slow reaction time, and poor balance in univariate analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified poor vibration sensitivity, reduced quadriceps strength, and increased sway on a foam surface with eyes closed as significant and independent risk factors for unsafe driving. These variables classified participants into safe and unsafe drivers with a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 70%. A number of sensorimotor and balance measures were associated with driver safety and the multivariate model comprising measures of sensation, strength, and balance was highly predictive of unsafe driving in this sample. These findings highlight important determinants of driver safety and may assist in developing efficacious driver safety strategies for older drivers.

  5. Alcohol mixed with energy drink use among u.s. 12th-grade students: prevalence, correlates, and associations with unsafe driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Meghan E; Patrick, Megan E; Schulenberg, John E

    2015-05-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is a risky drinking behavior, most commonly studied using college samples. We know little about rates of AmED use and its associations with other risk behaviors, including unsafe driving, among high school students. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of AmED use among high school seniors in the United States. Nationally representative analytic samples included 6,498 12th-grade students who completed Monitoring the Future surveys in 2012 and 2013. Focal measures included AmED use, sociodemographic characteristics, academic and social factors, other substance use, and unsafe driving (i.e., tickets/warnings and accidents) after alcohol consumption. Approximately one in four students (24.8%) reported AmED use during the past 12 months. Rates of AmED use were highest among males and white students. Using multivariable logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, results indicate that students who cut class, spent more evenings out for fun and recreation, and reported binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use had a greater likelihood of AmED use. AmED use was also associated with greater odds of alcohol-related unsafe driving, even after controlling for sociodemographic, academic, and social factors and other substance use. AmED use among 12th-grade students is common and associated with certain sociodemographic, academic, social, and substance use factors. AmED use is also related to alcohol-related unsafe driving, which is a serious public health concern. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  7. Disentangling woodland caribou movements in response to clearcuts and roads across temporal scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beauchesne

    Full Text Available Although prey species typically respond to the most limiting factors at coarse spatiotemporal scales while addressing biological requirements at finer scales, such behaviour may become challenging for species inhabiting human altered landscapes. We investigated how woodland caribou, a threatened species inhabiting North-American boreal forests, modified their fine-scale movements when confronted with forest management features (i.e. clearcuts and roads. We used GPS telemetry data collected between 2004 and 2010 on 49 female caribou in a managed area in Québec, Canada. Movements were studied using a use--availability design contrasting observed steps (i.e. line connecting two consecutive locations with random steps (i.e. proxy of immediate habitat availability. Although caribou mostly avoided disturbances, individuals nonetheless modulated their fine-scale response to disturbances on a daily and annual basis, potentially compromising between risk avoidance in periods of higher vulnerability (i.e. calving, early and late winter during the day and foraging activities in periods of higher energy requirements (i.e. spring, summer and rut during dusk/dawn and at night. The local context in which females moved was shown to influence their decision to cross clearcut edges and roads. Indeed, although females typically avoided crossing clearcut edges and roads at low densities, crossing rates were found to rapidly increase in greater disturbance densities. In some instance, however, females were less likely to cross edges and roads as densities increased. Females may then be trapped and forced to use disturbed habitats, known to be associated with higher predation risk. We believe that further increases in anthropogenic disturbances could exacerbate such behavioural responses and ultimately lead to population level consequences.

  8. Disentangling woodland caribou movements in response to clearcuts and roads across temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchesne, David; Jaeger, Jochen Ag; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Although prey species typically respond to the most limiting factors at coarse spatiotemporal scales while addressing biological requirements at finer scales, such behaviour may become challenging for species inhabiting human altered landscapes. We investigated how woodland caribou, a threatened species inhabiting North-American boreal forests, modified their fine-scale movements when confronted with forest management features (i.e. clearcuts and roads). We used GPS telemetry data collected between 2004 and 2010 on 49 female caribou in a managed area in Québec, Canada. Movements were studied using a use--availability design contrasting observed steps (i.e. line connecting two consecutive locations) with random steps (i.e. proxy of immediate habitat availability). Although caribou mostly avoided disturbances, individuals nonetheless modulated their fine-scale response to disturbances on a daily and annual basis, potentially compromising between risk avoidance in periods of higher vulnerability (i.e. calving, early and late winter) during the day and foraging activities in periods of higher energy requirements (i.e. spring, summer and rut) during dusk/dawn and at night. The local context in which females moved was shown to influence their decision to cross clearcut edges and roads. Indeed, although females typically avoided crossing clearcut edges and roads at low densities, crossing rates were found to rapidly increase in greater disturbance densities. In some instance, however, females were less likely to cross edges and roads as densities increased. Females may then be trapped and forced to use disturbed habitats, known to be associated with higher predation risk. We believe that further increases in anthropogenic disturbances could exacerbate such behavioural responses and ultimately lead to population level consequences.

  9. On-road driving impairments and associated cognitive deficits after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Hannes; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the critical on-road driving skills that get affected after a stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the key on-road driving impairments and their associated cognitive deficits after a stroke. A second aim was to investigate if lateralization of stroke impacts results of the cognitive and on-road driving tests. In this cross-sectional study, 99 participants with a first-ever stroke who were actively driving prior to stroke underwent a cognitive battery and a standardized road test that evaluated 13 specific on-road driving skills. These on-road driving skills were mapped onto an existing, theoretical framework that categorized the on-road items into hierarchic clusters of operational, tactical, visuo-integrative, and mixed driving skills. The total score on the road test and the on-road decision, made by a certified fitness-to-drive expert, decided the main outcome. The critical on-road driving skills predicting the on-road decision were identified using logistic regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was employed to determine the cognitive impairments leading to poor total on-road scores. Analyses were repeated for right- and left-sided strokes. In all, 37 persons scored poorly on the road test. These participants performed worse in all hierarchic clusters of on-road driving. Performances on the operational cluster and the visuo-integrative cluster best predicted on-road decisions (R(2) = 0.60). 'Lane changing' and 'understanding, insight, and quality of traffic participation' were the critical skill deficits leading to poor performance on the road test (R(2) = 0.65). Divided attention was the main determinant of on-road scores in the total group (R(2) = 0.06). Participants with right-sided stroke performed worse on visual field, visual neglect, visual scanning, visuo-constructive skills, and divided attention compared with those with left-sided stroke. Divided attention was the main determinant of total on-road scores

  10. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE FOREST ROAD PLANNING AND ROAD GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafız Hulusi ACAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It is required that the capital used for construction of road must be technical, economical and used in its location. For this reason, the projects must be prepared for forest roads and all operations belong to roads must be guided according to these projects. In this investigation, available forest road network plan and constructed forest roads were investigated at the point of view technical and forest transportation. After this, it were studied to reach the highest exploitation rate as can as possible. Available forest road density were found as 11.9 m/ha in forest areas for Yesiltepe District. In this condition, exploitation rate was 78 %. After that, optimum forest road network were planned and road density were reached to 22 m/ha and exploitation rate to 86 %. Directed sample method were used from taking soil sample methods and samples were took in mixed system. According to results of the experiments, available forest roads were found in a good degree at the point of view endurance, pressing and transportation capacity. With these results, it is aimed to reach higher exploitation rate with given attention to landslide areas during planning of forest roads on the mountain areas such as Black Sea Region. For this reason, required importance must be given to planning of truck and logging roads. Ground analysis must be done and took care before during planning process of forest road network.

  11. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Erhan

    2013-03-15

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  12. Environmental Impacts of Forest Road Construction on Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Caliskan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2 and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient. Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  13. THE IMPACT OF ROAD CONDITIONS ON THE SUSTAINABILITY DECLINE IN THE ROAD TRANSPORT IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Batmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the various components of road conditions to reduce the stability of the vehicle, which lead to skidding and rollover. The resulting research material will improve traffic safety on the roads of the Republic of Dagestan. We give formulas for calculating the critical speed cornering with cross gradients and sharp change in direction, in which the skid and rollover is not excluded, due to the appearance of additional transverse forces of inertia. It is explained that a significant impact on the stability of the car has a «side pull». We give graphs of the lateral force from the vehicle slip angle of tires and tire tread wear of the impact on the quality of grip at different speeds and the amount of coating roughness obtained experimentally. Effect on the skid and rollover car road surface irregularities is marked. In such traffic conditions, the technical condition of the vehicle and in particular the shock absorbers are essential. The schedule damper effect on driving conditions, obtained experimentally.

  14. Predicting the effectiveness of road safety campaigns through alternative research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamos, Giannis; Nathanail, Eftihia

    2016-12-01

    A large number of road safety communication campaigns have been designed and implemented in the recent years; however their explicit impact on driving behavior and road accident rates has been estimated in a rather low proportion. Based on the findings of the evaluation of three road safety communication campaigns addressing the issues of drinking and driving, seat belt usage, and driving fatigue, this paper applies different types of research designs (i.e., experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental designs), when estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, implements a cross-design assessment, and conducts a cross-campaign evaluation. An integrated evaluation plan was developed, taking into account the structure of evaluation questions, the definition of measurable variables, the separation of the target audience into intervention (exposed to the campaign) and control (not exposed to the campaign) groups, the selection of alternative research designs, and the appropriate data collection methods and techniques. Evaluating the implementation of different research designs in estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, results showed that the separate pre-post samples design demonstrated better predictability than other designs, especially in data obtained from the intervention group after the realization of the campaign. The more constructs that were added to the independent variables, the higher the values of the predictability were. The construct that most affects behavior is intention, whereas the rest of the constructs have a lower impact on behavior. This is particularly significant in the Health Belief Model (HBM). On the other hand, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and descriptive norms, are significant parameters for predicting intention according to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The theoretical and applied implications of alternative research designs and their applicability in the evaluation of road safety

  15. Miscellaneous Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for miscellanous roads, a catch-all category for all road types not present in the other DNR derived products. These road...

  16. Perception and Practice of Road Safety among Medical Students, Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Randah; El-Khawaga, Ghada; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2018-01-01

    To assess the knowledge and attitude of medical students towards road safety and to determine their driving behavior and its relation to different related factors. This cross-sectional study involved 480 medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect student personal data, knowledge about road safety, attitude towards road safety, and driving practices. More than 40% of students experienced an injury in the previous year, mainly as a pedestrian (56%), and 15.2% practiced driving, although only 9.6% had a driving licence. Most of the students had correct road safety knowledge except for awareness that the safe time to read maps is when your vehicle is parked (44%), one should drive in the left lane (29.6%), and one should overtake from the right-hand lane only (25.8%). The majority of the students reported that road traffic injuries can be prevented (89.2%). The mean score of the driving practices of the students ranged from 0.66±1.04 to 2.44±6.28 and rural residents showed significantly higher score regarding errors and lapses. Good road safety knowledge and a favorable, low risk attitude, did not translate into improved road traffic behavior and this highlights the importance of stricter implementation of the existing rules and including road safety in medical education programs.

  17. Modeling pedestrian gap crossing index under mixed traffic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mohamed M; Zulkiple, Adnan; Al Bargi, Walid A; Khalifa, Nasradeen A; Daniel, Basil David

    2017-12-01

    There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade. This paper aims to develop a sustainable pedestrian gap crossing index model based on traffic flow density. It focusses on the gaps accepted by pedestrians and their decision for street crossing, where (Log-Gap) logarithm of accepted gaps was used to optimize the result of a model for gap crossing behavior. Through a review of extant literature, 15 influential variables were extracted for further empirical analysis. Subsequently, data from the observation at an uncontrolled mid-block in Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was gathered and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Binary Logit Model (BLM) techniques were employed to analyze the results. From the results, different pedestrian behavioral characteristics were considered for a minimum gap size model, out of which only a few (four) variables could explain the pedestrian road crossing behavior while the remaining variables have an insignificant effect. Among the different variables, age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and crossing were the most influential variables. The study concludes that pedestrians' decision to cross the street depends on the pedestrian age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and size of traffic gap before crossing. The inferences from these models will be useful to increase pedestrian safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock road crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m 2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m 2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  19. Relationship between rooftop and on-road concentrations of traffic-related pollutants in a busy street canyon: Ambient wind effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Seo, Jaemyeong Mango; Park, Seung-Bu; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Rooftop and on-road measurements of O_3, NO_2, NO_x, and CO concentrations were conducted to investigate the relationship between rooftop and on-road concentrations in a busy and shallow street canyon with an aspect ratio of ∼0.3 in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from 15 April to 1 May 2014. The median road-to-roof concentration ratios, correlation coefficients between rooftop and on-road concentrations, and temporal variations of rooftop and on-road concentrations are analyzed according to the rooftop wind directions which are two cross-canyon and two along-canyon directions. The analysis results indicate that the relationship is strong when the rooftop is situated on the downwind side rather than on the upwind side. Relative to the cross-canyon wind directions, one of the along-canyon wind directions can more enhance the relationship. A conceptual framework is proposed to explain the effect of ambient wind direction on the relationship between rooftop and on-road concentrations in a street canyon. - One of the along-canyon wind directions can enhance the relationship between rooftop and on-road concentrations of traffic-related pollutants in a busy and shallow street canyon.

  20. Impact of road traffic accidents on the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etehad, H; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Sh; Davoudi-Kiakalaye, A; Moghadam Dehnadi, A; Hemati, H; Mohtasham-Amiri, Z

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are a vulnerable road user group with high mortality and morbidity in road crash. The aim of this study was to show pattern of road traffic injuries in this special aging group. In a cross sectional study, pre-hospital emergency system reports, hospital and police records of all motor vehicle collisions injured above 60 years old who were admitted to Pour-Sina hospital from April 2011 to March 2012 were studied. Demographic data, characteristic of road traffic incidents and in-hospital medical profiles were derived. Data were analyzed with SPSS ver. 18. Differences between demographic and injuries situation were calculated by chi square test. A p-value of road accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρroad accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρroad traffic injuries in this group especially in pedestrians should be taken into consideration and strategies aimed at the road-user safety including periodic medical examination and improvement of road structure and facilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Study of Drivers’ Behaviour at a Passive Railway Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kasalica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The number of killed and injured persons in incidents at railway level crossings is generally increasing on the Serbian Railways, particularly at passive crossings. In this paper we researched the direct behaviour of road traffic participants at a conventional railway passive crossing. Method: Direct observational study of drivers’ behaviour at a level crossing. Results: Sixty-one road vehicle drivers were observed in the moments of train approach. The probability of crossing varies depending on the train distance and the time the driver has to cross the crossing. The drivers who have limited visibility cannot estimate the speed of the approaching train well and make more risky decisions. Conclusion: This study shows that the number of “risky crossings” is worrying as the result of such crossings is a large number of accidents with fatal consequences at the passive crossings in Serbia.

  2. a Cross-Sectional Study on Insomnia among Japanese Adult Women in Relation to Night-Time Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, T.; Kabuto, M.; Nitta, N.; Kurokawa, Y.; Taira, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takemoto, T.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to determine the contribution of night-time road traffic noise to insomnia in the general population, 3600 adult Japanese women living in urban residential areas were surveyed. Living near a road with a heavy traffic volume is one of the risk factors for insomnia. The risk for insomnia in the zones 0-20 m from the main roads increased linearly with the night-time traffic volume. This suggests that road traffic noise raises the sound level in bedrooms in such zones, and consequently the prevalence rate of insomnia among the residents, and that noise-induced insomnia is an important public health problem, at least in highly urbanized areas.

  3. Prioritizing Road Treatments using the Geomorphic Roads Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) to Improve Watershed Conditions in the Wall Creek Watershed, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, K. T.; Black, T.; Clifton, C.; Luce, C.; McCune, S.; Nelson, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wall Creek, tributary to the North Fork John Day River in eastern Oregon, was identified as a priority watershed by the Umatilla National Forest for restoration in 2002. Most streams in this 518 km2 multi-ownership watershed are designated critical habitat for threatened steelhead. Eight streams are listed on the Oregon 303(d) list for elevated temperatures and excess sedimentation. Over 1000 km of public and private roads in the watershed present a major source of potential water quality and habitat impairment. We conducted a watershed-wide inventory of roads using the Geomorphic Roads Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) in 2009 to quantify sediment contributions from roads to streams. GRAIP is a field and GIS-based model developed by the Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Utah State University that georeferences and quantifies road hydrologic connectivity, sediment production and delivery, mass wasting, and risk of diversion and plugging at stream crossings. Field survey and modeling produced data for 6,473 drainage locations on 726 km of road (most of the publically owned roads) quantifying the location and mass of sediment produced and delivered to streams. Findings indicate a relatively small subset of roads deliver the majority of road-produced fine sediment; 12 percent of the road length delivers 90 percent of the total fine sediment to streams. Overall fine sediment production in the watershed is relatively low (with an estimated background erosion rate of 518,000 kg/yr for the watershed) and sediment produced and delivered from the road system appears to be a modest addition. Road surfaces produce approximately 81,455 kg of fine sediment per year, with 20,976 kg/year delivered to the stream network. Fifty-nine gullies were observed, 41 of which received road runoff. Sixteen road-related landslides were also observed. The excavated volume of these features totals 3,922,000 kg which is equivalent to 175 years of fine sediment delivery at

  4. The influence of the infrastructure characteristics in urban road accidents occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Gomes, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes the result of a study regarding the creation of tools that can be used in intervention methods in the planning and management of urban road networks in Portugal. The first tool relates the creation of a geocoded database of road accidents occurred in Lisbon between 2004 and 2007, which allowed the definition of digital maps, with the possibility of a wide range of consultations and crossing of information. The second tool concerns the development of models to estimate the frequency of accidents on urban networks, according to different desegregations: road element (intersections and segments); type of accident (accidents with and without pedestrians); and inclusion of explanatory variables related to the road environment. Several methods were used to assess the goodness of fit of the developed models, allowing more robust conclusions. This work aims to contribute to the scientific knowledge of accidents phenomenon in Portugal, with detailed and accurate information on the factors affecting its occurrence. This allows to explicitly include safety aspects in planning and road management tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of fixed-route taxi on road accidents and air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fedotov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of market economy in Russia expands the need for movement of groups of people of large mega cities on time to a place at simultaneous reduction of the number of groups with identical purposes. Therefore for many cities a wide use of fixed-route taxis the service of passengers at a constant increase of the numbers of routes and the numbers of transport units was characteristic. At the certain intensity of the movement of fixed-route taxis on separate sites of city highways the transport stream and the changing quality of environment raises the risk of road accident and becomes ecologically unsafe. The results of the estimation of the negative influence of fixed-route taxis in comparison with other categories of vehicles are presented. The research was made on city highways running through the zones with a greater number of cultural and community places, shopping centers and administrative establishments. Perspective ways of the increase of traffic safety and the decrease of concentration of harmful emissions are offered.

  6. A review of game-theoretic models of road user behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews game-theoretic models that have been developed to explain road user behaviour in situations where road users interact with each other. The paper includes the following game-theoretic models: 1.A general model of the interaction between road users and their possible reaction to measures improving safety (behavioural adaptation).2.Choice of vehicle size as a Prisoners’ dilemma game.3.Speed choice as a co-ordination game.4.Speed compliance as a game between drivers and the police.5.Merging into traffic from an acceleration lane as a mixed-strategy game.6.Choice of level of attention in following situations as an evolutionary game.7.Choice of departure time to avoid congestion as variant of a Prisoners’ dilemma game.8.Interaction between cyclists crossing the road and car drivers.9.Dipping headlights at night well ahead of the point when glare becomes noticeable.10.Choice of evasive action in a situation when cars are on collision course. The models reviewed are different in many respects, but a common feature of the models is that they can explain how informal norms of behaviour can develop among road users and be sustained even if these informal norms violate the formal regulations of the traffic code. Game-theoretic models are not applicable to every conceivable interaction between road users or to situations in which road users choose behaviour without interacting with other road users. Nevertheless, it is likely that game-theoretic models can be applied more widely than they have been until now. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Adolescents, risk situations and road safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses Falcón, Carmen; Gil García, Eugenia; Romo Avilés, Nuria

    2010-09-01

    Describe the risk behaviour relationships with road safety in adolescents. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Madrid and Andalusia Regions, representative samples. The sample included 3,612 in secondary school pupils from Madrid (n=1708) and Andalusia (n=1904). The survey was carried out during May and June 2007. The data collected included sociodemographic areas (age, sex, grade, father's profession, birth place, etc.) and risk situation and behaviour (risk behaviour as driver or passenger). 16.2% of the adolescents have been involved in a dangerous situation with motorcycles during the last year. 16.7% never use a helmet when riding a motorcycle and 62% do not wear one when riding a bicycle on the road; 17.4% frequently ride a motorcycle over the speed limit and 24.5% when driving a car. There are significant differences regarding sex, grade and region (Madrid or Andalusia). There are four factors which explain 62% of the variance: drug factor, speed factor, security factor and passenger factor. Two of these have twice the probability of having a dangerous situation when riding a motorcycle: drug factor (OR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.77-2.18) and the speed factor ((OR=2.13; 95% CI, 1.92-2.36). Adolescents in higher grades and living in Andalusia were less road safety conscious. This pattern should be taken into account when designing preventive actions in Road Safety Education. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Drawing road networks with focus regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Sering, Leon

    2011-12-01

    Mobile users of maps typically need detailed information about their surroundings plus some context information about remote places. In order to avoid that the map partly gets too dense, cartographers have designed mapping functions that enlarge a user-defined focus region--such functions are sometimes called fish-eye projections. The extra map space occupied by the enlarged focus region is compensated by distorting other parts of the map. We argue that, in a map showing a network of roads relevant to the user, distortion should preferably take place in those areas where the network is sparse. Therefore, we do not apply a predefined mapping function. Instead, we consider the road network as a graph whose edges are the road segments. We compute a new spatial mapping with a graph-based optimization approach, minimizing the square sum of distortions at edges. Our optimization method is based on a convex quadratic program (CQP); CQPs can be solved in polynomial time. Important requirements on the output map are expressed as linear inequalities. In particular, we show how to forbid edge crossings. We have implemented our method in a prototype tool. For instances of different sizes, our method generated output maps that were far less distorted than those generated with a predefined fish-eye projection. Future work is needed to automate the selection of roads relevant to the user. Furthermore, we aim at fast heuristics for application in real-time systems. © 2011 IEEE

  9. Road Service Performance Based On Integrated Road Design Consistency (IC) Along Federal Road F0023

    OpenAIRE

    Zainal Zaffan Farhana; Prasetijo Joewono; Musa Wan Zahidah

    2017-01-01

    Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric design...

  10. Predictability by recognizable road design. [previously called: Recognizable road design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    One of the Sustainable Safety principles is that a road should have a recognizable design and a predictable alignment. If this is the case, road users know how they are expected to behave and what they can expect from other road users, so that crashes may be prevented. For roads to be recognizable,

  11. Stochastic simulation of climate change impacts on ice road operations, MacKenzie River, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Mingko; Lonergan, S.

    1990-01-01

    Winter roads constitute an important part of the transportation network in the MacKenzie Delta, the Yellowknife area, and between the MacKenzie Highway and the Canol Road. Climatic changes in the MacKenzie Valley will alter the probabilities of ice cover thickness and duration, impacting on the periods when ice road river crossings are viable. Stochastic models were developed to generate air temperature and precipitation data to analyze climate impacts on when ice road crossing of the MacKenzie River at Norman Wells is feasible. The data were employed to simulate river ice growth and decay. Several general circulation models were employed to determine the impacts of climatic change on the ice regime. For precipitation simulation, the occurrence of wet or dry days was determined from Markov chain transition probabilities. In general, the Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS) model predicted the largest increase in monthly precipitation and the Oregon State University (OSU) model predicted the least changes. The various scenarios indicated that the duration for vehicular traffic over ice will be significantly reduced, compared to present day Norman Wells ice crossing operation. For 20 tonne vehicles, the current duration for safe crossing averages 169±14.6 days per year, while for the OSU scenario it will be reduced to 148±14.7 days, is further reduced to 127±24.9 days for the GISS scenario, and drops to 122±21.7 days for the GFDL (General Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) scenario. 5 refs., 1 fig

  12. Road analysis: a tool for cost-effective rehabilitation measures for Finnish roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roimela, Petri; Salmenkaita, Seppo; Maijala, Pekka; Saarenketo, Timo

    2000-04-01

    Public funding for road network maintenance has decreased 30% during the last few years in Finland. Reduced resources, together with the current rehabilitation strategies, will in the long term result in increasing deterioration of the Finnish road network. For this reason road rehabilitation funding should be focused more specifically on those roads and road sections requiring measures and these measures should be optimized to ensure that only the specific problem structure will be repaired. Roadscanners Oy, in cooperation with the Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra), has developed a new and effective Road Analysis technique to survey the condition of roads and road networks. Road Analysis is based on the integrated analysis of the measured data collected from the road under survey. The basic survey methods used in Road Analysis include Ground Penetrating Data (GPR), falling weight deflectometer (FWD), roughness and rutting measurements, pavement distress mapping and GPS-positioning, as well as reference drilling based on preliminary GPR data analysis. The collected road survey data is processed, interpreted, analyzed and classified using Road Doctor software, specifically developed for this purpose. GPR measurements in road analysis are carried out using a 400 MHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna. Horn antenna data is used to measure the thickness of the pavement and base course layers, as well as to evaluate their quality based on their dielectric properties. The 400 MHz ground-coupled data is used to estimate the thickness of the pavement structure and embankment. Ground-coupled antenna data is used for subgrade quality estimations and in evaluating the causes of subgrade- related frost defects. GPR data also provides important location information about special structures, such as steel reinforcements, cables and pipelines. Road Analysis includes a classification of the critical elements affecting the lifetime of the road: (1

  13. Road pricing and road safety : possible effects on road safety of 23 variants of road pricing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, R.G. Dijkstra, A. Wijnen, W. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Nouwen Committee (National Platform Paying Differently for Mobility) advised the Cabinet in 2005 about the introduction of a system of road pricing. Part of this advice consisted of a calculation of the expected road safety effects of such a system. In a letter to the Minister of Transport, SWOV

  14. Road Service Performance Based On Integrated Road Design Consistency (IC Along Federal Road F0023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Zaffan Farhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric designs consistency where the drivers make mistakes errors due to the road geometric features causes the accident kept rising in Malaysia. Hence, models are based on operating speed to calculate design consistency of road. The profiles were obtained by continuous speed profile using GPS data. The continuous operating speed profile models were plotted based on operating speed model (85th percentile. The study was conduct at F0023 from km 16 until km 20. The purpose of design consistency is to know the relationship between the operating speed and elements of geometric design on the road. As a result, the integrated design consistency motorcycle and cars along a segment at F0023, the threshold shows poor design quality for motorcycles and cars.

  15. Assessment of rockfall risk along roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Budetta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a method for the analysis of rockfall risk along roads and motorways. The method is derived from the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS developed by Pierson et al. (1990 at the Oregon State Highway Division. The RHRS provides a rational way to make informed decisions on where and how to spend construction funds. Exponential scoring functions are used to represent the increases, respectively, in hazard and in vulnerability that are reflected in the nine categories forming the classification. The resulting total score contains the essential elements regarding the evaluation of the degree of the exposition to the risk along roads. In the modified method, the ratings for the categories 'ditch effectiveness', 'geologic characteristic', 'volume of rockfall/block size', 'climate and water circulation' and 'rockfall history' have been rendered more easy and objective. The main modifications regard the introduction of Slope Mass Rating by Romana (1985, 1988, 1991 improving the estimate of the geologic characteristics, of the volume of the potentially unstable blocks and the underground water circulation. Other modifications regard the scoring for the categories 'decision sight distance' and 'road geometry'. For these categories, the Italian National Council's standards (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR have been used (CNR, 1980. The method must be applied in both the traffic directions because the percentage of reduction in the decision sight distance greatly affects the results. An application of the modified method to a 2km long section of the Sorrentine road (no 145 in Southern Italy was developed. A high traffic intensity affects the entire section of the road and rockfalls periodically cause casualties, as well as a large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. The method was applied to seven cross sections of slopes adjacent to the Sorrentine road. For these slopes, the analysis shows that the risk is

  16. Retrieval Algorithms for Road Surface Modelling Using Laser-Based Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antero Kukko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Automated processing of the data provided by a laser-based mobile mapping system will be a necessity due to the huge amount of data produced. In the future, vehiclebased laser scanning, here called mobile mapping, should see considerable use for road environment modelling. Since the geometry of the scanning and point density is different from airborne laser scanning, new algorithms are needed for information extraction. In this paper, we propose automatic methods for classifying the road marking and kerbstone points and modelling the road surface as a triangulated irregular network. On the basis of experimental tests, the mean classification accuracies obtained using automatic method for lines, zebra crossings and kerbstones were 80.6%, 92.3% and 79.7%, respectively.

  17. Characterizing on-road driving performance in individuals with traumatic brain injury who pass or fail an on-road driving assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolwyk, Renerus J; Charlton, Judith L; Ross, Pamela E; Bédard, Michel; Marshall, Shawn; Gagnon, Sylvain; Gooden, James R; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2018-01-15

    To characterise on-road driving performance in individuals with traumatic brain injury who fail on-road driving assessment, compared with both those who pass assessment and healthy controls, and the injury and cognitive factors associated with driving performance. Cross-sectional. Forty eight participants with traumatic brain injury (Age M = 40.50 SD = 14.62, 77% male, post-traumatic amnesia days M = 28.74 SD =27.68) and 48 healthy matched controls completed a standardised on-road driving assessment in addition to cognitive measures. Individuals with traumatic brain injury who passed on-road driving assessment performed no differently from controls while individuals with traumatic brain injury who failed the assessment demonstrated significantly worse driving performance relative to controls across a range of driving manoeuvres and error types including observation of on-road environment, speed control, gap selection, lane position, following distance and basic car control. Longer time post-injury and reduced visual perception were both significantly correlated with reduced driving skills. This exploratory study indicated that drivers with traumatic brain injury who failed on-road assessment demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of impaired driving manoeuvres, characterised by skill deficits across both operational (e.g., basic car control and lane position) and tactical domains (e.g., following distance, gap selection, and observation) of driving. These preliminary findings can be used for implementation of future driving assessments and rehabilitation programs. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians should be aware that the majority of individuals with traumatic brain injury were deemed fit to resume driving following formal on-road assessment, despite having moderate to very severe traumatic brain injuries. Drivers with traumatic brain injury who failed an on-road assessment demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of impaired skills including errors

  18. The effectiveness of vertebrate passage and prevention structures : a study of Boeckman Road in Wilsonville, final report, OTREC-RR-10-14, September 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    One of the most obvious impacts roads have on the natural world is direct mortality to individual animals that attempt to cross roads. : A less obvious but likely more important impact of roads on many species is habitat fragmentation. The ability fo...

  19. Unsafe sex in regular partnerships among heterosexual persons living with HIV: evidence from a large representative sample of individuals attending outpatients services in France (ANRS-EN12-VESPA Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhnik, Anne-Déborah; Préau, Marie; Lert, France; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Schiltz, Marie-Ange; Obadia, Yolande; Spire, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour remains frequent among people living with HIV. We analysed factors associated with unsafe sex within serodiscordant couples among heterosexual individuals living with HIV in France. In 2003, a face-to-face survey was conducted among individuals selected in a random stratified sample of 102 French hospital departments delivering HIV care. This analysis included adults heterosexual participants in a regular partnership for at least 12 months with a seronegative/unknown serostatus partner, HIV-diagnosed for at least 12 months. Unsafe sex was defined as reporting inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Among men and women, participants who reported unsafe sex were compared with those who did not. 663 heterosexual adults reported being in a serodiscordant regular partnership. Women accounted for 41% of participants and 26% of the sample were immigrants. Unsafe sex with the steady partner was reported by 26% of men and 34% of women (p=0.024). For men, factors independently associated with unsafe sex were being in a relationship for more than 10 years, being in a difficult financial situation and reporting regular consumption of alcohol to excess. Among women, having a history of drug use, not being aware of partner's serostatus, and reporting a difficult financial situation were independently associated with unsafe sex. In addition, immigrant women were associated with safer sex. A high number of serodiscordant couples continue to report risky sexual behaviour, and related factors are gender-specific. Couple-level interventions are essential in order to prevent HIV-transmission and to encourage negotiation within couples.

  20. Unsafe Disposal of Child Faeces: A Community-based Study in a Rural Block in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti PS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives A clean India is the responsibility of all Indians. One of the objectives of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Initiative is to bring about behavioural changes regarding healthy sanitation practices. While large-scale programs in India have increased latrine coverage, they have to some extent failed to bring behavioural changes ensuring optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child faeces, which is a significant source of exposure to faecal pathogens. Hence, this study was done to explore child faeces disposal practices in rural West Bengal and to elicit the determinants of unhygienic faeces disposal. Methods Data collection was done using an interview method among the mothers of 502 under-5 children, following a pre-designed, semi-structured schedule during house-to-house visits in a set of villages in the Hooghly district of West Bengal. Results The prevalence of unsafe disposal of child faeces was 72.4%, and maternal education, per capita income, and water source were found to be significantly associated with unsafe child faeces disposal. Conclusions This study draws attention to the unsafe disposal of child faeces in this area of India and raises questions about the efficiency of sanitation campaigns in rural India that focus on expanding coverage rather than emphasizing behavioural changes, which are crucial to ensure the safe disposal of child faeces. Thus, it is urgently necessary to strengthen efforts focusing on behavioural changes regarding the safe disposal of child faeces in order to minimise adverse health outcomes.

  1. Jaguars on the move: modeling movement to mitigate fragmentation from road expansion in the Mayan Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colchero, Fernando; Conde, Dalia Amor; Manterola, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Road-induced habitat fragmentation is one of the greatest threats to large carnivores. Wildlife passes have been used to reduce fragmentation by mitigating the effects of roads as barriers to animal movement. However, direct observations of animals crossing roads are extremely rare and thus......-telemetry and GPS data to infer the movement behavior of jaguars Panthera onca as a response to vegetation, roads and human population density in the Mayan Forests of Mexico and Guatemala. We used the results of the model to simulate jaguars moving along a road that bisects the major reserve system in the area....... The aim of the simulations was to identify suitable locations for wildlife passes. We found that jaguars move preferentially to undisturbed forests and that females avoid moving close to roads and to areas with even low levels of human occupation. Males also avoid roads, but to a lesser degree, and appear...

  2. Visual impairment and road traffic accidents among drivers in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biza, Mohamed; Mossie, Andualem; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-04-01

    Vision play a vital role in driving where good and efficient visual functioning of the driver is essential. Any significant loss of visual function will diminish a driver's ability to operate a motor vehicle safely and will thus contribute to road traffic injury. However, there is little evidence indicating that defects of vision alone cause road traffic accidents. To determine the impact of visual impairment and other factors on road traffic accident among vehicle drivers. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 249 sampled drivers in Southwest Ethiopia. A pretested interviewer led questionnaire was used for interview and vision tests were done using Snellen's acuity chart and Ishihara pseudo-isochromatic plates. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. The mean age of drivers was 33.6 years (SD +/- 10.3). The relative frequency of self reported road traffic accident was 15.3%. The prevalence of uncorrected binocular visual impairment was 1.6% and there was a significant association between visual impairment and road traffic accident (P road traffic accident. There is need for consistent inspection and screening, strict rules and regulations of licensing and health education for drivers to minimize road traffic accident.

  3. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The

  4. Empirical Radiometric Normalization of Road Points from Terrestrial Mobile Lidar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tee-Ann Teo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lidar data provide both geometric and radiometric information. Radiometric information is influenced by sensor and target factors and should be calibrated to obtain consistent energy responses. The radiometric correction of airborne lidar system (ALS converts the amplitude into a backscatter cross-section with physical meaning value by applying a model-driven approach. The radiometric correction of terrestrial mobile lidar system (MLS is a challenging task because it does not completely follow the inverse square range function at near-range. This study proposed a radiometric normalization workflow for MLS using a data-driven approach. The scope of this study is to normalize amplitude of road points for road surface classification, assuming that road points from different scanners or strips should have similar responses in overlapped areas. The normalization parameters for range effect were obtained from crossroads. The experiment showed that the amplitude difference between scanners and strips decreased after radiometric normalization and improved the accuracy of road surface classification.

  5. How effective is road mitigation at reducing road-kill? A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, Jeff; Ree, van der Rodney; Grift, van der Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners,

  6. Employment and contextual impact of safe and unsafe sexual practices for STI and HIV: the situation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S M; Gao, M Y

    2000-08-01

    China's dual employment system plays a crucial role in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV-related safe and unsafe sexual practices among young Chinese people. Social and psychological determinants of safe and unsafe sexual practices for HIV infection among young people in Sichuan, China were examined. Our findings indicate that changes in China's social structure and employment system impact upon the social contextual involvement and socio-sexual practice of young Chinese people. The findings in the study suggest that the employment-related contextual involvement was a major predictor in the relationships between demography, information, and psychological risk-taking factors on one hand and the people's safe and unsafe sexual practices on the other. Self-employed people (officially called 'getihu') were more likely than the state-employed people to engage in unprotected sex with casual sexual partners. As China undergoes social restructuring and many state-employed people are laid off, the risk may also extend into the broader non-self-employed population as more state-employed people become involved not only in the self-employed getihu's socioeconomic activities but also in their unconventional socio-sexual practices. Collective vulnerability to STI and HIV, due to the current socio-sexual practices of the getihu young people, has created a new frontier for STI and HIV prevention in today's China, as well as demonstrating the importance of collective action with STI and AIDS prevention strategies within relevant social and sub-cultural contexts.

  7. The horror of unsafe abortion: case report of a life threatening complication in a 29-year old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Kaniz Zehra; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil

    2013-10-16

    Every year 42 million women with unintended pregnancies choose abortion, and fifty percent of these procedures, 20 million are unsafe. An unsafe abortion is defined as a procedure for terminating an unintended pregnancy carried out either by person lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards or both.Pakistan is the one of the six countries where more than 50% of the world's all maternal deaths occur. It is estimated that 890,000 induced abortions are performed annually in Pakistan, and estimate an annual abortion rate of 29 per 1000 women aged 15-49. Here we present a case report of a 29-year old woman who underwent an unsafe abortion for unintended pregnancy resulting in uterine perforation. The unskilled provider pulled out her bowel through vagina after perforating the uterus, as a result she lost major portion of her small intestine resulting in short bowel syndrome. The law of Pakistan only allows abortion during early stages of pregnancy for purpose of saving the life of a mother but does not cater for cases of rape, incest and fetal abnormalities or social reasons.Only legalization of abortion is not sufficient, preventing unintended pregnancy should be the priority of all the nations and for this reason contraception should be widely accessible.Practitioners need to become better trained in safer abortion methods and be to able transfer the patient to health facility when complications occur.

  8. Violence Against Drivers and Conductors in the Road Passenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study examined the extent, nature and risk factors of workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique. A random sample of 504 participants was selected from a population of 2 618 registered bus, minibus, and taxi drivers/conductors. The results ...

  9. Fatal accidents at railway level crossings in Great Britain 1946-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates fatal accidents and fatalities at level crossings in Great Britain over the 64-year period 1946-2009. The numbers of fatal accidents and fatalities per year fell by about 65% in the first half of that period, but since then have remained more or less constant at about 11 fatal accidents and 12 fatalities per year. At the same time other types of railway fatalities have fallen, so level crossings represent a growing proportion of the total. Nevertheless, Britain's level crossing safety performance remains good by international standards. The paper classifies level crossings into three types: railway-controlled, automatic, and passive. The safety performance of the three types of crossings has been very different. Railway-controlled crossings are the best-performing crossing type, with falling fatal accident rates. Automatic crossings have higher accident rates per crossing than railway controlled or passive crossings, and the accident rates have not decreased. Passive crossings are by far the most numerous, but many have low usage by road users. Their fatal accident rate has remained remarkably constant over the whole period at about 0.9 fatal accidents per 1000 crossings per year. A principal reason why fatal accidents and fatalities have not fallen in the second half of the period as they did in the first half is the increase in the number of automatic crossings, replacing the safer railway controlled crossings on some public roads. However, it does not follow that this replacement was a mistake, because automatic crossings have advantages over controlled crossings in reducing delays to road users and in not needing staff. Based on the trends for each type of crossing and for pedestrian and non-pedestrian accidents separately, in 2009 a mean of about 5% of fatal accidents were at railway controlled crossings, 52% were at automatic crossings, and 43% were at passive crossings. Fatalities had similar proportions. About 60% of fatalities were

  10. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Han.Blok@royalhaskoning.com

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  11. Behavioral Observation and Microbiological Analysis of Older Adult Consumers' Cross-Contamination Practices in a Model Domestic Kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness is higher in older adults because of their increased susceptibility; therefore, food safety practices are important. However, inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes toward food safety have been reported, which may increase use of unsafe food handling practices. Data on the actual food safety behaviors of older adults are lacking. In this study, food safety practices of older adults were observed and linked to microbiological analysis of kitchen surfaces to identify suspected routes of contamination. Older adults (≥60 years, n = 100) prepared a set meal in a model domestic kitchen sanitized according to a validated protocol to ensure minimal and consistent microbiological loads. Food safety behaviors were observed using ceiling-mounted cameras and recorded using a predetermined behavioral checklist. Surface microbiological contamination also was determined after food preparation. Overall, older adults frequently implemented unsafe food handling practices; 90% failed to implement adequate hand decontamination immediately after handling raw chicken. For older adults who used a larger number of adequate hand decontamination attempts, microbiological contamination levels in the kitchen following the food preparation session were significantly lower ( P food handling practices as suspected routes of microbiological cross-contamination in a model domestic kitchen. Findings indicate the potential impact on domestic food safety of unsafe food handling practices used by older adult consumers. This innovative approach revealed that a large proportion of older adults implement behaviors resulting in microbiological cross-contamination that may increase the risk of foodborne illness in the home.

  12. Joint road safety operations in tunnels and open roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Adewole; Avenoso, Antonio; Dionelis, Kallistratos; Cela, Liljana; Nicodème, Christophe; Goger, Thierry; Polidori, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the ECOROADS project is to overcome the barrier established by the formal interpretation of the two Directives 2008/96/EC and 2004/54/EC, which in practice do not allow the same Road Safety Audits/Inspections to be performed inside tunnels. The projects aims at the establishment of a common enhanced approach to road infrastructure and tunnel safety management by using the concepts and criteria of the Directive 2008/96/CE on road infrastructure safety management and the results of related European Commission (EC) funded projects. ECOROADS has already implemented an analysis of national practices regarding Road Safety Inspections (RSI), two Workshops with the stakeholders, and an exchange of best practices between European tunnel experts and road safety professionals, which led to the definition of common agreed safety procedures. In the second phase of the project, different groups of experts and observers applied the above common procedures by inspecting five European road sections featuring both open roads and tunnels in Belgium, Albania, Germany, Serbia and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper shows the feedback of the 5 joint safety operations and how they are being used for a set of - recommendations and guidelines for the application of the RSA and RSI concepts within the tunnel safety operations.

  13. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these...

  14. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  15. Road Network Selection Based on Road Hierarchical Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Haiwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new road network selection method based on hierarchical structure is studied. Firstly, road network is built as strokes which are then classified into hierarchical collections according to the criteria of betweenness centrality value (BC value. Secondly, the hierarchical structure of the strokes is enhanced using structural characteristic identification technique. Thirdly, the importance calculation model was established according to the relationships among the hierarchical structure of the strokes. Finally, the importance values of strokes are got supported with the model's hierarchical calculation, and with which the road network is selected. Tests are done to verify the advantage of this method by comparing it with other common stroke-oriented methods using three kinds of typical road network data. Comparision of the results show that this method had few need to semantic data, and could eliminate the negative influence of edge strokes caused by the criteria of BC value well. So, it is better to maintain the global hierarchical structure of road network, and suitable to meet with the selection of various kinds of road network at the same time.

  16. Medium and long-term adherence to postabortion contraception among women having experienced unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Massawe, Siriel

    2008-01-01

    postabortion contraception. Follow-up information was obtained 12 months after the abortion among 59 percent of the women. Among these, 79 percent of the married women and 84 percent of the single women stated they were using contraception at 12 months. Condom use among the single women increased significantly...... contraceptive service intervention among women admitted with complications from unsafe abortions and to explore the women's long-term contraceptive adherence. METHODS: 392 women having experienced unsafe abortion were identified by an empathetic approach and offered postabortion contraceptive service, which...... included counselling on HIV and condom use. Questionnaire interviews about contraceptive use were conducted at the time of inclusion and 12 months after the abortion. Additionally, in-depth interviews were performed 6-12 months after the abortion. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the women accepted...

  17. On the Road : Screening Chinese Cinema through a Postmodern Lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, Y.

    2016-01-01

    On the Road: Screening Chinese Cinema through a Postmodern Lens includes a variety of navigation services through the central debate on postmodernism as a cross-cultural study that recovers and represents Chinese film world of the past and the present, of home and abroad. Postmodernism in this

  18. Barriers to safe abortion access: uterine rupture as complication of unsafe abortion in a Ugandan girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Rose McKeon; Kamurari, Solomon

    2017-10-20

    A 15-year-old girl at 18 weeks gestation by the last menstrual period presented to a rural Ugandan healthcare facility for termination of her pregnancy as a result of rape by her uncle. Skilled healthcare workers at the facility refused to provide the abortion due to fear of legal repercussions. The patient subsequently obtained an unsafe abortion by vaginal insertion of local herbs and sharp objects. She developed profuse vaginal bleeding and haemorrhagic shock. She was found to have uterine rupture and emergent hysterectomy was performed. Young and poor women are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and subsequent mortality during pregnancy and childbirth. Unsafe abortion is a leading and entirely preventable cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Multiple barriers restrict access to safe abortions including social and moral stigma, gender-based power imbalances, inadequate contraceptive use and sexual education, high cost and poor availability, and restrictive abortion laws. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  20. Is vertebrate mortality correlated to potential permeability by underpasses along low-traffic roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Juan D; Morelli, Federico; Arroyo, Natalia L; Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Rosal, Antonio; Palenzuela, María Del Valle; Rodríguez, Jesús D G P

    2018-09-01

    Road permeability to animal movements depends among several factors on structures which, integrated in the road design, operate as safe conducts to mitigate vehicle collision and barrier effects. There is abundant evidence that wildlife makes use of such structures as safe passages to cross roads. We analyzed the spatial relationship between road drainage elements (N = 253; mostly culverts) as potential faunal underpasses, and mortality due to vehicle collisions in two seasons and on four relatively low-traffic roads (roads, identifying and characterizing all potential underpasses. Overall frequencies of casualties and spatial distribution were highly variable both within and among these roads. We obtained an estimation of potential permeability for the different roads. We detected, located and described a wide supply and a very variable pattern of drainage culverts and other underpasses, with differences among roads in passage attributes potentially affecting permeability for wildlife, such as spatial arrangement, number, density (frequency or concentration of passages) and dimensions. We used Mantel tests to assess spatial congruence of passages and road-killed animals. We applied generalized linear mixed models fitted by maximum likelihood through Akaike Information Criterion to explain the variation in the distance of the 238 casualties to the nearest underpasses, with road transect and season as random factors, and traffic intensity, speed and vertebrate class as fixed effects. Both road-killed animals and underpass distribution followed aggregated patterns, and casualties were not significantly related to underpasses along any of the 4 roads. There were no differences in distance of casualties to the nearest underpass for the three vertebrate classes. Although existing underpasses were abundant, we could not correlate potential permeability with reduced mortality along these roads, and other factors potentially affecting roadkill aggregations should be

  1. Seatbelt use and speeding on three major roads in Egypt: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Connie; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Rahman, M Hafizur; El Sayed, Hesham; Eldawy, Soad; El-Dabaa, Ayman; Albert, Mourid; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    Road traffic injuries pose a significant threat to the Egyptian population. Recent estimates revealed that Egypt experiences 42 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population (1.8% of all deaths in the country), which is the highest death rate in the region. More than half of the road traffic crashes that resulted in injuries occurred on the country's highways. Despite the significance of this public health problem, very little risk factor information currently exists. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the burden of speeding and the level of seatbelt and child restraint use on a highway (Cairo Ring Road) and two urban roads crossing Alexandria city (Kornish and Gamal Abd-Elnaser roads). Two rounds of seatbelt and child restraint observational studies and one round of speed observational study were carried out between 2011 and 2012. Findings revealed that seatbelt use among drivers and front seat passengers were low for all three sites (range: 11.1% to 19.8% for drivers; 2.9% to 4.0% for front seat passengers). Similarly, child restraint use in cars with children was very low ranging from 1.1% to 3.9% on all three roads. All three roads experienced a high percentage of vehicles driving above the speed limit (39.4% on Kornish Road, 22.6% on Cairo Ring Road, 11.8% on Gamal Abd-Elnaser Road), with the majority of these vehicles driving 1 to 10 kilometer above the speed limit. Future interventions need to focus on enhancing enforcement of speed and seatbelt wearing, closing gaps in legislation, and standardizing existing data systems to help inform good road safety policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Virtual testing of speed reduction schemes on urban collector roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichini, Lorenzo; Branzi, Valentina; Meocci, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Urban collector roads are complex driving environments often encompassing both the mobility and the access road functions. In these conditions motorized traffic and vulnerable road users compete continually. Speed reduction measures may play a relevant role in these contexts, provided that such measures are also designed in compliance with the driver's capabilities and expectations. The paper describes a test procedure using driving simulation experiments, designed to evaluate the reconfiguration project of Via Pistoiese, an urban road collector located in Florence (Italy). The road improvement design consisted of several engineering treatments aimed to reduce and homogenize the driving speed, as well as to manage the co-existence of the different road users and mainly to protect pedestrians. The main focus of the research was to understand if the drivers' behaviour was according to the design hypothesis before the safety treatments are implemented in the real world. Due to the multiple engineering treatments included in the reconfiguration project, the evaluation of the overall safety effectiveness of the project rather than the single treatment safety impact was the main concern of the research study. In addition, the study aimed to assess the usefulness of the considered testing method to understand how to integrate road design with drivers' performances, especially in heterogeneous traffic environments where drivers' behaviour plays a decisive role in the success of the proposed design solutions. Fifty-eight participants drove through two immersive virtual environments, reproducing the existing configuration and the project reconfiguration, while data relating to different driving aspects were collected. Two analyses were performed. The first was focused on the analysis of the mean speed profiles and revealed that the considered engineering treatments are able to control the speeding behaviour without providing a too high discomfort to the drivers. The second

  3. eRoads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    vehicles enable more renewable electricity to be integrated onto the electricity grid. This is particularly evident in 2050, since the price of fossil fuels increases while the price of renewable electricity and batteries decreases. Finally, the electric road scenarios can facilitate more reductions......This study compares electric roads with oil (petrol and diesel) and battery electric vehicles, using Denmark as a case study. Electric roads can reduce the cost of electric vehicles by supplying them with electricity directly from the road rather than via a battery for long-distance journeys....... In this paper, an electric road scenario is compared to both an oil and battery electric vehicle scenario using the 2010 Danish energy system, but for two sets of costs: one set based on historical costs from the year 2010 and one based on projected costs for the year 2050. The results indicate that electric...

  4. Real-Time (Vision-Based) Road Sign Recognition Using an Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kh Tohidul; Raj, Ram Gopal

    2017-04-13

    Road sign recognition is a driver support function that can be used to notify and warn the driver by showing the restrictions that may be effective on the current stretch of road. Examples for such regulations are 'traffic light ahead' or 'pedestrian crossing' indications. The present investigation targets the recognition of Malaysian road and traffic signs in real-time. Real-time video is taken by a digital camera from a moving vehicle and real world road signs are then extracted using vision-only information. The system is based on two stages, one performs the detection and another one is for recognition. In the first stage, a hybrid color segmentation algorithm has been developed and tested. In the second stage, an introduced robust custom feature extraction method is used for the first time in a road sign recognition approach. Finally, a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) has been created to recognize and interpret various road signs. It is robust because it has been tested on both standard and non-standard road signs with significant recognition accuracy. This proposed system achieved an average of 99.90% accuracy with 99.90% of sensitivity, 99.90% of specificity, 99.90% of f-measure, and 0.001 of false positive rate (FPR) with 0.3 s computational time. This low FPR can increase the system stability and dependability in real-time applications.

  5. Habitat or matrix: which is more relevant to predict road-kill of vertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C; Sousa, C O M; Freitas, S R

    2015-11-01

    We believe that in tropics we need a community approach to evaluate road impacts on wildlife, and thus, suggest mitigation measures for groups of species instead a focal-species approach. Understanding which landscape characteristics indicate road-kill events may also provide models that can be applied in other regions. We intend to evaluate if habitat or matrix is more relevant to predict road-kill events for a group of species. Our hypothesis is: more permeable matrix is the most relevant factor to explain road-kill events. To test this hypothesis, we chose vertebrates as the studied assemblage and a highway crossing in an Atlantic Forest region in southeastern Brazil as the study site. Logistic regression models were designed using presence/absence of road-kill events as dependent variables and landscape characteristics as independent variables, which were selected by Akaike's Information Criterion. We considered a set of candidate models containing four types of simple regression models: Habitat effect model; Matrix types effect models; Highway effect model; and, Reference models (intercept and buffer distance). Almost three hundred road-kills and 70 species were recorded. River proximity and herbaceous vegetation cover, both matrix effect models, were associated to most road-killed vertebrate groups. Matrix was more relevant than habitat to predict road-kill of vertebrates. The association between river proximity and road-kill indicates that rivers may be a preferential route for most species. We discuss multi-species mitigation measures and implications to movement ecology and conservation strategies.

  6. [Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, G L; Zanelli, R; Corino, P; Bruno, S

    2007-01-01

    Every year many traffic accidents with fatal outcomes occur in our Country. According to the recent indications of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, the Piedmont region has financed the plan: Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field. The aims of the plan are to stimulate transport companies to the target of road safety and to improve and enforce sanitary surveillance, in order to improve the safety on road haulage and to prevent traffic injuries. the plan foresees, over a period of two years, a few encounters with all the interested parties (companies, police forces, labour unions etc). During those encounters we have to give a questionnaire for evaluating the companies' knowledge about the problem and we have to choose a common plan with the aim of improving road safety. The Piedmont regional plan recalls the need to increase the attention to numerous and diversified hazards for safety on road haulage. It also imposes the choice of measures that include: risk assessment, health education, technical and environmental prevention, sanitary surveillance and clinical interventions (diagnosis and rehabilitation of occupational accidents).

  7. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali

    2007-01-01

    and a seatbelt. I had to apologize profusely to the young traffic policeman and explain that I was wearing sunglasses because I was driving facing the sun! The reason for wearing the seatbelt was a habit from living abroad for many years and I was not a "show off" as he put it! This incidence made me wonder how much the traffic police knew about the law?• In Libya the way we behave in the street, the way we drive and our attitude towards pedestrians is not taught in schools at an early age. As a matter of fact, many drivers think it is "cool" to scare pedestrians.• Most of the accidents in Libya occur at school times but unfortunately no measures are taken by the traffic police to help young children to cross roads safely.• Most of the road traffic accidents happen at the same areas but these are never identified as "black spots" to warn drivers of the possible dangers.• Although Zebra Crossings exist in some parts of Libya, they actually do not serve the purpose. We just need to count how many pedestrians (especially foreign visitors have been knocked down at Zebra Crossings.• There is a need for new road signs, clear road markings (lanes, and new traffic lights to replace old and often non-functioning ones.• One study demonstrated that speeding was responsible for about 70% of accidents [4]. There are no speed cameras or road humps to slow down speeding cars, therefore residents who have lost children to road traffic accidents resort to building their own version of street humps made from old pipes, thick ropes or cement.• Most of the main roads are full of holes and in desperate need of maintenance.• Car seats for children are not compulsory.• When accidents happen in Libya, what number do we dial? Do emergency services exist?• It is a known fact that most of the deaths and permanent disabilities in road traffic accidents are caused by people trying to help due to the lack of Advanced Trauma and Life Support (ATLS trained personnel [5,6].• It

  8. All-terrain vehicle fatalities on paved roads, unpaved roads, and off-road: Evidence for informed roadway safety warnings and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene M; Jennissen, Charles A

    2016-05-18

    All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are designed for off-highway use only, and many of their features create increased risk with roadway travel. Over half of all ATV-related fatalities occur on roadways, and nonfatal roadway crashes result in more serious injuries than those off the road. A number of jurisdictions have passed or have considered legislation allowing ATVs on public roadways, sometimes limiting them to those unpaved, arguing that they are safe for ATVs. However, no studies have determined the epidemiology of ATV-related fatalities on different road surface types. The objective of the study was to compare ATV-related deaths on paved versus unpaved roads and to contrast them with off-road fatalities. Retrospective descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed using U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission fatality data from 1982 through 2012. After 1998, ATV-related deaths increased at twice the rate on paved versus unpaved roads. Still, 42% of all roadway deaths during the study period occurred on unpaved surfaces. States varied considerably, ranging from 18% to 79% of their ATV-related roadway deaths occurring on unpaved roads. Paved road crashes were more likely than those on unpaved surfaces to involve males, adolescents and younger adults, passengers, and collisions with other vehicles. Both the pattern of other vehicles involved in collisions and which vehicle hit the other were different for the 2 road types. Alcohol use was higher, helmet use was lower, and head injuries were more likely in paved versus unpaved roadway crashes. However, head injuries still occurred in 76% of fatalities on unpaved roads. Helmets were associated with lower proportions of head injuries among riders, regardless of road surface type. Relative to off-road crashes, both paved and unpaved roads were more likely to involve collisions with another vehicle. The vast majority of roadway crashes, however, did not involve a traffic collision on either paved or unpaved roads

  9. A sonification algorithm for developing the off-roads models for driving simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiroiu, Veturia; Brişan, Cornel; Dumitriu, Dan; Munteanu, Ligia

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a sonification algorithm for developing the off-road models for driving simulators, is proposed. The aim of this algorithm is to overcome difficulties of heuristics identification which are best suited to a particular off-road profile built by measurements. The sonification algorithm is based on the stochastic polynomial chaos analysis suitable in solving equations with random input data. The fluctuations are generated by incomplete measurements leading to inhomogeneities of the cross-sectional curves of off-roads before and after deformation, the unstable contact between the tire and the road and the unreal distribution of contact and friction forces in the unknown contact domains. The approach is exercised on two particular problems and results compare favorably to existing analytical and numerical solutions. The sonification technique represents a useful multiscale analysis able to build a low-cost virtual reality environment with increased degrees of realism for driving simulators and higher user flexibility.

  10. Using endemic road features to create self-explaining roads and reduce vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G; Mackie, Hamish W; Baas, Peter H; Hay, Karen; Menezes, Miguel; Dixon, Claire

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a project undertaken to establish a self-explaining roads (SER) design programme on existing streets in an urban area. The methodology focussed on developing a process to identify functional road categories and designs based on endemic road characteristics taken from functional exemplars in the study area. The study area was divided into two sections, one to receive SER treatments designed to maximise visual differences between road categories, and a matched control area to remain untreated for purposes of comparison. The SER design for local roads included increased landscaping and community islands to limit forward visibility, and removal of road markings to create a visually distinct road environment. In comparison, roads categorised as collectors received increased delineation, addition of cycle lanes, and improved amenity for pedestrians. Speed data collected 3 months after implementation showed a significant reduction in vehicle speeds on local roads and increased homogeneity of speeds on both local and collector roads. The objective speed data, combined with residents' speed choice ratings, indicated that the project was successful in creating two discriminably different road categories. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Road safety risk evaluation and target setting using data envelopment analysis and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Vanhoof, Koen

    2012-09-01

    Currently, comparison between countries in terms of their road safety performance is widely conducted in order to better understand one's own safety situation and to learn from those best-performing countries by indicating practical targets and formulating action programmes. In this respect, crash data such as the number of road fatalities and casualties are mostly investigated. However, the absolute numbers are not directly comparable between countries. Therefore, the concept of risk, which is defined as the ratio of road safety outcomes and some measure of exposure (e.g., the population size, the number of registered vehicles, or distance travelled), is often used in the context of benchmarking. Nevertheless, these risk indicators are not consistent in most cases. In other words, countries may have different evaluation results or ranking positions using different exposure information. In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) as a performance measurement technique is investigated to provide an overall perspective on a country's road safety situation, and further assess whether the road safety outcomes registered in a country correspond to the numbers that can be expected based on the level of exposure. In doing so, three model extensions are considered, which are the DEA based road safety model (DEA-RS), the cross-efficiency method, and the categorical DEA model. Using the measures of exposure to risk as the model's input and the number of road fatalities as output, an overall road safety efficiency score is computed for the 27 European Union (EU) countries based on the DEA-RS model, and the ranking of countries in accordance with their cross-efficiency scores is evaluated. Furthermore, after applying clustering analysis to group countries with inherent similarity in their practices, the categorical DEA-RS model is adopted to identify best-performing and underperforming countries in each cluster, as well as the reference sets or benchmarks for those

  12. The Wechsler Digit Symbol Substitution Test as the best indicator of the risk of impaired driving in Alzheimer disease and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Sylviane; Marin-Lamellet, Claude; Paire-Ficout, Laurence; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Laurent, Bernard; Fabrigoule, Colette

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to identify cognitive tools associated with unsafe driving among elderly drivers of varying cognitive levels. Twenty drivers with early-stage dementia of the Alzheimer type and 56 nondemented drivers aged 65-85 were recruited. Various cognitive processes were measured and unsafe driving was evaluated during an in-traffic road test with 3 different indicators and a composite indicator. The Wechsler Digit Symbol Substitution Test score was the best cognitive measure to detect unsafe drivers using the composite driving indicator. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test may be used by physicians for the evaluation and follow-up of older patients, with or without Alzheimer-type dementia, as a screening tool of unsafe driving.

  13. THE AUTOMATED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ON ROAD TRANSPORT IN THE CITIES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Naumov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic model of a cross-roads for projecting local automatic system of traffic control has been given. The software realization of model used in a module of automatic system of traffic control has been considered.

  14. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  15. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  16. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  17. Demonstrating a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Luis; Willis, Christopher Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate a correlation between the maturity of a country's road safety practices and road safety incidents. Firstly, data on a number of road injuries and fatalities for 129 countries were extracted from the United Nations Global Status on Road Safety database. These data were subdivided according to road safety incident and accident causation factors and normalized based on vehicular fleet (per 1000 vehicles) and road network (per meter of paved road). Secondly, a road safety maturity model was developed based on an adaptation of the concept of process maturity modeling. The maturity of countries with respect to 10 road safety practices was determined through the identification of indicators recorded in the United Nations Global Status of Road Safety Database. Plots of normalized road safety performance of the 129 countries against their maturity scores for each road safety practice as well as an aggregation of the road safety practices were developed. An analysis of variance was done to determine the extent of the correlation between the road safety maturity of the countries and their performance. In addition, a full Bayesian analysis was done to confirm the correlation of each of the road safety practices with injuries and fatalities. Regression analysis for fatalities, injuries, and combined accidents identified maturity with respect to road safety practices associated with speed limits and use of alternative modes as being the most significant predictors of traffic fatalities. A full Bayesian regression confirms that there is a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents. Road safety practices associated with enforcement of speed limits and promotion of alternative modes are the most significant road safety practices toward which mature countries have concentrated their efforts, resulting in a lower frequency of fatalities, injury rates, and property damage accidents. The authors

  18. Unsafe abortion in rural Tanzania ¿ the use of traditional medicine from a patient and a provider perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Sørensen, Pernille H; Wang, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on the traditional methods known and the type of providers present. In rural Tanzania women often resort to traditional providers who use plant species as abortion remedies. Little is known about how these plants...

  19. Road traffic injury on rural roads in Tanzania: measuring the effectiveness of a road safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Karen; Jinadasa, Deepani; Maegga, Bertha; Guerrero, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries. There is limited data on RTIs in low-volume, rural African settings. This study attempted to survey all individuals living in households within 200 m of two low-volume rural roads in Tanzania and to collect data on RTIs. Local communities and users of the Bago to Talawanda road (intervention site) and Kikaro to Mihuga road (control site) were targeted and received an intensive program of road safety measures tailored using the crash characteristics of the baseline sample. Demographic data on all household members were collected, and those individuals who suffered an RTI in the previous 3 months had comprehensive information collected about the crash characteristics and the socioeconomic impact. The follow-up data collection occurred nine months after the baseline data were collected. The majority of crashes that caused an RTI involved a motorcycle (71%) and the majority of victims were male (82%) with an average age of 27. Injuries to the legs (55%) were most common and the average length of time away from normal activity was 27 (±33) days. RTI incidence at the intervention site increased during the course of the study (incidence before vs. incidence after) and was unchanged in the community control (incidence before vs. incidence after). The incidence of RTIs in the low-volume rural setting is unacceptably high and most commonly associated with motorcycles. The change in incidence is unreliable due to logistic restraints of the project and more research is needed to quantify the impact of various RTI prevention strategies in this setting. This study provides insight into road traffic injuries on low-volume rural roads, areas where very little research has been captured. Additionally, it provides a replicable study design for those interested in collecting similar data on low-volume rural roads.

  20. Aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings—synthesis and guidelines for effectiveness monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hansen, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Restoration and maintenance of passage for aquatic organisms at road-stream crossings represents a major management priority, involving an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars (for example, U.S. Government Accounting Office, 2001). In recent years, passage at hundreds of crossings has been restored, primarily by replacing barrier road culverts with bridges or stream simulation culverts designed to pass all species and all life stages of aquatic life and simulate natural hydro-geomorphic processes (U.S. Forest Service, 2008). The current situation has motivated two general questions: 1. Are current design standards for stream simulation culverts adequately re-establishing passage for aquatic biota? and 2. How do we monitor and evaluate effectiveness of passage restoration? To address the latter question, a national workshop was held in March 2010, in Portland, Oregon. The workshop included experts on aquatic organism passage from across the nation (see table of participants, APPENDIX) who addressed four classes of methods for monitoring effectiveness of aquatic organism passage—individual movement, occupancy, demography, and genetics. This report has been written, in part, for field biologists who will be undertaking and evaluating the effectiveness of aquatic organism passage restoration projects at road-stream crossings. The report outlines basic methods for evaluating road-stream crossing passage impairment and restoration and discusses under what circumstances and conditions each method will be useful; what questions each method can potentially answer; how to design and implement an evaluation study; and points out the fundamental reality that most evaluation projects will require special funding and partnerships among researchers and resource managers. The report is organized into the following sections, which can be read independently: 1. Historical context: In this section, we provide a brief history of events leading up to the present situation

  1. Gravel roads management : volume 1, gravel roads management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  2. Pilot project for a hybrid road-flooding forecasting system on Squaw Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A network of 25 sonic stage sensors were deployed in the Squaw Creek basin upstream from Ames Iowa to determine : if the state-of-the-art distributed hydrological model CUENCAS can produce reliable information for all road crossings : including those...

  3. Roads at risk: traffic detours from debris flows in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.; Nadim, F.

    2015-05-01

    Globalisation and interregional exchange of people, goods, and services has boosted the importance of and reliance on all kinds of transport networks. The linear structure of road networks is especially sensitive to natural hazards. In southern Norway, steep topography and extreme weather events promote frequent traffic disruption caused by debris flows. Topographic susceptibility and trigger frequency maps serve as input into a hazard appraisal at the scale of first-order catchments to quantify the impact of debris flows on the road network in terms of a failure likelihood of each link connecting two network vertices, e.g. road junctions. We compute total additional traffic loads as a function of traffic volume and excess distance, i.e. the extra length of an alternative path connecting two previously disrupted network vertices using a shortest-path algorithm. Our risk metric of link failure is the total additional annual traffic load, expressed as vehicle kilometres, because of debris-flow-related road closures. We present two scenarios demonstrating the impact of debris flows on the road network and quantify the associated path-failure likelihood between major cities in southern Norway. The scenarios indicate that major routes crossing the central and north-western part of the study area are associated with high link-failure risk. Yet options for detours on major routes are manifold and incur only little additional costs provided that drivers are sufficiently well informed about road closures. Our risk estimates may be of importance to road network managers and transport companies relying on speedy delivery of services and goods.

  4. Bullying Victimization Type and Feeling Unsafe in Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, John; Larson, James D; Bellmore, Amy; Olson, Chelsea; Resnik, Felice

    2018-01-01

    Given their significance to school violence, this study quantifies the association between bullying victimization and perceptions of safety separately for victimization where the type is not specified versus victimization that is physical in nature. Generalized liner mixed modeling was employed with 5,138 sixth- to eighth-grade students in 24 schools who self-reported on their bullying victimization and perceptions of school safety on an anonymous survey in fall 2015. Results indicate a multiplicative interaction exists with regard to the odds of feeling unsafe at school among those who were bullied at all (odds ratio [ OR] = 3.1) compared to those who were bullied physically ( OR = 9.12). For school nurses who work with students with a variety of concerns and health issues, this research indicates that the use of bullying victimization as an outcome, proxy and/or predictor, requires inquiry into the type of bullying experienced to aid in the care and support received.

  5. Application of snow models to snow removal operations on the Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Klasner, Frederick L.

    2000-01-01

    Snow removal, and the attendant avalanche risk for road crews, is a major issue on mountain highways worldwide. The Going-to-the-Sun Road is the only road that crosses Glacier National Park, Montana. This 80-km highway ascends over 1200m along the wall of a glaciated basin and crosses the continental divide. The annual opening of the road is critical to the regional economy and there is public pressure to open the road as early as possible. Despite the 67-year history of snow removal activities, few stat on snow conditions at upper elevations were available to guide annual planning for the raod opening. We examined statistical relationships between the opening date and nearby SNOTEL data on snow water equivalence (WE) for 30 years. Early spring SWE (first Monday in April) accounted for only 33% of the variance in road opening dates. Because avalanche spotters, used to warn heavy equipment operators of danger, are ineffective during spring storms or low-visibility conditions, we incorporated the percentage of days with precipitation during plowing as a proxy for visibility. This improved the model's predictive power to 69%/ A mountain snow simulator (MTSNOW) was used to calculate the depth and density of snow at various points along the road and field data were collected for comparison. MTSNOW underestimated the observed snow conditions, in part because it does not yet account for wind redistribution of snow. The severe topography of the upper reaches of the road are subjected to extensive wind redistribution of snow as evidence by the formation of "The Big Drift" on the lee side of Logan Pass.

  6. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i

  7. Road Closures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This is an up to date map of current road closures in Montgomery County.This dataset is updated every few minutes from the Department of Transportation road closure...

  8. Habitat or matrix: which is more relevant to predict road-kill of vertebrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bueno

    Full Text Available Abstract We believe that in tropics we need a community approach to evaluate road impacts on wildlife, and thus, suggest mitigation measures for groups of species instead a focal-species approach. Understanding which landscape characteristics indicate road-kill events may also provide models that can be applied in other regions. We intend to evaluate if habitat or matrix is more relevant to predict road-kill events for a group of species. Our hypothesis is: more permeable matrix is the most relevant factor to explain road-kill events. To test this hypothesis, we chose vertebrates as the studied assemblage and a highway crossing in an Atlantic Forest region in southeastern Brazil as the study site. Logistic regression models were designed using presence/absence of road-kill events as dependent variables and landscape characteristics as independent variables, which were selected by Akaike’s Information Criterion. We considered a set of candidate models containing four types of simple regression models: Habitat effect model; Matrix types effect models; Highway effect model; and, Reference models (intercept and buffer distance. Almost three hundred road-kills and 70 species were recorded. River proximity and herbaceous vegetation cover, both matrix effect models, were associated to most road-killed vertebrate groups. Matrix was more relevant than habitat to predict road-kill of vertebrates. The association between river proximity and road-kill indicates that rivers may be a preferential route for most species. We discuss multi-species mitigation measures and implications to movement ecology and conservation strategies.

  9. Construction of Three-Dimensional Road Surface and Application on Interaction between Vehicle and Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yongjie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative description is given to three-dimensional micro and macro self-similar characteristics of road surface from the perspective of fractal geometry using FBM stochastic midpoint displacement and diamond-square algorithm in conjunction with fractal characteristics and statistical characteristics of standard pavement determined by estimation method of box-counting dimension. The comparative analysis between reconstructed three-dimensional road surface spectrum and theoretical road surface spectrum and correlation coefficient demonstrate the high reconstruction accuracy of fractal reconstructed road spectrum. Furthermore, the bump zone is taken as an example to reconstruct a more arbitrary 3D road model through isomorphism of special road surface with stochastic road surface model. Measurement is taken to assume the tire footprint on road surface to be a rectangle, where the pressure distribution is expressed with mean stiffness, while the contact points in the contact area are replaced with a number of springs. Two-DOF vehicle is used as an example to analyze the difference between three-dimensional multipoint-and-plane contact and traditional point contact model. Three-dimensional road surface spectrum provides a more accurate description of the impact effect of tire on road surface, thereby laying a theoretical basis for studies on the dynamical process of interaction of vehicle-road surface and the road friendliness.

  10. Satellite Remote Sensing and Transportation Lifelines: Safety and Risk Analysis Along Rural Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R.

    the application of satellite Earth Observation (EO) methods to the analysis of transportation networks. Other geospatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), sharply enhance the utility of EO data in identifying potential road hazards and providing an objective basis for allocating resources to reduce their risks. In combination, these powerful information technologies provide substantial public benefits and increased business opportunities to remote sensing value-added firms. departments in rural jurisdictions improve the trafficability of the roads under their management during severe weather. We are developing and testing these methods in the U.S. Southwest, where thousands of kilometers of unimproved and graded dirt roads cross Native American reservations. This generally arid region is nevertheless subject to periodic summer rainstorms and winter snow and ice, creating hazardous conditions for the region's transportation lifelines. Arizona and Southeast Utah, as well as digital terrain models from the U.S. Geological Survey. We have analyzed several risk factors, such as slope, road curvature, and intersections, by means of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) on both unimproved and improved roads. In partnership with the Hopi Indian Nation in Arizona, we have acquired and analyzed GPS road centerline data and accident data that validate our methodology. hazards along paved and unpaved roads of the American Southwest. They are also transferable to the international settings, particularly in similarly arid climates.

  11. Demand for road-fuel in a small developing economy: The case of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables

  12. Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Students in Minnesota: Associations With Family Violence, Unsafe Schools, and Resources for Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Alicia A; Brady, Sonya S

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines whether being a victim of violence by an adult in the household, witnessing intra-familial physical violence, and feeling unsafe at school are associated with physical dating violence victimization. It also examines whether extracurricular activity involvement and perceived care by parents, teachers, and friends attenuate those relationships, consistent with a stress-buffering model. Participants were 75,590 ninth-and twelfth-grade students (51% female, 77% White, 24% receiving free/reduced price lunch) who completed the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey. Overall, 8.5% of students reported being victims of dating violence. Significant differences were found by gender, grade, ethnicity, and free/reduced price lunch status. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that being a victim of violence by an adult in the household, witnessing intra-familial physical violence, feeling unsafe at school, and low perceived care by parents were strongly associated with dating violence victimization. Associations of moderate strength were found for low perceived care by teachers and friends. Little to no extracurricular activity involvement was weakly associated with dating violence victimization. Attenuating effects of perceived care and extracurricular activity involvement on associations between risk factors (victimization by a family adult, witnessing intra-familial violence, feeling unsafe at school) and dating violence victimization were smaller in magnitude than main effects. Findings are thus more consistent with an additive model of risk and protective factors in relation to dating violence victimization than a stress-buffering model. Health promotion efforts should attempt to minimize family violence exposure, create safer school environments, and encourage parental involvement and support. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The effect of road characteristics on motorcycle accident in Batu east Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusini, Sobri

    2013-09-01

    Safe of transportation on road is global problem with not only transportation problem, but also social teritory problem in sosial life. WHO pay attention to safe transportation on road to decide healthy day in the world 2004 with caption: Road Safety is no Accident. WHO is clariafy that road accident level in the world have to reach 1.2 mellion victim death and over 30 mellion injuries every year. As much 85% sacrifice death are accident in develop state, where vehicle number only 32% from vehicle number in the world. That becouse as the objective is to decide influence road charakteristics geometrics for motorcycle accident in Batu East Java Indonesia. Using some statistical analysis it is found that the best-fit motorcycle accident model is: Acc = 0,009F0,703exp(-0,334SW-0,361G+0.077S) Where: Acc = number of accident, F = Flow, pcu/hr, SW = shoulder width (m), S = speed, km/hr, G = Gradient (0,1) The model shows that the affecting factors are flow, shoulder width and speed, therefore local government should improve some related factor (flow, shoulder width, Gradient and speed) that can reduce the number of motorcycle accident at crossing road in Batu.

  14. Knowledge of commercial bus drivers about road safety measures in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor Ifeoma, P; Odeyemi Kofoworola, A; Dolapo Duro, C

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries have persisted as a serious public health problem and much of the health burden is in developing countries. Over-speeding, poor enforcement of traffic regulations and commuter buses have been highly implicated in road traffic injuries in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine drivers' knowledge of selected road safety measures, i.e. the pre-requisites for driver's license, road signs and speed limits. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Lagos, Nigeria. Simple random sampling was used to select the two motor parks used for the study and all the consenting commercial minibus drivers operating within the parks (407) were included in the study. Data was collected with a pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed with epi-info statistical software. Two hundred and sixty-one (64.1%) of them knew that Visual Acuity test should be done before obtaining driver's license and 53.8% knew the correct minimum age for obtaining driver's license. Only 1% of the drivers had correct knowledge of the driver's license authorities in Nigeria. The drivers had poor knowledge of road signs (59.0%) and poor knowledge of maximum speed limits (100%). The oldest, least educated and least experienced drivers had the poorest level of knowledge. The drivers demonstrated poor knowledge of road safety measures. There is need for driver education to improve their knowledge.

  15. ENHANCEMENT OF ROAD SAFETY THROUGH MORE EFFECTIVE ROAD AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To make the policy aimed at mitigating the risk of road incidents more effective, Poland should see the introduction of the more efficient road and traffic management. In November 2008 the European Parliament and the European Council published the Directive on "infrastructure safety management" which provides guidance on the procedures for carrying impact assessments of traffic safety, traffic safety audits, safety management on the road network and monitoring traffic safety in Member States. In this article, the authors have proposed a systemic approach to road and traffic management, involving the implementation of consistent procedures that should include regular revisions of roads, eliminating hazardous sites, speed management, as well as the approval and implementation of traffic organization designs.

  16. Landslide susceptibility and risk assessment: specificities for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Parisi, Alessandro; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    A regional-scale assessment of landslide susceptibility and risk along the main road corridors crossing the provincial territory of Matera (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) was carried out. The entire provincial road network extends for about 1,320 km through a territory, of which represents the main connection infrastructure among thirty-one municipalities due to the lack of an efficient integrated transportation system through the whole regional territory. For this reason, the strategic importance of these roads consists in their uniqueness in connecting every urban center with the socio-economic surrounding context. These roads and their vehicular traffic are continuously exposed to instability processes (about the 40% of the total length is disrupted by landslides), characterized both by high intensity and low frequency and by low intensity and high frequency. This last typology, consisting in small shallow landslides, is particularly hazardous for the roads since it is widespread along the road network, its occurrence is connected to rainfalls and determines high vulnerability conditions for the road in terms of interruption of vehicular traffic. A GIS-based heuristic-bivariate statistical predictive model was performed to assess and map the landslide susceptibility in the study area, by using a polynomial function of eight predisposing factors, weighted according to their influence on the landslide phenomena, recognized and collected in an inventory. Susceptibility associated to small shallow phenomena was assessed by using a polynomial function of specific factors, such as slope angle and aspect, lithological outcrops, rainfalls, etc. In absence of detailed input data, the spatial distribution of landslide risk along the road corridors was assessed and mapped using a qualitative hazard-consequence matrix approach, by which risk is obtained by combining hazard categories with consequence classes pairwise in a two-dimensional table or matrix. Landslide

  17. Road Impacts on Abundance, Call Traits, and Body Size of Rainforest Frogs in Northeast Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad J. Hoskin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Frogs are potentially sensitive indicators of road impacts, with studies indicating particular susceptibility to road mortality. Calling, i.e., breeding, behavior could also be affected by traffic noise. We investigated effects on frog abundance and calling behavior where a busy highway crosses rainforest stream breeding habitat in northeast Australia. Frog abundance was repeatedly surveyed along five stream transects during a summer breeding season. Abundance of two species, Litoria rheocola and Austrochaperina pluvialis, increased significantly with perpendicular distance from the road along two transects. No trends in abundance were detected for A. pluvialis on two other transects where it was common, or for Litoria serrata on one transect where abundance was sufficient for analysis. Both species with lowered abundance near the road, L. rheocola and A. pluvialis, are rare in road kill statistics along this highway, suggesting road mortality is not the cause of reduced frog abundance near the road. We postulate that lowered abundance may reflect traffic noise effects. We analyzed calls of the International Union for Conservation of Nature endangered species L. rheocola along the one stream transect on which it was common. We found significant trends in two call traits over a very fine scale: both call rate and dominant frequency were significantly higher closer to the road. Furthermore, males were significantly smaller closer to the road. These call and body size trends most likely reflect road impacts, but resolving these is complicated by correlations between traits. Potential mechanisms, effects on fitness, and management recommendations to mitigate the impacts of roads on frogs are outlined.

  18. Investigating personal, cognitive and organizational variables as predictors of unsafe behaviors among line workers in an industrial company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Neissi

    2013-08-01

     .Conclusion: The results of this study showed the importance of safety competency, prevention focus, safety rules and procedures, safety efficiency and consciousness as predictors of unsafe work behaviors. Therefore, it is recommended to rely on these variables in the safety training courses and also in selecting people for high risk environments.

  19. Visibility of road markings on wet road surfaces : a literature study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The English version of B 14153 is presented. Road markings, notably lane markers, are often only poorly visible when the road is wet. This is particularly a problem at night on unlit roads. A study is made of whether a solution for this problem can be found on the basis of the known, published

  20. Access road reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, T.; Blok, M.

    1997-01-01

    A general review of the measures involved in restoring abandoned access road sites in British Columbia was presented. Permits and licences are needed for the use of crown land for roads used by the petroleum and natural gas industry for exploration activities. However, the regulatory framework for road site reclamation is not well developed. The nature of access road reclamation is very site-specific. Some of the issues that are considered for all reclamation projects include slope stability, water control, revegetation, soil rehabilitation, access management and monitoring. The primary objective of reclaiming access road sites is to return the site to conditions that are equal or better than pre-disturbance conditions. Restoration measures must be approved by BC Environment and by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans where federal fisheries responsibilities are involved. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Minoxidil topical solution: an unsafe product for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, Isabelle; Cortey, Caroline; Honorat, Raphaele; Franchitto, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Minoxidil hair formulation is commonly used for the treatment of male or female androgenic alopecia. This over-the-counter product is wrongly considered safe. The ingestion of a few milliliters by a child can lead to significant intoxication. We report a case of significant intoxication after the ingestion of topical minoxidil (Alopexy; Pierre Fabre Laboratoires, SA, Switzerland). A 7-year-old girl, who accidentally ingested a teaspoon of minoxidil hair solution, presented to the pediatric emergency department for emesis. At admission, she had a blood pressure of 86/56 mm Hg and a pulse of 149 beats per minute. Hypotension lasted 40 hours with the lowest value 24 hours after ingestion (79/33 mm Hg). She presented electrocardiogram changes (sinus tachycardia and flattening T-waves) but normal cardiac enzymes. Infusion of 20 mL/kg of normal saline fluid had no hemodynamic effect. Her blood pressure normalized on day 2. Minoxidil topical solution is an unsafe product for children. This formulation should be strictly kept out of reach of children and manufacturers should enhance child-resistance security of packaging. The over-the-counter availability must be questioned.

  2. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  3. The effects of road crossings on prairie stream habitat and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouska, Wesley W.; Keane, Timothy; Paukert, Craig P.

    2010-01-01

    Improperly designed stream crossing structures may alter the form and function of stream ecosystems and habitat and prohibit the movement of aquatic organisms. Stream sections adjoining five concrete box culverts, five low-water crossings (concrete slabs vented by one or multiple culverts), and two large, single corrugated culvert vehicle crossings in eastern Kansas streams were compared to reference reaches using a geomorphologic survey and stream classification. Stream reaches were also compared upstream and downstream of crossings, and crossing measurements were used to determine which crossing design best mimicked the natural dimensions of the adjoining stream. Four of five low-water crossings, three of five box culverts, and one of two large, single corrugated pipe culverts changed classification from upstream to downstream of the crossings. Mean riffle spacing upstream at low-water crossings (8.6 bankfull widths) was double that of downstream reaches (mean 4.4 bankfull widths) but was similar upstream and downstream of box and corrugated pipe culverts. There also appeared to be greater deposition of fine sediments directly upstream of these designs. Box and corrugated culverts were more similar to natural streams than low-water crossings at transporting water, sediments, and debris during bankfull flows.

  4. Suspended sediment and turbidity after road construction/improvement and forest harvest in streams of the Trask River Watershed Study, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Arismendi; Jeremiah D. Groom; Maryanne Reiter; Sherri L. Johnson; Liz Dent; Mark Meleason; Alba Argerich; Arne E. Skaugset

    2017-01-01

    Transport of fine-grained sediment from unpaved forest roads into streams is a concern due to the potential negative effects of additional suspended sediment on aquatic ecosystems. Here we compared turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) dynamics in five nonfish bearing coastal Oregon streams above and below road crossings, during three consecutive time...

  5. Cross-sectional study of road accidents and related law enforcement efficiency for 10 countries: A gap coherence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, Yohan; Velaga, Nagendra R; Maji, Avijit

    2016-10-02

    Road crashes are considered as the eighth leading causes of death. There is a wide disparity in crash severity and law enforcement efficiency among low-, medium-, and high-income countries. It would be helpful to review the crash severity trends in these countries, identify the vulnerable road users, and understand the law enforcement effectiveness in devising efficient road safety improvement strategies. The crash severity, fatality rate among various age groups, and law enforcement strategies of 10 countries representing low-income (i.e., India and Morocco), medium-income (i.e. Argentina, South Korea, and Greece), and high-income (i.e., Australia, Canada, France, the UK, and the United States) are studied and compared for a period of 5 years (i.e., 2008 to 2012). The critical parameters affecting road safety are identified and correlated with education, culture, and basic compliance with traffic safety laws. In the process, possible road safety improvement strategies are identified for low-income countries. The number of registered vehicles shows an increasing trend for low-income countries as do the crash rate and crash severity. Compliance related to seat belt and helmet laws is high in high-income countries. In addition, recent seat belt- and helmet-related safety programs in middle-income countries helped to curb fatalities. Noncompliance with safety laws in low-income countries is attributed to education, culture, and inefficient law enforcement. Efficient law enforcement and effective safety education taking into account cultural diversity are the key aspects to reduce traffic-related injuries and fatalities in low-income countries like India.

  6. Evaluation of mobile emissions contributions to Mexico City's emissions inventory using on-road and cross-road emission measurements and ambient data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Knighton, W. B.; Marr, L. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.

    2009-09-01

    Mobile emissions represent a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions burden in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and, therefore, it is crucial to use top-down techniques informed by on-road exhaust measurements to evaluate and improve traditional bottom-up official emissions inventory (EI) for the city. We present the measurements of on-road fleet-average emission factors obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory in the MCMA in March 2006 as part of the MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 field campaign. A comparison of our on-road emission measurements with those obtained in 2003 using essentially the same measurement techniques and analysis methods indicates that, in the three year span, NO emission factors remain within the measured variability ranges whereas emission factors of aldehydes and aromatics species were reduced for all sampled driving conditions. We use a top-down fuel-based approach to evaluate the mobile emissions from the gasoline fleet estimated in the bottom-up official 2006 MCMA mobile sources. Within the range of measurement uncertainties, we found probable slight overpredictions of mean EI estimates on the order of 20-28% for CO and 14-20% for NO. However, we identify a probable EI discrepancy of VOC mobile emissions between 1.4 and 1.9; although estimated benzene and toluene mobile emissions in the inventory seem to be well within the uncertainties of the corresponding emissions estimates. Aldehydes mobile emissions in the inventory, however, seem to be underpredicted by factors of 3 for HCHO and 2 for CH3CHO. Our on-road measurement-based estimate of annual emissions of organic mass from PM1 particles suggests a severe underprediction (larger than a factor of 4) of PM2.5 mobile emissions in the inventory. Analyses of ambient CO, NOx and CO/NOx concentration trends in the MCMA indicate that the early morning ambient CO/NOx ratio has decreased at a rate of about 1.9 ppm/ppm/year over the last two decades due to reductions in CO

  7. Preventing unsafe abortion and limiting its consequences: what can be done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misago, C

    1994-12-01

    The continued illegality of induced abortion in Latin America has led to substantial, preventable maternal mortality and morbidity. The first strategy for preventing unsafe clandestine abortion is to reduce the incidence of unwanted pregnancy through measures such as improved access to effective contraception, post-abortion family planning counseling, health education campaigns aimed at promoting condom use among young people, involvement of men in family planning decision making, biomedical research on safer and more effective male and female contraceptive methods, and empowering women to demand the use of condoms or avoid unwanted intercourse. The second strategy is to reduce abortion-related mortality and morbidity through more effective clinical management of incomplete illegal abortions, introduction of menstrual regulation services, formation of women's solidarity groups aimed at discouraging the practice of self-induced abortion, and, ultimately, abortion legalization.

  8. Determinants of injuries and Road Traffic Accidents amongst service personnel in a large Defence station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Anand; Kotwal, Brig Atul; Ilankumaran, Mookkiah

    2017-07-01

    Injuries are assuming epidemic proportions globally; and in India. Also, previous decade witnessed carnage on Indian roads, with nearly 12 lakh people killed and 55 lakhs disabled in road crashes. The trend in Armed Forces is reflective of the aforesaid patterns. Behaviour and socio-demographic background of the victims are significant determinants of injuries and road accidents. Community-based epidemiological information on these aspects is envisaged to contribute in their preventive strategy. Towards this direction, the present study was conducted with aim to generate socio-behavioural profile of injuries and Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) amongst service personnel in a large defence station; and to evaluate their determinants. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 796 Naval personnel onboard warships in large Naval station. Data on socio-behavioural aspects and determinants of injuries and road accidents was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire; and by scrutiny of relevant records. Data was analysed using MSExcel, Epi-info and SPSS 17. Young and middle-aged persons were predominantly involved in injuries and road accidents. Two-wheeler users sustained maximum road accidents. Human factor was a significant determinant in RTAs and injuries. A majority of victims admitted that human factors were the predominant cause of road accidents; and opined that the events were preventable. Age-specific Behavioural Change Communication strategies aimed at refining user outlook are imperative; tailored to sociodemographic milieu of user/victim. Incorporation of a dynamic feedback/reporting mechanism, creation of 'armed forces-specific road safety and injury prevention policy' and safety audits on injuries and road crashes are measures in this direction.

  9. Household and caregiver characteristics and behaviours as predictors of unsafe exposure of children to paraffin appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, A; Govender, R; Hornsby, N; Swart, L

    2017-06-01

    This study examines adult safety knowledge and practices regarding the use of paraffin cooking appliances. The use of these is common in South Africa with injury risks that are poorly understood. This cross-sectional study was in an informal settlement in Johannesburg, South Africa, where children were reportedly at high risk for burns. This study sought to clarify relationships between key risks and developed individual and composite variables from theoretical constructs and operational definitions of risks for burns. Risks included Child Use of Paraffin Appliances, Child Proximity to Cooking, Risky Stove Use, Caregiver's Burn Treatment Knowledge, Children Locked in House, Children Alone in House. Number of children remains as in proof as this was not a composite scale. Child Proximity to Cooking was associated with more children in the home. Households where children were in greater proximity to cooking were 6 times more likely to be left alone at home, with caregivers with no education over 100 times more likely to lock their children at home. Children locked in were often from homes where caregivers used appliances unsafely. In settings with hazardous energy use, compressed household configurations, and families with multiple children, Risky Stove Use and the practice of locking children in the home may be catastrophic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  11. Road safety analysis on Achmad Yani frontage road Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machsus; Prayogo, I.; Chomaedhi; Hayati, D. W.; Utanaka, A.

    2017-11-01

    This research discusses road safety analysis on the operation of frontage road on the west side of Achmad Yani Road Surabaya. This research began by conducting survey on secondary data of traffic accidents. In addition, primary data survey was conducted to obtain traffic data, geometric road data, and other supporting data at the study site along the west side frontage of Ahmad Yani Road Surabaya. Devices used in this research include camera, handy cam, speed gun, counters of vehicles, rolling meter, computer and others. In outline, the stages to conduct this research are divided into 4 stages, namely 1.the preparation stage, 2.data collection and processing, 3. analysis and discussion, and 4. conclusion. The results of this study showed that the accident characteristics of the frontage road are (i) 3 accidents occured per month, (ii) motorcycles was accounted for the largest proportion of accidents which amounted to 74.6 percent, (iii) there were 3 accident victims per month, and (iv) material losses per month worths 1.2 million. The accident rate in 2016 was 0.04 crashes per one million vehicle travels per kilometer, while during 2 months in 2017 it was 0.15 accidents per one million vehicle travels per kilometer. Black spot area of accident is located on Sta 2 + 800 to 2 + 900 which is in front of Graha Pena building and DBL Arena. The high rate of accidents is influenced by the speed of the vehicle which 85 percentile exceeds the speed limit of 40km per hour.

  12. A longitudinal study of an intervention to improve road safety climate: climate as an organizational boundary spanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Eitan; Katz-Navon, Tal

    2015-01-01

    This study presents and tests an intervention to enhance organizational climate and expands existing conceptualization of organizational climate to include its influence on employee behaviors outside the organization's physical boundaries. In addition, by integrating the literatures of climate and work-family interface, the study explored climate spillover and crossover from work to the home domain. Focusing on an applied practical problem within organizations, we investigated the example of road safety climate and employees' and their families' driving, using a longitudinal study design of road safety intervention versus control groups. Results demonstrated that the intervention increased road safety climate and decreased the number of traffic violation tickets and that road safety climate mediated the relationship between the intervention and the number of traffic violation tickets. Road safety climate spilled over to the family domain but did not cross over to influence family members' driving. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Winter road access to projected works in the diversion of the Little Whale River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulet, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Great Whale hydroelectric complex in northern Quebec will require diversion of the Little Whale River, involving construction of dams 40 m and 30 m high and a canal 600 m long. The main mode of access to the construction sites will be a winter road, supplemented by an airfield designed for large-capacity aircraft. The method used by Hydro-Quebec in its environmental assessment of the winter road project is described. This method comprises five steps: delimitation of the study zone; establishment of a road corridor of choice by successively eliminating territory according to given constraints; description of the physical and biological environment; determination and optimization of the road route; and evaluation of potential impacts, along with establishment of measures to mitigate those impacts. The optimal routing is determined on the basis of criteria such as the presence of permafrost, the nature of the soils, avoidance of slopes steeper than 10%, and the depth and width of ice crossings

  14. Road Accidents and Road Fatalities in Denmark from 1968 to 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users...... and for bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...... and actions targeted to improve road safety have indeed led to a significant reduction in injury accidents and fatalities. Further research and more detailed data, especially on traffic volume and individual exposure are necessary in order to investigate properly a causal relation between the number...

  15. Use of fatal real-life crashes to analyze a safe road transport system model, including the road user, the vehicle, and the road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Krafft, Maria; Tingvall, Claes

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate if the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) model for a safe road transport system, which includes the interaction between the road user, the vehicle, and the road, could be used to classify fatal car crashes according to some safety indicators. Also, to present a development of the model to better identify system weakness. Real-life crashes with a fatal outcome were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European Road Assessment Programme) and fitment of ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol. Each crash was compared with the model criteria, to identify components that might have contributed to fatal outcome. All fatal crashes where a car occupant was killed that occurred in Sweden during 2004 were included: in all, 215 crashes with 248 fatalities. The data were collected from the in-depth fatal crash data of the Swedish Road Administration (SRA). It was possible to classify 93% of the fatal car crashes according to the SRA model. A number of shortcomings in the criteria were identified since the model did not address rear-end or animal collisions or collisions with stationary/parked vehicles or trailers (18 out of 248 cases). Using the further developed model, it was possible to identify that most of the crashes occurred when two or all three components interacted (in 85 of the total 230 cases). Noncompliance with safety criteria for the road user, the vehicle, and the road led to fatal outcome in 43, 27, and 75 cases, respectively. The SRA model was found to be useful for classifying fatal crashes but needs to be further developed to identify how the components interact and thereby identify weaknesses in the road traffic system. This developed model might be a tool to systematically identify which of the components are

  16. « I respect other road users. Do you? »

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This is the first slogan in a road safety campaign aimed at making CERN's roads safer and more pleasant to drive on.   Getting nudged off your bike while riding along minding your own business, having to walk around a car parked on the pavement, or having an endless wait at a pedestrian crossing because drivers can't be bothered to stop... all this is highly unpleasant, and can even be dangerous. The fact that it happens all too often at your own workplace, CERN, only makes matters worse. Discourteous driving is on the rise at CERN. It tarnishes the friendly atmosphere of our Laboratory and compromises the safety of us all. It's even more regrettable when you think that we're all colleagues together. With so many pedestrians and cyclists using the roads across the CERN site, anyone who drives at 80 km/h in a 50 km/h limit is placing his own colleagues in danger. Every day, more than 15 000 vehicle journeys are made on the Meyrin site alone. Each and every one of these drivers, or in other words, e...

  17. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only do overloaded vehicles pose an increased safety risk on the road (reduced stability and braking efficiency etc.), but they also accelerate the rate of deterioration of the road network and increase road maintenance costs, which in turn...

  18. How accurately do drivers evaluate their own driving behavior? An on-road observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Sonia; Arıkan, Elvan; Kaça, Gülin; Koyuncu, Mehmet; Turkan, B Nilay

    2014-02-01

    Self-assessment of driving skills became a noteworthy research subject in traffic psychology, since by knowing one's strenghts and weaknesses, drivers can take an efficient compensatory action to moderate risk and to ensure safety in hazardous environments. The current study aims to investigate drivers' self-conception of their own driving skills and behavior in relation to expert evaluations of their actual driving, by using naturalistic and systematic observation method during actual on-road driving session and to assess the different aspects of driving via comprehensive scales sensitive to different specific aspects of driving. 19-63 years old male participants (N=158) attended an on-road driving session lasting approximately 80min (45km). During the driving session, drivers' errors and violations were recorded by an expert observer. At the end of the driving session, observers completed the driver evaluation questionnaire, while drivers completed the driving self-evaluation questionnaire and Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ). Low to moderate correlations between driver and observer evaluations of driving skills and behavior, mainly on errors and violations of speed and traffic lights was found. Furthermore, the robust finding that drivers evaluate their driving performance as better than the expert was replicated. Over-positive appraisal was higher among drivers with higher error/violation score and with the ones that were evaluated by the expert as "unsafe". We suggest that the traffic environment might be regulated by increasing feedback indicators of errors and violations, which in turn might increase the insight into driving performance. Improving self-awareness by training and feedback sessions might play a key role for reducing the probability of risk in their driving activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of road improvements on road safety and related characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Francis John Gichaga

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the historical and cultural background relating to road improvement and road safety characteristics in Kenya, a developing country in East Africa. Some who come from low-developed areas of developing countries often take time to comprehend the modern transportation infrastructure, especially roads, and have difficulty assimilating and customizing the same to their culturally tailored modes. This paper discusses two case studies: one on the socio-economic impact followin...

  20. Road dust emissions from paved roads measured using different mobile systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Johansson, Christer; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Stojiljkovic, Ana; Karlsson, Hans; Hussein, Tareq

    2010-12-01

    Very few real-world measurements of road dust suspension have been performed to date. This study compares two different techniques (referred to as Sniffer and Emma) to measure road dust emissions. The main differences between the systems are the construction of the inlet, different instruments for recording particulate matter (PM) levels, and different loads on the wheel axes (the weight of Sniffer was much higher than that of Emma). Both systems showed substantial small-scale variations of emission levels along the road, likely depending on-road surface conditions. The variations observed correlated quite well, and the discrepancies are likely a result of variations in dust load on the road surface perpendicular to the driving direction that cause variations in the measurements depending on slightly different paths driven by the two vehicles. Both systems showed a substantial influence on the emission levels depending on the type of tire used. The summer tire showed much lower suspension than the winter tires (one nonstudded and one studded). However, the relative importance of the nonstudded versus studded tire was rather different. For the ratio of studded/nonstudded, Emma shows higher values on all road sections compared with Sniffer. Both techniques showed increased emission levels with increasing vehicle speed. When the speed increased from 50 to 80 km hr(-1), the relative concentrations increased by 30-170% depending on the tire type and dust load. However, for road sections that were very dirty, Sniffer showed a much higher relative increase in the emission level with the nonstudded tire. Sniffer's absolute concentrations were mostly higher than Emma's. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed in the paper. Both systems can be used for studying relative road dust emissions and for designing air quality management strategies.

  1. Characteristics of public roads operation

    OpenAIRE

    Pryimak, V.; Kyiashko, I.

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of public roads operation have been considered and factors influencing TEC of public roads that go via urban areas have been determined. There have been revealed contradictions in the normative-legal base concerning maintenance of public roads and municipal roads that merge into them.

  2. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR ROAD SURFACE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Knyaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  3. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  4. Awareness and practice of road safety measures among undergraduate medical students in a South Indian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vaman; Kanchan, Tanuj; Palanivel, C; Papanna, M K; Kumar, Nithin; Unnikrishnan, B

    2013-05-01

    The UN general assembly has declared 2011-2020 as the "Decade of Action for Road Safety". The declaration holds significance because road traffic accidents (RTAs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the adults and middle aged individuals who constitute economically most productive age groups of society. The importance of knowledge and practice of road safety measures needs to be emphasized in the prevention of RTAs. The present study is aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of road safety measures among the students of a medical college in coastal, South India. A total of 260 medical students were included in this cross-sectional study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information from the participants. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Out of the 260 participants, 149 (57.3%) were females and 111 (42.7%) were males. The overall awareness on road safety measures was slightly higher among females (20.6%) than males (19.9%). The participants had significantly low awareness with regard to alcohol and driving (4.2%), use of seat belts (20%) and use of mobile phones without hands free device (6.1%). The participants had a better knowledge about traffic signs and more than half of them identified all the signs correctly. With regard to the road safety practices, 25% were involved in drunken driving in the past one year. The practice of using mobile phones with hands free devices while driving was admitted by 20% of them. Nearly two-third participants (68%) admitted to have crossed speed limits on multiple occasions. Observations of the study emphasize on the need to generate awareness among medical students through training and IEC activities to curb the epidemic of RTAs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech-nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving.Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv-ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips.Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious.

  6. Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    Road accidents are among the leading causes of death in many world countries, partly as an inherent consequence of the increasing mobility of today society. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million people died in road accidents in 2011, which means 186 deaths per million. The tragic picture is completed by millions of peoples experiencing different physical injuries or by the enormous social and economic costs that these events imply. Romania has one of the most unsafe road networks within the European Union, with annual averages of 9400 accidents, 8300 injuries and almost 2680 fatalities (2007-2012). An average of 141 death per million is more than twice the average fatality rate in European Union (about 60 death per million). Other specific indicators (accidents or fatalities reported to the road length, vehicle fleet size, driving license owners or adult population etc.) are even worst in the same European context. Road accidents are caused by a complex series of factors, some of them being a relatively constant premise, while others act as catalyzing factors or triggering agent: road features and quality, vehicle technical state, weather conditions, human related factors etc. All these lead to a complex equation with too many unknown variables, making almost impossible a probabilistic approach. However, the high concentration of accidents in a region or in some road sectors is caused by the existence of a specific context, created by factors with permanent or repetitive character, and leads to the idea of a spatial autocorrelation between locations of different adjoining accident. In the same way, the increasing frequency of road accidents and of their causes repeatability in different periods of the year would allow to identify those black timeframes with higher incidence of road accidents. Identifying and analyzing the road blackspots (hotspots) and black zones would help to improve road safety by acting against the common causes that create

  7. Estimates of the Incidence of Induced Abortion And Consequences of Unsafe Abortion in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. METHODS Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. RESULTS In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion. PMID:25856233

  8. Estimates of the incidence of induced abortion and consequences of unsafe abortion in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-03-01

    Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion.

  9. Patient perspectives on the promptness and quality of care of road traffic incident victims in Peru: a cross-sectional, active surveillance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background: Road injuries are the second-leading cause of disease and injury in the Andean region of South America. Adequate management of road traffic crash victims is important to prevent and reduce deaths and serious long-term injuries. Objective: To evaluate the promptness of health care services provided to those injured in road traffic incidents (RTIs) and the satisfaction with those services during the pre-hospital and hospital periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with active surveillance to recruit participants in emergency departments at eight health care facilities in three Peruvian cities: a large metropolitan city (Lima) and two provincial cities (an urban center in the southern Andes and an urban center in the rainforest region), between August and September 2009. The main outcomes of interest were promptness of care, measured by time between injury and each service offered, as well as patient satisfaction measured by the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) survey. We explored the association between outcomes and city, type of health care facility (HCF), and type of provider. Results: We recruited 644 adults seeking care for RTIs. This active surveillance strategy yielded 34% more events than anticipated, suggesting under-reporting in traditional registries. Median response time between a RTI and any care at a HCF was 33 minutes overall and only 62% of participants received professional care during the initial “golden” hour after the RTI. After adjustment for various factors, there was strong evidence of higher global dissatisfaction levels among those receiving care at public HCFs compared to private ones (odds ratio (OR) 5.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88-13.54). This difference was not observed when provincial sites were compared to Lima (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.42-4.70). Conclusions: Response time to RTIs was adequate overall, though a large proportion of RTI victims could have received more prompt care. Overall, dissatisfaction was

  10. Challenges of raising road maintenance funds in developing countries: An analysis of road tolling in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Mbara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The condition of Zimbabwe's roads has been declining due to insufficient maintenance and rehabilitation. Year on year, budget allocations have compared unfavourably with funding considered adequate to maintain highway networks and conduct modest construction work. Road infrastructure shortcomings have manifested themselves in the form of high vehicle operating costs and rampant potholes, leading to a decline in road safety and a deterioration of service levels for those who use roads to deliver goods or connect to international markets. In order to try and stop this vicious cycle of decline, the Government of Zimbabwe, on 8 August 2009, introduced a new policy of road-user charges, which involved the setting-up of 22 toll gates on the trunk road network. The overall objective was to raise revenue in order to close the funding gap, blamed for declining road quality. Although alternative methods of financing road maintenance have been debated for years, a generally accepted understanding is that road users should pay costs for road provisioning. This paper assesses the implementation of a road tolling system in Zimbabwe and describes matters relating to, inter alia, implementation strategy, initial performance outcomes and sustainability.

  11. Gravel roads management : volume 2, gravel roads management : implementation guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  12. Gravel roads management : volume 3, gravel roads management : programming guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  13. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)(Symbology layer files: aotclass_only.lyr aotclass_surfacetyp.lyr)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all...

  14. RoADS: A road pavement monitoring system for anomaly detection using smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seraj, Fatjon; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Dilo, Arta; Luarasi, Tamara; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Atzmueller, Martin; Chin, Alvin; Janssen, Frederik; Schweizer, Immanuel; Trattner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the road pavement is a challenging task. Authorities spend time and finances to monitor the state and quality of the road pavement. This paper investigate road surface monitoring with smartphones equipped with GPS and inertial sensors: accelerometer and gyroscope. In this study we

  15. RoADS: A road pavement monitoring system for anomaly detection using smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seraj, Fatjon; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Dilo, Arta; Luarasi, Tamara; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the road pavement is a challenging task. Authorities spend time and finances to monitor the state and quality of the road pavement. This paper investigate road surface monitoring with smartphones equipped with GPS and inertial sensors: accelerometer and gyroscope. In this study we

  16. Sociotechnical attributes of safe and unsafe work systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Brian M; Hettinger, Lawrence J; DeJoy, David M; Huang, Yuang-Hsiang; Love, Peter E D

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and practical approaches to safety based on sociotechnical systems principles place heavy emphasis on the intersections between social-organisational and technical-work process factors. Within this perspective, work system design emphasises factors such as the joint optimisation of social and technical processes, a focus on reliable human-system performance and safety metrics as design and analysis criteria, the maintenance of a realistic and consistent set of safety objectives and policies, and regular access to the expertise and input of workers. We discuss three current approaches to the analysis and design of complex sociotechnical systems: human-systems integration, macroergonomics and safety climate. Each approach emphasises key sociotechnical systems themes, and each prescribes a more holistic perspective on work systems than do traditional theories and methods. We contrast these perspectives with historical precedents such as system safety and traditional human factors and ergonomics, and describe potential future directions for their application in research and practice. The identification of factors that can reliably distinguish between safe and unsafe work systems is an important concern for ergonomists and other safety professionals. This paper presents a variety of sociotechnical systems perspectives on intersections between social--organisational and technology--work process factors as they impact work system analysis, design and operation.

  17. Sociotechnical attributes of safe and unsafe work systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Brian M.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; DeJoy, David M.; Huang, Yuang-Hsiang; Love, Peter E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and practical approaches to safety based on sociotechnical systems principles place heavy emphasis on the intersections between social–organisational and technical–work process factors. Within this perspective, work system design emphasises factors such as the joint optimisation of social and technical processes, a focus on reliable human–system performance and safety metrics as design and analysis criteria, the maintenance of a realistic and consistent set of safety objectives and policies, and regular access to the expertise and input of workers. We discuss three current approaches to the analysis and design of complex sociotechnical systems: human–systems integration, macroergonomics and safety climate. Each approach emphasises key sociotechnical systems themes, and each prescribes a more holistic perspective on work systems than do traditional theories and methods. We contrast these perspectives with historical precedents such as system safety and traditional human factors and ergonomics, and describe potential future directions for their application in research and practice. Practitioner Summary: The identification of factors that can reliably distinguish between safe and unsafe work systems is an important concern for ergonomists and other safety professionals. This paper presents a variety of sociotechnical systems perspectives on intersections between social–organisational and technology–work process factors as they impact work system analysis, design and operation. PMID:25909756

  18. Performance standards of road safety management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milenko R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety management controlling means the process of finding out the information whether the road safety is improving in a measure to achieve the objectives. The process of control consists of three basic elements: definition of performances and standards, measurement of current performances and comparison with the set standards, and improvement of current performances, if they deviate from the set standards. The performance standards of road safety management system are focused on a performances measurement, in terms of their design and characteristics, in order to support the performances improvement of road safety system and thus, ultimately, improve the road safety. Defining the performance standards of road safety management system, except that determines the design of the system for performances measurement, directly sets requirements whose fulfillment will produce a road safety improvement. The road safety management system, based on the performance standards of road safety, with a focus on results, will produce the continuous improvement of road safety, achieving the long-term 'vision zero', the philosophy of road safety, that human life and health take priority over mobility and other traffic objectives of the road traffic.

  19. Estimation of Road Friction Coefficient in Different Road Conditions Based on Vehicle Braking Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, You-Qun; Li, Hai-Qing; Lin, Fen; Wang, Jian; Ji, Xue-Wu

    2017-07-01

    The accurate estimation of road friction coefficient in the active safety control system has become increasingly prominent. Most previous studies on road friction estimation have only used vehicle longitudinal or lateral dynamics and often ignored the load transfer, which tends to cause inaccurate of the actual road friction coefficient. A novel method considering load transfer of front and rear axles is proposed to estimate road friction coefficient based on braking dynamic model of two-wheeled vehicle. Sliding mode control technique is used to build the ideal braking torque controller, which control target is to control the actual wheel slip ratio of front and rear wheels tracking the ideal wheel slip ratio. In order to eliminate the chattering problem of the sliding mode controller, integral switching surface is used to design the sliding mode surface. A second order linear extended state observer is designed to observe road friction coefficient based on wheel speed and braking torque of front and rear wheels. The proposed road friction coefficient estimation schemes are evaluated by simulation in ADAMS/Car. The results show that the estimated values can well agree with the actual values in different road conditions. The observer can estimate road friction coefficient exactly in real-time and resist external disturbance. The proposed research provides a novel method to estimate road friction coefficient with strong robustness and more accurate.

  20. Increasing of visibility on the pedestrian crossing by the additional lighting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleja, Richard; Bos, Petr; Novak, Tomas; Sokansky, Karel; Hanusek, Tomas

    2017-09-01

    Pedestrian crossings are critical places for road accidents between pedestrians and motor vehicles. For this reason, it is very important to increase attention when the pedestrian crossings are designed and it is necessary to take into account all factors that may contribute to higher safety. Additional lighting systems for pedestrian crossings are one of them and the lighting systems must fulfil the requirements for higher visibility from the point of view of car drivers from both directions. This paper describes the criteria for the suitable additional lighting system on pedestrian crossings. Generally, it means vertical illuminance on the pedestrian crossing from the driver’s view, horizontal illuminance on the crossing and horizontal illuminance both in front of and behind the crossing placed on the road and their acceptable ratios. The article also describes the choice of the colours of the light (correlated colour temperature) and its influence on visibility. As a part of the article, there are case designs of additional lighting systems for pedestrian crossings and measurements from realized additional lighting systems by luxmeters and luminance cameras and their evaluation.

  1. Road grip test in Arjeplog

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Niclas; Andrén, Henrik; Nybacka, Mikael; Fransson, Lennart; Larsson, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish road administration sees a need to improve the road grip estimation capacity for the Swedish road system. The challenge is to find methods to measure road grip fast and reliable. There where six different system types at the tests in Arjeplog, three continuous, two system measuring road grip through deceleration and one system based on GPS and accelerometers. Two system types used air craft runway tires. The other systems used either studded winter tires or friction winter tires. ...

  2. Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Helen V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care, must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission.

  3. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  4. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  5. Road pricing, air pollution and external costs; Road pricing, luftforurening og eksternalitetsomkostninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe, Roskilde (Denmark)); Skou Andersen, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this assessment is to improve the foundation for decision-making about introduction of a road pricing system that aims to reduce the health impacts and social costs of traffic-related air pollution. The analysis focuses on how road emissions, air quality, population exposure, and social costs of air pollution depend on geography (different city sizes and rural areas) and time of the day (rush hours versus non-rush hours). A review of Danish studies related to road pricing has also been carried out to assess the expected effect of road pricing on traffic performance (km travelled), vehicle composition and speed that are factors affecting air pollution. (LN)

  6. The role of interpersonal communication in preventing unsafe abortion in communities: the dialogues for life project in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Allison; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gopinath, C Y; Kaufman, Anne; Bhattarai, Sanju

    2011-03-01

    Legal, procedural, and institutional restrictions on safe abortion services-such as laws forbidding the practice or policies preventing donors from supporting groups who provide legal services-remain a major access barrier for women worldwide. However, even when abortion services are legal, women face social and cultural barriers to accessing safe abortion services and preventing unwanted pregnancy. Interpersonal communication interventions play an important role in overcoming these obstacles, including as part of broad educational- and behavioral-change efforts. This article presents results from an interpersonal communication behavior change pilot intervention, Dialogues for Life, undertaken in Nepal from 2004 to 2006, after abortion was legalized in 2002. The project aimed to encourage and enable women to prevent unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions and was driven by dialogue groups and select community events. The authors' results confirm that a dialogue-based interpersonal communication intervention can help change behavior and that this method is feasible in a low-resource, low-literacy setting. Dialogue groups play a key role in addressing sensitive and stigmatizing health issues such as unsafe abortion and in empowering women to negotiate for the social support they need when making decisions about their health.

  7. Attitude towards New Packaging to Reduce Condom-carrying Embarrassment among Thai Youth, A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Apinut Wongkietkachorn; Kunathip Nissaipan; Narin Hiransuthikul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) incidence has been increasing in Thai youth, mostly from unsafe sex. Embarrassment with carrying condom was one of the main reasons. This study aims to evaluate attitude towards condom use, sexual behavior and the new condom packaging that merges with daily life products in Thai youth. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among volunteers aged 15-24. New packaging were demonstrated and the volunteers were provided with questionnaire...

  8. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  9. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  10. FEATURES ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  11. Identifying unstable sites on logging roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice; J. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    Logging roads are an important source of forestry-related erosion. The amount of erosion on a forest road is determined by the interaction between how the road is constructed and maintained and the environment in which it is built. The roads in this study were constructed with large bulldozers, and most excavated material was sidecast. The roads studied were...

  12. Resource Roads demonstration project : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-15

    British Columbia's vast network of resource roads are considered to be amongst the most dangerous, high-risk workplaces in the province. Resource roads, also known as industrial roads, forest service roads, or petroleum development roads, present several unique safety challenges as workplaces. They are built for the purpose of access, egress and transport of materials, resources, equipment and people. However, the lack the same diligence of enforcement and a consistent design, construction, maintenance and standard for use as public highways or municipal roads. There are also safety challenges related to public use of resource roads. This report presented a project, called ResourceRoads by WorkSafe BC that focused on the organization and implementation of a management structure that would provide a system of coordination and a process of compliance for the users of the defined road systems. The project was based on information gathered in two forest districts of Prince George and the South Peace Forest Districts. A committee consisting of the actual owner of the road and other users was formed. The report presented a history of British Columbia's resource road system, and discussed resource roads as industrial workplaces and worksites, as well as resource road fatality statistics. The demonstration project was outlined in terms of project leadership; scope; strategic objectives; project purpose; performance objectives; project communication; demonstration areas; and project stages. Project fundamentals and project findings were also presented along with recommendations and responses to the Auditor General report and the Forest Safety Ombudsman report. It was concluded that potential uses of new technologies for resource road vehicles should be reviewed. tabs., figs.

  13. Road deaths in the Netherlands. [Previously known as: Road fatalities in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet outlines the development of the number of road deaths in the Netherlands since 1950. After a rise in the 1950s and 1960s, the number of road deaths in the Netherlands has shown a gradual decline since 1973. In 2016, there were 629 road deaths in the Netherlands. After the years of

  14. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  15. A Study on the Influence of Speed on Road Roughness Sensing: The SmartRoadSense Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Alessandroni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available SmartRoadSense is a crowdsensing project aimed at monitoring the conditions of the road surface. Using the sensors of a smartphone, SmartRoadSense monitors the vertical accelerations inside a vehicle traveling the road and extracts a roughness index conveying information about the road conditions. The roughness index and the smartphone GPS data are periodically sent to a central server where they are processed, associated with the specific road, and aggregated with data measured by other smartphones. This paper studies how the smartphone vertical accelerations and the roughness index are related to the vehicle speed. It is shown that the dependence can be locally approximated with a gamma (power law. Extensive experimental results using data extracted from SmartRoadSense database confirm the gamma law relationship between the roughness index and the vehicle speed. The gamma law is then used for improving the SmartRoadSense data aggregation accounting for the effect of vehicle speed.

  16. Road Infrastructure and Road User’s Satisfactions: A Case Study of Motorway Route 7, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suanmali Suthathip

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism in Thailand relies on the development of appropriate infrastructure. Road access is the key infrastructure issue for tourist destinations throughout Thailand. Each year Thailand has welcomed over 15 million travelers, accounted approximately 7% of GDP. To support tourist activities, variety types of transportation modes have designed. However, road transportation is one of the most effective modes that connect most places together. Beside high-standard vehicles, road is another mechanism that derive comfort and safety of travelling. For this reason, Motorway networks were initiated and constructed to support high speed traffic with high safety and standard. Motorway route 7 is one of major motorway networks that lies between major cities and tourist landmarks. To raise the road standard could be the key to support tourist industry and economic growth. The road developments may not be precise and accurate without knowing the needs from road users’. Therefore, a questionnaire is developed and distributed to 890 randomly selected road users along Motorway route 7. Factor analysis and t-test are employed to analyze the factors affecting road users’ satisfaction and to compare the satisfaction level between both inbound and outbound travelers.

  17. Method for Pedestrian Crossing Risk Assessment and Safety Level Determination: the Case Study of Tallinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkevich, M.; Krasilnikova, A.; Antov, D.

    2016-07-01

    Pedestrians are a part of vulnerable road users which safety requires a special attention. Official statistics in Estonia from the last decade returns the following numbers: around 30 % of all road traffic accidents in the country were accidents with pedestrians, 32 % of all traffic fatalities were finished with pedestrian death. Pedestrian crossing has the biggest risk level between all kinds of pedestrian facilities, because it includes a direct conflict point between vehicle and pedestrian traffics. The article presents a method to assess risk of pedestrian crossing users and to determine safety level of this road infrastructure element. This approach is based on observation and collection of infrastructural as well as traffic data, which includes: (1) information about each pedestrian crossing facility, its location and state, (2) data about accidents with pedestrians and their features, (3) data from road traffic measurements. The main advantages of the described method are universality and comprehensiveness. The case study was done in Kristiine district of the city Tallinn, which was chosen as the most typical average district of Estonian capital. Results of this study are also presented in the article. (Author)

  18. The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tameling, Klaske; Broersma, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    KLASKE TAMELING & MARCEL BROERSMA The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia Since the end of the twentieth century, convergence and cross-media journalism are concepts that are widely used to guide the future of journalism world wide. This study

  19. Burden of injury of serious road injuries in six EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, Wendy; Bos, Niels; Filtness, Ashleigh; Brown, Laurie; Bauer, Robert; Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martin, Jean Louis; Perez, Katherine; Thomas, Pete

    2018-02-01

    Information about the burden of (non-fatal) road traffic injury is very useful to further improve road safety policy. Previous studies calculated the burden of injury in individual countries. This paper estimates and compares the burden of non-fatal serious road traffic injuries in six EU countries/regions: Austria, Belgium, England, The Netherlands, the Rhône region in France and Spain. It is a cross-sectional study based on hospital discharge databases. of study are patients hospitalized with MAIS3+ due to road traffic injuries. The burden of injury (expressed in years lived with disability (YLD)) is calculated applying a method that is developed within the INTEGRIS study. The method assigns estimated disability information to the casualties using the EUROCOST injury classification. The average burden per MAIS3+ casualty varies between 2.4 YLD and 3.2 YLD per casualty. About 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties is due to lifelong consequences that are experienced by 19% to 33% of the MAIS3+ casualties. Head injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of MAIS3+ road traffic injuries. Results per transport mode differ between the countries. Differences between countries are mainly due to differences in age distribution and in the distribution over EUROCOST injury groups of the casualties. The analyses presented in this paper can support further improvement of road safety policy. Countermeasures could for example be focused at reducing skull and brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities, as these injuries are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Ali Tavakoli; Shariat-Mohaymany, Afshin; Ranjbari, Andishe

    2012-01-01

    Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART) was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of roads, and paying attention to the design consistency of

  1. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  2. The safe road transport system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollpracht Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1,24 million people die each year on the worlds roads and between 20 to 50 million suffer from nonfatal injuries. The UN Road Safety Collaboration Meetings under the leadership of WHO developed the Programme for the Decade of Actions for road safety taking nations into the responsibility of improving their accident figures by the five pillars of a national Road Safety Policy, safer Roads, safer Vehicles, safer Road Users and Post Crash Care. It is this Safe System Approach that takes into consideration the land use, infrastructure and transport planning, road user’s abilities and limitations and the close cooperation of all governmental and none governmental stakeholders involved.

  3. libRoadRunner: a high performance SBML simulation and analysis library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre T; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie; Glazier, James A; König, Matthias; Medley, J Kyle; Swat, Maciej H; Sauro, Herbert M

    2015-10-15

    This article presents libRoadRunner, an extensible, high-performance, cross-platform, open-source software library for the simulation and analysis of models expressed using Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). SBML is the most widely used standard for representing dynamic networks, especially biochemical networks. libRoadRunner is fast enough to support large-scale problems such as tissue models, studies that require large numbers of repeated runs and interactive simulations. libRoadRunner is a self-contained library, able to run both as a component inside other tools via its C++ and C bindings, and interactively through its Python interface. Its Python Application Programming Interface (API) is similar to the APIs of MATLAB ( WWWMATHWORKSCOM: ) and SciPy ( HTTP//WWWSCIPYORG/: ), making it fast and easy to learn. libRoadRunner uses a custom Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler built on the widely used LLVM JIT compiler framework. It compiles SBML-specified models directly into native machine code for a variety of processors, making it appropriate for solving extremely large models or repeated runs. libRoadRunner is flexible, supporting the bulk of the SBML specification (except for delay and non-linear algebraic equations) including several SBML extensions (composition and distributions). It offers multiple deterministic and stochastic integrators, as well as tools for steady-state analysis, stability analysis and structural analysis of the stoichiometric matrix. libRoadRunner binary distributions are available for Mac OS X, Linux and Windows. The library is licensed under Apache License Version 2.0. libRoadRunner is also available for ARM-based computers such as the Raspberry Pi. http://www.libroadrunner.org provides online documentation, full build instructions, binaries and a git source repository. hsauro@u.washington.edu or somogyie@indiana.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written

  4. Sleep habits and road traffic accident risk for Iranian occupational drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Niiat, Khosro Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the sleep quality and sleep disorders (prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and sleepiness) among occupational drivers in Iran and to determine which demographic factors and occupational habits are linked to road traffic accidents. In this analytic cross-sectional study 556 occupational road drivers from Shahroud city (in the northeast of Iran) participated, upon a prior verbal informed consent, during 2013-2014. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) standard questionnaire that scored on 7 point scale, the 8-item Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire and the 8-question STOP-Bang questionnaire along with demographic information and occupational data were used. To explore the independent factors associated with odds of poor sleep quality and road accident, multiple logistic regression models were used. Prevalence of previous road accidents, sleepiness while driving, and obstructive sleep apnea scored ≥ 3 in the study, and drivers accounted for 23.8%, 29%, and 24.8%, respectively. The global mean score of sleep quality and excessive sleepiness score were 5.2 and 4.8, respectively. The main factors related to the odds of poor sleep quality were snoring (odds ratio (OR) = 2.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-4.77), smoking (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15-3.97), and driving times in a day (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.21). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07-1.23) and suffering from apnea (OR = 4.89; 95% CI: 1.07-23.83) were the best predictors for odds (increased risk) of road accidents. A considerable proportion of Iranian drivers had records of road accidents; poor sleep quality, sleepiness while driving, and sleep disorder breathing (obstructive sleep apnea - OSA). Snoring, smoking, driving time in a day, excessive sleepiness, and presumably apnea increase the odds of poor sleep quality and road traffic accident for Iranian occupational drivers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under

  5. PERBEDAAN UNSAFE ACTIONS ANTAR SHIFT KERJA PADA BAGIAN THREADING UNIT PRODUKSI I PT X DI SURABAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Insanno, Jenius Setio

    2017-01-01

    PT. X is one of the companies that produces iron pipe in Indonesia. Unit of production I PT. X threading part used work shift system. Few months ago there was an accident happened to a night shift workers threading part, and it caused them to be rushed to the hospital and got medical help. The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference between unsafe action on work shifts threading of PT. X. This research was an observational descriptive study that used crossectional approach. The...

  6. Perbedaan Unsafe Actions Antar Shift Kerja pada Bagian Threading Unit Produksi I PT X di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Insanno, Jenius Setio

    2016-01-01

    PT. X is one of the companies that produces iron pipe in Indonesia. Unit of production I PT. X threading part used work shift system. Few months ago there was an accident happened to a night shift workers threading part, and it caused them to be rushed to the hospital and got medical help. The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference between unsafe action on work shifts threading of PT. X. This research was an observational descriptive study that used crossectional approach. The...

  7. Reflection properties of road surfaces. Contribution to OECD Scientific Expert Group AC4 on Road Surface Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Photometric characteristics of road surfaces are dealt with. Representation of reflection properties in public lighting; quality criteria of road lighting installations; classification of road surfaces; the relation between reflection characteristics and other properties of road pavements in public

  8. Road safety audits: The way forward

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African Road Safety Manual (SARSM) was published in 1999 and includes guidelines on road safety audits (RSA). The development of SARSM was a proactive process for improving the road environment with respect to road safety but was never...

  9. Economic growth, motorization, and road traffic injuries in the Sultanate of Oman, 1985-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Reesi, Hamed; Ganguly, Shyam Sunder; Al-Adawi, Samir; Laflamme, Lucie; Hasselberg, Marie; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Recent affluence, assisted by exploitation of hydrocarbon, has sparked unprecedented economic growth and influx of all façades of modernity in Oman. Different statistical models have examined the relationship between economic growth, motorization rates, and road traffic fatalities. However, such a relationship in Oman has never been described. To describe and analyze the trend of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in relation to motorization rates and economic growth during the period from 1985 to 2009 using Smeed's (1949) model and Koren and Borsos's (2010) model. The study is based on national data reported between 1985 and 2009. Data on the population and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in U.S. dollars were gathered from the Ministry of National Economy reports. Data on the number of vehicles and road traffic crashes, fatalities, and injuries were gathered from the Royal Oman Police (ROP) reports. Crash, fatality, and injury rates per 1000 vehicles and per 100,000 population were computed. Linear regression analysis was carried out to estimate the average annual changes in the rates. Smeed's (1949) and Koren and Borsos's (2010) models were used to predict the relations between motorization and road traffic fatalities in Oman. In addition, a cross-sectional analysis of year 2007 data for a number of Arab countries was carried out. The GDP per capita increased from US$6551 in 1985 to US$25,110 in 2009 with an annual increase of UR$547 per capita. The motorization rates increased by 36 percent from 1745 per 10,000 population in 1985 to 2382 per 10,000 population in 2009. Both Smeed's (1949) and Koren and Borsos's (2010) models had a high goodness of fit, with R(2) greater than 0.70. This indicated that road traffic fatalities in Oman may have a direct relationship with increased motorization. The cross-sectional analysis showed that the relation between crash fatalities and motorization rates in Oman and the United Arab Emirates can be better explained by Koren

  10. Parameterizing road construction in route-based road weather models: can ground-penetrating radar provide any answers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D S; Chapman, L; Thornes, J E

    2011-01-01

    A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey of a 32 km mixed urban and rural study route is undertaken to assess the usefulness of GPR as a tool for parameterizing road construction in a route-based road weather forecast model. It is shown that GPR can easily identify even the smallest of bridges along the route, which previous thermal mapping surveys have identified as thermal singularities with implications for winter road maintenance. Using individual GPR traces measured at each forecast point along the route, an inflexion point detection algorithm attempts to identify the depth of the uppermost subsurface layers at each forecast point for use in a road weather model instead of existing ordinal road-type classifications. This approach has the potential to allow high resolution modelling of road construction and bridge decks on a scale previously not possible within a road weather model, but initial results reveal that significant future research will be required to unlock the full potential that this technology can bring to the road weather industry. (technical design note)

  11. An epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S M; Jindal, A K; Verma, A K; Mahen, A

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. In India, more than a million are injured annually and about a lakh are killed in road traffic accidents.(1) It causes the country to lose around 55,000 crores annually which is 2-3% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP).(2) This cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the role of various factors involved in road traffic accidents. Road traffic accident cases admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 01 Oct 2009 and 28 Feb 2011 were included in the study. A total of 182 patients were studied. Information was collected through questionnaire, hospital records and on-site visit. OPD cases, comatose patients and deaths were excluded. Two-wheelers were the commonest vehicle involved in vehicular accidents. Most accidents happened at a speed of 40-60 km/h (37.9%). Most of the patients were aged between 20 and 30 years. Majority had a driving experience of less than 5 years. Monsoons witnessed 46.7% cases. Most cases occurred between 6 and 10 pm. Among severe injuries, the commonest was lower limb fractures (19.8%). There are multiple factors associated with road traffic accidents which due to the lack of road safety measures in the country are playing their role. It is the need of the hour to address this issue and formulate comprehensive, scientific and practical rules and regulations as well as evaluate its enforcement.

  12. The importance of accurate road data for spatial applications in public health: customizing a road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laraia Barbara A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health researchers have increasingly adopted the use of geographic information systems (GIS for analyzing environments in which people live and how those environments affect health. One aspect of this research that is often overlooked is the quality and detail of the road data and whether or not it is appropriate for the scale of analysis. Many readily available road datasets, both public domain and commercial, contain positional errors or generalizations that may not be compatible with highly accurate geospatial locations. This study examined the accuracy, completeness, and currency of four readily available public and commercial sources for road data (North Carolina Department of Transportation, StreetMap Pro, TIGER/Line 2000, TIGER/Line 2007 relative to a custom road dataset which we developed and used for comparison. Methods and Results A custom road network dataset was developed to examine associations between health behaviors and the environment among pregnant and postpartum women living in central North Carolina in the United States. Three analytical measures were developed to assess the comparative accuracy and utility of four publicly and commercially available road datasets and the custom dataset in relation to participants' residential locations over three time periods. The exclusion of road segments and positional errors in the four comparison road datasets resulted in between 5.9% and 64.4% of respondents lying farther than 15.24 meters from their nearest road, the distance of the threshold set by the project to facilitate spatial analysis. Agreement, using a Pearson's correlation coefficient, between the customized road dataset and the four comparison road datasets ranged from 0.01 to 0.82. Conclusion This study demonstrates the importance of examining available road datasets and assessing their completeness, accuracy, and currency for their particular study area. This paper serves as an example for assessing

  13. Assessment of Road Infrastructures Pertaining to Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuddin Norshakina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road Infrastructures contribute towards many severe accidents and it needs supervision as to improve road safety levels. The numbers of fatalities have increased annually and road authority should seriously consider conducting programs or activities to periodically monitor, restore of improve road infrastructure. Implementation of road safety audits may reduce fatalities among road users and maintain road safety at acceptable standards. This paper is aimed to discuss the aspects of road infrastructure in Malaysia. The research signifies the impact of road hazards during the observations and the impact of road infrastructure types on road accidents. The F050 (Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat road case study showed that infrastructure risk is closely related with number of accident. As the infrastructure risk increase, the number of road accidents also increase. It was also found that different road zones along Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat showed different level of intersection volume due to number of road intersection. Thus, it is hoped that by implementing continuous assessment on road infrastructures, it might be able to reduce road accidents and fatalities among drives and the community.

  14. Tools for road infrastructure safety management in poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustra Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety can be improved by implementing principles of road safety infrastructure management (RIS on the network of European roads as adopted in the Directive. The document recommends that member states should use tried and tested tools for road safety management such as: road safety impact assessment (RIA, road safety audit (RSA, safety management on existing road networks including road safety ranking (RSM and road safety inspection (RSI. The objective of the methods is to help road authorities to take rational decisions in the area of road safety and road infrastructure safety and understand the consequences occurring in the particular phases of road life cycle. To help with assessing the impact of a road project on the safety of related roads, a method was developed for long-term forecasts of accidents and accident cost estimation as well as a risk classification to identify risks that are not acceptable risks. With regard to road safety audits and road safety inspection, a set of principles was developed to identify risks and the basic classification of mistakes and omissions.

  15. Road infrastructure and mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mungaray-Moctezuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area. The study shows that the population in the Mexicali sections closer to border crossings generates the greatest amount of consumption dynamics with places located in Imperial Valley. Conversely, Imperial Valley sections that are more distant from the border concentrate a greater number of destination sites for these cross-border trips. It is concluded that a higher quality and more integrated road infrastructure allows the new consumption centers in Imperial Valley to be located farther away from the border and that the Mexicali population with visas can cross indiscriminately through any border crossing by taking longer journeys toward these centers.

  16. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 11th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. Since 2014, progress has virtually ground to a halt. 2016

  17. Prevalence and regional correlates of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents: A 21-city population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei

    2017-08-18

    This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.

  18. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  19. Observation of unsafe behavior at work: A methodological analysis [Observación de conductas inseguras en el trabajo: una reflexión metodológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orquidea Castilla Ramos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Observation of unsafe and safe behaviors at work is used in many companies, to known unsafe acts related with personal or industrial accidents and to design improvement or prevention strategies. This technique at natural contexts requires as much rigor in the design of the behavioral inventory or checklist as in its application. Methodological problems, as well as advantages and disadvantages to use this technique at organizational contexts are analyzed. How the results from to apply observations affect organizational psychosocial interventions, are discussed too. Observations could use with other techniques from another approaches. Probably technique utility depends somehow to the organizational safety culture, culture that itself procedure promote to prevent and to control the occurrence of future accidents in the companies.

  20. Topography and the road network in the territory of ancient Naissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomirović Irena V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological research revealed that ancient Naissus was located on the right bank of the Nišava, on the territory partially covered by the Niš Fortress. The ancient town developed on a wide and flat terrain, which offered good conditions for settlement, but also for raising fortifications. According to modern scholars, the urban settlement on the right bank of the Nišava was preceded by a small native village (vicus, which was important for the erection of the town fortifications. Numerous roads were linking Naissus with the surrounding regions and villas in the county side. We learn about them on the basis of epigraphic and archaeological material milestones and remains of roads, but also on the basis of the location of the necropolises, which in the classical period often sprang up near the suburban roads. The road leading to the east crossed the Nišava by a stone bridge, whose remains were visible not far from today's 'Benetton' factory. The road led further over 'Gabrovac land', intersected with streams over which the remains of three stone bridges from the Roman period were found. This route led to Mediana, a suburb with villas three miles distant from the city. Another important road connecting the region Pomoravlje with the southern parts of the province of Dalmatia was the road Naissus-Lissus. TA section leding to Macedonia and the harbour of Thessalonica over Scupi branched from it south of Naissus: Ad Herculem, Hammeum Ad Fines, Vindenae and Vicianum. From Vicianum station (Vučitrn one section ran towards Lissus and another towards Scupi. Throughout the Timok valley stretched one of the most important roads (Naissus-Ratiaria that linked Naissus and the central Balkan areas with the region of Podunavlje (the Danube basin. The road led from Naissus to the East, along the right bank of the Nišava (across the areas of Jagodin mala and Vrežina and, at the modern village of Malča, it turned towards the North, following the route of

  1. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of section 816.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified...

  2. Determinants of first and second trimester induced abortion - results from a cross-sectional study taken place 7 years after abortion law revisions in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnen, Kristine Ivalu; Tuijje, Dereje Negussie; Rasch, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2005 Ethiopia took the important step to protect women's reproductive health by liberalizing the abortion law. As a result women were given access to safe pregnancy termination in first and second trimester. This study aims to describe socio-economic characteristics and contraceptive...... experience among women seeking abortion in Jimma, Ethiopia and to describe determinants of second trimester abortion. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted October 2011 - April 2012 in Jimma Town, Ethiopia among women having safely induced abortion and women having unsafely induced abortion. In all 808...... safe abortion cases and 21 unsafe abortion cases were included in the study. Of the 829 abortions, 729 were first trimester and 100 were second trimester abortions. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine risk factors associated with second trimester abortion...

  3. Road Anomalies Detection System Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Shah, Vaibhav; Soares, João; Rodrigues, Helena

    2018-06-21

    Anomalies on road pavement cause discomfort to drivers and passengers, and may cause mechanical failure or even accidents. Governments spend millions of Euros every year on road maintenance, often causing traffic jams and congestion on urban roads on a daily basis. This paper analyses the difference between the deployment of a road anomalies detection and identification system in a “conditioned” and a real world setup, where the system performed worse compared to the “conditioned” setup. It also presents a system performance analysis based on the analysis of the training data sets; on the analysis of the attributes complexity, through the application of PCA techniques; and on the analysis of the attributes in the context of each anomaly type, using acceleration standard deviation attributes to observe how different anomalies classes are distributed in the Cartesian coordinates system. Overall, in this paper, we describe the main insights on road anomalies detection challenges to support the design and deployment of a new iteration of our system towards the deployment of a road anomaly detection service to provide information about roads condition to drivers and government entities.

  4. Road design, human behaviour, and road accidents : towards a `learning design community'. Paper presented at the international conference `Road safety in Europe', Birmingham, England, September 9-11, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of unsolved problems in the field of road design (i.e. geometric design), human behaviour and road safety, particularly concerning the operationalisation of the existing design principles for a safe road network in terms of concrete road design in existing

  5. The Development of child road safety competence : the new approach tо road safety education

    OpenAIRE

    Vilkonis, Rytis

    2005-01-01

    The education and information are the strategies of the Road safety. However, some of the documents and scientific findings revealed the chaotic, desultory and theoretically groundless Road safety education and it can be stated that Road safety education system in Lithuania is still being established. The shortage of the theoretical and empirical base of Road safety education is slowing down the process of the system development. Aim of the research is to disclose the assumptions for developm...

  6. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  7. Tyre and road wear prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. The both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (i.e.

  8. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of § 817.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in a...

  9. In–Service Road Safety Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mendoza–Díaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A road safety audit is a formal analysis that seeks to guarantee that an existing or future road fulfills optimal safety criteria, conducted by a team of experts who se members are independent of the road project. It can be carried out in one, several or all of the stages of the project (planning, design, construction, before opening the road to traffic, and operation. The development and implementation of a road safety audit process is one of the strategies that have been applied in Mexico in recent years to reduce road accidents and their associated consequences. The objective of this work is to present the procedures that have been developed and applied in Mexico, as well as the benefits and problems that have been encountered. The application of those procedures to a specific case is also shown. Emphasis is made in the audit of high ways in the operation stage, which is the type that greater application and development has had in Mexico.

  10. Road weather information for travelers : improving road weather messages and dissemination methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) recently completed a study titled Human Factors Analysis of Road Weather Advisory and Control Information (Publication No. FHWAJPO- 10-053). The goal of the study was to...

  11. How long do the dead survive on the road? Carcass persistence probability and implications for road-kill monitoring surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road mortality is probably the best-known and visible impact of roads upon wildlife. Although several factors influence road-kill counts, carcass persistence time is considered the most important determinant underlying underestimates of road mortality. The present study aims to describe and model carcass persistence variability on the road for different taxonomic groups under different environmental conditions throughout the year; and also to assess the effect of sampling frequency on the relative variation in road-kill estimates registered within a survey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Daily surveys of road-killed vertebrates were conducted over one year along four road sections with different traffic volumes. Survival analysis was then used to i describe carcass persistence timings for overall and for specific animal groups; ii assess optimal sampling designs according to research objectives; and iii model the influence of road, animal and weather factors on carcass persistence probabilities. Most animal carcasses persisted on the road for the first day only, with some groups disappearing at very high rates. The advisable periodicity of road monitoring that minimizes bias in road mortality estimates is daily monitoring for bats (in the morning and lizards (in the afternoon, daily monitoring for toads, small birds, small mammals, snakes, salamanders, and lagomorphs; 1 day-interval (alternate days for large birds, birds of prey, hedgehogs, and freshwater turtles; and 2 day-interval for carnivores. Multiple factors influenced the persistence probabilities of vertebrate carcasses on the road. Overall, the persistence was much lower for small animals, on roads with lower traffic volumes, for carcasses located on road lanes, and during humid conditions and high temperatures during the wet season and dry seasons, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The guidance given here on monitoring frequencies is particularly relevant to provide

  12. How long do the dead survive on the road? Carcass persistence probability and implications for road-kill monitoring surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Carvalho, Filipe; Mira, António

    2011-01-01

    Road mortality is probably the best-known and visible impact of roads upon wildlife. Although several factors influence road-kill counts, carcass persistence time is considered the most important determinant underlying underestimates of road mortality. The present study aims to describe and model carcass persistence variability on the road for different taxonomic groups under different environmental conditions throughout the year; and also to assess the effect of sampling frequency on the relative variation in road-kill estimates registered within a survey. Daily surveys of road-killed vertebrates were conducted over one year along four road sections with different traffic volumes. Survival analysis was then used to i) describe carcass persistence timings for overall and for specific animal groups; ii) assess optimal sampling designs according to research objectives; and iii) model the influence of road, animal and weather factors on carcass persistence probabilities. Most animal carcasses persisted on the road for the first day only, with some groups disappearing at very high rates. The advisable periodicity of road monitoring that minimizes bias in road mortality estimates is daily monitoring for bats (in the morning) and lizards (in the afternoon), daily monitoring for toads, small birds, small mammals, snakes, salamanders, and lagomorphs; 1 day-interval (alternate days) for large birds, birds of prey, hedgehogs, and freshwater turtles; and 2 day-interval for carnivores. Multiple factors influenced the persistence probabilities of vertebrate carcasses on the road. Overall, the persistence was much lower for small animals, on roads with lower traffic volumes, for carcasses located on road lanes, and during humid conditions and high temperatures during the wet season and dry seasons, respectively. The guidance given here on monitoring frequencies is particularly relevant to provide conservation and transportation agencies with accurate numbers of road

  13. Solutions to Improve Road Circulation in the Pitesti City Based on Analysis-Diagnostics of Road Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîlcan, A.; Neagu, E.; Badarau Suster, H.; Boroiu, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Road traffic congestion has become a daily phenomenon in the central area of Pitesti in the peak traffic periods. In order to achieve the mobility plan of Pitesti, an important stage is the diagnostic analysis of the road traffic. For this purpose, the urban road network was formalized through a graph containing the most important 40 intersections and traffic measurements were made at all these intersections and on the main roads connecting the peri-urban area. The data obtained by traffic macrosimulation confirmed the overloading of the street network during peak traffic hours and the analyzes made for various road traffic organization scenarios have shown that there are sustainable solutions for urban mobility only if the road network is fundamentally reconfigured (a belt outside the city and a median ring). Thus, the necessity of realizing the road passage in the Prundu neighbourhood and the finishing of the city belt by realizing the “detour West” of the city is argued. The importance of the work is that it brings scientific arguments for the realization of these road infrastructure projects, integrated in the urban mobility plan, which will base the development strategy of the Pitesti municipality.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 144 of 144 ... ... Reducing Morbidity and Mortality from Unsafe Abortion in Nigeria, Abstract ... Vol 4, No 1 (2003): Mental Health, Revisiting the National Mental Health ... Road Traffic crashes: problems of mass casualty management in ...

  15. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible the...

  16. Opportunities of forest roads usage as emergency access road for natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Vatandaşlar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the applicability of forest roads as emergency access and evacuation corridor for an alternative to motorways following a prospective earthquake in İstanbul. For this purpose, various disaster scenarios were created in the district of Beykoz and the shortest routes between critical points were determined through network analysis in Geographic Information System (GIS. Results indicated that access was possible between Beykoz city center and shelter, hospital, fire station, disaster management center, and military area via forest roads even if motorways became unusable. However, distance generally got longer and time of arrival increased on the routes of forest road. The increase in time of arrival was attributed to decrease in average cruising speed in addition to the increase in distance. This limitation can be overcome by enhancing the geometric standards of forest roads and completing superstructure operations. Results are important for revealing that forest roads can be used in other fields besides forestry activities, they can strengthen decision support system of managers, and enable first aid crew to reach the scene in the minimal time.

  17. Noise Costs from Road Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margorínová, Martina; Trojanová, Mária; Decký, Martin; Remišová, Eva

    2018-06-01

    Building and improving road infrastructure in Slovakia is currently influenced by the amount of state funding. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the effectiveness of each proposed solution of road project, which is based on life-cycle costs. Besides capital costs, social costs are also important, which valued the negative impacts due to road construction and operation on road users, the environment, and the population living in the affected area. Some components of social costs have shortcomings in quantifying and valuating, which need to be resolved. The one of important components which affects human health and the value of an area, and have some shortcomings are noise costs. Improvement of this component will lead to more accurate valuation of economic efficiency of roads.

  18. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to...

  19. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are definitely...

  20. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads? What...

  1. Kilburn High Road Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capineri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on John Agnew’s (1987 theoretical framework for the analysis of place (location, locale and sense of place and on Doreen Massey’s (1991 interpretation of Kilburn High Road (London, the contribution develops an analysis of the notion of place in the case study of Kilburn High Road by comparing the semantics emerging from Doreen Massey’s interpretation of Kilburn High Road in the late Nineties with those from a selection of noisy and unstructured volunteered geographic information collected from Flickr photos and Tweets harvested in 2014–2015. The comparison shows how sense of place is dynamic and changing over time and explores Kilburn High Road through the categories of location, locale and sense of place derived from the qualitative analysis of VGI content and annotations. The contribution shows how VGI can contribute to discovering the unique relationship between people and place which takes the form given by Doreen Massey to Kilburn High Road and then moves on to the many forms given by people experiencing Kilburn High Road through a photo, a Tweet or a simple narrative. Finally, the paper suggests that the analysis of VGI content can contribute to detect the relevant features of street life, from infrastructure to citizens’ perceptions, which should be taken into account for a more human-centered approach in planning or service management.

  2. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  3. PROPOSAL OF VOIVODESHIP ROAD SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal of the ‘GAMBIT KUJAWSKO-POMORSKI’ Road Safety Improvement Programme. The main idea of the Programme is to establish and initiate systems that will be responsible for the most important areas of activity within road safety, including road safety control, supervision, and management systems in the whole Voivodeship. In total, the creation and start of nine such systems has been proposed, namely: the Road Safety Management, the Integrated Road Rescue Service, the Personnel Continuing Education, the Hazardous Road Behaviour Monitoring, the Social Education for Safe Behaviour on Road, the Teaching Personnel Improvement, the Area Development and Planning Process Improvement, the Road Infrastructure Design Quality Improvement, and the Road and Traffic Management Process Efficiency Improvement. The basic aim of each system has been discussed as well as the most important tasks implemented as its part. The Road Safety Improvement Programme for the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship presented in this article is a part of the National Road Safety Programme 2013-2020. Moreover, it is not only an original programme in Poland, but also a universal project that may be adapted for other voivodeships as well.

  4. Do roads reduce painted turtle (Chrysemys picta populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dorland

    Full Text Available Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites. There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles.

  5. Do roads reduce painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorland, Alexandra; Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2014-01-01

    Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites) and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites). There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles.

  6. EDITORIAL ROAD SAFETY IN KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data for the purpose of legal prosecution and insurance claims. The accident data P41 form filled at the Police Stations are collated and forwarded to the Roads Department, Ministry of Roads and Public. Works for further processing and analysis (1, 12). The. Roads Department analyses the information in order to determine:.

  7. Burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal by calculating disability-adjusted life years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Kathmandu Valley and then extrapolate this to the national level. Methods: A prospective study was performed to compute the burden of road traffic accidents by quantification of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs using the Global Burden of Disease Study method on the basis of 1-year data from nine hospitals in Nepal and the Department of Forensic Medicine and cross-checked with the Nepal Traffic Directorate. Multiple methods were applied to the extrapolated population metrics of the burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal. Results: The total number of years of life lived in disability, years of life lost, and DALYs in Nepal were 38,848±194, 119,935±1464, and 158,783±1658 (95% confidence interval respectively. The number of years lost because of morbidity and death was similar in Kathmandu Valley. Most (75% of the DALYs resulted from years of life lost in Nepal. Males accounted for 73% of DALYs. Almost half (44% of the DALYs were contributed by the group aged 15–29 years. Conclusion: This study is the first to calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal using Nepal’s own data. Nepal needs to develop and enhance its own system to identify significant public health issues so as to set national priorities for prevention of road traffic accidents.

  8. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  9. Detecting Different Road Infrastructural Elements Based on the Stochastic Characterization of Speed Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Muñoz-Organero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic detection of road related information using data from sensors while driving has many potential applications such as traffic congestion detection or automatic routable map generation. This paper focuses on the automatic detection of road elements based on GPS data from on-vehicle systems. A new algorithm is developed that uses the total variation distance instead of the statistical moments to improve the classification accuracy. The algorithm is validated for detecting traffic lights, roundabouts, and street-crossings in a real scenario and the obtained accuracy (0.75 improves the best results using previous approaches based on statistical moments based features (0.71. Each road element to be detected is characterized as a vector of speeds measured when a driver goes through it. We first eliminate the speed samples in congested traffic conditions which are not comparable with clear traffic conditions and would contaminate the dataset. Then, we calculate the probability mass function for the speed (in 1 m/s intervals at each point. The total variation distance is then used to find the similarity among different points of interest (which can contain a similar road element or a different one. Finally, a k-NN approach is used for assigning a class to each unlabelled element.

  10. Road Maintenance in Africa: Approaches and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mostafa Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, roads are the dominant mode of passenger and freight transport, for which the need is growing rapidly. It is noticeable that most of the African countries do not do enough to ensure the sustainability of road infrastructure as it has been widely reported that roads are affected, to varying degrees, by premature deterioration. Most of the African countries have adopted institutional reforms, notably entailing the creation of road funds and road agencies, and made significant progress on road maintenance. However, many challenges remain to be addressed in all of them to ensure appropriate maintenance. Although spending on road maintenance has increased over time in all African countries it remains insufficient to cover the needs. Poorly maintained roads constrain mobility, significantly raise vehicle operating costs, increase accident rates and their associated human and property costs, and aggravate isolation, poverty, poor health, and illiteracy in rural communities. This paper focuses, in particular, on road maintenance in some African countries considering types of road maintenance and the different approaches aiming at a comparison to reflect on similarities and differences.

  11. Road Maintenance in Africa: Approaches and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Mostafa Hassan

    2018-06-01

    In Africa, roads are the dominant mode of passenger and freight transport, for which the need is growing rapidly. It is noticeable that most of the African countries do not do enough to ensure the sustainability of road infrastructure as it has been widely reported that roads are affected, to varying degrees, by premature deterioration. Most of the African countries have adopted institutional reforms, notably entailing the creation of road funds and road agencies, and made significant progress on road maintenance. However, many challenges remain to be addressed in all of them to ensure appropriate maintenance. Although spending on road maintenance has increased over time in all African countries it remains insufficient to cover the needs. Poorly maintained roads constrain mobility, significantly raise vehicle operating costs, increase accident rates and their associated human and property costs, and aggravate isolation, poverty, poor health, and illiteracy in rural communities. This paper focuses, in particular, on road maintenance in some African countries considering types of road maintenance and the different approaches aiming at a comparison to reflect on similarities and differences.

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  13. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...

  14. Road safety practices among commercial motorcyclists in a rural town in Nigeria: implications for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoran, O E; Eme, Owoaje; Giwa, O A; Gbolahan, O B

    This cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out among commercial motorcyclists in Igboora. All the commercial motor parks in Igboora were visited and all the commercial motorcyclists who consented to participate in the study were interviewed. Information on the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, and the practice of road safety measures was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A total of 299 motorcyclists were interviewed. All (100%) of them were males. The mean age of the respondents was 27.4 +/- 7.4 years. One hundred eighty-two (60.7%) of the motorcyclists had the correct knowledge of the purpose of Highway Code. Only 70 (23.3%) could recognize more than half of the currently used road safety codes and 47 (15.7%) obey these road safety codes more than half of the time they see it. Only 183 (61.2%) of them had a driving license and 72 (24.1%) were able to produce these licenses on demand. All (100%) of the respondents did not use any protective helmet. Those who have longer years of working experience, higher level of education and higher knowledge of the safety codes practice it more regularly (r = 0.198, p = 0.001, chi2= 9.31, p = 0.025, and r = 0.28, p = 0.001 respectively). One hundred thirty-six (45.5%) have been involved in at least one accident in the preceding year. The overall incidence of road traffic accident was 2.16 per 1,000. There was however on statistically significant association between the practice of road safety codes and the occurrence of road traffic accidents (chi2= 0.176, p = 0.916). The study shows that the practice of road safety measures was low in this rural Nigerian community and was not associated with the incidence of road traffic accidents. Introducing road safety education particularly targeted at educating the motorcyclists on the importance and practice of road safety measures would lead to an increase in the practice of the safety measures and hopefully a reduction in the incidence

  15. An Evaluation of Forest Road Standards and Road Gradients in Turkey in View of FAO Criteria and Some EU Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Çağlar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are one of the inevitable infrastructures in conducting forestry operations. Around 1000 km under standardized forest roads have been largely repaired in addition to construction of 1000 km new forest roads in Turkey. Implementing uniform road gradient along the road sections is very important in terms of transportation techniques and safety, as well as the geometrical standardizations of the forest road. In this study, current road standards, longitudinal gradient values and their limitations in forest road constructions recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and some Europe Union (EU countries were examined. Firstly, the forest road standards and their gradient values have been defined in Turkish forest road construction practices. Afterwards, the forest road standards and the gradient values applied by FAO and some EU countries were presented, and finally, the specifications were examined by comparing them with the current practices in Turkish forestry.

  16. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-07-01

    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  17. Road Accident Mortality Rate of the Iranian Elderly from 2006 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad reza Ghadirzadeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mortality rate in traffic accident is high for Iranian elderly. Twenty percent of elderly people are involved in traffic accident in Iran `s cities every year. Methods & Materials: This study is a descriptive cross sectional study. All data in this field from 2006 to 2008 collected from forensic medicine centers across the country and were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: In general, 12029 deaths due to traffic accident occurred in people over 60 years old in Iran from 2006 to 2008. On average 65% of deaths were occurred in young-old: 34.5% in old group and 0.5% in the old-old group. In these years 19.2% of death in elderly people was occurred in drivers, 56.9% in pedestrians and 23.2% in occupants. On average, each year 46% of deaths in traffic accidents were happened in cities 46.3% on suburban roads, and 6.8% were occurred on rural roads. Conclusion: The rate of traffic accident in Iran is about 20 folds in compare to those of other countries. In years of study mortality rate in old and old-old age groups were increased and in young-old group was decreased. The frequency of deaths in elderly people due to traffic accidents was decreased in suburban roads and increased in urban roads.

  18. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Med...

  19. Drawing Road Networks with Mental Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently.

  20. Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andishe Ranjbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. METHODS: According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. RESULTS: It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of

  1. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CASES AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN RURAL HARYANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background- Accidents occur not only due to ignorance but also due to carelessness, thoughtlessness and over confidence. Human, vehicular and environmental factors play role before, during and after a Road Traffic Accidents (RTA. Road traffic injuries are partially predictable and hence preventable. Objectives- To study the pattern of road traffic accidents, socio demographic profile of road traffic injury victims seeking care at Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences And Research, Mullana and to study the antecedent factors influencing the road traffic accidents. Material and Methods-The present cross-sectional study was carried out at Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (MMIMSR, Mullana (Ambala. All the victims who reported to MMIMSR emergency and various OPD clinics of the institute between September 2009 to February 2011 were included in the study. Various parameters like age and sex distribution, time of occurrence, protective gears worn, injuries sustained, receipt of First -Aid, alcohol consumption, category of road user, vehicles involved in RTA, types of RTA, road conditions, environmental conditions etc were studied and valid conclusions were drawn. Results- There was a marked male preponderance (88.77 % with maximum involvement of younger age groups. Most of the accidents had taken place in the evening hours (6 pm -12 midnight. The vulnerable road users like motorized two wheeler, LMV and pedestrians constituted 41.52%, 19.39% and 13.41% respectively. Only 158 of 545 two-wheeler users wore a helmet at the time of injury. 16.24% of drivers did not have a valid driving license. Not using indicator lights and not following speed limits were two most common factors responsible for these RTA.

  2. Overview of the neural network based technique for monitoring of road condition via reconstructed road profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwangwa, HM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available on the road and driver to assess the integrity of road and vehicle infrastructure. In this paper, vehicle vibration data are applied to an artificial neural network to reconstruct the corresponding road surface profiles. The results show that the technique...

  3. The Effects of Cell Phone and Text Message Conversations on Simulated Street Crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banducci, Sarah E; Ward, Nathan; Gaspar, John G; Schab, Kurt R; Crowell, James A; Kaczmarski, Henry; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-02-01

    A fully immersive, high-fidelity street-crossing simulator was used to examine the effects of texting on pedestrian street-crossing performance. Research suggests that street-crossing performance is impaired when pedestrians engage in cell phone conversations. Less is known about the impact of texting on street-crossing performance. Thirty-two young adults completed three distraction conditions in a simulated street-crossing task: no distraction, phone conversation, and texting. A hands-free headset and a mounted tablet were used to conduct the phone and texting conversations, respectively. Participants moved through the virtual environment via a manual treadmill, allowing them to select crossing gaps and change their gait. During the phone conversation and texting conditions, participants had fewer successful crossings and took longer to initiate crossing. Furthermore, in the texting condition, smaller percentage of time with head orientation toward the tablet, fewer number of head orientations toward the tablet, and greater percentage of total characters typed before initiating crossing predicted greater crossing success. Our results suggest that (a) texting is as unsafe as phone conversations for street-crossing performance and (b) when subjects completed most of the texting task before initiating crossing, they were more likely to make it safely across the street. Sending and receiving text messages negatively impact a range of real-world behaviors. These results may inform personal and policy decisions. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  4. Roads and bats: a meta-analysis and review of the evidence on vehicle collisions and barrier effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensome, Amy Grace; Mathews, Fiona

    2016-10-01

    for bats of any roads built in the future, and to design safe crossing points for bats.

  5. Road design and environment : best practice on self-explaining and forgiving roads. Deliverable D3 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Louwerse, W. Schermers, G. Vaneerdewegh, P. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, L. Elvik, R. & Cardoso, J.

    2009-01-01

    Main objective of work-package 3 of Ripcord-lserest was to collect information on best practices concerning the design of self-explaining and forgiving roads. In order to gain an overview on existing practises on road categorisation and the layout of typical rural roads a questionnaire survey had

  6. Further Reductions in Road-Related Deaths and Injuries in Irish Children

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garry, E

    2018-04-01

    The aim was to study road-related injuries and fatalities in under 15-year-olds in three time periods (1996-2000, 2004-2008 and 2009 -2013 respectively) to assess whether progress has been made via cross-sectoral efforts (legislation, public awareness campaigns and police enforcement) to reduce this injury toll in Ireland. For road traffic collisions where an injury has occurred, police assistance is required and at the time a detailed CT 68 form is completed by the attending police officer and sent to the Road Safety Authority for analysis. Details regarding the severity of injury, light and road conditions and safety measures such as seat belt or car restraint use, seat position and helmet use if a cyclist is involved are recorded. Injuries were sub-classified as fatalities, serious (detained in hospital, fractures, severe head injury, severe internal injuries or shock requiring treatment) or minor. All data for the three time periods was entered onto an SPSS database. A concerted national campaign re road safety media campaign allied to random breath testing, penalty points for driving offences, on the spot fines for speeding and greater police enforcement took place over the 17-year timeframe and continues to this day. When results were compared between the three cohorts, total injuries dropped from 5928 (1996-2000) to 3903 (2009-2013).Fatal injuries dropped from 163 to 43 with car occupant fatalities fell from 69 to 17 between 1996-2000 and 2009-2013. Serious injuries dropped from 347 in the first cohort to 201 in the third cohort. Minor injuries fell from 5,063 to 3,659 between first and last cohort. Pedestrian injuries dropped from 1719 to 1258 with pedestrian fatalities decreased from 61 (1996-2000) to 21 (2009-2013) and serious pedestrian injuries decreased from 261 down to 129. Cyclist fatalities saw the most significant fall (76%) with a dramatic reduction in fatalities from 25 down to 6. A national road safety campaign, greater police enforcement and a

  7. New innovative educational method to prevent accidents involving young road users (aged 15-24 – European Road Safety Tunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.

  8. Analysis of Individual and Environmental Factors for Road Traffic Accidents in Sirjan-Bandarabbas Road between 2010 and 2011, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sirjan -Bandarabbas road is one of the important commercial roads in Iran and for Sirjan’s area situation and relevance between Sirjan and other states in Iran so high percentage of goods that forwarded from Bandarabbas to other states transit from Sirjan .Therefore this road is as one important transition road and traffic road too .This study analyzed road traffic accidents were occurred between 2010 and 201in Sirjan- Bandarabbas road. Individual and demographic factors include Time of accidents, Drivers age, time of the days, seat belt and safety laws, Guilty vehicle, Mode of accident and education Level. Time of day analyses suggested that the highest percentage of road traffic injuries occurred in the time group between 12-18 hours. Drivers with the age group of 36-50 had more involvement in death accidents. The findings of this study also revealed that most of the collisions was front to back and front to side. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. This study indicated that Observe safety laws, Guilty vehicle and Mode of accidents have a meaningful relationship with Type of accidents in road traffic accidents in Sirjan Bandarabbas road.

  9. Risk of unsafe abortion associated with long-term contraception behaviour: a case control study from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambepola, Carukshi; Rajapaksa, Lalini C

    2017-06-29

    When faced with an unintended pregnancy, some women choose to undergo an unsafe abortion, while others do not. This choice may depend on long-term contraception that shapes the fertility goals of women, along with many other risk factors. We assessed the risk for unsafe abortion associated with contraceptive practices based on women's long-term behaviour, and its likely modification by the use of different types of contraceptives among women in Sri Lanka. An unmatched case-control study was conducted in nine hospitals among 171 women admitted for care following an unsafe abortion (Cases) and 600 women admitted to same hospitals for delivery of an unintended term pregnancy (Controls). Interviewer-administered-questionnaires assessed their socio-economic, reproductive and fertility (decisions on family size, family completion) characteristics, contraceptive method last used (traditional, modern), reasons for discontinuation/never-use, and contraceptive practices assessed at different time points. Using several regression models, the risk of abortion was assessed for 'non-use' of contraception against 'ineffective use' at conception; for non-use further categorised as 'never-use', 'early-discontinuation' (discontinued before last birth interval) and 'late-discontinuation' (discontinued during last birth interval); and for any interaction between the contraceptive practice and contraceptive method last used among the ever-users of contraception. At conception, 'non-use' of contraception imparted a two-fold risk for abortion against ineffective use (adjusted-OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.2). The abortion risk on 'non-use' varied further according to 'early' (adjusted-OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) and 'late' (adjusted-OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5-3.6) discontinuation of contraception, but not with 'never-use' (crude-OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.6-2.3). Among the ever-users, the risk of abortion varied within each contraceptive practice by their last used contraceptive method and

  10. Musculoskeletal injuries: A cross-sectional study in Irrua, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musculoskeletal injuries: A cross-sectional study in Irrua, Nigeria. ... Its economic impact on victims and family is tremendous. ... Road traffic collision was the leading cause of injury (121 patients; 80%), and 67.8% of these injuries were ...

  11. Development and enhancement of road lighting principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekrias, A.

    2010-07-01

    The work starts with a short introduction concerning the history of road lighting, outlining the trends and changes that have taken place in road lighting research during the past century. The introduction is followed by a review of trends, directions, and problems in current road lighting research and practice. The following part of the work introduces an advanced approach to road lighting measurements and calculations, based on the use of an imaging luminance photometer and the Road LumiMeter v2.0 computer program. The work sets out to investigate the variations in the characteristics of the quality of the road lighting at the same pilot locations in relation to the calculation methods used. In the work mesopic visual performance and the effects of the spectral transmittance of the vehicle windshield on the visibility conditions of the driver are also analysed. The work continues with road lighting measurements in various weather conditions in order to study the effects of snowy and wet road surface conditions on road lighting luminances. The results show that in Finland, snowy conditions offer very good opportunities to save electricity without adversely affecting either the safety of driving or the quality of road lighting. The following measurements set out to investigate the contribution of halogen and high-intensity discharge headlights to road lighting and whether this has a conflicting effect on the luminance contrasts of various targets located on the road or at the side of the road. The results indicate that, in general, the use of vehicle headlights in the presence of road lighting reduces the luminance contrasts of targets. The work continues with road lighting visibility experiments which study the visibility of achromatic and coloured targets in MH lamp and HPS lamp installations. The results show that colours have a major effect on target visibility if the road is illuminated with a light source with adequate colour rendering properties. Finally

  12. Lasting effects of short-term training on preschoolers' street-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Rachel R; Dolgin, Kim G

    2010-03-01

    Can short-term training improve preschoolers' knowledge of road-crossing concepts as well as behavior in a real traffic situation? Forty children, aged four to five years, were assigned to one of four conditions (game, story, song, and control). Each condition participated in four 15-min classroom-based lessons over four weeks. Two assessments measuring knowledge of street-crossing concepts and one assessment measuring behavior on a real street were used to evaluate performance at baseline and one week and six months post-training. Children in all three experimental conditions showed a significant improvement over the control on the two conceptual assessments. Only children in the game condition significantly improved their behavior on the street-crossing assessment. Furthermore, children in all three experimental conditions retained the same levels of improvement at the six-month follow-up. These results demonstrate that one hour of training can create lasting improvements on preschool children's conceptual knowledge of traffic safety and road-crossing behavior on a real street. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tourist Assessment of Croatian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vurdelja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmentally clean industry and as the most significantworld industry regarding the number of employees and theimpact on the social and economic development of a countTy,tourism represents an extremely important social and economicbranch for Croatia.As a functional unit of the mutually interweaving socialand economic relations, tourism is a complex phenomenonwhose development depends on a number of compatible factorsout of which the transport infrastructure is considered to bethe most obvious and almost the most significant one, i.e. thefirst among the equal. This is primarily true for road traffic infrastructure,since road trai!Sportation of tourists by passengercars, buses and motorcycles accounts for more than 90 percentof the overall tourist journeys in Croatia.The topic of this paper is precisely, among other things, thetourist assessment of the Croatian road network by means ofthe so-called econometric model regarding the contribution ofa certain road route to the overall tourist traffic.Practical implementation of the elaborated problematicshould result in the improvement of road infrastructure eitherby constructing new motonvays and/or roads, or by reconstructionand/or modernisation of the existing traffic routes.

  14. How Long Do the Dead Survive on the Road? Carcass Persistence Probability and Implications for Road-Kill Monitoring Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sara; Carvalho, Filipe; Mira, António

    2011-01-01

    Background: Road mortality is probably the best-known and visible impact of roads upon wildlife. Although several factors influence road-kill counts, carcass persistence time is considered the most important determinant underlying underestimates of road mortality. The present study aims to describe and model carcass persistence variability on the road for different taxonomic groups under different environmental conditions throughout the year; and also to assess the eff...

  15. Using CART to segment road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  16. Red light crossing, transportation time and attitudes in crossing with intelligent green light for pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlæger, Rasmus; Tønning, Charlotte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2018-01-01

    In order to increase mobility and promote modal shift to walking, intersections in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, have been equipped with intelligent management of green light for pedestrians. This allows adjustment of green time based on radar detection of pedestrians in the crossing...... and prolongation of the green time for the pedestrians if required. The effect is examined in a before/after study of a two-stage pedestrian crossing with a centre refuge island in an intersection of four-lane roads. The data consists of responses from an on-site questionnaire including 72+53 individuals and 266...

  17. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  18. ERGONOMICS AND ROAD SAFETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROOKHUIS, K; BROWN, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    Modifications to the design of vehicles and road infrastructures have improved road safety significantly over the past decades, but all such developments depend upon user acceptance and institutional backing for their success. New R&D programmes combining ergonomic and engineering approaches are

  19. Exploring schema-driven differences in situation awareness between road users: an on-road study of driver, cyclist and motorcyclist situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different road users make a substantial contribution to road trauma. Although evidence suggests that different road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This article presents the findings from an on-road study conducted to examine driver, motorcyclist and cyclist situation awareness in different road environments. The findings suggest that, in addition to minor differences in the structure of different road users' situation awareness (i.e. amount of information and how it is integrated), the actual content of situation awareness in terms of road user schemata, the resulting interaction with the world and the information underpinning situation awareness is markedly different. Further examination indicates that the differences are likely to be compatible along arterial roads, shopping strips and at roundabouts, but that they may create conflicts between different road users at intersections. Interventions designed to support compatible situation awareness and behaviour between different road users are discussed.

  20. A cross-sectional study to explore postgraduate students? understanding of and beliefs about sexual and reproductive health in a public university, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Soleymani, Shahla; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Lekhraj, Rampal; Mohd Zulkefli, Nor Afiah; Matinnia, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background The main sexual and reproductive health issues among young people are premarital sexual intercourse, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually transmitted diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge related to sexual and reproductive health among Malaysian postgraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among postgraduate students by systematic random sampli...

  1. Construction and maintenance of underground mine roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, A.S.; Seedsman, R.W. [Coffey Partners International Pty. Ltd. (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Good roads are essential in moving men and materials to and from the underground workplace. An underground coal industry funded project was recently completed on underground mine road construction and maintenance. This paper discusses practical approaches to construction and maintenance of underground mine roads using transferable civil technologies and innovative techniques. Mine pavements are generally low-cost (relative to civil roads), constructed to varying standards using locally available materials to best meet the mobility needs of the mine. Performance of pavements is thus largely dependent on the environmental conditions, quality of the available road making materials, maintenance policies and available resources. This paper explains the causes of bad roads in various underground environments. It details available management strategies, construction and water control techniques, road maintenance and vehicle considerations. It concludes that the trend to larger rubber tires mining equipment needs to be matched with construction and maintenance of high quality road surfaces. For large operations, the total cost due to poor roads may equate to in excess of $A1 million per annum. The strategies outlined in this paper provide the basis for construction and maintenance of underground mine roads to help achieve desired production targets. (author). 2 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs.

  2. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  3. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. O. Salau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Road bumps play a crucial role in enforcing speed limits, thereby preventing overspeeding of vehicles. It significantly contributes to the overall road safety objective through the prevention of accidents that lead to deaths of pedestrians and damage of vehicles. Despite the importance of road bumps, very little research has been done to investigate into their design. While documentation exists on quantitative descriptions of road bumps, they offer little guidance to decision making. This work presents a unique approach to solving road bumps design problems. The results of our study reveal three important road bumps variables that influence the control of vehicle speeds. The key variables are bump height, bump width, and effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. Since vehicle speed control is the ultimate aim of this study the relationship between vehicle speed and other variables earlier mentioned is established. Vehicle speed is defined as the product of frequency at which a vehicle is moving over road bumps and the sum of effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. In the determination of bump height we assume a conical shaped curve for analysis as a matter of research strategy. Based on this, two stages of motion were analysed. The first concerns the motion over the bump itself while the second relates to the motion between two consecutive road bumps. Fourier series was then used to formulate a holistic equation that combines these two stages. We used trigonometric functions to model the behaviour of the first stage while with the second stage giving a functional value of zero since no changes in height are observed. We carried out vibration analysis to determine the effect of road bumps on a vehicular system. Arising from this a model component is referred to as an isolation factor. This offers guidance to the safe frequency at which vehicles could travel over road bumps. The work appears to contribute to knowledge

  4. Recognizablility of rural roads in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. & Davidse, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Sustainable Safety vision is an important guide in improving road safety. It is considered that the road environment shouldconform to the expectations of road users in order to prevent errors thatcould lead to road crashes. These expectations are based on the characteristics

  5. SmartRoads: training Indonesian workers to become road safety ambassadors in industrial and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Kerry; Spencer, Graham; Ariens, Bernadette

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports on a programme to improve road safety awareness in an industrial community in the vicinity of Jakarta, in Indonesia. Adapting the model of a successful community and school-based programme in Victoria, in Australia, and using a peer education approach, 16 employees of a major manufacturing company were trained to implement road safety education programmes amongst their peers. Specific target groups for the educators were colleagues, schools and the local community. Over 2 days the employees, from areas as diverse as production, public relations, personnel services, administration and management, learned about road safety facts, causes of traffic casualties, prevention approaches and peer education strategies. They explored and developed strategies to use with their respective target groups and practised health education skills. The newly trained workers received certificates to acknowledge them as 'SmartRoads Ambassadors' and, with follow-up support and development, became road safety educators with a commitment and responsibility to deliver education to their respective work and local communities. This paper argues that the model has potential to provide an effective and locally relevant response to road safety issues in similar communities.

  6. The power dynamics perpetuating unsafe abortion in Africa: a feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Tamara; Hessini, Leila

    2004-04-01

    Tens of thousands of African women die every year because societies and governments either ignore the issue of unsafe abortion or actively refuse to address it. This paper explores the issue of abortion from a feminist perspective, centrally arguing that finding appropriate strategies to reclaim women's power at an individual and social level is a central lever for developing effective strategies to increase women's access to safe abortion services. The paper emphasises the central role of patriarchy in shaping the ways power plays itself out in individual relationships, and at social, economic and political levels. The ideology of male superiority denies abortion as an important issue of status and frames the morality, legality and socio-cultural attitudes towards abortion. Patriarchy sculpts unequal gender power relationships and takes power away from women in making decisions about their bodies. Other forms of power such as economic inequality, discourse and power within relationships are also explored. Recommended solutions to shifting the power dynamics around the issue include a combination of public health, rights-based, legal reform and social justice approaches.

  7. [Accidents on Iceland's most dangerous roads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thóroddur; Arnarsson, Sveinn

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify the most dangerous segments of the Icelandic road system in terms of the number of accidents pr km and the rate of accidents pr million km travelled. First to identify the segments where the number of accidents is highest and where the risk of the individual traveller is the greatest. Second to evaluate if the association between the number and the rate of accidents is positive or negative. Third to identify the road segments that are the most dangerous in the sense of many accidents and great risk to individual travellers. Main roads outside urban centers were divided into 45 segments that were on average 78 km in length. Infrequently travelled roads and roads within urban centers were omitted. Information on the length of roads, traffic density and number of accidents was used to calculate the number of accidents per km and the rate of accidents per million km travelled. The correlation between the number and rate of accidents was calculated and the most dangerous road segments were identified by the average rank order on both dimensions. Most accidents pr km occurred on the main roads to and from the capital region, but also east towards Hvolsvöllur, north towards Akureyri and in the Mideast region of the country. The rate of accidents pr million km travelled was highest in the northeast region, in northern Snæfellsnes and in the Westfjords. The most dangerous roads on both dimensions were in Mideast, northern Westfjords, in the north between Blönduós and Akureyri and in northern Snæfellsnes. Most accidents pr km occurred on roads with a low accident rate pr million km travelled. It is therefore possible to reduce accidents the most by increasing road safety where it is already the greatest but that would however increase inequalities in road safety. Policy development in transportation is therefore in part a question of priorities in healthcare. Individual equality in safety and health are not always fully

  8. Magnitude and outcomes of road traffic accidents at Hospitals in Wolaita Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemichael, Feleke; Suleiman, Mohammed; Pauolos, Wondimagegn

    2015-04-09

    A Road traffic accident is an incident on a way or street open to public traffic, resulting in one or more persons being killed or injured, and involving at least one moving vehicle. The aim of this study is to assess magnitude and outcome of road traffic accidents among trauma victims at hospitals in Wolaita zone. A cross sectional hospital based study design using retrospective chart review was conducted from March 5th to March 25th, 2014. Simple random sampling technique was applied to identify sample population. The data was entered in to Epi info version 3.5.1 and transferred to SPSS version 16 for further analysis. A total of 384 trauma victims were incorporated in the study of which 240 (62.5%) were due to road traffic accidents. The majority of patients were male 298 (77.6%) and most commonly aged between 20-29 (35.42%). The principal outcome of injury was more commonly lower extremity (182 patients, 47.4%), compared to upper extremity (126 patients, 32.8%). Of all trauma patient presenting to hospitals (62.5%) are the result of road traffic accident. Hence, the provision of tailored messages to all members of the community regarding knowledge and practices of road safety measures like appropriate use of pavements by pedestrians and avoiding risky driving behaviors. Besides this make use of compulsory motorcycle helmets would appear to be a very important intervention.

  9. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  10. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  11. PROPOSAL OF VOIVODESHIP ROAD SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK; Jan KEMPA

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a proposal of the ‘GAMBIT KUJAWSKO-POMORSKI’ Road Safety Improvement Programme. The main idea of the Programme is to establish and initiate systems that will be responsible for the most important areas of activity within road safety, including road safety control, supervision, and management systems in the whole Voivodeship. In total, the creation and start of nine such systems has been proposed, namely: the Road Safety Management, the Integrated Road Rescue Service, the ...

  12. Gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Nordin, R; Araki, S; Sato, H; Yokoyama, K; Bin Wan Muda, W A; Win Kyi, D

    2001-01-01

    To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bachok District, Kelantan, Malaysia. Duration of employment was significantly longer in females than those in males (pwork habit, (3) reading and following instructions on pesticide label, (4) security, storage and disposal of pesticide container, (5) safe work habit, (6) proper handling of pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer, (7) use of personal protective clothing, and (8) safe handling of pesticide. Results of analysis of covariance for the eight factor scores of all male and female farmers, controlling for educational level and duration of employment, showed that: (1) factor scores for use of personal protective equipment (pwork habit (p0.05). We therefore conclude that: (1) for female tobacco farmers, choice of personal attire tend to result in lower scores on use of personal protective equipment and personal protective clothing while personal hygiene practices result in lower score on safe work habit; and, (2) for male tobacco farmers, the lower scores on reading and following instruction on pesticide label and mixing pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer in good condition suggests that they were not primarily involved in these activities. It is postulated that these differences in safe and unsafe practices of pesticide handling across gender is related to the choice of personal attire, personal hygiene practices and division of labour within farming households which in turn is influenced by prevailing sociocultural norms in the community.

  13. Safety impacts of rural road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Crash data in Kentucky show that the fatal crash rate on two-lane rural roads is substantially higher than on any other type of road. Improvements have been proposed at some locations on this type of road which involve either upgrading the existing t...

  14. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing

  15. Road traffic injuries among riders of electric bike/electric moped in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Yang, Yaming; Yang, Jie; Hu, Jie; Li, Yang; Wu, Ming; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Henry

    2018-05-19

    Electric bike/moped-related road traffic injuries have become a burgeoning public health problem in China. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and potential risk factors of electric bike/moped-related road traffic injuries among electric bike/moped riders in southern China. A cross-sectional study was used to interview 3,151 electric bike/moped riders in southern China. Electric bike/moped-related road traffic injuries that occurred from July 2014 to June 2015 were investigated. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and analyzed between July 2015 and June 2017. The prevalence of electric bike/moped-related road traffic injuries among the investigated riders was 15.99%. Electric bike/moped-related road traffic injuries were significantly associated with category of electric bike (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.82), self-reported confusion (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI, 1.13-2.78), history of crashes (AOR = 6.14, 95% CI, 4.68-8.07), running red lights (AOR = 3.57, 95% CI, 2.42-5.25), carrying children while riding (AOR = 1.96, 95% CI, 1.37-2.85), carrying adults while riding (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI, 1.23-2.28), riding in the motor lane (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI, 1.05-3.93), and riding in the wrong traffic direction (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI, 1.13-2.35). In over 77.58% of electric bike/moped-related road traffic crashes, riders were determined by the police to be responsible for the crash. Major crash-causing factors included violating traffic signals or signs, careless riding, speeding, and riding in the wrong lane. Traffic safety related to electric bikes/moped is becoming more problematic with growing popularity compared with other 2-wheeled vehicles. Programs need to be developed to prevent electric bike/moped-related road traffic injuries in this emerging country.

  16. Nonfatal road traffic injuries: can road safety campaigns prevent hazardous behavior? An Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, R; Messina, G; Quercioli, C; Vencia, F; Genco, L; Di Bartolomeo, L; Nante, N

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a widespread problem and are very difficult to prevent. The purpose of this study was to verify whether intensive versus basic road safety education programs are associated with different incidence and severity of nonfatal road injuries. The study had an ecological design and involved Local Health Authority One (LHA1) in Salerno, Italy, which includes 20 municipalities. Data on nonfatal road injuries occurring in the periods June to August 2003 and June to August 2008 were obtained from trained operators through the information system of the emergency department. All 20 municipalities received a basic community road safety education program (publicity campaign using bill-posting, brochures, mass media communication with press conferences, articles in local papers, radio and television interviews, and a dedicated LHA1 web site), and 12 municipalities also received an intensive education campaign (in secondary schools, community conferences, and activities organized by police and firefighters). The incidence and severity of nonfatal road traffic injuries were compared between June to August 2003 (before the campaign) and June to August 2008. The total number of injuries in all 20 municipalities in 2003 and 2008 was 907 and 755, respectively. The incidence of injuries decreased in the study period both in the 8 municipalities where only the basic campaign was run (difference in incidence = -0.4; P = .053) and in the 12 municipalities where the intensive campaign was implemented (difference in incidence = -0.5; P road safety education. This does not mean that such campaigns are useless (they are important to raise awareness) but that they should be supplemented with complementary activities in order to be really effective.

  17. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-18

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  18. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Global patterns of current and future road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Johan R.; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Schotten, Kees C. G. J.; Schipper, Aafke M.

    2018-06-01

    Georeferenced information on road infrastructure is essential for spatial planning, socio-economic assessments and environmental impact analyses. Yet current global road maps are typically outdated or characterized by spatial bias in coverage. In the Global Roads Inventory Project we gathered, harmonized and integrated nearly 60 geospatial datasets on road infrastructure into a global roads dataset. The resulting dataset covers 222 countries and includes over 21 million km of roads, which is two to three times the total length in the currently best available country-based global roads datasets. We then related total road length per country to country area, population density, GDP and OECD membership, resulting in a regression model with adjusted R 2 of 0.90, and found that that the highest road densities are associated with densely populated and wealthier countries. Applying our regression model to future population densities and GDP estimates from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) scenarios, we obtained a tentative estimate of 3.0–4.7 million km additional road length for the year 2050. Large increases in road length were projected for developing nations in some of the world’s last remaining wilderness areas, such as the Amazon, the Congo basin and New Guinea. This highlights the need for accurate spatial road datasets to underpin strategic spatial planning in order to reduce the impacts of roads in remaining pristine ecosystems.

  20. Ultra Low Noise Poroelastic Road Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Ejsmont

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Noise is one of the most important environmental problems related to road traffic. During the last decades, the noise emitted by the engines and powertrains of vehicles was greatly reduced and tires became a clearly dominant noise source. The article describes the concept of low noise poroelastic road surfaces that are composed of mineral and rubber aggregate bound by polyurethane resin. Those surfaces have a porous structure and are much more flexible than standard asphalt or cement concrete pavements due to high content of rubber aggregate and elastic binder. Measurements performed in several European countries indicate that such surfaces decrease tire/road noise between 7 dB and 12 dB with respect to reference surfaces such as dense asphalt concrete or stone matrix asphalt. Furthermore, poroelastic road surfaces ascertain the rolling resistance of car tires, which is comparable to classic pavements. One of the unforeseen properties of the poroelastic road surfaces is their ability to decrease the risks related to car fires with fuel spills. The article presents the road and laboratory results of noise, rolling resistance, and fire tests performed on a few types of poroelastic road surfaces.

  1. Smartphone Based Traffic Sign Inventory and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Road signs are an important part of the infrastructure and are needed to ensure smooth and : safe traffic flow. Faded, occluded, damaged or vandalized signs can confuse or misinform : drivers and lead to unsafe driving behavior. E.g. if a driver is n...

  2. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving a...

  3. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them.

  4. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmera-Suárez, Rocío; López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Galán, Iñaki

    2015-09-01

    Road traffic accidents cause substantial morbidity and disease burden; few studies have examined their impact on disability. To estimate the magnitude and distribution of disability due to road traffic accidents according to socio-demographic variables, and its main socioeconomic and health determinants. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community-dwelling participants in the "2008 Spanish National Disability Survey", a representative sample of 91,846 households with 20,425 disabled persons older than 15 years; 443 had disability due to road traffic accidents. The prevalence was 2.1 per 1000 inhabitants (95% CI:1.8-2.3), with no differences by sex. Risk was highest among persons aged 31 to 64 years, and onset of disability showed a sharp inflection point at age 16 years in both sexes. Odds ratios (ORs) were higher (OR=1.3; 95% CI:1.1- 1.7) for participants with secondary education than for those with the lowest educational levels and were lower (OR: 0.5; 95% CI:0.3-0.8) for participants with the highest household income levels than for those with lowest. Only 24% of disabled participants were gainfully employed. As compared to other sources of disability, traffic crashes caused greater disability in terms of mobility (OR=3.1;p<0.001), a greater need for health/social services (OR=1.5;p=0.003), and more problems with private transportation (OR=1.6;p<0.001), moving around outside the home (OR=1.6;p<0.001) and changes in economic activity (OR=2.4;p<0.001). The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. CLEAN-ROADS project: air quality considerations after the application of a novel MDSS on winter road maintenance activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, Ilaria; Malloci, Elisa; Tonidandel, Gabriele; Benedetti, Guido; Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Apolloni, Roberto; Cavaliere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    With this poster we present the environmental benefit on air quality derived by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS pilot project. The CLEAN-ROADS project addresses the problem of the environmental pollution caused by de-icing salts during winter road maintenance activities in the Province of Trento (Italy). A demonstrative Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) has been developed in order to improve the intervention procedures of the road management service. Specifically it aims to optimize the efficiency of how available resources (e.g., salt consumption) are currently used while guaranteeing the current level of road safety. The CLEAN-ROADS project has been tested and validated on a test area located in a valley bottom (Adige Valley), where the highest optimization margins are to be expected. The project supports current road maintenance practices, which has proved to be reliable and accurate, with a new scalable and energy-efficient road monitoring system. This system is based on a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route. It is capable to collect real-time data about the road conditions and to perform short-term and now-cast road weather forecasts, which actively integrate weather data and bulletins covering the target area [1]. This poster presents the results obtained from a three-year monitoring activity with the aim to (1) determine the impact of de-icing salts on air quality and (2) quantify the improvements obtained by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS project on air quality. The Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe Directive (2008/50/EC) states that contributions to exceedances of particulate matter PM10 limit values that are attributable to road winter salting may be subtracted when assessing compliance with air quality limit values, once provided that reasonable measures have been taken to lower concentrations [2]. As the de-icing salts used in road maintenance are mainly based

  6. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  7. Road Zone Effects in Small-Mammal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Bissonette

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals.

  8. Road safety in Poland: magnitude, causes and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Witold; Fiedor, Piotr; Lasota, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Road accidents are a serious problem of the modern world. They are one of the main causes of injuries and are the third most frequent cause of death. Every year, about one million people, adults and children, die on the roads and several millions get injured. Mortality rate due to injuries from road accidents amounts to 2.2% of all deaths in the world. The research presents epidemiology of road accidents in the period 2004-2015 with particular emphasis on the key issues of road safety in Poland, related to the dangerous behaviour of road users (disregard toward traffic rules). Between years 2004 and 2015 on Polish roads took place more than 508000 accidents with 53155 fatalities and more then 572000 casualties. Despite the various measures which are taken to improve safety on Polish roads, the number of dead and wounded in the vehicle mishap is still large, and losses borne by society are high. To improve safety on Polish roads, it is necessary to continue multi- action plan to systematically progress in the level of road safety.

  9. Factors contributing to amphibian road mortality in a wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun GU, Qiang DAI, Qian WANG, Yuezhao WANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve, we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007. Road mortality of three species, Rana kukunoris, Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus, was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September. Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads. We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality. We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September. Among road characteristics, road width was positively associated with road morality for R. kukunori and B. minshanicus. Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B. minshanicus in September. Of the landscape features measured, area proportions of three types of grassland (wet, mesic and dry within 1 km of the roads, particularly that of wet grassland, significantly increased road mortality for R. kukunori and total mortality across all three species. To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands, we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands, minimizing road width, underground passes and traffic control measures. The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume, and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6: 768–774, 2011].

  10. Information technology road map 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This book introduces information technology road map 2015 with presentation, process, plan and conclusion of it. It also has introduction of IT road map by field : information technology road map 2015 on the next-generation of semiconductor, display, light emitting diode and light industry, home network and home electronic appliances, digital TV and broadcasting, radio technology, satellite communications, mobile communication for the next-generation, BcN field, software, computer for the next-generation and security of knowledge information.

  11. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  12. Investigation of road network features and safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Wu, Xingwei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Tremont, Paul J

    2013-07-01

    The analysis of road network designs can provide useful information to transportation planners as they seek to improve the safety of road networks. The objectives of this study were to compare and define the effective road network indices and to analyze the relationship between road network structure and traffic safety at the level of the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ). One problem in comparing different road networks is establishing criteria that can be used to scale networks in terms of their structures. Based on data from Orange and Hillsborough Counties in Florida, road network structural properties within TAZs were scaled using 3 indices: Closeness Centrality, Betweenness Centrality, and Meshedness Coefficient. The Meshedness Coefficient performed best in capturing the structural features of the road network. Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models were developed to assess the safety of various network configurations as measured by total crashes, crashes on state roads, and crashes on local roads. The models' results showed that crash frequencies on local roads were closely related to factors within the TAZs (e.g., zonal network structure, TAZ population), while crash frequencies on state roads were closely related to the road and traffic features of state roads. For the safety effects of different networks, the Grid type was associated with the highest frequency of crashes, followed by the Mixed type, the Loops & Lollipops type, and the Sparse type. This study shows that it is possible to develop a quantitative scale for structural properties of a road network, and to use that scale to calculate the relationships between network structural properties and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tailpipe, resuspended road dust, and brake-wear emission factors from on-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Gillies, John A.; Gertler, Alan W.; Clayton, Russ; Proffitt, David

    Intensive mass and chemical measurements were performed at roadside locations in Reno, Nevada, and Durham/Research Triangle Park), North Carolina to derive tailpipe, resuspended road dust, and brake-wear emission factors from in-use vehicles. Continuous particulate matter (PM) data were utilized to derive total emission factors while integrated PM data were used to attribute the calculated emission factors to different mechanisms using chemical mass balance receptor modeling and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Resuspended road dust and tailpipe emissions were found to be the dominant mechanisms that contribute significantly to the total PM 10 and PM 2.5 emission factors, respectively. Small contributions from brake-wear were observed at locations where strong braking occurs, but no tire-wear was seen at any sampling location. PM 10 emission rates from light-duty spark ignition (LDSI) vehicles ranged from 40 to 780 mg/km, 10 to 70 mg/km, and 0 to 80 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively. PM 10 emission rates from heavy-duty vehicles ranged from 230 to 7800 mg/km, 60 to 570 mg/km, and 0 to 610 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively. PM 2.5 emission rates from LDSI vehicles ranged from 2 to 25 mg/km, 10 to 50 mg/km, and 0 to 5 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively. PM 2.5 emission rates from heavy-duty vehicles ranged from 15 to 300 mg/km, 60 to 480 mg/km, and 0 to 15 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively.

  14. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports ... while driving. Keywords: Distraction, prevention, road traffic collision, mobile phone. ..... keeps us connected with others with great advantages.

  15. Road icing forecasting and detecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongke; Zheng, Jinnan; Li, Peiqi; Wang, Qiucai

    2017-05-01

    Regard for the facts that the low accuracy and low real-time of the artificial observation to determine the road icing condition, and it is difficult to forecast icing situation, according to the main factors influencing the road-icing, and the electrical characteristics reflected by the pavement ice layer, this paper presents an innovative system, that is, ice-forecasting of the highway's dangerous section. The system bases on road surface water salinity measurements and pavement temperature measurement to calculate the freezing point of water and temperature change trend, and then predicts the occurrence time of road icing; using capacitance measurements to verdict the road surface is frozen or not; This paper expounds the method of using single chip microcomputer as the core of the control system and described the business process of the system.

  16. Road Safety Education in a Science Course: Evaluation of "Science and the Road."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    A traffic safety instructional package--"Science and the Road"--was assessed. It was designed by the Road Traffic Authority of Victoria (Australia) for use in tenth-grade science courses. Evaluation findings resulted in revision of the unit and implementation of more inservice courses for teachers lacking relevant biology and physics…

  17. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  18. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a person shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle unless he/she has first successfully completed a road...

  19. Use of wood ash for road stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Lind, B.

    2009-01-01

    Due to warmer winters in Sweden, the bearing capacity of forestry roads has become increasingly problematic in recent years. Road stabilization is needed in order to get timber out from the forests. This usually involves the addition of cement to the road body. However, wood ash is a possible substitute for cement because it has similar properties. Using wood ash has the added advantage of saving landfill space. This paper presented an ongoing laboratory study on leaching and mechanical stability, as well as frost-sensitivity using a 30 per cent ash addition to natural soils for reinforcing a forestry road near Timra in central Sweden. The road was being monitored with regard to environmental impact and mechanical properties. The paper discussed the potential of biofuel ashes and the increasing need to reinforce infrastructure due to climate change. The environmental impact from ash use in road constructions was then addressed. It was concluded that the application of ash in road construction would help to strengthen forest roads, make them more resistant to climatic change and render them accessible year-round. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    OpenAIRE

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female dr...