Janzen, Bonnie; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M
The contribution of unpaid family work quality to understanding social inequalities in women's mental health has been understudied and further limited by a scarcity of psychometrically sound instruments available to measure family work. Therefore, using a multi-item scale of family work quality with evidence of validity and reliability, the overall aim of the present study was to determine whether psychosocial qualities of unpaid family work contribute to educational inequities in women's mental health. Study participants in this cross-sectional study were 512 employed partnered mothers living in a Canadian province and recruited from an online research panel. The dependent variable was psychological distress. In addition to a 28-item measure assessing five dimensions of unpaid family work quality, independent variables included material deprivation, job decision latitude, job demands and several measures of the work-family interface. Multiple linear regression was the primary analysis. Compared to women with high school or less, university educated women reported lower psychological distress [b = - 2.23 (SE = 0.50) p = 0.001]. The introduction of material deprivation into the model resulted in the largest reduction to the education disparity (51%), followed by equity in responsibility for unpaid family work (25%), family-to-work facilitation (22%), and decision latitude in paid work (21%). When entered simultaneously into the final model, the association between education and psychological distress was reduced by 70% and became statistically non-significant [b = - 0.68 (SE = 0.47) p = 0.10]. In addition to the more established mechanisms of material conditions and decision latitude to explain mental health disparities, inequity in responsibility for unpaid family work may also play a role.
Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner
Given its societal importance, unpaid work should be included in economic evaluations of health care technology aiming to take a societal perspective. However, in practice this does not often appear to be the case. This paper provides an overview of the current place of unpaid work in economic evaluations in theory and in practice. It does so first by summarizing recommendations regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor reported in health economic textbooks and national guidelines for economic evaluations. In total, three prominent health economic text-books were studied and 28 national health economic guidelines. The paper, moreover, provides an overview of the instruments available to measure lost unpaid labor and reports on a review of the place of unpaid labor in applied economic evaluations in the area of rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted by examining methodology of evaluations published between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2013. The results of this study show that little guidance is offered regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor in economic evaluations in textbooks and guidelines. The review identified five productivity costs instruments including questions about unpaid work and 33 economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis of which only one included unpaid work. The results indicate that unpaid work is rarely included in applied economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, despite this disease expecting to be associated with lost unpaid work. Given the strong effects of certain diseases and treatments on the ability to perform unpaid work, unpaid work currently receives less attention in economic evaluations than it deserves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tao, Wenting; Janzen, Bonnie L; Abonyi, Sylvia
Introduction: Epidemiological studies have only recently begun to address the consequences of unpaid family work (ie., housework and child rearing) for mental health. Although research is suggestive of an association between the division of unpaid family work and psychological health, especially for women, additional research is required to clarify the conditions under which such a relationship holds. The purpose of the present study was to examine more nuanced relationships between the divis...
In developing countries, women and girls regularly take on unpaid care work. ... We need a deeper understanding of the relationship between women's paid and unpaid care work, and how care is ... Maternal health research concerns men too.
Mette Deding; Mette Lausten
In terms of paid and unpaid work, Danish men and women work the same number of hours per week. But while men do most paid work, women do most unpaid work. We investigate the interaction between paid work and unpaid work for Danish working couples, using the 2001 Danish Time Use Survey. We test several competing theories regarding the intra-individual and intra-household allocation of paid and unpaid work: comparative advantage, bargaining, assortative mating and ‘doing gender’. In addition, w...
This paper explores five main questions regarding the gender distribution of work, primarily in the context of couples with young children. These are: how much total paid and unpaid work is carried out in New Zealand?; how is this work shared between women and men?; how does this compare with other countries?; how might the mix of unpaid and paid work change in New Zealand in the future?; and should gender equity in paid and unpaid work be a key part of the discussion about labour market part...
Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well-defined and memo......Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well......-questions are asked about the time spent on paid work and unpaid/household work. The advantage of the latter technique is that it can easily be integrated into surveys. Thus the American National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) already contains two waves, and a new wave for 2001-2002, which allows...
Erna Hooghiemstra; Ans Oudejans; Saskia Keuzenkamp
Original title: Onbetaalde arbeid op het spoor. The ending of the dominance of the traditional breadwinner model means that paid and unpaid work have become more interwoven with each other. Socioeconomic policy ought to take account of this, and measures are accordingly being taken to make it
Jens Bonke; Bent Jensen
Since the 1960s women in most countries have increased the time they spend in the labour market, while little change has been seen in their time spent on unpaid household work. Men, however, have decreased their labour market participation and increased their time used on unpaid household work. This trend also holds true for Denmark, albeit reduced by standardization for the demographic distribution. The most robust result is a continued convergence in women and men's time use. When making a ...
Tao, Wenting; Janzen, Bonnie L; Abonyi, Sylvia
Epidemiological studies have only recently begun to address the consequences of unpaid family work (ie., housework and child rearing) for mental health. Although research is suggestive of an association between the division of unpaid family work and psychological health, especially for women, additional research is required to clarify the conditions under which such a relationship holds. The purpose of the present study was to examine more nuanced relationships between the division of family work and psychological distress by disaggregating the family work construct according to type (housework/child rearing), control over scheduling, and evaluations of fairness. Analysis of data obtained from a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted in a Canadian city. Analyses were based on 293 employed parents (182 mothers and 111 fathers), with at least one preschool child, living in dual-earner households. Several multiple linear regression models were estimated with psychological distress as the outcome, adjusting for confounders. For mothers, more perceived time spent in child rearing (particularly primary child care) and high-schedule-control housework tasks (e.g. yard work) relative to one's partner, were associated with greater distress. For fathers, perceived unfairness in the division of housework and child rearing were associated with greater distress. Although methodological limitations temper firm conclusions, these results suggest that the gendered nature of household work has implications for the psychological well-being of both mothers and fathers of preschool children in dual-earner households. However, more longitudinal research and the development of theoretically-informed measures of family work are needed to advance the field.
Bibler, Sarah; Zuckerman, Elaine
With the aim of reducing women's greater unpaid care work than men&'s and increasing women's paid employment, this paper examines the extent to which World Bank investments address unpaid care work. The paper conducts an in-depth gender analysis of 36 World Bank employment-related projects in Malawi, Mali, Niger, and Rwanda. It concludes that the vast majority (92 per cent) of reviewed projects fail to account for unpaid care work. Exceptionally, Malawi's Shire River Basin Management Program ...
It can - restrict their ability to participate in economic, social, and political activities - limit their ability to seek employment - constrain their employment choices and options By quantifying time spent on care work and women's unpaid contribution to the economy, time-use ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.
Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo
on network effects and strategies to attract large numbers of complementors remain advisable in such contexts? We test hypotheses related to these issues using data from 85 online multi-player game platforms with unpaid complementors. We find that complementor development responds to platform growth even......Platforms have evolved beyond just being organized as multi-sided markets with complementors selling to users. Complementors are often unpaid, working outside of a price system and driven by heterogeneous sources of motivation— which should affect how they respond to platform growth. Does reliance...... without sales incentives, but that attracting complementors has a net zero effect on on-going development and fails to stimulate network effects. We discuss conditions under which a strategy of using unpaid crowd complementors remains advantageous....
Richardson, Robin A; Nandi, Arijit; Jaswal, Surinder; Harper, Sam
High work demands might be a determinant of poor mental health among women in low- and middle-income countries, especially in rural settings where women experience greater amounts of labor-intensive unpaid work. Research originating from such settings is lacking. We estimated the cross-sectional association between work demands and mental distress among 3177 women living in 160 predominantly tribal communities in southern Rajasthan, India. A structured questionnaire captured the number of minutes women spent on various activities in the last 24 h, and we used this information to measure women's work demands, including the total work amount, nature of work (e.g., housework), and type of work (e.g., cooking). Mental distress was measured with the Hindi version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. We used negative binomial regression models to estimate the association between work demands (amount, nature, and type) and mental distress. On average, women spent more than 9.5 h a day on work activities. The most time, intensive work activity was caring for children, the elderly, or disabled (149 min). In adjusted models, we found a U-shaped association between work amount and mental distress. High amounts of housework were associated with higher distress, whereas paid work and farmwork amount were not. Certain types of housework, including collecting water and cleaning, were associated with increased distress scores. We found an association between aspects of work demands and mental distress. Research in other contexts where women perform high amounts of unpaid work, particularly within the home or farm, is warranted.
Full Text Available For young workers, interning is a strategy for speculating on one’s asset portfolio. Students and graduates undertake internships as a way of maintaining their self-appreciation and avoiding depreciation in a “human capital regime.” In this article, we explore the specific example of interning in the creative industries as the self-management of human capital vis-à-vis the human capital theses. Taking three cultural objects and recent representations of the issue of unpaid internships—Intern magazine, an advert for a “volunteering opportunity” student placement, and testimonies from interns—we analyze how unpaid work in the creative industries and the neoliberal version of human capital entrepreneurship can be seen as embodied by interns.
Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Tefera, B.
The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a
Wallace, Jean E; Young, Marisa C
There has been a considerable amount of research that documents how women and men spend their time in different work and home tasks. We examine how much time professional women and men spend in paid and unpaid work and how this relates to their participation in different leisure activities. We also explore whether time in paid and unpaid work has gender-specific effects on leisure participation. In examining these issues, we rely on data from lawyers working in different legal settings. Our results show that, as hypothesized, men report more time in paid work and leisure whereas women devote more time to housework and childcare. An unexpected finding is that the time men spend in housework or childcare is either unrelated or positively related to their leisure participation. These results suggest that men's greater overall opportunities for leisure compared with women's appear to stem from the unanticipated relationships between men's involvement in housework and childcare and their leisure activities. We raise several possible explanations for these findings.
Musiat, Peter; Winsall, Megan; Orlowski, Simone; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Battersby, Malcolm; Bidargaddi, Niranjan
There is a growing need to identify new and innovative approaches to recruit representative samples of young adults in health intervention research. The current study used a data set of screening information from an online well-being intervention trial of young adults, to investigate cost-effectiveness of different recruitment strategies and whether the clinical and demographic characteristics of participants differed depending on paid or unpaid online recruitment sources. Data were collected from 334 18- to 25-year-old Australians. The study was advertised through a variety of paid and unpaid online recruitment channels (e.g., Google, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, recruitment agency), with response rates to different recruitment channels tracked using unique Web links. Well-being of participants was measured using the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. Analyses consisted of independent t tests and χ 2 tests. Overall, unpaid recruitment channels had a considerably higher yield than paid recruitment channels. Of paid recruitment channels, a recruitment agency and paid Facebook advertisements attracted the largest number of individuals. This study also found differences between paid and unpaid online recruitment channels with regard to the well-being and mood of participants. Although the success of online recruitment channels is likely subject to a complex interplay between the number of exposures, the targeted sample, the wording, and placement of the advertisement, as well as study characteristics, our study demonstrated that unpaid recruitment channels are more effective than paid channels and that paid and unpaid channels may result in samples with different characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Absolute as well as relative hours of paid and unpaid work may influence well-being. This study investigates whether absolute hours spent on paid work and housework account for the lower well-being among women as compared to men in Europe, and whether the associations between well-being and hours of paid work and housework differ by gender…
Peristera, Paraskevi; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L
Long working hours and unpaid work are possible risk factors for depressive symptoms. However, little is known about how working hours influence the course of depressive symptoms. This study examined the influence of paid, unpaid working hours and total working hours on depressive symptoms trajectories. The study was based on data from four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH 2008-2014). We applied group-based trajectory modelling in order to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms and studied paid and unpaid working hours and total working hours as risk factors. Six trajectory groups were identified with symptoms: 'very low stable', 'low stable', 'doubtful increasing', 'high decreasing', 'mild decreasing' and 'high stable'. More time spent on unpaid work was associated with the 'low stable' (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.30) and the 'high stable (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.65) symptom trajectories compared with being in the 'very low stable' symptom group. In addition, more total working hours was associated with a higher probability of having 'high decreasing' (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.48) and 'high stable' (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47) symptoms, when adjusting for sex, age, civil status and socioeconomic status. The results, however, differed somewhat for men and women. More unpaid working hours was more clearly associated with higher symptom trajectories among women. More total working hours was associated with 'high stable' symptoms among women only. This study supported heterogeneous individual patterns of depressive symptoms over time among the Swedish working population. The results also indicate that a higher burden of unpaid work and longer total working hours, which indicate a double burden from paid and unpaid work, may be associated with higher depressive symptom trajectories, especially among women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights
Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Nauroy, Frederic; Boitard, Corinne; Bird, Geoffrey; David, Michel; Greffet, Pierre; Mordant, Guillaume; Moreau, Sylvain; Nirascou, Francoise; Le Moullec, Aurelie; Berthier, Jean-Pierre; Hassan, Marie-Elizabeth; Curri-Lemaitre, Elen; Lagarenne, Christine; Devaux, Jeremy; Nicklaus, Doris; Puydarrieux, Philippe; Vanoli, Andre; Schucht, Simone
This study proposes an analysis of unpaid ecological terms based on the use of new economic indicators related to sustainable development (going beyond the GDP, adjusted accounting aggregates, accounting unpaid ecological costs), an analysis of unpaid ecological costs related to climate change (context, used results and data, definitions of trajectories associated with greenhouse gas emissions, cost to be applied to emissions to get rid of, assessment of unpaid ecological costs), and an analysis of unpaid ecological costs related to air pollution (objectives, standard to be adopted, towards more ambitious emission reduction and re-assessed costs, unpaid ecological costs in 2010)
Post, David; Pong, Suet-Ling
What it means to be a 'student' varies within and between countries. Apart from the wide variety of school types and school quality that is experienced by young people, there also is, accompanying increased rates of school participation, a growing population of students who work part-time. The theoretical and actual consequences of student work have long been in dispute. This article reformulates the dispute as an empirical question that can be addressed using cross-national testing data and student background information from the Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). Drawing information from 20 countries with distinctive proportions of students who reported paid and unpaid work, this study first compares their academic achievement in each country. Next, regression analysis is used to control for students' home resources, and estimates are made of the effects of work and the differences in these effects cross-nationally. Finally, hierarchical linear models are estimated in each country so as to control for school effects, and to take into account the fact that working students may be clustered in lower-achieving schools. The results show that work after school, whether paid or unpaid, never positively affects academic achievement. However, after controlling for home resources and school effects, work negatively affects achievement only in certain countries. The article concludes with a discussion of the ways to interpret international differences in the effect of students' work.
Davies, Fiona; Slater, Stephanie
This paper explores the role of unpaid communications (newspaper and online reporting, blogs, associated comments and tweets) in informing consumer decisions on celebrity brands. The research tests “the old model of celebrity endorsement” (Chahal, 2013) in a new context using new media. Despite the ample literature (Erdogan, 1999; Keller, 2008) on celebrity appeal, the impact of unpaid messages remains underexplored. The paper addresses this gap, confirming that unpaid messages in relation to...
Boonen, Annelies; Brinkhuizen, Tjinta; Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée; Severens, Johan L
To describe the influence of ankylosing apondylitis (AS) on sick leave, presenteeism and unpaid work restrictions and to estimate related productivity costs. 142 consecutive and unselected patients with AS under the care of rheumatologists participated in a longitudinal observational study and completed the Health and Labour Questionnaire (HLQ) assessing disease-related sick leave, presenteeism and restrictions in unpaid work over the previous 2 weeks. Logistic regressions explored which explanatory variables were associated with work outcome. Productivity loss was valued in monetary terms. Among 72 patients in paid employment, 12% had sick leave over a period of 2 weeks and 53% experienced an adverse influence of AS on work productivity while at work. Over this period they reported on average of 5.8 h sick leave and 2.4 inefficient working hours, for which they estimated an extra 1.9 h were needed to complete unfinished work. Among all patients (n=137), 71% had experienced restrictions in unpaid work during the previous 2 weeks with 42% needing help for these tasks for an average of 8 h. The annual production costs for the total group were euro1451 (95% CI 425 to 2742) per patient for sick leave, euro967 (95% CI 503 to 1496) to compensate for hours worked inefficiently while at work and euro1930 (95% CI 1404 to 2471) to substitute loss of unpaid work production. Patients with AS not only have substantial sick leave but also experience restrictions while being at work and when performing unpaid tasks. Limitations in physical functioning are strongly associated with work restrictions. Societal costs of formal and informal care are comparable with the costs of sick leave and presenteeism combined.
Noting that fewer than half the single mothers in the United States receive complete and regular child support payments, this paper discusses reasons for unpaid child support, examines whether stricter enforcement of child support obligations will help solve the overall problem, and proposes another option for solving the problem of unpaid child…
Full Text Available This article is a cross-national study of the work-family balance in families with dependent children. The countries included are Denmark, Hungary, Italy and the UK. The article aims at investigating the question “why” we still, in all four European countries, seem to live according to a traditional gender role pattern in the division of paid and unpaid work, despites mothers’ entrance on the paid labour market. Women still bear the main responsibility of unpaid work. With preference theory as a starting point, the paper investigates preferences and constraints in relation to mothers’ and fathers’ work- and family lives. The paper relies on qualitative interviews. By using qualitative interviews, the analysis is based on fathers’ and mothers’ articulation of their work-life balance. The design of the interview guide has been inspired by Prue Chamberlayne’s biographical methods. Thus, the analysis is based upon both fathers’ and mothers’personal (life stories in the four countries.
Payne, S; Doyal, L
Older women make up an increasingly important sector in the labour market. However, we know little about their health-the various influences on their health and the ways in which paid and unpaid work impact on both physical and mental well being. This paper reviews the available literature on older women's health in the workplace, focussing on work-specific and more general risks for older women, including stress, discrimination, physical hazards and the 'double burden' of paid work and caring responsibilities. Databases searched included Web of Science, CAS, CINAHL, Medline and ASSIA, together with UK and European statistical sources. We conclude with a three-point research agenda, calling for more empirical work on the risks faced by older women, studies that take a life-course perspective of women's occupational health and work that explores the interactions between unpaid and paid work in later life.
This article explores the practices of recently formed and mainly UK-based art workers’ collectives against unpaid internships and abusive work. The modes through which these collectives perform resistance involve activist tactics of boycotting, site-specific protests, counter-guides, and whistleblowing and name and shame approaches mixed with performance art and playful interventions. Grappling with the predicaments of work in contemporary art, a labouring practice that does not follow typic...
Kevric, Jasmina; Papa, Nathan; Perera, Marlon; Rashid, Prem; Toshniwal, Sumeet
Poor mental health in junior clinicians is prevalent and may lead to poor productivity and significant medical errors. We aimed to provide contemporary data on the mental health of surgical trainees and identify risk factors relating to poorer mental health outcomes. A detailed questionnaire was developed comprising questions based on the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) and Physical Activity Questionnaire. Each of the questionnaires has proven validity and reliability in the clinical context. Ethics approval was obtained from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. The questionnaire was aimed at surgical registrars. We used Physical Activity Questionnaire, SF-36 scores and linear regression to evaluate the effect of putative predictors on mental health. A total of 83 responses were collected during the study period, of which 49 (59%) were from men and 34 (41%) were from women. The mean Mental Component Summary (MCS) score for both sexes was significantly lower than the population mean at ages 25-34 (p work culture and a feeling of a lack of support at work were extremely strong predictors of a lower MCS score (p Hours of overtime worked, particularly unpaid overtime, were also strong predictors of a poorer score. Australian surgical trainees reported lower MCS scores from the SF-36 questionnaire compared to the general population. Increasing working hours, unpaid overtime, poor job security, and job satisfaction were associated with poorer scores among trainees. Interventions providing improved working conditions need to be considered by professional training bodies and employers. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.
Van der Meer, Peter H.; Wielers, Rudi
The purpose of this paper is to test forward-looking incentives against backward-looking incentives. Design/methodology/approach ? Wage growth model to estimate forward-looking effects of unpaid overtime and a probit model of participation in unpaid overtime controlling for excessive pay to estimate
Field-Richards, Sarah E; Arthur, Antony
To explore the nurse-volunteer relationship in a day hospice. Underpinned by an interpretive approach, face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 day hospice volunteers. The nature and dynamics of the relationship between nursing staff and volunteers within the day hospice were characterized by increasing formality and changes in the division of labor, which challenged smooth working relationships. Volunteers see their role as becoming increasingly formalized partly as a response to increasing administrative demands on hospice nurses. The willingness of volunteers to take on new roles is variable. For volunteers to feel secure and valued and working relationships to remain strong, the process of how boundaries between paid and unpaid workers are negotiated needs to be transparent.
Full Text Available In this article I report on three ways that interns and those sympathetic to their plight are opposing unpaid internships, focusing on the Canadian province of Ontario as a case. First, I analyze the ways that interns engage in social activism to raise awareness about problems with unpaid internships. Second, I examine several lawsuits that interns have waged against companies in an attempt to secure back pay. Third, I analyze the Ontario Ministry of Labour’s response to the growing concerns surrounding unpaid internships, and recent proposals that aim to strengthen governmental regulations. Arguing that possibilities for change have arisen largely due to the efforts of interns themselves, I conclude each section by noting some of the strengths and limitations afforded by each type of resistance.
Ptáček, Radek; Vňuková, Martina; Raboch, Jiří
In the past two decades, special attention was paid to mental health issues. The available literature suggests, for example, the relationship between the workload and mental discomfort and the occurrence of myocardial infarction. This article focuses mainly on the issue of work-related stress and its impact on mental health. In this context, it must be acknowledged that possible psychological problems due to work are not only employees problem. These difficulties can significantly affect performance - and thus they should be the concern of the employer, but also of customers, clients and patients who come into contact with the worker who might develop some mental problems, due to the nature of his work and working conditions. This article provides an overview of the various factors affecting the mental health of employees. These are, for example, work demands, working hours and workplace relations. In conclusion, it brings results of Czech study examining job stress among working population.
Boonen, Annelies; Brinkhuizen, Tjinta; Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée; Severens, Johan L.
To describe the influence of ankylosing apondylitis (AS) on sick leave, presenteeism and unpaid work restrictions and to estimate related productivity costs. 142 consecutive and unselected patients with AS under the care of rheumatologists participated in a longitudinal observational study and
Vecchio, Nerina; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A
In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.
Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap. PMID:23433245
S.M. Ghazi Tabatabaei (Mahmoud); N. Mehri (Nader); M. Messkoub (Mahmood)
textabstractThis paper uses the Time Use Survey of Iran of 2008 and 2009 to estimate the monetary value of unpaid domestic work of urban housewives. The surveys recorded domestic work activities such as cooking and cleaning and general care of household members as well as care of children and their
Full Text Available This article explores the practices of recently formed and mainly UK-based art workers’ collectives against unpaid internships and abusive work. The modes through which these collectives perform resistance involve activist tactics of boycotting, site-specific protests, counter-guides, and whistleblowing and name and shame approaches mixed with performance art and playful interventions. Grappling with the predicaments of work in contemporary art, a labouring practice that does not follow typical processes of valorization and has a contingent object and an extremely loose territorial unity, this article argues that while the identity of the contemporary artist is systemically and conceptually moving towards fluidity and open-endedness, these groups work to reaffirm a collective in whose name it is possible to advance certain claims, assumptions, and demands. The contradictions and dynamics of art workers organizing against internships and voluntary work within a highly individualized, self-exploitative, and often privileged field are useful for informing labour organizing in the framework of ongoing capitalist restructuring.
Users and Unpaid Associates domiciled in France are liable for tax, under ordinary French law, on the remunerations paid by French institutions employing them. They are therefore required to complete and sign a declaration of income form and send it to their local tax office (centre des impôts), together with the annual certificate issued by CERN in accordance with Article R IV 2.04 of the Staff Regulations (cf. the information from the Legal Service and the HR Department concerning declarations of income for 2005 published above). Users and Unpaid Associates remunerated by a French institution but domiciled in Switzerland are required to complete and sign a declaration of income form and send it to the tax office for non residents: Centre des impôts des non-résidents - 9 rue d'Uzès - 75002 Paris - France. Users and Unpaid Associates residing in France for more than six months in 2005 and remunerated by an institution not established in France must also complete a declaration of income form. In the fi...
Neumeier, William H; Goodner, Emily; Biasini, Fred; Dhurandhar, Emily J; Menear, Kristi S; Turan, Bulent; Hunter, Gary R
Mental work may promote caloric intake, whereas exercise may offset positive energy balance by decreasing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure. This study aimed to replicate previous findings that mental work increases caloric intake compared with a rest condition and assess whether exercise after mental work can offset this effect. Thirty-eight male and female university students were randomly assigned to mental work + rest (MW + R) or mental work + exercise (MW + E). Participants also completed a baseline rest (BR) visit consisting of no mental work or exercise. Visit order was counterbalanced. During the MW + R or MW + E visit, participants completed a 20-min mental task and either a 15-min rest (MW + R) or a 15-min interval exercise (MW + E). Each visit ended with an ad libitum pizza lunch. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare eating behavior between groups. Participants in the MW + R condition consumed an average of 100 more kilocalories compared with BR (633.3 ± 72.9 and 533.9 ± 67.7, respectively, P = 0.02), and participants in MW + E consumed an average of 25 kcal less compared with BR (432.3 ± 69.2 and 456.5 ± 64.2, respectively, P > 0.05). When including the estimated energy expenditure of exercise in the MW + E conditions, participants were in negative energy balance by an average of 98.5 ± 41.5 kcal, resulting in a significant difference in energy balance between the two groups (P = 0.001). An acute bout of interval exercise after mental work resulted in significantly decreased food consumption compared with a nonexercise condition. These results suggest that an acute bout of exercise may be used to offset positive energy balance induced by mental tasks.
Frech, Adrianne; Damaske, Sarah
We contribute to research on the relationships between gender, work, and health by using longitudinal, theoretically driven models of mothers' diverse work pathways and adjusting for unequal selection into these pathways. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1979 (N = 2,540), we find full-time, continuous employment following a first birth is associated with significantly better health at age 40 than part-time work, paid work interrupted by unemployment, and unpaid work in the home. Part-time workers with little unemployment report significantly better health at age 40 than mothers experiencing persistent unemployment. These relationships remain after accounting for the unequal selection of more advantaged mothers into full-time, continuous employment, suggesting full-time workers benefit from cumulating advantages across the life course and reiterating the need to disentangle health benefits associated with work from those associated with pre-pregnancy characteristics.
Frech, Adrianne; Damaske, Sarah
We contribute to research on the relationships between gender, work and health by using longitudinal, theoretically driven models of mothers’ diverse work pathways and adjusting for unequal selection into these pathways. Using the NLSY79 (N=2,540), we find full-time, continuous employment following a first birth is associated with significantly better health at age forty than part-time work, paid work interrupted by unemployment, and unpaid work in the home. Part-time workers with little unemployment report significantly better health at age forty than mothers experiencing persistent unemployment. These relationships remain after accounting for the unequal selection of more advantaged mothers into full-time, continuous employment, suggesting full-time workers benefit from cumulating advantages across the life course and reiterating the need to disentangle health benefits associated with work from those associated with pre-pregnancy characteristics. PMID:23197483
Hollander, Marcus J; Liu, Guiping; Chappell, Neena L
Canadians provide significant amounts of unpaid care to elderly family members and friends with long-term health problems. While some information is available on the nature of the tasks unpaid caregivers perform, and the amounts of time they spend on these tasks, the contribution of unpaid caregivers is often hidden. (It is recognized that some caregiving may be for short periods of time or may entail matters better described as "help" or "assistance," such as providing transportation. However, we use caregiving to cover the full range of unpaid care provided from some basic help to personal care.) Aggregate estimates of the market costs to replace the unpaid care provided are important to governments for policy development as they provide a means to situate the contributions of unpaid caregivers within Canada's healthcare system. The purpose of this study was to obtain an assessment of the imputed costs of replacing the unpaid care provided by Canadians to the elderly. (Imputed costs is used to refer to costs that would be incurred if the care provided by an unpaid caregiver was, instead, provided by a paid caregiver, on a direct hour-for-hour substitution basis.) The economic value of unpaid care as understood in this study is defined as the cost to replace the services provided by unpaid caregivers at rates for paid care providers.
Background: Women and men in Sweden are in paid work to almost the same extent, but are found in different occupations and positions in the labour market. Still, women perform the bulk of the unpaid domestic work at home. Gendered inequalities in these respects leave women and men exposed to different work environments and responsibilities, which in turn can have gendered health consequences. In public health research there is a lack of studies on domestic work that include women and men, as ...
lives. Two, many volunteer care workers are attracted to care work, not volunteering per se. Three, volunteering must be understood in relation to men’s and women’s ‘access to work’ in the welfare state, access that ultimately depends on the design and developments of these two contrasting welfare......This paper explores the links between volunteers care workers’ current unpaid work and their own present or former paid work with the objective of analysing the ways welfare states influence volunteer care work. Data were collected between August 2012 and May 2013 through 41 face-to-face interviews...... with Danish and Australian volunteers working with the frail elderly, very sick and terminally ill. Three related arguments are made. One, paid and unpaid care work are so intertwined that it is not possible to understand volunteers’ unpaid working lives without simultaneously understanding their paid work...
Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Nannini, Angela
Work-family conflict is challenging for workers and may lead to depression, anxiety, and overall poor health. Sleep plays an important role in the maintenance of mental health; however, the role of sleep in the association between work-family conflict and mental health is not well-studied. Questionnaires were collected from 650 nursing assistants in 15 nursing homes. Multivariate linear regression modeling demonstrated that increased work-family conflict was associated with lower mental health scores (β = -2.56, p work-family conflict was correlated with more job demands, less job control, less social support, and longer work hours. Poor sleep quality, but not short sleep duration, mediated the association between work-family conflict and mental health. Workplace interventions to improve nursing assistants' mental health should increase their control over work schedules and responsibilities, provide support to meet their work and family needs, and address healthy sleep practices.
Wang, Jian Li
Occupational mental health research has been focusing on the relationship between work stress and depression. However, the impacts of work stress on anxiety disorders and of imbalance between work and family life on workers' mental health have not been well studied. This analysis investigated the association between levels of perceived work stress and of imbalance between work and family/personal lives and current mood/anxiety disorders. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS-1.2) (n=36,984). Mood and anxiety disorders were measured using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among those with a work stress score at the 75th percentile value and above was 3.6% and 4.0%. Among those who reported that their work and family/personal lives "never" balanced in the past month, the 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders was 21.2% and 17.9%. In multivariate analyses, work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives were independently associated with mood and anxiety disorders. There was no evidence that perceived work stress interacted with imbalance between work and family/personal lives to increase the likelihood of having mental disorders. Gender was associated with anxiety disorders, but not with major depressive disorder and mood disorders. Work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives may be part of the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders in the working population. Community based longitudinal studies are needed to delineate the causal relationships among work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives and mental disorders.
Kasteng, Frida; Settumba, Stella; Källander, Karin; Vassall, Anna
Community health worker (CHW) programmes are currently being scaled-up in sub-Saharan Africa to improve access to healthcare. CHWs are often volunteers; from an economic perspective, this raises considerations whether reliance on an unpaid workforce is sustainable and how to appropriately cost and value the work of CHWs. Both these questions can be informed by an understanding of CHWs' workload, their opportunity costs of time and the perceived benefits of being a CHW. However, to date few studies have fully explored the methodological challenges in valuing CHW time. We examined the costs and benefits of volunteering in a sample of 45 CHWs providing integrated community case management of common childhood illnesses in rural Uganda in February 2012 using different methods. We assessed the value of CHW time using the minimum public sector salary rate and a CHW-elicited replacement wage, as well as the opportunity cost of time based on CHW-estimated annual income and alternative work opportunities, respectively. Reported monthly CHW workload, a median of 19.3 h (range 2.5-57), was valued at USD 6.9 (range 0.9-20.4) per month from the perspective of the healthcare system (applicable replacement wage) and at a median of USD 4.1 (range 0.4-169) from the perspective of the CHWs (individual opportunity cost of time). In a discrete choice experiment on preferred work characteristics, remuneration and community appreciation dominated. We find that volunteering CHWs value the opportunity to make a social contribution, but the decision to volunteer is also influenced by anticipated future rewards. Care must be taken by those costing and designing CHW programmes to acknowledge the opportunity cost of CHWs at the margin and over the long term. Failure to properly consider these issues may lead to cost estimations below the amount necessary to scale up and sustain programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of
Shankar, Janki; Barlow, Constance A; Khalema, Ernest
Despite established evidence that work and employment are an important component of recovery for people who experience mental illness, social work education in Canada seldom offers graduate training or courses on the significance of work in peoples' lives or on the practices involved in helping to gain and retain employment for these individuals. In this article the authors argue that the high levels of unemployment among people who experience mental illness, and the rising incidence of mental health and addictions issues in workplaces, offer the opportunity, as well as the mandate, for social work educators to provide professional education in the area of employment support and assistance.
Rebouças, Denise; Abelha, Lúcia; Legay, Letícia Fortes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos
Knowledge of job satisfaction and work impact among psychiatric staff is highly useful for policymakers and mental health professionals. Since there are few studies on this issue in Brazil, a cross-sectional study was carried out among mental health professionals. Data were collected for 133 professionals from 4 mental health services in Rio de Janeiro, using SATIS-BR and IMPACTO-BR scales and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Statistical associations were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and chi-square tests and multiple linear regression. SPSS 10.1 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. Mean satisfaction was 3.30 and mean work impact was 2.08 (on a scale from 1 to 5). 62.4% of subjects reported moderate satisfaction. Mental health workers with less schooling showed higher satisfaction. Work impact was not associated with any explanatory variable. The results for job satisfaction were similar to those of other studies. Work impact was very low. Unlike studies from the United States and Europe, there were no differences between the community-based and in-hospital staff.
Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.
Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…
Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Subramaniam, Mythily
To examine the association between mental disorders and work disability in the adult resident population in Singapore. Data are from the Singapore Mental Health Study, which was a household survey of a nationally representative sample. The main instrument used was the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Employment-related information was collected using the modified employment module of the CIDI. A total of 6,429 respondents were included in the analysis, 71 % (n = 4,594) were employed, 24.5 % (n = 1,522) were economically inactive and 4.5 % (n = 313) were unemployed. Among the employed, 2.3 % had a 12-month prevalence of at least one mental disorder, while 5.3 % of the unemployed had at least one mental disorder. The average number of work loss days (absenteeism) per capita among those with a mental disorder was 0.5 per month that is equivalent to an annualized national projection of approximately 0.3 million productivity days. The average work-cutback days (presenteeism) were 0.4 days among this group. Of the mentally ill in the workforce, a high proportion (86.5 %) did not ever seek help for problems related to mental health. Our findings provide information on the significant consequences of mental disorders on the workforce in terms of lost work productivity, which could pave the way for a more rational allocation of scarce resources.
Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne
OBJECTIVES: According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated...... with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association...... is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. METHODS: The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed...
Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
To gain insight into (1) the prevalence and incidence of common mental disorders (CMD) and low work ability among bricklayers and construction supervisors; (2) the impact of CMD on current work ability and work ability 1 year later and (3) the added value of job-specific questions about work ability
Fujino, Yoshihisa; Horie, Seichi; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Takao; Tanaka, Yayoi
There is growing concern over the possible increase in mental health problems among Japanese workers. This trend is generally regarded as a reflection of Japan's prolonged economic depression and changes in working environment. In fact, claims for compensation for industrial accidents related to mental health diseases have been rapidly increasing in recent years. Working hours, personal-relationships, support from supervisors/co-workers, job demand, job control, and payment are known to affect workers mental health. In 2004, the Government announced a guideline to combat overwork and mental health problems at work places. This guideline articulates that long overtime working is a major indicator, and workers who work over 100 h overtime in a month should be encouraged to see an occupational physician. This guideline takes into account the practicalities of occupational health at work places and the empiric knowledge that long working hours might associate with workers mental health status. It may be reasonable to assume that long working hours affect workers health status both psychologically and physiologically, interacting with a variety of occupational factors, particularly job stress. However, the association between working hours and workers mental health status has not been fully clarified. The present article aimed to provide a systematic review of the association between working hours and mental health problems. The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the association between working hours and mental health problems using PubMed. Of 131 abstracts and citations reviewed, 17 studies met the predefined criteria. Ten of these are longitudinal studies, and the others are cross-sectional studies. Seven of the 17 studies report statistically significant associations between working hours and mental health problems, while the others report no association. In addition, comparison among these studies is difficult because a variety of
Harvey, Samuel B; Modini, Matthew; Joyce, Sadhbh; Milligan-Saville, Josie S; Tan, Leona; Mykletun, Arnstein; Bryant, Richard A; Christensen, Helen; Mitchell, Philip B
It has been suggested that certain types of work may increase the risk of common mental disorders, but the exact nature of the relationship has been contentious. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first comprehensive systematic meta-review of the evidence linking work to the development of common mental health problems, specifically depression, anxiety and/or work-related stress and to consider how the risk factors identified may relate to each other. MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Embase, the Cochrane Collaboration and grey literature databases were systematically searched for review articles that examined work-based risk factors for common mental health problems. All included reviews were subjected to a quality appraisal. 37 review studies were identified, of which 7 were at least moderate quality. 3 broad categories of work-related factors were identified to explain how work may contribute to the development of depression and/or anxiety: imbalanced job design, occupational uncertainty and lack of value and respect in the workplace. Within these broad categories, there was moderate level evidence from multiple prospective studies that high job demands, low job control, high effort-reward imbalance, low relational justice, low procedural justice, role stress, bullying and low social support in the workplace are associated with a greater risk of developing common mental health problems. While methodological limitations continue to preclude more definitive statements on causation between work and mental disorders, there is now a range of promising targets for individual and organisational-level interventions aimed at minimising mental health problems in the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
The relationship between work stressors and mental health outcomes has been demonstrated in a whole range of work stress models and studies. But less has been written about factors outside the work setting that might predict or moderate the relationship between work stressors and strain. In this exploratory study, we suggest a model linking work stressors and "time-based" work-family conflict (TWFC) with mental health, with the intention to contribute to the refinement of the traditional work...
Vilma S Santana
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that work burden, the simultaneous engagement in paid work and unpaid family housework, is a potential risk factor for psychiatric symptoms among women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 460 women randomly selected from a poor area of the city of Salvador, Brazil. Women between 18 to 70 years old, who reported having a paid occupation or were involved in unpaid domestic activities for their families, were eligible. Work burden-related variables were defined as: a double work shift, i.e., simultaneous engagement in a paid job plus unpaid housework; and b daily working time. Psychiatric symptoms were collected through a validated questionnaire, the QMPA. RESULTS: Positive, statistically significant associations between high (>7 symptoms QMPA scores and either double work shift (prevalence ratio -- PR=2.04, 95% confidence interval -- CI: 1.16, 2.29 or more than 10 hours of daily work time (PR=2.29, 95% CI: 1.96, 3.43 were found after adjustment for age, marital status and number of pre-school children. CONCLUSIONS: Major correlates of high QMPA scores are work burden variables. Being married or having pre-school children are also associated with high QMPA scores only when associated with work burden.
Chai, Huamin; Guerriere, Denise N; Zagorski, Brandon; Coyte, Peter C
With increasing emphasis on the provision of home-based palliative care in Canada, economic evaluation is warranted, given its tremendous demands on family caregivers. Despite this, very little is known about the economic outcomes associated with home-based unpaid care-giving at the end of life. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the magnitude and share of unpaid care costs in total healthcare costs for home-based palliative care patients, from a societal perspective and (ii) examine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that account for variations in this share. One hundred and sixty-nine caregivers of patients with a malignant neoplasm were interviewed from time of referral to a home-based palliative care programme provided by the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, until death. Information regarding palliative care resource utilisation and costs, time devoted to care-giving and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was collected between July 2005 and September 2007. Over the last 12 months of life, the average monthly cost was $14 924 (2011 CDN$) per patient. Unpaid care-giving costs were the largest component - $11 334, accounting for 77% of total palliative care expenses, followed by public costs ($3211; 21%) and out-of-pocket expenditures ($379; 2%). In all cost categories, monthly costs increased exponentially with proximity to death. Seemingly unrelated regression estimation suggested that the share of unpaid care costs of total costs was driven by patients' and caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics. Results suggest that overwhelming the proportion of palliative care costs is unpaid care-giving. This share of costs requires urgent attention to identify interventions aimed at alleviating the heavy financial burden and to ultimately ensure the viability of home-based palliative care in future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thisted, Cecilie Nørby; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Bjerrum, Merete
on the synthesized findings, we recommended that the employer is involved in the rehabilitation process, and that rehabilitation professionals seek to strengthen the employee’s ability to manage work-related stress. In addition, rehabilitation professionals should provide individualized and active support and ensure......Purpose The aim was to aggregate knowledge about the opportunities, challenges and need for support employees with common mental disorders experience in relation to work participation in order to develop recommendations for practice. Methods A meta-synthesis was conducted using a meta...... findings. One synthesized finding indicates that a strong work identity and negative perceptions regarding mental disorders can impede work participation, creating an essential need for a supportive work environment. The other reveals that the diffuse nature of the symptoms of mental disorders causes...
Shimazu, Akihito; Matsudaira, Ko; Jonge, Jan DE; Tosaka, Naoya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masaya
This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement.
Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel
Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory - but not iconic visual memory - can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage. PMID:22195024
Full Text Available Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory--but not iconic visual memory--can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage.
Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel
Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory--but not iconic visual memory--can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage.
Jaradat, Y M; Nielsen, M B; Kristensen, P; Bast-Pettersen, R
Associations between shift work (SW) schedules, mental distress and job satisfaction have never been completely described. To examine gender-specific associations of SW with mental distress and job satisfaction in nurses in Hebron District, Palestine, in 2012. Detailed information on work schedules (day versus shift), socio-demographic status, mental distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-30) and job satisfaction (Generic Job Satisfaction Scale) in nurses employed in Hebron District, Palestine, was obtained through a questionnaire survey. Associations of SW and outcomes were examined by linear regression analysis. Of 372 nurses eligible for the study, 309 and 338 completed surveys regarding mental distress and job satisfaction, respectively. The sample comprised 62% women and 38% men. After adjusting for covariates, women working shifts reported significantly higher levels of mean mental distress [β coefficient 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-7.0] compared with women working regular day shifts. Men working shifts reported significantly lower levels of job satisfaction (-3.3; 95% CI -6.2 to -0.5) than men working regular day shifts. Women reported higher levels of mental distress than men, but this was unrelated to work schedule. In this study, nurses working shifts reported higher levels of mental distress and lower levels of job satisfaction, although these associations were weaker when adjusted for potential covariates. There was no evidence of a gender differential in the association between SW and mental distress and job satisfaction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert
Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.
Pinar Guzel Ozdemir
Full Text Available With the growing prevalence of shift work all over the the world, the relationship between the daily lives of irregular lifestyles and rhythms is being investigated for those working as shift workers and their families. The effect of shift work on physical and mental health is a very important field of research in recent years. The onset and persistence of medical complications in shift workers includes impaired synchronization between work schedule rhythms and circadian clock. In this context, studies have been carried out showing the increased risk of sleep-wake disorders, gastrointestinal problems, and cardiovascular diseases. There is little information about the actual frequency, effect on health and treatment of shift work disorder, known as circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Shift work disorder includes insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness related with the work schedule. The aim of this rewiev, mentioning about the physical and mental effects of shift work, and to provide information about the diagnosis, clinic and treatment methods of shift-work disorder.
Full Text Available This essay reports on the temporary and unpaid forms of labour around which the 2015 World’s Fair (Expo 2015 in Milan is organized and upon which it depends. The collective agreement supporting Expo 2015 is especially significant, the paper contends, in that it has been seized upon by the government of Matteo Renzi as a blueprint for the future of labour relations in Italy. Expo 2015 ushers in the institutionalization of unpaid work in the crisis-stricken Italian economy—a transformation approved by the major Italian trade unions that signed off on the collective agreement, but forcefully opposed by social movements who have decried the expansion of unpaid work permitted by the contract.
Xiao, Yuanmei; Li, Weijuan; Ren, Qingfeng; Ren, Xiaohui; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia
To investigate the change pattern of primary and secondary school teachers' work ability with the changes in their mental workload. A total of 901 primary and secondary school teachers were selected by random cluster sampling, and then their mental workload and work ability were assessed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaires, whose reliability and validity had been tested. The effects of their mental workload on the work ability were analyzed. Primary and secondary school teachers' work ability reached the highest level at a certain level of mental workload (55.73work ability had a positive correlation with the mental workload. Their work ability increased or maintained stable with the increasing mental workload. Moreover, the percentage of teachers with good work ability increased, while that of teachers with moderate work ability decreased. But when their mental workload was higher than the level, their work ability had a negative correlation with the mental workload. Their work ability significantly decreased with the increasing mental workload (P work ability decreased, while that of teachers with moderate work ability increased (P work ability. Moderate mental workload (55.73∼64.10) will benefit the maintaining and stabilization of their work ability.
Shahram Safari; Jafar Akbari; Meghdad Kazemi; Mohammad Amin Mououdi; Behzad Mahaki
Introduction. Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. Methods. This ...
Safari, Shahram; Akbari, Jafar; Kazemi, Meghdad; Mououdi, Mohammad Amin; Mahaki, Behzad
Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 194 male workers in textile industry. Employees based on their job group and work conditions have been divided into 6 categories. They completed work ability index and mental workload questionnaires during three work shifts. Body mass index (BMI) and demographic details were recorded. All of the participants rated their work ability as moderate with high mental workload. The mean WAI and mental workload in age group were significant. The mean BMI was 25.5 kg/m(2) (standard deviation 4.1) and the mean age was 40.22 years. There was a statistically significant correlation between work ability index and shift work. Unlike the previous study, a decrease point in WAI started in early age that may be due to life-style work and another psychological factor; on the other hand, NASA-TLX revealed high score in six subscales that can be another reason for low WAI.
Historians and economists generally (and prudently) choose narrowly to define "labor" as\\ud paid employment, ignoring the largest sector of work: unpaid\\ud work within the home. It is no longer sufficient to regard women\\ud who work in the home as "surplus" or "unproductive" workers.\\ud Rather, the movement of women out of the paid employment\\ud market and into the unpaid domestic market is linked to the\\ud increased value of labor within the home. Although certain shifts\\ud in the economy pu...
Sancini, Angela; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Capozzella, Assunta; Corbosiero, Paola; Fiaschetti, Maria; Caciari, Tiziana; Cetica, Carlotta; Scimitto, Lara; Ponticiello, Barnaba Giuseppina; Tasciotti, Zaira; Schifano, Maria Pia; Andreozzit, Giorgia; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco
Aim of our study was to evaluate the influence that shift work and night work could have on mental health. A review of literary articles from 1990 to 2011 on shift work and night work was carried out. The results of this review confirmed that the shift work and night work affect mental health with the onset of neuropsychological disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety, nervousness, depressive anxiety syndromes, chronic fatigue and chronic insomnia irritability, sleep disturbances, reduction in levels of attention, cognitive impairments, alteration of circadian rhythm. Night work and shift work cause severe desynchronization of the cronobiological rhythms and a disruption of social life with negative effects on performance at work, on health and on social relationships. In the light of these results and recognizing shift work and night work as risk factors for the health of workers is necessary to implement preventive and periodic health checks by the occupational doctor to ensure the health and safety of workers taking account of the different environmental and individual factors.
Wright, Nicola; Jordan, Melanie; Kane, Eddie
This article takes mental health and prisons as its two foci. It explores the links between social and structural aspects of the penal setting, the provision of mental healthcare in prisons, and mental health work in this environment. This analysis utilises qualitative interview data from prison-based fieldwork undertaken in Her Majesty׳s Prison Service, England. Two themes are discussed: (1) the desire and practicalities of doing mental health work and (2) prison staff as mental health work allies. Concepts covered include equivalence, training, ownership, informal communication, mental health knowledge, service gatekeepers, case identification, and unmet need. Implications for practice are (1) the mental health knowledge and understanding of prison wing staff could be appraised and developed to improve mental healthcare and address unmet need. Their role as observers and gatekeepers could be considered. (2) The realities of frontline mental health work for clinicians in the penal environment should be embraced and used to produce and implement improved policy and practice guidance, which is in better accord with the actuality of the context - both socially and structurally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Lena; Elgerisi, Dikla; Easterbrook, Adam; Ratzon, Navah Z
Employment offers many benefits to people with mental illness, yet their employment rate is much lower than that of the general population. We investigated the effect of work-related motor skills, neurocognition, and job attitudes on the work performance of people with mental illness, comparing those working in sheltered workshops, with controls working in similar jobs. Twenty-nine adults with severe mental illness and 27 controls matched by gender and age were enrolled into the study using convenience sampling. They were assessed for gross and fine motor hand functioning, job attitudes, work performance, and cognition. People with mental illness scored lower on work performance, cognitive functioning, and hand dexterity while sitting and working with tools. They were assigned lower job loads than were controls, and perceived the physical environment at work as more constraining than did controls. Assembling motor skills significantly explained the work performance of people with mental illness. The results expand our understanding of the complexities involved in the employment of people with severe mental illness, and point to new paths for improving vocational outcomes of people with severe mental illness, taking into account their motor skills and job attitudes. Implications for rehabilitation Therapists should be aware that employed people with severe mental illness may have various unmet needs, affecting their work performance and experience of stress. This study results demonstrate importance of motor skills and perception of the work environment for the promotion of vocational outcomes among individuals with severe mental illness. Employment of people with severe mental illness should be viewed from holistic perspective as with general population, rather than focused on traditionally illness-related factors.
De Moortel, Deborah; Thévenon, Olivier; De Witte, Hans; Vanroelen, Christophe
This study explores the association between involuntarily working less or more than the standard workweek and poor mental well-being, and whether this relationship is dependent upon (changing) national-level unemployment and gross domestic product growth rates. Data from the European Social Survey Round 2 (2004-2005) and Round 5 (2010) were analyzed. The sample included 16,224 male and 16,184 female employees. Mental well-being was assessed by the World Health Organization Well-being Index. Three-level linear multilevel modeling was used to account for clustering of employees within research years and countries. Working involuntary long hours was positively associated with poor mental well-being for men. For women, working voluntary long, involuntary long, and involuntary short hours were positively associated with poor mental well-being. The mental well-being of women working voluntary and involuntary long hours was negatively influenced by deteriorating economic conditions. This study suggests women are more vulnerable to the effects of long working hours and working hours mismatch on mental well-being, especially during difficult economic periods.
Full Text Available Introduction. Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 194 male workers in textile industry. Employees based on their job group and work conditions have been divided into 6 categories. They completed work ability index and mental workload questionnaires during three work shifts. Body mass index (BMI and demographic details were recorded. Results. All of the participants rated their work ability as moderate with high mental workload. The mean WAI and mental workload in age group were significant. The mean BMI was 25.5 kg/m2 (standard deviation 4.1 and the mean age was 40.22 years. There was a statistically significant correlation between work ability index and shift work. Conclusions. Unlike the previous study, a decrease point in WAI started in early age that may be due to life-style work and another psychological factor; on the other hand, NASA-TLX revealed high score in six subscales that can be another reason for low WAI.
Safari, Shahram; Akbari, Jafar; Kazemi, Meghdad; Mououdi, Mohammad Amin; Mahaki, Behzad
Introduction. Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 194 male workers in textile industry. Employees based on their job group and work conditions have been divided into 6 categories. They completed work ability index and mental workload questionnaires during three work shifts. Body mass index (BMI) and demographic details were recorded. Results. All of the participants rated their work ability as moderate with high mental workload. The mean WAI and mental workload in age group were significant. The mean BMI was 25.5 kg/m2 (standard deviation 4.1) and the mean age was 40.22 years. There was a statistically significant correlation between work ability index and shift work. Conclusions. Unlike the previous study, a decrease point in WAI started in early age that may be due to life-style work and another psychological factor; on the other hand, NASA-TLX revealed high score in six subscales that can be another reason for low WAI. PMID:23956756
Danielsson, Louise; Bertilsson, Monica; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel
Common mental disorders have a negative impact on work functioning, but less is known about the process when the functioning starts to destabilize. This study explores experiences of work instability in workers with common mental disorders. A grounded theory study using a theoretical sampling frame, individual in-depth interviews and a constant comparative analysis conducted by a multidisciplinary research team. The sample involved 27 workers with common mental disorders, currently working full or part time, or being on sick leave not more than 6 months. They were women and men of different ages, representing different occupations and illness severity. A general process of work instability was conceptualized by the core category Working in dissonance: captured in a bubble inside the work stream. The workers described that their ordinary fluency at work was disturbed. They distanced themselves from other people at and outside work, which helped them to regain their flow but simultaneously made them feel isolated. Four categories described sub-processes of the dissonance: Working out of rhythm, Working in discomfort, Working disconnected and Working in a no man's land. The experience of work instability in CMDs was conceptualized as "working in dissonance", suggesting a multifaceted dissonance at work, characterized by a sense of being caught up, as if in a bubble. Focusing on how the worker can re-enter their flow at work when experiencing dissonance is a new approach to explore in occupational and clinical settings.
Scanlan, Justin Newton; Meredith, Pamela; Poulsen, Anne A
Occupational therapists working in mental health who experience burnout, low work engagement or poor job satisfaction are at risk of poor wellbeing at work and may be more likely to leave their jobs. The aim of this project was to explore factors associated with wellbeing at work and turnover intention in a sample of occupational therapists working in mental health. One hundred and three occupational therapists working in mental health in Queensland completed a survey exploring work/life balance, effort invested in work, rewards received from work, wellbeing at work (job satisfaction, burnout and work engagement) and turnover intention. Analyses were conducted to explore relationships between work/life balance, effort, reward, wellbeing at work and turnover intention. All measures of wellbeing at work were significantly associated with turnover intention. A large proportion (33%) of the variance in turnover intention was predicted by job satisfaction. Perceptions of both work/life balance and effort invested in work, as well as perceived rewards in terms of recognition, prestige and personal satisfaction were significantly associated with work-related wellbeing scores. Results from this study deepen the understanding of factors associated with wellbeing at work and turnover intention for occupational therapists in mental health. This knowledge will support the development of interventions aimed at reducing turnover intention and enhancing retention of occupational therapists in the mental health workforce. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Kopp, Maria S; Stauder, Adrienne; Purebl, György; Janszky, Imre; Skrabski, Arpád
The aim of this representative study in the Hungarian population was to analyse the association between work-related factors and self-reported mental and physical health after controlling for negative affect and hostility as personality traits. The effects of job related factors on Beck Depression Score, WHO well-being score and self-rated health (SRH) were analysed in a representative sample of 3153 male and 2710 female economically active Hungarians. In both genders negative affect was the most important correlate of depression, well-being and SRH, whereas hostility was closely associated only with depression. Job insecurity, low control and low social support at work, weekend work hours, job-related life events and dissatisfaction with work and with boss were independent mental health risk factors, but there were important gender differences. Job related factors seem to be equally important predictors of mental health as social support from family. The results of this large national representative study indicate that independent of negative affect and hostility, a cluster of stressful work-related psychosocial conditions accounts for a substantial part of variation in self-reported mental and physical health of the economically active population in Hungary.
Grootemaat, Pam; Gillan, Cathie; Holt, Gillian; Forward, Wayne; Heywood, Narelle; Willis, Sue
Background The Working Together For Mental Health course is an 8-hour course designed to demystify mental illness and mental health services. The main target group for the course is people working in human service organisations who provide services for people with mental illness. Methods A questionnaire was administered to all participants attending the course during 2003 (n = 165). Participants completed the questionnaire before and immediately after the course, and at three month follow-up. Results A response rate of 69% was achieved with 114 people completing the questionnaire on all three occasions. The responses showed a significant improvement in the self-assessed knowledge and confidence of participants to provide human services to people with a mental health problem or disorder, three months after the course. There was no significant improvement in participants' attitudes or beliefs about people with a mental health problem or disorder at three month follow-up; however, participants' attitudes were largely positive before entering the course. Conclusion The Working Together For Mental Health course was successful in improving participants' confidence and knowledge around providing human services to people with a mental health illness. PMID:17074097
Miller, R D
The extensive literature concerning public mental hospitals has largely been written from the perspective of administrators and systems analysts; most of the reports emphasize the frustrations and problems of working in public mental hospitals and the continued exodus of psychiatrists from these facilities. The author addresses the pros and cons of such a career choice from the viewpoint of one who has been an "Indian" rather than a "chief" for a decade. He suggests that the current financial situation in both private practice and academia makes work in public mental hospitals increasingly attractive.
Van Gordon, W; Shonin, E; Zangeneh, M; Griffiths, MD
Work-related mental health issues such as work-related stress and addiction to work impose a significant health and economic burden to the employee, the employing organization, and the country of work more generally. Interventions that can be empirically shown to improve levels of work-related mental health – especially those with the potential to concurrently improve employee levels of work performance – are of particular interest to occupational stakeholders. One such broad-application inte...
Wong, M G P; Poole, C J M; Agius, R
Clinicians may be asked whether mental ill-health has been caused by work but there is no guidance on how this judgement should be made. To seek a consensus on the factors that should be considered and how they should be sought when attributing mental ill-health to work. A three-round Delphi study involving expert academics, occupational physicians, psychiatrists and psychologists. We deemed consensus had been reached when 66% or more of the experts were in agreement. Of 54 invited experts, 35 (65%) took part in the first round, 30 of these 35 (86%) in the second and 29 of these 30 (97%) in the final round. Consensus was reached for 11 workplace stressors: high job strain; effort-reward imbalance; major trauma; interpersonal conflict; inadequate support; role ambiguity; person-job mismatch; organizational injustice; organizational culture; work scheduling and threats to job security. Seven personal factors were identified as being important: previous mental illness; personality traits of neuroticism; adverse life events or social circumstances; resilience; a family history of mental illness and secondary gain. The worker, manager and co-workers were thought to be the most useful sources of workplace information. Consensus was reached for a definition of occupational mental illness but not for a threshold of work-relatedness. The attribution of mental ill-health to work is complex and involves the consideration of both workplace stressors and personal factors of vulnerability. Clinical consultation with an occupational physician who is familiar with the workplace is central to the process. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Zalat, Marwa Mohamed; Mortada, Eman Mohamed; El Seifi, Omnia Samir
This study was conducted to assess the level of mental health difference between working and non-working women, to explore their stigma and attitude toward seeking psychological help for mental-health problems. World Health Organization's Self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20), adoption of Discrimination-Devaluation scale (D-D) scale for measuring self-stigma and attitude toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS) Inventory were used. The sampled teachers reported a higher attitude towards seeking mental health services when compared to housewives. Social support and personal stigma were the main factors that significantly predict total IASMHS. Although working females are more susceptible to mental health disorders, yet less stigmatized towards mental health problems and a better attitude for seeking mental health services than housewives.
Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between work time control and mental health in workers working long hours. The study also attempted to show how that relationship depended on age and gender. Three hundred and six white-collar workers doing clerical work for over 8 h daily were diagnosed on work time control and mental health with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. The results of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that participants working long hours but having high control over their work time had a significantly higher level of their mental health with regard to somatic complaints and anxiety and marginally higher with regard to social dysfunction than workers with low control over their work time. Male and female workers reported different problems with their mental health depending on what age (stage of life) they were at. It is hypothesized that the work-family conflict, inability to fulfil social commitments and poor working conditions can influence those effects.
Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel
Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory - but not iconic visual memory - can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance ...
A look back, after a decade, at the issues surrounding women and work. Work options, childcare and family concerns, the glass ceiling, sexual harassment, women entrepreneurs, race and poverty, unpaid work, and women with disabilities are discussed.
Tophoven, S; Tisch, A; Rauch, A; Burghardt, A
The baby boomers are the first to be available to the German labour market up to the age of 67. A crucial premise for a long working life is good health. However, there is evidence that psychosocial working conditions are related to health. More and more employees report psychosocial stress at work. In addition, mental illness has become one of the main reasons for the entry into disability pension. Against this background this study considers the relationship between psychosocial work conditions and mental health exemplarily for two birth cohorts of the German baby boomers. For the analysis of the assumed relationships data of the lidA study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit - German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health" is used (N=6 057). Mental health is assessed by the mental health scale of the SF-12. In addition, the items and the scales quantitative job requirements, work pace and support from colleagues from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) are used. As further control variables cohort affiliation, level of education, occupational status and partnership are considered. Multivariate analyses of the relations between quantitative job requirements, work pace and the experienced support from colleagues show significant relationship to mental health. The increasing frequency of the requirement to work quickly and increasing quantitative job demands are negatively associated to mental health. However, support of colleagues shows a positive relationship to mental health. These results are similarly observed for women and men. For the regarded group of the German babyboomers, employees at the threshold to higher working age, it is clearly shown that psychosocial working conditions are related to mental health. Since this group still has to work up to 18 years given a statutory retirement age of 67, psychosocial working conditions should rather be in the focus of occupational safety. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S E
The mental health of men is an important issue with significant direct and indirect costs emerging from work-related depression and suicide. Although the merits of men's community-based and workplace mental health promotion initiatives have been endorsed, few programs are mandated or formally evaluated and reported on. Conspicuously absent also are gender analyses detailing connections between masculinities and men's work-related depression and suicide on which to build men-centered mental health promotion programs. This article provides an overview of four interconnected issues, (a) masculinities and men's health, (b) men and work, (c) men's work-related depression and suicide, and (d) men's mental health promotion, in the context of men's diverse relationships to work (including job insecurity and unemployment). Based on the review, recommendations are made for advancing the well-being of men who are in as well as of those out of work.
Jiao, Sunny; Bungay, Vicky
Men engaged in sex work experience significant stigma that can have devastating effects for their mental health. Little is known about how male sex workers experience stigma and its effects on mental health or their strategies to prevent its effects in the Canadian context. This study examined the interrelationships between stigma and mental health among 33 Canadian indoor, male sex workers with a specific goal of understanding how stigma affected men's mental health and their protective strategies to mitigate against its effects. Men experienced significant enacted stigma that negatively affected their social supports and ability to develop and maintain noncommercial, romantic relationships. Men navigated stigma by avoidance and resisting internalization. Strategy effectiveness to promote mental health varied based on men's perspectives of sex work as a career versus a forced source of income. Programming to promote men's mental health must take into consideration men's diverse strategies and serve to build social supports.
Pickard, Linda; King, Derek; Brimblecombe, Nicola; Knapp, Martin
This paper explores the effectiveness of paid services in supporting unpaid carers' employment in England. There is currently a new emphasis in England on 'replacement care', or paid services for the cared-for person, as a means of supporting working carers. The international evidence on the effectiveness of paid services as a means of supporting carers' employment is inconclusive and does not relate specifically to England. The study reported here explores this issue using the 2009/10 Personal Social Services Survey of Adult Carers in England . The study finds a positive association between carers' employment and receipt of paid services by the cared-for person, controlling for covariates. It therefore gives support to the hypothesis that services for the cared-for person are effective in supporting carers' employment. Use of home care and a personal assistant are associated on their own with the employment of both men and women carers, while use of day care and meals-on-wheels are associated specifically with women's employment. Use of short-term breaks are associated with carers' employment when combined with other services. The paper supports the emphasis in English social policy on paid services as a means of supporting working carers, but questions the use of the term 'replacement care' and the emphasis on 'the market'.
Smith, Peter M; Black, Oliver; Keegel, Tessa; Collie, Alex
To examine if the factors associated with days of absence following a work-related injury are similar for mental health versus musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions. A secondary analysis of wage replacement workers' compensation claims in the state of Victoria, Australia. We examined the relationship between individual, injury, occupational and workplace variables with days of wage replacement over the 2-year period following first day of absence from work separately for mental health claims and MSK claims using negative binomial regression models. Mental health conditions were associated with a greater number of days of absence over the 2 years following first incapacity compared to MSK conditions. Differences were observed in employment, injury and industry variables on absence from work for mental claims compared to MSK claims. Working in the agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining industries and employment with a small organisation were more strongly associated with the number of days of wage-replacement among MSK compared to mental health claims, and working in the public administration and safety, or education and training industries or being employed in a position with high time pressure were associated with greater days of wage-replacement among mental health compared to MSK claims. Predictors of days away from work in the 2 years following an injury differ for mental health versus MSK claims. Given the increasing number of mental health claims in Australia more research is required to understand differences in return-to-work for this group of claimants compared to those with physical injuries.
Janse VAN Rensburg, E S; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H
South African student nurses experience emotional discomfort that might influence their adjustment and coping while working with mentally challenged individuals. Adjustment and coping might impact on their mental health and support needed while working in this challenging context. Student nurses working with mentally challenged individuals experience emotional discomfort that may result in work-related stress. The experiences of student nurses working with mentally challenged individuals were explored and described as it may influence their adjustment, coping and result in work-related stress, impacting on their mental health. The study used a qualitative, explorative, descriptive, contextual research design with a case study as strategy. Thirteen student nurses from a specific higher educational institution in Gauteng, South Africa, participated in the focus group interviews. The researcher utilized reflective journals, a reflective letter, naïve sketches, drawings and field notes to collect data. Data analysis was done according to Tesch's descriptive method of open coding and theme analysis. A central storyline emerged where student nurses described working with mentally challenged individuals as a process of personal transformation that was initiated by an engagement on a deeper emotional level with these individuals. The process of personal transformation started a journey towards the discovery of meaning for the self, as student nurses. Student nurses working in challenging environments during their training may experience emotional discomfort and need additional support in coping and adjustment within this context. The nurse educator plays an important role in providing this support to manage work-related stress as well as in creating learning opportunities for the student nurses working in challenging contexts. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
Stansfeld, Stephen; Candy, Bridget
To clarify the associations between psychosocial work stressors and mental ill health, a meta-analysis of psychosocial work stressors and common mental disorders was undertaken using longitudinal studies identified through a systematic literature review. The review used a standardized search strategy and strict inclusion and quality criteria in seven databases in 1994-2005. Papers were identified from 24,939 citations covering social determinants of health, 50 relevant papers were identified, 38 fulfilled inclusion criteria, and 11 were suitable for a meta-analysis. The Comprehensive Meta-analysis Programme was used for decision authority, decision latitude, psychological demands, and work social support, components of the job-strain and iso-strain models, and the combination of effort and reward that makes up the effort-reward imbalance model and job insecurity. Cochran's Q statistic assessed the heterogeneity of the results, and the I2 statistic determined any inconsistency between studies. Job strain, low decision latitude, low social support, high psychological demands, effort-reward imbalance, and high job insecurity predicted common mental disorders despite the heterogeneity for psychological demands and social support among men. The strongest effects were found for job strain and effort-reward imbalance. This meta-analysis provides robust consistent evidence that (combinations of) high demands and low decision latitude and (combinations of) high efforts and low rewards are prospective risk factors for common mental disorders and suggests that the psychosocial work environment is important for mental health. The associations are not merely explained by response bias. The impact of work stressors on common mental disorders differs for women and men.
Kondrat, David C.; Early, Theresa J.
The working alliance between clients and helpers has been identified as a common factor of treatment effectiveness, yet very little research has explored variables associated with working alliance between mental health case managers and their consumers. This study explored the potential covariates of working alliance within community mental health…
Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Jackson, Debra; Hunt, Glenn E
Frequently, research and conference papers explore difficult or problematic areas of practice that can inadvertently render daily nursing accomplishments invisible and create the perception of a discipline in crisis. In this qualitative study, we explore the views of registered nurses about achievements in the workplace and good nursing work in an acute inpatient mental health setting in Sydney, Australia. Mental health nurses were asked a series of questions about their experiences and understanding of what constitutes good nursing work as well as their sense of optimism about their work. A total of 40 structured face-to-face interviews were completed. Among the responses to questions about achievements and good nursing practice, five broad themes were identified: i) teamwork; (ii) interpersonal interactions with patients; (iii) providing practical and holistic support to patients; (iv) patients' mental health improvements; and (v) optimism-pessimism continuum. Findings contribute to a discussion of good nursing work in acute mental health settings, as well as self-perceptions of optimism and hopefulness, which are important contributors to positive, supportive health-care settings and patient recovery. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
SHIMAZU, Akihito; MATSUDAIRA, Ko; DE JONGE, Jan; TOSAKA, Naoya; WATANABE, Kazuhiro; TAKAHASHI, Masaya
This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental he...
Ohta, Masanori; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Yamato, Hiroshi; Kumashiro, Masaharu; Sugimura, Hisamichi
In the occupational health field, it is important to know how workload influences mental health. Overtime work and job strain appear to affect the mental health status of workers. Sense of coherence (SOC) may mediate the relationship between work stress and mental health. Since SOC represents a personal ability to manage psychological stressors, we hypothesized that a strong SOC would modify the adverse effect of an objective measure of overtime work on mental health. A total of 1,558 Japanese workers employed in an information technology company were asked to complete a 3-item SOC Questionnaire and 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) to assess mental health status. Workload was assessed by the actual amount of overtime work hours recorded by the company. Multiple regression analysis revealed a main effect of overtime work (β=0.08, p=0.0003) and SOC scores (β=0.41, p work and SOC scores (β=0.05, p=0.051). Simple slope analysis supported this association (-1 SD below the mean, simple slope=0.04, SE=0.01, p health impacts of workload as measured by an objective index of overtime work, and should be considered when assessing the effects of workload on mental health.
Bishop, M; Gelbier, S; King, J
In November 2002, the BDA News carried an item, illustrated with a colour reproduction, describing a painting of a Georgian dentist's rooms by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), one of the most respected of English artists, which was shortly to come up for auction at Christies' Rooms in London. This work, first exhibited in 1808, was entitled "The unpaid bill, or the dentist reproving his son's prodigality", and had originally been commissioned by the connoisseur Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824). "The examiner", a contemporary London journal, identifies the 'cradle-piece' for the commission as being a Rembrandt which Payne Knight owned, and the journalist Robert Hunt said that Turner had more than come up to the task of showing that a modern could handle light as well as the old master, 'for a picture of colouring and effect, it is ... inestimable'.
Song, In Han; Lee, Eun Jung
Since the introduction of evidence-based practice in South Korea, it has gained significant attention for its potential to promote the efficacy of social work services and to integrate knowledge and practice in mental health social work. In order to see how empirical research in South Korean mental health social work has changed, we examined…
Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen
Healthcare workers face multiple psychosocial work hazards intrinsic to their work, including heavy workloads and shift work. However, how contemporary adverse psychosocial work conditions, such as workplace justice and insecurity, may contribute to increased mental health risks has rarely been studied. This study aimed to search for modifiable psychosocial work factors associated with mental health disorders in Taiwanese healthcare workers. A total of 349 healthcare workers were identified from 19,641 employees who participated in a national survey of Taiwan. Minor mental disorder was assessed using the five-item brief symptom rating scale. We compared psychosocial work characteristics and the prevalence of minor mental disorder in healthcare workers with that in a sociodemographically matched sample, and examined the associations of psychosocial work conditions with mental health status. Healthcare workers were found to have a higher prevalence of minor mental disorder than general workers, and they were more likely to have longer working hours, heavier psychological job demands, higher job control, more workplace violence, and a higher prevalence of shift work. Among healthcare workers, experiences of workplace violence, lower workplace justice, heavier psychological job demands, and job insecurity were associated with a higher risk for minor mental disorder, even after controlling for working hours and shift work. Despite the fact that healthcare workers work longer hours and shift work, there were several modifiable psychosocial work conditions that should be targeted to improve their mental health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Allden, K; Jones, L; Weissbecker, I; Wessells, M; Bolton, P; Betancourt, T S; Hijazi, Z; Galappatti, A; Yamout, R; Patel, P; Sumathipala, A
The Working Group on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support was convened as part of the 2009 Harvard Humanitarian Action Summit. The Working Group chose to focus on ethical issues in mental health and psychosocial research and programming in humanitarian settings. The Working Group built on previous work and recommendations, such as the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. The objective of this working group was to address one of the factors contributing to the deficiency of research and the need to develop the evidence base on mental health and psychosocial support interventions during complex emergencies by proposing ethical research guidelines. Outcomes research is vital for effective program development in emergency settings, but to date, no comprehensive ethical guidelines exist for guiding such research efforts. Working Group members conducted literature reviews which included peer-reviewed publications, agency reports, and relevant guidelines on the following topics: general ethical principles in research, cross-cultural issues, research in resource-poor countries, and specific populations such as trauma and torture survivors, refugees, minorities, children and youth, and the mentally ill. Working Group members also shared key points regarding ethical issues encountered in their own research and fieldwork. The group adapted a broad definition of the term "research", which encompasses needs assessments and data gathering, as well as monitoring and evaluation. The guidelines are conceptualized as applying to formal and informal processes of assessment and evaluation in which researchers as well as most service providers engage. The group reached consensus that it would be unethical not to conduct research and evaluate outcomes of mental health and psychosocial interventions in emergency settings, given that there currently is very little good evidence base for such interventions
Carder, Melanie; Turner, Susan; McNamee, Roseanne; Agius, Raymond
There is concern about the frequency of work-related mental ill-health and 'stress' within the UK. To provide a measure of the incidence of work-related mental ill-health reported by specialist psychiatrists and occupational physicians to UK voluntary reporting schemes during the period 2002-05. Additionally, an investigation of determinants, notably factors identified by reporters as precipitants in cases of work-related mental ill-health was undertaken. The study used data collected by The Health and Occupation Reporting Network (THOR) from 2002 to 2005. Cases were analysed by age, gender, industry and precipitating event. Estimated annual average incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals of work-related mental ill-health diagnoses reported to THOR between 2002 and 2005 by psychiatrists were 89 (78, 101) per million and by occupational physicians were 1589 (1443, 1735) per million. For both groups of reporters, anxiety and depression continued to make up the largest proportion of diagnoses. The majority of cases were attributed to factors such as workload and difficulties with other workers. There was some suggestion that the type of factors associated with the mental ill-health case reports varied between industrial sectors. Work-related anxiety and depression and stress continue to constitute a significant proportion of all work-related mental ill-health diagnoses in the UK, with workload and interpersonal relationships reported as significant risk factors. Further investigations may determine whether guidance for employers and employees on work-related mental ill-health would benefit from being more industry specific.
Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne; Rugulies, Reiner
According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed mental health using the 5-item mental health inventory from the Short form 36 questionnaire. We analyzed data using multi-level modeling, adjusting for potential confounding by sex, age, cohabitation, occupational position, and baseline mental health. Unnecessary work tasks were prospectively associated with a decreased level of mental health. This association was stronger for employees with poor baseline mental health and tended to be more pronounced among older employees. Among participants with poor baseline mental health, the association was explained by neither psychological demands nor decision latitude. Our findings suggest that the prevention of unnecessary work tasks may benefit employee mental health, particularly among employees with pre-existing mental health problems.
Jul 31, 2017 ... These gender equality indicators are shedding light on girls' and women's ... Young people do a tremendous amount of unpaid care work at the ages when ... Read the report "Counting Women's Work in Vietnam" · View the ...
deVries, Marten W; Wilkerson, Bill
The United Nations, WHO and the World Bank have called the current prevalence rate of neuro-psychiatric disorder approaches of 1 in 4 individuals worldwide and 'unheralded public health crisis'. Rates are driven by an early onset, high impairment and high chronicity of these disorders. Most importantly, detection and treatment rates are low, estimated at les than 10% worldwide resulting in 500 million people underserved. The related economic costs soared in 1999 to 120 billion dollars in Europe and North America, with over 60 billion dollars assigned to stress related disorders. Contributing factors are bio-psycho-social and include rapid social change as well as the time compression of modern life resulting in the experience of increased work-life stress that parallels a decade long intensification of activities in the workplace. Coping with the requirements of the new economy of mental performance has lagged behind at many individual and social levels as we cling to adjustments made during the industrial economy of the last century. A climate of transition, and more recently, terror and fear have stressed the landscape of mental health and work already ravaged by the destructive forces of stigma. This presentation will examine the other side of prosperity from the point of view of stress in the workplace as two global problems converge at this time in history, the escalation of neuro-psychiatric disorders and the increasing dependence on the mental faculties of the world's citizens. In this paper we also discuss how the international community can work together to help reduce the burden of mental disorders worldwide and sketch the implications for research and policy. Ultimately the media will need to be enlisted to educate the public on the value of investments in mental health.
ón diferencial según la cualificación laboral y el género.Objectives: To analyze inequalities in mental health in the working population by gender and professional qualifications and to identify psychosocial risk factors and employment conditions related to the mental health of this population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Barcelona Health Survey 2000. The working population aged 16-64 years (2322 men and 1836 women was included. Mental health was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression models separated by job qualifications and gender. Results: The prevalence of poor mental health ranged from 8% among men working in non-manual occupations to 19% in women working in manual jobs. Women were more likely to report poor mental health status than men, although sex differences were greater among manual workers (aOR = 2.26; 95%CI, 1.68-3.05 for women compared to men in the same group. Differences according to qualifications were found among women only (aOR = 1.58 [95%CI, 1.22-2.05] for women working in manual jobs compared to those working in non-manual jobs, while no differences were found among men according to qualifications. Psychosocial risk factors were associated with mental health: demand was associated in all groups, autonomy only in non-manual occupations, and social support only in the most highly qualified working women. Employment conditions such as working a split shift (working day with a long lunch break or having a temporary contract were associated with mental health in manual occupations only. Conclusions: Mental health among the working population is related to professional qualifications and gender. Women are at greater risk than men, especially those working in manual occupations. Psychosocial occupational factors are related to mental health status, showing different patterns
Day, Andrew; Thurlow, Katie; Woolliscroft, Jessica
This study aimed to establish the views of a group of mental health professionals from various disciplines working in mental health service in a British hospital about the needs of clients who had experienced childhood sexual abuse. Staff members were asked to complete an anonymous survey which asked questions relating to knowledge of sexual abuse and its effects, and the needs of clients and staff in working with this client group. A total of 54 people responded to the survey, 42 were female, 11 male. Most (72%) reported having over 10 years experience working in mental health, working in both in-patient and out-patient settings. While respondents were reasonably knowledgeable about childhood sexual abuse, they were not very comfortable, competent or supported in their work with this client group. There were no differences in responses according to the age or gender of respondents, but less experienced staff were more likely to feel supported. Those that had received training and/or supervision felt significantly more capable in working with this client group. The study offers some support for the development of specialist training, consultancy and supervision programs for mental health staff in the area of child sexual abuse.
Sluiter, JK; Frings-Dresen, MHW; van der Beek, AJ; Meijman, TF; Heisterkamp, SH
Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the type or nature (physical, mental or mixed mental and physical) of work and work characteristics is related to the course of neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from work. Methods Neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery
Sluiter, J. K.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.; van der Beek, A. J.; Meijman, T. F.; Heisterkamp, S. H.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the type or nature (physical, mental or mixed mental and physical) of work and work characteristics is related to the course of neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from work. METHODS: Neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery
Silva-Junior, João Silvestre; Fischer, Frida Marina
Mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefit due to sickness in Brazil. Occupational exposure to psychosocial stressors can affect the workers' mental health. The social security medical experts are responsible for characterizing if those sicknesses are work-related. To evaluate the factors associated with sick leave due to mental disorders, in particular, the perception of workers on psychosocial factors at work. This is an analytical study carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, with 131 applicants for sickness benefit due to mental disorders. Questionnaires were applied to assess the sociodemographic data, habits/lifestyle information, and perceived psychosocial factors at work. The most common diagnosis was depressive disorders (40.4%). The medical experts considered 23.7% of all applications as work-related. Most of the participants were female (68.7%), up to 40 years of age (73.3%), married/common-law marriage (51.1%), with educational level greater than or equal to 11 years (80.2%), nonsmokers (80.9%), not alcohol consumers (84%), and practice of physical activities (77.9%). Regarding psychosocial factors, most of the participants informed a high job strain (56.5%), low social support (52.7%), effort-reward imbalance (55.7%), and high overcommitment (87.0%). There was no statistical association between the work-related mental disorders sickness benefits and independent variables. The concession of social security sickness benefits is not associated with sociodemographic data, habits/lifestyle, or psychosocial factors at work. Occupational exposure to unfavorable psychosocial factors was reported by most workers on sick leave due to mental disorders. However, several cases were not recognized by the social security medical experts as work-related, which may have influenced the results of the associations.
de Graaf, Ron; Tuithof, Marlous; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; ten Have, Margreet
To estimate work loss days due to absenteeism and presenteeism associated with commonly occurring mental and physical disorders. In a nationally representative face-to-face survey (Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2) including 4,715 workers, the presence of 13 mental and 10 chronic physical disorders was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 and a physical disorder checklist. Questions about absent days due to illness and days of reduced quantitative and qualitative functioning while at work were based on the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Total work loss days were defined as the sum of the days of these three types of loss, where days of reduced functioning were counted as half. Both individual and population-level effects of disorders on work loss were studied, taking comorbidity into account. Any mental disorder was associated with 10.5 additional absent days, 8.0 days of reduced-qualitative functioning and 12.0 total work loss days. For any physical disorder, the number of days was 10.7, 3.5 and 11.3, respectively. Adjusted for comorbidity, drug abuse, bipolar disorder, major depression, digestive disorders and panic disorder were associated with the highest number of additional total work loss days. At population-level, major depression, chronic back pain, respiratory disorders, drug abuse and digestive disorders contributed the most. Annual total work loss costs per million workers were estimated at 360 million for any mental disorder; and 706 million for any physical disorder. Policies designed to lessen the impact of commonly occurring disorders on workers will contribute to a reduction in absenteeism and presenteeism. As the indirect costs of (mental) disorders are much higher than their medical costs, prevention and treatment of these conditions may be cost-effective.
This can include negative physical, psychological, and social consequences for both the young ... forces to investigate the impacts of paid and unpaid work on the mental health of Chilean workers, paying particular attention to gender issues.
Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle
Social inequalities in mental health have been demonstrated but understanding the mechanisms remains unclear. This study aims at exploring the role of psychosocial work factors in explaining occupational inequalities in mental health among European employees. The study sample covered 33,443 employees coming from the European Working Conditions Survey 2010. Mental health was measured by the WHO-5 well-being index and socioeconomic position by occupation. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were constructed including job demands, job influence and development, role stressors, social support, quality of leadership, discrimination, violence at work, working hours, job promotion, job insecurity and work-life imbalance. Multilevel linear regressions and bootstrap analyses were performed. Occupational differences were observed for poor mental health and almost all psychosocial work factors. Factors related to job demands, influence and development at work, social relationships and leadership, working hours and other factors contributed to explain the occupational inequalities in mental health. In particular, factors related to influence and development contributed substantially. Among men, workplace violences were found to contribute little whereas among women these factors did not play a role. Future prevention interventions should have a broad and comprehensive focus in order to reduce social inequalities in mental health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Afonso, P; Fonseca, M; Pires, J F
The number of hours people are required to work has a pervasive influence on both physical and mental health. Excessive working hours can also negatively affect sleep quality. The impact at work of mental health problems can have serious consequences for individuals' as well as for organizations' productivity. To evaluate differences in sleep quality and anxiety and depression symptoms between longer working hours group (LWHG) and regular working hours group (RWHG). To examine factors influencing weekly working hours, sleep quality and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were divided into two groups, RWHG and LWHG, based on working hours, with a cut-off of 48 h per week. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess anxiety and depression symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure the quality and patterns of sleep. The response rate was 23%. Among the 429 study participants, those in the LWHG group (n = 256, 53%) had significantly more depressive and anxiety symptoms and worse sleep quality than those in RWHG (n = 223, 47%). Working time was significantly positively correlated with higher corporate position and HADS scores. Moreover, HADS scores were positively correlated with PSQI scores and negatively correlated with age. This study suggests that longer working hours are associated with poorer mental health status and increasing levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. There was a positive correlation between these symptoms and sleep disturbances. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Logan, Jade
Little research has explored linkages between work conditions and mental health in working-class employed parents. The current study aims to address this gap, employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how levels of and changes in job autonomy, job urgency, supervisor support, and coworker support predicted parents' depressive…
Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Angela; Leach, Liana S; Nicholson, Jan M
One in ten fathers experience mental health difficulties in the first year postpartum. Unsupportive job conditions that exacerbate work-family conflict are a potential risk to fathers' mental health given that most new fathers (95%) combine parenting with paid work. However, few studies have examined work-family conflict and mental health for postpartum fathers specifically. The aim of the present study was to identify the particular work characteristics (e.g., work hours per week, job quality) associated with work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' mental health in the postpartum period. Survey data from 3243 fathers of infants (aged 6-12 months) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed via path analysis, considering key confounders (age, education, income, maternal employment, maternal mental health and relationship quality). Long and inflexible work hours, night shift, job insecurity, a lack of autonomy and more children in the household were associated with increased work-family conflict, and this was in turn associated with increased distress. Job security, autonomy, and being in a more prestigious occupation were positively associated with work-family enrichment and better mental health. These findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian fathers contribute novel evidence that employment characteristics, via work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, are key determinants of fathers' postnatal mental health, independent from established risk factors. Findings will inform the provision of specific 'family-friendly' conditions protective for fathers during this critical stage in the family life-cycle, with implications for their wellbeing and that of their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levecque, K.; Anseel, F.; Beuckelaer, A. de; Van Der Heyden, J.; Gisle, L.
Research policy observers are increasingly concerned about the potential impact of current academic working conditions on mental health, particularly in PhD students. The aim of the current study is threefold. First, we assess the prevalence of mental health problems in a representative sample of
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Puskar, Kathryn; Yacoub, Mohammad; Marini, Anita
Changes in mental health services have an impact on the role and practice of mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' experiences of providing mental health care, their work-related stress, and organizational support received. A descriptive correlation design was used. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. The result of this study revealed that mental health nurses shared a high level of agreement on the importance of most nursing tasks. Mental health nurses reported a moderate level of stress, with a lack of resources and relationship and conflict with other professionals being the most frequent stressors. Nurses perceived a low level of support for their work from their supervisors. Work stress and conflict with other professionals had a significant, negative correlation with the perception the nurses had of their immediate supervisors (r = -0.29, P work stress, organizational support, and the nurses' age, sex, or level of education. This study has clinical implications in terms of developing strategies for reducing stress and improving organizational support among mental health nurses, and it should help in future research. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Krantz, Gunilla; Berntsson, Leeni; Lundberg, Ulf
The aim of this study was to analyse how paid work, unpaid household tasks, child care, work-child care interactions and perceived work stress are associated with reported symptoms in male and female white-collar employees. A questionnaire was mailed to 1300 men and 1300 women belonging to the white-collar sector, with at least 35 hours of regular employment a week and a participant age of between 32 and 58 years. It contained items relating to total workload (hours spent on paid work, unpaid household tasks and childcare), subjective indices for work stress and symptoms. The response rate was 65% (743 women; 595 men). Gender difference in symptom prevalence was tested by analyses of variance. Odds ratios were used to estimate the bivariate associations between work-related variables and symptom prevalence. A multivariate analysis estimated the effect of paid and unpaid work interaction, work-childcare interplay and possible synergy. The frequency and severity of symptoms was higher in women than in men (P women's health was determined by the interaction between conditions at work and household duties (OR 2.09; 1.06-4.14), whereas men responded more selectively to long working hours, i.e. >50 h/week (OR 1.61; 1.02-2.54). However, childcare (women.
Friedman, Carli; Rizzolo, Mary C.
The United States long-term services and supports system is built on largely unpaid (informal) labor. There are a number of benefits to allowing family caregivers to serve as paid personal care providers including better health and satisfaction outcomes, expanded workforces, and cost effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine how…
Toth, Kate E; Dewa, Carolyn S
Fear of stigma may lead employees to choose not to disclose a mental disorder in the workplace, thereby limiting help-seeking through workplace accommodation. Research suggests that various factors are considered in making decisions related to disclosure of concealable stigmatizing attributes, yet limited literature explores such decision-making in the context of mental disorder and work. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model of disclosure specific to mental health issues in a work context. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 employees of a post-secondary educational institution in Canada. Data were analyzed according to grounded theory methods through processes of open, selective, and theoretical coding. Findings indicated that employees begin from a default position of nondisclosure that is attributable to fear of being stigmatized in the workplace as a result of the mental disorder. In order to move from the default position, employees need a reason to disclose. The decision-making process itself is a risk-benefit analysis, during which employees weigh risks and benefits within the existing context as they assess it. The model identifies that fear of stigmatization is one of the problems with disclosure at work and describes the disclosure decision-making process. Understanding of how employees make decisions about disclosure in the workplace may inform organizational policies, practices, and programs to improve the experiences of individuals diagnosed with a mental disorder at work. The findings suggest possible intervention strategies in education, policy, and culture for reducing stigma of mental disorders in the workplace.
Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M; O'Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J Michael; Casper, Lynne
Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals' perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals' work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees' mental health. We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a "private trouble" and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work.
Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Sluiter, J. K.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.
We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were
Ennis, Gary; Happell, Brenda; Broadbent, Marc; Reid-Searl, Kerry
Communication has been identified as an important attribute of clinical leadership in nursing. However, there is a paucity of research on its relevance in mental health nursing. This article presents the findings of a grounded theory informed study exploring the attributes and characteristics required for effective clinical leadership in mental health nursing, specifically the views of nurses working in mental health about the importance of effective communication in day to day clinical leadership. In-depth interviews were conducted to gain insight into the participants' experiences and views on clinical leadership in mental health nursing. The data that emerged from these interviews were constantly compared and reviewed, ensuring that any themes that emerged were based on the participants' own experiences and views. Participants recognized that effective communication was one of the attributes of effective clinical leadership and they considered communication as essential for successful working relationships and improved learning experiences for junior staff and students in mental health nursing. Four main themes emerged: choice of language; relationships; nonverbal communication, and listening and relevance. Participants identified that clinical leadership in mental health nursing requires effective communication skills, which enables the development of effective working relationships with others that allows them to contribute to the retention of staff, improved outcomes for clients, and the development of the profession.
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François
This study investigates work performance among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada). We hypothesized that work performance was positively associated with the use of standardized clinical tools and clinical approaches, integration strategies, "clan culture," and mental health funding per capita. Work performance was measured using an adapted version of the Work Role Questionnaire. Variables were organized into four key areas: (1) team attributes, (2) organizational culture, (3) inter-organizational interactions, and (4) external environment. Work performance was associated with two types of organizational culture (clan and hierarchy) and with two team attributes (use of standardized clinical tools and approaches). This study was innovative in identifying associations between work performance and best practices, justifying their implementation. Recommendations are provided to develop organizational cultures promoting a greater focus on the external environment and integration strategies that strengthen external focus, service effectiveness, and innovation.
Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M.; O’Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J. Michael; Casper, Lynne
Purpose Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. Methodology/approach This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). Findings We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals’ perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals’ work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees’ mental health. Originality/value of the chapter We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a “private trouble” and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work. PMID:25866431
Williams, Marian E.; Haranin, Emily C.
Up to 70% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a co-occurring mental health disorder; however, many clinicians feel unprepared to serve children with complex co-occurring conditions. This study surveyed 64 mental health clinicians working in 21 publically-funded mental health agencies in a large urban setting to explore their…
Silva, Amanda Aparecida; Fischer, Frida Marina
This manuscript presents a review of the literature about medical leaves due to mental and behavioral disorders and return to work of teachers. There are scarce published manuscripts. Most articles relate with prevalence of mental disorders and factors associated with the work organization, and did not mention intervention proposals and or changes in the work organization and teaching work. Proposed actions are discussed.
Ustün, T B; Cooper, J E; van Duuren-Kristen, S; Kennedy, C; Hendershot, G; Sartorius, N
This article reviews the key issues arising in the revision of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH) from a mental health perspective, and describes the work of the Disability Working Group of the WHO's Division of Mental Health. The ICIDH, which describes the consequences of disorders at three levels as impairments, disabilities, and handicaps, is generally applicable and useful for mental health purposes. While some impairments are mainly a consequence of 'mental' disorders (e.g. cognitive impairment), there should be no differences between mental and physical disorders in the classification scheme, to avoid a dichotomy between mind and body. There is also a need to improve the ways in which interference with the performance of social roles is described, since this is often the most obvious consequence of mental disorders. This article presents the potentials of the ICIDH in the field of mental health, and gives recommendations for the development of the revision process of the ICIDH. To stimulate the process of producing a 'common language' in the ICIDH related to mental health issues, former and potential users of the ICIDH are invited to give comments and suggestions.
Katz, Arthur J., Ed.
Articles by social work educators on some of the critical issues in community mental health are presented. Examined are some conceptual and program developments related to coordination, continuity of care, and the use of teams in planning and service delivery for community mental health (Lawrence K. Berg). The issue of civil commitment to and…
Michon, H. W. C.; ten Have, M.; Kroon, H.; van Weeghel, J.; de Graaf, R.; Schene, A. H.
Background. Both mental disorders and personality characteristics are associated with impaired work functioning, but these determinants have not yet been studied together. The aim of this paper is to examine the impairing effects that mental disorders and personality characteristics (i.e.
Full Text Available The paper discusses an initiative taking place in two cooperatives in Nicaragua. This involves the incorporation of a component for women’s unpaid work into the cost structures of Fair Trade contracts for coffee and sesame. The argument is that the unpaid work which is done mainly by women in the household and community represents an important input into production and one which should be valued and remunerated. Its recognition can both empower women and provide a fresh demonstration of the power of the cooperatives and Fair Trade in innovating so as to improve the conditions of disadvantaged people in their supply chains.The funding which has now been in place for two years has led to a number of very different projects for women. The involvement has spread not only to women doing unpaid work but also to women in low paid and marginalised jobs within the cooperatives. In particular, this raises the question of to whom the money allocated under this scheme should be paid, and whether it should primarily be used for collective or individual projects. This is an innovative development with the power fundamentally to change gender relations and empower women. It is significant that it is being pioneered in a poor country in the South rather than in the rich North. Este artículo analiza una iniciativa que tiene lugar en dos cooperativas de Nicaragua. Se incorpora al estudio el componente del trabajo no remunerado de las mujeres en el coste de las estructuras del comercio justo con contratos para el café y el sésamo. El argumento que se esgrime es que el trabajo no remunerado realizado principalmente por mujeres en el ámbito doméstico y de la comunidad representa un aporte importante a la producción, que se debe valorar y remunerar. Su reconocimiento puede investir de poder a las mujeres y demostrar el poder de las cooperativas y el comercio justo para innovar y mejorar las condiciones de personas desfavorecidas en las cadenas de producci
Pachoud, B; Corbière, M
Sustained work integration for people with a severe mental illness or handicap psychique in French (e.g., schizophrenia) is an important issue in our society today. Indeed, work is not only an essential factor in people's social integration but is also a stepping-stone toward recovery for this clientele. Well-defined programs and services related to work integration were developed and studied over the last three decades. Although the work integration of people with severe mental illness has been studied extensively in the Anglo-Saxon literature, the impact of these studies on the traditional beliefs and services in France remains uncertain. In terms of the scope of the studies so far, there has been an initial interest lasting over many years to uncover individual characteristics of people with severe mental illness which would best predict job tenure. Since, studies have been increasingly investigating various supports in order to facilitate the work integration process. These supports can be illustrated as direct supports or accommodations offered in the workplace, as needed, particularly when people with severe mental illness choose to disclose their mental disorder in the workplace. This awareness of the impact of the workplace environment on the work integration of people with a severe mental illness increases the need to find solutions and develop environmentally sensitive clinical strategies to overcome difficulties during the work integration. To illustrate this thematic, in this special issue, we have gathered together studies conducted in different countries but who share the focus on work integration of people with a severe mental illness. To reflect the advancement in this domain, this special issue is divided in three parts. The first part consists of the presentation of different types of vocational programs: supported employment programs, social firms, and hybrid models. Supported employment programs are very well documented in the specialised
This study aim is the nurses perceptions inside the mental health daily attention centre and the interdisciplinary aspect their work. This study has emerged from the necessity of understanding the work and participation of the nurses who act in those new places together with a interdisciplinary group, taking into consideration that graduation does not educate nurses for this kind of work. The interdisciplinary work has been seen as a sine qua non condition for optimising care for people who suffer from serious psychological illness as it is in the II National Conference of Mental Health, the Caracas Conference and the Health Ministry 224 Edict. Quantitative study has been used in order to value each nurse experience as well as his/her professional history in Mental Care Exercise.
Erro, Roberto; Hirschbichler, Stephanie T; Ricciardi, Lucia; Ryterska, Agata; Antelmi, Elena; Ganos, Christos; Cordivari, Carla; Tinazzi, Michele; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P
Mental rotation of body parts engages cortical-subcortical areas that are actually involved in the execution of a movement. Musicians' dystonia is a type of focal hand dystonia that is grouped together with writer's cramp under the rubric of "occupational dystonia", but it is unclear to which extent these two disorders share common pathophysiological mechanisms. Previous research has demonstrated patients with writer's cramp to have deficits in mental rotation of body parts. It is unknown whether patients with musicians' dystonia would display similar deficits, reinforcing the concept of shared pathophysiology. Eight patients with musicians' dystonia and eight healthy musicians matched for age, gender and musical education, performed a number of tasks assessing mental rotation of body parts and objects as well as verbal and spatial working memories abilities. There were no differences between patients and healthy musicians as to accuracy and reaction times in any of the tasks. Patients with musicians' dystonia have intact abilities in mentally rotating body parts, suggesting that this disorder relies on a highly selective disruption of movement planning and execution that manifests only upon playing a specific instrument. We further demonstrated that mental rotation of body parts and objects engages, at least partially, different cognitive networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Corbière, M; Villotti, P; Toth, K; Waghorn, G
Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) remains a stumbling-block to their work integration. However, the length of job tenure can vary according to the workplace (e.g., provided resources) and the work context (e.g., regular market, social firms). This gap can be explained in part by diverse organisational components, particularly the implementation of work accommodations, which is related to the disclosure of the mental disorder in the workplace. Indeed, in the scientific literature, the principal reason associated with disclosure is in regards to requesting work accommodations. The main objective of this paper is to increase our understanding of the relationships between these three concepts - disclosure of a mental disorder, work accommodations and natural supports, and job tenure - by reviewing the specialized literature and presenting the work of the authors of this paper. To do so, the authors will address the following questions: How do we define 'disclosure' of a mental disorder in the workplace and what are the strategies to consider before disclosing? What is the decision-making process related to disclosure in the workplace? How are the three concepts - disclosure of the mental disorder in the workplace, work accommodations and job tenure - intertwined? Finally, how can employment specialists facilitate the work integration of people with severe mental disorders by considering the three concepts mentioned above? Results from a review of the literature show that disclosure of a mental disorder is a dialectical process that goes beyond the question: to tell or not to tell? In fact, it is not a single binary decision. Several components are associated with the disclosure concept, and can be summarized by the questions: What, how, when and to whom to disclose his/her mental condition? Reasons for disclosing his/her mental disorder in the workplace are numerous, characterized by personal, interpersonal and work environmental
前田, 直樹; 金丸, 靖代; 畑田, 惣一郎; マエダ, ナオキ; カネマル, ヤスヨ; ハタダ, ソウイチロウ; Naoki, MAEDA; Yasuyo, KANEMARU; Soichiro, HATADA
The purpose of the present study was to investigate preschool teacher's mental health and to examine the influence of preschool-teacher-efficacy, social skills and work satisfaction on their mental health. One hundred preschool teachers (8 males, 92 females) were administered a questionnaire including preschool teacher-efficacy scale, Kiss-18, work satisfaction scale and BDI-II. With regard to the situation of mental health, preschool teachers scored slightly lower than the general level. Pas...
Devin Hassan Fahim
Full Text Available Quality of Work Life (QWL is a multi-dimensional concept that covers employees’ feelings about various dimensions of work. The current study focused on QWL that can contribute to the mental health status and Organisation-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE of employees in context of sport organisation in Iran. In this descriptive–correlative study, data was collected using three standard questionnaires: Goldberg’s (1978 General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Pierce, Gardner, Cummings and Dunham's (1989 OBSE scale, and Walton’s (1975 QWL questionnaire. The statistical sample of the study consisted of 67 (53 male, 14 female employees of sport and youth organisations of the Northern Khorasan Province of Iran. The alpha value for mental health, OBSE and QWL questionnaires were, respectively, 0.82, 0.80, 0.79. QWL was significantly correlated with mental health status and self-esteem of employees. Thus, it can be concluded that mental health and self-esteem of employees depend on how these employees perceive QWL in organisations. Among QWL subscales, fair and adequate pay along with growth opportunities were the strongest predictors of mental health; growth opportunities along with development of human capabilities were the strongest predictors of self-esteem of employees. Our study adds to the growing body of research on mental health status in relation to factors such as QWL. In view of our findings, we hope that improving work environment as a means of improving one’s mental health status will be more emphasized by organisation managers.
A 21-hour working week is a long way from today's standard of 40 hours or more, but not so far-fetched when people consider the infinitely varied ways in which they actually spend their time. On average, people of working age spend 19.6 hours a week in paid employment and 20.4 hours in unpaid housework and childcare. These averages mask huge…
Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Mannix, Judy; Jackson, Debra; Hunt, Glenn E
Undergraduate nurses are employed as assistants in nursing (AIN) in inpatient mental health settings; however, there is a paucity of published research exploring registered nurses' (RN) views about the AIN role in these settings. This qualitative study documents the views and experiences of RN working with undergraduate AIN. Fifty structured face-to-face interviews were analysed, and the results are discussed in three sections. The first section outlines RN perceptions of qualities and skills required of AIN in mental health, and the responses primarily focus on communication skills, initiative, and willingness to learn. The second section targets factors in the workplace that might enhance the interest of AIN in a mental health nursing career; the responses emphasize their need to work with experienced staff. The last section outlines RN expectations of AIN, most of which are met and involve physical observations and technical tasks; less fulfilled activities primarily cluster around interactions with patients. Findings highlight the advantages and disadvantages of drawing on undergraduate nursing students as AIN in mental health settings. Communication skills, personal initiative, safety training to prevent violence, and education to increase knowledge and awareness about mental illness, diagnosis, and mental status-related skills were all important concerns articulated by RN. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Damaske, Sarah; Frech, Adrianne
Despite numerous changes in women's employment in the latter half of the twentieth century, women's employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women's weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women's labor force experiences across adulthood. We find two pathways of stable full-time work for women, three pathways of part-time employment, and a pathway of unpaid labor. A majority of women follow one of the two full-time work pathways, while fewer than 10% follow a pathway of unpaid labor. Our findings provide evidence of the lasting influence of work-family conflict and early socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages on women's work pathways. Indeed, race, poverty, educational attainment, and early family characteristics significantly shaped women's work careers. Work-family opportunities and constraints also were related to women's work hours, as were a woman's gendered beliefs and expectations. We conclude that women's employment pathways are a product of both their resources and changing social environment as well as individual agency. Significantly, we point to social stratification, gender ideologies, and work-family constraints, all working in concert, as key explanations for how women are "tracked" onto work pathways from an early age.
Jönsson, Julia; Maltestam, Malin; Bengtsson-Tops, Anita; Garmy, Pernilla
The aim was to describe school nurses’ experiences working with students with mental health problems. In this inductive qualitative study, interviews were conducted with 14 school nurses in Sweden. The content analysis revealed three themes:(1) sense of worriedness about working with students with mental health problems, (2) taking care of students with mental health issues was an opportunity for personal and professional development, and (3) the experience of making a difference for young pe...
Full Text Available Este artigo toma por objeto a Saúde Mental e Trabalho como uma subárea do campo da Saúde do Trabalhador. Parte da constatação de que os problemas de saúde mental e trabalho, já identificados em meados da década de 1980, persistem. Após retomar a taxonomia de tais problemas, busca evidenciar algumas de suas expressões atuais a partir da assistência e da vigilância em saúde do trabalhador, bem como pela perspectiva de alguns sindicatos mais atentos à questão. Para tal, toma como ponto de partida o Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador (CRST de Campinas. Por fim, pontua algumas características do trabalho no contexto atual para compreender as motivações dessa persistência.This article focuses on Mental Health and Work as a subarea of the Workers’ Health field. Its starting point is the observation that the problems of mental health related to work identified in the mid 80’s still persist. After exposing the taxonomy of these problems, the paper searches to explain some of their current expressions from the assistance and the surveillance in workers’ health as well as from the point of view of some trade unions more attentive to this issue. In order to do that, the Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador (CRST of Campinas is taken as a reference. Finally, it points out to some characteristics of work in the present context to understand the reasons of this persistence.
Min, So Young
The aim of this study was to verify psychosocial issues faced by psychiatric and community mental health nurse practitioners (PCMHNP) working in community mental health centers, and to identify the adaptation processes used to resolve the issues. Data were collected through in-depth interviews between December 2013 and August 2014. Participants were 11 PCMHNP working in community mental health centers. Analysis was done using the grounded theory methodology. The first question was "How did you start working at a community mental health center; what were the difficulties you faced during your employment and how did you resolve them?" The core category was 'regulating within relationships.' The adaptation process was categorized into three sequential stages: 'nesting,' 'hanging around the nest,' and 'settling into the nest.' Various action/interaction strategies were employed in these stages. The adaptation results from using these strategies were 'psychiatric nursing within life' and 'a long way to go.' The results of this study are significant as they aid in understanding the psychosocial adaptation processes of PCMHNP working in community mental health centers, and indicate areas to be addressed in the future in order for PCMHNP to fulfill their professional role in the local community.
Indah S. Widyahening
Full Text Available Civilian airline pilots have one of the most stressful occupations. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of work stressors and other factors on mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots. A cross-sectional study was done by interviewing selected pilots of an airline using appropriate questionnaires, during their routine medical examination from May to July 1999 in Jakarta. Five aspects of work stressor were assessed: working conditions, physical conditions of working environment, career development, organization and interpersonal relationship. Mental-emotional disturbances were determined by using the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using relative risk by Cox regression with constant time. From 128 subjects interviewed, 109 could be analyzed. Most of the subjects were married (73.4% and college graduates (91.7%. The number of captains and first officers were almost equal. The prevalence of mental-emotional disturbances was 39.4%. Mental-emotional disturbances were significantly related to work stressors and moderately related to household tension (P = 0.184. Compared to pilots with low levels of work stressors, those with high or very high levels of work stressors had a risk of 4.6 times of mental-emotional disturbances [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 4.64; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01 – 19.65]. Adequate guides to cope work stressors and household tension which related to mental-emotional disturbance is recommended. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:117-21Keywords: mental-emotional disturbance, work stressors, household tension, airline pilots
Goetz, Katja; Kleine-Budde, Katja; Bramesfeld, Anke; Stegbauer, Constance
Working requirements of community mental healthcare professionals in integrated care are complex. There is a lack of research concerning the relation of job satisfaction, working atmosphere and individual characteristics. For the current study, a survey evaluating job satisfaction and working atmosphere of mental healthcare professionals in integrated care was performed. About 321 community mental healthcare professionals were included in the survey; the response rate was 59.5%. The professional background of community mental healthcare professionals included nursing, social work and psychology. Community mental healthcare professionals reported the highest satisfaction with colleagues and the lowest satisfaction with income. Moreover, it could be shown that more responsibility, more recognition and more variety in job tasks lead to an increase of overall job satisfaction. Healthcare for mentally ill patients in the community setting is complex and requires well-structured care with appropriate responsibilities within the team. A co-operative relationship among colleagues as well as clearly defined responsibilities seem to be the key for the job satisfaction of community mental healthcare professionals in integrated care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van Echtelt, P.
Recent case studies consistently show that employees in contemporary work structures (often referred to as post-Fordist work designs) spend longer hours at work than in more traditional workplaces. This study investigates the association of post-Fordist work with working unpaid overtime and
Khalaf Beigi, Mitra; Mohammadi Shahbolaghi, Farahnaz; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Haghgoo, Hojjat-Allah; Taherkhani, Hamid
Work is the key component for most people in regard to financial, social and wellbeing matters. Employment is an important factor underpinning mental health disorders. However, unemployment remains an unsolved issue worldwide. Numerous studies have focused on employment outcomes in people with severe mental illness (SMI) but, only a few have explored their perspective on employment. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the meaning of work among clients with SMI in Iran. A qualitative research approach was used to conduct this research. Ten participants who were consumers of mental health services took part in this study. Data were analyzed by inductive content analysis approach. Four themes emerged from data including: acquiring identity, work as a drive, passing the time and financial independence. Meaning of work in studied people with SMI was probably similar to the general population. The different finding in this study refers to the dominancy of family relationships and spiritual believes which could cover some problems and in turn affect the meaning of work. Highlighting these meanings could direct mental health professionals to better planning for their clients have better understanding of their clients' work future and in turn provide more precise plan for them.
St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Overton, Tina; Bugler, Myfanwy
Previous research has revealed that problem solving and attainment in chemistry are constrained by mental capacity and working memory. However, the terms mental capacity and working memory come from different theories of cognitive resources, and are assessed using different tasks. The current study examined the relationships between mental…
Panigrahi, Ansuman; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Panigrahi, Madhulita
Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed that 32.9% of study respondents had poor mental health and only about 10% of these women had sought any kind of mental health services. Logistic regression analysis showed that 3 predictors such as favourable attitude of colleagues, sharing their own problems with husband, and spending time for yoga/meditation/exercise had significant positive impact on the mental health status of married working women. A preventive program regarding various aspects of mental health for married working women at workplace as well as community level could be a useful strategy in reducing this public health problem.
Stanton, Robert; Happell, Brenda; Reaburn, Peter
Nurses working in mental health are well positioned to prescribe exercise to people with mental illness. However, little is known regarding their exercise-prescription practices. We examined the self-reported physical activity and exercise-prescription practices of nurses working in inpatient mental health facilities. Thirty-four nurses completed the Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire - Health Practitioner Version. Non-parametric bivariate statistics revealed no relationship between nurses' self-reported physical activity participation and the frequency of exercise prescription for people with mental illness. Exercise-prescription parameters used by nurses are consistent with those recommended for both the general population and for people with mental illness. A substantial number of barriers to effective exercise prescription, including lack of training, systemic issues (such as prioritization and lack of time), and lack of consumer motivation, impact on the prescription of exercise for people with mental illness. Addressing the barriers to exercise prescription could improve the proportion of nurses who routinely prescribe exercise. Collaboration with exercise professionals, such as accredited exercise physiologists or physiotherapists, might improve knowledge of evidence-based exercise-prescription practices for people with mental illness, thereby improving both physical and mental health outcomes for this vulnerable population. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Ahola, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Honkonen, Teija; Isometsä, Erkki; Aromaa, Arpo; Lönnqvist, Jouko
Work disability due to common mental disorders has increased in Western countries during the past decade. The contribution of depressive, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders to all disability pensions at the population level is not known. Epidemiological health data from the Finnish Health 2000 Study, gathered in 2000-2001, was linked to the national register on disability pensions granted due to the ICD-10 diagnoses up to December 2007. Mental health at baseline was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Sociodemographic, clinical, and work-related factors, health behaviors, and treatment setting were used as covariates in the logistic regression analyses among the 3164 participants aged 30-58 years. Anxiety, depressive, and comorbid common mental disorders predicted disability pension when adjusted for sex and age. In the fully adjusted multivariate model, comorbid common mental disorders, as well as physical illnesses, age over 45 years, short education, high job strain, and previous long-term sickness absence predicted disability pension. The study population included persons aged 30 or over. Sub groups according to mental disorders were quite small which may have diminished statistical power in some sub groups. Baseline predictors were measured only once and the length of exposure could not be determined. The systems regarding financial compensation to employees differ between countries. Comorbid mental disorders pose a high risk for disability pension. Other independent predictors of work disability include socio-demographic, clinical, work-related, and treatment factors, but not health behavior. More attention should be paid to work-related factors in order to prevent chronic work disability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maciel, Mariana R; Mello, Andrea F; Fossaluza, Victor; Nobrega, Luciana P; Cividanes, Giuliana C; Mari, Jair J; Mello, Marcelo F
The objective of this study was to determine which factors predict higher risk for mental health problems in children working on the streets. We studied a sample of families that had at least one child working on the streets, from October 2008 to March 2009. The instruments applied were the parent version strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) for children and caregivers, the WorldSAFE core questionnaire, the global assessment of relational functioning scale (GARF), the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children (K-SADS), and a socio-demographic questionnaire. 191 children between 7 and 14 years of age were analyzed; 126 (66%) were working on the streets, and 65 were siblings who did not work on the streets. Multivariate analysis showed that mental health problems in the caregivers, violent behaviors of the caregivers toward the children, absence of a partner living in the house, and lower levels of family functioning increased the risk of mental health problems in the children. Caregivers reported severe forms of physical punishment against their children in 62% of cases. Caregivers who had suffered sexual abuse and emotional negligence in childhood were more violent with their children. Factors that increased risk for mental health symptoms in these children were caregivers' psychopathology, physical punishment at home, single-parent structure, and poor family functioning. Work on the streets did not influence the children's mental health, when multiple risk factors were considered; family characteristics were the most significant in this sample.
Hill, James J; Slade, Martin D; Cantley, Linda; Vegso, Sally; Fiellin, Martha; Cullen, Mark R
To propose a standard measure of absenteeism (the work lost rate [WLR]) be included in future research to facilitate understanding and allow for translation of findings between scientific disciplines. Hourly payroll data derived from "punch clock" reports was used to compare various measures of absenteeism used in the literature and the application of the proposed metric (N = 4000 workers). Unpaid hours and full absent days were highly correlated with the WLR (r = 0.896 to 0.898). The highest percentage of unpaid hours (lost work time) is captured by absence spells of 1 and 2 days duration. The proposed WLR metric captures: 1) The range and distribution of the individual WLRs, 2) the percentage of subjects with no unpaid hours, and 3) the population WLR and should be included whenever payroll data is used to measure absenteeism.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyse the perception of psychosocial factors and mental workload of nurses who work in intensive care units. It is hypothesised that nurses in these units could perceive psychosocial risks, manifesting in a high mental work load. The psychosocial dimension related to the position's cognitive demands is hypothesised to mostly explain mental work load. METHOD: Quantitative study, with a descriptive, cross-sectional, and comparative design. A total of 91% of the intensive care unit populations of three Chilean hospitals was surveyed, corresponding to 111 nurses. The instruments utilised included (A a biosociodemographic history questionnaire; (b the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 questionnaire; and (c the Mental Work Load Subjective Scale (ESCAM, in Spanish. RESULTS: In total, 64% and 57% of participants perceived high levels of exposure to the psychosocial risks Psychosocial demands and Double shift, respectively. In addition, a medium-high level of overall mental load was observed. Positive and significant correlations between some of the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 and ESCAM dimensions were obtained. Using a regression analysis, it was determined that three dimensions of the psychosocial risk questionnaire helped to explain 38% of the overall mental load. CONCLUSION: Intensive care unit nurses felt that inadequate psychosocial factors and mental work overload existed in several of the tested dimensions.
Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Khang, Young-Ho; Paek, Domyung; Cho, Sung-Il
In light of escalating job insecurity due to increasing numbers of nonstandard workers, this study examined the association between nonstandard employment and mental health among South Korean workers. We analyzed a representative weighted sample of 2086 men and 1194 women aged 20-64 years, using data from the 1998 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nonstandard employment included part-time work, temporary work, and daily work. Mental health was measured with indicators of self-reported depression and suicidal ideation. Based on age-adjusted prevalence of mental health, nonstandard employees were more likely to be mentally ill compared to standard employees. Furthermore, nonstandard work status was associated with poor mental health after adjusting for socioeconomic position (education, occupational class, and income) and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise). However, the pattern of the relationship between nonstandard work and mental health differed by gender. Female gender was significantly associated with poor mental health. Although males tended to report more suicidal ideation, this difference was not statistically significant. Considering the increasing prevalence of nonstandard working conditions in South Korea, the results call for more longitudinal research on the mental health effects of nonstandard work.
Villotti, Patrizia; Zaniboni, Sara; Corbière, Marc; Guay, Stéphane; Fraccaroli, Franco
People with mental illnesses face stigma that hinders their full integration into society. Work is a major determinant of social inclusion, however, people with mental disorders have fewer opportunities to work. Emerging evidence suggests that social enterprises help disadvantaged people with their work integration process. The purpose of this study is to enhance our understanding about how perceptions of stigma can be decreased for people with mental disorders throughout their work experience in a social enterprise. Using a longitudinal study design, 310 individuals with mental disorders employed in Italian social enterprises completed a battery of questionnaires on individual (e.g., severity of symptoms; occupational self-efficacy) and environmental (e.g., social support; organizational constraints) variables. Of the 223 individuals potentially eligible at the 12-month follow up, 139 completed a battery of questionnaires on social and working skills, perceived work productivity and perceived stigma. Path analyses were used to test a model delineating how people with mental disorders working in social enterprises improve social and work outcomes (i.e., motivation, skills and productivity), and reduce the perception of being stigmatized. Working in a social enterprise enhances working social skills, which leads to a perception of higher productivity and, consequently, the perception of being discriminated against and stigmatized is reduced. Social enterprise provides a context in which people with mental disorders reach a sense of work-related and social competence. This sense of competence helps them to reduce perceived stigma, which is a crucial step toward social inclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Rydstedt, Leif W; Lundh, Monica
The aim of the present study was to analyse the main and interaction effects of age and psychosocial work demands on mental wellbeing in a sample (N = 685; age M = 47 years) of engine room officers in the Swedish merchant fleet. As expected, work demands were highly related to general mental health as well as to perceived stress, while the main effect of age only related significantly to perceived stress. The interaction effects between high work demands and high age significantly explained the variance of general mental health as well as perceived stress. The results can be understood as a consequence of the rapid technological and organisational development in the shipping industry and suggest that it ought be of high priority to provide older employees with work-related resources to support their long-term work performance as well as their health and wellbeing.
Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen
Healthcare workers face multiple psychosocial work hazards intrinsic to their work, including heavy workloads and shift work. However, how contemporary adverse psychosocial work conditions, such as workplace justice and insecurity, may contribute to increased mental health risks has rarely been studied. This study aimed to search for modifiable psychosocial work factors associated with mental health disorders in Taiwanese healthcare workers. Methods: A total of 349 healthcare workers were ...
Dockery, Alfred; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth
Previous research demonstrates that non-standard work schedules undermine the stability of marriage and reduce family cohesiveness. Limited research has investigated the effects of parents working non-standard schedules on children's health and wellbeing and no published Australian studies have addressed this important issue. This paper contributes to bridging this knowledge gap by focusing on adolescents aged 15-20 years and by including sole parent families which have been omitted in previous research, using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Multilevel linear regression models are estimated to analyse the association between parental work schedules and hours of work and measures of adolescents' mental health derived from the SF-36 Health Survey. Evidence of negative impacts of parents working non-standard hours upon adolescent wellbeing is found to exist primarily within sole parent families.
Tangvald-Pedersen, Svein Olav; Bongaardt, Robert (Rob)
It is well-known that a sense of belonging is crucial in relation to gaining and maintaining sound mental health. Work is also known to be an essential aspect of recovery from mental health problems. However, there is scant knowledge of what a sense of belonging in the workplace represents. This study explores the nature and meaning of a sense of belonging in the workplace as experienced by persons struggling with mental health issues. Using a descriptive phenomenological methodology, sixt...
Allan, Blake A; Dexter, Chelsea; Kinsey, Rebecca; Parker, Shelby
Depression, anxiety and stress are common problems for modern workers. Although having meaningful work, or work that is significant, facilitates personal growth, and contributes to the greater good, has been linked to better mental health, people's work might also need to be satisfying or enjoyable to improve outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to examine meaningful work's relation to mental health (i.e. depression, anxiety and stress) and investigate job satisfaction as a moderator of this relation. The study hypotheses were tested with a large, diverse sample recruited from an online source. Partially supporting hypotheses, when controlling for job satisfaction, meaningful work negatively correlated with depression but did not have a significant relation with anxiety and stress. Similarly, job satisfaction negatively predicted depression and stress. Furthermore, the relations between meaningful work and both anxiety and stress were moderated by job satisfaction. Specifically, only people perceiving their work as meaningful and satisfying reported less anxiety and stress. Although continued research is needed, employers and employees may have to target both the meaningfulness and job satisfaction to address the issues of stress and anxiety among working adults.
Gabbay, Mark; Shiels, Chris; Hillage, Jim
Aim To report the types and duration of sickness certification for different common mental disorders (CMDs) and the prevalence of GP advice aimed at returning the patient to work. In the United Kingdom, common mental health problems, such and depression and stress, have become the main reasons for patients requesting a sickness certificate to abstain from usual employment. Increasing attention is being paid to mental health and its impact on employability and work capacity in all parts of the welfare system. However, relatively little is known about the extent to which different mental health diagnoses impact upon sickness certification outcomes, and how the GP has used the new fit note (introduced in 2010) to support a return to work for patients with mental health diagnoses. Sickness certification data was collected from 68 UK-based general practices for a period of 12 months. Findings The study found a large part of all sickness absence certified by GPs was due to CMDs (29% of all sickness absence episodes). Females, younger patients and those living in deprived areas were more likely to receive a fit note for a CMD (compared with one for a physical health problem). The highest proportion of CMD fit notes were issued for 'stress'. However, sickness certification for depression contributed nearly half of all weeks certified for mental health problems. Only 7% of CMD fit notes included any 'may be fit' advice from the GP, with type of advice varying by mental health diagnostic category. Patients living in the most socially deprived neighbourhoods were less likely to receive 'may be fit' advice on their CMD fit notes.
BERTHELSEN, Mona; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; KNARDAHL, Stein
The purpose of the present study was to answer the following research questions: (1) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in mental distress? (2) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in neuroticism? (3) Do shift schedules differ in psychosocial work exposures? (4) Do psychosocial work exposures contribute to mental distress among onshore- and offshore workers? (5) Does neuroticism confound the association between work exposures and mental distress? Workers on six shift-schedules answered a questionnaire (1,471 of 2,628 employees). Psychological and social work factors were measured by QPSNordic, mental distress was measured by HADS and neuroticism was measured by EPQ. The results showed 1) No differences in mental distress between workers in different shift schedules, 2) Revolving-shift workers reported higher neuroticism compared to day workers, 3) Swing-shift workers and revolving-shift workers reported lower job control compared to permanent-night and -day workers, 4) Job demands and role conflict were associated with more mental distress. Job control, role clarity, support, and leadership were associated with lower mental distress, 5) Neuroticism influenced the relationship between psychosocial work factors and mental distress. The present study did not find differences in mental distress between shift schedules. Job characteristics may be contributing factors when determining health effects of shift work. PMID:25740007
Full Text Available Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed that 32.9% of study respondents had poor mental health and only about 10% of these women had sought any kind of mental health services. Logistic regression analysis showed that 3 predictors such as favourable attitude of colleagues, sharing their own problems with husband, and spending time for yoga/meditation/exercise had significant positive impact on the mental health status of married working women. A preventive program regarding various aspects of mental health for married working women at workplace as well as community level could be a useful strategy in reducing this public health problem.
Matthews, S; Hertzman, C; Ostry, A; Power, C
This paper aims to identify gender similarities and differences in psychosocial work characteristics for those in and out of paid employment, to inform research on possible health-related effects. Specifically five questions are addressed: do women report poorer work characteristics than men; are gender differences related to specific characteristics; do work characteristics differ between full- and part-time women workers and between those in paid and unpaid work; are socio-economic gradients in work characteristics similar for men and women; and, if there are gradients, do they differ between women in paid and unpaid work? Analyses are based on the 33 year follow-up of the 1958 British birth cohort. Four psychosocial work characteristics were examined: learning opportunities, monotony, pace of work, and flexibility of breaks. Women reported more negative work characteristics than men, primarily because of differences in learning opportunities (26% lacked opportunity compared with 13% of men) and monotonous work (47 and 31% respectively). Women in full-time employment reported fewer negative characteristics (27%) than part-time (39%) or home-workers (36%). Home-workers had fewer opportunities for learning (36%) and greater monotony (49%) than paid workers (21 and 22% respectively), however fewer home-workers reported inability to control the work pace (11% compared to 23%) and inflexibility of breaks (21% compared to 47%). Socio-economic gradients in work characteristics were similar among men and women, except for flexibility of break times. A socio-economic gradient in work characteristics was found for full- and part-time workers, but not among home-workers. Differences in self reported health were also examined: a social gradient was found for all employment status groups, being strongest for home-workers despite the absence of a gradient in negative work characteristics. In conclusion, these marked gender differences in psychosocial work characteristics need
L. Hook, Jennifer
The gendered division of household labor is more multifaceted than the allocation of paid work and domestic work. People also engage in volunteer work and informal support. I investigate the applicability of household labor allocation theories - specifically the time constraints, economic, and doing gender perspectives - to all unpaid work. I…
Wind, A. de; Leijten, F.R.M.; Hoekstra, T.; Geuskens, G.A.; Burdorf, L.; Beek, A.J. van der
Objectives Before actual retirement, employees may already distance themselves from work, which could be referred to as "mental retirement". However, trajectories of work motivation, ie, work engagement, have not been studied yet. The present study aimed to (i) identify different trajectories of
Travasso, Sandra Mary; Rajaraman, Divya; Heymann, Sally Jody
Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief strategies and mental health amongst forty eight low-income working mothers residing in urban slums across Bangalore, India. Participants were construction workers, domestic workers, factory workers and fruit and vegetable street vendors. Qualitative data analysis themes included state of mental health, factors that affected mental health positively or negatively, manifestations and consequences of stress and depression, and stress mitigators. Even in our small sample of women, we found evidence of extreme depression, including suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Women who have an alcoholic and/or abusive husband, experience intimate partner violence, are raising children with special needs, and lack adequate support for child care appear to be more susceptible to severe and prolonged periods of depression and suicide attempts. Factors that pointed towards reduced anxiety and depression were social support from family, friends and colleagues and fulfilment from work. This qualitative study raises concerns that low-income working mothers in urban areas in India are at high risk for depression, and identifies common factors that create and mitigate stress in this population group. We discuss implications of the findings for supporting the mental health of urban working women in the Indian context. The development of the national mental health policy in India and its subsequent implementation should draw on existing research documenting factors associated with negative mental health amongst
Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Ono, Yutaka; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Fukao, Akira; Tachimori, Hisateru; Iwata, Noboru; Uda, Hidenori; Nakane, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Oorui, Masashi; Naganuma, Yoichi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Kobayashi, Masayo; Ahiko, Tadayuki; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kikkawa, Takehiko
Most studies that investigate the impact of mental disorders on work performance have been conducted in Western countries, but this study examines the impact of common mental disorders on sick leave and on-the-job work performance in a community sample of Japanese workers. Data from the World Mental Health Japan survey were analyzed. A subsample of 530 workers aged 20-60years were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. The WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, was used to assess sick days and on-the-job work performance for the previous 30days. Linear regression was used to estimate the impact of mental disorders on these indicators of work performance over 12months. Mood disorders, including major depressive disorder, and alcohol abuse/dependence were significantly associated with decreased on-the-job performance. There were no significant associations between mental disorders and sick/absent days. Consistent with previous studies, major depression has a great impact on on-the-job work performance in Japan. The lost productivity was estimated at approximately 28-30 lost days per year. A similar decrease in on-the-job work performance was found for alcohol abuse/dependence, which is stronger than that in other countries, probably attributable to greater tolerance of problematic drinking at Japanese worksites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jones, Norman; Coetzee, R
The numbers of UK military personnel referred to military departments of community mental health (DCMH) have increased annually over recent years; the reasons for such an increase are unclear. Data for this study were derived from 549 DCMH attendees and 3682 serving regular military personnel. DCMH attendees completed a checklist of potential reasons for help-seeking. Cohort members provided data on perceived mental health problems and help-seeking from specialist mental health services. Both samples provided work strain and basic sociodemographic data. Work strain levels were compared among cohort and DCMH help seekers and non-help seekers using adjusted logistic regression analyses. Perceiving that mental health-related stigmatisation had reduced and being prompted to seek help by attending a health promotion event were among the least frequent reasons for seeking help in DCMH attendees. Realising that help was needed and being urged to seek help by one's partner, friends or family were the most common. Working very hard and experiencing excessive work were the most common work strain factors. Overall, the greatest levels of work strain were found among DCMH attendees. In all subsamples, work strain was significantly associated with experiencing a perceived mental health problem irrespective of whether help was sought or not. Work strain was significantly associated with experiencing a stressful, emotional, mental health or alcohol problem and was the highest among current DCMH help seekers. Recognising that help was required and being prompted by a significant other were the main drivers for help-seeking among DCMH attendees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Roelen, C. A. M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P. C.; van Rhenen, W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Bultmann, U.
Purpose To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10
Kaneko, Shin-Ya; Maeda, Takafumi; Sasaki, Akihiko; Sato, Akihiko; Tanaka, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito
This paper examines the effects of shift work on the mental state of factory workers. As an indicator of the workers' mental condition, the authors used a scoring system (referred to below as the 'depression tendency score') based on the SRQ-D investigative report. The depression tendency score of the men was higher among the shift worker group than among the regular day worker group (p workers was higher than that of the male regular day workers among skilled workers (p worker group and the shift worker group. However, the depression tendency score of the female two-shift workers was higher than that of the female regular day workers among skilled workers (p work and that of women is affected by two-shift work because of the difference in modern societal/home role between man and woman.
Hill, James J.; Slade, Martin D.; Cantley, Linda; Vegso, Sally; Fiellin, Martha; Cullen, Mark R.
Objective To propose a standard measure of absenteeism (the work lost rate [WLR]) be included in future research to facilitate understanding and allow for translation of findings between scientific disciplines. Methods Hourly payroll data derived from “punch clock” reports was used to compare various measures of absenteeism used in the literature and the application of the proposed metric (N = 4000 workers). Results Unpaid hours and full absent days were highly correlated with the WLR (r = 0.896 to 0.898). The highest percentage of unpaid hours (lost work time) is captured by absence spells of 1 and 2 days duration. Conclusion The proposed WLR metric captures: 1) The range and distribution of the individual WLRs, 2) the percentage of subjects with no unpaid hours, and 3) the population WLR and should be included whenever payroll data is used to measure absenteeism. PMID:18617841
Norder, G; Hoedeman, R; de Bruin, J; van Rhenen, W; Roelen, C A M
It is unclear when occupational health providers should re-evaluate workers after mental health-related absences from work. To investigate the time to recurrence of mental health-related absences, stratified by International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic categories. A 10-year observational study of workers employed at a steel mill. Sickness absence data were retrieved from an occupational health register. Mental health-related absences were defined as absence due to emotional disturbance or mental and behavioural disorders. The first mental health-related absence since baseline was called the index episode. Recurrences were defined as mental health-related absences occurring >28 days after recovery from the index episode. The frequency of recurrent mental health-related absence was assessed by the recurrence density (RD) per 1000 person-years. The time to recurrent mental health-related absence was investigated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Of 15461 workers, 391 had recurrent mental health-related absences. RD was 30.5, 34.3, 29.9 and 37.7 per 1000 person-years after index episodes due to emotional disturbance, mood disorders, neurotic disorders and other psychiatric disorders, respectively. RDs did not differ across ICD-10 diagnostic categories. The median time to recurrent mental health-related absence was 15.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.6-17.7] and was shortest for mood disorders (5.2, 95% CI 1.4-8.9 months) and specific psychiatric disorders (5.3, 95% CI 1.0-13.1 months). Based on this observational study, we suggest that occupational and primary health care providers consider reviewing the mental health status of workers 6 months after recovery from mental health-related absence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kleiner, Sibyl; Schunck, Reinhard; Schömann, Klaus
This paper takes a comparative approach to the topic of work time and health, asking whether weekly work hours matter for mental health. We hypothesize that these relationships differ within the United States and Germany, given the more regulated work time environments within Germany and the greater incentives to work long hours in the United States. We further hypothesize that German women will experience greatest penalties to long hours. We use data from the German Socioeconomic Panel and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine hours effects on mental health score at midlife. The results support our initial hypothesis. In Germany, longer work time is associated with worse mental health, while in the United States, as seen in previous research, the associations are more complex. Our results do not show greater mental health penalties for German women and suggest instead a selection effect into work hours operating by gender. © American Sociological Association 2015.
Ann Kristin Knudsen
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Mental disorders are prevalent diagnoses in disability benefit statistics, with awards often granted at younger age than for other diagnoses. We aimed to compare the number of lost working years following disability benefit award for mental disorders versus other diagnostic groups. METHODS: Data from the complete Norwegian official registry over disability benefit incidence, including primary diagnoses, were analyzed for the period 2001 to 2003 (N = 77,067, a time-period without any reform in the disability benefit scheme. Lost working years due to disability benefit award before scheduled age retirement at age 67 were calculated. RESULTS: Musculoskeletal disorders were the commonest reason for disability benefit awards (36.3% with mental disorders in second place (24.0%. However, mental disorders were responsible for the most working years lost (33.8% compared with musculoskeletal disorders (29.4%. Individuals awarded disability benefit for a mental disorder were on average 8.9 years younger (46.1 years than individuals awarded for a musculoskeletal disorder (55.0 years, and 6.9 years younger than individuals awarded for any other somatic disorder (53.0 years. Anxiety and depressive disorders were the largest contributors to lost working years within mental disorders. CONCLUSION: Age at award is highly relevant when the total burden of different diagnoses on disability benefits is considered. There is great disparity in total number of lost working years due to disability benefit award for different diagnostic groups. The high number of lost working years from mental disorders has serious consequences for both the individual and for the wider society and economy.
Full Text Available Women have historically played an important hidden role in family firms, and a great deal of research is now shedding light on this role. In spite of the more formal nature of female work at the present day, still a considerable volume of women’s contributions in family firms is unregistered and unpaid, even in developed regions. A questionnaire was administered to 396 women working in small and medium-sized family firms located in Andalucia, a southern European region, characterized by familialism and an important informal economy. Our results confirm the persistence of subordinate forms of unpaid family collaboration due to the neutrality assigned to female contributions under the traditional gendered division of work. But also this study shows how some of the women voluntarily embrace subordinate roles as a temporary way to gain professional experience, useful for their future work inside or outside the family firm.
Rose, Uwe; Schiel, Stefan; Schröder, Helmut; Kleudgen, Martin; Tophoven, Silke; Rauch, Angela; Freude, Gabriele; Müller, Grit
The Study on Mental Health at Work (S-MGA) generates the first nationwide representative survey enabling the exploration of the relationship between working conditions, mental health and functioning. This paper describes the study design, sampling procedures and data collection, and presents a summary of the sample characteristics. S-MGA is a representative study of German employees aged 31-60 years subject to social security contributions. The sample was drawn from the employment register based on a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Firstly, 206 municipalities were randomly selected from a pool of 12,227 municipalities in Germany. Secondly, 13,590 addresses were drawn from the selected municipalities for the purpose of conducting 4500 face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire covers psychosocial working and employment conditions, measures of mental health, work ability and functioning. Data from personal interviews were combined with employment histories from register data. Descriptive statistics of socio-demographic characteristics and logistic regressions analyses were used for comparing population, gross sample and respondents. In total, 4511 face-to-face interviews were conducted. A test for sampling bias revealed that individuals in older cohorts participated more often, while individuals with an unknown educational level, residing in major cities or with a non-German ethnic background were slightly underrepresented. There is no indication of major deviations in characteristics between the basic population and the sample of respondents. Hence, S-MGA provides representative data for research on work and health, designed as a cohort study with plans to rerun the survey 5 years after the first assessment.
Rose, Uwe; Schiel, Stefan; Schröder, Helmut; Kleudgen, Martin; Tophoven, Silke; Rauch, Angela; Freude, Gabriele; Müller, Grit
Aims: The Study on Mental Health at Work (S-MGA) generates the first nationwide representative survey enabling the exploration of the relationship between working conditions, mental health and functioning. This paper describes the study design, sampling procedures and data collection, and presents a summary of the sample characteristics. Methods: S-MGA is a representative study of German employees aged 31–60 years subject to social security contributions. The sample was drawn from the employment register based on a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Firstly, 206 municipalities were randomly selected from a pool of 12,227 municipalities in Germany. Secondly, 13,590 addresses were drawn from the selected municipalities for the purpose of conducting 4500 face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire covers psychosocial working and employment conditions, measures of mental health, work ability and functioning. Data from personal interviews were combined with employment histories from register data. Descriptive statistics of socio-demographic characteristics and logistic regressions analyses were used for comparing population, gross sample and respondents. Results: In total, 4511 face-to-face interviews were conducted. A test for sampling bias revealed that individuals in older cohorts participated more often, while individuals with an unknown educational level, residing in major cities or with a non-German ethnic background were slightly underrepresented. Conclusions: There is no indication of major deviations in characteristics between the basic population and the sample of respondents. Hence, S-MGA provides representative data for research on work and health, designed as a cohort study with plans to rerun the survey 5 years after the first assessment. PMID:28673202
Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Verhulst, Frank C; Ortiz, Josue Almansa; Bültmann, Ute
Objectives Little is known about how employment and work outcomes among young adults are influenced by their life-course history of mental health problems. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (i) identify trajectories of mental health problems from childhood to young adulthood and (ii) investigate the association between these trajectories and employment and work outcomes among young adults. Methods Data were used from 360 participants of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study, with 12-year follow-up. Trajectories of externalizing and internalizing problems were identified with latent class growth models. Employment conditions and work outcomes (ie, psychosocial work characteristics) were measured at age 22. We assessed the association between mental health trajectories and employment conditions and work outcomes. Results Four trajectories of mental health problems were identified: high-stable, decreasing, moderate-stable and low-stable. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of externalizing problems worked over six hours more [B=6.71, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.82-10.6] and had a higher income [odds ratio (OR) 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.71], than young adults with low-stable trajectories. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of internalizing problems worked six hours less per week (B=-6.07, 95% CI -10.1- -2.05) and reported lower income (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.53-7.74) and poorer psychosocial work characteristics, compared to young adults with low-stable trajectories. Conclusions Among young adults who had a paid job at the age of 22 (and were not a student or unemployed), those with a history of internalizing problems are less likely to transition successfully into the labor market, compared to other young adults.
Janelle Jones; John Schmitt; Nicole Woo
One of every nine women in the United States (11.8 percent in 2013) is represented by a union at her place of work. The annual number of hours of paid work performed by women has increased dramatically over the last four decades. In 1979, the typical woman was on the job 925 hours per year; by 2012, the typical woman did 1,664 hours of paid work per year. Meanwhile, women's share of unpaid care work and housework has remained high. Various time-use studies conclude that women continue to do a...
Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Verhulst, Frank C; Ortiz, Josue Almansa; Bültmann, Ute
Objectives Little is known about how employment and work outcomes among young adults are influenced by their life-course history of mental health problems. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (i) identify trajectories of mental health problems from childhood to young adulthood and (ii)
Giannelli, Gianna Claudia
Engaging in paid work is generally difficult for women in developing countries. Many women work unpaid in family businesses or on farms, are engaged in low-income self-employment activities, or work in low-paid wage employment. In some countries, vocational training or grants for starting a business have been effective policy tools for supporting women’s paid work. Mostly lacking, however, are job and business training programs that take into account how mothers’ employment affects child welf...
Brunero, Scott; Ramjan, Lucie M; Salamonson, Yenna; Nicholls, Daniel
Generalist health professionals, often without formal mental health training, provide treatment and care to people with serious mental illness who present with physical health problems in general hospital settings. This article will present findings from a constructivist grounded theory study of the work delivered by generalist health staff to consumers with mental illness on the general medical/surgical wards of two metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. The results analysed included three participant observations, two focus groups, and 21 interviews and hospital policy and protocol documents. A substantive theory of mental health work in general hospital settings is illustrated which conceptualizes the following categories: (i) the experience: conflicting realities and ideals; (ii) The Context: facilitating social distancing; and (iii) the social processes: invisibility affecting confidence. The categories are understood through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism with the theory providing insights into how the generalist health professionals understand their sense of self or identity. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J
Most occupational tasks involve some level of mental/cognitive processing in addition to physical work; however, the etiology of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to these demands remains unclear. The aim of this study was to quantify the interactive effects of physical and mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent work. Twelve participants, balanced by gender, performed intermittent static shoulder abductions to exhaustion at 15, 35, and 55% of individual maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), in the absence (control) and presence (concurrent) of a mental arithmetic task. Changes in muscular capacity were determined using endurance time, strength decline, electromyographic (EMG) fatigue indicators, muscle oxygenation, and heart rate measures. Muscular recovery was quantified through changes in strength and physiological responses. Mental workload was associated with shorter endurance times, specifically at 35% MVC, and greater strength decline. EMG and oxygenation measures showed similar changes during fatigue manifestation during concurrent conditions compared to the control, despite shorter endurance times. Moreover, decreased heart rate variability during concurrent demand conditions indicated increased mental stress. Although strength recovery was not influenced by mental workload, a slower heart rate recovery was observed after concurrent demand conditions. The findings from this study provide fundamental evidence that physical capacity (fatigability and recovery) is adversely affected by mental workload. Thus, it is critical to determine or evaluate occupational demands based on modified muscular capacity (due to mental workload) to reduce risk of WMSD development.
Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; van der Beek, Allard J; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex
The goals of this study were to determine whether, among older employees, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work-related factors were associated with poorer mental and physical health and whether high work engagement buffered the associations between unfavourable work-related factors and poorer health. A 1-year longitudinal study with employed persons aged 45-64 was conducted within the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (n = 8,837). Using an online questionnaire, work-related factors (physical: physical load; psychosocial: psychological job demands, autonomy, and support) and work engagement were measured at baseline and health at baseline and 1-year follow-up. General linear models were used to assess associations of work-related factors and work engagement with health. Tests of interaction terms assessed whether work engagement buffered the work-related factor-health associations. Unfavourable psychosocial work-related factors at baseline were associated with poorer mental health at follow-up. Higher physical load, higher psychological job demands, and lower autonomy at baseline were associated with poorer physical health at follow-up. Higher work engagement at baseline was related to better physical and especially better mental health during the 1-year follow-up. Work engagement had a small effect on the associations between work-related factors and health. Among older employees, especially the promotion of a high work engagement and, to a lesser extent, favourable work-related factors can be beneficial for mental health in particular.
Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B
This study examined levels and predictors of mental wellbeing in Scandinavian working single and non-single mothers, with a special focus on financial stress, job characteristics and work-family conflict. The European Social Survey Round 2 (2005) provided questionnaire data from 73 single and 432 non-single working mothers in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Respondents answered questions about the outcome variables life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect, and predictor variables financial stress, job characteristics, work-family conflict, and social support. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the relationships between predictor variables and mental wellbeing outcomes. Single working mothers scored significantly lower on life satisfaction and happiness, but not on positive affect, than did non-single mothers. Financial stress was higher in the single mother group. There were no significant differences in levels of enriching or stressful job characteristics, or in levels of social support. While financial stress and work-family conflict were important predictors in both groups, the relationship between financial stress and wellbeing was far stronger in the single mother group. Confidant support was a significant predictor only in the single mother group, and social participation only in the non-single mothers group. This study suggests that the Scandinavian welfare democracies have not yet been successful in relieving the financial pressure experienced by single working mothers. Development of efficient financial support systems should be prioritized. Ways to reduce work-family conflict in both single and non-single mothers in Scandinavia should also be given increased attention.
Peterson, Debbie; Gordon, Sarah; Neale, Jenny
Previous research has tended to focus on the barriers to employment for people with mental illness and the extra support they may need. This research contributes to the knowledge base pertaining to this population by looking at successful employment relationships in New Zealand. To describe factors enabling and/or sustaining the open employment of people with experience of mental illness. Fifteen pairs of employers and employees were interviewed individually but consecutively (using a semi-structured interview schedule) about their perceptions of the critical factors that enabled and sustained the employee's employment. Employee participants were recruited by advertisement, with employers approached through their employees. Transcripts were analysed using a thematic analysis. Themes raised in the interviews included the meaning of work, disclosure of mental illness, the benefits of working, special arrangements or accommodations, the work environment and key things employers and employees do to sustain successful employment. Four critical success factors were identified relating to disclosure, the employment relationship, freedom from discrimination and workplace flexibility.
Hensing, Gunnel; Bertilsson, Monica; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Waern, Margda; Vaez, Marjan
Mental health problems are common in the work force and influence work capacity and sickness absence. The aim was to examine self-assessed mental health problems and work capacity as determinants of time until return to work (RTW). Employed women and men (n=6140), aged 19-64 years, registered as sick with all-cause sickness absence between February 18 and April 15, 2008 received a self-administered questionnaire covering health and work situation (response rate 54%). Demographic data was collected from official registers. This follow-up study included 2502 individuals. Of these, 1082 were currently off sick when answering the questionnaire. Register data on total number of benefit compensated sick-leave days in the end of 2008 were used to determine the time until RTW. Self-reported persistent mental illness, the WHO (Ten) Mental Well-Being Index and self-assessed work capacity in relation to knowledge, mental, collaborative and physical demands at work were used as determinants. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of RTW. The likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) was higher among those with persistent mental illness OR= 2.97 (95% CI, 2.10-4.20) and those with low mental well-being OR= 2.89 (95% CI, 2.31-3.62) after adjusting for gender, age, SES, hours worked and sick leave 2007. An analysis of employees who were off sick when they answered the questionnaire, the likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) was higher among those who reported low capacity to work in relation to knowledge, mental, collaborative and physical demands at work. In a multivariable analysis, the likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) among those with low mental well-being remained significant OR=1.93 (95% CI 1.46-2.55) even after adjustment for all dimensions of capacity to work. Self-assessed persistent mental illness, low mental well-being and low work capacity increased the likelihood of prolonged RTW
Wang, J L; Lesage, A; Schmitz, N; Drapeau, A
[corrected] This analysis estimated the gender-specific associations between work stress, major depression, anxiety disorders and any mental disorder, adjusting for the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, psychological and clinical variables. Data from the Canadian national mental health survey were used to examine the gender-specific relationships between work stress dimensions and mental disorders in the working population (n = 24,277). Mental disorders were assessed using a modified version of the World Mental Health - Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In multivariate analysis, male workers who reported high demand and low control in the workplace were more likely to have had major depression (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.69) and any depressive or anxiety disorders (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.04) in the past 12 months. In women, high demand and low control was only associated with having any depressive or anxiety disorder (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.84). Job insecurity was positively associated with major depression in men but not in women. Imbalance between work and family life was the strongest factor associated with having mental disorders, regardless of gender. Policies improving the work environment may have positive effects on workers' mental health status. Imbalance between work and family life may be a stronger risk factor than work stress for mental disorders. Longitudinal studies incorporating important workplace health research models are needed to delineate causal relationships between work characteristics and mental disorders.
Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.
Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…
Markon, Marie-Pierre; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée
The worldwide burden of mental disorders is considerable, and on the rise, putting pressure on health care systems. Current reforms aim to improve the efficiency of mental health care systems by increasing service integration in communities and strengthening primary mental health care. In this context, mental health care professionals (MHPs) are increasingly required to work on interdisciplinary teams in a variety of settings. Little is known, however, about the profiles of MHPs in relation to their perceived work role performance. MHPs in Quebec (N = 315) from four local service networks completed a self-administered questionnaire eliciting information on individual and team characteristics, as well as team processes and states. Profiles of MHPs were created using a two-step cluster analysis. Five profiles were generated. MHPs belonging to profiles labelled senior medical outpatient specialized care MHPs and senior psychosocial outpatient specialized care MHPs perceived themselves as more performing than MHPs in other profiles. The profile labelled low-collaborators was significantly less performing than all other groups. Two other profiles were identified, positioned between the aforementioned groups in terms of the perceived performance of MHPs: the junior primary care MHPs and the diversified specialized care MHPs. Seniority within the team, delivering specialized type of care, and positive team processes were all features associated with profiles where perceived work performance was high. Overall, this study supports the case for initiatives aimed at improving stability and interdisciplinary collaboration in health teams, especially in primary care.
Haines, Alina; Brown, Andrew; McCabe, Rhiannah; Rogerson, Michelle; Whittington, Richard
Safety at work is a core issue for mental health staff working on in-patient units. At present, there is a limited theoretical base regarding which factors may affect staff perceptions of safety. This study attempted to identify which factors affect perceived staff safety working on in-patient mental health wards. A cross-sectional design was employed across 101 forensic and non-forensic mental health wards, over seven National Health Service trusts nationally. Measures included an online staff survey, Ward Features Checklist and recorded incident data. Data were analysed using categorical principal components analysis and ordinal regression. Perceptions of staff safety were increased by ward brightness, higher number of patient beds, lower staff to patient ratios, less dayroom space and more urban views. The findings from this study do not represent common-sense assumptions. Results are discussed in the context of the literature and may have implications for current initiatives aimed at managing in-patient violence and aggression. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.
Gärtner, Fania R; Ketelaar, Sarah M; Smeets, Odile; Bolier, Linda; Fischer, Eva; van Dijk, Frank J H; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K
Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS) mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental) health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group) with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in both intervention arms will be assessed, and
van Dijk Frank JH
Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in
Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger
The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between bullying at work and cortisol secretion. Of particular interest was to examine whether frequently and occasionally bullied persons differed from nonbullied persons. The study included 1944 employees (1413 women and 531 men) from 55 workplaces in Denmark (16 private and 39 public workplaces). During a work day three saliva samples were collected at awakening, +30 min later, and at 20:00 hours, and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Mental health was assessed using items on somatic, cognitive, stress, and depressive mood. Of the 1944 employees, 1.1% was frequently bullied and 7.2% occasionally bullied. Frequently bullied persons reported poorer mental health and had a 24.8% lower salivary cortisol concentration compared with the nonbullied reference group. Occasionally bullied persons had a poorer self-reported mental health, but their cortisol concentrations did not deviate from the group of nonbullied persons. The associations remained significant even after controlling for age, gender, exact time of sampling, mental health, and duration of bullying. Bullying occurred at 78% of the workplaces (43 workplaces); frequent bullying occurred at 21% of the workplaces (40%). Frequent bullying was associated with lower salivary cortisol concentrations. No such association was observed for occasional bullying. Whether the generally lower secretion of cortisol among the frequently bullied persons indicate an altered physiological status remains to be evaluated in future studies. Yet, the physiological response seems to underscore the possibility that bullying indeed may have measurable physiological consequences. Hence, the physiological response supports the mental symptoms found among the frequently bullied. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Work capacity demands are a concept to describe which psychological capacities are required in a job. Assessing psychological work capacity demands is of specific importance when mental health problems at work endanger work ability. Exploring psychological work capacity demands is the basis for mental hazard analysis or rehabilitative action, e.g. in terms of work adjustmentOBJECTIVE:This is the first study investigating psychological work capacity demands in rehabilitation patients with and without mental disorders. A structured interview on psychological work capacity demands (Mini-ICF-Work; Muschalla, 2015; Linden et al., 2015) was done with 166 rehabilitation patients of working age. All interviews were done by a state-licensed socio-medically trained psychotherapist. Inter-rater-reliability was assessed by determining agreement in independent co-rating in 65 interviews. For discriminant validity purposes, participants filled in the Short Questionnaire for Work Analysis (KFZA, Prümper et al., 1994). In different professional fields, different psychological work capacity demands were of importance. The Mini-ICF-Work capacity dimensions reflect different aspects than the KFZA. Patients with mental disorders were longer on sick leave and had worse work ability prognosis than patients without mental disorders, although both groups reported similar work capacity demands. Psychological work demands - which are highly relevant for work ability prognosis and work adjustment processes - can be explored and differentiated in terms of psychological capacity demands.
Lam, T H; Lee, P W; Ong, S G; Wong, C M; Chow, W K; Kleevens, J W
Mental health and work stress among 344 clerical (and secretarial) workers and 185 executives (96 managers and 89 executives) in Hong Kong was studied. No overall difference was found between clerical workers and executives in mental health and coping ability when sex was controlled for. Clerical workers, however, reported fewer interests, more problems in accepting others' values, and more dissatisfaction with work context. Female managers/executives were shown to be a high risk group, reporting more problems in mental health, coping, and work context than their male counterparts. Mental health was strongly associated with each of the work stress factors studied. A significant interaction between sex and nature of job was noted in predictors of mental health. The interaction of coping, context, and mental health is discussed.
Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos
This study aimed to investigate the relations among mental disorders, physical discomfort, household work and farm work among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the administration of a structured questionnaire to 182 female farm workers. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression, where the significance level was set to 5%. Results indicated that 111 (61%) participants reported work-related mental disorders and physical discomfort was reported by 160 (87.9%). ...
Yuan, Qi; Liu, Su; Tang, Szehang; Zhang, Dexing
Mental health issues pose a serious concern in the workplace for the huge productivity loss and financial burden associated with it. Unlike the traditional 'fixing-what-is-wrong' approach, positive psychology offers a less-stigmatized way to promote mental health. Psychological capital, a concept originated from positive psychology, has been proven effective in improving mental well-being and work performance. However, little evidence exists for its implementation among Asian working population or its cost-benefit for organizations adopting such promotion strategy. The current study is designed to assess the protective effects of a web-based psychology capital intervention among Hong Kong working population on individuals' mental health and work performance, as well as organizations' return-on-investment. A two-arm randomized controlled trial design will be adopted. Eligible working adults will be randomly allocated to either the intervention group or the waiting-list control group, with 177 participants in each arm. The intervention, which consists of four web-based training sessions, each targeting one of the psychological capital components (hope, efficacy, optimism and resilience), will be implemented over a 4-week period. On-line surveys will assess the participants in each group at baseline, intervention completion, 1 and 3 months after the completion. The primary outcome is individuals' psychological capital level; secondary outcomes include individuals' well-being, depressive symptoms, work engagement and productivity. Return-on-investment will be calculated from the employers' perspective based on productivity gain, savings in medical expenditure, as well as operation and time costs. Analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. This is the first experimental study that explores the applicability of psychological capital development among Asian population. Through investigating changes in individuals' work productivity from absenteeism and
Rebouças, Denise; Legay, Letícia Fortes; Abelha, Lúcia
To assess job satisfaction and work impact among providers of a mental health service and their potential association with sociodemographic and job-related variables. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 321 employees of a long-stay mental health service in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2005. The following instruments were applied: the WHO Mental Health Services Satisfaction and Work Impact scales, and a questionnaire on sociodemographic and job features. Variable associations were analysed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square tests and multiple linear regression. The mean score of satisfaction was 3.29 (SD=0.64) and the mean score for work impact was 1.77 (SD=0.62). Of all respondents, 61.8% reported a moderate level of satisfaction. Job satisfaction was positively associated with increasing age, lower schooling, being a non-governmental organization employee, developing non-patient-related activities, being involved in an innovative project. The highest levels of work impact were observed among civil servants, young people and females. Most features associated to the lowest levels of job satisfaction were associated to the highest levels of work impact. Despite the moderate level of satisfaction among providers, there is an evident need for policy changes, mainly those related to increasing availability of supplies and human resources and building restoration.
Guimarães, José Maria Ximenes; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Assis, Marluce Maria Araújo
The scope of this article is to analyze satisfaction in the workplace of mental healthcare professionals who serve in Psychosocial Care Centers (Caps). The research is of a qualitative nature and the data-collecting medium was semistructured interviews with 19 workers of three Caps in Fortaleza, in the Northern Brazilian State of Ceará. The treatment of the empirical material was based upon the analysis of content with an emphasis on the thematic bias. The results revealed the determinants of (dis)satisfaction present in the daily routine of these workers. The relationships established with the users were singled out as the main source of satisfaction, whereas the work and wage conditions were the main motives for dissatisfaction. In addition to these aspects, consequences of (dis)satisfaction at work in the private, social and organizational field of the workers' life in the Caps were revealed, mainly in physical and mental health. Lastly, they emphasized the urgent need for implementation - on the part of public administration - of strategies that seek to reduce the precariousness of healthcare work, especially in mental health, with a view to mitigating damages potentially caused by such work.
Laaksonen, Mikko; Rahkonen, Ossi; Martikainen, Pekka; Lahelma, Eero
To examine associations of job demands and job control, procedural and relational organizational fairness, and physical work load with self-rated general health and mental health. In addition, the effect of occupational class on these associations is examined. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys in 2001-2002. Respondents to cross-sectional postal surveys were middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki (n=5.829, response rate 67%). Associations of job demands and job control, organizational fairness and physical work load with less than good self-rated health and poor GHQ-12 mental health were examined. Those with the poorest working conditions two to three times more, often reported poor general and mental health than those with the best working conditions. Adjustment for occupational class weakened the associations of low job control and physical work load with general health by one fifth, but even more strengthened that of high job demands. Adjustment for occupational class clearly strengthened the associations of job control and physical work load with mental health in men. Mutual adjustment for all working conditions notably weakened their associations with both health measures, except those of job control in men. All working conditions except relational organizational fairness remained independently associated with general and mental health. All studied working conditions were strongly associated with both general and mental health but the associations weakened after mutual adjustments. Of the two organizational fairness measures, procedural fairness remained independently associated with both health outcomes. Adjustment for occupational class had essentially different effects on the associations of different working conditions and different health outcomes.
This article critiques theories of development and growth models, which are not compatible with conservation of resources, women's empowerment, and a sustainable society. Affluent societies are using up most of the world's resources in unsustainable ways. Industrial giants have co-opted the term "sustainability." This gender discussion addresses the issue of patriarchal and capitalist systems and presents a new theoretical framework. The author disagrees with the global division of labor, where women are manipulated as producer-housewives and consumer-housewives, and with the global level of violence against women, in general. Gender equality is not viable in the present patriarchal order. In all economic theories, women's work is a free resource and invisible as unpaid housework and nurturing work. The globalization of the economy leads to greater capital and power concentration in the hands of a few. Women are ill served by structural adjustment policies. New global restructuring has improved the welfare of Third World elites. Globalization of capital and new technology makes ethics obsolete. A new economic model must be based on the preservation of life at the center, with livelihood based on wage labor and unpaid work, control of communal assets, and solidarity of communities. Unpaid necessary social labor must be shared by men and women equally. The checklist for change includes, for example, that money would be a means of circulation, not of accumulation. Nature would be reintegrated into economics. There must be new meanings for work, productive labor, economics, the good life, satisfaction of needs, and political structures.
Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprised just under thirty percent of all new child protection applications brought to the Court and referred to alternative dispute resolution, during the first half of 1998. This paper reports on the study findings, which are drawn from a descriptive survey of 228 Pre-Hearing Conferences. A data collection schedule was completed for each case, gathering information about the child welfare concerns, the parents' problems, including mental health problems, and the contribution by mental health professionals to resolving child welfare concerns. The study found that the lack of involvement by mental health social workers in the child protection system meant the Children's Court was given little appreciation of either a child's emotional or a parent's mental health functioning. The lack of effective cooperation between the adult mental health and child protection services also meant decisions made about these children were made without full information about the needs and the likely outcomes for these children and their parents. This lack of interagency cooperation between mental health social work and child welfare also emerged in the findings of the Icarus project, a cross-national project, led by Brunel University, in England. This project compared the views and responses of mental health and child welfare social workers to the dependent children of mentally ill parents, when there were child protection concerns. It is proposed that adult mental health social workers involve themselves in the assessment of, and interventions in, child welfare cases when appropriate, and share essential information about
Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; McDonough, Christine; Peterik, Kara; Marino, Molly; Meterko, Mark; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane; Jette, Alan M
Purpose To improve the mental health component of the Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB), developed for the US Social Security Administration's (SSA) disability determination process. Specifically our goal was to expand the WD-FAB scales of mood & emotions, resilience, social interactions, and behavioral control to improve the depth and breadth of the current scales and expand the content coverage to include aspects of cognition & communication function. Methods Data were collected from a random, stratified sample of 1695 claimants applying for the SSA work disability benefits, and a general population sample of 2025 working age adults. 169 new items were developed to replenish the WD-FAB scales and analyzed using factor analysis and item response theory (IRT) analysis to construct unidimensional scales. We conducted computer adaptive test (CAT) simulations to examine the psychometric properties of the WD-FAB. Results Analyses supported the inclusion of four mental health subdomains: Cognition & Communication (68 items), Self-Regulation (34 items), Resilience & Sociability (29 items) and Mood & Emotions (34 items). All scales yielded acceptable psychometric properties. Conclusions IRT methods were effective in expanding the WD-FAB to assess mental health function. The WD-FAB has the potential to enhance work disability assessment both within the context of the SSA disability programs as well as other clinical and vocational rehabilitation settings.
Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study to investigate the effects of employees’ income and age on their mental health. The study has accomplished among a sample of 150 randomly selected employees who worked for Esfahan steel company located in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study uses a standard questionnaire, which is adopted from Goldberg and Williams (2000 [Goldberg, D., & Williams, P. (2000. General health questionnaire (GHQ. Swindon, Wiltshire, UK: NFER Nelson.]. The results of the implementation of ANOVA test have revealed that while there was a significant and positive relationship between employees’ salary and mental health, there was not any meaningful relationship between employees’ age and mental health.
Lowe, Sarah R; Kwok, Richard K; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P
Disaster recovery work increases risk for mental health problems, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We explored links from recovery work to post-traumatic stress (PTS), major depression (MD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms through physical health symptoms and household income in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. As part of the NIEHS GuLF STUDY, participants (N = 10,141) reported on cleanup work activities, spill-related physical health symptoms, and household income at baseline, and mental health symptoms an average of 14.69 weeks (SD = 16.79) thereafter. Cleanup work participation was associated with higher physical health symptoms, which in turn were associated with higher PTS, MD, and GAD symptoms. Similar pattern of results were found in models including workers only and investigating the influence of longer work duration and higher work-related oil exposure on mental health symptoms. In addition, longer worker duration and higher work-related oil exposure were associated with higher household income, which in turn was associated with lower MD and GAD symptoms. These findings suggest that physical health symptoms contribute to workers' risk for mental health symptoms, while higher household income, potentially from more extensive work, might mitigate risk. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Bengtsson-Tops, A; Saveman, B-I; Tops, D
The phenomenon of abused women with mental illness is often unrecognised by staff working within welfare services. This may be explained by staff members' attitudes, insecurity or lack of awareness. Today, there are shortcomings in the knowledge of staff members' experiences and interpretations of abuse against women suffering from mental illness. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe how staff members experience and understand their work with abused women suffering from mental illness. Thematic interviews were conducted with 13 staff members from various welfare services. Data were subject to content analysis. The findings showed that working with abused women was experienced as ambiguous and painful and made the staff act pragmatically. Feelings of ambiguity were mainly related to the lack of theoretical frameworks for interpreting why women with mental illness are exposed to abuse. Painful experiences involved intertwined feelings of distress, frustration, worthlessness, ambivalence and powerlessness. These were all feelings that emerged in the direct encounters with the abused women. In response to the abused women's comprehensive needs, staff members acted pragmatically, implying networking without any sanction from the leaders of the organisation, compliance with routines and taking action in here-and-now situations. By acting pragmatically, staff members could achieve concrete results through their interventions. It is concluded that staff members, working with abused women with mental illness, are in a vulnerable situation and in need of formally accepted and implemented support and legitimacy as well as theoretical knowledge regarding causes and consequences of abuse in this particular group of women.
Full Text Available Positive mental health (PMH is a combination of emotional, psychological and social well-being that is necessary for an individual to be mentally healthy. The current study aims to examine the socio-demographic differences of PMH among mental health professionals and to explore the association between job satisfaction and total PMH.Doctors, nurses and allied health staff (n = 462 completed the online survey which included the multidimensional 47-item PMH instrument as well as a single item job satisfaction question. Associations of PMH with job satisfaction were investigated via linear regression models.Significant differences in PMH total and domain specific scores were observed across socio-demographic characteristics. Age and ethnicity were significantly correlated with PMH total scores as well as various domain scores, while gender, marital and residency status and the staff's position were only significantly correlated with domain specific scores. Job satisfaction was also found to be a significantly associated with total PMH.The workplace is a key environment that affects the mental health and well-being of working adults. In order to promote and foster PMH, workplaces need to consider the importance of psychosocial well-being and the wellness of staff whilst providing an environment that supports and maintains overall health and work efficiency.
Ljoså, Cathrine Haugene; Tyssen, Reidar; Lau, Bjørn
This study aimed to investigate the association between individual and psychosocial work factors and mental distress among offshore shift workers in the Norwegian petroleum industry. All 2406 employees of a large Norwegian oil and gas company, who worked offshore during a two-week period in August 2006, were invited to participate in the web-based survey. Completed questionnaires were received from 1336 employees (56% response rate). The outcome variable was mental distress, assessed with a shortened version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-5). The following individual factors were adjusted for: age, gender, marital status, and shift work locus of control. Psychosocial work factors included: night work, demands, control and support, and shift work-home interference. The level of mental distress was higher among men than women. In the adjusted regression model, the following were associated with mental distress: (i) high scores on quantitative demands, (ii) low level of support, and (iii) high level of shift work-home interference. Psychosocial work factors explained 76% of the total explained variance (adjusted R (²)=0.21) in the final adjusted model. Psychosocial work factors, such as quantitative demands, support, and shift work-home interference were independently associated with mental distress. Shift schedules were only univariately associated with mental distress.
Leufstadius, Christel; Eklund, Mona; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
The aim of the present study was to investigate how people with persistent mental illness, with various types of work and employment conditions, experience and describe the meaningfulness of work. The study had a qualitative approach and twelve informants living in the community were purposefully selected and interviewed according to overarching themes. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis, and all of the authors were involved in the analysis process. The findings resulted in four main themes: 1) work per se has certain characteristics, 2) participation in different contexts gives a feeling of normality, acceptance, belonging and fulfilment of norms and values, 3) work affords structure, energy and a balanced daily life, and 4) work increases well-being and strengthens one's identity. A tentative model is described concerning perceived meaningfulness in work among individuals with persistent mental illness, in which the first three aspects of meaning are a prerequisite for meaning in terms of increased well-being and strengthened identity. Furthermore, it seems important that work has to bring the just right challenge to the individual in order for him or her to perceive the identified aspects of meaningfulness.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. There is an increasing need for evaluation of working ability due to lower level of social protection of workers and growing number of patients with mental diseases in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of mental diseases on the occurrence of disability of I and III categories in B&H during the period from January 1st 2005 to December 31st 2006. Methods. This study involved 1 792 examinees with the complete loss of working ability (I disability category (n = 921. Disability category III consisted of persons with limited working ability (n = 871. The instruments of research in this multricentric and retrospective study were the forms P-6 and D-2 for the years of service in B&H, and the form IN for persons with years of service abroad and personal features questionnaire (EPQ. Results. The study included 1 494 men (78.5% and 298 women (21.5%. Univariant analysis represented very high statistical significance (p = 0.001 concerning: age (χ2 = 65.428, years of service (χ2=28.438, drinking (χ2 = 33.234, smoking (χ2=70.880, father’s education (χ2 = 58.124, migrations (χ2 = 14.874, sick leave (χ2 = 29.190, medical treatment (χ2 = 95.073 and rehabilitation (χ2 = 29.453. Multivariant analysis represented the influence on disability category I by parameters such as: years of service, sick leave, psychoticism and depression (p = 0.001. Hospital treatment and fatigation had influence on disability in both groups. Mental diseases are the leading cause in disability category I in 14.98% and in disability category III in 9.3% persons. Leading diseases in both disability categories were depression and schizophrenia followed by alcoholism, anxiety, brain organ psychosyndrome (BOPS and other diseases. Conclusion. The following parameters have highest influence on the disability category: the years of service, sick leave, psychoticism, depression, and long-lasting disease, medical treatments
Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond
Background: There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England.\\ud Aims: An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD).\\ud Methods: Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their ...
Gärtner, Fania R; Ketelaar, Sarah M; Smeets, Odile; Bolier, Linda; Fischer, Eva; van Dijk, Frank JH; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K
Abstract Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS) mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental) health and work performance. The objective o...
Damaske, Sarah; Frech, Adrianne
Despite numerous changes in women’s employment in the latter half of the 20th century, women’s employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women’s weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women’s labor force experiences across adulthood. We find two pathways of stable fulltime work for women, three pathways of part-time employment, and a pathway of unpaid labor. A majority of women follow one of the two fulltime work pathways, while fewer than 10 percent follow a pathway of unpaid labor. Our findings provide evidence of the lasting influence of work-family conflict and early socio-economic advantages and disadvantages on women’s work pathways. Indeed, race, poverty, educational attainment, and early family characteristics significantly shaped women’s work careers. Work-family opportunities and constraints also were related to women’s work hours, as were a woman’s gendered beliefs and expectations. We conclude that women’s employment pathways are a product of both their resources and changing social environment as well as individual agency. Significantly, we point to social stratification, gender ideologies, and work-family constraints, working in concert, as key explanations for how women are “tracked” onto work pathways from an early age. PMID:27001314
Arias-de la Torre, Jorge; Artazcoz, Lucía; Molina, Antonio José; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente
In the working population, poor mental health is a significant problem whose prevalence rates and associated factors could differ by gender, especially in a period of socioeconomic changes. The aims of this study were: a) to determine the prevalence of poor mental health in the working population of Spain in 2011; b) to identify the association of this prevalence with socioeconomic and work-related variables for men and women separately; c) to determine if the patterns differ by gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from the National Health Survey of Spain (2011). Of the 21,007 participants in the survey, we selected 7396 whose employment status was described as "working" The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used as a screening tool to detect poor mental health. Prevalences were calculated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between variables. The prevalence of poor mental health was higher among women (19.9%) than men (13.9%), the overall prevalence being 16.8%. The variables associated with a higher prevalence were type of contract and work-related variables in men, and age and socioeconomic variables in women. This study shows that, in the working population of Spain, the prevalence of poor mental health and its related factors differ by gender. Poor mental health is mainly related to socioeconomic variables in women but is mostly associated with work-related variables in men. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg
To investigate the prevalence and mental health effects of an unequal work-life balance (WLB) including potential gender differences. A cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of the Swiss employed population aged 20 to 64 (women: n = 1661; men: n = 1591). Based on a single-item measure, more than every seventh employee in Switzerland indicated major difficulties combining work and private life. In certain socio-demographic categories, up to 30% showed such work-life conflict (WLC). For both genders, work-life imbalance turned out to be a risk factor affecting mental health. Employees with self-reported WLC presented a significantly higher relative risk for poor self-rated health (women: aOR = 2.6/men: aOR = 2.0), negative emotions and depression (aOR = 3.0/3.1), low energy and optimism (aOR = 2.1/1.6), fatigue (aOR = 2.4/2.6), and sleep disorders (aOR = 1.8/1.5) compared to employees with no WLC. Internationally, few data on the prevalence of WLC exist. In Switzerland, work-life imbalance is not a marginal phenomenon among the workforce and needs to be addressed as a notable public and mental health issue.
Sawhney, Gargi; Jennings, Kristen S; Britt, Thomas W; Sliter, Michael T
The goal of this research was to examine the moderating effect of work recovery strategies on the relationship between occupational stress experienced by firefighters and mental health symptoms. Work recovery strategies were identified through semistructured interviews with 20 firefighters and a literature search on recovery strategies. A total of 7 work recovery strategies emerged using the 2 methods: work-related talks, stress-related talks, time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise, recreational activities, relaxation, and mastery experiences. Using a prospective study design with a 1-month time interval in a sample of 268 firefighters, experienced occupational stress at Time 1 was positively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. In addition, with the exception of spending time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise and mastery experiences, recovery strategies at Time 1 were negatively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. Lastly, all work recovery strategies, except stress-related talks and relaxation, moderated the relationship between experienced occupational stress at Time 1 and mental health symptoms at Time 2. Specifically, the positive relationship between experienced occupational stress and mental health symptoms was stronger when firefighters engaged in low, rather than high, work recovery strategies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K
Ethnic inequalities in mental health have been found in many high-income countries. The purpose of this study is to test whether mental health inequalities between ethnic groups are mediated by exposure to unfavourable working conditions. Workers (n = 6278) were selected from baseline data of the multi-ethnic HELIUS study. Measures included two indices of unfavourable working conditions (lack of recovery opportunities, and perceived work stress), and two mental health outcomes (generic mental health: MCS-12 and depressive symptoms: PHQ-9). Mediation of the relationships between ethnicity and mental health by unfavourable working conditions was tested using the bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals technique. Linear models with and without the mediators included, and adjusted for gender and age. Attenuation was calculated as the change in B between the models with and without mediators. The sample comprised Dutch (1355), African Surinamese (1290), South-Asian Surinamese (1121), Turkish (1090), Ghanaian (729), and Moroccan (693) workers. After controlling for age and gender, all ethnic minorities had a higher risk of mental health problems as compared to the Dutch host population, with the exception of Ghanaians in the case of depressive symptoms, and African Surinamese workers with regard to both outcomes. The Turkish group stands out with the lowest mental health on both mental health indices, followed by Moroccan and South-Asian Surinamese workers. A lack of recovery opportunities mediated the relationship between ethnic group and a higher risk of mental health problems. Perceived work stress did not contribute to the explanation of ethnic inequalities. The higher risk of mental health problems in ethnic minority groups can be partly accounted for by a lack of recovery opportunities at work, but not by perceived work stress. This may imply that workplace prevention targeting recovery opportunities have the potential to reduce ethnic inequalities, but
Lagerveld, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.
The article will describe factors of influence on return to work RTW and evidence-based interventions that enhance return to work (RTW) after sick leave due to common mental health disorders (CMD). First the concepts of both RTW and CMD are outlined. Second, the sense of urgency for effective RTW
Watkins, Daphne C.; Hawkins, Jaclynn; Mitchell, Jamie A.
Objective: Though sparse in previous years, research on the mental health of Black men has recently experienced a gradual increase in social work journals. This article systematically organizes and critically examines peer-reviewed, social work evidence on the mental health of Black men. Methods: Twenty-two peer-reviewed articles from social work…
Black, T. E.
Mental health issues among academics have historically been dismissed as being inherent to the academic culture. While this culture is starting to shift toward more open recognition of these issues, progress toward addressing them lags. I will share a graduate student-focused perspective on some causes and effects of mental health issues in academia, and offer some actionable ideas for improvement. The stereotypical graduate school experience is conducive to the development of mental health issues. Financial stresses, balancing research, teaching, and degree commitments, and managing significant non-academic life events can be detrimental to student health without an adequate system of support. The limited recognition of and support for mental health issues in academia comes at great cost not only to individual health, but to the scientific community. Who do we exclude when we do not fully support individuals with mental health concerns? There are many anecdotes of scientists leaving academia for the sake of their mental health; it is plausible that many, anticipating potential mental health concerns or the factors that drive them, do not pursue academia at all. How can we support those in academia who experience mental health concerns? We can start by ensuring that everyone in our community has access to appropriate resources. This may look like providing new community members with clear information about the mental health services and resources that are available to the community, or advocating for better resources where they are lacking. It is important, however, to address the potential causes of mental health issues as well as the symptoms. While exact factors depend strongly on individuals, we should work to establish more flexible community standards and protocols that can accommodate the various life circumstances that we may encounter. Such actions would help to drive a broader culture shift toward recognizing and destigmatizing mental health issues.
Ferrand, Claude; Courtois, Robert; Martinent, Guillaume; Rivière, Michèle; Rusch, Emmanuel
The present study examined the relationships between work-related characteristics in internships, psychological needs satisfaction, motivation and mental health using a partial least squares path modeling. Midwifery students (N = 214; M age = 22.8 years) from three French schools completed different questionnaires online. Results showed (1) the importance of work resources (work control and social support) as protective factors of psychological needs satisfaction; and (2) the role of competence need satisfaction through motivation in the relationships between work resources and mental health. Midwifery schools should pay more attention to these two results, and take them into account in midwifery students' training.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Bultmann, Ute; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Martin, Marie; Christensen, Ulla; Diderichsen, Finn; Rugulies, Reiner
Purpose: To identify health-, personal- and work-related factors predictive of return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed due to common mental health problems, such as, stress, depression, burnout, and anxiety. Methods: We distributed a baseline questionnaire to employees applying for sickness
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entitlement under 38 U.S.C. 5121 to benefits due and unpaid upon death of a beneficiary. 3.1000 Section 3.1000 Pensions... Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Accrued § 3.1000 Entitlement under 38 U.S.C. 5121 to benefits due and...
Takano, Ken-ichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Ishii, Keiichiro; Nakasa, Hiroyasu; Shigeta, Sadayoshi.
To prevent outbreaks of the wrong operation and judgement in the nuclear power plant, human conditions of body and mind should be taken into consideration particularly for the mental works such as inspection and monitoring. To estimate human conditions quantitatively by the measurement of human physiological parameters, this paper presents the following experimental results. (1) Physiological parameters are estimated from both sides of biological meanings and the applicability to field works. (2) Time variation of the parameters is investigated in mental simulation tests in order to select a good indicator of mental fatigue. (3) Correlation analysis between mental fatigue indexes and physiological parameters shows that the heart rate is a best indicator. (author)
Wissow, Lawrence S; Zafar, Waleed; Fothergill, Kate; Ruble, Anne; Slade, Eric
To further efforts to integrate mental health and primary care, this study develops a novel approach to quantifying the amount and sources of work involved in shifting care for common mental health problems to pediatric primary care providers. Email/web-based survey of a convenience sample (n = 58) of Maryland pediatricians (77% female, 58% at their site 10 or more years; 44% in private practice, 52 % urban, 48 % practicing with a co-located mental health provider). Participants were asked to review 11 vignettes, which described primary care management of child/youth mental health problems, and rate them on an integer-based ordinal scale for the overall amount of work involved compared to a 12th reference vignette describing an uncomplicated case of ADHD. Respondents were also asked to indicate factors (time, effort, stress) accounting for their ratings. Vignettes presented combinations of three diagnoses (ADHD, anxiety, and depression) and three factors (medical co-morbidity, psychiatric co-morbidity, and difficult families) reported to complicate mental health care. The reference case was pre-assigned a work value of 2. Estimates of the relationship of diagnosis and complicating factors with workload were obtained using linear regression, with random effects at the respondent level. The 58 pediatricians gave 593 vignette responses. Depression was associated with a 1.09 unit (about 50%) increase in work (95% CL .94, 1.25), while anxiety did not differ significantly from the reference case of uncomplicated ADHD (p = .28). Although all three complicating factors increased work ratings compared with the reference case, family complexity and psychiatric co-morbidity did so the most (.87 and 1.07 units, respectively, P work were physician time, physician mental effort, and stress; those least strongly associated were staff time, physician physical effort, and malpractice risk. Pediatricians working with co-located mental health providers gave higher work
Prosser, D; Johnson, S; Kuipers, E; Szmukler, G; Bebbington, P; Thornicroft, G
This questionnaire study examined perceived sources of stress and satisfaction at work among 121 mental health staff members. Five factors were derived from principal component analysis of sources of work stress items (stress from: role, poor support, clients, future, and overload), and accounted for 70% of the total variance. Four factors were derived from the items related to sources of job satisfaction (satisfaction from: career, working with people, management, and money), accounting for 68% of the variance. The associations of these factors with sociodemographic and job characteristics were examined, and they were entered as explanatory variables into regression models predicting mental health, burnout, and job satisfaction. Stress from "overload" was associated with being based outside an in-patient ward, and with emotional exhaustion and worse mental health. Stress related to the "future" was associated with not being white. Stress from "clients" was associated with the "depersonalization" component of burnout. Higher job satisfaction was associated with "management" and "working with people" as sources of satisfaction, whereas emotional exhaustion and poorer mental health were associated with less "career" satisfaction.
Markon, Marie-Pierre; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée
The purpose of mental healthcare system reform was to enhance service efficiency by strengthening primary mental healthcare and increasing service integration in communities. Reinforcing interprofessional teamwork also intended to address the extensive and multidimensional needs of patients with mental disorders by bringing together a broader array of expertise. In this context, mental healthcare professionals (MHCPs) from various health and social care professions are more interdependent in many aspects of their work (tasks, resources, and goals). We wanted to examine the effect of perceived interdependence among MHCPs on their work role performance in the context of mental healthcare. For this purpose, we developed and tested a model coherent with the Input-Mediator-Outcome-Input (IMOI) framework of team effectiveness. Data from questionnaires administered to 315 MHCPs from four local health service networks in Quebec, Canada were analysed through structural equation modelling and mediation analysis. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data and explained 51% of the variance of work role performance. Perceived collaboration, confidence in the advantages of interprofessional collaboration, involvement in the decision process, knowledge sharing, and satisfaction with the nature of the work partially mediated the effect of perceived interdependence among team members on work role performance. Therefore, perceived interdependence among team members had a positive impact on the work role performance of MHCPs mostly through its effect on favourable team functioning features. This implies, in practice, that increased interdependence of MHCPs would be more likely to truly enhance work role performance if team-based interventions to promote collaborative work and interprofessional teaching and training programs to support work within interprofessional teams were jointly implemented. Participation in the decision process and knowledge sharing should
Kimberly Fisher; Richard Layte
This paper examines how time diaries facilitate the study of work-life balance. We first compare aggregate time spent in paid work, unpaid work, attending to personal needs, and free time across seven countries using the Multinational Time Use Study. We then measure the overlap of work with other activities in two ways. First, we map the timing of episodes of work over the day, and overlay these maps onto maps of leisure time. A social group can be said to have a work-life balance if their pe...
Yang, Suyi; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman
International literature suggests that the experience of high levels of stress by healthcare professionals has been associated with decreased work efficiency and high rates of staff turnover. The aims of this study are to identify the extent of stress and burnout experienced by healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore and to identify demographic characteristics and work situations associated with this stress and burnout. A total of 220 Singaporean mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey, which included measures of stress, burnout (exhaustion and disengagement), participants' demographic details, and working situation. Independent t-tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to examine between-group differences in the dependent variables (stress and burnout). Analyses revealed that healthcare professionals below the age of 25, those with less than five years experience, and those with the lowest annual income, reported the highest levels of stress and burnout. No significant differences were found with other demographic or work situation variables. Findings suggest that healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore are experiencing relatively high levels of stress and burnout. It is important that clinicians, administrators and policy makers take proactive steps to develop programs aimed at reducing stress and burnout for healthcare professionals. These programs are likely to also increase the well-being and resilience of healthcare professionals and improve the quality of mental health services in Singapore. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rakovski, Carter; Zettel-Watson, Laura; Rutledge, Dana
This study examines physical and mental health symptoms among people with fibromyalgia (FM) by employment status and working conditions. Secondary data analysis of the 2007 National Fibromyalgia Association Questionnaire study resulted in employment and symptom information for 1702 people of working age with FM. In this cross-sectional internet study, six factors of symptom clusters (physical, mental health, sleeping, concentration, musculoskeletal, support) were seen in the data. Linear regression models used employment, age, income, gender, and education to predict symptom clusters. Among those employed, working conditions were also associated with symptom severity. In the predominately female sample, 51% were working. Of these, 70% worked over 30 hours/week and half had flexible hours. Employment, higher income, and education were strongly associated with fewer symptoms. Working conditions, including level of physical and mental exertion required on the job as well as coworkers' understanding of FM, were related to symptoms, particularly physical and mental health symptoms. Many participants reported modifying their work environment (66%) or changing occupations (33%) due to FM. Work modifications could allow more people with FM to remain employed and alleviate symptoms. Persons with FM should be counseled to consider what elements of their work may lead to symptom exacerbation.
Ketelaar, Sarah M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K
Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group of a previous randomized controlled trial with high dropout and low compliance to the intervention, we studied the pre- and posteffects of the EMH approach in a larger group of participants. We applied a pretest-posttest study design. The WHS consisted of online screening on impaired work functioning and mental health followed by online automatically generated personalized feedback, online tailored advice, and access to self-help EMH interventions. The effects on work functioning, stress, and work-related fatigue after 3 months were analyzed using paired t tests and effect sizes. One hundred and twenty-eight nurses and allied health professionals participated at pretest as well as posttest. Significant improvements were found on work functioning (p = 0.01) and work-related fatigue (p Work functioning had relevantly improved in 30% of participants. A small meaningful effect on stress was found (Cohen d = .23) in the participants who had logged onto an EMH intervention (20%, n = 26). The EMH approach to WHS improves the work functioning and mental health of nurses and allied health professionals. However, because we found small effects and participation in the offered EMH interventions was low, there is ample room for improvement.
Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Mannix, Judy; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Jackson, Debra
In this qualitative study, the experiences of a small cohort of registered nurses (RN) during the first 2 years of mental health employment were documented. A total of 13 semistructured interviews were completed from within a specialist mental health setting. Eleven issues were identified: (i) teamwork; (ii) experiential learning; (iii) self-development; (iv) confidence; (v) listening; (vi) rapport; (vii) keen observation; (viii) patience; (ix) empathy; (x) learning from colleagues; and (xi) maintaining a positive approach towards patients. The nurses focused on the here-and-now circumstances, rather than on future plans, or past preparation, and were able to elucidate the qualities and skills that they brought to their clinical work. Participants were most proud of achievements that bridged the personal and professional, such as self-development, working closely with patients to develop rapport, experiential learning, and teamwork. Findings highlight the importance of teamwork to newly-graduated RN entering the mental health environment. It is known that teamwork can convey a sense of belonging and help create an environment in which applied experiential clinical learning can occur. Therefore, it is important that efforts are made to facilitate team building and opportunities for teamwork when new graduates are transitioning into the mental health clinical practice environment. © 2011 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute
Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs.......Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....
Gärtner, F. R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; van Dijk, F. J. H.; Sluiter, J. K.
Common mental disorders (CMD) negatively affect work functioning. In the health service sector not only the prevalence of CMDs is high, but work functioning problems are associated with a risk of serious consequences for patients and healthcare providers. If work functioning problems due to CMDs are
Conclusion: Despite the fact that healthcare workers work longer hours and shift work, there were several modifiable psychosocial work conditions that should be targeted to improve their mental health.
Van Dongen, C J
The purposes of this research were to examine first the relationship between work status and quality of life and self-esteem in persons with severe, persistent mental illness and secondly, the relationship between (a) demographic characteristics, attitudes toward psychotropic medications, and perceptions of the meaning of work and (b) quality of life and self-esteem in working and nonworking persons with severe mental illness. The sample included 92 persons (51 workers and 41 nonworkers). Instruments included the quality of Life (QOL) Interview (Lehman, 1983), Rosenberg's (1965) Self-Esteem Inventory, the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) (Hogan, 1983), and a Perception of Work instrument, developed by the researcher. Workers reported significantly higher self-esteem than did nonworkers (t = 2.17, df = 90, p = .033). A significant difference in overall QOL was not found, but workers scored higher on all but one QOL subscale. There were no significant differences in self-esteem, QOL, or valuing of work based on demographic factors. No significant differences in drug attitudes were found based on work status. Workers rated the importance of work higher than did nonworkers (t = 6.46, df = 90, p = .000). Analysis of qualitative data revealed that contrary to the nonworkers' fears, workers reported that work provided a distraction from symptoms and contributed to better mental health.
Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng
This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…
Milner, Allison; Smith, Peter; LaMontagne, A D
This paper assesses the impact of working less than or more than standard full-time hours on mental health, as well as possible differences in this relationship by gender and skill level. The study design was a longitudinal cohort with 12 annual waves of data collection over the period 2001-2012, yielding a sample of 90,637 observations from 18,420 people. Fixed effects within-person regression was used to control for time invariant confounding. The Mental Component Summary of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) measure was used as the primary outcome measure. Working hours over the preceding year was measured in five categories with standard full-time hours (35-40 h/week) as the reference. Results indicated that when respondents were working 49-59 h (-0.52, 95% CI -0.74 to -0.29, pworking 35-40 h/week (reference). The difference in mental health when working 49-59 h was greater for women than for men. There were greater declines in mental health in relation to longer working hours among persons in higher compared to lower occupational skill levels. Study results suggest the need for employers and governments to regulate working hours to reduce the burden of mental ill health in the working population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Jarman, Lisa; Martin, Angela; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Blizzard, Leigh; Teale, Brook; Sanderson, Kristy
This study aimed to investigate the association between mental health and comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP) delivered to an entire state public service workforce (~28,000 employees) over a three-year period. Government departments in a state public service were supported to design and deliver a comprehensive, multi-component health promotion program, Healthy@Work, which targeted modifiable health risks including unhealthy lifestyles and stress. Repeated cross-sectional surveys compared self-reported psychological distress (Kessler-10; K10) at commencement (N = 3406) and after 3 years (N = 3228). WHP availability and participation over time was assessed, and associations between the K10 and exposure to programs estimated. Analyses were repeated for a cohort subgroup (N = 580). Data were weighted for non-response. Participation in any mental health and lifestyle programs approximately doubled after 3 years. Both male and female employees with poorer mental health participated more often over time. Women's psychological distress decreased over time but this change was only partially attributable to participation in WHP, and only to lifestyle interventions. Average psychological distress did not change over time for men. Unexpectedly, program components directly targeting mental health were not associated with distress for either men or women. Cohort results corroborated findings. Healthy@Work was successful in increasing participation across a range of program types, including for men and women with poorer mental health. A small positive association of participation in lifestyle programs with mental health was observed for women but not men. The lack of association of mental health programs may have reflected program quality, its universality of application or other contextual factors.
Lazzaretto-Green, Danille; Austin, Wendy; Goble, Erika; Buys, Lisa; Gorman, Tom; Rankel, Marlene
This paper explores mental health professionals' experiences working with correctional staff--one aspect of an interdisciplinary phenomenological study of ethical practice in forensic psychiatry. Professionals describe this relationship as coexisting within the system, despite their often conflicting roles. In correctional officers' overt concern for custody and control, practitioners can perceive a "paramilitary mentality" with which they struggle to work. Conversely, practitioners can experience conflict with security personnel for appearing "too caring" or "too sympathetic" to offenders--being "con-lovers." The balance practitioners establish between working with inmates and working alongside facility security is one of walking a fine line. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Full Text Available Apesar da importância, no planejamento de políticas públicas, do conhecimento da satisfação e do impacto do trabalho nos profissionais de saúde mental, há escassez de estudos sobre o assunto no Brasil. Este estudo investigou a satisfação e o impacto do trabalho em 133 profissionais de quatro serviços de saúde mental do Rio de Janeiro, com as escalas SATIS-BR, IMPACTO-BR e um questionário sobre características sócio-demográficas e do trabalho. Para a análise das associações entre variáveis foram empregados os testes Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, qui-quadrado e regressão linear múltipla. O programa SPSS 10.1 foi utilizado nas análises. O escore médio de satisfação foi de 3,30 e o escore médio de impacto foi de 2,08, em escala variando de 1 até 5. Sessenta e dois vírgula quatro por cento dos profissionais apresentaram um nível intermediário de satisfação. Observou-se que quanto maior a escolaridade, menor a satisfação. O impacto do trabalho não está associado com quaisquer das variáveis estudadas. O nível intermediário de satisfação obtido é compatível com os resultados de outros estudos. O impacto do trabalho sobre estes profissionais é reduzido. Diferentemente de outros estudos realizados nos Estados Unidos e Europa, não foram observadas diferenças entre equipes hospitalares e comunitárias.Knowledge of job satisfaction and work impact among psychiatric staff is highly useful for policymakers and mental health professionals. Since there are few studies on this issue in Brazil, a cross-sectional study was carried out among mental health professionals. Data were collected for 133 professionals from 4 mental health services in Rio de Janeiro, using SATIS-BR and IMPACTO-BR scales and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Statistical associations were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and chi-square tests and multiple linear regression. SPSS 10.1 for Windows was used for statistical analyses
Papageorgiou, Alexia; Loke, Yoon K; Fromage, Michelle
Research evidence suggests that both mental health professionals and people with severe mental health illness such as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder find it difficult to communicate with each other effectively about symptoms, treatments and their side effects so that they reach a shared understanding about diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Effective use of communication skills in mental health interactions could be associated with increased patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment. To review the effectiveness of communication skills training for mental health professionals who work with people with severe mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Trials Register (latest search 17 February, 2016) which is compiled by systematic searches of major resources (including AMED, BIOSIS, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and registries of clinical trials) and their monthly updates, handsearches, grey literature, and conference proceedings. There are no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records into the register. All relevant randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that focused on communication skills training (CST) for mental health professionals who work with people with severe mental illness compared with those who received standard or no training. We sought a number of primary (patient adherence to treatment and attendance at scheduled appointments as well as mental health professionals' satisfaction with the training programme) and secondary outcomes (patients' global state, service use, mental state, patient satisfaction, social functioning, quality of life). RCTs where the unit of randomisation was by cluster (e.g. healthcare facility) were also eligible for inclusion. We included one trial that met our inclusion criteria and reported useable data. We independently selected studies, quality assessed them and extracted data. For binary outcomes, we planned to calculate standard
Scanlan, Justin Newton; Still, Megan
Employee wellbeing is an important issue for mental health services. Poor employee wellbeing (i.e., high levels of burnout or low job satisfaction) is associated with poorer consumer outcomes and higher staff turnover. This study set out to examine factors related to job satisfaction, turnover intention and burnout in a group of occupational therapists in mental health. Thirty-four occupational therapists (response rate approximately 60%) in a metropolitan public mental health service participated in a whole-of-service workforce survey. The survey included measures of job satisfaction, turnover intention, burnout, job hindrances, job challenges and job resources and questions about positive and negative aspects of positions and factors that attracted employees to their current position. Burnout was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher turnover intention. Higher job satisfaction was associated with rewards (remuneration and recognition) as well as cognitively challenging work. The variables most significantly associated with poorer wellbeing (higher turnover intention and burnout) were recipient contact demands (perception that contact with service users or families was demanding), and feelings of stress or fatigue. This study provides a detailed analysis of factors associated with job satisfaction, turnover intention and burnout in a group of occupational therapists working in mental health. To promote workforce wellbeing and enhanced retention, interventions to minimise burnout should be implemented and evaluated. These strategies should focus on enhancing job resources such as supervisor support, feedback and participation in decision making as well as building the personal resilience of occupational therapists working in mental health. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Halpern, Hillary Paul
Little research has explored linkages between workplace policies and mental health in working-class, employed parents, creating a gap in our knowledge of work-family issues across social class levels. The current U.S. study addresses this gap by employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how workplace policies and parental leave benefits predicted parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety in a sample of 125, low-income, dual-earner couples interviewed across the transition to...
Kishi, Reiko; Kitahara, Teruyo; Masuchi, Ayumi; Kasai, Setsuko
According to the recent changes of working environments and socio-economical conditions, the proportion of working women are increasing in Japan. Characteristics of occupational workload and stress of Japanese working women are consistent with those in many industrialized countries except man-dominant culture. In this review we describe the history, current issues, and future research directions on occupational health of working women, especially focused on reproductive health, work-related musculo-skeletal disorders (WMSDs), and mental disorders. In the reproductive health survey, traditionally main concern was about pregnancy outcomes, then fecundity studies, such as time to pregnancy, became topics recently. Future research will be shifted to outcomes not only during pregnancy but also disorders of hormonal balance and climacterium or health conditions after menopause. WMSDs are reviewed on mainly gender difference and its causative factors. Historically, mental health of working women in Japan has focused on the job stress of nurses. We compare results with a lot of recent researches in Europe and U.S.A., where interaction between occupational stress and family roles were studied. It is not easy to predict the prospective status of female workers in Japan, but social, workplace and familial supports will enhance their health promotion.
Rantonen, O; Alexanderson, K; Pentti, J; Kjeldgård, L; Hämäläinen, J; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Salo, P
Aims Social workers report high levels of stress and have an increased risk for hospitalisation with mental diagnoses. However, it is not known whether the risk of work disability with mental diagnoses is higher among social workers compared with other human service professionals. We analysed trends in work disability (sickness absence and disability pension) with mental diagnoses and return to work (RTW) in 2005-2012 among social workers in Finland and Sweden, comparing with such trends in preschool teachers, special education teachers and psychologists. Records of work disability (>14 days) with mental diagnoses (ICD-10 codes F00-F99) from nationwide health registers were linked to two prospective cohort projects: the Finnish Public Sector study, years 2005-2011 and the Insurance Medicine All Sweden database, years 2005-2012. The Finnish sample comprised 4849 employees and the Swedish 119 219 employees covering four occupations: social workers (Finland 1155/Sweden 23 704), preschool teachers (2419/74 785), special education teachers (832/14 004) and psychologists (443/6726). The reference occupations were comparable regarding educational level. Risk of work disability was analysed with negative binomial regression and RTW with Cox proportional hazards. Social workers in Finland and Sweden had a higher risk of work disability with mental diagnoses compared with preschool teachers and special education teachers (rate ratios (RR) 1.43-1.91), after adjustment for age and sex. In Sweden, but not in Finland, social workers also had higher work disability risk than psychologists (RR 1.52; 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.81). In Sweden, in the final model special education teachers had a 9% higher probability RTW than social workers. In Sweden, in the final model the risks for work disability with depression diagnoses and stress-related disorder diagnoses were similar to the risk with all mental diagnoses (RR 1.40-1.77), and the probability of RTW was 6% higher in
Tahara, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Tatsuji; Nagafuchi, Keiko; Shirakawa, Chie; Suzuki, Kiyomi; Mafune, Kosuke; Kubota, Shinya; Hiro, Hisanori; Mishima, Norio; Nagata, Shoji
To develop tools offering definite orientation for managers and employees to support their work improvement through occupational mental health. This research was a part of the Mental Health Improvement & Reinforcement Study (MIR study), conducted from October 2004 to March 2006. We developed a trial version named the Kaizen Check List (KCL) by referring to problem solving methods for quality management. Then we improved it for a formal version named MIR Research of Recognition (MIRROR). A feedback form named MIR Action Guidance (MIRAGe) was also developed. We analyzed data from 1,953 respondents at five manufacturing enterprises in Japan using MIRROR and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) to determine whether or not the workers requesting work improvement had more stress than other workers. The KCL had 47 items, which indicated desirable working conditions for mental health at work, and four answer categories. MIRROR has 45 selected items and improved answer categories. MIRAGe displays the results of MIRROR and step-by-step guidance for work improvement. Respondents with request had significantly higher scores in stressor and lower scores in buffer factors compared with respondents without request in many items of MIRROR. A combinational use of MIRROR and stress scales is useful for finding worksites with high risk factors for mental health and for directing focus on work improvement at these worksites according to workers' requests.
Staland-Nyman, Carin; Alexanderson, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel
The aim of this study was to analyse the association between strain in domestic work and self-rated health among employed women in Sweden, using two different methods of measuring strain in domestic work. Questionnaire data were collected on health and living conditions in paid and unpaid work for employed women (n=1,417), aged 17-64 years. "Domestic job strain'' was an application of the demand-control model developed by Karasek and Theorell, and "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction'' was measured by questions on the division of and responsibility for domestic work and relationship with spouse/cohabiter. Self-rated health was measured using the SF-36 Health Survey. Associations were analysed by bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, and reported as standardized regression coefficients. Higher strain in domestic work was associated with lower self-rated health, also after controlling for potential confounders and according to both strain measures. "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction'' showed for example negative associations with mental health beta -0.211 (p<0.001), vitality beta -0.195 (p<0.001), social function -0.132 (p<0.01) and physical role beta -0.115 (p<0.01). The highest associations between "Domestic job strain'' and SF-36 were found for vitality beta -0.156 (p<0.001), mental health beta -0.123 (p<0.001). Strain in domestic work, including perceived inequity in the relationship and lack of a satisfactory relationship with a spouse/cohabiter, was associated with lower self-rated health in this cross-sectional study. Future research needs to address the specific importance of strain in domestic work as a contributory factor to women's ill-health.
Gamperiene, Migle; Nygård, Jan F; Sandanger, Inger; Waersted, Morten; Bruusgaard, Dag
This study examined the association between psychosocial and organizational work conditions and mental health among women employed in the cleaning profession in Norway. Self-report questionnaires were mailed to 661 cleaning staff personnel from seven cleaning organizations in seven different cities across Norway. The response rate was 64%, of which 374 (88%) respondents were women. The questionnaires assessed socio-demographic information and employment history, work organization, and psychosocial working conditions. The Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25) was included to assess mental health. On average, respondents were 43 years old and reported 10.8 years of experience working in the cleaning industry. The proportion of women scoring a HSCL-25 equal to or above 1.75 was 17.5%, which was higher than the average prevalence of mental health problems among working Norwegian women (8.4%). A factor analysis of the questions specific to the psychosocial work environment identified the following four underlying dimensions: leadership, co-workers, time pressure/control, and information/knowledge. Two of these, poor satisfaction with leadership (OR = 3.6) and poor satisfaction with co-workers (OR = 2.3), were significantly related to mental health. In addition, having contact with colleagues less than once a day (OR = 2.4) and not being ethnically Norwegian (OR = 3.0) increased the risk for mental health problems. Mental health problems are frequent among female cleaning professionals in Norway. Our results indicate that quality of leadership, collaboration with co-workers, and ethnicity were significantly associated with mental health.
Harkonmäki, K; Rahkonen, O; Martikainen, P; Silventoinen, K; Lahelma, E
To examine the associations of mental health functioning (SF-36) and work and family related psychosocial factors with intentions to retire early. Cross sectional survey data (n = 5037) from the Helsinki Health Study occupational cohort in 2001 and 2002 were used. Intentions to retire early were inquired with a question: "Have you considered retiring before normal retirement age?" Mental health functioning was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) mental component summary (MCS). Work and family related psychosocial factors included job demands and job control, procedural and relational justice, conflicts between work and family, and social network size. Multinomial regression models were used to analyse the data. Poor mental health functioning, unfavourable psychosocial working conditions, and conflicts between work and family were individually related to intentions to retire early. After adjustments for all work and family related factors the odds ratio for low mental health functioning was halved (from OR = 6.05 to 3.67), but nevertheless the association between poor mental health functioning and strong intentions to retire early remained strong. These findings highlight not only the importance of low mental health and unfavourable working conditions but also the simultaneous impact of conflicts between work and family to employees' intentions to retire early.
Oomens, S.; Geurts, S.; Scheepers, P.
In this article we study which characteristics of combining work and family put people at risk for mental illness. Two alternative perspectives on the impact of multiple social roles on mental health are tested: the role accumulation perspective and the role strain perspective. Both perspectives are
Skundberg-Kletthagen, Hege; Moen, Øyfrid Larsen
To explore school nurses' experiences with and attitudes towards working with young people with mental health problem in the school health services. Worldwide, 10%-20% of children and adolescents are affected by mental health problems. When these occur during youth, they constitute a considerable burden and are one of the main causes of disability among adolescents. School nurses are at the forefront of care for children and adolescents, identifying pupils struggling with physical, mental, psychosocial or emotional issues. A qualitative, explorative study was performed based on open-ended questions in a cross-sectional study of 284 school nurses in Norway. Inclusion criteria were as follows: working as a school nurse in the school health services with children and adolescents between the ages of 11-18 years. A qualitative inductive content analysis was conducted. Three generic categories emerged: perception of their role and experiences with mental health: the school nurses acknowledge their important role in work with adolescents focusing on their mental health. Perception of their professional competence: the school nurses described a lack of confidence and unmet training needs concerning mental health problems. Experiences with collaboration: the school nurses requested more knowledge about inter- and multidisciplinary cooperation regarding follow-up of pupils with mental health problems. The school nurses lacked knowledge and confidence in respect of working with children and adolescents suffering from mental health problems. This may be a barrier to giving pupils adequate aid. Nurses need to acquire more knowledge about mental health problems among children and adolescents as this is a growing public health issue. Educational programmes for school nurses need to be revised to achieve this. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association between mental health and comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP delivered to an entire state public service workforce (~28,000 employees over a three-year period. Government departments in a state public service were supported to design and deliver a comprehensive, multi-component health promotion program, Healthy@Work, which targeted modifiable health risks including unhealthy lifestyles and stress. Repeated cross-sectional surveys compared self-reported psychological distress (Kessler-10; K10 at commencement (N = 3406 and after 3 years (N = 3228. WHP availability and participation over time was assessed, and associations between the K10 and exposure to programs estimated. Analyses were repeated for a cohort subgroup (N = 580. Data were weighted for non-response. Participation in any mental health and lifestyle programs approximately doubled after 3 years. Both male and female employees with poorer mental health participated more often over time. Women's psychological distress decreased over time but this change was only partially attributable to participation in WHP, and only to lifestyle interventions. Average psychological distress did not change over time for men. Unexpectedly, program components directly targeting mental health were not associated with distress for either men or women. Cohort results corroborated findings. Healthy@Work was successful in increasing participation across a range of program types, including for men and women with poorer mental health. A small positive association of participation in lifestyle programs with mental health was observed for women but not men. The lack of association of mental health programs may have reflected program quality, its universality of application or other contextual factors.
Sekine, Michikazu; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu
Poor physical and mental functioning is more common among people of low socioeconomic status (SES) and those with disadvantaged work and family characteristics. This study aims to clarify whether the SES inequalities in functioning can be explained by the SES differences in work and family characteristics. The subjects were 3787 male and female civil servants, aged 20-65, working in a local government on the west coast of Japan. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine (1) whether there were employment-grade (SES) differences in poor physical and mental functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and (2) whether these SES differences were explained by work and family characteristics. In general, low control at work, high demands, low social support, short and long work hours, shift work, being unmarried, high family-to-work conflict and high work-to-family conflict were independently associated with poor physical and mental functioning in both men and women. In men, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of low-grade employees for poor physical functioning was 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.38-2.69) in comparison to high-grade employees. The grade difference was mildly attenuated, when adjusted for work and family characteristics (OR = 1.72)(1.20-2.47). The age-adjusted OR of the low-grade employees for poor mental functioning was 1.88 (1.29-2.74). The grade difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusted for work and family characteristics (OR = 1.51)(0.99-2.31). Among women, there were no significant grade-differences in poor physical and mental functioning. Although longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the causal nature of these associations, improvements in SES differences in work and family characteristics may be important for reducing SES inequalities in physical and mental functioning among Japanese men. The different patterns of SES inequalities in health between men and women deserve further research.
Cheng, Tyrone C; Robinson, Michael A
This secondary analysis of 5,000 African Americans and black Caribbeans explored how their use of social work services to address mental and substance use disorders was associated with the disorder involved as well as their perceived need for services, belief system, family resources, proximity to services, social-structural factors, and demographic characteristics. The sample was extracted from a national data set. Results of multinomial logistic regression showed that use of social work services was increased by dual diagnosis, substance use disorder alone, and mental disorder alone; by deteriorating mental health; by perceived stigma in treatment use; by welfare receipt and insurance coverage for mental health services; and by college graduation. Results also showed that use of services outside social work was promoted by dual diagnosis, substance use disorder alone, and mental disorder alone; by deteriorating mental health; by experience of racial discrimination; by insurance coverage for mental health services; by college education or graduation; and by female gender and increasing age. The findings' implications for social work intervention and education are discussed.
Full Text Available Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics.A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457 across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements. Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+ and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics.Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems.This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The
Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; James, Carole; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry; Inder, Kerry; Perkins, David; Handley, Tonelle; Kelly, Brian
Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining) has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457) across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements). Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+) and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics). Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers) and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems. This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The findings
Green, Amy E; Albanese, Brian J; Cafri, Guy; Aarons, Gregory A
The goal of this study was to examine the relationships of transformational leadership and organizational climate with working alliance, in a children's mental health service system. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, the effect of leadership on working alliance was mediated by organizational climate. These results suggest that supervisors may be able to impact quality of care through improving workplace climate. Organizational factors should be considered in efforts to improve public sector services. Understanding these issues is important for program leaders, mental health service providers, and consumers because they can affect both the way services are delivered and ultimately, clinical outcomes.
Imai, H; Nakao, H; Tsuchiya, M; Kuroda, Y; Katoh, T
(1) To examine whether prevalence of burnout is higher among community psychiatric nurses working under recently introduced job specific work systems than among public health nurses (PHNs) engaged in other public health services. (2) To identify work environment factors potentially contributing to burnout. Two groups were examined. The psychiatric group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in public mental health services at public health centres (PHCs) that had adopted the job specific work system. The control group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. Respondents were classified by burnout score into three groups: A (mentally stable, no burnout); B (positive signs, risk of burnout); and C (burnout present, action required). Groups B and C were considered representative of "burnout". A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting PHNs working at PHCs and to define emergency mental health service factors contributing to burnout. Final respondents comprised 785 PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Responses indicating lack of job control and increased annual frequency of emergency overtime services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group. Prevalence of burnout is significantly higher for community psychiatric nurses than for PHNs engaged in other services. Overwork in emergency services and lack of job control appear to represent work environment factors contributing to burnout.
Conway, Paul Maurice; Campanini, Paolo; Punzi, Silvia; Fichera, Giuseppe Paolo; Camerino, Donatella; Francioli, Laura; Neri, Luca; Costa, Giovanni
To test three hypotheses in an Italian sample of call center workers: higher levels of perceived work stress are associated with more frequent common mental disorders (GHQ-12) and a lower Work Ability Index; combining the Job Strain (JS) and Effort/Reward Imbalance (ERI) models increases explained variance in health over and above either model when applied separately; compared with outbound operators, inbound call handlers are expected to report a lower health status,which is due to a more intense exposure to task-related work stress factors in the latter. A multi-center cross-sectional study, conducted by means of interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Call handlers working in the Italian branch of a telecommunication multinational company. In all, 1,106 permanent workers were examined (35.9%of the total target population, 98.9% response rate). The majority were women (76.5%);mean age was 33.3 (SD: 3.9) and company seniority 8.0 (SD: 2.1). Nearly 60% worked as inbound call handlers, about one third as outbound operators. Work stress was measured with the well-known JS and ERI models. Three exposure levels (based on tertiles) were identified for each scale. Common mental disorders were measured with the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Subjects with a GHQ-12 score 4 were classified as "cases". The Work Ability Index (WAI) was used to evaluate work ability. Being in the "poor" or "moderate" categories of the WAI indicated a low work ability status. Cronbach's alphas were 0.70 for all scales. Multivariate Poisson regressions showed that both models were linked to more frequent common mental disorders and a lower WAI. Moreover, combined models demonstrated an advantage in terms of explained variance in health. Finally, performing inbound call handling was associated with a lower WAI in comparison with engaging in outbound activities. Mediation analyses showed that such association is explained by the higher levels of psychological job demands and Job Strain experienced
Theriot, Matthew T.; Lodato, Gayle A.
This article describes the results of a study comparing attitudes toward mental illness and perceptions of professional danger among new social work students (n=64) and other university students (n=111). Such topics have implications for social work education and curriculum development but have not been studied adequately. Results from…
Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David; Bartley, Mel; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes
This article illustrates the importance of previous working conditions during mid-life (between 40 and 55) for mental health among older retired men and women (60 or older) across 13 European countries. We link information on health from the second wave (2006-2007) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) with information on respondents' working life collected retrospectively in the SHARELIFE interview (2008-2009). To measure working conditions, we rely on core assumptions of existing theoretical models of work stress (the demand-control-support and the effort-reward imbalance model) and distinguish four types of unhealthy working conditions: (1) a stressful psychosocial work environment (as assessed by the two work stress models) (2) a disadvantaged occupational position throughout the whole period of mid-life, (3) experience of involuntary job loss, and (4) exposure to job instability. Health after labour market exit is measured using depressive symptoms, as measured by the EURO-D depression scale. Main results show that men and women who experienced psychosocial stress at work or had low occupational positions during mid-life had significantly higher probabilities of high depressive symptoms during retirement. Additionally, men with unstable working careers and an involuntary job loss were at higher risks to report high depressive symptoms in later life. These associations remain significant after controlling for workers' health and social position prior mid-life. These findings support the assumption that mental health of retirees who experienced poor working conditions during mid-life is impaired. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theorell, Töres; Osika, Walter; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Bojner Horwitz, Eva; Westerlund, Hugo
To examine relationships between work-based cultural activities and mental employee health in working Swedes. A positive relationship between frequent cultural activity at work and good employee health was expected. Random sample of working Swedish men and women in three waves, 2006, 2008 and 2010, on average 60 % participation rate. A postal questionnaire with questions about cultural activities organised for employees and about emotional exhaustion (Maslach) and depressive symptoms (short form of SCL). Employee assessments of "non-listening manager" and work environment ("psychological demands" and "decision latitude") as well as socioeconomic variables were covariates. Cross-sectional analyses for each study year as well as prospective analyses for 2006-2008 and 2008-2010 were performed. Lower frequency of cultural activities at work during the period of high unemployment. The effects of relationships with emotional exhaustion were more significant than those with depressive symptoms. The associations were attenuated when adjustments were made for manager function (does your manager listen?) and demand/control. Associations were more pronounced during the period with low unemployment and high cultural activity at work (2008). In a prospective analysis, cultural activity at work in 2008 had an independent statistically significant "protective" effect on emotional exhaustion in 2010. No corresponding such association was found between 2006 and 2008. Cultural activities at work vary according to business cycle and have a statistical association with mental employee health, particularly with emotional exhaustion. There are particularly pronounced statistical protective effects of frequent cultural activity at work on likelihood of emotional exhaustion among employees.
Panigrahi, Ansuman; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Panigrahi, Madhulita
Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed ...
de Wind, Astrid; Leijten, Fenna Rm; Hoekstra, Trynke; Geuskens, Goedele A; Burdorf, Alex; van der Beek, Allard J
Objectives Before actual retirement, employees may already distance themselves from work, which could be referred to as "mental retirement". However, trajectories of work motivation, ie, work engagement, have not been studied yet. The present study aimed to (i) identify different trajectories of work engagement among older workers approaching the retirement age, and (ii) examine their associations with actual retirement. Methods In total 3171 employees aged 55-62 years, who participated in the Dutch Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included in this study. Participants completed questionnaires in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. Latent class growth mixture modeling was performed to identify groups of employees with similar three-year trajectories in work engagement. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study whether trajectory membership was associated with retirement. Results Of the 3171 employees, 16.2% made a transition from work to (early) retirement (N=513). Four trajectories of work engagement were identified: steady high (76.3%), steady low (12.7%), decreasing (6.2%), and increasing (4.8%). A steady low work engagement trajectory was associated with retirement [odds ratio (OR) 1.46], compared to a steady high work engagement trajectory. Although not statistically significant, an increasing work engagement trajectory seemed to be associated with retirement as well (OR 1.60). Conclusions This study did not support the concept of mental retirement before actual retirement, ie, a decrease in work engagement among those facing retirement. However, as one in eight employees did experience steady low work engagement in the years before retirement, interventions promoting work motivation are recommended to support the employability of these employees.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the association between psychosocial and organizational work conditions and mental health among women employed in the cleaning profession in Norway. Methods Self-report questionnaires were mailed to 661 cleaning staff personnel from seven cleaning organizations in seven different cities across Norway. The response rate was 64%, of which 374 (88% respondents were women. The questionnaires assessed socio-demographic information and employment history, work organization, and psychosocial working conditions. The Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25 was included to assess mental health. Results On average, respondents were 43 years old and reported 10.8 years of experience working in the cleaning industry. The proportion of women scoring a HSCL-25 equal to or above 1.75 was 17.5%, which was higher than the average prevalence of mental health problems among working Norwegian women (8.4%. A factor analysis of the questions specific to the psychosocial work environment identified the following four underlying dimensions: leadership, co-workers, time pressure/control, and information/knowledge. Two of these, poor satisfaction with leadership (OR = 3.6 and poor satisfaction with co-workers (OR = 2.3, were significantly related to mental health. In addition, having contact with colleagues less than once a day (OR = 2.4 and not being ethnically Norwegian (OR = 3.0 increased the risk for mental health problems. Conclusion Mental health problems are frequent among female cleaning professionals in Norway. Our results indicate that quality of leadership, collaboration with co-workers, and ethnicity were significantly associated with mental health.
Grundmann, Johanna; Sude, Kerstin; Löwe, Bernd; Wingenfeld, Katja
In view of the fact that many reports have been published that emphasize the difficult conditions of the German psychotherapy training, the aim of this study was to investigate psychotherapy trainees´ work stress as well as work-related psychosocial risks and resources. Variables of interest were work-related behaviour and experience patterns (AVEM), effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and health-related quality of life. 321 participants completed an online survey. The distribution of work-related behaviour and experience patterns as well as the results regarding work overload and mental health are evidence of psychotherapy trainees' strain. AVEM-risk patterns are associated with effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and reduced mental health. These results clearly support claims for a modification of the psychotherapy training in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Schulz, M; Damkröger, A; Voltmer, E; Löwe, B; Driessen, M; Ward, M; Wingenfeld, K
Nursing is associated with high levels of emotional strain and heavy workloads. Changing working conditions raise the importance of investigating job satisfaction, stress and burnout and its consequences for nurses. The aim of the study was to investigate whether work-related behaviour and experience patterns are associated with mental and physical health status in nurses. A sample of 356 nurses in four German hospitals were interviewed using questionnaires regarding work-related behaviour and experience patterns, work stress, depression, anxiety and physical symptoms ('Work-related Behaviour and Experience Pattern'--AVEM and ERI). The main result of this study is that unhealthy work-related behaviour and experience patterns (i.e. the excessive ambitious type and the resigned type) are associated with reduced mental and physical health. Preventive, as well as intervention, strategies are needed that focus both on the individual as well as on working conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.
Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K.
Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group
Brown, J; Simons, L; Zeeman, L
This paper outlines advances in the mental health workforce by detailing the development, education and training of graduates from the social sciences in mental health practice. The mental health practitioner (MHP) programme is a partnership between higher education and the National Health Service to provide graduates with a new point of entry into the mental health workforce. The MHP is a new role in mental health i.e. in principle, trans-disciplinary, traversing psychology, nursing and occupational therapy. The role is informed by a bio-psychosocial philosophy of collaborative mental health care and therefore acts as a bridge between the different professions that constitute a multidisciplinary team on acute inpatient units and in the community. However, MHPs form part of the nursing team and work most closely with mental health nurses. They see their role as linked to, but other than, nursing. This paper will discuss the development of this programme and its philosophy of care, and will present outcome research on trainee perceptions and experiences of occupying the MHP role in mental health. It will present findings from the first stage of a longitudinal study (employing interviews and survey data) about trainee perceptions of their role and training before the programme commenced, 6 months into their training and at graduation.
Ladegaard, Yun Katrine; Skakon, Janne; Netterstrøm, Bo
, including a State auditing office report on WEA’s psychosocial work environment inspections. Results indicate that employees’ motivation in notifying a work-related mental disorder, mainly represents a wish to initiate primary prevention at the work place, and the notification is often encouraged by health...... of work related mental health disorder by the healthcare systems respectively by the NBII, Overall this leave the question whether work-related mental health disorders fit into the Danish Workers compensation System?...
Garbarino, Sergio; Cuomo, Giovanni; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola
Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the 'VI Reparto Mobile', a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI≥10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers.
Laine, Hanna; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero
Common mental disorders (CMD) are prevalent in working populations and have adverse consequences for employee well-being and work ability, even leading to early retirement. Several studies report associations between psychosocial working conditions and CMD. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research within a broad framework of psychosocial working conditions and improvement in CMD. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between several psychosocial working conditions and deteriorating and improving CMD among ageing employees over a five-to-six-year follow-up period. The study is based on the Helsinki Health Study baseline survey in 2001-2002 and a follow-up in 2007 (N = 4340, response rate 83%) conducted among 40-60-year-old female and male employees. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure common mental disorders. Psychosocial working conditions were measured in terms of job strain, organisational justice, work-family interface, social support and workplace bullying. The covariates included sociodemographic and health factors. Following adjustment for all the covariates, family-to-work (OR 1.41, 95% Cl 1.04-1.91) and work-to-family conflicts (OR 1.99, 95% Cl 1.42-2.78) and workplace bullying (OR 1.40, 95% Cl 1.09-1.79) were associated with deterioration, and family-to-work conflicts (OR 1.65, 95% Cl 1.66-2.34) and social support (OR 1.47, 95% Cl 1.07-2.00) with improvement in CMD. Adverse psychosocial working conditions contribute to poor mental health among employees. Preventing workplace bullying, promoting social support and achieving a better balance between work and family may help employees to maintain their mental health.
Hanisch, Sabine Elisabeth; Birner, Ulrich Walter; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Nowak, Dennis; Sabariego, Carla
To counteract the negative impact of mental health problems on business, organizations are increasingly investing in mental health intervention measures. However, those services are often underused, which, to a great extent, can be attributed to fear of stigmatization. Nevertheless, so far only a few workplace interventions have specifically targeted stigma, and evidence on their effectiveness is limited. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a digital game-based training program for managers to promote employee mental health and reduce mental illness stigma at work. We describe the empirical development of Leadership Training in Mental Health Promotion (LMHP), a digital game-based training program for leaders. A 1-group pre-post design and a 3-month follow-up were used for training evaluation. We applied multilevel growth models to investigate change over time in the dependent variables knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to promote employee mental health in 48 managers of a global enterprise in the United Kingdom. Participants were mainly male (44/48, 92%) and ranged in age from 32 to 58 (mean 46.0, SD 7.2) years. We found a positive impact of the Web-based training program on managers' knowledge of mental health and mental illness (Pemployee mental health, which was initially high. Results provide first evidence of the effectiveness of LMHP to positively affect managers' skills to promote employee mental health at work. Furthermore, the high rate of participation in LMHP (48/54, 89%) supports the use of digital game-based interventions to increase user engagement and user experience in mental health programs at work. ©Sabine Elisabeth Hanisch, Ulrich Walter Birner, Cornelia Oberhauser, Dennis Nowak, Carla Sabariego. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 04.08.2017.
Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Halpern, Hillary Paul
Little research has explored linkages between workplace policies and mental health in working-class, employed parents, creating a gap in our knowledge of work-family issues across social class levels. The current U.S. study addresses this gap by employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how workplace policies and parental leave benefits predicted parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety in a sample of 125, low-income, dual-earner couples interviewed across the transition to parenthood. Descriptive analyses revealed that, on average, parents had few workplace policies, such as schedule flexibility or child care supports, available to them. Results revealed, however, that, when available, schedule flexibility was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less anxiety for new mothers. Greater child care supports predicted fewer depressive symptoms for fathers. In terms of crossover effects, longer maternal leave predicted declines in fathers' anxiety across the first year. Results are discussed with attention to how certain workplace policies may serve to alleviate new parents' lack of time and resources (minimize scarcity of resources) and, in turn, predict better mental health during the sensitive period of new parenthood.
Li, Y.; Li, X.J.; Wei, S.Q. [Child & Adolescent Hygiene Teaching Research Station, Chengdu (China)
A study was carried out on 157 children, age 12-13, from a coal-burning fluorosis endemic area together with an experiment looking into the effect of high fluoride intake in animals. The results showed that early, prolonged high fluoride intake causes a decrease in a child's mental work capacity and that prolonged high uptake of fluoride causes a child's levels of hair zinc to drop. A multifactoral correlative analysis demonstrated a direct correlation between hair zinc and mental work capacity. The decrease of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and the increase of norepinephrine in animal brains exposed to high levels of fluoride suggest a possible mechanism for mental work capacity deficits in children. However, further research is necessary.
van Daalen, G.; van Daalen, Geertje; Sanders, Karin; Willemsen, Tineke M.; Veldhoven, Marc J.P.M.
Objective: This study investigates the relationship between four job characteristics and family-to-work conflict on emotional exhaustion and mental health problems. Methods: Multiple regression analyses were performed using data from 1,008 mental health care employees. Separate regression analyses
This panel will explore the usefulness of the term ‘body work’ in cultural history. Body work is understood as work focusing on the bodies of others as component in a range of occupations in health and social care, as well as in unpaid work in the family. How can the notion of body work inform...... cultural history of health and illness whether through a micro-social focus on the intercorporeal aspects of work in health and social care, or through clarifying our understanding of the times and spaces of work, or through highlighting the relationship between mundane body work and global processes....... The British sociologist Julia Twigg has introduced and explored the term `bodywork', most recently in Body Work in Health and Social Care - Critical Themes, New Agendas (2011). She extends the term body work from applying to the work that individuals undertake on their own bodies, often as part of regimens...
Zhou, Shiyi; Da, Shu; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xichao
After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work-family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work-family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women's perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work-family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work-family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress.
Havermans, Bo M; Boot, Cécile R L; Hoekstra, Trynke; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J
Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees' mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in mental health in older employees at 3-year follow-up. The current study used data from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM), in workers aged 45-65 years (n = 5249). Two-year (2010-2012) exposure was assessed for psychological demands, autonomy, support, mental load, and distributive justice. Linear regression analyses were performed to compare improved exposure to unfavourable psychosocial work factors with stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure and mental health at follow-up (2013), corrected for confounders. Analyses were stratified for age groups (45-54 and 55-65 years) and gender. In certain subgroups, stable unfavourable exposure to psychological demands, autonomy, support, and distributive justice was associated with a significantly lower mental health score than improved exposure. Stable favourable exposure to support was associated with a higher mental health score than improved support, whereas stable favourable exposure to autonomy was associated with a lower mental health score compared to improved exposure. There is a longitudinal association between changes in exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health. Improvement in unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors was associated with improved mental health. This is important information for organisations that consider deploying measures to improve the psychosocial work environment of older workers.
Baird, M; Litwin, A S
Despite the continued increase in female participation rates, Australia remains one of only two developed nations in the world without a paid maternity leave scheme. While research interest and public policy debate about paid maternity leave entitlements continues, little is known about the actual utilization of the 52 weeks unpaid parental leave that is currently available to all employees. Moreover, research and policy debate on the availability and provision of paid paternity leave has only just begun. This paper argues that, given the gendered nature of employee entitlements, it is time to re-evaluate all aspects of parental leave policy in Australia. Using unique data from a national survey of Australian employees, the paper provides a statistical analysis of the use of unpaid parental leave and the availability of paid maternity leave. The paper models the availability of paid maternity leave to Australian employees as a function of demographic and organizational characteristics, including annual income, union status, and establishment size. A parallel analysis of the likelihood that an individual has used the unpaid parental leave provision is also provided. The results show that the existing unpaid parental leave provision is rarely used and that the current availability of paid maternity leave is inequitable. The paper discusses the conceptual and policy implications of these results and concludes that a re-thinking of parental leave policy in Australia is essential if gender inequities at work and in society are to be addressed.
Birner, Ulrich Walter; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Nowak, Dennis; Sabariego, Carla
Background To counteract the negative impact of mental health problems on business, organizations are increasingly investing in mental health intervention measures. However, those services are often underused, which, to a great extent, can be attributed to fear of stigmatization. Nevertheless, so far only a few workplace interventions have specifically targeted stigma, and evidence on their effectiveness is limited. Objective The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a digital game-based training program for managers to promote employee mental health and reduce mental illness stigma at work. Methods We describe the empirical development of Leadership Training in Mental Health Promotion (LMHP), a digital game-based training program for leaders. A 1-group pre-post design and a 3-month follow-up were used for training evaluation. We applied multilevel growth models to investigate change over time in the dependent variables knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to promote employee mental health in 48 managers of a global enterprise in the United Kingdom. Participants were mainly male (44/48, 92%) and ranged in age from 32 to 58 (mean 46.0, SD 7.2) years. Results We found a positive impact of the Web-based training program on managers’ knowledge of mental health and mental illness (Pemployee mental health, which was initially high. Conclusions Results provide first evidence of the effectiveness of LMHP to positively affect managers’ skills to promote employee mental health at work. Furthermore, the high rate of participation in LMHP (48/54, 89%) supports the use of digital game-based interventions to increase user engagement and user experience in mental health programs at work. PMID:28778839
Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Joensuu, Matti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koskinen, Aki; Tuisku, Katinka; Ervasti, Jenni; Virtanen, Marianna
We examined the extent to which psychotherapeutic and work-oriented interventions were included in a medical treatment and rehabilitation plan and whether they predicted future employment among young adults with work disability due to a mental disorder. Data were obtained from the treatment and rehabilitation plans of 1163 young adults aged 18‒34 years, who in 2008 were granted fixed-term work disability compensation due to a mental disorder and were followed for 5 years. Forty-six percent had no proposal for psychotherapy or a work-oriented intervention in their treatment and rehabilitation plan, 22 % had a plan for only a psychotherapeutic intervention, 23 % had a plan for only a work-oriented intervention, and 10 % had both types of interventions planned. Having a planned psychotherapeutic intervention (HR = 1.35, 95 % CI 1.07-1.69) and of the work-oriented interventions, planned rehabilitative courses and training (HR = 1.34, 95 % CI 1.03-1.70) predicted quicker entry into competitive employment. Having a plan for both a psychotherapeutic and work-oriented intervention was associated with being employed at the end of the follow-up (OR = 1.77, 95 % CI 1.07-2.95). Young adults with a long-term psychiatric work disability episode rarely have a recorded plan for rehabilitation in their treatment and rehabilitation plan although psychotherapeutic interventions and a combination of a psychotherapeutic and work-oriented intervention might help them gain employment.
Moran, Galia Sharon; Russinova, Zlatka; Yim, Jung Yeon; Sprague, Catherine
Individuals with psychiatric disabilities have low rates of employment and occupational rehabilitation success. Mental health peer services are a new occupational modality that opened a promising occupational path: persons with serious mental illnesses employed to provide support to others with psychiatric conditions. However challenges to successful peer work exist. Work motivation is central to understanding and supporting peer workers, yet little is known about sources of motivation to work as mental health peer providers. The aim of this study was to identify what drives individuals to mental health peer work using self determination theory (SDT). Motivations of 31 mental health peer workers were explored as part of a larger study. A theory driven approach was employed to emerging qualitative data using SDT concepts: external motivation and internally regulated motivations derived from basic needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness). External motivations included generic occupational goals and getting away from negative work experiences. Internal motivations corresponded with SDT basic needs: autonomy met-needs was reflected in having freedom to disclose and finding that work accords with personal values; competence met-needs was reflected in using personal experience as a resource to help others; and relatedness met-needs were reflected in having opportunity to connect intimately and reciprocate with consumers. This study identified external and internal motivations of persons with psychiatric disabilities to work as peer providers-a novel occupation in mental health. Employing personal experience and enabling peer contact emerge as major motivational tenets of mental health peer work. According to SDT instrumental occupational goals are considered more external than satisfaction of basic psychological needs. The study demonstrates the applicability of SDT in the design of autonomy supported environments to promote work engagement and sustenance of mental
Jaradat, Yousef; Birkeland Nielsen, Morten; Kristensen, Petter; Bast-Pettersen, Rita
Shift work is associated with sleep disturbances, mental health problems, and job dissatisfaction. Disparities between male and female nurses in the effect of shift work on mental distress and job satisfaction have been scarcely studied. We aimed to examine differences between female and male nurses in the associations between shift work and job satisfaction and mental health. In this cross-sectional study, male and female nurses were recruited to rate their job satisfaction on the Generic Job Satisfaction Scale and to complete the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30). Associations between shift work, mental distress, and satisfaction were estimated from χ 2 tests and linear regression analyses using Stata/IC10. The study was approved by the ministry of health. Written informed consent was provided by all participants. In 2012, we recruited 372 registered nurses from the Hebron governorate in the occupied Palestinian territory. 28 (8%) nurses were excluded, and the final sample (n=344) included 213 (62%) women and 131 (38%) men. 338 nurses rated their job satisfaction, and 309 nurses completed the GHQ-30. After adjusting for covariates, men with shift work reported significantly lower job satisfaction (β-coefficient -3·3, 95% CI -6·2 to -0·5) than men with day schedules. Women with shift work reported significantly higher levels of mental distress (3·6, 95% CI 0·3 to 7·0) than women with day schedules. Distress was reported by more women than men, but this difference concerned only nurses working day shifts. No differences in job satisfaction associated with shift work was seen between men and women. We found no demonstrable interaction between sex and shift work for job satisfaction (β-coefficient -1·6, 95% CI -4·4 to 1·2) or distress (-0·03, 95% CI -5·3 to 5·3). Shift work was associated with low job satisfaction in male nurses and high distress in female nurses. Because the study had a cross-sectional design and both exposure and outcomes were
Blank, Alison; Harries, Priscilla; Reynolds, Frances
Research into mental health and employment has indicated that work holds multiple meanings for people with mental health problems. This paper reports findings from a phenomenological study which aimed to understand the complexity of these meanings by exploration of the perspectives of one individual who was considering returning to work. Data were gathered through a series of three interviews carried out over a period of 18 months. Three themes were identified - Beliefs and Values about Work, Working with a Mental Health Problem, and Planning for the Future. Analysis and interpretation facilitated understandings of what work represented for the participant. What this study has contributed to the evidence base is a deeper understanding of the multiple meanings of work, and the varied roles that work may play in contributing to meaning and quality of life for people with mental health problems.
IOAN LAZAR; CODRUTA OSOIAN; PATRICIA RATIU
Well known in the literature as work life balance, the quality relationship between paid work and unpaid responsibilities is critical for success in today’s competitive business world. The issue of work-life balance has been developed in response to demographic, economic and cultural changes. The purpose of this paper is to establish whether work-life balance initiatives and practices can be considered as strategic human resource management decisions that can translate into improved individua...
Zacher, Hannes; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Winter, Gabriele
Due to demographic changes, a growing number of employees provide in-home care to an elderly family member. Previous research suggested a negative relationship between employees' eldercare demands and their work performance. However, the empirical nature of this relationship and its boundary conditions and mediating mechanisms have been neglected. The goal of this multisource study was to examine a mediated-moderation model of eldercare demands, mental health, and work performance. Drawing on the theory of conservation of resources (Hobfoll, 1989), it was expected that employees' satisfaction with eldercare tasks would buffer the negative relationship between eldercare demands and work performance, and that mental health would mediate this moderating effect. Data were collected from 165 employees providing in-home eldercare, as well as from one colleague and one family member of each employee. Results of mediated-moderation analyses supported the hypothesized model. The findings suggest that interventions that aim to increase employees' satisfaction with eldercare tasks may help protect employees from the negative effects of high eldercare demands on mental health and, subsequently, on work performance.
Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; van der Beek, A.J.; Ybema, J.F.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.
Purpose The goals of this study were to determine whether, among older employees, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work-related factors were associated with poorer mental and physical health and whether high work engagement buffered the associations between unfavourable work-related factors
Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex
Purpose The goals of this study were to determine whether, among older employees, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work-related factors were associated with poorer mental and physical health and whether high work engagement buffered the associations between unfavourable work-related factors
Leineweber, Constanze; Falkenberg, Helena; Albrecht, Sophie C
A number of studies have found that control over work conditions and hours is positively related to mental health. Still, potential positive and negative effects of work flexibility remain to be fully explored. On the one hand, higher work flexibility might provide better opportunities for recovery. On the other hand, especially mothers may use flexibility to meet household and family demands. Here, we investigated the association between parent's work flexibility, rated relative to their partner, and emotional exhaustion in interaction with gender. Additionally, gender differences in time use were investigated. Cross-sectional analyses based on responses of employed parents to the 2012 wave of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) were conducted ( N = 2,911). Generalized linear models with gamma distribution and a log-link function were used to investigate associations between relative work-flexibility (lower, equal, or higher as compared to partner), gender, and emotional exhaustion. After control for potential confounders, we found that having lower work flexibility than the partner was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion as compared to those with higher relative work flexibility. Also, being a mother was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion, independent of possible confounders. An interaction effect between low relative work flexibility and gender was found in relation to emotional exhaustion. Regarding time use, clear differences between mothers' and fathers' were found. However, few indications were found that relative work flexibility influenced time use. Mothers spent more time on household chores as compared to fathers, while fathers reported longer working hours. Fathers spent more time on relaxation compared with mothers. To conclude, our results indicate that lower relative work flexibility is detrimental for mental health both for mothers and fathers. However, while gender seems to have a
Full Text Available A number of studies have found that control over work conditions and hours is positively related to mental health. Still, potential positive and negative effects of work flexibility remain to be fully explored. On the one hand, higher work flexibility might provide better opportunities for recovery. On the other hand, especially mothers may use flexibility to meet household and family demands. Here, we investigated the association between parent's work flexibility, rated relative to their partner, and emotional exhaustion in interaction with gender. Additionally, gender differences in time use were investigated. Cross-sectional analyses based on responses of employed parents to the 2012 wave of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH were conducted (N = 2,911. Generalized linear models with gamma distribution and a log-link function were used to investigate associations between relative work-flexibility (lower, equal, or higher as compared to partner, gender, and emotional exhaustion. After control for potential confounders, we found that having lower work flexibility than the partner was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion as compared to those with higher relative work flexibility. Also, being a mother was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion, independent of possible confounders. An interaction effect between low relative work flexibility and gender was found in relation to emotional exhaustion. Regarding time use, clear differences between mothers' and fathers' were found. However, few indications were found that relative work flexibility influenced time use. Mothers spent more time on household chores as compared to fathers, while fathers reported longer working hours. Fathers spent more time on relaxation compared with mothers. To conclude, our results indicate that lower relative work flexibility is detrimental for mental health both for mothers and fathers. However, while gender
Moen, Phyllis; Flood, Sarah
Americans are living healthier and longer lives, but the shifting age distribution is straining existing and projected social welfare protections for older adults (e.g., Social Security, Medicare). One solution is to delay retirement. Another is an alternative to “total leisure” retirement -- an “encore” stage of paid or unpaid engagement coming after career jobs but before infirmities associated with old age. We draw on gendered life-course themes together with data from the American Time Use Survey (2003–2009) to examine the real time American men and women ages 50–75 apportion to paid work and unpaid volunteer work on an average day, as well as factors predicting their time allocations. We find that while full-time employment declines after the 50s, many Americans allot time to more limited engagements – working part time, being self-employed, volunteering, helping out – through and even beyond their 60s. Caring for a child or infirm adult reduces the odds of paid work but not volunteering. While time working for pay declines with age (though more slowly for men than women), time volunteering does not. Older men and women in poor health, without a college degree, with a disability or SSI income are the least likely to be publicly engaged. This social patterning illustrates that while the ideal of an encore of paid or unpaid voluntary, flexible, and meaningful engagement is an emerging reality for some, it appears less attainable for others. This suggests the importance of organizational and public policy innovations offering all Americans a range of encore opportunities. PMID:24273348
Clark, C.; Pike, C.; McManus, S.; Harris, J.; Bebbington, P.; Brugha, T.; Jenkins, R.; Meltzer, H.; Weich, S.; Stansfeld, S.
Evidence for an effect of work stressors on common mental disorders (CMD) has increased over the past decade. However, studies have not considered whether the effects of work stressors on CMD remain after taking co-occurring non-work stressors into account.\\ud \\ud Method. Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a national population survey of participants\\ud >= 16 years living in private households in England. This paper analyses data from employed working age\\ud participa...
In Australia and comparable countries, case management has become the dominant process by which public mental health services provide outpatient clinical services to people with severe mental illness. There is recognition that caseload size impacts on service provision and that management of caseloads is an important dimension of overall service management. There has been little empirical investigation, however, of caseload and its management. The present study was undertaken in the context of an industrial agreement in Victoria, Australia that required services to introduce standardized approaches to caseload management. The aims of the present study were therefore to (i) investigate caseload size and approaches to caseload management in Victoria's mental health services; and (ii) determine whether caseload size and/or approach to caseload management is associated with work-related stress or case manager self-efficacy among community mental health professionals employed in Victoria's mental health services. A total of 188 case managers responded to an online cross-sectional survey with both purpose-developed items investigating methods of case allocation and caseload monitoring, and standard measures of work-related stress and case manager personal efficacy. The mean caseload size was 20 per full-time case manager. Both work-related stress scores and case manager personal efficacy scores were broadly comparable with those reported in previous studies. Higher caseloads were associated with higher levels of work-related stress and lower levels of case manager personal efficacy. Active monitoring of caseload was associated with lower scores for work-related stress and higher scores for case manager personal efficacy, regardless of size of caseload. Although caseloads were most frequently monitored by the case manager, there was evidence that monitoring by a supervisor was more beneficial than self-monitoring. Routine monitoring of caseload, especially by a workplace
Pedersen, Pernille; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Yde, Bjarne Frostholm
by psychiatric nurses, a psychologist, a social worker, a physiotherapist and a person who had previously been on sick leave due to mental health problems. The sessions focused on stress and work life, and the purpose was to provide individuals on sick leave the skills to understand and improve their mental......BACKGROUND: Sickness absence due to poor mental health is a common problem in many Western countries. To facilitate return to work, it may be important to identify individuals on sick leave and at risk of having a mental disorder and subsequently to offer appropriate treatment. Psychoeducation...... alone has not previously been used as a return to work intervention, but may be a promising tool to facilitate return to work. Therefore, the aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of psychoeducation designed specifically to facilitate return to work for individuals on sick leave and at risk...
Tang, Jessica Janice; Leka, Stavroula; MacLennan, Sara
There is limited research on teachers' psychosocial work environment and mental health, and most has been conducted in predominantly Western countries that share a number of important common characteristics that distinguish them from countries in many other regions of the world. Within the framework of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) theoretical model, the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and mental health of teachers in the United Kingdom (UK) and Hong Kong (HK) was investigated. Full-time qualified teachers from both the UK and HK (N = 259) participated in the research. They were asked to fill in a set of questionnaires that measured their perceived stress, mental health, psychosocial work environment and demographic information. Perceived stress was found to predict teachers' mental health. Overcommitment, the intrinsic component of the ERI model, predicted mental health among HK teachers. There were significant differences in the psychosocial variables between UK and HK teachers. The results showed support for the ERI model and in particular for the relationship between stress and mental health and demonstrated the role of overcommitment in the teaching profession. Some implications are discussed for combating cultural differences in managing the psychosocial work environment of teachers.
Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Gore, Rebecca
Employee turnover is a large and expensive problem in the long-term care environment. Stated intention to leave is a reliable indicator of likely turnover, but actual predictors, especially for nursing assistants, have been incompletely investigated. This quantitative study identifies the relationships among employees' working conditions, mental health, and intention to leave. Self-administered questionnaires were collected with 1,589 employees in 18 for-profit nursing homes. A working condition index for the number of beneficial job features was constructed. Poisson regression modeling found that employees who reported four positive features were 77% less likely to state strong intention to leave (PR = 0.23, p employee mental health. Effective workplace intervention programs must address work organization features to reduce employee intention to leave. Healthy workplaces should build better interpersonal relationships, show respect for employee work, and involve employees in decision-making processes.
Cieslak, Roman; Anderson, Valerie; Bock, Judith; Moore, Bret A; Peterson, Alan L; Benight, Charles C
Our research assessed the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health providers working with military patients. We also investigated personal, work-related, and exposure-related correlates of STS. Finally, using meta-analysis, the mean level of STS symptoms in this population was compared with the mean level of these symptoms in other groups. Participants (N = 224) completed measures of indirect exposure to trauma (i.e., diversity, volume, frequency, ratio), appraisal of secondary exposure impact, direct exposure to trauma, STS, and work characteristics. The prevalence of STS was 19.2%. Personal history of trauma, complaints about having too many patients, and more negative appraisals of the impact caused by an indirect exposure to trauma were associated with higher frequency of STS symptoms. A meta-analysis showed that the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of STS was similar across various groups of professionals indirectly exposed to trauma (e.g., mental health providers, rescue workers, social workers).
Sperlich, Stefanie; Arnhold-Kerri, Sonja; Siegrist, Johannes; Geyer, Siegfried
So far, Siegrist's model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) has been tested almost exclusively for paid employment. This article reports results on a newly developed questionnaire measuring ERI in unpaid household and family work. Using data of a population-based sample of 3129 German mothers, logistic regression analyses were performed to test the following three main assumptions: (i) high effort combined with low reward in household and family work increases the risk of poor health; (ii) a high level of overcommitment may enhance the risk of poor health; and (iii) mothers reporting an extrinsic high ERI and a high level of overcommitment have an even higher risk of poor health. ERI was significantly related to self-rated health, somatic complaints and mental health. A high level of overcommitment increased the risk of poor health, whereas ERI and overcommitment combined was associated with the highest risk of poor health. Statistically significant synergy effects of combined exposure of ERI and overcommitment were found for 'anxiety'. With some limitations, all three assumptions underlying the ERI model were confirmed. Thus, we conclude that ERI is applicable to domestic work and may provide an explanatory framework to assess stress experiences in mothers.
Yoshitsugu, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Yuko; Hiroyama, Yuji; Nagano, Nobuhisa
Sick leave due to mental disorders is a societal problem. It carries a high cost in terms of loss of labor productivity and absenteeism. Partial remission increases the risk of relapse after a return to work. There is sometimes a difference between the ability to return to work as judged by a general practitioner (GP) and the needs of the workplace. GPs are the main controllers of treatment and tend to protect their patients. Communication and agreement by GPs and occupational physicians play an effective role in the return to work. However, it requires considerable effort for both of them to make time to do this. We have developed a concise set of files for a smooth return to work. The files consist of three parts: "Suggestions for corresponding with employees taking sick leave"; "Checklist for smooth return to work"; and "Pattern of living". We put them into practice among 20 companies in Japan from January 2012 to October 2013. The companies had 8244 workers in total and 116 workers were on sick-leave due to mental disorders. Our set of files contributed to sharing the written basic policy of return to work among employees on sick leave with mental disorders, GPs, occupational physicians and personnel officers. That sharing led to facilitating a smooth return to work. Although there are differences in the legal and medical systems between Japan and other countries, our concept of sharing the written basic policy may give some help to occupational physicians in other parts of the world as well.
Gevaert, Jessie; Moortel, Deborah De; Wilkens, Mathijn; Vanroelen, Christophe
Although many governments actively stimulate self-employment, their work-related mental well-being remains understudied. The aim of current study is to investigate the mental well-being of different types of self-employed, testing whether mental well-being differences among self-employed are explained by the presence of work characteristics that are in accordance with the ideal-typical image of the "successful entrepreneur" (e.g. creativity, willingness to take risks, innovativeness, high intrinsic motivation, skilfulness and the ability of recognizing opportunities). Moreover, we investigate the relation of country-level "entrepreneurial climate" and the individual mental well-being of self-employed. For this purpose, data from the European Working Conditions Survey, round 6 (2015) was analysed, including 5448 cases, originating from the 28 EU-member states. Multilevel random intercepts modelling was used to investigate associations of both individual- and country-level characteristics with mental well-being. We found that motivation, the ability to recognize opportunities, and finding it easy to be self-employed positively influences the mental well-being of self-employed. Respondents with these characteristics are often medium-big employers, while farmers, dependent freelancers and own account workers generally have less of these features and tend to have lower levels of mental well-being. At the country-level, positive entrepreneurship perception relates to more advantageous mental health scores in self-employed. These results implicate that policies promoting self-employment should be (more) concerned with the work-related characteristics of (future) self-employed.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Peoples’ mental health in improvement of society’s national and ideal aims have the main and most importance such as thriftiness in material and spiritual costs. Work fatigue is the result of severe decrease of person’s capabilities sources that counter with long –time stress, especially work stress. This study was designed with the aim of investigating the relationship between mental health and work fatigue at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences. Method of investigation: The present co-operation – descriptive study was conducted on 274 participants from 961 organization employees and deputyships of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014 who were chosen randomly. In order to collect data, Maslach questionnaire of mental health condition and work fatigue was used. Data were analysed with statistical tests of the interconnection index Pearson and Friedman’s test. Findings: There was no significant relationship between mental health and work fatigue dimensions (p<0/05. A meaningful relationship was observed between studied models after usage. High attention and metamorphosis of personality had the least importance. Conclusion: When employees have full mental health and job satisfaction, the ability to achieve maximum efficiency in the organization is reachable.
Eslabão, Adriane Domingues; Pinho, Leandro Barbosa de; Coimbra, Valéria Cristina Christello; Lima, Maria Alice Dias da Silva; Camatta, Marcio Wagner; Santos, Elitiele Ortiz Dos
Objective To analyze the work object and the technologies in the working process of a Mental Health Itinerant Team in the attention to drug users. Methods Qualitative case study, carried out in a municipality in the South of Brazil. The theoretical framework was the Healthcare Labor Process. The data was collected through participant observation and semi-structured interviews with the professionals of an itinerant team in the year of 2015. For data analysis we used the Thematic Content Analysis. Results In the first empirical category - work object - the user is considered as a focus, bringing new challenges in the team's relationship with the network. In the second category - technologies of the work process - potentialities and contradictions of the team work tools are highlighted. Conclusions As an innovation in the mental health context, the itinerant team brings real possibilities to reinvent the care for the drug user as well as new institutional challenges.
Sekine, Michikazu; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu
Poor physical and mental functioning are more common among women than men and those with disadvantaged work and family characteristics. This study aims to clarify whether sex differences in health functioning can be explained by sex differences in work and family characteristics. The subjects were 3787 civil servants (2525 men and 1262 women), aged 20-65, working in a local government on the west coast of Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2003. Low employment grade, high demands, long work hours, shift work, being unmarried, having no young children, high family-to-work conflict and high work-to-family conflict were more common among women than men and were independently associated with poor physical and mental functioning. The age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of women for poor health functioning were 1.80 for poor physical functioning and 1.77 for poor mental functioning. When adjusted for employment grade and work characteristics (control, demand, support, work hours, and shift work), the sex differences in health functioning attenuated. When adjusted for family characteristics (family structure and work-family conflicts), the sex differences in health functioning further attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Sex differences in family characteristics contributed more to sex difference in mental functioning than sex differences in work characteristics. Japan belongs to conservative welfare regimes. In such countries, men are able to concentrate on their work with relative freedom from their family tasks and responsibilities, whereas women feel difficulties in maintaining their work-life balances. Such sex differences in work- and family-related stresses may contribute to sex difference in health. Longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the causal nature of these associations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Echtelt, P.
Recent case studies consistently show that employees in contemporary work structures (often referred to as post-Fordist work designs) spend longer hours at work than in more traditional workplaces. This study investigates the association of post-Fordist work with working unpaid overtime and over-employment, using a multi-firm survey in the Netherlands. We test a range of explanations of why people would agree to work overtime for no pay. We also examine how and under what conditions working o...
... days that it wishes to count as holidays for those in unpaid activities in its Work Verification Plan... policies and definitions as part of its Work Verification Plan, specified at § 261.62. (c) For unsubsidized... toward the participation rate for a self-employed individual than the number derived by dividing the...
Cullati, Stéphane; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine
Mental health trajectories are known to be influenced by work and family circumstances. However, few studies have examined both of these influences simultaneously in a longitudinal manner. The life-course perspective stresses the importance of examining trajectories in terms of both stable and dynamic components. In this article we use structural equation models (latent state-trait, LST) to distinguish the stable and situational components of mental health trajectories and hypothesise that situational mental health is influenced by satisfaction with work and family, and this effect differs by gender. An analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of 1616 working Swiss residents (2000-2006) shows that mental health trajectories are mostly stable and only slightly sensitive to situational influences. However, situational influences in a given wave do predict situational influences in the next wave. Satisfaction with work and family influences situational mental health in both genders, but the impact is greater for men. In conclusion, the LST approach allows for the examination of mental health trajectories from a life-course perspective by distinguishing stable and situational components. Mental health trajectories are more stable and constant than they are dependent on work and family circumstances, and men are more sensitive to family circumstances than women. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons.
Wagner, S L; Koehn, C; White, M I; Harder, H G; Schultz, I Z; Williams-Whitt, K; Warje, O; Dionne, C E; Koehoorn, M; Pasca, R; Hsu, V; McGuire, L; Schulz, W; Kube, D; Wright, M D
Mental health issues in the workplace are a growing concern among organizations and policymakers, but it remains unclear what interventions are effective in preventing mental health problems and their associated organizational consequences. This synthesis reports on workplace mental health interventions that impact absenteeism, productivity and financial outcomes. To determine the level of evidence supporting mental health interventions as valuable to work outcomes. Databases were searched for systematic reviews between 2000 and 2012: Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and TRIP. Grey literature searches included health-evidence.ca, Rehab+, National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC), and Institute for Work and Health. The assessment of articles for inclusion criteria and methodological quality was conducted independently by two or more researchers, with differences resolved through consensus. The search resulted in 3363 titles, of which 3248 were excluded following title/abstract review, with 115 articles retrieved for full-text review. 14 articles finally met the inclusion criteria and are summarized in this synthesis. There is moderate evidence for the effectiveness of workplace mental health interventions on improved workplace outcomes. Certain types of programs, such as those incorporating both mental and physical health interventions, multicomponent mental health and/or psychosocial interventions, and exposure in vivo containing interventions for particular anxiety disorders had a greater level of research evidence to support their effectiveness.
Full Text Available Background: Mental health issues in the workplace are a growing concern among organizations and policymakers, but it remains unclear what interventions are effective in preventing mental health problems and their associated organizational consequences. This synthesis reports on workplace mental health interventions that impact absenteeism, productivity and financial outcomes. Objective: To determine the level of evidence supporting mental health interventions as valuable to work outcomes. Methods: Databases were searched for systematic reviews between 2000 and 2012: Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and TRIP. Grey literature searches included health-evidence.ca, Rehab+, National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC, and Institute for Work and Health. The assessment of articles for inclusion criteria and methodological quality was conducted independently by two or more researchers, with differences resolved through consensus. Results: The search resulted in 3363 titles, of which 3248 were excluded following title/abstract review, with 115 articles retrieved for full-text review. 14 articles finally met the inclusion criteria and are summarized in this synthesis. Conclusion: There is moderate evidence for the effectiveness of workplace mental health interventions on improved workplace outcomes. Certain types of programs, such as those incorporating both mental and physical health interventions, multicomponent mental health and/or psychosocial interventions, and exposure in vivo containing interventions for particular anxiety disorders had a greater level of research evidence to support their effectiveness.
Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Ajala, Nifemi; Ambler, Antony; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen; Hucker, Abigail; Odgers, Candice; Williams, Teresa; Wong, Chloe; Moffitt, Terrie E
Labour market disengagement among youths has lasting negative economic and social consequences, yet is poorly understood. We compared four types of work-related self-perceptions, as well as vulnerability to mental health and substance abuse problems, among youths not in education, employment or training (NEET) and among their peers. Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitudinal study, a nationally representative UK cohort of 2,232 twins born in 1994-1995. We measured commitment to work, job-search effort, professional/technical skills, 'soft' skills (e.g. teamwork, decision-making, communication), optimism about getting ahead, and mental health and substance use disorders at age 18. We also examined childhood mental health. At age 18, 11.6% of participants were NEET. NEET participants reported themselves as committed to work and searching for jobs with greater diligence than their non-NEET peers. However, they reported fewer 'soft' skills (B = -0.98, p life (B = -2.41, p < .001). NEET youths also had higher rates of concurrent mental health and substance abuse problems, but these did not explain the relationship with work-related self-perceptions. Nearly 60% of NEET (vs. 35% of non-NEET) youths had already experienced ≥1 mental health problem in childhood/adolescence. Associations of NEET status with concurrent mental health problems were independent of pre-existing mental health vulnerability. Our findings indicate that while NEET is clearly an economic and mental health issue, it does not appear to be a motivation issue. Alongside skills, work-related self-perceptions and mental health problems may be targets for intervention and service provision among this high-risk population. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Ajala, Nifemi; Ambler, Antony; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen; Hucker, Abigail; Odgers, Candice; Williams, Teresa; Wong, Chloe; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Background Labour market disengagement among youths has lasting negative economic and social consequences, yet is poorly understood. We compared four types of work-related self-perceptions, as well as vulnerability to mental health and substance abuse problems, among youths not in education, employment, or training (NEET) and among their peers. Methods Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitudinal study, a nationally representative U.K. cohort of 2,232 twins born in 1994–95. We measured commitment to work, job-search effort, professional/technical skills, “soft” skills (e.g., teamwork, decision-making, communication), optimism about getting ahead, and mental health and substance-use disorders at age 18. We also examined childhood mental health. Results At age 18, 11.6% of participants were NEET. NEET participants reported themselves as committed to work and searching for jobs with greater diligence than their non-NEET peers. However, they reported fewer “soft” skills (B = −0.98, p life (B = −2.41, p < .001). NEET youths also had higher rates of concurrent mental health and substance-abuse problems, but these did not explain the relationship with work-related self-perceptions. Nearly 60% of NEET (vs. 35% of non-NEET) youths had already experienced ≥1 mental health problem in childhood/adolescence. Associations of NEET status with concurrent mental health problems were independent of pre-existing mental health vulnerability. Conclusions Our findings indicate that while NEET is clearly an economic and mental health issue, it does not appear to be a motivation issue. Alongside skills, work-related self-perceptions and mental-health problems may be targets for intervention and service provision among this high-risk population. PMID:26791344
Ruitenburg Martijn M
Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all (n = 958 hospital physicians of one academic medical center, using validated scales to assess burnout, work-related fatigue, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety and depression. Furthermore, respondents were asked to rate their current work ability against the work ability in their own best period (adapted version of the first WAI item. The prevalence of each common mental disorder was calculated. In addition, odds ratios of reporting insufficient work ability for subjects with high complaint scores compared to physicians with low complaint scores were calculated for each mental disorder. Results The response rate was 51%, and 423 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The mental disorder prevalence rates were as follows: work-related fatigue 42%, depression 29%, anxiety 24%, posttraumatic stress complaints 15%, stress complaints 15% and burnout 6%. The mean score for self-reported work ability was 8.1 (range 0–10, and 4% of respondents rated their own work ability as insufficient. Physicians with high mental health complaints were 3.5- for fatigue, 5.6- for PTSD, 7.1- for anxiety, 9.5- for burnout, 10.8- for depression and 13.6-fold for stress more likely to report their work ability as insufficient. Conclusions The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians varied from 6% for burnout to 42% for work-related fatigue. Those physicians with high complaints had significantly 4- to 14 times increased odds of reporting their own work ability as insufficient. This work suggests that to ensure future workers health and patients safety occupational health services should plan appropriate intervention strategies.
Lussi, Isabela Aparecida de Oliveira; Pereira, Maria Alice Ornellas
The psychiatric reform process requires the implementation of public policies that guarantee the work inclusion of individuals with mental disorders. To do this, work must be understood as a promoter of autonomy, emancipation and citizenship. The objective of this study is to reflect on the theoretical concepts related to social insertion through work, with the purpose of exploring the inclusion of individuals with mental disorders in the work market. The concepts social company and solidary economy where selected as fundamental for the study. In the social company, the subject is considered to be a social being, focusing on the development process towards emancipation. In solidary economy, the objective is to develop an economy that is more just, equal and solidary. Further discussions on these concepts should be developed to support the implementation of projects for social inclusion through work.
Uchiyama, Ayako; Odagiri, Yuko; Ohya, Yumiko; Takamiya, Tomoko; Inoue, Shigeru; Shimomitsu, Teruichi
Improvement of psychosocial work environment has proved to be valuable for workers' mental health. However, limited evidence is available for the effectiveness of participatory interventions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on mental health among nurses of a participatory intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in hospital settings. A total of 434 nurses in 24 units were randomly allocated to 11 intervention units (n=183) and 13 control units (n=218). A participatory program was provided to the intervention units for 6 months. Depressive symptoms as mental health status and psychosocial work environment, assessed by the Job Content Questionnaire, the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, and the Quality Work Competence questionnaire, were measured before and immediately after the 6-month intervention by a self-administered questionnaire. No significant intervention effect was observed for mental health status. However, significant intervention effects were observed in psychosocial work environment aspects, such as Coworker Support (pwork environment, but not mental health, among Japanese nurses.
Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael
Work-related anxieties are frequent and have a negative effect on the occupational performance of patients and absence due to sickness. Most important is workplace phobia, that is, panic when approaching or even thinking of the workplace. This study is the first to estimate the prevalence of workplace phobia among primary care patients suffering from chronic mental disorders and to describe which illness-related or workplace-specific context factors are associated with workplace phobia. A convenience sample of 288 primary care patients with chronic mental disorders (70% women) seen by 40 primary care clinicians in Germany were assessed using a standardized diagnostic interview about mental disorders and workplace problems. Workplace phobia was assessed by the Workplace Phobia Scale and a structured Diagnostic and Statical Manual of Mental Disorders-based diagnostic interview. In addition, capacity and participation restrictions, illness severity, and sick leave were assessed. Workplace phobia was found in 10% of patients with chronic mental disorders, that is, approximately about 3% of all general practice patients. Patients with workplace phobia had longer durations of sick leave than patients without workplace phobia and were impaired to a higher degree in work-relevant capacities. They also had a higher degree of restrictions in participation in other areas of life. Workplace phobia seems to be a frequent problem in primary care. It may behoove primary care clinicians to consider workplace-related anxiety, including phobia, particularly when patients ask for a work excuse for nonspecific somatic complaints. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Elisabeth Quendler; Katharina Trieb; Alfred Nimmerichter
Introduction The effects of the use of mobile henhouses and their equipment on the physical and mental stress of farmers in the organic egg production, and the reliability of the sensor-based detection of these in work processes are insufficiently known. There are neither measurement results nor key figures, according to operation and gender especially, available in the literature. Objective The aim of this case study is to quantify the physical and mental stress of work processes o...
Fernandez, Ana; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Choi, Isabella; Calvo, Rafael; Harvey, Samuel B; Glozier, Nicholas
Common mental disorders are the most common reason for long-term sickness absence in most developed countries. Prediction algorithms for the onset of common mental disorders may help target indicated work-based prevention interventions. We aimed to develop and validate a risk algorithm to predict the onset of common mental disorders at 12 months in a working population. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, a longitudinal, nationally representative household panel in Australia. Data from the 6189 working participants who did not meet the criteria for a common mental disorders at baseline were non-randomly split into training and validation databases, based on state of residence. Common mental disorders were assessed with the mental component score of 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (score ⩽45). Risk algorithms were constructed following recommendations made by the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Prevention Or Diagnosis statement. Different risk factors were identified among women and men for the final risk algorithms. In the training data, the model for women had a C-index of 0.73 and effect size (Hedges' g) of 0.91. In men, the C-index was 0.76 and the effect size was 1.06. In the validation data, the C-index was 0.66 for women and 0.73 for men, with positive predictive values of 0.28 and 0.26, respectively Conclusion: It is possible to develop an algorithm with good discrimination for the onset identifying overall and modifiable risks of common mental disorders among working men. Such models have the potential to change the way that prevention of common mental disorders at the workplace is conducted, but different models may be required for women.
Bransford, Cassandra L
This article examines how social workers may use their authority to create managed mental health care organizations that support the principles and values of professional social work practice. By exploring research and theoretical contributions from a multidisciplinary perspective, the author suggests ways that social workers may incorporate empowerment strategies into their organizational practices to create more socially responsible and humane mental health organizations. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Rugulies, Reiner; Hjortkjaer, Charlotte; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla
Mental health problems (MHPs) such as stress and depression are among the leading causes of work disability. In this article we explore how women with MHPs experience sickness absence and subsequent return to work. We conducted 16 semistructured interviews and employed constructivist grounded theory
Mackenzie, Catherine R; Keuskamp, Dominic; Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran E; Popay, Jennie
The psychosocial work environment can benefit and harm mental health. Poor psychosocial work environments and high level work-family conflict are both associated with poor mental health, yet little is known about how people with poor mental health manage the interactions among multiple life domains. This study explores the interfaces among paid work, family, community and support services and their combined effects on mental health. We conducted 21 in-depth semi-structured interviews with people identified as having poor mental health to examine their experiences of paid employment and mental health and wellbeing in the context of their daily lives. The employment-related psychosocial work environment, particularly workplace relationships, employment security and degree of control over hours, strongly affected participants' mental health. The interfaces among the life domains of family, community and access to support services suggest that effects on mental health differ according to: time spent in each domain, the social, psychological and physical spaces where domain activities take place, life stage and the power available to participants in their multiple domains. This paper is based on a framework analysis of all the interviews, and vignettes of four cases. Cases were selected to represent different types of relationships among the domains and how interactions among them either mitigated and/or exacerbated mental health effects of psychosocial work environments. Examining domain interactions provides greater explanatory capacity for understanding how people with low mental health manage their lives than restricting the research to the separate impacts of the psychosocial work environment or work-family conflict. The extent to which people can change the conditions under which they engage in paid work and participate in family and social life is significantly affected by the extent to which their employment position affords them latitude. Policies that provide
Brook, Judith S; Brook, David W; Zhang, Chenshu; Seltzer, Nathan; Finch, Stephen J
There is a scarcity of longitudinal studies of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) followed until adulthood. We studied the relationship between ADHD in adolescence and impaired general physical health, impaired general mental health, antisocial personality disorder, impaired work performance, and high financial stress in adulthood. A prospective design incorporated 6 assessments of participants spanning mean ages from 14 to 37 years. Two baseline assessments were taken between ages 14 and 16 years, and 5 outcome assessments were taken at mean age 37 years. Participants were assessed with structured interviews and questionnaires. The participants were from a community sample of individuals initially drawn in 1975 and followed to a mean age of 37 years in 2009. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ADHD in adolescence as related to internal stress in adulthood were 1.82 (95% CI = 1.01-3.25; P health, 2.36 (95% CI = 1.23-4.51; P mental health, and 3.28 (95% CI = 1.51-7.13; P stress were 2.46 (95% CI = 1.37-4.43; P work performance and 3.33 (95% CI = 1.70-6.55; P stress. Clinicians should focus on early diagnosis and treatment of adolescent ADHD because it is a major predictor of an array of physical, mental, work, and financial problems in adulthood.
Doll, Beth; Doll, Carol
This resource shows librarians and mental health professionals how to use the power of books as therapy when working with children and young adults. After defining "bibliotherapy," the book considers what skills and competencies are needed to qualify an individual to be a bibliotherapist. It then explores how bibliotherapy can be used to meet the…
de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque
Mental fatigue, during or after a period of prolonged mental workload, is a common phenomenon in our everyday lives. Mentally fatigued people generally respond more slowly and less accurately to stimuli in their environment, which potentially leads to dangerous situations. The aim of my research is
Doyle, Louise; Ellilä, Heikki; Jormfeldt, Henrika; Lahti, Mari; Higgins, Agnes; Keogh, Brian; Meade, Oonagh; Sitvast, Jan; Skärsäter, Ingela; Stickley, Theo; Kilkku, Nina
Mental health promotion remains an important component of mental health nursing practice. Supporting wellness at both the individual and societal levels has been identified as one of the key tenets of mental health promotion. However, the prevailing biomedical paradigm of mental health education and practice has meant that many nurses have not been equipped to incorporate a wellness perspective into their mental health practice. In the present study, we report on an exploratory study which details the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required by master-level mental health nurses to practice within a wellness paradigm from the perspective of three groups of key stakeholders: (i) service users and family members (n = 23); (ii) experienced mental health nurses (n = 49); and (iii) master-level mental health nursing students (n = 37). The findings, which were reported from individual and focus group interviews across five European countries, suggested a need to reorientate mental health nursing education to include a focus on wellness and resilience to equip mental health nurses with the skills to work within a strengths-based, rather than a deficits-based, model of mental health practice. Key challenges to working within a wellness paradigm were identified as the prevailing dominance of the biomedical model of cause and treatment of mental health problems, which focusses on symptoms, rather than the holistic functioning of the individual, and positions the person as passive in the nurse-service user relationship. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Audhoe, Selwin S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Hoving, Jan L.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
To evaluate the barriers to and solutions for return to work (RTW) from the perspective of unemployed workers who were sick-listed due to mental health problems. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 sick-listed unemployed workers with mental health problems. Qualitative data analysis was
Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David; Hanley, Christine
People with serious mental illness experience higher rates of oral and dental health problems than the wider population. Little is known about how dental health is viewed or addressed by nurses working with mental health consumers. This paper presents the views of nurses regarding the nature and severity of dental health problems of consumers with serious mental illness, and how often they provide advice on dental health. Mental health sector nurses (n=643) completed an online survey, including questions on dental and oral health issues of people with serious mental illness. The majority of nurses considered the oral and dental conditions of people with serious mental illness to be worse than the wider community. When compared with a range of significant physical health issues (e.g. cardiovascular disease), many nurses emphasised that dental and oral problems are one of the most salient health issues facing people with serious mental illness, their level of access to dental care services is severely inadequate and they suffer significantly worse dental health outcomes as a result. This study highlights the need for reforms to increase access to dental and oral health care for mental health consumers.
Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Thompson, Elaine Adams
The effects of social discrimination, job concerns, and social support on worker mental health and the influence of mental health on occupational health outcomes have been documented intermittently. We propose an integrated, theory-driven model to distinguish the impact of social determinants on work performance and injuries and the mediating effects of mental health problems. The US Chinese immigrant food service workers (N = 194) completed a multimeasure interview; we tested the integrated model using structural equation modeling. Mental health problems, which were associated with decreased work performance and increased injuries, also mediated relationships between job/employment concerns and both work performance and injuries but did not mediate the influences of discrimination and social support. This research reveals mechanisms by which social determinants influence immigrant worker health, pointing to complementary strategies for reducing occupational health disparities.
Miakotnykh, V V; Khodasevich, L S
The present study included a total of 392 practically healthy men aged between 40 and 79 years differing in the character of routine locomotor activity and the training status (from masters of sport of international grade to the subjects who had never been engaged in sporting activities). They were divided into 4 groups each comprised of subjects ranged by age with a ten-year interval. Their mental working capacity was estimated from the results of the correction test. The study demonstrated that the subjects characterized by a high level of day-to-day locomotor activity have higher indices of attention intensity and information processing speed compared with the age-matched ones leading a relatively sedentary lifestyle. Moreover, they have better chances to retain the mental working capacity up to the age of 70 years.
Wepfer, Ariane G; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg F
The division of paid and unpaid labor in families continues to be highly gendered with men doing more paid work and women doing more unpaid care work. This is especially true for life stages with young children. Our study investigates the subjective experience of demands in the work and the private domain and the experience of work-life balance across family-life stages as a consequence of this gendered division of labor. We used data from a survey study on work-life issues and health in four large companies in Switzerland (N = 3664). In line with our hypotheses, subjective work and private demands were predicted by an interaction of family-life stages and gender. Specifically, during the primary child-rearing family-life stages, women experience more private demands than men while men experience more work demands, regardless of level of employment. Furthermore, women who work part time experience more work-life balance than women who work full time and more than men who work part or full time during the primary child-rearing family-life stages. Results are discussed in terms of a gendered work-life experience across the life course and the need for part-time work for both genders. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning our results' implications for public health considerations.
Sperlich, Stefanie; Peter, Richard; Geyer, Siegfried
This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in unpaid household and family work. Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129) the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren)'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.
Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi; Suzuki, Sadao; Kitazawa, Masafumi; Kuwae, Chizuko; Sawa, Rintaro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Takeshita, Toshiyuki; Yoshimura, Yasunori
Career satisfaction level, degree of mental distress associated with certain work-related factors, and demographics were examined for the first time in obstetricians and gynecologists in Japan. Associations between the score on Kessler 6 screening scale, or the job satisfaction level, and the scores on the job content questionnaire, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), working conditions and demographics were examined in 1301 members of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 8.4% of respondents were speculated to suffer from depression or anxiety disorder. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified a heavier workload, less personal control, lower satisfaction on the SSQ, and longer working hours as being independent risk factors for mental distress. Careful monitoring of the mental state is necessary for obstetricians and gynecologists with lower incomes, heavier workloads, lower degrees of personal control, and lower satisfaction scores on the SSQ. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Dhana Ratna Shakya
Full Text Available Introduction: Husband working abroad may have not only favorable outcomes for wives and other family members but also adverse consequences, including psychological problems. Present study intended to look into psychiatric morbidity profiles of the Nepalese female psychiatric patients and the stressors related with their husband working abroad. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based descriptive study with convenient sampling method. Hundred consecutive female psychiatric patients, with the particular stressor, coming into the contact of the investigating team were enrolled within the study period of 12 months. The psychiatric morbidities/diagnoses were sorted out according to the International classification of disease and infirmity, 10 th edition (ICD-10 criteria. Results: Average age of the enrolled cases was 29 years. Nearly half of the women were illiterate or barely literate. Some other stressors, besides the one of husband working abroad were found to precipitate the illness in about 60%, main being relational and health problems. Common presenting complaints were mood, anxiety, and physical symptoms. Almost 30% of the subjects had some mental illness in their past too and similar proportion had in their blood relatives. About one-third admitted to use substances, mainly alcohol and cigarettes. The common psychiatric diagnoses were mood, anxiety, neurotic, and stress-related disorders. Nearly 10% had presented for suicide attempt. Conclusions: The status of husband working abroad may have adverse consequences in mental health of women. Mood affect, anxiety, and stress-related disorders are common psychiatric illness among them.
Devin Hassan Fahim; Farbod Davood
Quality of Work Life (QWL) is a multi-dimensional concept that covers employees’ feelings about various dimensions of work. The current study focused on QWL that can contribute to the mental health status and Organisation-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE) of employees in context of sport organisation in Iran. In this descriptive–correlative study, data was collected using three standard questionnaires: Goldberg’s (1978) General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Pierce, Gardner, Cummings and Dunham's (198...
Lange, A.H. de; Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.
This longitudinal study examined the causal relationships between job demands, job control and supervisor support on the one hand and mental health on the other. Whereas we assumed that work characteristics affect mental health, we also examined reversed causal relationships (mental health
Szeto, Andrew C H; Dobson, Keith S
The economic repercussions of mental disorders in the workplace are vast. Research has found that individuals in high-stress jobs tend to have higher prevalence of mental disorders. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationships between work-related stress and mental disorders in a recent representative population-based sample-the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada (CCHS; 2010a; Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/instrument/3226_Q1_V7-eng.pdf). Respondents in the highest level of perceived work stress had higher odds of ever being treated for an emotional or mental-health problem and for being treated in the past 12 months. These high-stress respondents also had higher odds of being diagnosed for mood and anxiety disorders than their nonstressed counterparts. These associations highlight the continued need to examine and promote mental health and well-being in the workplace.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Bültmann, Ute; Madsen, Ida E.H.
Purpose: To identify health-, personal- and work-related factors predictive of return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed due to common mental health problems, such as, stress, depression, burnout, and anxiety. Methods: We distributed a baseline questionnaire to employees applying for sickness...... is determined by both health- and work-related factors....... absence benefits. Results: At baseline, about 9% of respondents had quit their job, 10% were dismissed and the remaining 82% were still working for the same employer. The mean time to RTW, measured from the first day of absence, was 25 weeks (median = 21) and at the end of follow-up (52 weeks) 85% had...
Christophel, Thomas B; Cichy, Radoslaw M; Hebart, Martin N; Haynes, John-Dylan
Active and flexible manipulations of memory contents "in the mind's eye" are believed to occur in a dedicated neural workspace, frequently referred to as visual working memory. Such a neural workspace should have two important properties: The ability to store sensory information across delay periods and the ability to flexibly transform sensory information. Here we used a combination of functional MRI and multivariate decoding to indentify such neural representations. Subjects were required to memorize a complex artificial pattern for an extended delay, then rotate the mental image as instructed by a cue and memorize this transformed pattern. We found that patterns of brain activity already in early visual areas and posterior parietal cortex encode not only the initially remembered image, but also the transformed contents after mental rotation. Our results thus suggest that the flexible and general neural workspace supporting visual working memory can be realized within posterior brain regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raderstorf, Mark; Kurtz, Jennifer
Occupational health nurses must intervene early and validate the conditions and experiences of employees with psychiatric disabilities. Occupational health nurses must ensure employees are receiving appropriate treatment. They must be aware of and prepared to mitigate iatrogenic influences. Occupational health nurses can facilitate resolution of workplace conflicts and issues regarding changing supervisors or departments. They can also facilitate return to work by establishing clear restrictions and coordinating accommodations. compassionate and supportive, yet assertive, approach is key to managing mental health disability. It will, in most cases, facilitate successful return to full-time work.
Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van
Aims: To study supervisory behaviour as a predictive factor for return to work of employees absent due to mental health problems; and to explore the association between conditional factors and supervisory behaviour. Methods: Eighty five supervisors of employees were interviewed by telephone.
Olsen, Ingrid Blø; Øverland, Simon; Reme, Silje Endresen; Løvvik, Camilla
Common mental disorders (CMDs) are major causes of sickness absence and disability. Prevention requires knowledge of how individuals perceive causal mechanisms, and in this study we sought to examine work-related factors as causal attribution of CMDs. A trial sample of n = 1,193, recruited because they struggled with work participation due to CMDs, answered an open-ended questionnaire item about what they believed were the most important causes of their CMDs. The population included participants at risk of sickness absence, and participants with reduced work participation due to sickness absence, disability or unemployment. We used thematic content analysis and categorized responses from 487 participants who reported work-related factors as causal attributions of their CMDs. Gender differences in work-related causal attributions were also examined. The participants attributed their CMDs to the following work-related factors; work stress, leadership, reduced work participation, job dissatisfaction, work conflict, social work environment, job insecurity and change, workplace bullying, and physical strain. Women tended to attribute CMDs to social factors at work. Findings from this study suggest several work-related risk factors for CMDs. Both factors at the workplace, and reduced work participation, were perceived by study participants as contributing causes of CMDs. Thus, there is a need to promote work participation whilst at the same time targeting aversive workplace factors. Further, our findings indicate that work-related factors may affect women and men differently. This illustrates that the association between work participation and CMDs is complex, and needs to be explored further.
Norder-Kuper, Giny; van der Ben, Claartje A; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute
Background: Mental disorders are increasing and account for one-third of all disability benefits in OECD countries. This study investigated the work status after mental sickness absence (SA). Methods: Five-year longitudinal cohort study of 6678 male production workers. Work status, work schedule and
Lim, Nayoung; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Yang, Eunjoo; Lee, Sang Min
The current study identifies and assesses individual and work-related factors as correlates of burnout among mental health professionals. Results of a meta-analysis indicate that age and work setting variables are the most significant indicators of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In terms of level of personal accomplishment, the age…
There is ongoing concern among mental health professionals regarding the recruitment of newly graduated nurses to this specialist nursing area. Many reasons for the problem have been identified, including the perceived inadequate preparation by the tertiary sector, students' prejudices and anxieties about mental illness, a perceived lack of support while undertaking clinical placement, and the quality of the clinical placement itself. This paper describes a collaborative response to these issues undertaken in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. The implementation of preclinical undergraduate workshops using problem-based learning and role plays were undertaken. Mental health nursing scenarios were developed in association with experienced clinicians to introduce core concepts in a supportive learning environment. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation data were collected immediately following the workshop and again after the students returned to the university following a mental health clinical placement. A further survey of one cohort was undertaken 12 months after initial state registration and the beginning of a career in mental health nursing. Results showed that both students' and clinicians' attitudes to the workshops were consistently positive and indicated that the workshops were beneficial in preparing students for their clinical placement. Importantly, since the implementation of the workshops and other collaborative initiatives, an increasing number of newly graduated nurses from the region are choosing to work in mental health.
Vânia S. Carvalho
Full Text Available Job characteristics are important to work-family conflict (WFC. Additionally, is well established that WFC has a negative impact on mental health. As such, this research aims to examine the role of WFC as a mechanism that explains the relationship between job characteristics (i.e., those establishing by the Job Demands-Control-Support Model and workers’ mental health. Moreover, based on gender inequalities in work and non-work roles, this study analyzed gender as moderator of this mediation. Specifically, the relationship between job characteristics and WFC and the relationship between WFC and mental health could be stronger for women than for men. With a sample of 254 workers from a Portuguese services company, (61% males, and based on a multiple-group analysis, the results indicated that the WFC mediates the relationship between job characteristics (i.e., job demands and job control and mental health. It was reinforced that job demands and lack of control could contribute to employees’ stress and, once individual’ energy was drained, the WFC could emerge. Ultimately, may be due to the presence of this conflict that individuals mental health’ is negatively affected. Contrary to our expectations, this relationship is not conditioned by gender (Z-scores were non-significant. The study results have implications for human resource management, enhancing the knowledge on the relationship between the WFC and workers’ mental health.
Vossen, Emmie; Van Gestel, Nicolette; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Rouwette, Etiënne A J A
This study aimed to explore if and why the return-to-work (RTW) experiences of various workplace stakeholders in the Netherlands and Denmark differ between physical and mental health conditions, and to understand the consequences of potentially different experiences for the RTW process in both health conditions. We studied 21 cases of long-term sickness absence, and held a total of 61 semi-structured interviews with the various actors involved in these cases. Physical cases were seen as "easy" and mental cases as "difficult" to manage, based on the visibility and predictability of health complaints. On this ground, assessing work ability and following required RTW actions were perceived as more urgent in mental than in physical cases. Despite these perceptions, in practice, the assessment of work ability seemed to impair the RTW process in mental cases (but not in physical ones), and the (non-)uptake of RTW actions appeared to have similar results in both mental and physical cases. With these outcomes, the effectiveness of a differential approach is questioned, and the relevance of a bidirectional dialog on work ability and a phased RTW plan is highlighted, regardless of the absence cause. Our study also demonstrates how policymakers need to strike a balance between obligatory and permissive legislation to better involve workplaces in RTW issues. Implications for rehabilitation Both physically and mentally sick-listed employees could benefit from a bidirectional dialog on work ability as well as from a phased RTW plan. A greater role for employers in the RTW process should be accompanied with a support for sick-listed employees, in both physical and mental sickness absence cases. Dutch and Danish RTW legislation could be improved by carefully balancing obligatory and permissive rules and regulations to involve workplaces in RTW matters.
Discussed are attempts made by staff at the Community Mental Health Center of the New Jersey School of Medicine to develop an ongoing working relationship with pediatric neonatologists, house staff, and nursing staff in order to promote their attunement to mental health needs and obtain access to their expertise. After a description of the center…
Malard, L; Chastang, J-F; Niedhammer, I
The 2008 economic crisis may have had an impact on mental health but the studies on this topic are sparse, in particular among the working population. However, mental health at work is a crucial issue involving substantial costs and consequences. The aim of the study was to assess changes in behaviors and indicators of mental health in the French working population between 2006 and 2010, and to explore the differential changes according to age, origin, occupation, activity sector, public/private sector, self-employed/employee status and work contract. The data came from the prospective national representative Santé et itinéraire professionnel (SIP) survey, including a sample of 5600 French workers interviewed in 2006 and 2010. The behaviors and indicators of mental health studied were excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sleep problems (sleep disorders and/or insufficient sleep duration), psychotropic drug use (antidepressants, anxiolytics and/or hypnotics), and poor self-reported health. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze changes in behaviors and indicators of mental health, and the analyses were adjusted for age. Covariates (age, origin, occupation, activity sector, public/private sector, self-employed/employee status and type of contract) were added separately to assess differential changes. Increases in excessive alcohol consumption among women, sleep problems among men, and smoking, insufficient sleep duration and poor self-reported health for both genders were observed in the French working population between 2006 and 2010. Some differential changes were observed, negative changes being more likely to affect young workers and workers with a permanent contract. Prevention policies should consider that behavior and indicators of mental health may deteriorate in times of economic crisis, especially among some sub-groups of the working population, such as young workers and workers with a permanent contract. These changes might
Morrow, Lou, Ed.; Verins, Irene, Ed.; Willis, Eileen, Ed.
In Australia, there is increasing attention being paid to the promotion of mental health and the prevention of serious mental disorder by policymakers, funders, academics and service providers. This has required a shift in thinking to focus on health and well being, not just on illness and treatment. The National Action Plan for Promotion,…
Pouw, Wim T J L; Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred
Non-communicative hand gestures have been found to benefit problem-solving performance. These gestures seem to compensate for limited internal cognitive capacities, such as visual working memory capacity. Yet, it is not clear how gestures might perform this cognitive function. One hypothesis is that gesturing is a means to spatially index mental simulations, thereby reducing the need for visually projecting the mental simulation onto the visual presentation of the task. If that hypothesis is correct, less eye movements should be made when participants gesture during problem solving than when they do not gesture. We therefore used mobile eye tracking to investigate the effect of co-thought gesturing and visual working memory capacity on eye movements during mental solving of the Tower of Hanoi problem. Results revealed that gesturing indeed reduced the number of eye movements (lower saccade counts), especially for participants with a relatively lower visual working memory capacity. Subsequent problem-solving performance was not affected by having (not) gestured during the mental solving phase. The current findings suggest that our understanding of gestures in problem solving could be improved by taking into account eye movements during gesturing.
Rüsch, Nicolas; Nordt, Carlos; Kawohl, Wolfram; Brantschen, Elisabeth; Bärtsch, Bettina; Müller, Mario; Corrigan, Patrick W; Rössler, Wulf
The relationship of work-related discrimination to the change in self-stigma and stigma stress was assessed among supported employment participants in Switzerland. Self-stigma and the cognitive appraisal of mental illness stigma as a stressor were measured at baseline among supported employment participants (N=116). These variables and work-related discrimination in the past year were assessed one year later (N=96). Compared with participants who did not find employment (N=30), those who worked without experiencing discrimination (N=25) had lower levels of self-stigma and stigma stress at one year. Among those who worked and reported work-related discrimination (N=38), these measures did not decrease significantly. Experiencing discrimination at work may determine whether employment has positive effects in terms of self-stigma and stigma stress among individuals with mental illness. Interventions to reduce discrimination in work settings and to improve coping resources of these individuals could augment the positive effects of supported employment.
K.G. Reeuwijk (Kerstin); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona); A. Burdorf (Alex)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ The aim of this study was to explore how work impairments and work ability are associated with health care use by workers with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), cardiovascular disorders (CVD), or mental disorders (MD). Methods in this cross-sectional study,
Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Bartley, Mel; Lahelma, Eero; Marmot, Michael; Michikazu, Sekine; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Kagamimori, Sadanobu
Although there have been a number of studies on the effects of multiple roles on health and how a combination of work and family roles may be either advantageous (role enhancement) or disadvantageous (role strain) for health, there has been relatively little investigation on the psychosocial content of such roles. Work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict could arise from inability to combine multiple roles and result in stress and ill health. The question of whether both types of conflict mediate between the association of multiple roles with health has not been analysed before. This paper sets out to investigate whether: (1) work-to-family conflict or family-to-work conflict contributes towards explaining the association of multiple roles with mental health; (2) the effect of work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict on mental health varies by gender; (3) the effect of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict on mental health vary between countries with different welfare state arrangements and social norms. Cross-sectional data of economically active male and female public sector employees aged 35-60 in London (UK), Helsinki (Finland), and the West Coast of Japan. Linear regression models (separate for each gender and cohort) of SF-36 mental component scores were analysed with role combinations, family-to-work and work-to-family conflict as explanatory variables. Single fathers in all three cohorts and of single mothers in the Helsinki cohort had poor mental health, and this was partly explained by their higher levels family-to-work conflict. Both types of conflict affect the mental health of men and women independently of each other. Japanese women had the greatest conflict and poorest mental health while Helsinki women had the lowest conflict and best mental health. Both work-to-family and family-to-work conflict affect the mental health of men and women in three different countries. Work and family roles and the balance between the two
Yamauchi, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Toru; Sasaki, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shun; Takahashi, Masaya; Suka, Machi; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki
In Japan, overwork-related disorders occur among local public employees as well as those in private businesses. However, to date, there are no studies reporting the state of compensation for cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork or work-related stress among local public employees in Japan over multiple years. This report examined the recent trend of overwork-related CCVD and mental disorders, including the incidence rates of these disorders, among local public employees in Japan from the perspective of compensation for public accidents, using data from the Japanese Government and relevant organizations. Since 2000, compared to CCVD, there has been an overall increase in the number of claims and cases of compensation for mental disorders. Over half of the individuals receiving compensation for mental disorders were either in their 30s or younger. About 47% of cases of mental disorders were compensated due to work-related factors other than long working hours. The incidence rate by job type was highest among "police officials" and "fire department officials" for compensated CCVD and mental disorders cases, respectively. Changes in the trend of overwork-related disorders among local public employees in Japan under a legal foundation should be closely monitored.
Gärtner, F.R.; Ketelaar, S.M.; Smeets, O.; Bolier, L.; Fischer, E.; van Dijk, F.J.H.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Sluiter, J.K.
Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions
Full Text Available Although many governments actively stimulate self-employment, their work-related mental well-being remains understudied. The aim of current study is to investigate the mental well-being of different types of self-employed, testing whether mental well-being differences among self-employed are explained by the presence of work characteristics that are in accordance with the ideal-typical image of the “successful entrepreneur” (e.g. creativity, willingness to take risks, innovativeness, high intrinsic motivation, skilfulness and the ability of recognizing opportunities. Moreover, we investigate the relation of country-level “entrepreneurial climate” and the individual mental well-being of self-employed. For this purpose, data from the European Working Conditions Survey, round 6 (2015 was analysed, including 5448 cases, originating from the 28 EU-member states. Multilevel random intercepts modelling was used to investigate associations of both individual- and country-level characteristics with mental well-being. We found that motivation, the ability to recognize opportunities, and finding it easy to be self-employed positively influences the mental well-being of self-employed. Respondents with these characteristics are often medium-big employers, while farmers, dependent freelancers and own account workers generally have less of these features and tend to have lower levels of mental well-being. At the country-level, positive entrepreneurship perception relates to more advantageous mental health scores in self-employed. These results implicate that policies promoting self-employment should be (more concerned with the work-related characteristics of (future self-employed. Keywords: Self-employment, Mental well-being, Cross-national, Entrepreneurial characteristics, Entrepreneurial ecosystems, EU 28
Live Bakke Finne
Full Text Available Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2 were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect
Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein
Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit) effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2) were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect. Furthermore, both
Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S; Chaturvedi, Santosh K
The objective structured clinical examination has been in use both as an assessment and a teaching modality within the mental health profession. It focuses on individual skill enhancement, the inter-professional understanding of role obligation is helpful in promoting competence as a team as well as role of other team members. The Team OSCE (TOSCE) is an effective way in promoting inter-professional learning. The present work assesses the trainee experience with TOSCE and its utility in clinical care. Twenty-two mental health trainees (17 male and 5 female from psychiatry, clinical psychology and psychiatric social work) got exposure to weekly OSCAF training as well as 2-3 Team OSCAFS on various aspects of clinical work as a part of their clinical training for 3 months. Rating from the trainees were taken on TOSCE feedback checklist. TOSCE was helpful in promoting the understanding role of other team members; shared decision-making, problem-solving, handling unexpected events, giving feedback and closure. The TOSCE may be introduced as a way to work on clinical performance, shared decision-making and inter-professional understanding.
Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work-Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions.
Bashkireva, A S
The studies of biological age, aging rate, mental work capacity in professional drivers were conducted. The examination revealed peculiarities of system organization of functions determining the mental work capacity levels. Dynamics of the aging process of professional driver's organism in relation with calendar age and driving experience were shown using the biological age model. The results point at the premature decrease of the mental work capacity in professional drivers. It was proved, that premature age-related changes of physiologic and psychophysiologic indices in drivers are just "risk indicators", while long driving experience is a real risk factor, accelerating the aging process. The "risk group" with manifestations of accelerating aging was observed in 40-49-year old drivers with 15-19 years of professional experience. The expediency of using the following methods for the age rate estimation according to biologic age indices and necessity of prophylactic measures for premature and accelerated aging prevention among working population was demonstrated.
Izabel Cristina Rios
Full Text Available O artigo narra uma experiência de ensino com agentes comunitários de saúde em uma unidade do Programa de Saúde da Família da periferia de São Paulo. Com o objetivo de discutir temas de Saúde Mental relevantes para o trabalho cotidiano desses profissionais, criou-se um espaço de aprendizagem e construção de sentido para esses agentes. Em grupos de encontro quinzenais com uma psiquiatra e cerca de 20 agentes, discutiam-se casos clínicos e situações de vida e trabalho a partir dos quais era possível aprender conceitos básicos de Saúde Mental e pensar o papel e a identidade desses profissionais na comunidade. Ao final de um ano de experiência, avaliou-se que tal atividade é fundamental como apoio para o desenvolvimento do trabalho desses profissionais, e para o aprendizado de como lidar com aspectos subjetivos próprios e dos usuários, especialmente na periferia de grandes centros urbanos.This article describes a teaching experience with health community agents in a Family Health Program unit. In order to discuss important everyday mental health themes, a space for these agents was created, intended for learning and building up senses. Groups of 20 agents and a psychiatrist met every two weeks, to discuss clinical cases, and life and work situations which helped apprehend basic Mental Health concepts and to reflect on the role and identity of these professionals in the community. After one year, this activity was considered fundamental to support the work developed by the agents and to help them learn how to deal with their and the users' subjective aspects, especially in the periphery of large urban centers.
Sarah M. Ketelaar; Karen Nieuwenhuijsen; Linda Bolier; Odile Smeets; Judith K. Sluiter
Background: Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group of a previous randomized controlled trial with high dropout and low compliance to the intervention, we studied the pre- and posteffects of the EMH approach in a larger group of particip...
People diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly prevalent in acute mental health wards, with staff nurses identifying a challenge in working with people who can be significantly distressed. This has contributed to a negative stereotype verging on stigmatization. Mentalization-based therapy (MBT) is a psychological therapy which has been shown to be of benefit to people with a diagnosis of BPD, yet it has been utilized and evaluated only in partial hospitalization and outpatient settings. Despite this, most people diagnosed with BPD will continue to be treated in generic inpatient settings such as acute mental health. Mentalization-based therapy skills training (MBT-S) is a new and cost-effective 2-day workshop aiming to provide generalist practitioners with MBT skills for use in generic settings. This study aimed to capture staff perceptions of the impact of MBT-S on their practice when working with people with a diagnosis of BPD in acute mental health. Through two focus groups, this study assessed the perceptions of nine staff nurses. An interpretive phenomenological approach was utilized in data analysis. Participants found the approach easy to grasp, improving of consistency between staff and flexible in its use in planned or 'off the cuff' discussions. MBT-S promoted empathy and humane responses to self-harm, impacted on participants ability to tolerate risk and went some way to turning the negative perception of BPD through changing the notion of patients as 'deliberately difficult'. Staff felt empowered and more confident in working with people with a diagnosis of BPD. The positive implication for practice was the ease in which the approach was adopted and participants perception of MBT-S as an empowering skill set which also contributed to attitudinal change. In acute mental health environments, which may not have the resources to provide long-term structured treatments to patients, MBT-S could be viewed as ideal as participants
Barling, Julian; Cloutier, Anika
While employees' mental health is the focus of considerable attention from researchers, the public, and policymakers, leaders' mental health has almost escaped attention. We start by considering several reasons for this, followed by discussions of the effects of leaders' mental health on their own leadership behaviors, the emotional toll of high-quality leadership, and interventions to enhance leaders' mental health. We offer 8 possible directions for future research on leaders' mental health. Finally, we discuss methodological obstacles encountered when investigating leaders' mental health, and policy dilemmas raised by leaders' mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Gillespie, Jim; Hancock, Nicola; Yen, Ivy
Mental health care in Australia is fragmented and inaccessible for people experiencing severe and complex mental ill-health. Partners in Recovery is a Federal Government funded scheme that was designed to improve coordination of care and needs for this group. Support Facilitators are the core service delivery component of this scheme and have been employed to work with clients to coordinate their care needs and, through doing so, bring the system closer together. To understand how Partners in Recovery Support Facilitators establish themselves as a new role in the mental health system, their experiences of the role, the challenges that they face and what has enabled their work. In-depth qualitative interviews were carried out with 15 Support Facilitators and team leaders working in Partners in Recovery in two regions in Western Sydney (representing approximately 35 % of those working in these roles in the regions). Analysis of the interview data focused on the work that the Support Facilitators do, how they conceptualise their role and enablers and barriers to their work. The support facilitator role is dominated by efforts to seek out, establish and maintain connections of use in addressing their clients' needs. In doing this Support Facilitators use existing interagency forums and develop their own ad hoc groupings through which they can share knowledge and help each other. Support Facilitators also use these groups to educate the sector about Partners in Recovery, its utility and their own role. The diversity of support facilitator backgrounds are seen as both and asset and a barrier and they describe a process of striving to establish an internally collective identity as well as external role clarity and acceptance. At this early stage of PIR establishment, poor communication was identified as the key barrier to Support Facilitators' work. We find that the Support Facilitators are building the role from within and using trial and error to develop their practice
Silva-Junior, João Silvestre da; Fischer, Frida Marina
Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD). The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385) included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions) and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD. All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models. Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive actions and
João Silvestre da Silva-Junior
Full Text Available Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD.The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385 included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD.All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models.Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive
Roelen, Corné A.M.; van Hoffen, Marieke F.A.; Waage, Siri; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Twisk, Jos W R; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente E.; Pallesen, Ståle
Purpose: We investigated which job demands and job resources were predictive of mental health-related long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in nurses. Methods: The data of 2059 nurses were obtained from the Norwegian survey of Shift work, Sleep and Health. Job demands (psychological demands, role
Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J
This study examined how characteristics of prostitution and quality-of-life factors related to symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress among 88 women engaged in prostitution in the Netherlands. Numerous factors were associated with elevated mental health concerns, including the experience of violence in prostitution, engaging in street prostitution, being motivated to engage in prostitution for financial reasons, having less confidence in one's ability to find alternative work, desiring to leave prostitution, and sense of self-transcendence. In contrast, focusing on achievement, having a sense of fair treatment from others and society, and self-acceptance were associated with better mental health outcomes. Finally, mediation analyses indicated that post-traumatic stress associated with engaging in prostitution against one's deeper desire to exit prostitution was, in part, the result of a lack of self-acceptance. The analyses controlled for relevant demographic factors, including age and level of education. The effect sizes for each of the findings ranged from medium to large. Implications for mental health care and public policy are included.
Suwazono, Y; Okubo, Y; Kobayashi, E; Kido, T; Nogawa, K
This study investigated the association of working conditions and lifestyle with mental health in Japanese workers. A follow-up study was carried out in the Kanto district of Japan of workers in a telecommunications enterprise who received their first annual health check-up between 1992 and 1996 and were between 20 and 54 years old. Workers who reported mental symptoms, had a past history of disease, or current illness at their first check-up were excluded from the analysis. In total, the study included 23 837 workers. The association between working conditions and lifestyle and the development of mental symptoms was investigated by pooled logistic regression analyses. Working long hours and part-time work, as opposed to normal daytime hours of work, were factors associated with the development of mental symptoms in males, as were smoking, short sleeping hours, little physical exercise, rarely taking three meals a day, frequently eating within 1 h before sleep, much preference for salty meals and little preference for vegetables. Consumption of alcohol was negatively associated with the development of mental symptoms in males. Overall, the results suggested that the lower the Healthy Work and Lifestyle Score, the higher the risk of developing mental symptoms. Working conditions and lifestyle, especially food preferences, have an apparent influence on the mental health of Japanese workers. Moreover, the Healthy Work and Lifestyle Score indicates that working conditions and lifestyle appear to have a cumulative influence upon the mental health of Japanese workers.
Burton, Cynthia Z; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W
Prospective memory (the ability to remember to do things) has clear implications for everyday functioning, including employment, in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). This study aimed to evaluate prospective memory performance and its relationship to real-world functional variables in an employment-seeking sample of people with SMI (Clinical Trial registration number NCT00895258). 153 individuals with DSM-IV diagnosis of depression (n = 58), bipolar disorder (n = 37), or schizophrenia (n = 58) who were receiving outpatient psychiatric care at a university clinic enrolled in a trial of supported employment and completed a baseline assessment. Prospective memory was measured with the Memory for Intentions Test (MIST); real-world functional status included work history variables, clinical history variables, baseline functional capacity (UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief), and work outcomes (weeks worked and wages earned during two years of supported employment). Participants with schizophrenia performed worse on the MIST than did those with affective disorders. Independent of diagnosis, education, and estimated intellectual functioning, prospective memory significantly predicted variance in measures of disability and illness burden (disability benefits, hospitalization history, current functional capacity), and work outcomes over two years of supported employment (weeks worked). Worse prospective memory appears to be associated with greater illness burden and functional disability in SMI. Mental health clinicians and employment specialists may counsel clients to use compensatory prospective memory strategies to improve work performance and decrease functional disability associated with SMI.
Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Joensuu, Matti; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna
We examined attachment to employment and education among young adults before they were granted a fixed-term work disability pension due to psychiatric diagnosis, and the factors associated with this attachment. The data comprised all persons aged 18-34 who received a new-onset fixed-term disability pension compensation due to a mental disorder in Finland in 2008 (N = 1163). The data were derived from pension applications and the enclosed medical records, and were linked to employment records from a period of three years before the disability pension. We analysed the factors associated with attachment to employment or education with log-binomial regression analysis. Fifty percent of the participants were attached to employment or education before work disability pension. The attached were more often women; had higher basic and vocational education; had mood disorder rather than psychosis diagnosis as a primary diagnosis; and had no record of harmful alcohol use or drug use, or recorded symptoms of mental disorders already at school-age. The level of attachment to employment or education before work disability pension is low among young adults with mental disorders and several risk factors predict poor attachment; severe or comorbid mental disorder, early-life psychiatric morbidity, substance use, male sex, low basic education, and lacking vocational education.
Robinson, Mark; Tilford, Sylvia; Branney, Peter; Kinsella, Karina
This paper examines the value of participatory approaches within interventions aimed at promoting mental health and wellbeing in the workplace. Specifically the paper explores data from the thematic evaluation of the Mental Health and Employment project strand within the Altogether Better programme being implemented in England in the Yorkshire and Humber region, which was funded through the BIG Lottery and aimed to empower people across the region to lead better lives. The evaluation combined a systematic evidence review with semi-structured interviews across mental health and employment projects. Drawing on both evaluation elements, the paper examines the potential of workplace-based 'business champions' to facilitate organizational culture change within enterprises within a deprived regional socio-economic environment. First, the paper identifies key policy drivers for interventions around mental health and employment, summarizes evidence review findings and describes the range of activities within three projects. The role of the 'business champion' emerged as crucial to these interventions and therefore, secondly, the paper examines how champions' potential to make a difference depends on the work settings and their existing roles, skills and motivation. In particular, champions can proactively coordinate project strands, embed the project, encourage participation, raise awareness, encourage changes to work procedures and strengthen networks and partnerships. The paper explores how these processes can facilitate changes in organizational culture. Challenges of implementation are identified, including achieving leverage with senior management, handover of ownership to fellow employees, assessing impact and sustainability. Finally, implications for policy and practice are discussed, and conclusions drawn concerning the roles of champions within different workplace environments. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For
Lehmann, Anja; Burkert, Silke; Daig, Isolde; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar
To investigate the relation between subjective underchallenge at work and the degree of depressiveness and life satisfaction. A representative sample of the German general population of N = 1,178 (52.5% men; age: M = 40.4 years, SD = 11.3) was included in this study. Measurements contain Satisfaction with Life Scalè (SWLS) and the Patient Health Questionnairè (PHQ-D). To assess subjective underchallenge at work, a ten-item scale was developed for the purpose of this study. The association between subjective underchallenge at work, life satisfaction and depressiveness was examined by means of path analyses. A significant positive association was found between subjective underchallenge at work and depressiveness, mediated by life satisfaction. This association was not moderated by income but by level of education. Participants with a medium educational level displayed a weaker association than participants with either a high or a low educational level. Not only work overload but also feeling underchallenged at work can have a negative impact on mental health and well-being. This is not an issue for blue-collar workers only and deserves more attention in future research.
Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen
A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Yung, Marcus; Lang, Angelica E; Stobart, Jamie; Kociolek, Aaron M; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Trask, Catherine
Many occupations in agriculture, construction, transportation, and forestry are non-routine, involving non-cyclical tasks, both discretionary and non-discretionary work breaks, and a mix of work activities. Workers in these industries are exposed to seated whole body vibration (WBV) and tasks consisting of physical, mental, or a combination of demands. Risk assessment tools for non-routinized jobs have emerged but there remains a need to understand the combined effects of different work demands to improve risk assessment methods and ultimately inform ergonomists and workers on optimum work arrangement and scheduling strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate fatigue-related human responses of WBV sequentially combined with physical, mental, or concurrent physical and mental demands. Sixteen healthy participants performed four conditions on four separate days: (1) physically demanding work, (2) mentally demanding work, (3) concurrent work, and (4) control quiet sitting. For each condition, participants performed two 15-minute bouts of the experimental task, separated by 30-minutes of simulated WBV based on realistic all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding data. A test battery of fatigue measures consisting of biomechanical, physiological, cognitive, and sensorimotor measurements were collected at four interval periods: pre-session, after the first bout of the experimental task and before WBV, after WBV and before the second bout of the experimental task, and post-session. Nine measures demonstrated statistically significant time effects during the control condition; 11, 7, and 12 measures were significant in the physical, mental, and concurrent conditions, respectively. Overall, the effects of seated WBV in combination with different tasks are not additive but possibly synergistic or antagonistic. There appears to be a beneficial effect of seated ATV operation as a means of increasing task variation; but since excessive WBV may independently pose a health
Krayer, Anne; Robinson, Catherine A; Poole, Rob
Although the police play an important role for people with mental health problems in the community, little is known about joint working practices between mental health, social care and police services. There is potential for tensions and negative outcomes for people with mental health problems, in particular when the focus is on behaviours that could be interpreted as anti-social. This study explores perceptions about joint working between mental health, social care and police services with regard to anti-social behaviour. We conducted a multi-method sequential qualitative study in the UK collecting data between April 2014 and August 2016. Data were collected from two study sites: 60 narrative police logs of routinely gathered information, and semi-structured interviews and focus groups with professionals from a range of statutory and third sector organisations (N = 55). Data sets were analysed individually, using thematic iterative coding before integrating the findings. We also looked at sequencing and turning points in the police logs. Findings mapped on a continuum of joint working practices, with examples more likely to be away from the policy ideal of partnership working as being central to mainstream activities. Joint working was driven by legal obligations and concerns about risk rather than a focus on the needs of a person with mental health problems. This was complicated by different perceptions of the police role in mental health. Adding anti-social behaviour to this mix intensified challenges as conceptualisation of the nature of the problem and agreeing on best practice and care is open to interpretations and judgements. Of concern is an evident lack of awareness of these issues. There is a need to reflect on joint working practices, including processes and goals, keeping in mind the health and welfare needs of people with mental health problems. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kukla, Marina; Rattray, Nicholas A; Salyers, Michelle P
Recent findings have demonstrated that reintegration for Veterans is often challenging. One difficult aspect of reintegration—transitioning into the civilian workplace—has not been fully explored in the literature. To address this gap and examine work reintegration, this mixed methods study examined the perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders receiving Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare. Forty Veterans rated factors that affect work success; participants also provided narratives on their most and least successful work experiences. We used t-tests and qualitative analysis to compare participants who did and did not serve in combat. Several themes relevant to work reintegration emerged in the narratives, particularly for Veterans who served in combat. An array of work difficulties were reported in the months following military discharge. In addition, Veterans who served in combat reported significantly more work barriers than Veterans who did not serve in combat, particularly health-related barriers. In conclusion, Veterans with mental health disorders who served in combat experienced more work reintegration difficulty than their counterparts who did not serve in combat. The role of being a Veteran affected how combat Veterans formed their self-concept, which also shaped their work success and community reintegration, especially during the early transition period.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Bultmann, Ute; Amby, Malene; Christensen, Ulla; Diderichsen, Finn; Rugulies, Reiner
Aims: Most research on return-to-work (RTW) has focused on musculoskeletal disorders. To study RTW in employees sick-listed with common mental disorders (CMD), e.g., stress, depression, and anxiety, the National Research Centre for the Working Environment initiated a study on ''Common Mental
Otsuka, Yuki; Osaka, Naoyuki
This study investigated the effects of three working memory components-the central executive, phonological loop, and visuospatial sketchpad-on performance differences in complex mental arithmetic between individuals. Using the dual-task method, we examined how performance during two-digit addition was affected by load on the central executive (random tapping condition), phonological loop (articulatory suppression condition), and visuospatial sketchpad (spatial tapping condition) compared to that under no load (control condition) in high- and low-performers of complex mental arithmetic in Experiment 1. Low-performers showed an increase in errors under the random tapping and articulatory suppression conditions, whereas high-performers showed an increase of errors only under the random tapping condition. In Experiment 2, we conducted similar experiments on only the high-performers but used a shorter presentation time of each number. We found the same pattern for performing complex mental arithmetic as seen in Experiment 1. These results indicate that high-performers might reduce their dependence on the phonological loop, because the central executive enables them to choose a strategy in which they use less working memory capacity.
Kang, Mo-Yeol; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kang, Chung-Won; Kim, Hyunjoo
To determine the relationship between shift work and mental health, particularly insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation, among electronics production workers. A survey was conducted with 14,226 workers from an electronics manufacturer in South Korea. After excluding 112 individuals with incomplete responses, 14,114 respondents were analyzed. As part of a larger project, we collected data on respondents' general characteristics, work-related characteristics, and health status; however, in this study, we focused on the data related to shift work and mental health. Insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation were set as dependent variables and working schedule as set as the independent variable. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis with daytime workers as the reference group. The model was adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, workplace, educational level, and marital status with or without children under 6 years of age. Relative to daytime workers, shift workers had 2.35, 1.23, and 1.17 greater odds of insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation, respectively. Within the shift worker group, we found that the odds of depression and suicidal ideation increased dramatically when respondents had insomnia. The ORs for depression and suicidal ideation were 4.899 and 7.934, respectively. Our findings suggest that shift work is related to an increased risk of mental health problems in production workers, and the sleep disturbance related with shift work is a central mechanism for this relationship. Since these results suggest that proactive management of sleep problems might attenuate their detrimental effects on shift worker's mental health.
Full Text Available To determine the relationship between shift work and mental health, particularly insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation, among electronics production workers.A survey was conducted with 14,226 workers from an electronics manufacturer in South Korea. After excluding 112 individuals with incomplete responses, 14,114 respondents were analyzed. As part of a larger project, we collected data on respondents' general characteristics, work-related characteristics, and health status; however, in this study, we focused on the data related to shift work and mental health. Insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation were set as dependent variables and working schedule as set as the independent variable. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis with daytime workers as the reference group. The model was adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, workplace, educational level, and marital status with or without children under 6 years of age.Relative to daytime workers, shift workers had 2.35, 1.23, and 1.17 greater odds of insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation, respectively. Within the shift worker group, we found that the odds of depression and suicidal ideation increased dramatically when respondents had insomnia. The ORs for depression and suicidal ideation were 4.899 and 7.934, respectively.Our findings suggest that shift work is related to an increased risk of mental health problems in production workers, and the sleep disturbance related with shift work is a central mechanism for this relationship. Since these results suggest that proactive management of sleep problems might attenuate their detrimental effects on shift worker's mental health.
Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Schene, A.H.; Stronks, K.; Snijder, M.B.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.; Sluiter, J.K.
BACKGROUND: Ethnic inequalities in mental health have been found in many high-income countries. The purpose of this study is to test whether mental health inequalities between ethnic groups are mediated by exposure to unfavourable working conditions. METHODS: Workers (n = 6278) were selected from
Milton, Alyssa; Parsons, Nicholas; Morant, Nicola; Gilbert, Eleanor; Johnson, Sonia; Fisher, Adrian; Singh, Swaran; Cunliffe, Di; Marwaha, Steven
UK social firms are under-researched but are a potentially important vocational option for people with mental health problems. To describe the clinical profile, satisfaction levels and experiences of social firms employees with mental health problems. Clinical, work and service use characteristics were collected from social firms' employees with mental health problems in England and Wales. Workplace experience and satisfaction were explored qualitatively. Predominantly, social firms' employees (N = 80) report that they have a diagnosis of depression (56%) and anxiety (41%). People with schizophrenia (20%) or bipolar disorder (5%) were a minority. Respondents had low symptom and disability levels, high quality of life and job satisfaction and experienced reductions in secondary mental health service use over time. High-workplace satisfaction was related to flexibility, manager and colleague support and workplace accommodations. The clinical profile, quality of life and job satisfaction level of employees with mental health problems suggest social firms could be a useful addition to UK vocational services for some people. Current employees mainly have common mental disorders, and social firms will need to shift their focus if they are to form a substantial pathway for the vocational recovery of people currently using community mental health teams.
Sahan, Muhammet Ikbal; Verguts, Tom; Boehler, Carsten Nicolas; Pourtois, Gilles; Fias, Wim
Selective attention is not limited to information that is physically present in the external world, but can also operate on mental representations in the internal world. However, it is not known whether the mechanisms of attentional selection operate in similar fashions in physical and mental space. We studied the spatial distributions of attention for items in physical and mental space by comparing how successfully distractors were rejected at varying distances from the attended location. The results indicated very similar distribution characteristics of spatial attention in physical and mental space. Specifically, we found that performance monotonically improved with increasing distractor distance relative to the attended location, suggesting that distractor confusability is particularly pronounced for nearby distractors, relative to distractors farther away. The present findings suggest that mental representations preserve their spatial configuration in working memory, and that similar mechanistic principles underlie selective attention in physical and in mental space.
Madsen, Ida Eh; Rugulies, Reiner
We read with interest the letter from Drs Durand-Moreau, Loddé, and Dewitte (1) regarding our article on unnecessary work tasks and mental health (2). The authors argue that: (i) the article is flawed by an imprecise one-item exposure measurement, (ii) the results may be affected by reverse causality, and (iii) ultimately the elimination of unnecessary work tasks may increase "psychic suffering". We would like to take this opportunity to address their concerns. We acknowledge, as we did in the article itself, that measuring unnecessary work tasks using only one item is less than ideal and could have increased measurement error in our analyses. The item we used to measure unnecessary work tasks assesses the employee's overall evaluation regarding the extent to which they must conduct work tasks that they, for whatever reason, deem unnecessary. We are unconvinced by the claim by Drs Durand-Moreau, Loddé, and Dewitte that this phenomenon is somehow unrelated to Semmer's definition of unnecessary tasks (3, 4), regardless of the sense-making processes underlying an individual employee's evaluation of a particular work task as unnecessary. Regarding the issue of reverse causality, the analyses were longitudinal and the effect estimates were adjusted for the baseline mental health level of the participants. Consequently, we examined changes in mental health over time, and our results cannot be explained by poorer mental health making workers think "that what they're doing is useless" as claimed in the commentary. Although causal inference is always a delicate issue when applying observational research methods, the adjustment for baseline mental health should account for reverse causality at least. Drs Durand-Moreau, Loddé, and Dewitte question that our findings suggest that the elimination of unnecessary work tasks may be beneficial to employee mental health. Instead they propose that unnecessary work tasks may be conducive to mental health because "some tasks may seem
Joensuu, Matti; Väänänen, Ari; Koskinen, Aki; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi
Low levels of job control and social support may increase the risk of mental disorders, particularly depression, but the evidence is mostly based on self-reports. We examined whether components of job control and work-related social support predict medically-certified mental disorders. 13868 forest company employees with no previous hospital admissions for mental disorders responded to questionnaires on decision authority, skill discretion, co-worker and supervisor support. They were followed-up for hospital admissions due to mental disorders (ICD-9 codes 290 to 319), using national hospital discharge records (577 hospitalized, mean follow-up 15.1 years). In analyses adjusted for confounders, high skill discretion was associated with a reduced risk of hospital admission for mental disorders (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95). High decision authority was associated with an elevated risk (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.87). Diagnosis-specific analyses showed high skill discretion to associate with a reduced risk of both depressive and non-depressive non-alcohol-related mental disorders. High decision authority was a risk factor for alcohol-related and depressive disorders. Good co-worker support was associated with a reduced risk of non-depressive non-alcohol-related mental disorders. Supervisor support was not associated with any mental disorders. We used a single time point estimate in an industrial sample comprising largely of men. Contrary to previous research on job control, high decision authority increased the risk of depressive and alcohol-related disorders, which suggest a need to reconsider the strategies for prevention and clinical practise in regard to psychosocial work environment and mental health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI in unpaid household and family work. Methods: Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129 the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. Results CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. Conclusions The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.
Cosgrave, Catherine; Maple, Myfanwy; Hussain, Rafat
Objective The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the job satisfaction and subsequent retention of Aboriginal mental health workers (AMHWs). Methods Five AMHWs working in New South Wales (NSW) for NSW Health in rural and remote community mental health (CMH) services participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand how employment and rural living factors affected workers' decisions to stay or leave their CMH positions. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory analysis, three aspects negatively impacting the job satisfaction of AMHWs were identified: (1) difficulties being accepted into the team and organisation; (2) culturally specific work challenges; and (3) professional differences and inequality. Conclusions Policy and procedural changes to the AMHW training program may address the lower remuneration and limited career opportunities identified with regard to the Bachelor Health Sciences (Mental Health) qualification. Delivering training to increase levels of understanding about the AMHW training program, and cultural awareness generally, to CMH staff and NSW Health management may assist in addressing the negative team, organisational and cultural issues identified. What is known about the topic? The Bachelor Health Sciences (Mental Health) qualification and traineeship pathway undertaken by AMHWs differs significantly from that of other health professionals working in NSW Health's CMH services. The health workforce literature identifies that each health professional group has its own culture and specific values and that forming and maintaining a profession-specific identity is an extremely important aspect of job satisfaction for health workers. What does the paper add? AMHWs working in rural and remote NSW CMH services commonly experience low levels of job satisfaction, especially while undertaking the embedded training program. Of particular concern is the health sciences qualification not translating into NSW
Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Schene, Aart H.; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.
Ethnic inequalities in mental health have been found in many high-income countries. The purpose of this study is to test whether mental health inequalities between ethnic groups are mediated by exposure to unfavourable working conditions. Workers (n = 6278) were selected from baseline data of the
Prang, Khic-Houy; Bohensky, Megan; Smith, Peter; Collie, Alex
The aims of this study were to describe predictors of sustained return to work (RTW) among a cohort of workers with compensated work-related mental health conditions (MHCs); and to examine predictors of subsequent absences due to the same condition. This study was a retrospective analysis of compensation claims data in Victoria, Australia. We selected workers with an accepted wage replacement claim due to a work-related MHC from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2009, with two years of follow-up data. We identified 8358 workers meeting our inclusion criteria. The median age of workers was 44 years (Interquartile range (IQR): 36-51) and 56% were female. In a multivariable Cox regression analysis, older age, being from a small organisation, working in some specific industry segments, consulting a psychiatrist or psychologist, using medications, and having a previous claim were all associated with a delayed RTW. Workers experiencing work pressure, assault/workplace violence or other mental stress factors, working in the public administration and safety industry and having a medical incapacity certification between 3-4 days and 5-7 days had a higher rate of multiple RTW attempts. This study identified a number of risk factors associated with a delayed RTW and multiple attempts at RTW. Predictors may help identify high-risk groups and facilitate the RTW process of workers with MHCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cooklin, A R; Dinh, H; Strazdins, L; Westrupp, E; Leach, L S; Nicholson, J M
Work-family conflict (WFC) occurs when work or family demands are 'mutually incompatible', with detrimental effects on mental health. This study contributes to the sparse longitudinal research, addressing the following questions: Is WFC a stable or transient feature of family life for mothers and fathers? What happens to mental health if WFC increases, reduces or persists? What work and family characteristics predict WFC transitions and to what extent are they gendered? Secondary analyses of 5 waves of data (child ages 4-5 to 12-13 years) from employed mothers (n = 2693) and fathers (n = 3460) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were conducted. WFC transitions, across four two-year intervals (Waves 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5) were classified as never, conscript, exit or chronic. Significant proportions of parents experienced change in WFC, between 12 and 16% of mothers and fathers for each transition 'type'. Parents who remained in chronic WFC reported the poorest mental health (adjusted multiple regression analyses), followed by those who conscripted into WFC. When WFC was relieved (exit), both mothers' and fathers' mental health improved significantly. Predictors of conscript and chronic WFC were somewhat distinct for mothers and fathers (adjusted logit regressions). Poor job quality, a skilled occupation and having more children differentiated chronic fathers' from those who exited WFC. For mothers, work factors only (skilled occupation; work hours; job insecurity) predicted chronic WFC. Findings reflect the persistent, gendered nature of work and care shaped by workplaces, but also offer tailored opportunities to redress WFC for mothers and fathers. We contribute novel evidence that mental health is directly influenced by the WFC interface, both positively and negatively, highlighting WFC as a key social determinant of health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Neupane, Subas; Virtanen, Pekka; Luukkaala, Tiina; Siukola, Anna; Nygård, Clas-Håkan
This study hypothesized that in a longitudinal setting deteriorating physical working conditions increases the perceived physical and mental strain among food processing employees. The study was conducted in 2003 and 2007. It examined 248 blue-collar workers, all of whom were in the same occupation throughout the entire follow-up period. The data were obtained through a structural questionnaire distributed to the employees at the workplace. Mental strain had increased (7%) significantly among younger employees during the follow-up. The changes in mental strain for the younger employees were positively associated with the changes in physical strain. The changes in physical strain were also significantly associated with the changes in physical working conditions among both younger and the older workers. The results of this study partly support the study hypothesis, namely that deteriorating physical working condition increases physical strain and also increases mental strain, especially among younger employees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Quendler, Elisabeth; Trieb, Katharina; Nimmerichter, Alfred
Introduction. The effects of the use of mobile henhouses and their equipment on the physical and mental stress of farmers in the organic egg production, and the reliability of the sensor-based detection of these in work processes are insufficiently known. There are neither measurement results nor key figures, according to operation and gender especially, available in the literature. Objective. The aim of this case study is to quantify the physical and mental stress of work processes on the basis of heart rate and the Baevsky Stress Index, as measured by the ECG- and activity sensor Movisens®, which is used mainly in the sports and rehabilitation sectors. To analyse the impact, daily routine work was divided into operations and the data collected for this purpose analysed descriptively and analytically. Conclusions. In summary, it can be concluded that measurement technology has the potential to capture the activity-related exceedances of the endurance limit of the work severity by means of the heart rate reliably, to identify risk areas of employment and to quantify stress situations. The accuracy and reliability of data acquisition with Movisens® should be validated by a larger sample size and further measurements. In particular, the algorithm for calculating the data to quantify the mental and physical stress without movement needs to be improved significantly through further development.
Salama, Miram; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie
Sedentary lifestyles, which are partly due to the type of labor being performed, have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In general, labor in a modern context solicits mental work, which has been shown to promote overeating and altered satiety efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of knowledge-based work on food preferences, eating behaviors traits and appetite sensations. The relationship between these effects and the morphological profile was also assessed. A cross-over experimental design was used in this study for which 35 healthy adults (22 men and 13 women (mean age: 24±3years)), were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned the one of the two following conditions: mental work (reading a document and writing a summary of 350 words with the use of a computer) or control (rest in seated position). Each condition lasted 45min, and was followed by a standardized ad libitum buffet-type meal. Measurements included anthropometric variables, ad libitum food intake, appetite sensations before and after each condition, and satiety quotient, a marker of satiety efficiency in response to the meal. Eating behavior traits were also evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Eating behaviors (restriction, disinhibition) were not associated with the energy intake in both conditions and in both genders. Women appeared to have a higher energy intake after the mental work condition (pwork. These results suggest that increased energy intake in response to knowledge-based work is associated with food preference and an altered satiety efficiency in women and individuals with higher waist circumference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper presents Australian and international research on work-life interaction. We review the work-life policies and practices that are likely to have the greatest impact on work-life outcomes, specifically reducing the negative impact of work on other life domains (work-life interference, and enhancing the positive effect (work-life facilitation. The review addresses four policy areas common in work-life studies of the general workforce: employee-centered flexible work practices; working hours (e.g. access to part-time work; paid and unpaid leave (e.g. parental leave; and access to childcare. It then considers the work-life literature related to two specific industries – the Australian public sector, and health and social services – to identify work-life issues and practices specific to each industry. We then conclude with a general discussion of challenges associated with the policy-practice gap, focusing particularly on work intensification and the role of organisational culture as the catalyst for policy uptake and effectiveness.
Ramsey, Alex T; Montgomery, Katherine
Despite concerns around the use of technology-based interventions, they are increasingly being employed by social workers as a direct practice methodology to address the mental health needs of vulnerable clients. Researchers have highlighted the importance of using innovative technologies within social work practice, yet little has been done to summarize the evidence and collectively assess findings. In this systematic review, we describe accounts of technology-based mental health interventions delivered by social workers over the past 10 years. Results highlight the impacts of these tools and summarize advantages and disadvantages to utilizing technologies as a method for delivering or facilitating interventions.
Fukasawa, Maiko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Obara, Akiko; Kim, Yoshiharu
In times of disaster, public servants face multiple burdens as they engage in a demanding and stressful disaster-response work while managing their own needs caused by the disaster. We investigated the effects of work-related factors on the mental health of prefectural public servants working in the area devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake to identify some ideas for organizational work modifications to protect their mental health. Two months after the earthquake, Miyagi prefecture conducted a self-administered health survey of prefectural public servants and obtained 4,331 (82.8%) valid responses. We investigated relationships between mental health distress (defined as K6 ≥ 13) and work-related variables (i.e., job type, overwork, and working environment) stratified by level of earthquake damage experienced. The proportion of participants with mental health distress was 3.0% in the group that experienced less damage and 5.9% in the group that experienced severe damage. In the group that experienced less damage, working >100 h of overtime per month (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 10.96; 95% CI, 6.63-18.09) increased the risk of mental health distress. In the group that experienced severe damage, handling residents' complaints (adjusted OR, 4.79; 95% CI, 1.55-14.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 9.14; 95% CI, 3.34-24.97) increased the risk, whereas involvement in disaster-related work (adjusted OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.86) decreased the risk. Workers who have experienced less disaster-related damage might benefit from working fewer overtime hours, and those who have experienced severe damage might benefit from avoiding contact with residents and engaging in disaster-related work. Facilitating workplace communication appeared important for both groups of workers.
Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Michimasa; Oguri, Koji
Most of the traffic accidents have been caused by inappropriate driver's mental state. Therefore, driver monitoring is one of the most important challenges to prevent traffic accidents. Some studies for evaluating the driver's mental state while driving have been reported; however driver's mental state should be estimated in real-time in the future. This paper proposes a way to estimate quantitatively driver's mental workload using heart rate variability. It is assumed that the tolerance to driver's mental workload is different depending on the individual. Therefore, we classify people based on their individual tolerance to mental workload. Our estimation method is multiple linear regression analysis, and we compare it to NASA-TLX which is used as the evaluation method of subjective mental workload. As a result, the coefficient of correlation improved from 0.83 to 0.91, and the standard deviation of error also improved. Therefore, our proposed method demonstrated the possibility to estimate mental workload.
McMullan, E; Gupta, A; Collins, S C
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Community mental health staff and their service users have reported mixed views on the importance of talking about the content of voices. Community staff have reported feeling that they do not have the skills to explore voice content and worry about making things worse. Voice hearers experiencing extreme distress due to the content of their voices can access support through acute inpatient mental health services. No previous studies have focused on the experiences of staff who nurse voice hearers at a time of acute distress. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: MHNs and HSWs working with voice hearers in acute distress report feeling powerless and helpless, as they feel that they cannot lessen the distress experienced by the voice hearer. Despite these difficult feelings, staff report finding ways of coping, including using structured tools to help make sense of their service users' voice-hearing experiences and accessing reflective practice forums. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Due to the current context of increased acuity and limited resources in acute services, there may be a need to further protect time for staff to access reflective practice groups and supervision forums to help them manage the difficult feelings arising from their work with voice hearers. Introduction Mental health nursing (MHN) staff in acute settings work with voice hearers at times of crises when they experience high levels of distress. Previous research has focused on community mental health staff's experiences and their service users views on exploring the content of voices. No studies have explored this from an acute mental health service perspective. Aim This study therefore sought to explore the experiences of staff working with voice hearers in an acute mental health service. Method Due to the exploratory nature of the research, a qualitative design was chosen. Three MHNs and five healthcare support workers (HSWs) were
Sarah M. Ketelaar
Conclusion: The EMH approach to WHS improves the work functioning and mental health of nurses and allied health professionals. However, because we found small effects and participation in the offered EMH interventions was low, there is ample room for improvement.
Wiesmann, Stephanie; Boeije, Hennie; Doorne-Huiskes, Anneke van; Dulk, Laura den
The aim of this qualitative study of 31 Dutch couples is to help us understand why the division of paid and unpaid work between women and men remains stubbornly unequal, despite women’s gains in the workplace and rising educational levels. This study expands on other research by documenting daily
Rodriguez, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, A Veronica; Engel, Christoph; Löffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The study investigated whether high mental demands at work, which have shown to promote a good cognitive functioning in old age, could offset the adverse association between social isolation and cognitive functioning. Based on data from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study, the association between cognitive functioning (Verbal Fluency Test, Trail Making Test B) and social isolation (Lubben Social Network Scale) as well as mental demands at work (O*NET database) was analyzed via linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, and sampling weights. Cognitive functioning was significantly lower in socially isolated individuals and in individuals working in low mental demands jobs-even in old age after retirement and even after taking into account the educational level. An interaction effect suggested stronger effects of mental demands at work in socially isolated than nonisolated individuals. The findings suggest that working in high mental-demand jobs could offset the adverse association between social isolation and cognitive functioning. Further research should evaluate how interventions that target social isolation and enhance mentally demanding activities promote a good cognitive functioning in old age. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
of the 2011–2013 pay freeze, the unpaid furloughs in 2013, a wave of retirements of the baby - boom generation, and recent proposals by lawmakers to...CARE INFRASTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORTATION INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS LAW AND BUSINESS NATIONAL SECURITY POPULATION AND AGING PUBLIC SAFETY SCIENCE AND...Department of Defense (DoD). These pay actions on top of a wave of baby -boomer retirements and various proposals by lawmakers to reduce federal compensation
O trabalho de enfermagem em saúde mental: contradições e potencialidades atuais El trabajo de enfermería en salud mental: contradicciones y potencialidades actuales Mental health nursing work: contradictions and current potentialities
Alice G. Bottaro de Oliveira
Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar contradições e desafios que se apresentam atualmente no trabalho de enfermagem em saúde mental, no contexto da Reforma Psiquiátrica, tendo por referência a construção histórico-social desse processo de trabalho. A Reforma Psiquiátrica pressupõe um novo desenho de objeto e instrumentos de trabalho, que são ainda pouco visíveis na prática dos enfermeiros, e a possibilidade de se alcançar a condição de sujeito-cidadão para o portador de sofrimento mental - modo de ser e finalidade do trabalho - que está diretamente relacionada à consciência de sujeito-cidadão do trabalhador de enfermagem.Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar las contradicciones y posibilidades que se presentan actualmente en el trabajo de enfermería en salud mental, en el proceso de la Reforma Psiquiátrica, basado en la construcción histórico-social de este proceso de trabajo. Se destaca que la Reforma Psiquiátrica presenta un nuevo diseño de objeto y de instrumento de trabajo que casi no se observa en el quehacer del enfermero. Sostenemos que la posibilidad de alcanzar la condición de sujeto-ciudadano del ser humano en sufrimiento psíquico, se relaciona directamente con la concientización del enfermero, como sujeto-trabajador-ciudadano.This study aimed to identify contradictions and challenges that are present nowadays in mental health nursing work, in the context of the Psychiatric Reform, on the basis of the historical-social construction of this working process. The Psychiatric Reform presupposes a new design of work purpose and instruments, which still have little visibility in nursing practice, and the possibility for the person in mental suffering to achieve the subject-citizen condition - way of being and work purpose - which is directly related with the subject-citizen awareness of the nursing worker.
Objectives This paper will describe the outcomes of different methods for recruiting young adults (16-25 to the ‘Online Wellbeing Centre’, an online resource to assess wellbeing and access apps for mental health and general wellbeing. Methods Online and community strategies, which were of paid and unpaid nature, were utilised for recruiting participants aged between 16-25. Online paid strategies included 9 Facebook ads, 2 Twitter ads, 2 Google ads, and 1 YouTube ad. Online unpaid channels included Facebook and Twitter posts on the official pages of selected partner organisations, links on the websites of selected partner organisations, tailored messages and link via a University student learning portal, and bulk emails to various networks of young people. Unpaid community based recruitment strategies included a bulk email to various community contacts, and face-to-face contact via meetings and presentations in schools and mental health services. The one paid community based strategy was the use of a recruitment agency. All ads and posts were designed with final user input following principles of participatory methodology. All recruited participants were asked to complete a self-assessment of mood, energy levels, and sleep quality presented via visual analog scales, and also the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form assessment survey. Recruitment success via each of the strategies was descriptively analysed. Univariate analysis of variance was conducted to explore if self reported measures varied between paid and unpaid channels of recruitment. Results A total of 378 participants were recruited over a timeframe of 10 months. 26.7% of recruited participants were from paid channels with the recruitment agency and Facebook ads accounting for 15.6% and 8.5% respectively. Least effective paid strategies included Google ads and YouTube ads, each accounting for only 0.5% of participants. The average cost per participant recruited through paid channels was 85 AUD. Amongst
Jones, Norman; Fear, Nicola T; Jones, Margaret; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil
little is known about longer term military work outcomes in UK military personnel who develop mental health problems when operationally deployed. Deployed Field Mental Health Teams (FMHTs) who support them follow the principles of "Forward Psychiatry," aiming to treat psychiatric casualties close to the front line to maximize operational effectiveness and occupational retention. to examine the short- and long-term military work outcomes in soldiers deployed to Iraq between 2003 and 2007 who were referred to the FMHT. FMHT clinical records were linked to occupational records with 825 resulting matches. 71.6% of the referred soldiers with a documented short-term military work outcome returned to their operational unit, and 73.5% of those who had a documented long-term military work outcome served on for a period in excess of two years. Adjusting for potential confounders, a shorter service length and removal from the operational theatre were both strongly associated with premature discharge; however, it was not possible to determine the severity of the presenting mental health problem and assess whether this impacted outcome. the results of this study support the use of the Forward Psychiatry principles in achieving good short-term military work outcomes. Utilizing these principles, three-quarters of those referred to the FMHT were returned to their deployed unit and approximately three-quarters of those assessed by the FMHT remained in service two years after referral. We suggest that these are positive work outcomes; however, being evacuated out of the operational environment and having a short service length were both associated with premature discharge, though we were unable to examine the role of illness severity.
Lienert-Brown, Mel; Taylor, Peta; Withington, John; Lefebvre, Evelyn
The core of pre-registration nursing education is the learning that takes place during the clinical placement. However, despite the fact that registered nurse preceptors are key players in supporting students during their placements there is a lack of literature examining the views of preceptors working with nursing students in mental health settings. To explore mental health nurses' views and experiences of working with undergraduate nursing students and determine what factors influence this experience. A descriptive exploratory study approach using an on-line questionnaire was adopted for this study. A specialist mental health service (SMHS) within one District Health Board in New Zealand. 89 registered nurses who had been involved in working with nursing students participated in this study. Data was collected using an online questionnaire. The majority of the respondents in this study reported that they felt confident and well supported in the work they did with nursing students and had a positive perception of this role. However, one significant negative factor identified was the extra stress and workload pressure they reported when working with students, when no allowance was made for this. Another key finding was that engaging in some form of education related to the preceptorship role was positively correlated with nurses knowing what was required of them, feeling confident, the extent to which they planned clinical education, and feeling that they were sufficiently appreciated. Ensuring nurses have access to education related to clinical teaching and learning increases their confidence in the work they do with nursing students and has also been shown to have a positive impact on how they view this role. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vernberg, Eric M; Hambrick, Erin P; Cho, Bridget; Hendrickson, Michelle L
Positive psychology concepts and principles can be incorporated into preparedness, crisis response, and recovery phases of disaster mental health efforts to address the needs of children, adolescents, and families. This article articulates general developmental considerations for applying positive psychology in disaster mental health contexts and discusses how 5 essential elements of immediate and midterm mass trauma intervention identified by Hobfoll et al. (2007) may be infused in applications of positive psychology for children and adolescents. Specific strategies for working with children, adolescents, and their families in home, community, and school contexts are drawn in part from disaster mental health resources developed jointly by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, including the Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide (Brymer et al., 2006), the Skills for Psychological Recovery Field Operations Guide (Berkowitz et al., 2010), and the Psychological First Aid for Schools Field Operations Manual (Brymer et al., 2012). Two case examples illustrate the use of positive psychology principles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kittler, Phyllis; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.
Semantic and phonological loop effects on verbal working memory were examined among middle-age adults with Down syndrome and those with unspecified mental retardation in the context of Baddeley's working memory model. Recall was poorer for phonologically similar, semantically similar, and long words compared to recall of dissimilar short words.…
Rubio-Valera, Maria; Aznar-Lou, Ignacio; Vives-Collet, Mireia; Fernández, Ana; Gil-Girbau, Montserrat; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a social contact and education intervention to improve attitudes to mental illness in first-year social work students. This was a 3-month cluster randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms: intervention (87) and control group (79). The intervention was a workshop led by an OBERTAMENT…
Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert
Background: The teaching profession is characterized by high levels of stress and physical complaints, which might be improved through regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, the effect of PA on mental and physical health is not always consistent and depends on the type of PA performed. The aim of this study was to examine the mental, physical, and work-related health of Flemish secondary school teachers and identify the impact on those health variables by demographic and te...
Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin
The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Abraham, Traci H; Koenig, Christopher J; Zamora, Kara; Hill, Coleen; Uddo, Madeline; Kelly, Adam P; Hamilton, Michelle F; Curran, Geoffrey M; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Seal, Karen H
Most chronic illness management occurs outside clinics and hospitals, in the everyday lives of individuals. We use data from semi-structured interviews with 37 veterans from Southeastern Louisiana and Northern California to illustrate how "health work" for mental health concerns are shaped by place. Using health work as an orienting concept for analysis, we discerned variation between the two study sites in how Veterans used interacting with the natural environment, cultivating time alone, and religious practice to manage their mental health and well-being. Through these findings, we advocate for a situated notion of health work that is mindful of how health-related behaviors are shaped by place and the attributes that constitute place. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Noordik, Erik; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Varekamp, Inge; van der Klink, Jac J.; Van Dijk, Frank J.
We conducted a qualitative study into the return-to-work process of workers partially on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Our objectives were to describe the barriers to a full return to work, solutions, communicating to the working environment and the aim of a full return to work, all as
Krantz, Gunilla; Lundberg, Ulf
This study aimed to analyse, in a homogeneous population of highly educated men and women, gender differences in self-reported sickness absence as related to paid and unpaid work and combinations of these (double exposure), as well as to perceived work stress and work-home conflict, i.e. conflict between demands from the home and work environment. A total of 743 women and 596 men, full-time working white-collar employees randomly selected from the general Swedish population aged 32-58, were assessed by a Swedish total workload instrument. The influence of conditions in paid and unpaid work and combinations of these on self-reported sickness absence was investigated by multivariate regression analyses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess differences between men and women. Overtime was associated with lower sickness absence, not only for men but also for women, and a double-exposure situation did not increase the risk of sick leave. Contrary to what is normally seen, conflict between demands did not emerge as a risk factor for sickness absence for women, but for men. Our assumption that sickness absence patterns would be more similar for white-collar men and women than for the general population was not confirmed. However, the women working most hours were also the least sick-listed and assumed less responsibility for household chores. These women were mainly in top-level positions and therefore we conclude that men and women in these high-level positions seem to share household burdens more evenly, but they can also afford to employ someone to assist in the household.
Tobin, Rochelle; Leavy, Justine; Jancey, Jonine
Office-based staff spend around three quarters of their work day sitting. People who sit for long periods while at work are at greater risk of adverse health outcomes. The pilot study aimed to determine the effect of sit-stand workstations on office-based staff sedentary and physical activity behaviors, work ability and self-reported physical and mental health outcomes. A two-group pre-post study design assessed changes in sedentary and physical activity behaviors (time spent sitting, standing and stepping and sit-stand transitions and number of steps taken) work ability and physical and mental health. Physical activity behaviors were measured using activPAL activity monitors and self-reported data on work ability and physical and mental health were collected using an online questionnaire. Relative to the controls (n=19), the intervention group (n=18) significantly decreased time spent sitting by 100 minutes (pwork ability when compared to lifetime best (p=0.008). There were no significant differences for all other sedentary behavior, other workability outcomes, physical health or mental health outcomes at follow-up. The Uprising Study found that sit-stand workstations are an effective strategy to reduce occupational sitting time in office-based workers over a one month period.
Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona
This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.
The relationship between employment and improved mental health is well documented. However, no research has examined whether this relationship applies to poor single mothers. Given recent changes in the labor market where poor women are disproportionately employed in unstable jobs, the competing demands of work and childcare may operate to prevent poor women from reaping the mental health benefits of employment. Understanding these connections has become more salient not just for mental health epidemiology but for policies targeting employment and poverty. This study draws on four waves of data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study. Generalized estimating equations are utilized to assess the role of current employment and employment continuity on the depression status of poor single mothers over time. Through a comparison of results drawn from a dichotomous categorization of current employment with results drawn from measures of employment continuity, this study is also able to assess whether it is employment per se or the characteristics of employment that matter. Overall, the results from this study suggest that current employment improves the mental health of many poor single mothers. However, the circumstances most likely to improve their mental health are full-time or stable, longer term employment. The results from this study are of concern given that the lack of employment continuity is a growing trend in the U.S. labor market and poor women are disproportionately employed in these types of unstable jobs. These findings, thus, have wide-reaching implications for welfare policy as they provide an important and timely perspective in our understanding of the impact of the changing face of employment on poor women.
Zeng, Zhi; Guo, Yan; Lu, Liming; Han, Lu; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li
Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) generate nearly 80% of the jobs in China, but the dangerous work environment often found in these enterprises poses a major concern for public health. Psychosocial pressure and mental health problems among the workers are also common in SMEs. However, mental health of workers in SMEs is largely neglected in occupational health research and practice in China. The purpose of this study is to assess mental health of the workers and to explore the associations between physical and psychosocial work environment and workers' mental health in SMEs in South China. Data were collected in 2012 through a cross-sectional survey among 1200 workers working in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Guangdong, China. Mental health was measured by psychological well-being in the current study. Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model was used as a theoretical framework to examine the psychosocial factors associated with workers' psychological well-being. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and analysis was performed using bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. About three in ten workers (35.3%) in the sample had poor psychological well-being. Those who were men, younger in age, or migrant workers had worse psychological outcome in bivariate analyses. After controlling for individual variables (gender, age, marital status, and household registration), we found that longer weekly work hours (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13 ~ 1.50), more exposure to hazardous work environment (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10 ~ 1.44), higher job demands (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12 ~ 1.49), and lower job autonomy (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.60 ~ 0.81) were significant associated with worse psychological well-being. The results were consistent with predictions of the JDCS model. The results indicate that the JDCS model is a useful framework in predicting psychological well-being among Chinese workers in SMEs. Future mental health promotion should focus on young
Di Napoli, Anteo; Gatta, Rosaria; Rossi, Alessandra; Perez, Monica; Costanzo, Gianfranco; Mirisola, Concetta; Petrelli, Alessio
exposure to discrimination is widely understood as a social determinant of psychophysical health and a contributing factor to health inequities among social groups. Few studies exist, particularly in Italy, about the effects of discrimination among immigrants at workplace. to analyse the association between perceived discrimination at work for being an immigrant and mental health status among immigrants in Italy. a sub-sample of 12,408 immigrants residing in Italy was analysed. data came from the survey "Social conditions and integration of foreign citizens in Italy", carried out in 2011-2012 by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat). Self-perceived mental health status was measured through mental component summary (MCS) of SF-12 questionnaire, assuming as worse health status MCS score distribution ≤1st quartile. In order to evaluate the probability of poor health status, a multivariate log-binomial model was performed assuming: discrimination at work for being an immigrant as determinant variable; age, gender, educational level, employment status, area of origin, residence in Italy, length of stay in Italy, self-perceived loneliness and satisfaction about life as potential confounding variables. among immigrants, 15.8% referred discrimination at his/her workplace in Italy for being an immigrant. Higher probability of poor mental health status was observed for immigrants who referred discrimination at workplace (Prevalence Rate Ratio - PRR: 1.16) who arrived in Italy since at least 5 years (PRR: 1.14), for not employed subjects (PRR: 1.31), and for people from the Americas (PRR: 1.14). Lower probability of poor mental health status was found in immigrants from Western- Central Asia (PRR: 0.83) and Eastern-Pacific Asia (PRR: 0.79). Compared to immigrants residing in North-Eastern Italy, higher probability of worse mental health status was observed in people who resided in Northern-Western (PRR: 1.30), Central (PRR: 1.26), and Southern (PRR: 1
Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Krol, Boudien; Bultmann, Ute
Background: Associations are examined between socio-demographic, medical, work-related and organizational factors and the moment of first return to work (RTW) (within or after 6 weeks of sick leave) and total sick leave duration in sick leave spells due to common mental disorders. Methods: Data are
Sperlich, Stefanie; Barre, Felix; Otto, Friederike
Recently, the concept of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) developed by Siegrist had been applied to unpaid household and family work (ERI-HF). Evidence suggests that the imbalance between effort spent and reward received in family and domestic labor is associated with poor mental and physical health. However, so far, the adopted questionnaire ERI-HF was exclusively used among women in childcare responsibility. This paper reports on the application of the model to men in childcare responsibility using data from a clinical sample of fathers in rehabilitation clinics (N=415). Analogous to the original version, ERI-HF is divided into 2 components: (i) dysbalance of effort and reward, and (ii) overcommitment. For both components, confirmatory factor analyses revealed good to satisfactory properties. Overall, 13.4% of men in childcare responsibility showed a dysbalance between high effort and low reward of household and family work. High levels of effort were more frequently reported than high levels of low reward. With percentages ranging between 24.3 and 59.6%, a significant proportion of fathers reported difficulties to withdraw from household and family work obligations. Analyses of construct validity revealed significant associations between ERI and socio-demographic factors (number of children, employment status, single fatherhood, work-family-conflict) as well as subjective health. Taken together, our findings suggest that the instrument is applicable to men in childcare responsibility. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
C. Tess Sheldon
Full Text Available This article examines the judicial treatment of complaints of discrimination from workers with mental health issues. Equality protections promise full inclusion in social, work and community life. The principle of inclusion is understood in three inter-related parts: inclusion in the workforce, inclusion in decision-making and, in the most broad and prospective sense, inclusion in Canadian society. The current framework of equality protections has not effectively addressed these core values of inclusion for workers with mental health issues. The workplace continues to be a site of discrimination and harassment. Barriers prevent workers with mental health issues from getting or keeping employment, discourage their participation in decision-making, and entrench the devaluation, isolation and exclusion of persons with mental health issues. Accommodative measures must be alive to the concrete and attitudinal barriers experienced by workers with mental health issues. Cet article examine l’attitude adoptée par les tribunaux à l’égard des plaintes de discrimination des travailleurs ayant des problèmes de santé mentale. Les protections en matière d’égalité garantissent la pleine inclusion dans la vie sociale et communautaire et dans le marché du travail. Le principe d’inclusion comporte trois volets intimement reliés : l’inclusion dans le marché du travail, l’inclusion dans la prise de décision et, au sens le plus large et prospectif, l’inclusion dans la société canadienne. Le système actuel de protections en matière d’égalité n’a pas convenablement tenu compte de ces valeurs essentielles de l’inclusion des travailleurs ayant des problèmes de santé mentale. La discrimination et le harcèlement sont encore présents sur le marché du travail. Des obstacles empêchent les travailleurs ayant des problèmes de santé mentale d’obtenir un emploi et de le conserver, les dissuadent de participer aux prises de d
Juan Carlos, Campaña; J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina
In this paper, we analyze how self-employed and employed mothers in several Latin American countries allocate their time throughout the day in order to balance their family and work responsibilities. Using data from time-use surveys for Mexico (2009), Peru (2010), Panama (2011), Ecuador (2012) and Colombia (2012), we find that self-employed mothers devote less time to paid work and more time to unpaid work and child care, compared to employed mothers, in the five countries. Our results are co...
Full Text Available Background: Mental health professionals are the main instrument for intervention in this area considered as a priority in Public Health and are subject to emotional exhaustion and stress that can negatively affect their quality of life. Aims: This study aims to assess the influence of job characteristics on health-related quality of life of health professionals.Methods: To address this it was decided to conduct a cross-sectional analytical study with a quantitative approach. SF-36v2 was used as a generic instrument for assessing quality of life, which is already validated for Portuguese population, complemented by a social and professional survey. Data collection took place from 28 January to 30 April 2013.Results and Conclusions: The sample comprised 201 mental health professionals in Portugal. Health-related quality of life shows statistically significant differences in the groups of studied professionals, according to the number of hours worked per week (p=0.04 and the degree of job satisfaction (p<0.001. The assessment of the quality of life of mental health professionals allows the implementation of changes in the organization of mental health services and may contribute to an improvement in the provision of healthcare services.
Osborn, Lawrence A; Stein, Catherine H
The research examined the role of mental health care providers' perceptions of their professional relationships with consumers in understanding their reports of agency recovery-oriented services and their own sense of job satisfaction and personal growth. Multidisciplinary community mental health care providers (N = 105) responded to an online self-report questionnaire. Providers' reports of higher levels of working alliance and greater provider directiveness in working with consumers was significantly related to providers' reports of higher levels of agency recovery-orientation and higher levels of personal growth. Providers' reports of working alliance accounted for the largest proportion of variance in providers' reports of job satisfaction. Mental health providers' perceptions of relationships with consumers are central to understanding providers' views of agency recovery-orientation and sense of professional and personal well-being.
Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hoekstra, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Van Der Beek, A.J.
Purpose Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees’ mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in mental health in older employees at 3-year follow-up. Methods The current study used data from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM), in workers aged 45–65 years (n = ...
Noordik, Erik; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Varekamp, Inge; van der Klink, Jac J.; van Dijk, Frank J.
Purpose. We conducted a qualitative study into the return-to-work process of workers partially on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Our objectives were to describe the barriers to a full return to work, solutions, communicating to the working environment and the aim of a full return to
Balancing Unpaid Care Work and Paid Work in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. This project seeks to examine the links between women's economic empowerment, women's paid work, and their unpaid care responsibilities. South Asia, India, Nepal, Rwanda, Tanzania, United Kingdom. PROJECT ...
Joosen, M.C.W.; Arends, I.; Lugtenberg, M.; van Gestel, J.A.W.M.; Schaapveld, B.C.T.M.; Terluin, B.; van Weeghel, J.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Brouwers, E.P.M.
Background: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are among the leading causes of disability worldwide and are a pressing issue for society. CMDs are the most prevalent causes of sickness absence and different stakeholders are involved in facilitating return to work. In this qualitative study, the
Saúde mental, trabalho e aposentadoria: focalizando a alienação mental Salud mental, trabajo y jubilación: un enfoque en la alienación mental Mental health, work and retirement: a focus on mental allienation
Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de Miranda
% between 51-60 years, 44% occupied position / function for the high school level and 28% for the elementary level. The mood disorders lead to 61% of the retirements by mental alienation, followed by thought disorders (19%, organic mental disorders and personality disorder (4%. We found that they lived with intense psychological distress creating an indirect burden on their lives and on their family's life facing lost opportunities of life and to the adjusted years of disability affecting their work.
Houdmont, J; Randall, R
There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England. An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD). Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their typical weekly working hours and symptoms of CMD. We also collected socio- and occupational-demographic data. We defined long working hours as ≥49 h in a typical week in accordance with 48-h weekly limit specified in the 1993 European Directive on the Organisation of Working Time. We established associations between long working hours and self-reported CMDs using binary logistic regression to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential confounding variables. Twenty-seven per cent (n = 327/1226) of respondents reported long working hours. The ORs for psychological distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.57-2.68), emotional exhaustion (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.52-2.59), and depersonalization (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.71) were significantly increased for long working hours after adjustment for socio- and occupational-demographic characteristics. More than one quarter of sampled police officers reported working long hours and were significantly more likely to report CMD. National and longitudinal research is required to confirm these findings, which suggest management of working hours may effectively promote psychological well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Berntsson, L; Lundberg, U; Krantz, G
To analyse gender differences in paid and unpaid workload and symptoms in matched groups of Swedish white-collar workers with children. Paid and unpaid workload and perceived stress from paid work, conflict between demands and control over household work were measured by a total workload (TWL) questionnaire. Some symptoms were rated with regard to frequency and severity as a measure of health. Cross-sectional analyses were performed. Matched groups of male (n = 440) and female (n = 529) well-educated white-collar workers in full-time employment, aged 32-58 years and living with children in the home. Women in higher positions in Sweden are healthier than the average population of women, but report more symptoms than men in the same position as well as more stress from paid work, more conflict between demands and a greater TWL. However, women also reported more control over household duties and TWL was not associated with more symptoms. The men were mainly focused on their paid work role and perhaps even more so than men in the general population as they were fairly resistant to feelings of conflicting demands. Even among matched groups of full-time employed, well-educated men and women, traditional gender differences in division of responsibilities and time allocation were found. Even though the women were healthy at this stage, they might risk future ill health, owing to high workload, stress and feelings of conflicting demands.
Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz
The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.
Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz
Full Text Available The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01 and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01. Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.
Al-Modallal, Hanan; Hamaideh, Shaher; Mudallal, Rula
This study aimed at investigating differences in mental health problems between attendees of governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan. Further, predictors of mental health problems based on women's demographic profile were investigated. A convenience sample of 620 women attending governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan was recruited for this purpose. Independent samples t-tests were used to identify differences in mental health, and multiple linear regression was implemented to identify significant predictors of women's mental health problems. Results indicated an absence of significant differences in mental health problems between attendees of the two types of health care centers. Further, among the demographic indicators that were tested, income, spousal violence, and general health were the predictors of at least three different mental health problems in women. This study highlights opportunities for health professionals to decrease women's propensity for mental health problems by addressing these factors when treating women attending primary care centers in different Jordanian towns, villages, and refugee camps.
Cetrano, Gaia; Tedeschi, Federico; Rabbi, Laura; Gosetti, Giorgio; Lora, Antonio; Lamonaca, Dario; Manthorpe, Jill; Amaddeo, Francesco
BACKGROUND: Quality of working life includes elements such as autonomy, trust, ergonomics, participation, job complexity, and work-life balance. The overarching aim of this study was to investigate if and how quality of working life affects Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction among mental health practitioners.METHODS: Staff working in three Italian Mental Health Departments completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale, measuring Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compas...
Desmond, Deirdre; Meaney, Sarah
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that mothers exclusively breastfeed for the first 6?months of an infant?s life. In Ireland, currently paid maternity leave is 26?weeks and the expectant mother is required by law to finish work 2?weeks before her expected delivery date. Mothers wishing to exclusively breastfeed for 6?months or longer find themselves having to take holiday leave or unpaid leave from work in order to meet the WHO?s guidelines. The aim of this study is to...
Veromaa, Veera; Kautiainen, Hannu; Korhonen, Päivi Elina
Work engagement is related to mental health, but studies of physical health's association with work engagement are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between physical health, psychosocial risk factors and work engagement among Finnish women in municipal work units. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 726 female employees from 10 municipal work units of the city of Pori, Finland. Work engagement was assessed with the nine-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The American Heart Association's concept of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) was used to define physical health (non-smoking, body mass index work engagement. In subjects without psychosocial risk factors (36.7%), work engagement was high and stable. Presence of even one psychosocial risk factor was associated with a lower level of work engagement regardless of the sum of ideal CVH metrics. Both physical and mental health factors have a positive relationship with work engagement, whereas the presence of even one psychosocial risk factor has a negative association regardless of the level of classic cardiovascular risk factors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Sekine, Michikazu; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu
This study aims to evaluate whether the pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in physical and mental functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) differs among employees in Britain, Finland, and Japan and whether work characteristics contribute to some of the health inequalities. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. Both male and female low grade employees had poor physical functioning in all cohorts. British and Japanese male low grade employees tended to have poor mental functioning but the associations were significant only for Japanese men. No consistent employment-grade differences in mental functioning were observed among British and Japanese women. Among Finnish men and women, high grade employees had poor mental functioning. In all cohorts, high grade employees had high control, high demands and long work hours. The grade differences in poor physical functioning and disadvantaged work characteristics among non-manual workers were somewhat smaller in the Finnish cohort than in the British and Japanese cohorts. Low control, high demands, and both short and long work hours were associated with poor functioning. When work characteristics were adjusted for, the socioeconomic differences in poor functioning were mildly attenuated in men, but the differences increased slightly in women. This study reconfirms the generally observed pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in health for physical functioning but not for mental functioning. The role of work characteristics in the relationship between socioeconomic status and health differed between men and women but was modest overall. We suggest that these differences in the pattern and magnitude of grade differences in work characteristics and health among the 3 cohorts may be attributable to the different welfare
Nilsen, Wendy; Skipstein, Anni; Demerouti, Evangelia
The long-term consequence of experiencing mental health problems may lead to several adverse outcomes. The current study aims to validate previous identified trajectories of mental health problems from 1993 to 2006 in women by examining their implications on subsequent work and family-related outcomes in 2011. Employed women (n = 439) with children were drawn from the Tracking Opportunities and Problems-Study (TOPP), a community-based longitudinal study following Norwegian families across 18 years. Previous identified latent profiles of mental health trajectories (i.e., High; Moderate; Low-rising and Low levels of mental health problems over time) measured at six time points between 1993 and 2006 were examined as predictors of burnout (e.g., exhaustion and disengagement from work) and work-family conflict in 2011 in univariate and multivariate analyses of variance adjusted for potential confounders (age, job demands, and negative emotionality). We found that having consistently High and Moderate symptoms as well as Low-Rising symptoms from 1993 to 2006 predicted higher levels of exhaustion, disengagement from work and work-family conflict in 2011. Findings remained unchanged when adjusting for several potential confounders, but when adjusting for current mental health problems only levels of exhaustion were predicted by the mental health trajectories. The study expands upon previous studies on the field by using a longer time span and by focusing on employed women with children who experience different patterns of mental health trajectories. The long-term effect of these trajectories highlight and validate the importance of early identification and prevention in women experiencing adverse patterns of mental health problems with regards to subsequent work and family-related outcomes.
Jarman, Lisa; Martin, Angela; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Blizzard, Leigh; Teale, Brook; Sanderson, Kristy
This study aimed to investigate the association between mental health and comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP) delivered to an entire state public service workforce (~28,000 employees) over a three-year period. Government departments in a state public service were supported to design and deliver a comprehensive, multi-component health promotion program, Healthy@Work, which targeted modifiable health risks including unhealthy lifestyles and stress. Repeated cross-sectional surveys co...
Dewa, C.S.; Loong, D.; Bonato, S.; Joosen, Margot
Objectives This paper reviews the current state of the published peer-reviewed literature related to return-to-work (RTW) interventions that incorporate work-related problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders. It addresses the question: What is the evidence
Procter, Stephen; Harrison, Deborah; Pearson, Pauline; Dickinson, Claire; Lombardo, Chiara
This paper examines the introduction and operation of a number of support roles in mental health services. This is done in the context of concerns about the effectiveness of CMHTs. Three questions are addressed: the degree to which concern for the work of consultant psychiatrists informed the introduction of the new roles; what the reforms implied for the work of the psychiatrist and those in new roles; and the impact of any changes on the operation of CMHTs. Data were collected as part of a national-level evaluation. The main means of collection was the semi-structured interview. The study shows: that reform was underpinned by concerns about the workload of psychiatrists; and that while in principle the responsibilities of the psychiatrist were to be distributed across other team members, those in new roles felt themselves to be isolated. Despite the intentions of policy, the creation of the new roles did little to extend the idea of distributed responsibility in CMHTs.
Brenninkmeijer, Veerle; Lagerveld, Suzanne E; Blonk, Roland W B; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek D N V
Purpose This study examined who benefits most from a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based intervention that aims to enhance return to work (RTW) among employees who are absent due to common mental disorders (CMDs) (e.g., depression, anxiety, or adjustment disorder). We researched the influence of baseline work-related self-efficacy and mental health (depressive complaints and anxiety) on treatment outcomes of two psychotherapeutic interventions. Methods Using a quasi-experimental design, 12-month follow-up data of 168 employees were collected. Participants either received work-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (W-CBT) that integrated work aspects early into the treatment (n = 89) or regular cognitive behavioural therapy (R-CBT) without a focus on work (n = 79). Results Compared with R-CBT, W-CBT resulted in a faster partial RTW, irrespective of baseline self-efficacy. Among individuals with high self-efficacy, W-CBT also resulted in faster full RTW. The effectiveness of W-CBT on RTW did not depend on baseline depressive complaints or anxiety. The decline of mental health complaints did not differ between the two interventions, nor depended on baseline self-efficacy or mental health. Conclusions Considering the benefits of W-CBT for partial RTW, we recommend this intervention as a preferred method for employees with CMDs, irrespective of baseline self-efficacy, depression and anxiety. For individuals with high baseline self-efficacy, this intervention also results in higher full RTW. For those with low self-efficacy, extra exercises or components may be needed to promote full RTW.
Ruitenburg, Martijn M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.
Background: We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all (n = 958) hospital physicians of one
Noben, Cindy; Smit, Filip; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Ketelaar, Sarah; Gärtner, Fania; Boon, Brigitte; Sluiter, Judith; Evers, Silvia
The specific job demands of working in a hospital may place nurses at elevated risk for developing distress, anxiety and depression. Screening followed by referral to early interventions may reduce the incidence of these health problems and promote work functioning. To evaluate the comparative cost-effectiveness of two strategies to promote work functioning among nurses by reducing symptoms of mental health complaints. Three conditions were compared: the control condition consisted of online screening for mental health problems without feedback about the screening results. The occupational physician condition consisted of screening, feedback and referral to the occupational physician for screen-positive nurses. The third condition included screening, feedback, and referral to e-mental health. The study was designed as an economic evaluation alongside a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with randomisation at hospital-ward level. The study included 617 nurses in one academic medical centre in the Netherlands. Treatment response was defined as an improvement on the Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire of at least 40% between baseline and follow-up. Total per-participant costs encompassed intervention costs, direct medical and non-medical costs, and indirect costs stemming from lost productivity due to absenteeism and presenteeism. All costs were indexed for the year 2011. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in work functioning occurred in 20%, 24% and 16% of the participating nurses in the control condition, the occupational physician condition and the e-mental health condition, respectively. In these conditions the total average annualised costs were €1752, €1266 and €1375 per nurse. The median incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the occupational physician condition versus the control condition was dominant, suggesting cost savings of €5049 per treatment responder. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the e-mental health
Danielsson, Louise; Elf, Mikael; Hensing, Gunnel
Most people with common mental disorders (CMDs) are employed and working, but few studies have looked into how they manage their jobs while ill. This study explores workers' experiences of strategies to keep working while suffering from CMDs. In this grounded theory study, we interviewed 19 women and eight men with depression or anxiety disorders. They were 19-65 years old and had different occupations. Constant comparison method was used in the analysis. We identified a core pattern in the depressed and anxious workers' attempts to sustain their capacities, defined as Managing work space. The core pattern comprised four categories describing different cognitive, behavioral, and social strategies. The categories relate to a process of sustainability. Two categories reflected more reactive and temporary strategies, occurring mainly in the onset phase of illness: Forcing the work role and Warding off work strain. The third category, Recuperating from work, reflected strategies during both onset and recovery phases. The fourth category, Reflexive adaptation, was present mainly in the recovery phase and involved reflective strategies interpreted as more sustainable over time. The results can deepen understanding among rehabilitation professionals about different work-related strategies in depressed and anxious workers. Increased awareness of the meaning and characteristics of strategies can inform a person-oriented approach in rehabilitation. The knowledge can be used in clinical encounters to reflect together with the patient, exploring present options and introducing modifications to their particular work and life context. Implications for rehabilitation Self-managed work functioning in common mental disorders involves diverse strategies. Strategies interpreted as sustainable over time, seem to be reflective in the sense that the worker consciously applies and adapts the strategies. However, at the onset of illness, such reflection is difficult to develop as the
Historically, nurses have lacked recognition for the work they do, especially in the area of mental health. There is a shortage of qualified mental health nurses to meet the demand for services. Many rural areas in the United States have few or no mental health services to offer communities. Encouraging positive attitudes toward mental health…
Cherry, Nicola M; Chen, Yiqun; McDonald, J Corbett
Work-related mental ill-health appears to be increasing. Population-based data on incidence are scarce but in the United Kingdom occupational physicians and psychiatrists report these conditions to voluntary surveillance schemes. To estimate the incidence of work-related stress and mental illness reported 1996-2001 by occupational physicians and 1999-2001 by psychiatrists. Estimated annual average incidence rates were calculated by sex, occupation and industry against appropriate populations at risk. An in-house coding scheme was used to classify and analyse data on precipitating events. An estimated annual average of 3,624 new cases were reported by psychiatrists, and 2,718 by occupational physicians; the rates were higher for men in reports based on the former and for women on the latter. Most diagnoses were of anxiety/depression or work-related stress, with post-traumatic stress accounting for approximately 10% of cases reported by psychiatrists. High rates of ill-health were seen among professional and associated workers and in those in personal and protective services. Factors (such as work overload) intrinsic to the job and issues with interpersonal relations were the most common causes overall. The steep increase in new cases of work-related mental ill-health reported by occupational physicians since 1996 may reflect a greater willingness by workers to seek help but may also signify an increasing dissonance between workers' expectations and the work environment. Greater expertise is needed to improve the workplace by adjustment of job demands, improvement of working relations, increasing workers' capacities and management of organizational change.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Bültmann, Ute; Amby, Malene
Most research on return-to-work (RTW) has focused on musculoskeletal disorders. To study RTW in employees sick-listed with common mental disorders (CMD), e.g., stress, depression, and anxiety, the National Research Centre for the Working Environment initiated a study on ''Common Mental Disorders......, Return-to-work, and Long-term Sickness Absence'' (CORSA). The aim of the study is (1) to identify predictors of RTW from the environmental, the individual, and the health-related domain and (2) to explore the RTW process based on study participants' experiences. The purpose of this paper is to present...
Vedaa, Øystein; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Grimsrud, Ingse Dagny; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Sivertsen, Børge; Magerøy, Nils; Einarsen, Ståle; Pallesen, Ståle
To prospectively investigate the reciprocal relationships between personality traits, lifestyle factors, mental health, sleepiness, and work-related stressors against insomnia. A total of 799 Norwegian shift-working nurses (mean age 33.2 years, 90% female) participated in this prospective cohort study. They were assessed on self-report instruments (Bergen Insomnia Scale, Diurnal Type Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, Work-Family Interface Scale, among others) in 2008/2009 (wave 1) and 2011 (wave 3). Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate the bidirectional relationship between a wide range of individual and work-related variables and insomnia. Languidity (β = 0.18***), anxiety (β = 0.11**), depression (β = 0.14***), exposure to bullying behavior (β = 0.08*), and negative spillover between work and family life (work to family, β = 0.08*; family to work, β = 0.07*) predicted increased symptoms of insomnia over time. Morningness (β = -0.09*) and positive spillover from work to family (β = -0.11**) predicted less symptoms of insomnia over time. No support was found for night work as a predictor of increased insomnia. Insomnia was a precursor for anxiety (β = 0.11**), but not for depression (*p work-related factors than as a precursor to them. The scope of factors causing insomnia, and factors protecting against it, should be further investigated. Insomnia should be considered in prediction models for mental illnesses and as an outcome of adverse work-related experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nicole S. Cohen
Full Text Available This paper argues that Marxist political economy is a useful framework for understanding contemporary conditions of cultural work. Drawing on Karl Marx’s foundational concepts, labour process theory, and a case study of freelance writers, I argue that the debate over autonomy and control in cultural work ignores exploitation in labour-capital relationships, which is a crucial process shaping cultural work. To demonstrate the benefits of this approach, I discuss two methods media firms use to extract surplus value from freelance writers: exploitation of unpaid labour time and exploitation of intellectual property through aggressive copyright regimes. I argue that a Marxist perspective can uncover the dynamics that are transforming cultural industries and workers’ experiences. From t