WorldWideScience

Sample records for unnecessary allergic hazard

  1. Health hazard of the Tokai mura nuclear accident. Unnecessary fear and improper health checks should be eliminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebe, Hiraku

    2000-01-01

    Three workers were heavily exposed to radiations in the Tokai mura nuclear accident, and one of them died due to the acute effects of radiations. Doses for the heavily exposed persons were estimated to be 2.5, 10 and 18 Sv, according to the Science and Technology Agency. Workers who tried to stop the chain reaction by breaking the water pipe were estimated to have been exposed up to 120 mSv. Possible doses for other workers and residents in the neighborhoods were estimated to be less than 10 mSv, with a few workers with slightly higher film badge records. After the accident, many reports in mass-media warned that the exposed persons may develop cancers and leukemias in future and follow-up healthcare should be needed. Judging from our knowledge of the extensive epidemiological survey of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, these reports are very misleading. There would be absolutely no or extremely small possibility of developing any health hazard among the workers and the residents except for the three unfortunate heavily exposed workers. If so-called follow-up health checks would involve x-ray diagnosis for cancers, the radiation doses by the diagnosis would exceed the exposure by the accident. Also, the test for the DNA damage applied to some workers and residents is not reliable at all, and could cause unnecessary fear among the persons who were mistakingly said to be of high-risk. (author)

  2. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    a significant number of patients at unnecessary risk. Some patients may be labelled with a wrong allergy, leading to unnecessary warnings against harmless substances, and some patients may be put at risk of subsequent re-exposure to the real allergen. Patients with suspected allergic reactions during...

  3. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased pe...

  4. Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in children with alleged cow's milk allergy: prevention of unnecessary elimination diets and determination of eliciting doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambacher, Wendy M; de Kort, Ellen H M; Blom, W Marty; Houben, Geert F; de Vries, Esther

    2013-02-08

    Children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) need a cow's milk protein (CMP) free diet to prevent allergic reactions. For this, reliable allergy-information on the label of food products is essential to avoid products containing the allergen. On the other hand, both overzealous labeling and misdiagnosis that result in unnecessary elimination diets, can lead to potentially hazardous health situations. Our objective was to evaluate if excluding CMA by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) prevents unnecessary elimination diets in the long term. Secondly, to determine the minimum eliciting dose (MED) for an acute allergic reaction to CMP in DBPCFC positive children. All children with suspected CMA under our care (Oct'05-Jun'09) were prospectively enrolled in a DBPCFC. Placebo and verum feedings were administered on two randomly assigned separate days. The MED was determined by noting the 'lowest observed adverse effect level' (LOAEL) in DBPCFC-positive children. Based on the outcomes of the DBPCFC a dietary advice was given. Parents were contacted by phone several months later about the diet of their child. 116 children were available for analysis. In 76 children CMA was rejected. In 60 of them CMP was successfully reintroduced, in 2 the parents refused introduction, in another 3 the parents stopped reintroduction. In 9 children CMA symptoms reappeared. In 40 children CMA was confirmed. Infants aged ≤ 12 months in our study group have a higher cumulative distribution of MED than older children. Excluding CMA by DBPCFC successfully stopped unnecessary elimination diets in the long term in most children. The MEDs form potential useful information for offering dietary advice to patients and their caretakers.

  5. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    condition include itching, excessive lacrimation, ophthalmic ... allergens with the surface of the eye in a person who is allergic .... Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: more severe disorder, which usually affects boys living in warm, dry climates.

  6. Allergic Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immunologist)? Resources American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Medline Plus, Allergic Rhinitis Last Updated: December 8, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: ...

  7. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... person. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... more venom. If the person has emergency allergy medicine on ...

  8. Unnecessary work tasks and mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated...... with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association...... is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. METHODS: The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed...

  9. The allergic march

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    allergic rhinitis (Fig. 1). Several studies have demonstrated the allergic march from atopic ... Boys appear to be at greater risk of developing the typical progression of allergic .... childhood asthma: lessons from the German. Multicentre Study ...

  10. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, D.A.; Buonomo, C.; Fishman, S.J.; Furuta, G.; Nurko, S.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.)

  11. Immunopathogenesis of allergic rhinitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Druce HM. Allergic and non allergic rhinitis. In: Middleton EM Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF, Adkinson NF. Jr, Yunginger JW, Busse WW, eds. Allergy: Principles and Practice. 5th ed. St. Louis,. Mo: Mosby, Year-Book;1998.p.1005-16. 3. Blaiss MS. Quality of life in allergic rhinitis. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;83(5):449-54. 4.

  12. Medical innovation laws: an unnecessary innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    Objective This paper aims to demonstrate that any suggestion that there is a need for specific innovation laws is flawed. Innovation is central to good medical practice and is adequately supported by current law. Methods The paper reviews the nature of medical innovation and outlines recent attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws aimed at 'encouraging' and 'supporting' innovation. The current legal framework is outlined and the role of the law in relation to medical innovation explored. Results The analysis demonstrates the cyclic relationship between medical advancement and the law and concludes that there is no requirement for specific innovation laws. Conclusions The law not only supports innovation and development in medical treatment but encourages it as central to a functioning medical system. There is no need to introduce specific laws aimed at medical innovation; to do so represents an unnecessary legal innovation and serves to complicate matters. What is known about the topic? Over recent months, there has been a great deal of discussion surrounding the law in the context of medical innovation. This was driven by the attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws in the Medical Innovation Bill. The general subject matter - negligence and the expected standard of care in the provision of treatment - is very well understood, but not in cases where the treatment can be described as innovative. The general rhetoric in both the UK and Australia around the Medical Innovation Bill demonstrates a lack of understanding of the position of the law with regards to innovative treatment. What does this paper add? This paper adds clarity to the debate. It presents the law and explains the manner in which the law can operate around innovative treatment. The paper asserts that medical innovation is both supported and encouraged by existing legal principles. What are the implications for practitioners? The paper presents an argument that can guide the policy position

  13. 33 CFR 117.11 - Unnecessary opening of the draw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unnecessary opening of the draw. 117.11 Section 117.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.11 Unnecessary opening of the draw. No...

  14. The link between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Henrik Nielsen, N; Frølund, L

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are manifestations of the same disease entity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. METHODS: Participants in a population-based study of 15-69-year-olds in 1990 were ...

  15. The allergic scholar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as allergic rhinitis and asthma, have increased in prevalence, particularly in industrialised .... within the alveolar macrophages, eosinophils, mast cells, platelets, basophils and ..... world allergy organization position statement. World Allergy ...

  16. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rhinitis, allergic asthma, conjunctivitis (eye allergy) or stinging insect allergy. Allergy shots often lead to lasting relief ... AAAAI Foundation Donate American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, Milwaukee , WI ...

  17. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic brosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  18. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

  19. [The unnecessary application of central venous catheterization in surgical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Keiko; Inoue, Satoki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko

    2018-04-06

    Perioperative physicians occasionally encounter situations where central venous catheters placed preoperatively turn out to be unnecessary. The purpose of this retrospective study is to identify the unnecessary application of central venous catheter placement and determine the factors associated with the unnecessary application of central venous catheter placement. Using data from institutional perioperative central venous catheter surveillance, we analysed data from 1,141 patients who underwent central venous catheter placement. We reviewed the central venous catheter registry and medical charts and allocated registered patients into those with the proper or with unnecessary application of central venous catheter according to standard indications. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with the unnecessary application of central venous catheter placement. In 107 patients, representing 9.38% of the overall population, we identified the unnecessary application of central venous catheter placement. Multivariate analysis identified emergencies at night or on holidays (odds ratio [OR] 2.109, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.021-4.359), low surgical risk (OR=1.729, 95% CI 1.038-2.881), short duration of anesthesia (OR=0.961/10min increase, 95% CI 0.945-0.979), and postoperative care outside of the intensive care unit (OR=2.197, 95% CI 1.402-3.441) all to be independently associated with the unnecessary application of catheterization. Complications related to central venous catheter placement when the procedure consequently turned out to be unnecessary were frequently observed (9/107) compared with when the procedure was necessary (40/1034) (p=0.032, OR=2.282, 95% CI 1.076-4.842). However, the subsequent multivariate logistic model did not hold this significant difference (p=0.0536, OR=2.115, 95% CI 0.988-4.526). More careful consideration for the application of central venous catheter is required in cases of emergency surgery at night or on

  20. [Unnecessary routine laboratory tests in patients referred for surgical services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Miranda, María del Pilar; Cano-Matus, Norberto; Rodriguez-Murrieta, Margarita; Guarneros-Zapata, Idalia; Ortiz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    To question the usefulness of the lab analysis considered routine testing for the identification of abnormalities in the surgical care. To determine the percentage of unnecessary laboratory tests in the preoperative assessment as well as to estimate the unnecessary expenses. A descriptive, cross-sectional study of patients referred for surgical evaluation between January 1st and March 31st 2013. The database of laboratory testing and electronic files were reviewed. Reference criteria from surgical services were compared with the tests requested by the family doctor. In 65% of the patients (n=175) unnecessary examinations were requested, 25% (n=68) were not requested the tests that they required, and only 10% of the patients were requested laboratory tests in accordance with the reference criteria (n=27). The estimated cost in unnecessary examinations was $1,129,552 in a year. The results were similar to others related to this theme, however, they had not been revised from the perspective of the first level of attention regarding the importance of adherence to the reference criteria which could prevent major expenditures. It is a priority for leaders and operational consultants in medical units to establish strategies and lines of action that ensure compliance with institutional policies so as to contain spending on comprehensive services, and which in turn can improve the medical care. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. "Unnecessary suffering": the cornerstone of animal protection legislation considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, M

    1999-09-01

    Causing "unnecessary suffering" has been widely adopted in legislation to define criminal liability in respect of the treatment of animals. This article examines the way in which the term has been interpreted and applied by the courts, and considers its effectiveness in affording animals protection from abuse.

  2. Removing Unnecessary Variables from Horn Clause Verification Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele De Angelis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verification conditions (VCs are logical formulas whose satisfiability guarantees program correctness. We consider VCs in the form of constrained Horn clauses (CHC which are automatically generated from the encoding of (an interpreter of the operational semantics of the programming language. VCs are derived through program specialization based on the unfold/fold transformation rules and, as it often happens when specializing interpreters, they contain unnecessary variables, that is, variables which are not required for the correctness proofs of the programs under verification. In this paper we adapt to the CHC setting some of the techniques that were developed for removing unnecessary variables from logic programs, and we show that, in some cases, the application of these techniques increases the effectiveness of Horn clause solvers when proving program correctness.

  3. Escalating Health Care Cost due to Unnecessary Diagnostic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD AZAM ISHAQUE CHAUDHARY

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on health care systems can improve health outcomes now and in the future. Growing economies have serious concerns on the rising cost of health, whereas, in under developed countries like Pakistan, it is not emphasized yet at all. The research is conducted to improve a unique aspect of health care systems to provide effective, patient-centred, high-standard health care while maintaining the cost effectiveness. Research is being qualified in two paradigms qualitative and quantitative. In qualitative research, expert?s interviews have been taken to get the basic knowledge of radiology based testing and their prerequisites, in quantitative research ordered are being analysed to check the frequency and if they are unnecessary or qualified medical necessity guidelines as established in qualitative method. Analysis was made on the basis of the trinity relationship of diagnosis, symptoms and respected order to determine the necessity of the order to get its impact on cost of the overall health of those patients and point out more than 50% unnecessary orders are being performed in two government hospitals. The situation is alarming and policy makers should focus on unnecessary ordering to avoid out of pocket expenses and improve quality of care. The research helps in successful application of health care system modifications and policies pertaining to one aspect of health systems, i.e. cost-effectiveness of health care.

  4. Nutrition and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J.J. van Neerven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow’s milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies. In addition, nutrition can also have indirect effects on allergic sensitization. This includes the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, which influences intrauterine development, as well as breastmilk composition. These include the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women that influences intrauterine development as well as breastmilk composition, effects of food processing that may enhance allergenicity of foods, and effects via modulation of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites. This editorial review provides a brief overview of recent developments related to nutrition and the development and management of allergic diseases.

  5. Nutrition and allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on

  6. Allergic rhinitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and is also associated with co-morbidities such as sinusitis, otitis media ... nose, chronic infective sinusitis and nasal polyps may mimic the signs .... fungal spores. Gauteng. Add: tree pollen (cypress). Farming areas. Add: Zea mays, horse, Blomia tropicalis. Table ii. Effect of medications on symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

  7. Allergic rhinosinusitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    NEW DEFINITIONS. The European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI)1 now state that the term hypersensitivity should be used for 'all .... leading ultimately to allergic inflamma- tion of the sinuses. Not every bacterial infection needs to be treated with an antimicrobial. This is the prime responsi-.

  8. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  9. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  11. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  12. Reducing unnecessary lab testing in the ICU with artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismondi, F; Celi, L A; Fialho, A S; Vieira, S M; Reti, S R; Sousa, J M C; Finkelstein, S N

    2013-05-01

    To reduce unnecessary lab testing by predicting when a proposed future lab test is likely to contribute information gain and thereby influence clinical management in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent studies have demonstrated that frequent laboratory testing does not necessarily relate to better outcomes. Data preprocessing, feature selection, and classification were performed and an artificial intelligence tool, fuzzy modeling, was used to identify lab tests that do not contribute an information gain. There were 11 input variables in total. Ten of these were derived from bedside monitor trends heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature, blood pressure, and urine collections, as well as infusion products and transfusions. The final input variable was a previous value from one of the eight lab tests being predicted: calcium, PTT, hematocrit, fibrinogen, lactate, platelets, INR and hemoglobin. The outcome for each test was a binary framework defining whether a test result contributed information gain or not. Predictive modeling was applied to recognize unnecessary lab tests in a real world ICU database extract comprising 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Classification accuracy of necessary and unnecessary lab tests of greater than 80% was achieved for all eight lab tests. Sensitivity and specificity were satisfactory for all the outcomes. An average reduction of 50% of the lab tests was obtained. This is an improvement from previously reported similar studies with average performance 37% by [1-3]. Reducing frequent lab testing and the potential clinical and financial implications are an important issue in intensive care. In this work we present an artificial intelligence method to predict the benefit of proposed future laboratory tests. Using ICU data from 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, and eleven measurements, we demonstrate high accuracy in predicting the likely information to be gained from proposed future

  13. Effective diagnostic DAQ systems to reduce unnecessary data in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taegu, E-mail: glory@nfri.re.kr; Lee, Woongryol; Hong, Jaesic; Park, Kaprai

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • When plasma shots do not successfully perform during the intended target time, the diagnostics systems continue to record these unusable data, contributing to increasing data size. • To overcome this problem, some KSTAR’s library were upgraded to monitor the plasma status in real-time. • With the real-time information of plasma status, some of the KSTAR diagnostic systems stop the acquisition process of unnecessary data. • We were able to reduce the refuse data of approximately 698 GByte in the KSTAR 7th campaign. • It was a very effective way to store useful data, and it was helpful to analysts after shot. - Abstract: The plasma status of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is measured by various diagnostics systems. The measured data size has been increasing every year due to increasing plasma pulse lengths, higher diagnostics operating frequencies, the additions of new diagnostic systems, and an increasing number of diagnostics channels. At times, when plasma shots do not successfully perform during the intended target time, the diagnostics systems continue to record these unusable data, contributing to increasing data size. In addition, the analysis time was affected, as these data need to be separated from the relevant data set. To overcome this problem, KSTAR’s Standard Framework (SFW), Real Time Monitoring (RTMON), and Pulse Automation and Scheduling System (PASS) were upgraded to monitor the plasma status in real-time. When the plasma current is less than 200kA, RTMON sends the plasma status information every second to the SFW via EPICS Channel Access. With the real-time information on plasma status, some of the KSTAR diagnostic systems stop the acquisition process of unnecessary data. This paper describes a method for reducing the storage of unnecessary data and its results in the KSTAR 7th campaign.

  14. Reducing unnecessary lab testing in the ICU with artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismondi, F.; Celi, L.A.; Fialho, A.S.; Vieira, S.M.; Reti, S.R.; Sousa, J.M.C.; Finkelstein, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To reduce unnecessary lab testing by predicting when a proposed future lab test is likely to contribute information gain and thereby influence clinical management in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent studies have demonstrated that frequent laboratory testing does not necessarily relate to better outcomes. Design Data preprocessing, feature selection, and classification were performed and an artificial intelligence tool, fuzzy modeling, was used to identify lab tests that do not contribute an information gain. There were 11 input variables in total. Ten of these were derived from bedside monitor trends heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature, blood pressure, and urine collections, as well as infusion products and transfusions. The final input variable was a previous value from one of the eight lab tests being predicted: calcium, PTT, hematocrit, fibrinogen, lactate, platelets, INR and hemoglobin. The outcome for each test was a binary framework defining whether a test result contributed information gain or not. Patients Predictive modeling was applied to recognize unnecessary lab tests in a real world ICU database extract comprising 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Main results Classification accuracy of necessary and unnecessary lab tests of greater than 80% was achieved for all eight lab tests. Sensitivity and specificity were satisfactory for all the outcomes. An average reduction of 50% of the lab tests was obtained. This is an improvement from previously reported similar studies with average performance 37% by [1–3]. Conclusions Reducing frequent lab testing and the potential clinical and financial implications are an important issue in intensive care. In this work we present an artificial intelligence method to predict the benefit of proposed future laboratory tests. Using ICU data from 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, and eleven measurements, we demonstrate high accuracy in predicting the

  15. [For active dermatocosmetics and free of unnecessary animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    1998-06-01

    At the dawn of this century, dermocosmetology is at cross-roads because new European regulations are changing its face. The proof of claims must be given and the entire composition of the product must be released. In addition, animal testing is about to be banned. Such new regulations incite to search for and validate predictive tests aiming at the objective evaluation of the activity and tolerance claimed by dermocosmetic products. Such tests must be an alternative to unnecessary animal experimentation. These aspects are scrutinized scientifically by the EEMCO experts in combination with the ECVAM and COLIPA organizations.

  16. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity.

  17. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  18. Topical treatment options for allergic conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of allergic conjunctivitis. Classification and pathogenesis ... Table 1: The classification of allergic conjunctivitis1,2,5. Acute allergic ..... molecular structure which may be associated with a more rapid ... Resolvin E1, a proresolving lipid mediator.

  19. Burden of allergic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Karin Dam; Hahn-Pedersen, J

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis compared the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or allergic asthma (AA) caused by perennial house dust mite (HDM) versus AR and/or AA caused by seasonal pollen allergy. Following a systematic search, the identified studies used the...

  20. The HEART score is useful to predict cardiovascular risks and reduces unnecessary cardiac imaging in low-risk patients with acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Siping; Huang, Bo; Zou, Yunliang; Guo, Jianbin; Liu, Ziyong; Pi, Dangyu; Qiu, Yunhong; Xiao, Chun

    2018-06-01

    The present study was to investigate whether the HEART score can be used to evaluate cardiovascular risks and reduce unnecessary cardiac imaging in China.Acute coronary syndrome patients with the thrombosis in myocardial infarction risk score risk HEART score group and 2 patients (1.5%) in the high risk HEART score group had cardiovascular events. The sensitivity of HEART score to predict cardiovascular events was 100% and the specificity was 46.7%. The potential unnecessary cardiac testing was 46.3%. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that per one category increase of the HEART score was associated with nearly 1.3-fold risk of cardiovascular events.In the low-risk acute chest pain patients, the HEART score is useful to physicians in evaluating the risk of cardiovascular events within the first 30 days. In addition, the HEART score is also useful in reducing the unnecessary cardiac imaging.

  1. TREATMENT OF CHILDREN'S ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Ksenzova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic conjunctivitis is a widely spread disease, which is often accompanied with an allergic rhinitis. According to the up to date recommendations, the treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis is based on 3 key principles: elimination of the allergen, conducting an allergen targeted immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy. The medication treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis should include antihistamines of the 2nd generation and/or intranasal corticosteroids. Their effectiveness was proven with the findings of numerous place controlled surveys; in most cases they are safe. The usage experience of the intranasal formulation of mometasone furoate (Nasonex shows that with a minimal biological availability of the medication and the absence of its influence upon the «hypothalamus–hypophysis–adrenal glands» system and growth of children, mometasone can be a medication of choice to treat children's rhino conjunctivitis.Key words: children, allergic conjunctivitis, treatment.

  2. Clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases affecting adults. It is the most common chronic disease in children in the United States today and the fifth most common chronic disease in the United States overall. AR is estimated to affect nearly 1 in every 6 Americans and generates $2 to $5 billion in direct health expenditures annually. It can impair quality of life and, through loss of work and school attendance, is responsible for as much as $2 to $4 billion in lost productivity annually. Not surprisingly, myriad diagnostic tests and treatments are used in managing this disorder, yet there is considerable variation in their use. This clinical practice guideline was undertaken to optimize the care of patients with AR by addressing quality improvement opportunities through an evaluation of the available evidence and an assessment of the harm-benefit balance of various diagnostic and management options. The primary purpose of this guideline is to address quality improvement opportunities for all clinicians, in any setting, who are likely to manage patients with AR as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The guideline is intended to be applicable for both pediatric and adult patients with AR. Children under the age of 2 years were excluded from the clinical practice guideline because rhinitis in this population may be different than in older patients and is not informed by the same evidence base. The guideline is intended to focus on a limited number of quality improvement opportunities deemed most important by the working group and is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for diagnosing and managing AR. The recommendations outlined in the guideline are not intended to represent the standard of care for patient management, nor are the recommendations intended to limit treatment or care provided to individual patients. The development group made a strong

  3. Allergic granulomatous angiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Gordana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic granulomatous angiitis (AGA - Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by three distinct clinical phases prodromal, eosinophilic, and vasculitic, and most of respiratory symptoms and signs begin in the first two phases of the disease. Two female patients of different age, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AGA, and were in different phases and with the different duration of the disease are presented. The first patient (24 years of age was admitted to the hospital due to aggravation of asthma, heart failure, and polyneuropathy. The second one (45 years of age was also hospitalized due to the worsening of asthma polyneuropathy, and fever. Both were treated continuously with glucocorticoids. The older patient also received a total of six pulse doses of cyclophosphamide. Satisfactory response to such a treatment was achieved in both cases.

  4. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  5. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  6. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  7. Occupational contact allergic dermatitis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikov Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental professionals may be at increased risk of developing occupational allergic diseases specially to methacrylates that can permeate protective disposable gloves. Case report. We presented a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 28-year-old dental technician. The patient had complained of itching and cracking of fingers for 6 months. The dermatitis improved over weekends. Skin erythema and scaling were present with primarily involvement of the fingertips. Patch testing with dental series gave positive vesicular reaction to methyl methacrylate. Follow-up after 6 months of allergen avoidance showed a complete regression of dermatitis. Conclusion. Methacrylates serve as bases for acrylic resins which are used in prosthetics. Methyl methacrylate as a small molecular acrylate can permeate thin protective disposable gloves. Using adequate personal protective equipment, like nitrile rubber gloves, is the most important preventive measure in this occupation. Health practitioners should recognize possible occupational hazards in dentistry and implement appropriate preventive measures to protect health of workers.

  8. Allergic Aspergillus Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunaloke Chakrabarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS is a unique variety of chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis usually in atopic individuals, characterized by presence of eosinophilic mucin and fungal hyphae in paranasal sinuses without invasion into surrounding mucosa. It has emerged as an important disease involving a large population across the world with geographic variation in incidence and epidemiology. The disease is surrounded by controversies regarding its definition and etiopathogenesis. A working group on “Fungal Sinusitis” under the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM addressed some of those issues, but many questions remain unanswered. The descriptions of “eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis” (EFRS, “eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis” (EMRS and mucosal invasion by hyphae in few patients have increased the problem to delineate the disease. Various hypotheses exist for etiopathogenesis of AFRS with considerable overlap, though recent extensive studies have made certain in depth understanding. The diagnosis of AFRS is a multi-disciplinary approach including the imaging, histopathology, mycology and immunological investigations. Though there is no uniform management protocol for AFRS, surgical clearing of the sinuses with steroid therapy are commonly practiced. The role of antifungal agents, leukotriene antagonists and immunomodulators is still questionable. The present review covers the controversies, recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of AFRS.

  9. How to save costs by reducing unnecessary testing: Lean thinking in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegting, I.L.; van Beneden, M.; Kramer, M.H.H.; Thijs, A.; Kostense, P.J.; Nanayakkara, P.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The burden of health care expenditure on national budgets has increased dramatically over the past decade. A pilot study in our hospital demonstrated that many unnecessary diagnostic tests were performed routinely. The aim of this study was to reduce the costs of unnecessary diagnostic

  10. Vitamin D in allergic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a factor that plays a significant role in calcium-phosphate balance. It has an effect on bone metabolism and also has modulator and anti-inflammatory activity. It is claimed that vitamin D inhibits immunological reactions with Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes. The influence of vitamin D on Th2 lymphocytes is not clear. The main effect of vitamin D is probably the activation of Treg lymphocytes. It was observed that vitamin D had a beneficial influence on diseases connected with excessive activation of Th1 lymphocytes, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, non-specific enteritis, diabetes type 1 or psoriasis. The role of vitamin D in allergic diseases, in which increased activation of Th2-dependent reactions are of great importance, is controversial. However, due to a wide range of vitamin D activity, this view seems to be simplified. A beneficial effect on the course of allergic diseases was observed in up-to-date studies although the role of vitamin D in their pathogenesis has not been explained yet. On the basis of recent studies and well-known mechanisms of vitamin D activity on particular elements of the immunological system, the influence of vitamin D on the course of chosen allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis was presented considering the possibility of contribution of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  11. Comparative immunology of allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J

    2015-01-01

    Allergic responses occur in humans, rodents, non-human primates, avian species, and all of the domestic animals. These responses are mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies that bind to mast cells and cause release/synthesis of potent mediators. Clinical syndromes include naturally occurring asthma in humans and cats; atopic dermatitis in humans, dogs, horses, and several other species; food allergies; and anaphylactic shock. Experimental induction of asthma in mice, rats, monkeys, sheep, and cats has helped to reveal mechanisms of pathogenesis of asthma in humans. All of these species share the ability to develop a rapid and often fatal response to systemic administration of an allergen--anaphylactic shock. Genetic predisposition to development of allergic disease (atopy) has been demonstrated in humans, dogs, and horses. Application of mouse models of IgE-mediated allergic asthma has provided evidence for a role of air pollutants (ozone, diesel exhaust, environmental tobacco smoke) in enhanced sensitization to allergens.

  12. Re-evaluating the relationships among filtering activity, unnecessary storage, and visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Stephen M; Busseri, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    The amount of task-irrelevant information encoded in visual working memory (VWM), referred to as unnecessary storage, has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying individual differences in VWM capacity. In addition, a number of studies have provided evidence for additional activity that initiates the filtering process originating in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and is therefore a crucial step in the link between unnecessary storage and VWM capacity. Here, we re-examine data from two prominent studies that identified unnecessary storage activity as a predictor of VWM capacity by directly testing the implied path model linking filtering-related activity, unnecessary storage, and VWM capacity. Across both studies, we found that unnecessary storage was not a significant predictor of individual differences in VWM capacity once activity associated with filtering was accounted for; instead, activity associated with filtering better explained variation in VWM capacity. These findings suggest that unnecessary storage is not a limiting factor in VWM performance, whereas neural activity associated with filtering may play a more central role in determining VWM performance that goes beyond preventing unnecessary storage.

  13. [An initiative to reduce the use of unnecessary medication in infants with bronchiolitis in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo Fernández, Marta; Benito Manrique, Iñaki; Montiel Eguía, Arantza; Benito Fernández, Javier

    2018-05-23

    Although evidence-based guidelines for acute bronchiolitis recommend primarily supportive care unnecessary treatments remain well documented. The objective of this study was to analyse a quality improvement initiative to reduce overuse of unnecessary treatments in infants with acute bronchiolitis in primary care settings. To determine the number of unnecessary treatments we reviewed the charts corresponding to infants aged initiative may be applied to the settings where the majority of infants with acute bronchiolitis are attended in western countries. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  14. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and allergic respiratory disease in the adult offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    randomly assigned to receive fish oil during the third trimester of pregnancy, olive oil, or no oil in the ratio 2:1:1. The offspring were followed in a mandatory national prescription register, with complete follow-up for prescriptions related to the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis as primary...... in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.54, 95% CI, 0.32-0.90; P = .02). The probability of having had allergic rhinitis medication prescribed was also reduced in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.70, 95% CI, 0.47-1.05; P = .09......), but the difference was not statistically significant. Self-reported information collected at age 18 to 19 years supported these findings. No associations were detected with respect to lung function outcomes or allergic sensitization at 18 to 19 years of age. CONCLUSION: Maternal supplementation with fish oil might...

  15. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  16. Vaccination in food allergic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most people do not react to vaccination and the incidence of vaccine anaphylaxis is estimated to be <1/million for all vaccines.[1] Most anaphylactic reactions occur in non-food allergic children. It is strongly recommended that anyone admin- istering vaccines has resuscitation equipment available to manage potential ...

  17. Anthropogenic Climate Change and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have an impact on various aspects of health, including mucosal areas involved in allergic inflammatory disorders that include asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis. The evidence that links climate change to the exacerbation and the development of allergic disease is increasing and appears to be linked to changes in pollen seasons (duration, onset and intensity and changes in allergen content of plants and their pollen as it relates to increased sensitization, allergenicity and exacerbations of allergic airway disease. This has significant implications for air quality and for the global food supply.

  18. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  19. Japanese Guideline for Allergic Conjunctival Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Takamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  20. Japanese guidelines for allergic conjunctival diseases 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Takamura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  1. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the effective......Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence...... of these were judged to be of high, five moderate and three low quality. These reviews suggested that, in carefully selected patients, subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) immunotherapy resulted in significant reductions in symptom scores and medication requirements. Serious adverse outcomes were rare...

  2. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets.......AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  3. Safe foods for allergic people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.

    Introduction Recently a 7-year-old British boy died after drinking pineapple & coconut juice drink. The boy was allergic to milk. The juice drink contained milk, which was declared in the ingredient list as required in the labelling law. The mother to the boy did not read the ingredient list......, as she did not expect to find milk in a juice drink. The juice drink had pictures of pineapple and coconut but none of milk despite that it contained greater amounts of milk than coconut. At the moment the British authorities investigate if the company behind the juice drink has broken the law. How can...... allergy in 10 different European languages. Conclusion: If the company behind the pineapple & coconut fruit juice had asked an allergy expert for advice or had thought about allergic people themselves during the development of their product, the tragic story probably could have been avoided. An expert...

  4. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis METHODS: We searched 15 international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened by two reviewers against pre-defined eligibility criteria...... and critically appraised using established instruments. Our primary outcomes of interest were symptom, medication and combined symptom and medication scores. Secondary outcomes of interest included cost-effectiveness and safety. Data were descriptively summarized and then quantitatively synthesized using random...

  5. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  6. Allergic laryngitis: unraveling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, Robert J; Dworkin-Valenti, James P

    2017-06-01

    This article provides a thorough review of the literature highlighting the articles that have advanced our knowledge about the sensitivity of the larynx to allergens in the air or ones consumed. This area of inquiry requires continued interest and investigation. As the field of clinical laryngology changes, and more information is discovered about the possible causal association between allergy and vocal pathologies, practicing otolaryngologists, allergists, and other medical professionals may discover more comprehensive methods to evaluate and treat their allergic patients, particularly those who present with complaints of dysphonia, dysphagia, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and/or dyspnea. There continues to be epidemiological studies designed to describe the relationship of allergy to vocal symptoms and signs. Both population and smaller studies have recently attempted to link these two conditions. Unfortunately, the patient with chronic laryngeal complaints is often tagged by default with the diagnosis of LPR and treated with proton pump inhibitors, which are not always beneficial. The endoscopic assessment may not be as reliable to make the diagnosis of LPR as the examination is subjective and the inter-rater reliability is low. It has been demonstrated by direct laryngeal provocation studies that sticky-viscous endo-laryngeal mucous is the only reliable finding consistently associated with allergy potential allergic tissue reactivity. The interrelationship of allergic sensitivity and chronic laryngitis in certain individuals is becoming clearer because our knowledge of inquiry has increased and the available routine technology to diagnose these conditions has remarkably improved. Notwithstanding these advancements, much more research is needed on this subject to reduce the frequency of mis-diagnoses and mis-management of allergic patients.

  7. Allergic Conjunctivitis-induced Retinal Inflammation Promotes Myopia Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ching Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myopia is a highly prevalent eye disease. There is limited information suggesting a relationship between myopia and inflammation. We found children with allergic conjunctivitis (AC had the highest adjusted odds ratio (1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72–1.77 for myopia among the four allergic diseases. A cohort study was conducted and confirmed that children with AC had a higher incidence and subsequent risk of myopia (hazard ratio 2.35, 95%CI 2.29–2.40 compared to those without AC. Lower refractive error and longer axial length were observed in an AC animal model. Myopia progression was enhanced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α or interleukin (IL-6 administration, two cytokines secreted by mast cell degranulation. The TNF-α or IL-6 weakened the tight junction formed by corneal epithelial (CEP cells and inflammatory cytokines across the layer of CEP cells, which increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 secreted by retinal pigment epithelial cells. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor kappa B were up-regulated in eyes with AC, whereas IL-10 and the inhibitor of kappa B were down-regulated. In conclusion, the experimental findings in mice corroborate the epidemiological data showing that allergic inflammation influences the development of myopia.

  8. Indoor air and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, G.; Rudolph, R.; Muckelmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infections of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chemico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  9. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  10. Hypnosis and the allergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyler-Harper, J; Bircher, A J; Langewitz, W; Kiss, A

    1994-01-01

    In recent years our knowledge of the immune system and the pathogenesis of immune disorders has increased. There has been much research on the complex connections between the psyche, the central nervous system and the immune system and the effect of mood on disease processes. This paper reviews the evidence on the effects of hypnosis on the allergic skin test reaction, on allergies, particularly respiratory allergies and hayfever, and on bronchial hyperreactivity and asthma. Hypnosis, which is generally regarded as an altered state of consciousness associated with concentration, relaxation and imagination, and amongst other characteristics an enhanced responsiveness to suggestion, has long been thought to be effective in the amelioration of various bodily disorders. It has seemed that the state of hypnosis is capable of a bridging or mediating function in the supposed dualism between mind and body. There has been great variation in the experimental and clinical procedures such as type of hypnotic intervention employed, the training of subjects and the timing of the intervention. Also, variability in the type of allergen used and its mode of application is evident. But despite these limitations, many of the studies have shown a link between the use of hypnosis and a changed response to an allergic stimulus or to a lessened bronchial hyperreactivity. There is as yet no clear explanation for the effectiveness of hypnosis, but there is some evidence for an influence on the neurovascular component of the allergic response.

  11. Unnecessary work tasks and mental health: a prospective analysis of Danish human service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne; Rugulies, Reiner

    2014-11-01

    According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed mental health using the 5-item mental health inventory from the Short form 36 questionnaire. We analyzed data using multi-level modeling, adjusting for potential confounding by sex, age, cohabitation, occupational position, and baseline mental health. Unnecessary work tasks were prospectively associated with a decreased level of mental health. This association was stronger for employees with poor baseline mental health and tended to be more pronounced among older employees. Among participants with poor baseline mental health, the association was explained by neither psychological demands nor decision latitude. Our findings suggest that the prevention of unnecessary work tasks may benefit employee mental health, particularly among employees with pre-existing mental health problems.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seung-Jun Lee, Moosang KimDepartment of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, KoreaAbstract: The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops.Keywords: allergic contact dermatitis, dorzolamide, side effects

  13. Misdiagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia leading to unnecessary root canal treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jong-Ki; Shin, Su-Jung

    2013-08-01

    This case report demonstrates an unnecessary endodontic treatment of teeth with florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) due to a misdiagnosis as periapical pathosis and emphasizes the importance of correct diagnosis to avoid unnecessary treatment. A 30-year-old woman was referred to our institution for apicoectomies of the mandibular left canine and both the lateral incisors. The periapical lesions associated with these teeth had failed to resolve after root canal treatment over a 3-year period. Radiographic examinations revealed multiple lesions on the right canine, the second premolar, and both first molars as well as the anterior region of the mandible. Based on clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations, the patient condition was diagnosed as FCOD. The patient has been monitored for 2 years. To avoid unnecessary invasive treatment, accurate diagnosis is essential before treatment is carried out in managing FCOD.

  14. Risk of Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Conjunctivitis, and Eczema in Children Born to Mothers with Gum Inflammation during Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Chia-Rong Hsieh

    Full Text Available Despite links between maternal and child health status, evidence on the association between gum infection in pregnant mothers and childhood allergies is scarce. We aim to evaluate the risk of developing allergy in children born to periodontal mothers in a nationwide study.We conducted a 9-year population-based, retrospective cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. A study cohort of 42,217 newborns born to mothers with periodontal disease during pregnancy was identified in 2001 and matched with 42,334 babies born to mothers without any infection (control by mother's age at delivery and baby sex. With a follow-up period from 2001 to 2010, we observed the incidence of allergic rhinitis (AR, allergic conjunctivitis (AC, and eczema in these children. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed with premature deaths as competing risk for the estimation of allergic disease risks.Nine-year cumulative incidences were the highest among children born to periodontal mothers; they reached 46.8%, 24.2%, and 40.4% (vs. 39.5%, 18.3% and 34.8% in control for AR, AC, and eczema, respectively. Our results showed moderately increased risks for the allergies in children born to periodontal mothers relative to their matched non-inflammatory control (adjusted HRs: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15-1.20; 1.27, 1.24-1.31; 1.14, 1.12-1.17, respectively. Because the impact of food consumption and living environment cannot be considered using insurance data, we attempted to control it by adjusting for parental income and mother's residential area.Overall cumulative incidence and risks of children born to periodontal mothers for AR, AC, and eczema are significantly higher than those born to non-inflammatory mothers. Gum infection in women during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for allergic diseases in children, thus its intergenerational consequences should be considered in gestational care.

  15. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  16. Sublingual immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Röder (Esther)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAllergic rhinitis is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Europe. Besides nose symptoms such as sneezing and a blocked nose, patients also suffer from general complaints like fatigue, sleeping problems and difficulty concentrating. Allergic rhinitis can have a serious impact on

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to plastic banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M; Delaney, T A; Horton, J J

    1999-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to ultraviolet (UV) cured acrylates occurs predominantly in occupationally exposed workers. Two men presented with dermatitis coinciding with the location of banknotes in their pockets. Patch testing confirmed allergic contact dermatitis to multiple acrylates and Australian plastic banknotes. This is the first report of contact allergy to acrylates present in Australian plastic banknotes.

  18. Orphan immunotherapies for allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Senna, Gianenrico; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    As confirmed by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, allergen immunotherapy is clinically effective in the treatment of allergic diseases. In particular, subcutaneous immunotherapy is a pivotal treatment in patients with severe reactions to Hymenoptera venom, whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy are indicated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma by inhalant allergens. Other allergies related to animal dander (other than cat, which is the most studied), such as dog, molds, occupational allergens, and insects, have also been recognized. For these allergens, immunotherapy is poorly studied and often unavailable. Thus, use of the term orphan immunotherapies is appropriate. We used MEDLINE to search the medical literature for English-language articles. Randomized, controlled, masked studies for orphan immunotherapies were selected. In the remaining cases, the available reports were described. The literature on food desensitization is abundant, but for other orphan allergens, such as mosquito, Argas reflexus, dog, or occupational allergens, there are only a few studies, and most are small studies or case reports. Orphan immunotherapy is associated with insufficient evidence of efficacy from controlled trials, an erroneous belief of the limited importance of some allergen sources, and the unlikelihood for producers to have a profit in making commercially available extracts (with an expensive process for registration) to be used in few patients. It should be taken into consideration that adequate preparations should be available also for orphan allergens. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Khan, Ajmal; Garg, Mandeep; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT) of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S). The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB) as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM), encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild), ABPA-CB (moderate), and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe), as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses

  20. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S. The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM, encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild, ABPA-CB (moderate, and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe, as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses.

  1. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  2. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage manifesting as acute scrotum: timely diagnosis prevents unnecessary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Luigi; Fusillo, Mario; Ferrari, Giovanna; Chiara, Alberto; Bragheri, Romano

    2002-04-01

    Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as scrotal swelling has been reported in 17 cases, with unnecessary surgical exploration in 7. We report 2 new cases, emphasizing the knowledge of this clinical association and the role of ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis for this specific condition and in all cases of neonatal acute scrotum.

  3. 77 FR 29579 - Removing Unnecessary Office on Violence Against Women Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... now unnecessary STOP VAIW Program regulations. Higher Education Amendments of 1998 Violence against... Office on Violence Against Women Regulations AGENCY: Office on Violence Against Women, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes to remove the regulations for the STOP Violence Against Indian...

  4. Fungal levels in the home and allergic rhinitis by 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Paul C; Celedón, Juan C; Chew, Ginger L; Ryan, Louise M; Burge, Harriet A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Gold, Diane R

    2005-10-01

    Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that sensitization to fungi, such as Alternaria, is strongly associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma in children. However, the role of exposure to fungi in the development of childhood allergic rhinitis is poorly understood. In a prospective birth cohort of 405 children of asthmatic/allergic parents from metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, we examined in-home high fungal concentrations (> 90th percentile) measured once within the first 3 months of life as predictors of doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis in the first 5 years of life. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, predictors of allergic rhinitis included high levels of dust-borne Aspergillus [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.50-7.14], Aureobasidium (HR = 3.04; 95% CI, 1.33-6.93), and yeasts (HR = 2.67; 95% CI, 1.26-5.66). The factors controlled for in these analyses included water damage or mild or mildew in the building during the first year of the child's life, any lower respiratory tract infection in the first year, male sex, African-American race, fall date of birth, and maternal IgE to Alternaria > 0.35 U/mL. Dust-borne Alternaria and nonsporulating and total fungi were also predictors of allergic rhinitis in models excluding other fungi but adjusting for all of the potential confounders listed above. High measured fungal concentrations and reports of water damage, mold, or mildew in homes may predispose children with a family history of asthma or allergy to the development of allergic rhinitis.

  5. International Consensus (ICON): allergic reactions to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreskin, Stephen C; Halsey, Neal A; Kelso, John M; Wood, Robert A; Hummell, Donna S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Engler, Renata J M; Gold, Michael S; Ponvert, Claude; Demoly, Pascal; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Muraro, Antonella; Li, James T; Rottem, Menachem; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Routine immunization, one of the most effective public health interventions, has effectively reduced death and morbidity due to a variety of infectious diseases. However, allergic reactions to vaccines occur very rarely and can be life threatening. Given the large numbers of vaccines administered worldwide, there is a need for an international consensus regarding the evaluation and management of allergic reactions to vaccines. Following a review of the literature, and with the active participation of representatives from the World Allergy Organization (WAO), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), the final committee was formed with the purpose of having members who represented a wide-range of countries, had previously worked on vaccine safety, and included both allergist/immunologists as well as vaccinologists. Consensus was reached on a variety of topics, including: definition of immediate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, approaches to distinguish association from causality, approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to a previous vaccine, and approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to components of vaccines. This document provides comprehensive and internationally accepted guidelines and access to on-line documents to help practitioners around the world identify allergic reactions following immunization. It also provides a framework for the evaluation and further management of patients who present either following an allergic reaction to a vaccine or with a history of allergy to a component of vaccines.

  6. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  7. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young......, and filaggrin mutations; levels of total IgE, FeNO, and blood-eosinophils; lung function and bronchial responsiveness to cold dry air. We found that asthma was similarly associated with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis suggesting a link between upper and lower airway diseases beyond an allergy associated...

  8. TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    esophageal dysfunction (i.e. dysphagia, anorexia, early satiety, failure to thrive) in whom gastro - esophageal reflux disease has been ruled out by...W81XWH-11-1-0741 TITLE: TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0741 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Broide MB

  9. Radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1979-01-01

    On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.) [de

  10. Food Allergy Sensitization and Presentation in Siblings of Food Allergic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Walkner, Madeline M; Greenhawt, Matthew; Lau, Claudia H; Caruso, Deanna; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Smith, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Many parents of food allergic children have concerns about the development of food allergies in their other children. We sought to determine prevalence of food sensitization and clinical food allergy among siblings of food allergic children. Two thousand eight hundred and thirty-four children were enrolled in the Chicago Family Cohort Food Allergy study. One thousand one hundred and twenty children (ages 0-21 years) with a food allergy (defined by a reported reaction history and evidence of food-specific IgE or skin prick test) and at least 1 biological sibling were included in this study. Among siblings of children with food allergy, 33.4% had no sensitization and no clinical symptoms to food. Fifty-three percent had a positive food serum-specific IgE or skin prick test, but no reported symptoms of food allergy. Only 13.6% of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to the same food. Milk allergy was the most common allergy among siblings (5.9%), followed by egg allergy (4.4%) and peanut allergy (3.7%). In a large cohort of food allergic families, only a small proportion of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to a food. Sensitization without reactivity was common among siblings. Testing for food allergy in siblings without a history of clinical reactivity appears to be unjustified. Screening may lead to negative consequences related to potential misdiagnosis and unnecessary avoidance of a food. More data are needed to determine the absolute risk of food allergy development in siblings of food allergic children. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  11. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Okubo

    2017-04-01

    To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA, this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  12. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Yanchenko; A. V. Malyshev; S. N. Sakhnov; N. V. Fedotova; O. Yu. Orlova; I. V. Grishenko; Z. A. Exuzyan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes) were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day), cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day), and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day). Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day). 10 controls (20 eyes) were ...

  13. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Garrelds

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells. This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients.

  14. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

  15. Risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Christer; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Foucard, Tony; Alving, Kjell; Nordvall, S Lennart

    2007-07-01

    Risk factors for asthma have been investigated in a large number of studies in adults and children, with little progress in the primary and secondary prevention of asthma. The aim of this investigation was to investigate risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents. In this study, 959 schoolchildren (13-14 years old) answered a questionnaire and performed exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements. All children (n = 238) with reported asthma, asthma-related symptoms and/or increased NO levels were invited to a clinical follow-up which included a physician evaluation and skin-prick testing. Asthma was diagnosed in 96 adolescents, whereof half had allergic and half non-allergic asthma. Children with both allergic and non-allergic asthma had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (20.8 and 20.7 vs. 19.8 kg/m(2)) (p < 0.05) and a higher prevalence of parental asthma (30% and 32% vs. 16%) (p < 0.05). Early-life infection (otitis and croup) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.99 (1.02-3.88) and 2.80 (1.44-5.42), respectively], pets during the first year of life [2.17 (1.16-4.04)], window pane condensation [2.45 (1.11-5.40)] and unsatisfactory school cleaning [(2.50 (1.28-4.89)] was associated with non-allergic but not with allergic asthma. This study indicates the importance of distinguishing between subtypes of asthma when assessing the effect of different risk factors. While the risk of both allergic and non-allergic asthma increased with increasing BMI, associations between early-life and current environmental exposure were primarily found in relation to non-allergic asthma.

  16. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens.

  17. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  18. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  19. Up-date on neuro-immune mechanisms involved in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven, L.; Boeckxstaens, G.; Hellings, P.

    2012-01-01

    Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is a common disorder, which can be defined as chronic nasal inflammation, independent of systemic IgE-mediated mechanisms. Symptoms of NAR patients mimic those of allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. However, AR patients can easily be diagnosed with skin prick test or

  20. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  1. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  2. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... children may contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and help direct future research to develop correctly timed preventive measures as well as adequate monitoring and treatment of children with rhinitis. Asthma is a common comorbidity in subjects with allergic rhinitis...... understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key...

  3. Pesticides are Associated with Allergic and Non-Allergic Wheeze among Male Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Umbach, David M.; Long, Stuart; London, Stephanie J.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that pesticide use may contribute to respiratory symptoms. Objective: We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Methods: Using the 2005–2010 interview data of the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of farmers in North Carolina and Iowa, we evaluated the association between allergic and non-allergic wheeze and self-reported use of 78 specific pesticides, reported by ≥ 1% of the 22,134 men interviewed. We used polytomous regression models adjusted for age, BMI, state, smoking, and current asthma, as well as for days applying pesticides and days driving diesel tractors. We defined allergic wheeze as reporting both wheeze and doctor-diagnosed hay fever (n = 1,310, 6%) and non-allergic wheeze as reporting wheeze but not hay fever (n = 3,939, 18%); men without wheeze were the referent. Results: In models evaluating current use of specific pesticides, 19 pesticides were significantly associated (p pyraclostrobin) had significantly different associations for allergic and non-allergic wheeze. In exposure–response models with up to five exposure categories, we saw evidence of an exposure–response relationship for several pesticides including the commonly used herbicides 2,4-D and glyphosate, the insecticides permethrin and carbaryl, and the rodenticide warfarin. Conclusions: These results for farmers implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects. Citation: Hoppin JA, Umbach DM, Long S, London SJ, Henneberger PK, Blair A, Alavanja M, Beane Freeman LE, Sandler DP. 2017. Pesticides are associated with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Environ Health Perspect 125:535–543; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP315 PMID:27384423

  4. Reply to: Mounting evidence indicates that escalating doses of allopurinol are unnecessary for cardiovascular protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Brian W; Michaud, Kaleb; Bergman, Debra A; Mikuls, Ted R

    2018-05-08

    We thank Dr. Bredemeier for his comments regarding our manuscript on allopurinol dose escalation and mortality. He raises important evidence to consider in support of an interesting hypothesis that dose escalation may be unnecessary for allopurinol's cardiovascular (CV) protection and may actually be related to adverse CV outcomes. While we agree that evidence exists suggesting that low doses of allopurinol may be sufficient for CV protection, we believe that the studies cited highlight a number of areas where knowledge gaps remain which preclude any definitive conclusions about the effect of dose escalation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Paracetamol suppository induced allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaraj Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol, a para-aminophenol derivative given systemically can produce allergic reactions and has been reported so far, but allergic reaction due to suppositories is very rare. A 4 month old male child brought by his mother with complaints of raised dark coloured skin lesions over the perianal region for the past 3 days. The child had history of (H/o of fever for 4 days back for which paracetamol suppository was prescribed following which the child developed the lesion over the perianal region On examination a well defined hyperpigmented plaque of size 5*3 cms extending from anal verge posteriorly and anteriorly upto the beginning of scrotum with lateral extensions from the centre to the gluteals. In our case, the paracetamol suppository used caused an allergic reaction which made the child very irritable and the child developed an allergic contact dermatitis in the site where the suppository was kept and the surrounding area. We report this case because paracetamol suppository as such without preservative causing allergic contact dermatitis has not been reported so far and the treating doctor should keep in mind such type of reactions that might occur when used.

  6. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Allergic reactions seen in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Görücü Coşkuner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy can be defined as inappropriate and harmful response to harmless and ordinary materials. Allergic reactions, like in other fields of dentistry, can also be seen in the field of orthodontics. The reactions that occur against orthodontic materials can be seen as irritant or hypersensitivity reactions. The main reason of the irritant reactions is friction between soft tissues and orthodontic appliances. However, the reason of the hypersensitivity reactions is usually the antigenicity of the materials. Hypersensitivity reactions are usually seen as allergic contact dermatitis on face and neck; the occurrence of mucosal-gingival reactions and dermal and systemic reactions are rare. Latex, metal and acrylic resins are the most common allergens in orthodontics. Apart from these materials, allergic reactions can occur against bonding materials, extraoral appliances, disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The reactions that occur against extraoral appliances usually result from metallic and elastic parts of the appliances or the appliance parts that are in contact with skin. Orthodontists should be aware of the allergic reactions to protect their patients’ health. The aim of this review was to evaluate the allergic reactions seen in orthodontic patients and discuss the cautions that orthodontists can take.

  8. Clinical verification in homeopathy and allergic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The literature on clinical research in allergic conditions treated with homeopathy includes a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) for hay fever with positive conclusions and two positive RCTs in asthma. Cohort surveys using validated Quality of Life questionnaires have shown improvement in asthma in children, general allergic conditions and skin diseases. Economic surveys have shown positive results in eczema, allergy, seasonal allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and chronic allergic rhinitis. This paper reports clinical verification of homeopathic symptoms in all patients and especially in various allergic conditions in my own primary care practice. For preventive treatments in hay fever patients, Arsenicum album was the most effective homeopathic medicine followed by Nux vomica, Pulsatilla pratensis, Gelsemium, Sarsaparilla, Silicea and Natrum muriaticum. For asthma patients, Arsenicum iodatum appeared most effective, followed by Lachesis, Calcarea arsenicosa, Carbo vegetabilis and Silicea. For eczema and urticaria, Mezereum was most effective, followed by Lycopodium, Sepia, Arsenicum iodatum, Calcarea carbonica and Psorinum. The choice of homeopathic medicine depends on the presence of other associated symptoms and 'constitutional' features. Repertories should be updated by including results of such clinical verifications of homeopathic prescribing symptoms. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thoracic splenosis. Know it-avoid unnecessary investigations, interventions, and thoracotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Manzoor, K.; Malik, Z.; Yasim, A.; Shim, C.

    2011-01-01

    Thoracic splenosis (TS) is autoimplantation of ectopic splenic tissue in the thoracic cavity that occurs following splenic injury. Most cases of TS are asymptomatic and are diagnosed during the course of an evaluation of incidentally discovered pulmonary lesions. Some cases may be difficult to diagnose, especially if features suggesting TS are not recognized. This may lead to an extensive workup and unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures including thoracotomy. Multiple, asymptomatic, left-sided pleura-based lesions associated with a history of thoracoabdominal injury and splenectomy are the key points that should alert one to suspect TS, which can then simply be confirmed with a 99m Tc-sulfa colloid radionuclide scan. If TS is suspected and radionuclide imaging studies are performed, further extensive investigations, such as bronchoscopy, biopsy, thoracoscopy, and thoracotomy, are not required as the radionuclide scan is definitive for diagnosis. Most cases are asymptomatic, so further treatment is rarely required; all cases are managed conservatively. We emphasize that all physicians, radiologists, pathologists, and interventionalists should recognize key features that suggest the diagnosis of TS, order appropriate imaging when it is suspected, and avoid unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures including thoracotomy. (author)

  10. Reduction in Unnecessary Clinical Laboratory Testing Through Utilization Management at a US Government Veterans Affairs Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konger, Raymond L; Ndekwe, Paul; Jones, Genea; Schmidt, Ronald P; Trey, Marty; Baty, Eric J; Wilhite, Denise; Munshi, Imtiaz A; Sutter, Bradley M; Rao, Maddamsetti; Bashir, Chowdry M

    2016-03-01

    To implement an electronic laboratory utilization management system (laboratory expert system [LES]) to provide safe and effective reductions in unnecessary clinical laboratory testing. The LES is a set of frequency filter subroutines within the Veterans Affairs hospital and laboratory information system that was formulated by an interdisciplinary medical team. Since implementing the LES, total test volume has decreased by a mean of 11.18% per year compared with our pre-LES test volume. This change was not attributable to fluctuations in outpatient visits or inpatient days of care. Laboratory cost savings were estimated at $151,184 and $163,751 for 2012 and 2013, respectively. A significant portion of these cost savings was attributable to reductions in high-volume, large panel testing. No adverse effects on patient care were reported, and mean length of stay for patients remained unchanged. Electronic laboratory utilization systems can effectively reduce unnecessary laboratory testing without compromising patient care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. DOJ News Release: West Palm Beach Sellers of Unnecessary Septic Tank Products Plead Guilty to Wire Fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nouerand and Lincoln, in concert with other employees of FBK Products, LLC., knowingly participated in a scheme to fraudulently market and sell an unnecessary and unneeded septic treatment product to residents of various states across the country.

  12. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  13. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffe Nygaard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis.

  14. Allergic rhinitis is associated with otitis media with effusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, E; Chawes, B L K; Thomasen, Per Caye

    2012-01-01

    Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested.......Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested....

  15. A Controlled Quasi-Experimental Study of an Educational Intervention to Reduce the Unnecessary Use of Antimicrobials For Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Neal; Brooks, Annie; Mithoowani, Siraj; Celetti, Steve J.; Main, Cheryl; Mertz, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) should only be treated in cases of pregnancy or in-patients undergoing urologic procedures; however, unnecessary treatment of ABU is common in clinical practice. Objective To identify risk factors for unnecessary treatment and to assess the impact of an educational intervention focused on these risk factors on treatment of ABU. Design Quasi-experimental study with a control group. Setting Two tertiary teaching adult care hospitals. Participants Consec...

  16. Does the addition of saline infusion sonohysterography to transvaginal ultrasonography prevent unnecessary hysteroscopy in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, John; Sharp, Benjamin; Elliot, Nikki; McEwing, Rachael; McGeoch, Graham; Shand, Brett; Holland, Kieran

    2016-08-01

    This observational case series in 65 premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding evaluated whether transvaginal ultrasound followed by saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) prevented unnecessary hysteroscopy. Although SIS indicated that hysteroscopy was unnecessary in eight women, this benefit was offset by the invasive nature of the scan, the number of endometrial abnormalities falsely detected by SIS and the cost of the additional investigation. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Presentation and management of allergic fungal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thahim, K.; Jawaid, M.A.; Marfani, S.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the presentation of allergic fungal sinusitis and describe the line of management in our setup. Culture and sensitivity / fungal stain proven 20 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis were selected for the study, irrespective of age and gender. Data including age, gender, socioeconomic status, signs, symptoms, laboratory findings (especially Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil count) and imaging studies (Computed Tomography and /or Magnetic Resonance Imaging) were noted for the study. Pre and postoperative medical treatment, surgery performed, follow-up; residual/recurrence disease and revised surgery performed were also recorded. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was a disease of younger age group with an average age of 20.75 years with male dominance (70%). Poor socioeconomic status (80%), allergic rhinitis (100%) and nasal polyposis (100%) were important associated factors. Nasal obstruction (100%), nasal discharge (90%), postnasal drip (90%) and unilateral nasal and paranasal sinuses involvement (60%) were the commonest presenting features. Aspergillus (60%) was the most common etiological agent. In all cases (100%), increased eosinophil count and IgE levels were present. Orbital (20%) and intracranial (10%) involvement were also seen. Surgical management was preferred in all cases. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in 90% cases and lateral rhinotomy in 10% cases were performed. Recurrence / residual disease was seen in 20% cases. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was seen in immunocompetent, young males, belonging to poor socioeconomic status, suffering from allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, presenting with nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and postnasal drip. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was the most important problem solving procedure while lateral rhinotomy was reserved for extensive disease. (author)

  18. Aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W.K. Lam

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1993 survey, allergic rhinitis was identified as the most common allergic disease in Hong Kong, affecting 29.1% of schoolchildren. Recently (1995, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC also reported 44.5% current rhinitis among Hong Kong teenagers. Our objective was to study the aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong using serological tests of allergen sensitization. In 57 allergic rhinitis patients and in the same number of age- and sex-matched controls the following were measured: serum total IgE, mixed aeroallergen IgE (Phadiatop™ and specific IgE versus house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, cat and dog dander, mould mixture (Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Alternaria species and four local pollens (Bermuda grass, Timothy, ragweed and mugwort. Compared with controls, allergic rhinitis patients (26 males, 31 females; mean (± SD age 25 ±11 years had a significantly elevated serum total IgE concentration (mean ± SEM: 496 ± 88 vs 179 ± 38 kU/L and an increased proportion of positive Phadiatop (95 vs 33% and specific IgE tests versus HDM (90 vs 44% and cockroach (42 vs 9%; Mann-Whitney U-test and χ2 tests all P < 0.005. There was no significant difference in sensitization to other allergens tested. House dust mite and cockroach are ubiquitous in Hong Kong with a warm, humid climate and crowded living conditions. Their identification as aetiological agents of allergic rhinitis should help in the development of environmental strategies for reducing the inhalant allergen load to prevent and control this prevalent and costly health problem in our community.

  19. Environmental allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.S.; Bokhari, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to find out the common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in patients with allergic rhinitis. Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: A local allergy clinic in an urban area of Lahore during the year 2000-2001. Subjects and Methods: Eighty patients with allergic rhinitis irrespective of age and sex were studied. These cases were selected on the basis of symptoms like sneezing, itching, watery nasal discharge and eosinophilia in nasal secretions. Forty matched healthy subjects as controls were also studied. Allergy test was performed on all the subjects by skin prick test to determine sensitivity to common environmental allergens using Bencard (England) allergy kit. Results: common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in allergic rhinitis patients were house dust (82.5 %), house dust mites (73.7%), mixed threshing (80%), straw dust (58.7%, hay dust (63.7%), mixed feathers (45%), cat fur (57.5%), cotton flock (56.2%), tree pollens (45%) and grass pollens (48.7%). Sensitivity to these allergens was observed in significantly higher (P<0.01) percentage of allergic rhinitis patients as compared with control subjects. Sensitivity to house dust, house dust mites and cat fur was of severe degree in majority of allergic rhinitis patients. While sensitivity to mixed threshing, straw dust, hay dust and mixed feathers was of moderate to severe degree in majority of these patients. Conclusion: Skin prick tests provide an effective and definitive mean to find out sensitivity to different allergens in cases with allergic rhinitis. Based on these findings, the physician can manage these patients in better way. (author)

  20. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid leak mimicking allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketti, Anthony J; Cleri, Dennis J; Porwancher, Richard B; Panesar, Mandip; Villota, Francisco J; Seelagy, Marc M

    2005-01-01

    Rhinitis and rhinorrhea are common clinical complaints that may be allergic or nonallergic in etiology. Distinguishing between allergic and nonallergic etiologies can be difficult but necessary for treatment. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old woman with > 20 years of rhinorrhea before a diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak and a life-threatening complication occurred. It is essential that no symptom, especially that which persists and resists treatment, is trivialized. Here, we establish how a careful history and evaluation will direct the clinician to the correct diagnosis.

  3. Palivizumab Exposure and the Risk of Atopic Dermatitis, Asthma and Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Stokholm, Lonny; Linder, Marie

    2017-01-01

    -mediated diseases atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis after palivizumab exposure. AIM: Our objective was to investigate whether exposure to palivizumab was associated with atopic dermatitis, asthma, or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in childhood. METHODS: This was a cross-national population......, and children with hemodynamic significant heart disease were defined. RESULTS: Of the 1,351,265 children included, 1192 (0.09%) were exposed to palivizumab. An increased risk of asthma after palivizumab exposure was observed in the total birth cohort (hazard ratio [HR] 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.......32-1.68) and in the sub-cohort of preterm children (HR 1.24; 95% CI 1.07-1.44). However, post hoc analyses using the propensity score to balance confounding factors found no increased risk of asthma in preterm children (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.56-1.48). No increased risks of atopic dermatitis (HR 1.18; 95% CI 0...

  4. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by isothiazolinones in water-based paints: a retrospective study of 44 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Emmanuelle; Aerts, Olivier; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Debons, Michèle; Milpied, Brigitte; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise; Waton, Julie; Ferrier-Le Bouëdec, Marie C; Lartigau, Isabelle; Pecquet, Catherine; Assier, Haudrey; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Bernier, Claire; Castelain, Florence; Collet, Evelyne; Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Genillier, Nathalie; Girardin, Pascal; Pralong, Pauline; Tetart, Florence; Vital-Durand, Dominique; Soria, Angele; Barbaud, Annick

    2017-09-01

    Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by paints containing isothiazolinones has been recognized as a health hazard. To collect epidemiological, clinical and patch test data on airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by isothiazolinone-containing paints in France and Belgium. A descriptive, retrospective study was initiated by the Dermatology and Allergy Group of the French Society of Dermatology, including methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI)- and/or MI-sensitized patients who developed airborne allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to isothiazolinone-containing paint. Forty-four cases were identified, with mostly non-occupational exposure (79.5%). Of the patients, 22.5% of also had mucosal symptoms. In several cases, the dermatitis required systemic corticosteroids (27.3%), hospitalization (9.1%), and/or sick leave (20.5%). A median delay of 5.5 weeks was necessary to enable patients to enter a freshly painted room without a flare-up of their dermatitis. Approximately one-fifth of the patients knew that they were allergic to MI and/or MCI/MI before the exposure to paints occurred. Our series confirms that airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by paints containing isothiazolinones is not rare, and may be severe and long-lasting. Better regulation of isothiazolinone concentrations in paints, and their adequate labelling, is urgently needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Promoting High-Value Practice by Reducing Unnecessary Transfusions With a Patient Blood Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Divyajot; Pratzer, Ariella; Scher, Lauren J; Saag, Harry S; Adler, Nicole; Volpicelli, Frank M; Auron, Moises; Frank, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Although blood transfusion is a lifesaving therapy for some patients, transfusion has been named 1 of the top 5 overused procedures in US hospitals. As unnecessary transfusions only increase risk and cost without providing benefit, improving transfusion practice is an effective way of promoting high-value care. Most high-quality clinical trials supporting a restrictive transfusion strategy have been published in the past 5 to 10 years, so the value of a successful patient blood management program has only recently been recognized. We review the most recent transfusion practice guidelines and the evidence supporting these guidelines. We also discuss several medical societies' Choosing Wisely campaigns to reduce or eliminate overuse of transfusions. A blueprint is presented for developing a patient blood management program, which includes discussion of specific methods for optimizing transfusion practice.

  6. A Consultation Phone Service for Patients With Total Joint Arthroplasty May Reduce Unnecessary Emergency Department Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällfors, Eerik; Saku, Sami A; Mäkinen, Tatu J; Madanat, Rami

    2018-03-01

    Different measures for reducing costs after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have gained attention lately. At our institution, a free-of-charge consultation phone service was initiated that targeted patients with TJA. This service aimed at reducing unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits and, thus, potentially improving the cost-effectiveness of TJAs. To our knowledge, a similar consultation service had not been described previously. We aimed at examining the rates and reasons for early postdischarge phone calls and evaluating the efficacy of this consultation service. During a 2-month period, we gathered information on every call received by the consultation phone service from patients with TJAs within 90 days of the index TJA procedure. Patients were followed for 2 weeks after making a call to detect major complications and self-initiated ED visits. Data were collected from electronic medical charts regarding age, gender, type of surgery, date of discharge, and length of hospital stay. We analyzed 288 phone calls. Calls were mostly related to medication (41%), wound complications (17%), and mobilization issues (15%). Most calls were resolved in the phone consultation. Few patients (13%) required further evaluation in the ED. The consultation service failed to detect the need for an ED visit in 2 cases (0.7%) that required further care. The consultation phone service clearly benefitted patients with TJAs. The service reduced the number of unnecessary ED visits and functioned well in detecting patients who required further care. Most postoperative concerns were related to prescribed medications, wound complications, and mobilization issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dominant epitopes and allergic cross-reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ipsen, H

    2000-01-01

    leading to aggregation and subsequent mediator release. Thus, allergen-Ab complexes play a crucial role in the cascade leading to the allergic response. We here report the structure of a 1:1 complex between the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the Fab fragment from a murine monoclonal IgG1 Ab, BV16...

  8. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  9. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. ► Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. ► Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. ► Silibinin suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Because NF-κB activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-κB activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-κB activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  10. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Compositae sensitization are routinely warned against the ingestion of vegetables, spices, teas and herbal remedies from this family of plants. The evidence for the occurrence of systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactone-containing plants is mostly anecdotal...

  11. Allergic Rhinitis | Sommers | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but the antihistamines are less effective for nasal congestion and minimally address the problem of inflammation. Immune-based specifically targeted molecules, such as the cloned humanised monoclonal antibody-inhibiting human IgE omalizumab, are presently being studied in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  12. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, H-J

    2003-01-01

    The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion into controlled cli...

  13. Steroids vs immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis induced by airborne allergens can be divided into two major groups: symptom-dampening drugs, such as antihistamines and corticosteroids, and disease-modifying drugs in the form of immunotherapy. It has been speculated that depot-injection corticosteroids g...

  14. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Ramesh; Neupane, Saraswoti; Kandel, Ishwar Sharma

    2004-12-01

    A 24 years old male presented with recurrent symptoms of cough and breathlessness for 6 years but increased in past 6 months. Fleeting radiological opacities, peripheral eosinophilia and central type bronchiectasus in high resolution CT scan gave the suspicion of allergic bronchopolmonary aspergilosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis was done by skin prick and immunological tests. The patient showed an excellent response to oral prednisolone.

  15. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  16. Flood Hazard Recurrence Frequencies for the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) regulations outline the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this report is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines, as a function of water elevation, the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves provide basis to avoid unnecessary facility upgrades, to establish appropriate design criteria for new facilities, and to develop emergency preparedness plans to mitigate the consequences of floods. A method based on precipitation, basin runoff and open channel hydraulics was developed to determine probabilistic flood hazard curves for the Savannah River Site. The calculated flood hazard curves show that the probabilities of flooding existing SRS major facilities are significantly less than 1.E-05 per year

  17. Tsunami hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  18. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  19. Routine preoperative blood group and save testing is unnecessary for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, A.; Shahzad, K.; Nunes, Q.; Shrotri, M.; Lunevicius, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although the practice of preoperative testing of ABO group and Rh (D) type for elective cholecystectomy has deep historical roots, it is not evidence-based. We aimed to assess the preoperative blood group and save testing practice for a cohort of patients subjected to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis between January 2010 and October 2014. Methods: National Health Service (NHS) hospital based, surgical procedure-specific, retrospective study was conducted. A final group consisted of 2,079 adult patients. We estimated the incidence of perioperative blood transfusion attributable to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The results of eight other studies are presented. Results: A preoperative blood group and save test was performed in 907 patients (43.6%), whereas cross-matching was documented in 28 patients (3.1%). None required an intraoperative blood transfusion. Twelve patients (0.58%) underwent blood transfusion postoperatively following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, of which ten were transfused due to severe intra-abdominal bleeding (0.48%). There were no deaths. Conclusions: The likelihood of blood transfusion attributable to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy is 1:200. A routine preoperative blood group and save testing is unnecessary. It neither alters the management of severe hypovolemia, secondary to perioperative bleeding, nor does it lead to better outcomes. (author)

  20. A case of autoimmune cholangitis misdiagnosed for cholangiocarcinoma: How to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Igor I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Autoimmune cholangitis or immunoglobulin G4-associated cholangitis (IAC has been recently regarded as a new clinical and histopathological entity and is a part of a complex autoimmune disorder - IgG4-related systemic disease (ISD. ISD is an autoimmune disease with multi-organic involvement, characterized with IgG4-positive plasmocytic infiltration of various tissues and organs with a consequent sclerosis, which responds well to steroid therapy. Most commonly affected organs are the pancreas (autoimmune pancreatitis, [AIP] and the common bile duct (IAC. IAC and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA share many clinical, laboratory and imaging findings. Case Outline. We present a case of a 60-year-old male with a biliary stricture of a common bile duct, which was clinically considered as a bile duct carcinoma and treated surgically. Definite histopathological findings and immunohistochemistry revealed profound chronic inflammation, showing lymphoplasmacytic IgG-positive infiltration of a resected part of a common bile duct, highly suggestive for the diagnosis of IAC. In addition, postoperative IgG4 serum levels were also increased. Conclusion. It is of primary clinical importance to make a difference between IAC and CCA, in order to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention. Therefore, IAC should be considered in differential diagnosis in similar cases.

  1. Decision analysis for the cost effectiveness of Sestamibi Scintimammography in minimizing unnecessary biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.W.; Hendi, P.; Schwimmer, J.; Gambhir, S.S.; Bassett, L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if breast cancer screening using sestamibi scintimammography (SSMM) in conjunction with mammography (MM) is cost effective in avoiding biopsies in healthy patients. Quantitative decision tree sensitivity analysis was used to compare the conventional MM alone strategy (strategy A) with two decision strategies for screening with SSMM; SSMM after an indeterminate mammogram (strategy B) or SSMM after both a positive and an indeterminate mammogram (strategy C). Cost effectiveness was measured by calculating the expected cost per patient and the average life expectancy per patient for baseline values as well as over a range of values for all of the variables of each strategy. Based on Medicare reimbursement values, strategies B and C showed a cost savings of $9 and $20 per patient respectively as compared to strategy A. This translates into respective savings of $189 and $420 million per year assuming 21 million females undergo screening each year. Strategies B and C did however have a loss of mean life expectancy of 0.000178 and 0.000222 years respectively as compared to strategy A due to interval progression of breast cancer in a small number of women. Strategies B and C significantly lowered the number of biopsies performed on healthy patients in the screening population by 750,063 and 1,557,915 biopsies respectively as compared to strategy A. These results quantitatively verify the potential utility of using SSMM in avoiding unnecessary biopsies

  2. Tracking unnecessary negative urinalyses to reduce healthcare costs: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmartel, A; Dutron, M; Ghasarossian, C

    2017-09-01

    About 7 million urinalyses are reimbursed yearly by the French public healthcare system, but the results of most of these tests are normal. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of negative urinalyses in ambulatory care, identify the associated factors and assess the relevance of prescriptions by general practitioners (GPs) according to French guidelines. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients over 18 coming for urinalyses in two French ambulatory laboratories. Patients received a questionnaire on their symptoms, the reason for performing urinalysis and the use of urinary dipsticks. GP who prescribed urinalyses received a questionnaire assessing their practice. A total of 510 patients were included, and 71% of urinalyses were negative. Urinalyses were prescribed to 283 patients by GPs. Compared to those of specialists, GP prescriptions were associated with fewer negative urinalyses (59 vs 86%; p GPs, the reasons of prescription were as follows: suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) (42.7%), control of bacteriological cure after UTI (24%), fever or abdominal pain (13%) and routine test (7%). About 35% of urinalyses were not indicated according to guidelines. Only 12% of patients used dipsticks before performing urinalysis although 87% of GPs were favourable to their use if they were provided by healthcare services. The annual cost of non-indicated urinalyses is estimated at 13 million euro. A systematic use of dipsticks provided by healthcare services could help to reduce health costs and the unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  4. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  5. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch...... contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients...... tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. SUMMARY: Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic...

  6. Severe chronic allergic (and related) diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Demoly, P

    2012-01-01

    -up. Control is the degree to which therapy goals are currently met. These concepts have evolved over time for asthma in guidelines, task forces or consensus meetings. The aim of this paper is to generalize the approach of the uniform definition of severe asthma presented to WHO for chronic allergic...... and associated diseases (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis) in order to have a uniform definition of severity, control and risk, usable in most situations. It is based on the appropriate diagnosis, availability and accessibility of treatments, treatment responsiveness...... and associated factors such as comorbidities and risk factors. This uniform definition will allow a better definition of the phenotypes of severe allergic (and related) diseases for clinical practice, research (including epidemiology), public health purposes, education and the discovery of novel therapies....

  7. Breastfeeding, Childhood Asthma, and Allergic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Wendy H

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies. Breastfeeding has health benefits for the mother and child. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of an infant's life, with continued breastfeeding for up to 2 years or longer, is recognized as the "gold" standard for infant feeding because human milk is uniquely suited to the human infant, and its nutritional content and bioactivity promote a healthy development. There is increasing concern that the practice of delaying complementary foods until 6 months may exacerbate the risk of allergic disease. Breast milk contains immunological components that protect against infections and allergic disease in infancy. The composition of human breast milk is complex, containing factors that interact with the infant immune system and intestinal milieu including allergens, cytokines, immunoglobulins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and chemokines. Transforming growth factor β is a cytokine in human milk involved in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, inflammation regulation, and oral tolerance development. Modern day society, with increased standards of hygiene, has changed the gut flora of Western infants, potentially impacting the risk of developing immune-mediated diseases including allergic disease and asthma. Microbial diversity is intrinsic to healthy immune maturation and function. Compared to breastfed infants, formula-fed infants had lower bacterial diversity and an altered intestinal microbiota in the first few weeks of life associated with

  8. Topical therapy for facial allergic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kondratyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to assess clinical dynamics and morphofunctional skin parameters of patients with facial allergic dermatoses on the background of combined topical therapy. Materials and methods. 45 patients with various facial allergic dermatoses in dry and sensitive skin took part in the research. The methods included anamnesis taking, poll, objective examination and assessment of morphofunctional parameters of skin, as well as estimation of life quality dynamic index (LQDI. Main results. After a course of treatment with 0,05% solution of alclometasone dipropionate inflammation of dermatosis ceased in 45 (100% patients, itching and pains in 39 (86,7% patients, but complaints about dryness and peeling of facial skin remained in 41 (91,1% and 40 (88,8% patients respectively. On the background of therapy including emollient Aflocream the above mentioned symptoms did not appear in 43 (95,6% patients, wherein maximum effect was achieved in patients with allergic contact dermatitis - 14 (93,3%. After a course of topical therapy all patients showed statistically significant increase of epidermal moisture level, alongside with reduction of skin relief and degree of keratinization. During the assessment of LQDI a tendency to reduction of proportion of patients on whom the disease has a strong and extremely strong impact was noted in 10 patients (i.e. 22,2%, moderate influence - in 5 of them (11,45%, insignificant influence or its absence - in 30 (66,7% people. Conclusion. Combined therapy including the use of a topical corticosteroid Afloderm and an emollient Aflocream showed good clinical efficiency in patients with facial allergic dermatoses. The efficiency is also confirmed with improvements in morphofunctional characteristics of patients’ skin on the background of therapy.

  9. General anesthesia exposure in early life reduces the risk of allergic diseases: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Yang, Ya-Ling; Ho, Shu-Chen; Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Jiang, Jyun-Hong; Huang, Ying-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    General anesthesia (GA) has been used for second line treatment strategy for status asthmaticus in pediatric patients. The association between GA in children and risk of followed-up allergic diseases is unclear. This study aims to assess the risk of allergic diseases after GA in children.We did a nationwide retrospective cohort study by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The subsequent risks for allergic diseases, including asthma (ICD-9: 493.X), allergic rhinitis (AR; ICD-9 CM code 477.X), and atopic dermatitis (AD; ICD-9-CM code 691.X), were compared between exposure to GA and none before 1 year of age throughout the follow-up period using the Cox proportional hazards model.Insurance claims data for 32,742 children younger than 1 year old from all insured children in the NHIRD. Of those, 2358 subjects were exposed to GA; 414 and 1944 children exposed to mask and intubation ventilation, respectively, served as the study cohort, whereas the remaining 30,384 children made up the comparison cohort. Children in the GA group were at a lower risk of developing asthma, AR and AD, with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.67 (0.62-0.72, 95%CI), 0.72 (0.68-0.77, 95%CI), 0.60 (0.56-0.64, 95%CI), respectively.Children who were exposed to GA in early life before 1 year of age had reduced risk of subsequently developing allergic diseases such as asthma, AD, and AR, when compared with general population.

  10. Risk of bipolar disorder among adolescents with allergic rhinitis: A nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Lan, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Pan, Tai-Long; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested an immunological dysfunction in bipolar disorder, but none has investigated the temporal association between allergic rhinitis (AR) and bipolar disorder. Using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 9506 adolescents aged 12-18 years with allergic rhinitis were enrolled between 2000 and 2008 and compared to 38,024 age-and gender-matched (1:4) control groups. Subjects of bipolar disorder that occurred up to the end of follow-up (December 31, 2011) were identified. Adolescents with AR had a significantly higher incidence of developing bipolar disorder (0.77 vs. 0.18 per 1000 person-years, pAdolescents with AR had an increased risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.17-6.75) of developing bipolar disorder in their later life compared to the control group after adjusting for demographic data and comorbid allergic diseases. This is the first study showing a temporal association between AR and bipolar disorder, in that patients who had AR in adolescence exhibited an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder in later life. Further study would be required to investigate the underlying mechanism about this association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  12. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  13. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cocamide diethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Sarien; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Goossens, An

    2016-07-01

    Cocamide DEA (CAS no. 68603-42-9) is a non-ionic surfactant frequently used in industrial, household and cosmetic products for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties. Contact allergy has been reported quite rarely in the past, but recently several cases were published, raising the question of an increase in the frequency of allergic dermatitis caused by this substance. To describe cocamide DEA-allergic patients and their characteristics observed in our department. Medical charts of patients, investigated between 1990 and December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for cocamide DEA-allergy. Demographic characteristics and patch test results were analyzed. Out of 1767 patients tested, 18 (1%) presented with an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA, all of them at least with hand dermatitis. Twelve patients had (past) occupational exposure to cocamide DEA. Out of the 18 patients, 15 showed (most often) multiple positive reactions and 7 also suffered from atopic dermatitis. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively rare, despite frequent use, and an increasing trend was not observed. Reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine and cocamide MEA only occurred in some of the subjects tested. Shampoos and liquid hand soaps/cleansers dominated as sources of exposure. All patients presented with an impaired skin barrier due to atopic and/or previous contact dermatitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Allergic anaphylaxis due to subcutaneously injected heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Diana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heparins are one of the most used class of anticoagulants in daily clinical practice. Despite their widespread application immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to heparins are rare. Among these, the delayed-type reactions to s.c. injected heparins are well-known usually presenting as circumscribed eczematous plaques at the injection sites. In contrast, potentially life-threatening systemic immediate-type anaphylactic reactions to heparins are extremely rare. Recently, some cases of non-allergic anaphylaxis could be attributed to undesirable heparin contaminants. A 43-year-old patient developed severe anaphylaxis symptoms within 5–10 minutes after s.c. injection of enoxaparin. Titrated skin prick testing with wheal and flare responses up to an enoxaparin dilution of 1:10.000 indicated a probable allergic mechanism of the enoxaparin-induced anaphylaxis. The basophil activation test as an additional in-vitro test method was negative. Furthermore, skin prick testing showed rather broad cross-reactivity among different heparin preparations tested. In the presented case, history, symptoms, and results of skin testing strongly suggested an IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity against different heparins. Therefore, as safe alternative anticoagulants the patient could receive beneath coumarins the hirudins or direct thrombin inhibitors. Because these compounds have a completely different molecular structure compared with the heparin-polysaccharides.

  16. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  17. Human hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.; Vignes, S.; Wolber, G.

    1976-01-01

    Among health hazards from ionizing radiations, a distinction is made of observed, likely and theoretical risks. Theoretical risks, derived from extrapolation of observations on sublethal exposures to low doses may frighten. However, they have nothing in common with reality as shown for instance, by the study of carcinogenesis risks at Nagasaki. By extrapolation to low doses, theoretical mutation risks are derived by geneticians from the observation of some characters especially deleterious in the progeny of parents exposed to sublethal doses. One cannot agree when by calculation they express a population exposure by a shift of its genetic balance with an increase of the proportion of disabled individuals. As a matter of fact, experimental exposure of successive generations of laboratory animals shows no accumulation of deleterious genes, sublethal doses excepted. Large nuclear plants should not be overwhelmed by horrible charges on sanitary grounds, whereas small sources have but too often shown they may originate mortal risks [fr

  18. New concept in allergy: Non-allergic rats becomes allergic after induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a theory, seemingly it is impossible that allergic diseases, including asthma, are the result of exposure to a transmissible agent. The fact that nearly all children with asthma are allergic, but only a small proportion of allergic children have asthma, at least raises the possibility that other factors are involved. Interestingly, non-allergic children become allergic after their parents came from working in allergic people for several months. Recent research revealed that periodontal pathogens are also transmissible from mother and caregivers to infants.Therefore, it is logical that non-allergic children could become allergic after exposed to periodontopathic bacteria. However, the mechanism is still unclear. Purpose: The objective of this study is to verify a new concept that non-allergic rat may become allergic after exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. Methods: Randomized control series design experimental study was conducted to 24 male Wistar rats, two experimental groups and one control group. One group was subjected to intrasulcular injection of PgLPS1435/1450. Tissue examination were done for allergy biomarkers with peroxidase immunohistochemistry for leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP in bronchus tissue. Serum level examination of interleukin 4 (IL-4, and immunoglobulin E (IgE was done with ELISA. Data were analyzes using ANOVA. Results: after four days, LTC4 and ECP expression increased significantly (p=0.001; even insignificant, IL-4 and IgE serum level also increased. Conclusion: PgLPS is able to stimulate immunocompetent cells which changed the host immune response of non-allergic rats. Therefore, it is possible that they become allergic.Latar belakang: Menurut teori, penularan penyakit alergi termasuk asma merupakan hal yang mustahil. Fakta menunjukkn bahwa hampir semua anak penderita asma mempunyai alergi, tetapi tidak semua anak alergi menderita asma, sehingga mungkin

  19. Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Neelkamal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For decades, fungi have been recognized as associated with asthma and other reactive airway diseases. In contrast to type I-mediated allergies caused by pollen, fungi cause a large number of allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, rhinitis, allergic sinusitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, known to be associated with chronic lung injury and deterioration in pulmonary function in people with chronic asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF. The goal of this review is to discuss new understandings of host-pathogen interactions in the genesis of allergic airway diseases caused by A. fumigatus. Host and pathogen related factors that participate in triggering the inflammatory cycle leading to pulmonary exacerbations in ABPA are discussed.

  20. Re: Madsen et al. "Unnecessary work tasks and mental health: a prospective analysis of Danish human service workers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Moreau, Quentin; Loddé, Brice; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Madsen et al (1) recently published a secondary analysis on data provided by the Project on Burnout, Motivation and Job Satisfaction (PUMA). The aim of their study, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health was to examine the associations between unnecessary work tasks and a decreased level of mental health. Though the topic was quite novel, reading this work proved disturbing and raised issues. Based on the results of this study, the authors stated that there is an association between unnecessary work tasks (assessed by a single question) and a decreased level of mental health, idem [assessed by the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5)], in the specific population included in this PUMA survey. The authors point out a limitation of the study, namely that unnecessary work tasks were evaluated using one single question: "Do you sometimes have to do things in your job which appear to be unnecessary?". Semmer defines unnecessary work task as "tasks that should not be carried out at all because they do not make sense or because they could have been avoided, or could be carried out with less effort if things were organized more efficiently" (2). De facto, qualifying what an unnecessary task is requires stating or explaining whether the task makes sense. Making sense or not is not an objective notion. It is very difficult for either a manager or an employee to say if a task is necessary or not. Most important is that it makes sense from the worker's point of view. Making sense and being necessary are not synonyms. Some tasks do not make sense but are economically necessary (eg, when, as physicians, we are reporting our activity using ICD-10 on computers instead of being at patients' bedsides or reading this journal). Thus, there is a wide gap between Semmer's definition and the question used by the authors to evaluate his concept. A secondary analysis based on a single question is not adequate to evaluate unnecessary tasks. Nowadays, the general trend

  1. Gene transcripts as potential diagnostic markers for allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil

    2005-01-01

    The standard procedure for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis is to perform a patch test. Because this has several disadvantages, the development of a new in vitro test system would be of immense value. Gene transcripts that distinguish allergics from non-allergics may have the potential...... widely available. The 26 differentially expressed genes identified in this study may potentially function as diagnostic markers for contact sensitivity....

  2. A Population-based Clinical Study of Allergic and Non-allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T.B.; Thomsen, S.F.; Nolte, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to describe differences between allergic and non-allergic asthma in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents and adults. Methods. A total of 1,186 subjects, 14 to 44 years of age, who in a screening questionnaire had reported a history of airway...... symptoms suggestive of asthma and/or allergy, or who were taking any medication for these conditions were clinically examined. All participants were interviewed about respiratory symptoms, and furthermore skin test reactivity, lung function, and airway responsiveness were measured. Results. A total of 489...

  3. Pre-procedural scout radiographs are unnecessary for routine pediatric fluoroscopic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creeden, Sean G.; Rao, Anil G.; Eklund, Meryle J.; Hill, Jeanne G.; Thacker, Paul G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Although practice patterns vary, scout radiographs are often routinely performed with pediatric fluoroscopic studies. However few studies have evaluated their utility in routine pediatric fluoroscopy. To evaluate the value of scout abdomen radiographs in routine barium or water-soluble enema, upper gastrointestinal (GI) series, and voiding cystourethrogram pediatric fluoroscopic procedures. We retrospectively evaluated 723 barium or water-soluble enema, upper GI series, and voiding cystourethrogram fluoroscopic procedures performed at our institution. We assessed patient history and demographics, clinical indication for the examination, prior imaging findings and impressions, scout radiograph findings, additional findings provided by the scout radiograph that were previously unknown, and whether the scout radiograph contributed any findings that significantly changed management. We retrospectively evaluated 723 fluoroscopic studies (368 males and 355 females) in pediatric patients. Of these, 700 (96.8%) had a preliminary scout radiograph. Twenty-three (3.2%) had a same-day radiograph substituted as a scout radiograph. Preliminary scout abdomen radiographs/same-day radiographs showed no new significant findings in 719 (99.4%) studies. New but clinically insignificant findings were seen in 4 (0.6%) studies and included umbilical hernia, inguinal hernia and hip dysplasia. No findings were found on the scout radiographs that would either alter the examination performed or change management with regard to the exam. Pre-procedural scout abdomen radiographs are unnecessary in routine barium and water-soluble enema, upper GI series, and voiding cystourethrogram pediatric fluoroscopic procedures and can be substituted with a spot fluoroscopic last-image hold. (orig.)

  4. "No zone" approach in penetrating neck trauma reduces unnecessary computed tomography angiography and negative explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Kareem; Khan, Muhammad; Rhee, Peter; Azim, Asad; O'Keeffe, Terence; Tang, Andrew; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Joseph, Bellal

    2018-01-01

    The most recent management guidelines advocate computed tomography angiography (CTA) for any suspected vascular or aero-digestive injuries in all zones and give zone II injuries special consideration. We hypothesized that physical examination can safely guide CTA use in a "no zone" approach. An 8-year retrospective analysis of all adult trauma patients with penetrating neck trauma (PNT) was performed. We included all patients in whom the platysma was violated. Patients were classified into three groups as follows: hard signs, soft signs, and asymptomatic. CTA use, positive CTA (contrast extravasation, dissection, or intimal flap) and operative details were reported. Primary outcomes were positive CTA and therapeutic neck exploration (TNE) (defined by repair of major vascular or aero-digestive injuries). A total of 337 patients with PNT met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-two patients had hard signs and all of them went to the operating room, of which 59 (72%) had TNE. One hundred fifty-six patients had soft signs, of which CTA was performed in 121 (78%), with positive findings in 12 (10%) patients. The remaining 35 (22%) underwent initial neck exploration, of which 14 (40%) were therapeutic yielding a high rate of negative exploration. Ninty-nine patients were asymptomatic, of which CTA was performed in 79 (80%), with positive findings in 3 (4%), however, none of these patients required TNE. On sub analysis based on symptoms, there was no difference in the rate of TNE between the neck zones in patients with hard signs (P = 0.23) or soft signs (P = 0.51). Regardless of the zone of injury, asymptomatic patients did not require a TNE. Physical examination regardless of the zone of injury should be the primary guide to CTA or TNE in patients with PNT. Following traditional zone-based guidelines can result in unnecessary negative explorations in patients with soft signs and may need rethinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Difference in the Breast Milk Proteome between Allergic and Non-Allergic Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Reina, F.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Zhang, L.; Koppelman, G.H.; Postma, D.S.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Wijga, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has been linked to a reduction in the prevalence of allergy and asthma. However, studies on this relationship vary in outcome, which may partly be related to differences in breast milk composition. In particular breast milk composition may differ between allergic and

  6. Optic neuropathy due to allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Tresa Cyriac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department of our hospital with complaints of blurred vision in the right eye of a few days duration and vague complaints of pain around the eyes. The visual acuity on examination was grossly reduced in the right eye and normal in the left eye. Color vision was normal. Anterior segment examination including pupils was normal. Dilated fundus examination was normal except for temporal pallor in the right optic disc. Automated perimetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of brain and orbit were done. The imaging report showed a bilateral pansinusitis with pressure on the right optic nerve. Perimetry showed a superior field defect on the right side. ENT consultation and computed tomography (CT with contrast helped to diagnose this as a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The patient was started on systemic steroids under the care of the ENT surgeon. After a few days, pre-operative assessment showed a gross improvement of visual acuity. Endoscopic sinus surgery was done to remove the polyps and thick mucus material. Histopathologic examination confirmed allergic fungal mucin. Days after surgery, the visual acuity improved further and repeat perimetry showed gross improvement in the visual field. Good history taking and a detailed ophthalmic examination, keeping in mind the probable causes of loss of vision of few days duration with no findings other than a decreased visual acuity and a suspicious disc, were key to the early diagnosis and investigation in this case. This helped in early referral and management of the case before permanent damage and irreversible visual loss occurred. The optic nerve is a cranial nerve which, once damaged permanently, will not regenerate. The amount of sinus involvement was extensive on both sides and invariably the left optic nerve would have been involved in a few days, if intervention was delayed.

  7. Awareness of allergic enterocolitis among primary-care paediatricians: A web-based pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comberiati, P; Landi, M; Martelli, A; Piacentini, G L; Capristo, C; Paiola, G; Peroni, D G

    2016-01-01

    Allergic enterocolitis, also known as food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), is an increasingly reported and potentially severe non-IgE mediated food allergy of the first years of life, which is often misdiagnosed due to its non-specific presenting symptoms and lack of diagnostic guidelines. We sought to determine the knowledge of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features of FPIES among Italian primary-care paediatricians. A 16-question anonymous web-based survey was sent via email to randomly selected primary care paediatricians working in the north of Italy. There were 194 completed surveys (48.5% response rate). Among respondents, 12.4% declared full understanding of FPIES, 49% limited knowledge, 31.4% had simply heard about FPIES and 7.2% had never heard about it. When presented with clinical anecdotes, 54.1% recognised acute FPIES and 12.9% recognised all chronic FPIES, whereas 10.3% misdiagnosed FPIES as allergic proctocolitis or infantile colic. To diagnose FPIES 55.7% declared to need negative skin prick test or specific-IgE to the trigger food, whereas 56.7% considered necessary a confirmatory oral challenge. Epinephrine was considered the mainstay in treating acute FPIES by 25.8% of respondents. Only 59.8% referred out to an allergist for the long-term reintroduction of the culprit food. Overall, 20.1% reported to care children with FPIES in their practice, with cow's milk formula and fish being the most common triggers; the diagnosis was self-made by the participant in 38.5% of these cases and by an allergist in 48.7%. There is a need for promoting awareness of FPIES to minimise delay in diagnosis and unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. CT in childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.; Bhagat, R.; Panchal, N.; Pant, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    CT of the thorax done during acute severe asthma in two paediatric patients demonstrated central bronchiectasis, a sine qua non for the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Bronchography, regarded as the gold standard, was done subsequently on recovery. A comparative segmental analysis revealed that CT was able to identify immediately 24 of 27 segments which showed central bronchiectasis on bronchography. Early diagnosis with the aid of CT enabled immediate intervention which may have helped to prevent further lung damage in the paediatric patients. (orig.)

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. PREMEDICATION PROTOCOLS IN DENTAL PRACTICE IN ALLERGIC PATIENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Angelina Kisselova; Adriana Krasteva; Assya Krasteva

    2011-01-01

    The problem with choosing a suitable pre-medication protocols before local anesthesia in dentistry in allergic patients is always discussed, as in the dental practice different schemes are already proven (3,5). The propose of this communication is to share the experience on those pre-medication schemes in allergic patients during and outside pollen season.

  11. Expression of Pendrin Periostin in Allergic Rhinitis Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ishida

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: : Production of pendrin and periostin is upregulated in allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin-induced asthma. These findings suggest that pendrin can induce mucus production and that periostin can induce tissue fibrosis and remodeling in the nasal mucosa. Therefore, these mediators may be therapeutic target candidates for allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin- induced asthma.

  12. Advances in pharmacotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Bachert, Claus; Bernstein, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    , surpassing the efficacy of gold standard treatment, intranasal corticosteroids (INS), for the first time. It is indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial allergic rhinitis when monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or INS is NOT considered...

  13. Hyposensitization in nickel allergic contact dermatitis: Clinical and immunologic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.J. Troost (Roger); M.M.A. Kozel (M. M A); C.G. van Helden-Meeuwsen; Th. van Joost (Theo); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); R. Benner (Robbert); E.P. Prens (Errol)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) previously sensitized T cells cause skin damage. If an ubiquitous allergen such as nickel is involved, no effective treatment is available. Down-regulation of this allergic response has been described after antigen presentation in the

  14. Leukotrienes and leukotriene modifiers in pediatric allergic diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    ... 12(1):3-12. 3. Leukotrienes and leukotriene modifiers in pediatric allergic diseases ... childhood allergic diseases. This review ... produce cysteinyl-LTs and LTB4 spontaneously in vitro.8. Although nonleukocyte cells generally do not have sufficient 5-LO and FLAP to synthesize .... uninterrupted sleep in these patients.55.

  15. Prevalence, severity and risk factors of allergic disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the prevalence and risk factors of allergic disorders. Methods: Data ..... with being continuously alert to their eating habits due to fear of allergic ... and fish.6,13,20,23 Genetic factors are known to be incrim- inated with ...

  16. Impact on allergic immune response after treatment with vitamin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Berggård, Karin; Barrios, Yvelise

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vitamin A may have some influence on the immune system, but the role in allergy modulation is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether high levels of retinoic acid (RA) affects allergic response in vivo, we used a murine experimental model of airway allergic disease...

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis...... from ethylhexyl salicylate used as an ultraviolet filter and fragrance compound and reviews the published literature on contact allergy to salicylates....

  18. An update on mycobacteria and the development of allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkerts, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria can diminish allergic and asthmatic manifestations. This means that mycobacteria could offer therapeutical opportunities as an 'anti-allergic' vaccine.In humans, the genetic background and the environment probably contribute to the development of allergies. Over the last 20. years, a

  19. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF EOSINOPHILIA IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common condition, though not life threatening, causes significant morbidity in terms of quality of life. Confirmation of allergen as etiological agent is cumbersome. Hence need for a simple test is vital and eosinophil parameters were looked at to answer the quest. AIM: To find out the prevalence of e osinophilia in Allergic rhinitis . To assess the value of nasal cytogram as an alternative investigation in diagnosing allergic rhinitis . MATERIALS & METHODS: Prospective study of 200 cases divided into two groups of 100 each was done. One group clinically with allergic rhinitis and other without. All cases had clinical examination after history was taken, Blood Absolute eosinophil count, Nasal smear for eosinophils done and assessed. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients examined in two groups of 100 each, mean age of allergic rhinitis patients was 26.22 years . Allergic rhinitis was more common in males than females. Prevalence of nasal eosinophilia was 61%.and blood eosinophilia was 57% in allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal smear sensitivity was 61% and specificity w as 87% . CONCLUSION: Nasal smear eosinophilia is a valid test, can be quickly and easily performed and read. Being an in - expensive test can be used to screen the patients of allergic rhinitis

  20. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  1. Selective suppression of leukocyte recruitment in allergic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Weller

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases result in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The incidence of allergic diseases, notably allergic asthma, has risen to high levels for reasons that are not entirely understood. With an increasing knowledge of underlying mechanisms, there is now more potential to target the inflammatory process rather than the overt symptoms. This focuses attention on the role of leukocytes especially Th2 lymphocytes that regulate allergic inflammation and effector cells where eosinophils have received much attention. Eosinophils are thought to be important based on the high numbers that are recruited to sites of allergic inflammation and the potential of these cells to effect both tissue injury and remodelling. It is hoped that future therapy will be directed towards specific leukocyte types, without overtly compromising essential host defence responses. One obvious target is leukocyte recruitment. This necessitates a detailed understanding of underlying mechanisms, particularly those involving soluble che-moattractants signals and cell-cell adhesion molecules.

  2. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C D; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of sensitivity to the cosmetic preservative methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) has increased significantly in Europe. Most cases of allergic contact dermatitis from MDBGN are caused by leave-on cosmetic products. The risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis from...... series of MDBGN to determine their patch test threshold values. RESULTS: Seven presensitized individuals (37%) developed allergic contact dermatitis from the soap containing MDBGN. The mean dose of MDBGN per application was 2.2 micro g cm-2 and the reactions appeared between days 6 and 34. All nine...... rinse-off products has been less studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the allergic response elicited in presensitized individuals from exposure to a rinse-off product preserved with the maximum permitted level of MDBGN. METHODS: Nineteen contact allergic individuals and nine controls participated...

  3. Diagnosing Allergic Contact Dermatitis Through Elimination, Perception, Detection and Deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Puangpet, Pailin; Thaiwat, Supitchaya; McFadden, John P

    2017-10-01

    Several authors have commented upon the skills of detection required in making a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we emphasise the search for clues in a systematic manner. We describe four stages as part of a systematic method for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis. Firstly, elimination (or inclusion) of non-allergic diagnoses. Secondly, perception: the pre-patch test diagnosis and the 'three scenarios' principle. Thirdly, detection: optimising the sensitivity of the patch test process. Fourthly, deduction: diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis by associating the dermatitis with the allergen exposure. We further compare and contrast the pre-patch test history and examination with the markedly different one ('microhistory' and 'microexamination') used after patch testing. The importance of knowledge of contact dermatitis literature is emphasised with a review of recent publications. Finally, we also highlight the use of contact allergy profiling as an investigative tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.

  4. Importins and Exportins Regulating Allergic Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of macromolecules is a well-controlled process involving importins and exportins. These karyopherins recognize and bind to receptor-mediated intracellular signals through specific signal sequences that are present on cargo proteins and transport into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear localization signals (NLS present on cargo molecules to be imported while nuclear export signals (NES on the molecules to be exported are recognized by importins and exportins, respectively. The classical NLS are found on many transcription factors and molecules that are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. In addition, several immune modulators, including corticosteroids and vitamin D, elicit their cellular responses by regulating the expression and activity of importin molecules. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive list of importin and exportin molecules and their specific cargo that shuttled between cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also critically review the role and regulation of specific importin and exportin involved in the transport of activated transcription factors in allergic diseases, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the potential target sites for developing better therapeutic approaches.

  5. Allergy and allergic mediators in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    The identification of inflammatory mediators in the tear fluid have been extensively used in ocular allergy to find either a 'disease marker', to better understand the immune mechanisms involved in the ocular surface inflammation, or to identify potential targets for therapeutic interventions. While the clinical characteristics allow a relatively convincing diagnosis of ocular allergic diseases, in the initial, non active phases, or in the chronic stages, the diagnosis may not be clear. Although not highly specific, total tear IgE can be measured with local tests by inserting a paper strip in the lower meniscus. The measurement of tear specific inflammatory markers, such as histamine, tryptase, ECP, IL-4, IL-5 and eotaxin, may be useful for the diagnosis or monitoring ocular allergy. New technologies such as multiplex bead assays, membrane-bound antibody array and proteomic techniques can characterize the distribution of a wide range of bioactive trace proteins in tears. Dozens of mediators, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, angiogenic modulators, enzymes and inhibitors were thus identified in small tear samples using these techniques, providing the possible identification of specific biomarker for either specific disease or disease activity. However, to date, there is no a single specific laboratory test suitable for the diagnosis and monitoring of allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational allergic rhinitis from guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Tupasela, O; Jolanki, R; Vaheri, E; Estlander, T; Keskinen, H

    1988-05-01

    Three cases of allergic rhinitis from a vegetable gum, guar gum, have been detected. Two subjects were exposed to fine guar gum powder (Emco Gum 563, Meyhall Chemical AG, Switzerland), an insulator in rubber cables, when opening cables in a power cable laboratory. After 1-2 years' exposure the patients developed rhinitis. Scratch-chamber tests, nasal provocation tests, nasal eosinophilia and a RAST test proved their allergy. A third subject developed allergic rhinitis from another guar gum product (Meyproid 5306, Meyhall Chemical AG) after 2 years' exposure in a paper factory. A positive skin test and nasal provocation test confirmed the diagnosis. A fourth case of possible allergy to guar gum after exposure to Meyproid 5306 in a paper factory is also presented. No final diagnosis was reached in this case (in 1974). The present subjects, only one of whom was atopic, developed allergy within 2 years, although their exposure to guar gum was not especially heavy. Therefore, when handling guar, adequate ventilation facilities should be provided and protective clothing, including a respiratory mask, should be worn.

  7. The criteria for the decision of transrectal US-guided prostate biopsy: Can we reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Joon Hyung; Cho, Jae Ho; Ahn, Jay Hong; Chang, Jay Chun

    2001-01-01

    To establish the criteria which can safely reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies by comparing the transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) findings, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) in the decision of criteria for the prostatic biopsy using TRUS. Two hundred and twenty patients underwent TRUS- guided prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA and/or focal nodule on TRUS were included. Sixty five (27.5%) patients were confirmed as prostate cancer, and remained 155 (70.5%) patients were reported as benign diseases including benign prostate hyperplasia. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TRUS, PSA and PSAD were evaluated and the single criterion or the combination of the criteria which can safely reduce the unnecessary biopsies without missing prostatic cancer were investigated. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TRUS, PSA (cut-off value, 4 ng/ml) and PSAD (cut-off level, 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 ) were 78.5%/95.4%/95.4%/27.8%/51.6%/64/5%, 42.7%/64.5%/73.6%, respectively. PSAD cut-off level 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 was the most excellent single criterion for the decision of prostatic biopsy and the number of unnecessary biopsies was 100 cases. But 3 cases of prostatic cancer which the PSAD level was below 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 were included and in all these 3 cases, a focal nodule was detected on TRUS. Therefore, we applied these two criteria at once and the biopsies of 30 cases (13.6%) are unnecessary. With the single criterion, we could not obtain the satisfactory results but by the combinations of criteria (TRUS and PSAD), 30 (13.6%) cases are unnecessary biopsies without missing cancer. We think that the short term follow-up may be a substitute for the immediate when nodular lesion is suspicious on TRUS and serum PSAD level is below 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 .

  8. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis among construction workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the important occupational hazards in construction workers and it often leads to poor quality of life of the workers with substantial financial loss. However, this is often a neglected entity. There are no past studies on the construction workers in Indian subcontinent. Objective: This pilot study has been done to assess the allergological profile among the workers engaged in construction of roads and bridges. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among the workers working on construction of a bridge, flyover, and roads in West Bengal, India. Sixteen workers were selected on clinical suspicion. Ten were selected randomly and patch tested with Indian standard battery of patch test allergens. Analysis of reactions and relevance of positive test was assessed as per standard guidelines. Results: All the workers were men. Average age of workers was 24.8 years (range, 19-34 years. Dermatitis affected exposed parts in 93.75% and covered areas in 62.5%. Total positive test was 24 and relevant 11. Most common allergens were chromate (relevant allergy/RA: in 60% of patch tested workers, epoxy resin (RA: 30%, cobalt (RA: 20%, nickel (RA: 20%, thiuram mixture (RA: 10% and black rubber mix (RA: 10%. Two cases (20% had irritant contact dermatitis. Conclusion: The result indicated that chromate is the most frequent allergen among construction workers in this part of India. High frequency of involvement of the covered areas as well as the exposed areas highlighted the fact that the allergens had access to most body parts of the workers.

  9. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens.

  10. Prevention of allergic disease in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    rhinoconjunctivitis. In one prospective observational study of a birth cohort of unselected infants we evaluated possible predictive/risk factors. In two prospective intervention studies including 1 yr birth cohorts of high-risk(HR) infants we investigated the effect of feeding HR infants exclusively breast milk (BM......The development and phenotypic expression of atopic diseases depends on a complex interaction between genetic factors, environmental exposure to allergens,and non-specific adjuvant factors, such as tobacco smoke, air pollution and infections. Preventive measures may include both exposure...... to allergens and adjuvant risk/protective factors and pharmacological treatment. These measures may address the general population, children at risk for development of atopic disease (high-risk infants), children with early symptoms of allergic disease or children with chronic disease. The objective...

  11. Allergic Broncho Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicated by Nocardiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 70-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma who presented with increasing breathlessness for 5 months. He was diagnosed to have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA by serological and radiographic criteria. He was treated with steroids and itraconazole. After initial improvement, he developed fever with cough and mucopurulent sputum. X-ray chest revealed multiple cavities with air fluid level. Patient was treated with antibiotics without any response. Sputum was negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB. Sputum culture for bacteria and fungus did not reveal any significant growth; however a delayed growth of Nocardia was noted on fungal plates. Modified Ziehl Nelsen stain was positive for AFB. Patient was treated with cotrimoxazole. We discuss the serological and radiological criteria of ABPA, presentation and treatment of nocardia pulmonary infection and other possible causes of necrotizing pneumonia in immunocompromised settings.

  12. Occupational issues of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is often of multifactorial origin, and it is difficult to determine the relative significance of the various contributing factors. Contact allergies are relevant in 20-50% of recognised occupational contact dermatitis cases. The reported frequency in different...... of the reported contact allergies is often uncertain. Many occupational contact dermatitis patients with documented contact allergies develop chronic eczema, in spite of work changes and attempted allergen avoidance. Recognition/non-recognition of a notified case may be based on circumstantial evidence, because......-effect relationships to be established with increased certainty. For prevention of allergic contact dermatitis it was a major step forward, with mandatory ingredient labelling of cosmetic products. However, improved labelling of the presence of contact allergens in household and industrial products is needed...

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether...... the prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy...... and ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. The Treatment of Allergic Respiratory Disease During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazy, Jai; Schatz, M

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy may be complicated by new-onset or preexisting asthma and allergic rhinitis.This article reviews the recognition and management of asthma and allergic rhinitis during pregnancy, paying close attention to the general principles of allergy and use of asthma medication during pregnancy. Both allergic rhinitis and asthma can adversely affect both maternal quality of life and, in the case of maternal asthma, perinatal outcomes. Optimal management is thus important for both mother and baby. This article reviews the safety of asthma and allergy medications commonly used during pregnancy.

  16. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  17. Semaphorin 3A controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmi Tanaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the efficacy of topical Semaphorin-3A (SEMA3A in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. METHODS: Experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC mice model induced by short ragweed pollen (SRW in 4-week-old of BALB/c mice, mice were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, immunofluorescence and light microscope photographs. Early phase took the samples in 24h after instillation and late phase took the samples between 4 to 14d after the start of treatment. The study use of topical SEMA3A (10 U, 100 U, 1000 U eye drops and subconjunctival injection of SEMA3A with same concentration. For comparison, five types of allergy eyedrops were quantified using clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Clinical score of composite ocular symptoms of the mice treated with SEMA3A were significantly decreased both in the immediate phase and the late phase compared to those treated with commercial ophthalmic formulations and non-treatment mice. SEMA3A treatment attenuates infiltration of eosinophils entering into conjunctiva in EAC mice. The score of eosinophil infiltration in the conjunctiva of SEMA3A 1000 U-treated group were significantly lower than low-concentration of SEMA3A treated groups and non-treated group. SEMA3A treatment also suppressed T-cell proliferation in vitro and decreased serum total IgE levels in EAC mice. Moreover, Treatment of SEMA3A suppressed Th2-related cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α release, but increased regulatory cytokine IL-10 concentration in the conjunctiva of EAC mice. CONCLUSIONS: SEMA3A as a biological agent, showed the beneficial activity in ocular allergic processes with the less damage to the intraocular tissue. It is expected that SEMA3A may be contributed in patients with a more severe spectrum of refractory ocular allergic diseases including allergic conjunctivitis in the near future.

  18. Earthquake and volcano hazard notices: An economic evaluation of changes in risk perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Brookshire, D.S.; Thayer, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Earthquake and volcano hazard notices were issued for the Mammoth Lakes, California area by the U.S. Geological Survey under the authority granted by the Disaster Relief Act of 1974. The effects on investment, recretion visitation, and risk perceptionsare explored. The hazard notices did not affect recreation visitation, although investment was affected. A perceived loss in the market value of homes was documented. Risk perceptions were altered for property owners. Communication of the probability of an event over time would enhance hazard notices as a policy instrument and would mitigate unnecessary market perturbations. ?? 1990.

  19. Unnecessary antiretroviral treatment switches and accumulation of HIV resistance mutations; two arguments for viral load monitoring in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigaloff, Kim C E; Hamers, Raph L; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E; Mandaliya, Kishor; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S; van Vugt, Michèle; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the consequences of using clinicoimmunological criteria to detect antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure and guide regimen switches in HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Frequencies of unnecessary switches, patterns of HIV drug resistance, and risk factors for the accumulation of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-associated mutations were evaluated. Cross-sectional analysis of adults switching ART regimens at 13 clinical sites in 6 African countries was performed. Two types of failure identification were compared: diagnosis of clinicoimmunological failure without viral load testing (CIF only) or CIF with local targeted viral load testing (targeted VL). After study enrollment, reference HIV RNA and genotype were determined retrospectively. Logistic regression assessed factors associated with multiple thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) and NRTI cross-resistance (≥2 TAMs or Q151M or K65R/K70E). Of 250 patients with CIF switching to second-line ART, targeted VL was performed in 186. Unnecessary switch at reference HIV RNA <1000 copies per milliliter occurred in 46.9% of CIF only patients versus 12.4% of patients with targeted VL (P < 0.001). NRTI cross-resistance was observed in 48.0% of 183 specimens available for genotypic analysis, comprising ≥2 TAMs (37.7%), K65R (7.1%), K70E (3.3%), or Q151M (3.3%). The presence of NRTI cross-resistance was associated with the duration of ART exposure and zidovudine use. Clinicoimmunological monitoring without viral load testing resulted in frequent unnecessary regimen switches. Prolonged treatment failure was indicated by extensive NRTI cross-resistance. Access to virological monitoring should be expanded to prevent inappropriate switches, enable early failure detection and preserve second-line treatment options in Africa.

  20. Trial Manufacture and Evaluation of a Hologram with an unnecessary development process at 1.55 μm

    OpenAIRE

    大島, 茂

    2016-01-01

    A holographic optical element (HOE) for optical fiber coupling has been investigated. The hologram with an unnecessary development process has been manufactured at wavelength of 1.55μm. Diimonium organic dye was used for photosensitive material. Because diimonium organic dye did not stick to a plate glass, acrylic resin was used for binder resin. The thin film of the organic dye was exposed by improved equipment for high power light irradiation at wavelength of 1.55μm. The thin film became th...

  1. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  2. CT-semiotics and clinical aspects of extrinsic allergic alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrynnikova, I.P.; Momot, N.V.; Vakulenko, I.P.; Tanasichuk-Gazhieva, N.V

    2003-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be a difficult diagnostic problem. The comparison of the results of CT research with the clinical immunological and morphological data allowed to define the forms and diagnose the characteristic symptoms of the disease

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented.

  4. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  5. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  6. Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Pregnancy: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pali-Sch?ll, Isabella; Motala, Cassim; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Asthma and allergic disorders can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy. Pregnancy itself may also affect the course of asthma and related diseases. Optimal management of these disorders during pregnancy is vital to ensure the welfare of the mother and the baby. Specific pharmacological agents for treatment of asthma or allergic diseases must be cautiously selected and are discussed here with respect to safety considerations in pregnancy. Although most drugs do not harm the fetus, this k...

  7. [Characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis with positive skin prick test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Jiang, Y; Jin, Y M; Zhang, J Y; Li, Y

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To observe the clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis, and the correlations with skin prick test results. Methods: A retrospective study. Forty patients with positive skin prick test result were included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 5 groups. All dates were analyzed for the dependence, normality and homogeneity of variance. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman correlation analysis were performed accordingly. Results: Among 40 patients, 18(45.0%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 14(35.0%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 5(12.5%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 2(5.0%) had atopic keratoconjunctivits, and 1(2.5%) had giant papillary conjunctivitis. There was no significant difference in the number of symptoms and signs score among different types of allergic conjunctivitis, the score of itching and hyperemia had a positive relationship with the number of positive allergens ( r =0.74, Ptest of the allergen, the more symptoms and signs encountered in terms of severity. Conclusion: Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder, the most important clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are itching and conjunctival congestion, the main allergens are dust and pollens, patients may be sensitive to multiple allergens. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 689-693) .

  8. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ying Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Very few studies investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis patients using heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Methods. Eleven patients with allergic rhinitis and 13 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 40 years old, were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was based on clinical history, symptoms, and positive Phadiatop test. Electrocardiographic recordings on the sitting and supine positions were obtained for HRV analysis. Results. In the supine position, there were no significant statistical differences in very-low-frequency power (VLF, ≤0.04 Hz, low-frequency power (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz, high-frequency power (HF, 0.15–0.40 Hz, and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF between the patient and control groups. The mean RR intervals significantly increased, while LF% and LF/HF significantly decreased in the patient group in the sitting position. Moreover, mean RR intervals, LF, and LF/HF, which were significantly different between the two positions in the control group, did not show a significant change with the posture change in the patient group. Conclusion. These suggest that patients with allergic rhinitis may have poor sympathetic modulation in the sitting position. Autonomic dysfunction may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis.

  9. Imaging of the elbow in children with wrist fracture: an unnecessary source of radiation and use of resources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golding, Lauren P.; Yasin, Yousef; Singh, Jasmeet; Anthony, Evelyn; Gyr, Bettina M.; Gardner, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally accepted practice for evaluation of children with clinically suspected or radiographically proven wrist fracture in many urgent care and primary care settings is concurrent imaging of the forearm and elbow, despite the lack of evidence to support additional images. These additional radiographs may be an unnecessary source of radiation and use of health care resources. Our study assesses the necessity of additional radiographs of the forearm and elbow in children with wrist injury. We reviewed electronic medical records of children 17 and younger in whom wrist fracture was diagnosed in the emergency department. We identified the frequency with which additional radiographs of the proximal forearm and distal humerus demonstrated another site of acute injury. We identified 214 children with wrist fracture. Of those, 129 received additional radiographs of the elbow. Physical examination findings proximal to the wrist were documented in only 16 (12%) of these 129 children. A second injury proximal to the wrist fracture was present in 4 (3%) of these 129 children, all of whom exhibited physical examination findings at the elbow. No fractures were documented in children with a negative physical examination of the elbow. Although elbow fractures occasionally complicate distal forearm fractures in children, our findings indicate that a careful physical evaluation of the elbow is sufficient to guide further radiographic investigation. Routine radiographs of both the wrist and elbow in children with distal forearm fracture appear to be unnecessary when an appropriate physical examination is performed. (orig.)

  10. Imaging of the elbow in children with wrist fracture: an unnecessary source of radiation and use of resources?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golding, Lauren P. [Wake Forest University Baptist Health, Department of Radiology, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Triad Radiology Associates, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Yasin, Yousef; Singh, Jasmeet; Anthony, Evelyn [Wake Forest University Baptist Health, Department of Radiology, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Gyr, Bettina M. [Wake Forest University Baptist Health, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Gardner, Alison [Wake Forest University Baptist Health, Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Anecdotally accepted practice for evaluation of children with clinically suspected or radiographically proven wrist fracture in many urgent care and primary care settings is concurrent imaging of the forearm and elbow, despite the lack of evidence to support additional images. These additional radiographs may be an unnecessary source of radiation and use of health care resources. Our study assesses the necessity of additional radiographs of the forearm and elbow in children with wrist injury. We reviewed electronic medical records of children 17 and younger in whom wrist fracture was diagnosed in the emergency department. We identified the frequency with which additional radiographs of the proximal forearm and distal humerus demonstrated another site of acute injury. We identified 214 children with wrist fracture. Of those, 129 received additional radiographs of the elbow. Physical examination findings proximal to the wrist were documented in only 16 (12%) of these 129 children. A second injury proximal to the wrist fracture was present in 4 (3%) of these 129 children, all of whom exhibited physical examination findings at the elbow. No fractures were documented in children with a negative physical examination of the elbow. Although elbow fractures occasionally complicate distal forearm fractures in children, our findings indicate that a careful physical evaluation of the elbow is sufficient to guide further radiographic investigation. Routine radiographs of both the wrist and elbow in children with distal forearm fracture appear to be unnecessary when an appropriate physical examination is performed. (orig.)

  11. The value of a poison control center in preventing unnecessary ED visits and hospital charges: A multi-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Casey R; Malheiro, Marty C; Bennett, Heather K W; Crouch, Barbara I

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the economic value of the Utah Poison Control Center (UPCC) by examining its contribution to the reduction of unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits and associated charges across multiple years. A multi-year (2009-2014) analysis of cross-sectional data was performed. Callers were asked what they would do for a poison emergency if the UPCC was not available. Healthcare charges for ED visits averted were calculated according to insurance status using charges obtained from a statewide database. Of the 10,656 survey attempts, 5018 were completed. Over 30,000 cases were managed on-site each year. Using the proportion of callers who noted they would call 911, visit an ED, or call a physician's office, between 20.0 and 24.2 thousand ED visits were potentially prevented each year of the survey. Between $16.6 and $24.4 million dollars in unnecessary healthcare charges were potentially averted annually. Compared to the cost of operation, the service UPCC provides demonstrates economic value by reducing ED visits and associated charges. As the majority of patients have private insurance, the largest benefit falls to private payers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phthalate exposure through different pathways and allergic sensitization in preschool children with asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Callesen, Michael; Weschler, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies in rodents indicate that phthalates can function as adjuvants, increasing the potency of allergens. Meanwhile, epidemiological studies have produced inconsistent findings regarding relationships between phthalate exposures and allergic disease in humans. The present study examined phthala...

  13. The Relationship Between the Status of Unnecessary Accommodations Being Made to Unconfirmed Food Allergy Students and the Presence or Absence of a Doctor’s Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurika Ganaha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the current state of unnecessary children food allergy accommodation and the medical efforts to confirm the existence of food allergies in school lunch service kitchens in Okinawa, Japan, including kitchens accommodating food allergy students by requiring medical documentation at the start and during provisions being made (Double Diagnosis, requiring medical documentation at the start only (Single Diagnosis, and with no medical documentation (Non-Diagnosis. Unnecessary accommodations are being made to unconfirmed food allergy students, wherein the more medical consultation was required, the lower the food allergy incident rate was and the more food allergens were diagnosed (Non-Diagnosis > Single Diagnosis > Double Diagnosis. This study suggests the possibility that unconfirmed food allergy students may be receiving unnecessary food allergy accommodations per school lunches, and the number of unnecessary food allergy provisions being made could be reduced by requiring medical documentation at the start and during these provisions.

  14. Memory and multitasking performance during acute allergic inflammation in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikojat, K; Buske-Kirschbaum, A; Plessow, F; Schmitt, J; Fischer, R

    2017-04-01

    In previous research, patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) showed poorer school and work performance during periods of acute allergic inflammation, supporting the idea of an impact of SAR on cognitive functions. However, the specific cognitive domains particularly vulnerable to inflammatory processes are unclear. In this study, the influence of SAR on memory and multitasking performance, as two potentially vulnerable cognitive domains essential in everyday life functioning, was investigated in patients with SAR. Non-medicated patients with SAR (n = 41) and healthy non-allergic controls (n = 42) performed a dual-task paradigm and a verbal learning and memory test during and out of symptomatic allergy periods (pollen vs. non-pollen season). Disease-related factors (e.g. symptom severity, duration of symptoms, duration of disease) and allergy-related quality of life were evaluated as potential influences of cognitive performance. During the symptomatic allergy period, patients showed (1) poorer performance in word list-based learning (P = 0.028) and (2) a general slowing in processing speed (P multitasking. Yet, typical parameters indicating specific multitasking costs were not affected. A significant negative association was found between learning performance and duration of disease (r = -0.451, P = 0.004), whereas symptom severity (r = 0.326; P = 0.037) and quality of life (r = 0.379; P = 0.015) were positively associated with multitasking strategy. Our findings suggest that SAR has a differentiated and complex impact on cognitive functions, which should be considered in the management of SAR symptoms. They also call attention to the importance of selecting sensitive measures and carefully interpreting cognitive outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  16. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  17. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  18. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Allergic Rhinitis: Further Epidemiological Evidence from Changchun, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Bo; Zhang, Xuelei; Yi, Chunhui; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Shufeng; Wang, Yafang; Tong, Daniel Q.; Lu, Binfeng

    2017-01-01

    With the continuous rapid urbanization process over the last three decades, outdoors air pollution has become a progressively more serious public health hazard in China. To investigate the possible associations, lag effects and seasonal differences of urban air quality on respiratory health (allergic rhinitis) in Changchun, a city in Northeastern China, we carried out a time-series analysis of the incidents of allergic rhinitis (AR) from 2013 to 2015. Environmental monitoring showed that PM2.5 and PM10 were the major air pollutants in Changchun, followed by SO2, NO2 and O3. The results also demonstrated that the daily concentrations of air pollutants had obvious seasonal differences. PM10 had higher daily mean concentrations in spring (May, dust storms), autumn (October, straw burning) and winter (November to April, coal burning). The mean daily number of outpatient AR visits in the warm season was higher than in the cold season. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NO2, and the increased mobility was 10.2% (95% CI, 5.5%–15.1%), 4.9% (95% CI, 0.8%–9.2%), 8.5% (95% CI, −1.8%–19.8%) and 11.1% (95% CI, 5.8%–16.5%) for exposure to each 1-Standard Deviation (1-SD) increase of pollutant, respectively. Weakly or no significant associations were observed for CO and O3. As for lag effects, the highest Relative Risks (RRs) of AR from SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were on the same day, and the highest RR from CO was on day 4 (L4). The results also indicated that the concentration of air pollutants might contribute to the development of AR. To summarize, this study provides further evidence of the significant association between ambient particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10, which are usually present in high concentrations) and the prevalence of respiratory effects (allergic rhinitis) in the city of Changchun, located in Northeastern China. Environmental control and public health strategies should be enforced to

  19. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Allergic Rhinitis: Further Epidemiological Evidence from Changchun, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Teng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous rapid urbanization process over the last three decades, outdoors air pollution has become a progressively more serious public health hazard in China. To investigate the possible associations, lag effects and seasonal differences of urban air quality on respiratory health (allergic rhinitis in Changchun, a city in Northeastern China, we carried out a time-series analysis of the incidents of allergic rhinitis (AR from 2013 to 2015. Environmental monitoring showed that PM2.5 and PM10 were the major air pollutants in Changchun, followed by SO2, NO2 and O3. The results also demonstrated that the daily concentrations of air pollutants had obvious seasonal differences. PM10 had higher daily mean concentrations in spring (May, dust storms, autumn (October, straw burning and winter (November to April, coal burning. The mean daily number of outpatient AR visits in the warm season was higher than in the cold season. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NO2, and the increased mobility was 10.2% (95% CI, 5.5%–15.1%, 4.9% (95% CI, 0.8%–9.2%, 8.5% (95% CI, −1.8%–19.8% and 11.1% (95% CI, 5.8%–16.5% for exposure to each 1-Standard Deviation (1-SD increase of pollutant, respectively. Weakly or no significant associations were observed for CO and O3. As for lag effects, the highest Relative Risks (RRs of AR from SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were on the same day, and the highest RR from CO was on day 4 (L4. The results also indicated that the concentration of air pollutants might contribute to the development of AR. To summarize, this study provides further evidence of the significant association between ambient particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10, which are usually present in high concentrations and the prevalence of respiratory effects (allergic rhinitis in the city of Changchun, located in Northeastern China. Environmental control and public health strategies should be enforced to

  20. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  1. The role of heparanase in pulmonary cell recruitment in response to an allergic but not non-allergic stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Morris

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix. Expression of this enzyme is increased in several pathological conditions including inflammation. We have investigated the role of heparanase in pulmonary inflammation in the context of allergic and non-allergic pulmonary cell recruitment using heparanase knockout (Hpa-/- mice as a model. Following local delivery of LPS or zymosan, no significant difference was found in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung between Hpa-/- and wild type (WT control. Similarly neutrophil recruitment was not inhibited in WT mice treated with a heparanase inhibitor. However, in allergic inflammatory models, Hpa-/- mice displayed a significantly reduced eosinophil (but not neutrophil recruitment to the airways and this was also associated with a reduction in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, indicating that heparanase expression is associated with allergic reactions. This was further demonstrated by pharmacological treatment with a heparanase inhibitor in the WT allergic mice. Examination of lung specimens from patients with different severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD found increased heparanase expression. Thus, it is established that heparanase contributes to allergen-induced eosinophil recruitment to the lung and could provide a novel therapeutic target for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to turmeric in kumkum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendranath Lal M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A forty-three year old house-wife developed dermatitis over the center of forehead following application of kumkum, bindi and sticker (except one brand since six months. Patch testing with various brands of kumkum and regularly available sticker used by the patient elicited positive reaction except one brand used by the patient. Kumkum is made by mixing turmeric (Curcuma longa powder with small amount of lime (calcium hydroxide. She was patch tested with turmeric, to which she developed positive reaction. Subsequently she was patch tested with turmeric powder boiled and air-dried and also the acetone-extract and precipitate of the powder. She tested positive to all the extracts and precipitates, but the turmeric powder which was dried by boiling did not elicit positive reaction. She was advised to use boiled and dried turmeric to make kumkum for use. However, the kumkum powder prepared following boiling had lost its adhesive property and hence was unacceptable. She was offered Castellani′s paint and eosin with starch for application. Both were acceptable for 2 months, but she subsequently developed irritant reaction to the paint with starch. She continues to use the non-allergic sticker (Kanchan sticker kumkum while we are trying to find other alternatives to kumkum.

  3. Investigational new drugs for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketti, Peter A; Alandijani, Sultan; Lin, Chen Hsing; Casale, Thomas B

    2017-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a multifactorial disease characterized by paroxysmal symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip and nasal congestion. For over a century, subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) has been recognized as the most effective therapy to date that may modify the underlying disease course and provide long-term benefits for individuals refractory to pharmacotherapy. However, over the past 25 years, there has been substantial growth in developing alternative therapies to traditional SCIT. Areas covered: This article will review the most current literature focusing on advancements of AR therapies. Novel AR therapies that are currently under investigation include: the addition of omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) monoclonal antibody (mAb), to SCIT; altering the method of delivery of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) including sublingual (SLIT), epicutaneous (EIT), intralymphatic (ILIT), intranasal (INIT) and oral mucosal immunotherapy (OMIT); use of capsaicin spray; novel H3 and H4 antihistamines; activation of the innate immune system through Toll-like receptor agonists; and the use of chemically altered allergens, allergoids, recombinant allergens and relevant T-cell epitope peptides to improve the efficacy and safety of AIT. Expert opinion: These promising novel therapies may offer more effective and/or safer treatment options for AR patients, and in some instances, induce immunologic tolerance.

  4. Allergic asthma biomarkers using systems approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab eSircar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by lung inflammation caused by complex interaction between the immune system and environmental factors such as allergens and inorganic pollutants. Recent research in this field is focused on discovering new biomarkers associated with asthma pathogenesis. This review illustrates updated research associating biomarkers of allergic asthma and their potential use in systems biology of the disease. We focus on biomolecules with altered expression, which may serve as inflammatory, diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of asthma discovered in human or experimental asthma model using genomic, proteomic and epigenomic approaches for gene and protein expression profiling. These include high-throughput technologies such as state of the art microarray and proteomics Mass Spectrometry (MS platforms. Emerging concepts of molecular interactions and pathways may provide new insights in searching potential clinical biomarkers. We summarized certain pathways with significant linkage to asthma pathophysiology by analyzing the compiled biomarkers. Systems approaches with this data can identify the regulating networks, which will eventually identify the key biomarkers to be used for diagnostics and drug discovery.

  5. A Controlled Quasi-Experimental Study of an Educational Intervention to Reduce the Unnecessary Use of Antimicrobials For Asymptomatic Bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Neal; Brooks, Annie; Mithoowani, Siraj; Celetti, Steve J; Main, Cheryl; Mertz, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) should only be treated in cases of pregnancy or in-patients undergoing urologic procedures; however, unnecessary treatment of ABU is common in clinical practice. To identify risk factors for unnecessary treatment and to assess the impact of an educational intervention focused on these risk factors on treatment of ABU. Quasi-experimental study with a control group. Two tertiary teaching adult care hospitals. Consecutive patients with positive urine cultures between January 30th and April 17th, 2012 (baseline) and January 30th and April 30th, 2013 (intervention). In January 2013, a multifaceted educational intervention based on risk factors identified during the baseline period was provided to medical residents (monthly) on one clinical teaching unit (CTU) at one hospital site, with the CTU of the other hospital serving as the control. During the baseline period, 160/341 (46.9%) positive urine cultures were obtained from asymptomatic patients at the two hospitals, and 94/160 (58.8%) were inappropriately treated with antibiotics. Risk factors for inappropriate use included: female gender (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.3), absence of a catheter (OR 2.5, 1.2-5), bacteriuria versus candiduria (OR 10.6, 3.8-29.4), pyuria (OR 2.0, 1.1-3.8), and positive nitrites (OR 2.2, 1.1-4.5). In 2013, only 2/24 (8%) of ABU patients were inappropriately treated on the intervention CTU as compared to 14/29 (52%) on the control CTU (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02-0.49). A reduction was also observed as compared to baseline on the intervention CTU (OR 0.1, 0.02-0.7) with no significant change noted on the control CTU (OR 0.47, 0.13-1.7). A multifaceted educational intervention geared towards medical residents with a focus on identified risk factors for inappropriate management of ABU was effective in reducing unnecessary antibiotic use.

  6. A Controlled Quasi-Experimental Study of an Educational Intervention to Reduce the Unnecessary Use of Antimicrobials For Asymptomatic Bacteriuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Irfan

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU should only be treated in cases of pregnancy or in-patients undergoing urologic procedures; however, unnecessary treatment of ABU is common in clinical practice.To identify risk factors for unnecessary treatment and to assess the impact of an educational intervention focused on these risk factors on treatment of ABU.Quasi-experimental study with a control group.Two tertiary teaching adult care hospitals.Consecutive patients with positive urine cultures between January 30th and April 17th, 2012 (baseline and January 30th and April 30th, 2013 (intervention.In January 2013, a multifaceted educational intervention based on risk factors identified during the baseline period was provided to medical residents (monthly on one clinical teaching unit (CTU at one hospital site, with the CTU of the other hospital serving as the control.During the baseline period, 160/341 (46.9% positive urine cultures were obtained from asymptomatic patients at the two hospitals, and 94/160 (58.8% were inappropriately treated with antibiotics. Risk factors for inappropriate use included: female gender (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.3, absence of a catheter (OR 2.5, 1.2-5, bacteriuria versus candiduria (OR 10.6, 3.8-29.4, pyuria (OR 2.0, 1.1-3.8, and positive nitrites (OR 2.2, 1.1-4.5. In 2013, only 2/24 (8% of ABU patients were inappropriately treated on the intervention CTU as compared to 14/29 (52% on the control CTU (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02-0.49. A reduction was also observed as compared to baseline on the intervention CTU (OR 0.1, 0.02-0.7 with no significant change noted on the control CTU (OR 0.47, 0.13-1.7.A multifaceted educational intervention geared towards medical residents with a focus on identified risk factors for inappropriate management of ABU was effective in reducing unnecessary antibiotic use.

  7. The role of parental health care utilization in children's unnecessary utilization in China: evidence from Shaanxi province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Zhongliang; Si, Yafei

    2017-03-09

    China has a large population of children under 18 years of age, whose health is of great concern to the Chinese health care system. However, few studies have been conducted to analyze the factors associated with children's unnecessary health care utilization in China. The objective of this study is to provide some empirical evidence on this issue by investigating the role of parental health care utilization in children's unnecessary health care use. The data were obtained from the fifth Health Service Survey of Shaanxi province in 2013. We employed three dependent variables to measure children's health care utilization: the number of children's outpatient visits during the past 2 weeks, whether or not infusion was used if the child had any outpatient visits during the past 2 weeks, and the number of children's inpatient visits during last year. Based on specific characteristics of these outcome variables, negative binomial models were used for the non-negative numbers of outpatient and inpatient visits, while a probit model was used for the zero-one indicator variable showing whether infusion was used during outpatient visits. Based on a sample of 11,024 children, our results of multivariate analysis showed that children whose parents used outpatient care were estimated to have a larger number of outpatient visits than those whose parents did not have outpatient visits in the past 2 weeks (with a difference of 0.0393 visits). Among children having outpatient visits in the last 2 weeks, the probability of obtaining infusion was 57.01 percentage points higher for children whose parents used infusion in the past 2 weeks than the probability for those whose parents did not use infusion. The predicted number of inpatient visits was higher for children whose parents used inpatient services in the last year, compared with the group whose parents did not use (with a difference of 0.0567 visits). Moreover, we noted that the positive association between parental and

  8. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Zaki, Amirah Mohd; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety – median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress – median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5)control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis(p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety.

  9. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Mohd Zaki, Amirah; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-02-07

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety - median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress - median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5) control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis (p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The impact of evaluating platelet transfusion need by platelet mass index on reducing the unnecessary transfusions in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahvecioglu, Dilek; Erdeve, Omer; Alan, Serdar; Cakir, Ufuk; Yildiz, Duran; Atasay, Begum; Arsan, Saadet

    2014-11-01

    Almost 95% of the platelet transfusions (PTs) conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are prophylactic transfusions. Guidelines for prophylactic PTs are based on platelet counts, but not on platelet functions. Nowadays, in order to reduce unnecessary transfusions, utilizing platelet mass index (PMI) was investigated. The aim of study is to find out whether PTs performed in our NICU during last 2 years were in accordance with the current guideline and to evaluate whether the frequency of PTs should be reduced if PMI was considered. Forty-three infants who received 96 prophylactic PTs were enrolled in the study. The guideline utilized in our NICU advocate keeping the platelet count: (a) >100 000 in pre/post-operative, (b) >50 000 in unstable and (c) >20 000 in stable patients. According to PMI criteria, PT should be performed if PMI: (a) platelet functions into account may yield lower transfusion rate, lower costs and better conservation of blood bank resources.

  11. A comparison of laws preventing unnecessary canine cosmetic surgery in Italy and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Quartarone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many invasive procedures, including surgery (ear cropping, tail docking, and debarking in the dog, are performed on dogs for purely cosmetic reasons or convenience. These procedures, also known as “cosmetic surgery”, fall into a variety of categories from the questionably unethical to the undoubtedly criminal, because they are mostly carried out solely to alter a dog’s physical appearance. Although in several European countries these procedures are banned, except when performed by a veterinarian for medical reasons, veterinarians are often requested to perform them for various reasons. Though controversial, canine cosmetic surgery continues to be performed, reaching epidemic proportions. The authors summarize legislation, individual positions and veterinary attitudes regarding cosmetic surgery in Italy and the Czech Republic. Additionally, they explain the ways in which the law is being used in the two countries to prevent these unnecessary procedures, and how current and future anti-cruelty laws can stop unethical use of cosmetic surgery.

  12. Myeloid differentiation-2 is a potential biomarker for the amplification process of allergic airway sensitization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Koyama

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest MD-2 is a critical regulator of the establishment of allergic airway sensitization to HDM in mice. Serum MD-2 may represent a potential biomarker for the amplification of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation.

  13. Taiwan experience suggests that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary in southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The high frequency of RhD (D) antigen among Taiwanese persons (99.67%) often imposes unnecessary risks of under-transfusion on D- patients awaiting D- blood. Also because of the rare occurrence of anti-D among Taiwanese persons, routine pretransfusion D typing has been discontinued in the Mackay Memorial Hospital since 1988. This report is the retrospective evaluation of the outcome of abolishing RhD typing for Taiwanese. More than 10 years of alloantibody data at Mackay Memorial Hospital Blood Bank were reviewed. The cases with anti-D were further used to analyze the potency of D antigen and to observe whether there were differences in the incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine D typing among Taiwanese individuals. The incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine pretransfusion D typing has remained unchanged. The immunogenicity of D and "Mi(a)" in Taiwanese persons is found to be similar. In terms of opportunity for immunization, however, the "Mi(a)" antigen (phenotype frequency 7.3% in Taiwanese persons) has become the most important blood group antigen in Taiwan. The results strongly support the exclusion of D typing from routine compatibility testing for individuals of Taiwanese origin. Because the low incidence of D- and relatively high incidence of "Mi(a)"+ phenotypes are common findings throughout southeast Asia, and because a population genetic study revealed that the Taiwanese people are genetically related to southern Asian populations, it is suggested that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary among southeast Asian populations.

  14. Inappropriately Timed Pediatric Orthopaedic Referrals From the Emergency Department Result in Unnecessary Appointments and Financial Burden for Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Taylor J; Blumberg, Todd J; Shah, Apurva S; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2018-03-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are among the most common reasons for emergency department (ED) visits in the pediatric population. Many such injuries can be managed with a single follow-up outpatient visit. However, untimely (ie, premature) referrals by emergency physicians to orthopaedic surgeons are common and may inadvertently create need for a second visit, generating unnecessary expenditures. We sought to elucidate the cost of premature musculoskeletal follow-up visits to the patients, families, and the health care system. We performed a retrospective review of pediatric patients with acute musculoskeletal injuries referred from our ED (without a formal orthopaedic consult) to our outpatient clinic. Patients were retrospectively reviewed in a consecutive fashion. The appropriateness of the recommended follow-up time interval was determined for each patient, and the direct and indirect cost of the inappropriate services were calculated utilizing a combination of traditional cost accounting techniques and time-driven activity-based costing. The characteristics of patients with appropriate and untimely follow-up referrals were compared. Two hundred consecutive referrals from the ED were reviewed. Overall, 96.5% of the follow-up visits recommended by the ED were premature, which led 106 (53%) patients to require a second visit to complete their clinical care. Patients who required a second visit were significantly younger (P=0.005), more likely to be male (P=0.042), more likely to have a fracture (Pcost of $342.93 per patient. Untimely referrals for follow-up of acute pediatric musculoskeletal conditions are very common and represent a significant financial burden to patients, families, and the health care system. Over 40% of unnecessary visits resulted from just 3 diagnoses. Improved orthopaedic follow-up guidelines, particularly for these readily recognizable conditions, and feedback to referring providers may reduce poorly timed clinic visits and decrease costs in

  15. Author response to letter. Ref: Madsen et al. "Unnecessary work tasks and mental health: a prospective analysis of Danish human service workers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Ida Eh; Rugulies, Reiner

    2015-03-01

    We read with interest the letter from Drs Durand-Moreau, Loddé, and Dewitte (1) regarding our article on unnecessary work tasks and mental health (2). The authors argue that: (i) the article is flawed by an imprecise one-item exposure measurement, (ii) the results may be affected by reverse causality, and (iii) ultimately the elimination of unnecessary work tasks may increase "psychic suffering". We would like to take this opportunity to address their concerns. We acknowledge, as we did in the article itself, that measuring unnecessary work tasks using only one item is less than ideal and could have increased measurement error in our analyses. The item we used to measure unnecessary work tasks assesses the employee's overall evaluation regarding the extent to which they must conduct work tasks that they, for whatever reason, deem unnecessary. We are unconvinced by the claim by Drs Durand-Moreau, Loddé, and Dewitte that this phenomenon is somehow unrelated to Semmer's definition of unnecessary tasks (3, 4), regardless of the sense-making processes underlying an individual employee's evaluation of a particular work task as unnecessary. Regarding the issue of reverse causality, the analyses were longitudinal and the effect estimates were adjusted for the baseline mental health level of the participants. Consequently, we examined changes in mental health over time, and our results cannot be explained by poorer mental health making workers think "that what they're doing is useless" as claimed in the commentary. Although causal inference is always a delicate issue when applying observational research methods, the adjustment for baseline mental health should account for reverse causality at least. Drs Durand-Moreau, Loddé, and Dewitte question that our findings suggest that the elimination of unnecessary work tasks may be beneficial to employee mental health. Instead they propose that unnecessary work tasks may be conducive to mental health because "some tasks may seem

  16. Advances and Evolving Concepts in Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hui-Ying; Li, Evan; Landers, Cameron; Nguyen, An; Kheradmand, Farrah; Knight, J Morgan; Corry, David B

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that defies a unanimously acceptable definition, but is generally recognized through its highly characteristic clinical expression of dyspnea and cough accompanied by clinical data that document reversible or exaggerated airway constriction and obstruction. The generally rising prevalence of asthma in highly industrialized societies despite significant therapeutic advances suggests that the fundamental cause(s) of asthma remain poorly understood. Detailed analyses of both the indoor (built) and outdoor environments continue to support the concept that not only inhaled particulates, especially carbon-based particulate pollution, pollens, and fungal elements, but also many noxious gases and chemicals, especially biologically derived byproducts such as proteinases, are essential to asthma pathogenesis. Phthalates, another common class of chemical pollutant found in the built environment, are emerging as potentially important mediators or attenuators of asthma. Other biological products such as endotoxin have also been confirmed to be protective in both the indoor and outdoor contexts. Proasthmatic factors are believed to activate, and in some instances initiate, pathologic inflammatory cascades through complex interactions with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on many cell types, but especially airway epithelial cells. PRRs initiate the release of proallergic cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-33, IL-25, and others that coordinate activation of innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2), T helper type 2 cells, and immunoglobulin E-secreting B cells that together promote additional inflammation and the major airway remodeling events (airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion) that promote airway obstruction. Proteinases, with airway fungi and viruses being potentially important sources, are emerging as critically important initiators of these inflammatory cascades in part through their effects on clotting

  17. Allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Milton M; Nguyen, Andrew L; Bielory, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and dry eye syndrome (DES) are 2 of the most common anterior inflammatory disorders of the ocular surface and one does not preclude the coexistence of the other. To examine the potential overlap between AC and DES as comorbidities. Using the validated questionnaire known as Subjective Evaluation of Symptom of Dryness, we studied self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness. In an outpatient optometric setting, 689 patients treated from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2011, were surveyed for their ocular history and categorized according to their reported level of discomfort of itchiness, dryness, and redness. Patients ranged in age from 5 to 90 years (median age, 25 years; 39.5% male; 60.5% female). In the studied 689 patients, clinically significant itchiness was found in 194 (28.2%), dry eyes in 247 (35.8%), and redness in 194 (28.2%). Symptom overlap was demonstrated in many of the patients. Of the 194 patients with itchiness, 112 (57.7%) had clinically significant dryness. In the 247 patients with dry eyes, 112 (45.3%) had clinically significant itch. Redness was apparent in 120 of the 194 patients with itch (61.9%) and 122 of the 247 patients with dryness (49.4%). Statistical analysis demonstrated that self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness were not independent of each other (Peyes" also experiencing dry eyes were 2.11 times and the odds of these patients also experiencing redness were 7.34 times that of patients with nonitchy eyes. Most patients with "itchy eyes" consistent with AC also have dry eyes and redness. These results suggest that some symptomatic patients concomitantly have features of AC and DES. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Allergic Inflammation Leads to Neuropathic Pain via Glial Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Ryo; Fujii, Takayuki; Wang, Bing; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Kido, Mizuho A; Yoshida, Mari; Matsushita, Takuya; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2016-11-23

    Allergic and atopic disorders have increased over the past few decades and have been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder and asthmatic amyotrophy. Myelitis presenting with neuropathic pain can occur in patients with atopic disorder; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation and neuropathic pain, and the underlying mechanism, remains to be established. We studied whether allergic inflammation affects the spinal nociceptive system. We found that mice with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or atopic diathesis had widespread and significantly more activated microglia and astroglia in the spinal cord than those without atopy, and displayed tactile allodynia. Microarray analysis of isolated microglia revealed a dysregulated phenotype showing upregulation of M1 macrophage markers and downregulation of M2 markers in atopic mice. Among the cell surface protein genes, endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) was most upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that EDNRB expression was enhanced in microglia and astroglia, whereas endothelin-1, an EDNRB ligand, was increased in serum, lungs, and epidermis of atopic mice. No EDNRA expression was found in the spinal cord. Expression of FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B was significantly higher in the dorsal horn neurons of asthma mice than nonatopic mice. The EDNRB antagonist BQ788 abolished glial and neural activation and allodynia. We found increased serum endothelin-1 in atopic patients with myelitis and neuropathic pain, and activation of spinal microglia and astroglia with EDNRB upregulation in an autopsied case. These results suggest that allergic inflammation induces diffuse glial activation, influencing the nociceptive system via the EDNRB pathway. The prevalence of allergic disorders has markedly increased over the past few decades. Allergic disorders are associated with neuropsychiatric conditions; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation

  19. Psychological stress and its relationship with persistent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hennawi, Diaa El Din Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed Rifaat; Farid, Alaa Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis is considered to be a major health problem that impairs quality of life. A possible relationship with psychological stress may exist. The aim of this study is to verify the relationship between persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) and psychological stress aiming to improve treatment and thereby quality of life (QOL) of patients. Patients with PAR (166) were diagnosed then analyzed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Patients with allergic rhinitis and who were positive on the Kessler scale (122) were randomly divided equally into a control group which received levocetirizine and a study group which received levocetirizine and imipramine. Nasal symptom assessment and QOL assessment were performed in all patients after treatment. Of the 166 patients with PAR, 122 (73.5 %) were positive on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. There was a marked improvement in the study group compared with the control group as regards nasal symptoms with better QOL in the study group (6.93) compared with the control group (2.13). Psychological stress has a strong impact on persistent allergic rhinitis. When stress is controlled by a combined treatment of imipramine and levocetirizine, allergic rhinitis symptoms improved and a better QOL was obtained. 3b.

  20. Patterns of psychosocial adaptation and allergic disorders in Korean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JinAh; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kwon, Ji-Won; Song, Young Hwa; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Jee, Hye Mi; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Hong, Soo-Jong; Shin, Yee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    To date, there is little evidence to support an association between symptoms of pediatric allergic disorders and psychosocial factors in the general population, particularly in Asian countries. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and symptoms of allergic disorders and to investigate the association between behavior problems and biomarkers of atopy. A cross-sectional survey of parental responses to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was conducted from one elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Skin prick tests for 18 major allergens were also performed. A total of 780 children with valid CBCL surveys were included in the study. Externalizing problems were significantly larger in children with asthmatic symptoms, while internalizing problems were significantly larger in children with symptoms of both asthma and allergic rhinitis. Social adaptations were significantly lower in children with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Boys with more positive allergens via the skin prick tests showed larger internalizing problems. While school children with allergic symptoms have been reported to have more difficulties with psychosocial adaptation, the patterns of psychosocial problems varied somewhat according to the types of atopic disorder. There was a positive relationship between atopy and behavior problems, especially in boys. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The cost of productivity losses associated with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal-Peters, J; Crown, W H; Goetzel, R Z; Schutt, D C

    2000-03-01

    To measure the cost of absenteeism and reduced productivity associated with allergic rhinitis. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was used to obtain information on days lost from work and lost productivity due to allergic rhinitis. Wage estimates for occupations obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) were used to calculate the costs. Productivity losses associated with a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in the 1995 NHIS were estimated to be $601 million. When additional survey information on the use of sedating over-the-counter (OTC) allergy medications, as well as workers' self-assessments of their reduction in at-work productivity due to allergic rhinitis, were considered, the estimated productivity loss increased dramatically. At-work productivity losses were estimated to range from $2.4 billion to $4.6 billion. Despite the inherent difficulty of measuring productivity losses, our lowest estimate is several times higher than previous estimates of the indirect medical costs associated with allergic rhinitis treatment. The most significant productivity losses resulted not from absenteeism but from reduced at-work productivity associated with the use of sedating OTC antihistamines.

  2. Methotrexate use in allergic contact dermatitis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashaki; Burns, Erin; Burkemper, Nicole M

    2018-03-01

    Methotrexate, a folate antimetabolite, is used to treat atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although methotrexate's therapeutic efficacy has been noted in the literature, there are few data on the efficacy of methotrexate treatment for allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of methotrexate in treating allergic contact dermatitis at a single institution, and also to assess methotrexate efficacy in patients with chronic, unavoidable allergen exposure. We performed a retrospective chart review of 32 patients diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis by positive patch test reactions, and who received treatment with methotrexate from November 2010 to November 2014. Demographic and treatment-associated data were collected from electronic medical records. Ten patients were identified as allergen non-avoiders secondary to their occupation, and were subgrouped as such. Seventy-eight per cent (25/32) of patients showed either a partial or a complete response. Methotrexate had a comparable efficacy rate in the allergen non-avoiders subset, at 10 of 10. Of the 32 patients, 23% (5/22) had complete clearance of their dermatitis, and 1/10 of allergen non-avoiders had complete clearance of their dermatitis. Methotrexate is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for allergic contact dermatitis, and shows comparable efficacy to immunomodulatory agents such as cyclosporine and azathioprine, with robust efficacy despite persistent allergen exposure in patients with allergic contact dermatitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Asthma and allergic rhinitis in adoptees and their adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Cadoret, R J; Burns, T L; Troughton, E P

    1998-08-01

    Since the highest risk for the development of atopic disease is in early life, environmental risk factors need to be separated from the genetic component in this high risk period. Adoptees removed at birth and placed in adoptive families present a way to separate environmental and genetic factors at this early susceptible age. An opportunity for a pilot study of asthma and allergic rhinitis in adoptive families was presented when a psychiatrist (RC) was planning a behavioral study of young adult adoptees and their adoptive parents. A detailed questionnaire about allergic rhinitis and asthma was added after the psychiatrists' interview. Placement was not influenced by a history of allergy in adoptive or natural parents. The adoptee and at least one adoptive parent completed questionnaires in 367 families. The adoptees had been removed at birth and placed in the adoptive family within 3 months (83% within 1 month). Compared with adoptive families without asthma or allergic rhinitis, an adoptive mother with asthma or rhinitis, when the adoptive father was not affected, increased the risk for asthma in the adoptee (OR = 3.2, P adoptive mother alone (OR = 3.2, P Adoptive father asthma or allergic rhinitis showed a trend toward increased asthma in the adoptee (OR = 1.9, P adoption by parents with asthma or allergic rhinitis suggests that further well planned adoptee studies should be made.

  4. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  5. The role of the eosinophil-selective chemokine, eotaxin, in allergic and non-allergic airways inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conroy Dolores M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood eosinophilia and tissue infiltration by eosinophils are frequently observed in allergic inflammation and parasitic infections. This selective accumulation of eosinophils suggested the existence of endogenous eosinophil-selective chemoattractants. We have recently discovered a novel eosinophil-selective chemoattractant which we called eotaxin in an animal model of allergic airways disease. Eotaxin is generated in both allergic and non-allergic bronchopulmonary inflammation. The early increase in eotaxin paralled eosinophil infiltration in the lung tissue in both models. An antibody to IL-5 suppressed lung eosinophilia, correlating with an inhibition of eosinophil release from bone marrow, without affecting eotaxin generation. This suggests that endogenous IL-5 is important for eosinophil migration but does not appear to be a stimulus for eotaxin production. Constitutive levels of eotaxin observed in guinea-pig lung may be responsible for the basal lung eosinophilia observed in this species. Allergen-induced eotaxin was present mainly in the epithelium and alveolar macrophages, as detected by immunostaining. In contrast there was no upregulation of eotaxin by the epithelial cells following the injection of Sephadex beads and the alveolar macrophage and mononuclear cells surrounding the granuloma were the predominant positive staining cells. Eotaxin and related chemokines acting through the CCR3 receptor may play a major role in eosinophil recruitment in allergic inflammation and parasitic diseases and thus offer an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Vitamin D in atopic dermatitis, asthma and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Daniel A; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-08-01

    This review examines the scientific evidence behind the hypothesis that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, along with a focus on emerging data regarding vitamin D and atopic dermatitis. Elucidated molecular interactions of vitamin D with components of the immune system and clinical data regarding vitamin D deficiency and atopic diseases are discussed. The rationale behind the sunshine hypothesis, laboratory evidence supporting links between vitamin D deficiency and allergic diseases, the clinical evidence for and against vitamin D playing a role in allergic diseases, and the emerging evidence regarding the potential use of vitamin D to augment the innate immune response in atopic dermatitis are reviewed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    no recognizable changes except a slight follicular spongiosis in 1 patient. The 2 pathologists agreed independently on the correct classification in 6 out of 7 cases (p=0.0156). We tested an optimized model, selecting non-irritant allergens and a well-known irritant. Further investigations are needed to elucidate......Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...

  8. Radiological Findings in Two Patients with Cow's Milk Allergic Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji Masumoto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Cow's milk allergic enterocolitis is a common paediatric gastrointestinal disease. However, radiological findings from contrast studies have rarely been reported. We report two Japanese neonate patients with cow's milk allergic enterocolitis with vomiting, bloody stool and unique findings on upper gastrointestinal contrast study. Upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed folds of the small intestine to be thickened, such as in spasm, or ribbonlike cords in both cases. There was also poor passage from the duodenum to the jejunum in one case. In addition, there were spastic findings on lower gastrointestinal contrast study in part of the large colon in one case. Clinicians, including paediatric surgeons, treating neonates with bloody stool and/or vomiting should thus be aware that unique findings on upper and lower gastrointestinal contrast studies may be useful in suspecting cases with cow's milk allergic enterocolitis.

  9. [Farmer's lung--a form of exogenous allergic alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambale, M; Liebetrau, G

    1990-11-15

    Exogenic allergic alveolitides are caused by organic dusts which contain bacteria, moulds or vegetable and animal antigens. The farmer's lung as a form of the exogenic allergic alveolitis is a rare disease. The uncharacteristic symptomatology in the initial phase and in particular the retarded beginning of the symptom after several hours handicap the timely recognition in an early phase of the disease so that curative therapeutic measures are rarely possible. The cases of the disease are found only at the chronic stage, at the stage of the pulmonary fibrosis. Then the prognosis is unfavourable. In the Central Clinic for Heart and Lung Diseases Bad Berka 1,110 patients with alveolitides and lung fibroses were diagnosed in the period from 1975 to 1988. 306 of them could be clarified as exogenic allergic alveolitis, 61 of them (19.8%) were farmer's lungs.

  10. Omalizumab therapy for children and adolescents with severe allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    Omalizumab, a therapeutic humanized monoclonal antibody specific for human IgE, was introduced in clinical practice more than a decade ago as an add-on therapy for moderate-to-severe allergic asthma in patients aged ≥12 years. Omalizumab has been demonstrated to be effective in adults with uncontrolled persistent asthma, with an excellent safety profile. In simple terms, omalizumab works by inhibiting the allergic cascade, that is, by neutralization of the circulating free IgE. This leads to reduction in the quantity of cell-bound IgE, downregulation of high-affinity IgE receptors, and, eventually, prevention of mediator release from effector cells. Evidence is far less abundant on the role of omalizumab in pediatric asthma. Although efficacy and safety of omalizumab in children and adolescents with uncontrolled, persistent allergic asthma has been recognized as well, further studies are needed to clarify a number of open questions in this specific patient population.

  11. The Anti-allergic Cromones: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajantha Sinniah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The anti-allergic cromones were originally synthesized in the 1960s by Fisons Plc, and the first drug to emerge from this program, disodium cromoglycate was subsequently marketed for the treatment of asthma and other allergic conditions. Whilst early studies demonstrated that the ability of the cromones to prevent allergic reactions was due to their ‘mast cell stabilizing’ properties, the exact pharmacological mechanism by which this occurred, remained a mystery. Here, we briefly review the history of these drugs, recount some aspects of their pharmacology, and discuss two new explanations for their unique actions. We further suggest how these findings could be used to predict further uses for the cromones.

  12. [Clinical symptomps, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, C; Rostaher, A; Fischer, N

    2014-07-01

    Allergies are often suspected in cats and they are mainly hypersensitivity reactions against insect bites, food- or environmental allergens. Cats, with non flea induced atopic dermatitis, normally present with one oft he following reaction patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, selfinduced alopecia or head and neck excoriations. None of these reaction patterns is nevertheless pathognomonic for allergic dermatitis, therefore the diagnosis is based on the one hand on the exclusion of similar diseases on the other hand on the successful response on a certain therapy. Recently a study on the clinical presentation of cats with non flea induced atopic dermatitis was published. In this study certain criteria for diagnosing atopy in cats were proposed. For therapy of allergic cats cyclosporin, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, hypoallergenic diets and allergen specific immunotherapy are used. This article should provide a recent overview on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis.

  13. Unproven diagnostic procedures in IgE-mediated allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, B; Grüber, C

    2004-08-01

    A considerable body of literature on therapeutic aspects of complementary and alternative medicine has been published in recent years, but little is known on diagnostic procedures. This short review lists complementary and alternative diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of allergic diseases and presents an assessment of their usefulness for the daily practice. The review of the literature revealed that neither the determination of specific immunoglobulin G-antibodies in serum, the hair-analysis, the cytotoxic test, kinesiology, iridology, or electrodermal testing represent useful tests for the daily practice. To date, no complementary or alternative diagnostic procedure can be recommended as a meaningful element in the diagnostic work-up of allergic diseases. This is especially true for food allergy: properly performed oral food challenges still represent the gold standard for implementing specific diets in food allergic individuals. Ineffective diagnostic approaches may be costly for the consumer and delay appropriate therapy.

  14. Evaluation of biotechnology-derived novel proteins for the risk of food-allergic potential: advances in the development of animal models and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Varun; Quatchadze, Maria; Ahuja, Vaishali; Stelter, Daniela; Albrecht, Achim; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2010-12-01

    Increasing concern from the public about the safety of genetically modified food has made critical to have suitable methods for recognizing associated potential hazards. Hierarchical approaches to allergenicity determination were proposed, and these include evaluation of the structural and sequence homology and serological identity of novel proteins with existing allergens, measuring the resistance to proteolytic digestion and assessment of sensitizing potential using animal models. Allergic individuals have a predisposed (i.e. atopic) genetic background, and a close resemblance to this setup is therefore desirable in animal models, which is possible by using a strain of an animal species that is prone for allergic disorders. So far, none of the animal model has been validated for the purpose of hazard identification in the context of safety assessment. However, the available knowledge suggests that the judicious use of an appropriate animal model could provide important information about the allergic potential of novel proteins. This paper provides an up-to-date review of the progress made in the field of development of in vivo models in this direction and the further goals that have to be achieved.

  15. Software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper

  16. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  17. NEUROTROPHIN MEDIATION OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES TO INHALED DIESEL PARTICLES IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway hyper-responsiveness. Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbate many of these allergic airways respons...

  18. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT BODY:Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  19. Cyclooxygenase-2 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation during Allergic Lung Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hong; Bradbury, J. Alyce; Dackor, Ryan T.; Edin, Matthew L.; Graves, Joan P.; DeGraff, Laura M.; Wang, Ping Ming; Bortner, Carl D.; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Lih, Fred B.; Cook, Donald N.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Jetten, Anton M.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Th17 cells comprise a distinct lineage of proinflammatory T helper cells that are major contributors to allergic responses. It is unknown whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived eicosanoids regulate Th17 cells during allergic lung inflammation.

  20. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  1. Effects of Isoprene- and Toluene-Generated Smog on Allergic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactions of organic compounds with nitric oxide (NO) and sunlight produce complex mixtures of pollutants including secondary organic aerosol (SOA), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and reactive aldehydes. The health effects of these photochemical smog mixtures in susceptible populations including asthmatics are unclear. We assessed effects of smog generated from mixtures of NO with isoprene (IS) or toluene (TL) on allergic inflammatory responses in Balb/cJ mice. House dust mite (HDM)-sensitized or control mice were all challenged with HDM intranasally 1 d prior to whole-body inhalation exposure to IS (chamber average 509 ppb NO2, 246 ppb O3, and 160 g/m3 SOA), TL (217 ppb NO2, 129 ppb O3, and 376 g/m3 SOA), or HEPA-filtered air (4 h/d for 2 days). Mice were necropsied within 3 h after the second exposure (2 d post-HDM challenge). Assessment of breathing parameters during exposure with double-chamber plethysmography showed a trend for increased specific airway resistance and decreased minute volume during the second day of TL exposure in both non-allergic and HDM-allergic mice. HDM-allergic air-exposed mice had significant increases in numbers of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) alveolar macrophages (AM) and eosinophils (EO), and trends for increases in BAL indices of lung injury in comparison with non-allergic air-exposed mice. Exposure to either IS or TL attenuated the increases in AM, EO, and lung injury markers in HDM-allergic mice. The results of this

  2. Is recurrent respiratory infection associated with allergic respiratory disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tiago Bittencourt; Klering, Everton Andrei; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aims to estimate the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases with the occurrence of recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) in children and adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and a questionnaire that provides data on the history of respiratory infections and the use of antibiotics were used to obtain data from patients. The relationship between the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of respiratory infections in childhood was analyzed. We interviewed the caregivers of 531 children aged 0 to 15 years. The average age of participants was 7.43 years, with females accounting for 52.2%. This study found significant relationship between: presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis with RRI, with prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.47 (1.51-4.02) and 1.61 (1.34-1.93), respectively; respiratory allergies with use of antibiotics for respiratory problems, with PR of 5.32 (2.17-13.0) for asthma and of 1.64 (1.29-2.09) for allergic rhinitis; asthma and allergic rhinitis with diseases of the lower respiratory airways, with PR of 7.82 (4.63-13.21) and 1.65 (1.38-1.96), respectively. In contrast, no relationship between upper respiratory airway diseases and asthma and allergic rhinitis was observed, with PR of 0.71 (0.35-1.48) and 1.30 (0.87-1.95), respectively. RRI is associated with previous atopic diseases, and these conditions should be considered when treating children.

  3. [Use of alternative medicine in the treatment of allergic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Berumen, José Alfredo; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Canseco González, Carlos; Arias Cruz, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    The alternative medicine and the complementary medicine are forms of treatment very spread and frequently demanded by patients with allergic diseases. According to recent studies, homeopathy, acupuncture and herbal medicine are the most commonly used types of alternative medicine. To know the frequency in the use of different types of alternative medicine for the treatment of allergic diseases in patients attended at the Centro Regional de Alergia e Immunologia Clínica of the Hospital Universitario de Monterrey, Nuevo León. A transversal, descriptive and observational study was done by the use of questionnaires applied to patients and/or patients' relatives attended in this Center. This survey included questions to focus the investigation in the use of a Iternative medicine for the treatment of any allergic disease. The data analysis was done by descriptive statistics. Four hundred one questionnaires were applied. The average age of the patients was of 14 years (range from 1 to 73 years). Fourty-seven percent (189 patients) were female and 58.2% (212 patients) were male. The diagnoses included: allergic rhinitis in 215 patients (53.6), asthma in 97 (24.2%), rhinitis and asthma in 73 (18.2) and atopic dermatitis in 16 (4%). Out of the patients 34.4% (138) had used at least one type of alternative medicine for the treatment of their allergic disease. Homeopathy was the most commonly used type of alternative medicine (78.2%), followed by the natural medicine (31.5%). Alternative medicine for the treatment of allergic diseases is frequent in patients who attend to this center. Homeopathy and the natural medicine are the most used.

  4. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P bee venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kU A /L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kU A /L) compared with adults (5.10 kU A /L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kU A /L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12 and allergic dogs (n = 6 from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between

  6. Triclosan Exposure and Allergic Sensitization in Norwegian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Løvik, Martinus; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chemical, triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year old Norwegian children. Methods Urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected 2001– 2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group (< the limit of detection) and the aOR per log10 unit increase in triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI:0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens rather thanfood allergens. Current rhinitis was associated with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no association was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide additional evidence for an association between triclosan and allergy. PMID:23146048

  7. Cost-effectiveness of specific subcutaneous immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggenjürgen, Bernd; Reinhold, Thomas; Brehler, Randolf; Laake, Eckard; Wiese, Günther; Machate, Ulrich; Willich, Stefan N

    2008-09-01

    Specific immunotherapy is the only potentially curative treatment in patients with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Health economic evaluations on this treatment, particularly in a German context, are sparse. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in addition to symptomatic treatment (ST) compared with ST alone in a German health care setting. The analysis was performed as a health economic model calculation based on Markov models. In addition, we performed a concomitant expert board composed of allergy experts in pediatrics, dermatology, pneumology, and otolaryngology. The primary perspective of the study was societal. Additional sensitivity analyses were performed to prove our results for robustness. The SCIT and ST combination was associated with annual cost savings of Euro140 per patient. After 10 years of disease duration, SCIT and ST reach the breakeven point. The overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was Euro-19,787 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), with a range that depended on patient age (adults, Euro-22,196; adolescents, Euro-14,747; children, Euro-12,750). From a third-party payer's perspective, SCIT was associated with slightly additional costs. Thus, the resulting ICER was Euro8,308 per QALY for all patients. Additional SCIT was associated with improved medical outcomes and cost savings compared with symptomatic treatment alone according to a societal perspective. Taking a European accepted ICER threshold of up to Euro50,000 per QALY into account, additional SCIT is considered clearly cost-effective compared with routine care in Germany. The degree of cost-effectiveness is strongly affected by costs related to SCIT and the target population receiving such treatment.

  8. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  9. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  10. Homeopathy for Allergic Rhinitis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kushal; Mathie, Robert T; Costelloe, Céire; Howick, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of homeopathic intervention in the treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis (AR). Randomized controlled trials evaluating all forms of homeopathic treatment for AR were included in a systematic review (SR) of studies published up to and including December 2015. Two authors independently screened potential studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Primary outcomes included symptom improvement and total quality-of-life score. Treatment effect size was quantified as mean difference (continuous data), or by risk ratio (RR) and odds ratio (dichotomous data), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-analysis was performed after assessing heterogeneity and risk of bias. Eleven studies were eligible for SR. All trials were placebo-controlled except one. Six trials used the treatment approach known as isopathy, but they were unsuitable for meta-analysis due to problems of heterogeneity and data extraction. The overall standard of methods and reporting was poor: 8/11 trials were assessed as "high risk of bias"; only one trial, on isopathy for seasonal AR, possessed reliable evidence. Three trials of variable quality (all using Galphimia glauca for seasonal AR) were included in the meta-analysis: nasal symptom relief at 2 and 4 weeks (RR = 1.48 [95% CI 1.24-1.77] and 1.27 [95% CI 1.10-1.46], respectively) favored homeopathy compared with placebo; ocular symptom relief at 2 and 4 weeks also favored homeopathy (RR = 1.55 [95% CI 1.33-1.80] and 1.37 [95% CI 1.21-1.56], respectively). The single trial with reliable evidence had a small positive treatment effect without statistical significance. A homeopathic and a conventional nasal spray produced equivalent improvements in nasal and ocular symptoms. The low or uncertain overall quality of the evidence warrants caution in drawing firm conclusions about intervention effects. Use of either Galphimia glauca or a homeopathic nasal spray

  11. Allergen immunotherapy for the prevention of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Halken, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Prevention of Allergic Disease. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the pre......BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Prevention of Allergic Disease. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have had...... an aggravating effect on the dermatitis in spite of its immunosuppressive effects. The initial clinical appearance of the patient's widespread dermatitis was atypical with resemblance to subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Even though emulsifiers are widely used in topical products, contact allergic...

  13. Methylisothiazolinone in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazar, K; Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Faurschou, A

    2015-01-01

    the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS: Nineteen MI-allergic subjects and 19 controls without MI allergy applied two liquid hand soaps five times per day on areas of 5 × 10 cm(2) on the ventral side of their forearms. One soap contained 100 ppm MI, the maximum allowed concentration......BACKGROUND: In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) has increased dramatically. Cosmetic products are one of the major sources of exposure. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether allowed concentrations of MI in cosmetic rinse-off products have...

  14. Mast Cell Interactions and Crosstalk in Regulating Allergic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Tania E; Bryce, Paul J; Hulse, Kathryn E

    2018-04-17

    This review summarizes recent findings on mast cell biology with a focus on IgE-independent roles of mast cells in regulating allergic responses. Recent studies have described novel mast cell-derived molecules, both secreted and membrane-bound, that facilitate cross-talk with a variety of immune effector cells to mediate type 2 inflammatory responses. Mast cells are complex and dynamic cells that are persistent in allergy and are capable of providing signals that lead to the initiation and persistence of allergic mechanisms.

  15. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies ten loci influencing allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Matheson, Melanie C; Pers, Tune Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (present in allergic sensitization) has a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. We performed the first large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of allergic sensitization in 5,789 affected individuals and 10,056 controls and followed up th...

  16. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in patients with allergic rhinitis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luukkainen Annika

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO is a tryptophan catalyzing enzyme. It has been suggested that it has a role in lower airway allergic inflammations, but its role in allergic rhinitis has not been investigated. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the expression of IDO in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients allergic to birch pollen during peak exposure to birch pollen allergen and compare it to non-atopic patients. Methods IDO expression was immunohistochemically evaluated from nasal specimens obtained in- and off-season from otherwise healthy non-smoking volunteers both allergic to birch pollen (having mild or moderate allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and non-allergic controls. Results: The IDO expression levels were low in healthy controls and remained low also in patients allergic to birch pollen. There were no differences in the expression of IDO in- and off-season in either healthy or allergic subjects. Conclusions There is a controversy in the role of IDO in upper and lower airways during allergic airway disease. It seems that IDO is associated to allergic inflammations of the lower airways, but does not have a local role in the nasal cavity at least in mild or moderate forms of allergic rhinitis.

  17. Avoiding the Hazards of Hazardous Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Under a 1980 law, colleges and universities can be liable for cleanup of hazardous waste on properties, in companies, and related to stocks they invest in or are given. College planners should establish clear policy concerning gifts, investigate gifts, distance university from business purposes, sell real estate gifts quickly, consult a risk…

  18. Handbook of hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metry, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities

  19. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an overview of efforts at INEL to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes through the elimination of hazardous solvents. To aid in their efforts, a number of databases have been developed and will become a part of an Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System. This latter data system will be accessible through Internet

  20. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  1. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  2. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  3. Prevention of unnecessary pregnancy terminations by counselling women on drug, chemical, and radiation exposure during the first trimester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koren, G.; Pastuszak, A.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a new approach to counselling pregnant women concerned about antenatal exposure to drugs, chemicals, or radiation, we measured their tendency to terminate their pregnancy by using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Analysis of 78 cases where women had less than 50% tendency to continue pregnancy before they were advised by us reveals that 61 decided to continue their pregnancy after the consultation (57 normal, healthy infants, four miscarriages) and 17 terminated. Women who continued their pregnancy significantly changed their tendency after we discussed relevant information with them (from 34.3 +/- 2.5% to 84.5 +/- 3.3%, P less than 0.00001), whereas most of those who eventually terminated pregnancy did not change their tendency to continue pregnancy beyond the 50% mark (from 24.8 +/- 5.4% to 45.1 +/- 9.8%) (P greater than 0.1). Only two of the women who terminated their pregnancy were exposed to teratogenic drugs; however, in most other cases, other obvious reasons, unrelated to the exposure in question, were identified by the women as leading reasons for termination. An appropriate intervention in early pregnancy can prevent unnecessary pregnancy terminations by correcting misinformation and thereby decreasing the unrealistically high perception of risk by women exposed to nonteratogens

  4. Reduction in unnecessary red blood cell folate testing by restricting computerized physician order entry in the electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Thomas E; Gudgeon, Patrick; Yip, Paul M; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2018-05-02

    Red blood cell folate is a laboratory test with limited clinical utility. Previous attempts to reduce physician ordering of unnecessary laboratory tests, including folate, have resulted in only modest success. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and impacts of restricting red blood cell folate ordering in the electronic health record. This was a retrospective observational study from January 2010 to December 2016 at a large academic healthcare network in Toronto, Canada. All inpatients and outpatients who underwent at least 1 red blood cell folate or vitamin B12 test during the study period were included. Red blood cell folate ordering was restricted to clincians in gastroenterology and hematology and was removed from other physicians' computerized order entry screen in the electronic health record in June 2013. Red blood cell folate testing decreased by 94.4% during the study, from a mean of 493.0 (SD 48.0) tests/month before intervention to 27.6 (SD 10.3) tests/month after intervention (P<.001). Restricting red blood cell folate ordering in the electronic health record resulted in a large and sustained reduction in red blood cell folate testing. Significant cost savings estimated at over a quarter-million dollars (CAD) over three years were achieved. There was no significant clinical impact of the intervention on the diagnosis of folate deficiency. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddings, Jennifer; Rogers, Mary A M; Krein, Sarah L; Fakih, Mohamad G; Olmsted, Russell N; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are costly, common and often preventable by reducing unnecessary urinary catheter (UC) use. To summarise interventions to reduce UC use and CAUTIs, we updated a prior systematic review (through October 2012), and a meta-analysis regarding interventions prompting UC removal by reminders or stop orders. A narrative review summarises other CAUTI prevention strategies including aseptic insertion, catheter maintenance, antimicrobial UCs, and bladder bundle implementation. 30 studies were identified and summarised with interventions to prompt removal of UCs, with potential for inclusion in the meta-analyses. By meta-analysis (11 studies), the rate of CAUTI (episodes per 1000 catheter-days) was reduced by 53% (rate ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.64, pSMD) in catheterisation duration (days) was -1.06 overall (p=0.065) including a statistically significant decrease in stop-order studies (SMD -0.37; pSMD, -1.54; p=0.071). No significant harm from catheter removal strategies is supported. Limited research is available regarding the impact of UC insertion and maintenance technique. A recent randomised controlled trial indicates antimicrobial catheters provide no significant benefit in preventing symptomatic CAUTIs. UC reminders and stop orders appear to reduce CAUTI rates and should be used to improve patient safety. Several evidence-based guidelines have evaluated CAUTI preventive strategies as well as emerging evidence regarding intervention bundles. Implementation strategies are important because reducing UC use involves changing well-established habits.

  6. Liver AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Is Unnecessary for Gluconeogenesis but Protects Energy State during Nutrient Deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton M Hasenour

    Full Text Available AMPK is an energy sensor that protects cellular energy state by attenuating anabolic and promoting catabolic processes. AMPK signaling is purported to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and substrate oxidation; coordination of these processes is vital during nutrient deprivation or pathogenic during overnutrition. Here we directly test hepatic AMPK function in regulating metabolic fluxes that converge to produce glucose and energy in vivo. Flux analysis was applied in mice with a liver-specific deletion of AMPK (L-KO or floxed control littermates to assess rates of hepatic glucose producing and citric acid cycle (CAC fluxes. Fluxes were assessed in short and long term fasted mice; the latter condition is a nutrient stressor that increases liver AMP/ATP. The flux circuit connecting anaplerosis with gluconeogenesis from the CAC was unaffected by hepatic AMPK deletion in short and long term fasting. Nevertheless, depletion of hepatic ATP was exacerbated in L-KO mice, corresponding to a relative elevation in citrate synthase flux and accumulation of branched-chain amino acid-related metabolites. L-KO mice also had a physiological reduction in flux from glycogen to G6P. These results demonstrate AMPK is unnecessary for maintaining gluconeogenic flux from the CAC yet is critical for stabilizing liver energy state during nutrient deprivation.

  7. Prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and dermatitis in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to establish the relative increase in the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in primary school children aged 13-14 years over a six year interval. Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Setting: Primary schools in three rural divisions at Uasin Gishu district in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya.

  8. December 2004 45 Bronchial Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and chole

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... Background: Gallbladder has not been associated with any allergic condition what so ever. However, certain patients with bronchial asthma and cholelithiasis have reported to the author improvement in their asthmatic attack after cholecystectomy. Methods: This was an observational study on 22 bronchial ...

  9. lUTIS OF ALLERGIC ORIGIN*·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reaction as seen in hay-fever, urticaria, or a bee-sting; in these states a slight ... By using the fluid from an allergic oedematous swelling of one patient for an ... caria; re-test: house dust + +, grass pollen, + +. desensitized again. September ...

  10. Unexpected allergic reactions to food, a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelsen-Huisman, A.D.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Versluis, A.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Houben, G.F.; Knulst, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected reactions occur in patients with food allergy, but frequency data are scare. This prospective study investigates the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in adults with a doctor's diagnosed food allergy. Participants complete an online questionnaire

  11. Diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M; Koch, C; Reimert, C M

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may be difficult to establish because ABPA shares many characteristics with coexisting atopy or other lung infections in these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity...

  12. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis as a cause of bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. When aspergillus fumigatus spores are inhaled they grow in bronchial mucous as hyphae. It occurs in non immunocompromised patients and belongs to the hypersensitivity disorders induced by Aspergillus.

  13. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis : protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham; Pfaar, Oliver; Muraro, Antonella; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Calderon, Moises; Cingi, Cemal; Demoly, Pascal; Durham, Stephen; van Wijk, Ronald Gerth; Halken, Susanne; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hellings, Peter; Jacobsen, Lars; Knol, Edward; Linnemann, Desiree Larenas; Lin, Sandra; Maggina, Vivian; Oude-Elberink, Hanneke; Pajno, Giovanni; Panwankar, Ruby; Pastorello, Elideanna; Pitsios, Constantinos; Rotiroti, Giuseppina; Timmermans, Frans; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Varga, Eva-Maria; Wilkinson, Jamie; Williams, Andrew; Worm, Margitta; Zhang, Luo; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT

  14. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic asthma: Protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, S. (Sangeeta); Nurmatov, U. (Ulugbek); I. Agache; S. Lau (Susanne); Muraro, A. (Antonella); M. Jutel (M.); G. Roberts; C.A. Akdis; M. Bonini (Matteo); M. Calderon (Moises); T.B. Casale (Thomas); Cavkaytar, O. (Ozlem); L. Cox (Linda); P. Demoly; Flood, B. (Breda); Hamelmann, E. (Eckard); Izuhara, K. (Kenji); O. Kalayci; J. Kleine-Tebbe (Jörg); A. Nieto (Antonio); N. Papadopoulos; O. Pfaar (Oliver); L. Rosenwasser (Lanny); D. Ryan (Dermot); C.B. Schmidt-Weber; S.J. Szefler; U. Wahn (Ulrich); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); Wilkinson, J. (Jamie); A. Sheikh (Aziz)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Asthma. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of

  15. Evaluation of Some Allergic Mediators in Elderly Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, M.M.; Michael, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a physiological process characterized by decreasing adaptation of the individual and accentuation of certain mechanisms e.g. arteriosclerotic plaque formation, oxidative stress and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate immuno senescence on some allergic mediators in healthy individuals. Twenty-four male volunteers arranged into three groups according to their age were participated in this study. After their permission, personal and family history, full clinical examination and several laboratory confirmatory tests were determined to assure their healthy condition. Forty-eight h later another blood specimen was withdrawn where, complete blood picture, total immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-4 (IL4), interleukin-5 (IL5) and γ-interferon (γ-INF) were estimated. Regarding the allergic mediators estimated in the present study, the third geriatric group had relative eosinophilia, positive correlation between IgE and γ-INF and high significant decrease in IgE and IL5. These results led to the conclusion that the immuno senescence in this group of individuals did not lead to any allergic related conditions and the impairment of functions associated with aged immune response most probably had no role on the prevalence of allergic disease in elderly individuals.

  16. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  17. Systemic allergic reaction and diarrhoea after pineapple ingestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, I.; Speelman, P.; Islam, A.

    1993-01-01

    Some foods may initiate allergic reactions. Anaphylaxis due to mangoes, oranges, nuts and other foods has been reported earlier. We report the clinical and laboratory features of 32 patients who became symptomatic shortly after they had eaten pineapples. Seventeen patients were males and 15 females

  18. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL- 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX and total antioxidant capacity (TAC by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01 and TPX (P < 0.0001 were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05 and TAC (P < 0.0001 were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely, as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001, but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies.

  19. Effect of tangeretin on ovalbumin-provoked allergic respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: These results demonstrate that tangeritin exerts protective effects against OVA-induced allergic respiratory asthma in Swiss albino mice, and that the drug can potentially be .... (0.1 mg/kg) was injected to suppress inhalation, and the mice were allowed ventilation from oxygen-filled air at 120 beats/min, with beat ...

  20. Elaeocarpusin Inhibits Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jong Kim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are major effector cells for allergic responses that act by releasing inflammatory mediators, such as histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, different strategies have been pursued to develop anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory candidates by regulating the function of mast cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of elaeocarpusin (EL on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation. We isolated EL from Elaeocarpus sylvestris L. (Elaeocarpaceae, which is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. For this study, various sources of mast cells and mouse anaphylaxis models were used. EL suppressed the induction of markers for mast cell degranulation, such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase, by reducing intracellular calcium levels. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-4, was significantly decreased in activated mast cells by EL. This inhibitory effect was related to inhibition of the phosphorylation of Fyn, Lyn, Syk, and Akt, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. To confirm the effect of EL in vivo, immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA and ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA models were induced. EL reduced the PCA reaction in a dose dependent manner. In addition, EL attenuated ASA reactions such as hypothemia, histamine release, and IgE production. Our results suggest that EL is a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases that acts via the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

  1. Iron supplementation decreases severity of allergic inflammation in murine lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P Hale

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of allergic asthma have increased over the last century, particularly in the United States and other developed countries. This time frame was characterized by marked environmental changes, including enhanced hygiene, decreased pathogen exposure, increased exposure to inhaled pollutants, and changes in diet. Although iron is well-known to participate in critical biologic processes such as oxygen transport, energy generation, and host defense, iron deficiency remains common in the United States and world-wide. The purpose of these studies was to determine how dietary iron supplementation affected the severity of allergic inflammation in the lungs, using a classic model of IgE-mediated allergy in mice. Results showed that mice fed an iron-supplemented diet had markedly decreased allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophil infiltration, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, compared with control mice on an unsupplemented diet that generated mild iron deficiency but not anemia. In vitro, iron supplementation decreased mast cell granule content, IgE-triggered degranulation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines post-degranulation. Taken together, these studies show that iron supplementation can decrease the severity of allergic inflammation in the lung, potentially via multiple mechanisms that affect mast cell activity. Further studies are indicated to determine the potential of iron supplementation to modulate the clinical severity of allergic diseases in humans.

  2. The Role of Leukotriene B4 in Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ohnishi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 is a lipid mediator with potent chemoattractant properties and that is rapidly generated from activated innate immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and mast cells. Elevated levels of LTB4 have been reported in various allergic diseases and these levels have been related to disease activity and response to treatment. Recent studies using LTB4 receptor-1 (BLT1 antagonists or BLT1-deficient mice have revealed that ligation of BLT1 by LTB4 is important for the activation and recruitment of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes/macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells, and more recently, effector T cells to inflamed tissues in various inflammatory diseases. The LTB4/BLT1 pathway appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe persistent asthma, aspirin- and exercise-induced asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis together with other mediators including cysteinyl leukotrienes, cytokines, and chemokines. LTB4 production is in general resistant to corticosteroid treatment. In fact, corticosteroids can upregulate BLT1 expression on corticosteroid-resistant inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, and effector memory CD8+ T cells. As a result, this corticosteroid-resistant LTB4/BLT1 pathway may contribute to the development of inflammation in allergic diseases that do not respond to the introduction of corticosteroids. Inhibition of this pathway has potential therapeutic benefit in various allergic diseases that have involvement of corticosteroid-insensitivity.

  3. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a rare cause of pleural effusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a syndrome seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis, and is characterized by hypersensitivity to chronic colonization of the airways with A. fumigatus. We report the case of a patient with ABPA presenting with pleural effusion. A 27-year-old male was referred with recurrent right pleural effusion. Past medical history was remarkable for asthma, allergic sinusitis, and recurrent pleurisy. Investigations revealed peripheral eosinophilia with elevated serum immunoglobulin E and bilateral pleural effusions with bilateral upper lobe proximal bronchiectasis. Precipitating serum antibodies to A. fumigatus were positive and the A. fumigatus immediate skin test yielded a positive reaction. A diagnosis of ABPA associated with bilateral pleural effusions was made and the patient was commenced on prednisolone. At review, the patient\\'s symptoms had considerably improved and his pleural effusions had resolved. ABPA may present with diverse atypical syndromes, including paratracheal and hilar adenopathy, obstructive lung collapse, pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula, and allergic sinusitis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a rare cause of pleural effusion and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a pleural effusion, in particular those with a history of asthma.

  4. [Allergic transfusion reactions in a patient with multiple food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, E; Schöniger, M; Münz, M; Hiefinger-Schindlbeck, R

    2012-07-01

    A 13-year-old girl with an osteosarcoma was treated by surgery and chemotherapy. During three transfusions of apheresis platelet concentrates allergic reactions occurred, partly in spite of premedication with an antihistamine and a corticoid. As the patient declared to be allergic to some foods, in-vitro tests for allergen-specific IgE antibodies were performed and showed markedly positive results for specific IgE to carrot and celery, less so to hazelnut, peanut and a lot of other food antigens. The donor of one of the unsuitable platelet concentrates remembered when questioned, that he had eaten carrots and chocolate with hazelnuts during the evening before platelet donation. Two washed platelet concentrates were transfused without any problem. Furthermore, transfusions of nine red blood cell concentrates and one unit of virus-inactivated frozen pooled plasma were well tolerated. Patients should be asked for allergies previous to transfusions to be alert to allergic reactions in patients with a positive history of food or drug allergies. If premedication with antihistamines does not prevent severe allergic transfusion reactions, transfusion of washed platelet concentrates and of virus-inactivated frozen pooled plasma can be considered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. An ovine tracheal explant culture model for allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeynaike Latasha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The airway epithelium is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthmatic disease. However, much of our understanding of airway epithelial cell function in asthma has been derived from in vitro studies that may not accurately reflect the interactive cellular and molecular pathways active between different tissue constituents in vivo. Methods Using a sheep model of allergic asthma, tracheal explants from normal sheep and allergic sheep exposed to house dust mite (HDM allergen were established to investigate airway mucosal responses ex vivo. Explants were cultured for up to 48 h and tissues were stained to identify apoptotic cells, goblet cells, mast cells and eosinophils. The release of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α by cultured tracheal explants, was assessed by ELISA. Results The general morphology and epithelial structure of the tracheal explants was well maintained in culture although evidence of advanced apoptosis within the mucosal layer was noted after culture for 48 h. The number of alcian blue/PAS positive mucus-secreting cells within the epithelial layer was reduced in all cultured explants compared with pre-cultured (0 h explants, but the loss of staining was most evident in allergic tissues. Mast cell and eosinophil numbers were elevated in the allergic tracheal tissues compared to naïve controls, and in the allergic tissues there was a significant decline in mast cells after 24 h culture in the presence or absence of HDM allergen. IL-6 was released by allergic tracheal explants in culture but was undetected in cultured control explants. Conclusions Sheep tracheal explants maintain characteristics of the airway mucosa that may not be replicated when studying isolated cell populations in vitro. There were key differences identified in explants from allergic compared to control airways and in their responses in culture for 24 h. Importantly, this study establishes the potential for the

  6. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  7. Exposure to Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exacerbates Allergic Asthma Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. PMID:22178736

  8. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  9. Discovering susceptibility genes for allergic rhinitis and allergy using a genome-wide association study strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Luo

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis and allergy are complex conditions, in which both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) employing common single-nucleotide polymorphisms have accelerated the search for novel and interesting genes, and also confirmed the role of some previously described genes which may be involved in the cause of allergic rhinitis and allergy. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the genetic basis of allergic rhinitis and the associated allergic phenotypes, with particular focus on GWASs. The last decade has been marked by the publication of more than 20 GWASs of allergic rhinitis and the associated allergic phenotypes. Allergic diseases and traits have been shown to share a large number of genetic susceptibility loci, of which IL33/IL1RL1, IL-13-RAD50 and C11orf30/LRRC32 appear to be important for more than two allergic phenotypes. GWASs have further reflected the genetic heterogeneity underlying allergic phenotypes. Large-scale genome-wide association strategies are underway to discover new susceptibility variants for allergic rhinitis and allergic phenotypes. Characterization of the underlying genetics provides us with an insight into the potential targets for future studies and the corresponding interventions.

  10. Anti-idiotypes to anti-Lolp I (Rye) antibodies in allergic and non-allergic individuals. Influence of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, R; Marsh, D G; Delespesse, G

    1986-01-01

    Anti-idiotypes (aId) reacting with anti-Lol I (Lolp I; Rye I) antibodies were detected by their ability to bind to radioiodinated F(ab')2 anti-Lol I. Sera were tested after removal of anti-Lol I and anti-heavy and light chain activity by adsorption on Lol I-Sepharose 4B and normal human serum Sepharose 4B. The binding of aId to Id was inhibited by affinity purified anti-Lol I but not by certain unrelated immunoglobulins; in some sera this binding was also inhibited by Lol I. The levels of aId were measured in serial bleedings collected over a 1 year period from Lol I-sensitive patients, allergic donors not sensitive to Lol I and non-allergic persons. In Lol I-allergic patients the levels of aId were significantly influenced by seasonal exposure to pollen and by immunotherapy with extracts of grass pollen. Moreover, in 12 out of 16 cases, there was also a significant inverse relationship between changes in serum levels of aId and of IgG or IgE anti-Lol I. Most interestingly, aId were also detected in non-allergic individuals; in this case, the levels of aId were not influenced by the pollen season. The data suggest that Id-aId interactions may play a role in the regulation of anti-Lol I antibody production. PMID:3492316

  11. Cytokine expression in the colostral cells of healthy and allergic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdý, Jiří; Novotná, Olga; Kocourková, Ingrid; Prokešová, Ludmila

    2012-05-01

    There is no doubt about the beneficial effect of breastfeeding on the newborn's immune system. It is not fully elucidated what the differences are between the colostrum/milk of healthy and allergic mothers and how beneficial breastfeeding by an allergic mother is. The gene expression of selected cytokines was tested in cells isolated from colostra of healthy and allergic mothers using quantitative real-time PCR. Allergic phenotype was evident in colostral cells of allergic mothers: gene expressions of IL-4, IL-13 and EGF were increased and those of IFN-gamma decreased in comparison with colostral cells of healthy mothers. The allergic phenotype of the colostral cells of allergic mothers supporting the bias to a Th2 type response was found. It remains a question if a small number of these cells could influence the immature newborn immune system.

  12. Emotion with tears decreases allergic responses to latex in atopic eczema patients with latex allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-07-01

    Allergic responses are enhanced by stress, whereas they are reduced by laughter in atopic eczema patients. Emotion with tears decreases plasma IL-6 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the effect of emotion with tears on allergic responses in patients with atopic eczema was studied. Sixty patients with atopic eczema having latex allergy viewed both the weather information video and the heart-warming movie, Kramer vs. Kramer. Just before and immediately after viewing each video, allergic responses to latex were measured. Viewing the weather information video did not cause emotion with tears in any patients, and it failed to modulate allergic responses. In contrast, viewing Kramer vs. Kramer caused emotion with tears in 44 of 60 patients, and it reduced allergic skin wheal responses to latex and latex-specific IgE production in them. Emotion with tears reduced allergic responses, and it may be useful in the treatment of allergic diseases.

  13. TREATMENT POLICY OF PEDIATRICIANS AGAINST ACUTE AND CHRONIC ALLERGIC PATHOLOGIES IN CHILDREN. DESLORATADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, chronic idiopathic nettle rash, atopic dermatitis have been characterized by a stable growth in the prevalence of the allergic pathology over the last several decades. A similar pathogenesis of allergic diseases makes it possible to regard them as different manifestations of a systemic allergic inflammation. Histamine is one of the main mediators of an allergic inflammation, therefore first-line medications (drug of choice in the treatment of an allergic pathology, first of all, rhinitis and chronic nettle rash, are second-generation blockers of Н1-receptors. The proposed article discusses the issues connected with the use of antihistamines for children.Key words: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, nettle rash, atopic dermatitis, treatment, antihistamines, children.

  14. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) proteins induce allergic responses in nasobronchial allergic patients and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-04-05

    Allergy to chickpea or Garbanzo bean (Cicer arietinum) has been reported in the Indian population. Little information is found regarding allergenic events involved in the chickpea allergy; therefore, chickpea allergenicity assessment was undertaken. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out using BALB/c mice. Chickpea skin prick test positive patients have been used to extend this study in humans. Identification of allergens was carried out by simulated gastric fluids assay for pepsin resistant polypeptides and validated by IgE western blotting using chickpea sensitive humans and sensitized mice sera. Our data have shown the occurrence of a systemic anaphylactic reaction resulting in reduced body temperature after challenge along with significantly increased levels of IgE, IgG1, MMCP-1, CCL-2 as well as histamine. Further, increased Th1/Th2 (mixed) cytokine response was observed in spleen cell culture supernatants. Jejunum, lungs and spleen showed prominent histopathological changes specific for allergic inflammation. Immunoblotting with pooled sera of either sensitized mice or human sera recognized seven similar IgE binding polypeptides that may be responsible for chickpea induced hypersensitivity reactions. This study has addressed the allergenic manifestations associated with chickpea consumption and identifies the proteins responsible for allergenicity which may prove useful in diagnosis and management of allergenicity of legumes especially chickpea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI-only lesions: application of diffusion-weighted imaging obviates unnecessary MR-guided breast biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spick, Claudio; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H.; Baltzer, Pascal A. [Medical University of Vienna (AKH), General Hospital Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Wien (Austria); Rudas, Margaretha [Medical University of Vienna (AKH), Clinical Institute of Pathology, Wien (Austria)

    2014-06-15

    To assess if the application of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) obviates unnecessary MR-guided biopsies in suspicious breast lesions visible only on contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI). This institutional review board (IRB)-approved, retrospective, single-centre study included 101 patients (mean age, 49.5; SD 13.9 years) who underwent additional DWI at 1.5 T prior to MRI-guided biopsy of 104 lesions classified as suspicious for malignancy and visible on CE-MRI only. An experienced radiologist, blinded to histopathologic and follow-up results, measured apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained from DWI. Diagnostic accuracy was investigated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Histopathology revealed 20 malignant and 84 benign lesions. Lesions were masses in 61 (15 malignant, 24.6 %) and non-masses in 43 cases (five malignant, 11.6 %). Mean ADC values were 1.53 ± 0.38 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in benign lesions and 1.06 ± 0.27 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in malignant lesions. ROC analysis revealed exclusively benign lesions if ADC values were greater than 1.58 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. As a consequence, 29 false-positive biopsies (34.5 %) could have been avoided without any false-negative findings. Both in mass and in non-mass lesions, rule-in and rule-out criteria were identified using flexible ADC thresholds based on ROC analysis. Additional application of DWI in breast lesions visible only on MRI can avoid false-positive, MR-guided biopsies. Thus, DWI should be an integral part of breast MRI protocols. (orig.)

  16. High-Risk Breast Lesions: A Machine Learning Model to Predict Pathologic Upgrade and Reduce Unnecessary Surgical Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Manisha; Barzilay, Regina; Yedidia, Adam B; Locascio, Nicholas J; Yu, Lili; Lehman, Constance D

    2018-03-01

    Purpose To develop a machine learning model that allows high-risk breast lesions (HRLs) diagnosed with image-guided needle biopsy that require surgical excision to be distinguished from HRLs that are at low risk for upgrade to cancer at surgery and thus could be surveilled. Materials and Methods Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven HRLs who underwent surgery or at least 2 years of imaging follow-up from June 2006 to April 2015 were identified. A random forest machine learning model was developed to identify HRLs at low risk for upgrade to cancer. Traditional features such as age and HRL histologic results were used in the model, as were text features from the biopsy pathologic report. Results One thousand six HRLs were identified, with a cancer upgrade rate of 11.4% (115 of 1006). A machine learning random forest model was developed with 671 HRLs and tested with an independent set of 335 HRLs. Among the most important traditional features were age and HRL histologic results (eg, atypical ductal hyperplasia). An important text feature from the pathologic reports was "severely atypical." Instead of surgical excision of all HRLs, if those categorized with the model to be at low risk for upgrade were surveilled and the remainder were excised, then 97.4% (37 of 38) of malignancies would have been diagnosed at surgery, and 30.6% (91 of 297) of surgeries of benign lesions could have been avoided. Conclusion This study provides proof of concept that a machine learning model can be applied to predict the risk of upgrade of HRLs to cancer. Use of this model could decrease unnecessary surgery by nearly one-third and could help guide clinical decision making with regard to surveillance versus surgical excision of HRLs. © RSNA, 2017.

  17. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddings, Jennifer; Rogers, Mary A M; Krein, Sarah L; Fakih, Mohamad G; Olmsted, Russell N; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are costly, common and often preventable by reducing unnecessary urinary catheter (UC) use. Methods To summarise interventions to reduce UC use and CAUTIs, we updated a prior systematic review (through October 2012), and a meta-analysis regarding interventions prompting UC removal by reminders or stop orders. A narrative review summarises other CAUTI prevention strategies including aseptic insertion, catheter maintenance, antimicrobial UCs, and bladder bundle implementation. Results 30 studies were identified and summarised with interventions to prompt removal of UCs, with potential for inclusion in the meta-analyses. By meta-analysis (11 studies), the rate of CAUTI (episodes per 1000 catheter-days) was reduced by 53% (rate ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.64, p<0.001) using a reminder or stop order, with five studies also including interventions to decrease initial UC placement. The pooled (nine studies) standardised mean difference (SMD) in catheterisation duration (days) was −1.06 overall (p=0.065) including a statistically significant decrease in stop-order studies (SMD −0.37; p<0.001) but not in reminder studies (SMD, −1.54; p=0.071). No significant harm from catheter removal strategies is supported. Limited research is available regarding the impact of UC insertion and maintenance technique. A recent randomised controlled trial indicates antimicrobial catheters provide no significant benefit in preventing symptomatic CAUTIs. Conclusions UC reminders and stop orders appear to reduce CAUTI rates and should be used to improve patient safety. Several evidence-based guidelines have evaluated CAUTI preventive strategies as well as emerging evidence regarding intervention bundles. Implementation strategies are important because reducing UC use involves changing well-established habits. PMID:24077850

  18. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  19. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  20. Introduction: Hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Lee, Saro; Trofymchuk, Oleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    Twenty papers were accepted into the session on landslide hazard mapping for oral presentation. The papers presented susceptibility and hazard analysis based on approaches ranging from field-based assessments to statistically based models to assessments that combined hydromechanical and probabilistic components. Many of the studies have taken advantage of increasing availability of remotely sensed data and nearly all relied on Geographic Information Systems to organize and analyze spatial data. The studies used a range of methods for assessing performance and validating hazard and susceptibility models. A few of the studies presented in this session also included some element of landslide risk assessment. This collection of papers clearly demonstrates that a wide range of approaches can lead to useful assessments of landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  1. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  2. Natural Hazards Image Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  3. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  4. Health Hazard Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 1, 2018 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluation, and Field Studies ... Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  5. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  6. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  7. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  8. Nitrous Oxide Explosive Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    concentrations of N2O. A test program is suggested that could answer questions about decomposition propagation control in large N2O systems and hazards...accident. OSHA fined Scaled Composites for not training their workers informing them about N2O hazards, instructing them on safe procedures, and...seemed present that could produce temperatures in excess of the autogeneous ignition temperature (AIT) for the polymers? Autogeneous ignition

  9. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  10. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  11. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  12. HAZARD ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S; Tinh Tran, T.

    2008-01-01

    Washington Safety Management Solutions, LLC developed web-based software to improve the efficiency and consistency of hazard identification and analysis, control selection and classification, and to standardize analysis reporting at Savannah River Site. In the new nuclear age, information technology provides methods to improve the efficiency of the documented safety analysis development process which includes hazard analysis activities. This software provides a web interface that interacts with a relational database to support analysis, record data, and to ensure reporting consistency. A team of subject matter experts participated in a series of meetings to review the associated processes and procedures for requirements and standard practices. Through these meetings, a set of software requirements were developed and compiled into a requirements traceability matrix from which software could be developed. The software was tested to ensure compliance with the requirements. Training was provided to the hazard analysis leads. Hazard analysis teams using the software have verified its operability. The software has been classified as NQA-1, Level D, as it supports the analysis team but does not perform the analysis. The software can be transported to other sites with alternate risk schemes. The software is being used to support the development of 14 hazard analyses. User responses have been positive with a number of suggestions for improvement which are being incorporated as time permits. The software has enforced a uniform implementation of the site procedures. The software has significantly improved the efficiency and standardization of the hazard analysis process

  13. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  14. Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase contributes to allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Eyring

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors in modifying allergic airway disease.We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms.Allergic airway disease was induced in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice through house dust mite (HDM exposure. Airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR were measured between the two groups. Gene expression and methylation profiles were generated for whole lung tissue. Disease and molecular outcomes were evaluated in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice supplemented with betaine.Loss of Mthfr alters single carbon metabolite levels in the lung and serum including elevated homocysteine and cystathionine and reduced methionine. HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice demonstrated significantly less airway hyperreactivity (AHR compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice have reduced whole lung lavage (WLL cellularity, eosinophilia, and Il-4/Il-5 cytokine concentrations. Betaine supplementation reversed parts of the HDM-induced allergic airway disease that are modified by Mthfr loss. 737 genes are differentially expressed and 146 regions are differentially methylated in lung tissue from HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice and HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, analysis of methylation/expression relationships identified 503 significant correlations.Collectively, these findings indicate that the loss of folate as a methyl donor is a modifier of

  15. Allergic rhinitis and arterial blood pressure: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakallioglu, O; Polat, C; Akyigit, A; Cetiner, H; Duzer, S

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the likelihood of allergic rhinitis and potential co-morbidities, and to assess whether allergic rhinitis is associated with arterial blood pressure and hypertension. In this population-based study, 369 adults with allergic rhinitis and asthma were assessed via a questionnaire and immunoglobulin E levels. There were four groups: control (n = 90), allergic rhinitis (n = 99), asthma (n = 87) and hypertension (n = 93). Arterial blood pressure was measured in all groups. There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between males and females in any group. Pairwise comparisons revealed no significant differences between: the control and allergic rhinitis groups, the control and asthma groups, or the allergic rhinitis and asthma groups. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of males and females were significantly higher in the hypertension group than the allergic rhinitis group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure for seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis patients. Rhinitis was not associated with increased blood pressure. Allergic rhinitis can coincide with asthma and hypertension. The findings do not support the need for blood pressure follow up in allergic rhinitis patients.

  16. Successful drug desensitization in patients with delayed-type allergic reactions to anti-tuberculosis drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaecho Siripassorn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of anti-tuberculosis drug desensitization. Methods: This was a retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age >18 years, documented tuberculosis infection, a previous cutaneous allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs, and having undergone drug desensitization between January 2003 and March 2014. The definition of allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs included (1 a temporal relationship between drug use and the allergic reaction; (2 improvement in the allergic reaction after drug withdrawal; (3 recurrence of the allergic reaction after reintroduction of only the offending drug; and (4 absence of other causes. Results: A total of 19 desensitization procedures were performed. The drugs used for these procedures were isoniazid (n = 7, rifampicin (n = 6, or ethambutol (n = 6. Of note, severe allergic reactions (Stevens–Johnson syndrome (n = 4, erythema multiforme (n = 3, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic syndrome (n = 1 were included. All patients underwent resolution of the previous allergic reactions before desensitization. The median duration of desensitization was 18 days. The success rate was 78.9%. The allergic reactions following failed desensitization were not severe; most were maculopapular rashes. Conclusions: The desensitization protocol for anti-tuberculosis drugs was associated with a high success rate, and the individuals who failed desensitization experienced mild allergic reactions. Keywords: Desensitization, Antituberculosis, Steven-Johnson syndrome, Allergic drug reaction, Tolerance induction, Drug allergy

  17. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  18. Does treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease with omeprazole decrease allergic rhinitis symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Shirkani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic rhinitis is the most common type of allergic disease among population. Its accurate treatment is very important for cutting of allergic march. On the other hand, gasteroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is one of the most common gastrointestinal problems among allergic patients mainly asthmatic cases. It might conflict treatment. Despite of asthma, a few studies have been conducted on the impact of GERD treatment on allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this study, we assessed GERD treatment and its effects on improving of allergic rhinitis patients with GERD. Materials and Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study, March - September 2012, 103 consecutive patients with persistent moderate to severe seasonal allergic rhinitis enrolled. For allergic rhinitis patients with GERD 20 mg omeperazole once daily for 6 weeks prescribed, empirically. Conventional allergy treatment continued and finally the allergic rhinitis symptoms were assessed clinically and recorded before, 5th, 10th and 30th days of omeprazole treatment period. Results: Our study included 103 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis who were divided into GERD (n=33, 38% and non-GERD (n=70, 68% groups with the mean age 28 and 25.7 years, respectively. The first group developed significant improvement for GERD symptoms on days 5, 10 and 30 after beginning of therapy (P=0.03. No association was found between GERD treatment and relief of allergic symptoms or TNSS improvement (P>0.05. Data analyzed by Epi info (ver 7 and SPSS software (ver 11.5, and by Chi squeare test and paired T test. P lower than 0.05 was considered as significant. Conclusion: This study showed no significant association between empirical treatment of GERD and improvement of allergic symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis. However, further studies with a larger sample size might be needed.

  19. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  20. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  1. Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  2. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Ridolo, Erminia

    2015-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced in the 1980s as a safer option to subcutaneous immunotherapy and in the latest decade achieved significant advances. Its efficacy in allergic rhinitis is supported by a number of meta-analyses. The development of SLIT preparations in tablets to fulfill the requirements of regulatory agencies for quality of allergen extracts made available optimal products for grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. Preparations of other allergens based on the same production methods are currently in progress. A notable outcome of SLIT, that is shared with subcutaneous immunotherapy, is the evident cost-effectiveness, showing significant cost savings as early as 3 months from starting the treatment, that become as high as 80% compared with drug treatment in the ensuing years.

  3. Role of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Allergic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmi, Lorenzo; Liotta, Francesco; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco

    2017-09-11

    The adaptive immune response orchestrated by type 2 T helper (Th2) lymphocytes, strictly cooperates with the innate response of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), in the protection from helminths infection, as well as in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. The aim of this review is to explore the pathogenic role of ILC2 in different type 2-mediated disorders. Recent studies have shown that epithelial cell-derived cytokines and their responding cells, ILC2, play a pathogenic role in bronchial asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, and atopic dermatitis. The growing evidences of the contribution of ILC2 in the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation in such disease suggest the possibility to target them in therapy. Biological therapies blocking ILC2 activation or neutralizing their effector cytokines are currently under evaluation to be used in patients with type 2-dominated diseases.

  4. Environment Changes Genetic Effects on Respiratory Conditions and Allergic Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yong; Schwager, Michelle J; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is disproportionately distributed among different populations, with an increasing trend observed in Western countries. Here we investigated how the environment affected genotype-phenotype association in a genetically homogeneous, but geographically...... separated population. We evaluated 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to 8 genes (ADAM33, ALOX5, LT-α, LTC4S, NOS1, ORMDL3, TBXA2R and TNF-α), the lung function and five respiratory/allergic conditions (ever asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, dermatitis and atopy) in two populations of Inuit......-phenotype associations relating to bronchitis and allergy susceptibility are dependent on the environment and that environmental factors/lifestyles modify genetic predisposition and change the genetic effects on diseases....

  5. Quality of life in children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da; Silva, Taís Estevão da; Morales, Nívea Macedo O; Fernandes, Karla P; Pinto, Rogério M C

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) remains a significant pediatric health problem because of the burden of uncontrolled symptoms on daily activities and on general well being. to assess the impact of AR on health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children and adolescents using a generic instrument, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ - PF50). Between January and November 2004, parents or caregivers of 23 children and adolescents with AR without comorbidities and with positive prick tests for at least one air allergen were invited to participate of a cross-sectional study and asked to answer the self-administered CHQ-PF50. The scores were compared to those of healthy children and adolescents. Patient scores were lower (psize effect was higher in the physical score compared to the psychosocial summary score. allergic rhinitis has a global negative impact on the HRQL of children and adolescents, with major repercussions in physical function; AR also negatively affects family relations.

  6. Study Of Clinical Profile of Allergic Contact Dermatitis In Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty five cases of clinically diagnosed allergic contact dermatitis were studied. All patients were subjected to patch test with standard test allergens and also with suspected test allergens based on history and clinical profile. Allergic contact dermatitis due to Parthenium hysterophorus was commonest and found in 64% cases, followed by wearing apparel and jewellery in 16.8%, topical medicaments in 8% and cosmetics and occupational contactants in 5.6% cases each. The common individual allergens other than parthenium, were nickel in 8.8%, leather, hair dye and cement in 3.2% each, nitrofurazone and petrol, oil, lubricant (POL in 2.4% each. Patch test with suspected allergens was positive in 72% of cases.

  7. Chemokine Signaling in Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Toward Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey S; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2018-06-22

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease that results in significant cost and morbidity. Despite its high prevalence, therapeutic options are limited. Allergic contact dermatitis is regulated primarily by T cells within the adaptive immune system, but also by natural killer and innate lymphoid cells within the innate immune system. The chemokine receptor system, consisting of chemokine peptides and chemokine G protein-coupled receptors, is a critical regulator of inflammatory processes such as ACD. Specific chemokine signaling pathways are selectively up-regulated in ACD, most prominently CXCR3 and its endogenous chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Recent research demonstrates that these 3 chemokines are not redundant and indeed activate distinct intracellular signaling profiles such as those activated by heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestin adapter proteins. Such differential signaling provides an attractive therapeutic target for novel ACD therapies and other inflammatory diseases.

  8. Long Detection Programming in Single-Chamber Defibrillators Reduces Unnecessary Therapies and Mortality: The ADVANCE III Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Maurizio; Lunati, Maurizio G; Proclemer, Alessandro; Arenal, Angel; Kloppe, Axel; Martínez Ferrer, Josè B; Hersi, Ahmad S; Gulaj, Marcin; Wijffels, Maurits C E; Santi, Elisabetta; Manotta, Laura; Varma, Niraj

    2017-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effects of programming a long detection in single-chamber (VVI) implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in the multicenter prospective ADVANCE III (Avoid DeliVering TherApies for Non-sustained Arrhythmias in ICD PatiEnts III) trial. Programming strategies may reduce unnecessary ICD shocks and their adverse effects but to date have been described only for dual-chamber ICDs. A total of 545 subjects (85% male; atrial fibrillation 25%, left ventricular ejection fraction 31%, ischemic etiology 68%, secondary prevention indications 32%) receiving a VVI ICD were randomized to long detection (30 of 40 intervals) or standard programming (18 of 24 intervals) based on device type, atrial fibrillation history, and indication. In both arms, antitachycardia pacing (ATP) therapy during charging was programmed for episodes with cycle length 320 to 200 ms and shock only for cycle length functions enabled. Therapies delivered were compared using a negative binomial regression model. A total of 267 patients were randomized to long detection and 278 to the control group. Median follow-up was 12 months. One hundred twelve therapies (shocks and ATP) occurred in the long detection arm versus 257 in the control arm, for a 48% reduction with 30 of 40 intervals (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36 to 0.76; p = 0.002). In the long detection arm, overall shocks were reduced by 40% compared to the control arm (48 vs. 24; 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.94; p = 0.026) and appropriate shocks by 51% (34 vs. 74; 95% CI: 0.26 to 0.94; p = 0.033). Syncopal events did not differ between arms, but survival improved in the long detection arm. Among patients implanted with a VVI ICD, programming with the long detection interval significantly reduced appropriate therapies, shocks, and all-cause mortality. (Avoid DeliVering TherApies for Non-sustained Arrhythmias in ICD PatiEnts III [ADVANCEIII]; NCT00617175). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Asthma and Allergic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Searing, Daniel A; Leung, Donald YM

    2010-01-01

    This review examines the scientific evidence behind the hypothesis that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, with a particular focus on emerging data regarding vitamin D and atopic dermatitis. Both elucidated molecular interactions of vitamin D with components of the immune system, as well as clinical data regarding vitamin D deficiency and atopic diseases are discussed. The rationale behind the “sunshine hypothesis,” laboratory evidence supporting links between vi...

  10. A Clinical Evaluation of Definitive and Clinical Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuse, Hiroto; Nakata, Hiroko; Fukahori, Susumu; Tsuchida, Tomoko; Kawano, Tetsuya; Tomari, Shinya; Fukushima, Chizu; Matsuo, Nobuko; Asai, Sadahiro; Kohno, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to overcome problems associated with the early diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) using the current criteria. Patients and Methods: Clinical features including radiographic findings from 10 patients with definitive ABPM based on the diagnostic criteria of Rosenberg-Patterson were compared with those from 9 patients with ABPM clinically diagnosed by respiratory allergy specialists. Results: ABPM should be considered in patients with peripher...

  11. [Research on prevalence and related factors in allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-hai; Lin, Wen-sen; Li, Shu-yan; Zhao, Shao-cheng; Wang, Li; Yang, Zhong-gang; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Zhen-fu; Yu, Jin-zhen

    2011-03-01

    To obtain the prevalence and related factors in allergic rhinitis (AR) and other allergic diseases in rural area in China through epidemiological investigation with large sample and multi-faceted survey data. Face to face survey was conducted in different regions (rural areas of Cangzhou, Hebei, coastal fishing village of Bohai Bay, area of Wuling Mountain, Chengde, urban areas of Tianjin) from April 2007 to May 2009. In the same time, serum specific IgE (sIgE) was detected in the digits of every 0, 1or 5 in them. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. Five thousand and ten cases were investigated. There were 823 cases with the symptoms or signs of AR (16.4%). Four hundred and two cases were found to have positive serum sIgE antibody in 1576 detected cases (25.5%). One hundred and fourty-six cases with nasal allergic symptoms or signs were diagnosed as AR. The incidence of AR was 9.3% (146/1576). The occurrence of allergic symptoms or signs had a significant statistical difference with factors such as age, occupation, atopic constitution (χ(2) value were 7.96, 9.73, 16.53, 8.95 respectively, all P cat epithelium in rural areas and dust mites in city. The incidence of AR is higher whether in urban or rural areas, it should be taken seriously as the impact on human health. The occurrence is closely related to physical characteristics and environmental factors.

  12. Skin prick test in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU and atopic dermatitis (AD are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aim s and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%, insects (17.07%, fungus (12.20%, and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM (7.32%. The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%. Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD.

  13. ORTHODONTIC DEVICES VS. ALLERGIC REACTIONS IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sodor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scope. The scope of the study was to evaluate the adverse reactions upon the intra- and extraoral tissues, produced by the insertion of orthodontic devices, on a populational group of Romania, for determining the frequencies of the allergic reactions and for comparing them with the sex, age, urban/rural background, malocclusion, orthodontic device, oral hygiene prior to and during the orthodontic treatment. Materials and method. The observation sheets of 621 patients (255 boys and 366 girls with ages between 6 and 29 years, from the Orthodontics Clinics of the Policlinics of the “Sf. Spiridon” Urgency Hospital and from a private orthodontic consulting room of Iaşi, have been statistically evaluated with the SPSS 17.0 for Windows program. Results. Pearson correlation and linear regression evidenced the relations between the adverse reactions produced during the orthodontic treatment, on one side, and the age, dental hygiene and types of orthodontic devices, on the other. The results obtained put into evidence significant relations between the adolescent age and the allergy to nickel manifested in antecedents, between the scarce oral hygiene of the patients prior to the orthodontic treatment and gingival enlargement, between the scarce oral hygiene of the patients during the orthodontic treatment and the localized or generalized gingivitis and the bleedings and gingival overgrowths, between the mobile orthodontic devices and the allergic reactions to acrylic resins (p and t = 0.000. Relevant connections have been also evidenced between the fixed orthodontic devices and the allergic reactions to the polymeric biomaterials from the orthodontic devices (p = 0.005 and t = 0.034. Conclusions. Statistical evaluation of the adverse effects induced by orthodontic devices may be used for stating the development of allergic reactions to the substances entering the composition of orthodontic devices, with reference to the cytotoxicology and

  14. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihler F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Ihler, Martin CanisDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Ragweed (Ambrosia spp. is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by

  15. Effects of omalizumab therapy on allergic rhinitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masieri, S; Cavaliere, C; Begvarfaj, E; Rosati, D; Minni, A

    2016-12-01

    The use of omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody able to binding Ig-E, is currently authorized only for treatment of severe bronchial asthma. The use of omalizumab in other Ig-E related diseases is off-label, although some studies have provided promising results about it. The aim of this study was to evaluate if therapy with omalizumab in patients affected by asthma and allergic rhinitis has an impact also on allergic rhinitis-related symptoms. A longitudinal study was conducted on 11 patients affected by severe asthma and a periodic allergic rhinitis. Patients were treated with omalizumab for 24 weeks with a monthly subcutaneous administration at the dosage recommended by the current guidelines. We observed at the start and at the end of treatment: rhinitis symptoms using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the state of nasal mucosa with fiberoptic nasal endoscopy; airways inflammation by measuring the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO); asthmatic symptomatology by means of the Asthma Control Test; the amount of total Ig-E in a blood sample; and the use of symptomatic drugs before and after treatment. VAS scores to measure general symptomatology and symptoms including nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, itching and sneezing were significantly reduced. Turbinate hypertrophy was resolved in six of nine patients. Furthermore, eight patients (73%) reduced or eliminated the use of symptomatic drugs. Our data confirm the efficacy of omalizumab in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Controlled studies will now have to be carried out to confirm these preliminary data and will specify indications for a very efficacious but still significantly expensive therapy.

  16. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Due to Paraphenylenediamine: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encabo Durán, B; Romero-Pérez, D; Silvestre Salvador, J F

    2018-02-26

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is an amine that is mainly used as an ingredient in hair dyes and henna tattoos. The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis to PPD is increasing, particularly in younger patients. In this article, we review the main sources of PPD and the substances with which it can interact and present a practical algorithm for diagnosing and treating suspected cases of PPD allergy. Copyright © 2018 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants of allergic rhinitis in young children with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Moussu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study of 227 children with active asthma and enrolled in the Trousseau Asthma Program. AR and other allergic diseases (asthma, food allergy and eczema were diagnosed by medical doctors using standardized questionnaires. Parental history of AR and asthma, biological markers of atopy (total IgE, blood eosinophilia, allergic sensitization towards food and aeroallergens and environmental parameters were also collected. RESULTS: Forty one of the children (18.1% had AR. By univariate logistic regression analysis, AR was mainly associated with peanut sensitization (OR = 6.75; p = 0.002; food allergy (OR = 4.31; p = 0.026; mold exposure (OR = 3.81 p<0.01 and parental history of AR (OR = 1.42; p = 0.046. Due to the strong link between food allergy and peanut sensitization three models of multivariate logistic regression were performed and confirmed that AR is associated with peanut sensitization but also food allergy and mold exposure. A random forest analysis was also performed to explain AR. The results reinforced the logistic analysis that peanut sensitization and mold exposure were the principal determinants of AR. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These results stress the importance of investigating AR in young children with asthma to potentially diagnose a particularly severe allergic asthmatic phenotype. Moreover, these data evoke the hypothesis that peanut could be an aeroallergen.

  18. Birth order and paediatric allergic disease: A nationwide longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Yorifuji, T; Fujii, Y; Yashiro, M; Okada, A; Ikeda, M; Doi, H; Tsukahara, H

    2018-05-01

    Environmental factors seem to be related to the incidence of allergic disease. Children with a later birth order are often exposed to environments, where pathogens and endotoxins can be found, and thus have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases. Therefore, birth order is regarded as an indicator that reflects post-natal environment. However, longitudinal studies are limited on this subject. This study sought to elucidate the relationships between birth order and allergic disease. From a nationwide longitudinal study that followed children born in 2001 (n = 47 015), we selected doctors' visits for 3 types of allergic disease-bronchial asthma, food allergy and atopic dermatitis-from infancy to 12 years of age and conducted binomial log-linear regression analysis to evaluate the associations between birth order and these diseases. We adjusted for the child and parental factors and estimated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome. The associations between birth order and bronchial asthma were diverse; later birth order increased the risk in early childhood, but decreased the risks during school age. For example, the adjusted RR comparing third-born or higher and first-born children was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35) between 30 and 42 months of age, but was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.89) between 10 and 11 years. Later birth order was generally protective for food allergy but increased the risk of atopic dermatitis. The influence of birth order depended on the type of allergic disease and the childhood period. Childhood is unique in terms of physical and immunological development, and the immune response to the post-natal environment in childhood appears to be heterogeneous. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Daily allergic multimorbidity in rhinitis using mobile technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J.; Devillier, P.; Anto, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    impact on work productivity using a mobile technology, the Allergy Diary. Methods: We undertook a 1-year prospective observational study in which 4 210 users and 32 585 days were monitored in 19 countries. Five visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed the daily burden of the disease (i.e., global evaluation...... approach examining daily symptoms with mobile technology, we found considerable intra-individual variability of allergic multimorbidity including a previously unrecognized extreme pattern of uncontrolled multimorbidity....

  1. Safety of influenza vaccination in children with allergic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyeon-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Global guidelines strongly recommend annual influenza vaccination in people age 6 months and older, particularly in asthmatic children. There is no doubt about the benefit of influenza vaccination in asthmatic children. However, some of the vaccine's components may elicit an IgE mediated hypersensitivity or disease exacerbation, including life-threatening events, in children with allergic diseases. As a result, concerns regarding the safety of the vaccine still continue today. The influenza v...

  2. The challenges for nut-allergic consumers of eating out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, J; Barnett, J; Muncer, K; Shepherd, R; Raats, M M; Hazel Gowland, M; Lucas, J S

    2011-02-01

    For individuals with a nut allergy, the avoidance of allergens is particularly challenging in situations where they are not preparing their own food. Many allergic reactions occur when eating outside the home. To identify and explore the challenges faced by nut-allergic individuals (NAIs) when they are eating in restaurants and other eating establishments. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 32 adults with a clinical history of allergy to peanuts and/or tree nuts. The main strategies that participants adopted to manage the risk of allergic reactions when eating outside the home were avoidance and communication. They avoided types of restaurants, meal courses or particular foods. Seeking familiarity was a key strategy that enabled NAIs to reduce uncertainty and anxiety. Language differences were a major barrier to confident communication about food content. The need to check whether the food on offer may contain nuts was a source of social embarrassment for many participants and the desire to avoid this sometimes led to increased risk taking. Some did not disclose their allergy to restaurant staff as they feared a conservative reaction that would further constrain food choices. NAIs often have to plan where to eat out. The consequent lack of spontaneity was a source of regret to some. Communication patterns of nut-allergic adults are often grounded in legitimate everyday social considerations around embarrassment, choice and spontaneity. Education and training strategies are needed that recognize and take account of this. Focusing on communication deficits of NAIs may be unhelpful; responsibility for food safety must be shared with the food industry. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Allergic reactions in salmonellosis depends on the Serotype of pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkrtchyan, M.S.; Zakaryan, М. K.; Mnatsakanyan, А. А.

    2013-01-01

    the members of the Salmonella genus are genetically close, they display wide variations in host-specificity, virulence, and disease manifestations. Gastroenteritis is most frequently caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Salmonella enteric serovar Enteritidis (S....../or progression of autoimmune diseases in humans. It is also thought that there is a high probability that infectious gastroenteritis increases the risk of subsequent autoimmune and allergic diseases....

  4. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral vie...

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis due to highly reactive halogenated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, F C; Ive, F A

    1983-11-01

    Ten cases of dermatitis in a fine organic chemicals plant are reported. These cases were all due to exposure to chemical compounds with reactive bromine or chlorine atoms. This type of chemical is always extremely irritant, but evidence is put forward to suggest that these cases were the result of allergic sensitization. Chemicals with reactive halogen atoms should always be handled with extreme care and patch testing should be approached with caution.

  6. AMINO ACID BLOOD POOL OF CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulich O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid blood pool of children with atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, urticaria, angioedema was investigated. The variability of blood plasma amino acid content (tryptophan, histidine, tyrosine, cysteine, methionine was observed. The changes of histidine and tryptophan levels might be connected with the formation of biogenic amines, such as histamine, serotonine, with take part in the development of allergic reactions and inflammatory processes in organism.

  7. A CLINICAL CASE OF ACUTE ALLERGIC MYOCARDITIS SIMULATING MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe a clinical case of evolving acute eosinophilic myocarditis simulating coronary heart disease. Subjects and methods. Patient B. aged 62 years was admitted to Intensive Care Unit Fifteen, N.I. Pirogov First Moscow City Clinical Hospital, by being transferred from Thailand with a referral diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction made on November 1, 2012, with complaints of pressing and aching heart pains. At a Phuket hospital, his electrocardiogram recorded atrial fibrillation; indirect cardiac massage, electric pulse therapy, and mechanical ventilation were performed. After being admitted to the N.I. Pirogov First Moscow City Clinical Hospital, the patient underwent examination: estimation of laboratory indicators over time, electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography, Holter ECG monitoring, and myocardial scintigraphy. Results. The patient had a history of an allergic reaction as urticaria to the ingestion of fish products. His examination showed practically all diagnostic criteria for allergic myocarditis: hypereosinophilia (the admission level of eosinophils was 9% with their further normalization; the characteristic clinical presentation of myocarditis (pressing retrosternal pain; elevated levels of cardiac specific enzymes (creatinine phosphokinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, troponin T; ECG changes – myocardial hypokinesis in the acute period, followed by its pattern normalization. of the pattern. Myocardial scintigraphy (by taking into account the fact that the patient had had a new allergic reaction episode, the investigators decided not to perform coronary angiography revealed decreased radiopharmaceutical accumulation in the lower left ventricular wall in the right coronary arterial bed; perfusion remained in the other myocardial walls. Conclusion. This clinical case reflects the specific features of the course of and difficulties in the diagnosis of acute allergic myocarditis that, in most cases, has no specific

  8. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  9. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  11. Natural Hazards, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhban, Badaoui

    Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

  12. Barrow hazards survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    Following a series of public meetings at which PERG presented the results of a literature review and site specific accident study of the hazards of the maritime transport of spent nuclear reactor fuel to Barrow (en route to the Windscale reprocessing works), PERG was requested by the Planning Committee of Barrow Town Council to prepare an assessment of the interaction of the hazards arising from the concentration of nuclear activities in the area with those of a proposed gas-terminal. This report presents a preliminary review of the Environmental Impact Assessments prepared by the Borough Surveyor and a critical appraisal of the hazard analyses undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive, and the consultants to Cumbria County Council on this matter, the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. After a general and historical introduction, the document continues under the following headings: a description of the hazards (BNFL spent fuel shipments; the gas terminal; gas condensate storage; the Vickers shipyard (involving nuclear powered submarines)); the interaction of hazards; planning implications and democratic decisions; recommendations. (U.K.)

  13. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  14. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Poza Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47 with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT, while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis.

  15. Anaphylaxis and allergic reactions during surgery and medical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas J Larrauri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis during anesthesia is an unpredictable, severe, and rare reaction. It has an incidence of 1/10 000 to 1/20 000 surgeries. In most series, the responsible drugs include neuromuscular blocking agents, latex, or antibiotics. The frequency and etiology of systemic allergic reactions in other medical procedures are largely unknown. The identification of responsible drugs of anaphylaxis is a complex task, requiring testing of all medications and substances used during surgery. We describe our experience in a retrospective study of 15 patients. Ten subjects developed anaphylaxis during surgery, two in endoscopic studies and one in a trans-vaginal ultrasound. The remaining two subjects, one in a trans-vaginal ultrasound and another during a dental procedure had a systemic allergic reaction. We studied all patients with all medications administered during the procedures, including latex and detergents and disinfectants. Three surgeries had to be suspended at induction of anesthesia, five were stopped incomplete and two were completed. Both patients that presented a reaction during endoscopy required intensive care unit admission and the rest were observed in a Hospital. The responsible drugs during surgery anaphylaxis were neuromuscular blocking agents, latex, patent blue, and ranitidine. Ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA was identified during endoscopic studies; latex was responsible in transvaginal ultrasounds; and amoxicillin in the dental procedure. The aim of the present article is to review our experience studying allergic systemic reactions and anaphylaxis during general anesthesia and medical procedures, emphasizing the severity of these reactions and the need for causative drug identification.

  16. Adverse reactions to orthodontic appliances in nickel-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Kristen K; Inda, Michael J; Reichl, Peter G; Zacharisen, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Nickel allergy (NA) is common and causes more cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) than all other metals combined. Many orthodontic appliances (ODAs) contain nickel but their clinical relevance in nickel-allergic patients is unclear. We aimed to characterize the relationship between NA and ODAs because the medical literature investigating this is controversial. A survey concerning adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA was distributed to members of the Wisconsin Society of Orthodontics. Forty-three surveys were analyzed. The surveyed group was experienced, representing a mean of 21.2 years in practice and averaging 242 appliances placed per year per orthodontist. Most new patients with orthodontia were 10-18 years old. Most wires used were nickel-titanium alloy. Although 76% of orthodontists inquired about NA at initial evaluation, 37% still placed nickel-containing ODAs in known nickel-allergic patients. Fifty percent placed a single intraoral appliance, observing for reactions. Three orthodontists applied ODAs to the skin similar to patch testing. Only 8 patients with reactions to ODAs were described in detail, 6 were female patients and 6 were aged 13-14 years. Intraoral and extraoral reactions were mild; diffuse urticaria was reported in one patient. Treatment included removing the appliances or changing to nonnickel alternatives with favorable outcomes. These cases, which included >33,000 patients, suggest a prevalence of 0.03%. Adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA have been observed but are uncommon. Using suitable alternatives, patients usually can be accommodated.

  17. Anti-Allergic Properties of Curine, a Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ribeiro-Filho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Chondrodendron platyphyllum (Menispermaceae. Recent findings have shed light on the actions of curine in different models of allergy and inflammation. Here we review the properties and mechanisms of action of curine focusing on its anti-allergic effects. Curine pre-treatment significantly inhibited the scratching behavior, paw edema and systemic anaphylaxis induced by either ovalbumin (OVA in sensitized animals or compound 48/80, through mechanisms of mast cell stabilization and inhibition of mast cell activation to generate lipid mediators. In addition, oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophil recruitment and activation, as well as, OVA-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of asthma, through inhibition of the production of IL-13 and eotaxin, and of Ca2+ influx. In conclusion, curine exhibit anti-allergic effects in models of lung, skin and systemic allergy in the absence of significant toxicity, and as such has the potential for anti-allergic drug development.

  18. The potential protective role of taurine against experimental allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-09-01

    Taurine has been widely evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent in chronic inflammatory disorders and various infections. However, the potential role of taurine in regulating allergic inflammatory responses is currently unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of taurine on the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of caspase-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-triggered human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of taurine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) animal models. Here, the obtained results showed that taurine dose-dependently inhibited the production and mRNA expression of TSLP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HMC-1 cells exposed to PMACI. Taurine attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, taurine brought a significant inhibition of the activities of NF-κB and caspase-1. In an OVA-induced AR animal model, the increased levels of nose rubbing, histamine, immunoglobulin E, TSLP, and interleukin IL-1β were dramatically reduced by the administration of taurine. In summary, taurine could serve as potential novel remedy of allergic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-allergic rhinitis: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Lew D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhinitis is characterized by rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal congestion, nasal itch and/or postnasal drip. Often the first step in arriving at a diagnosis is to exclude or diagnose sensitivity to inhalant allergens. Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR comprises multiple distinct conditions that may even co-exist with allergic rhinitis (AR. They may differ in their presentation and treatment. As well, the pathogenesis of NAR is not clearly elucidated and likely varied. There are many conditions that can have similar presentations to NAR or AR, including nasal polyps, anatomical/mechanical factors, autoimmune diseases, metabolic conditions, genetic conditions and immunodeficiency. Here we present a case of a rare condition initially diagnosed and treated as typical allergic rhinitis vs. vasomotor rhinitis, but found to be something much more serious. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining an appropriate differential diagnosis for a complaint routinely seen as mundane. The case presentation is followed by a review of the potential causes and pathogenesis of NAR.

  20. Diagnostic and treatment challenges in management of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bahadur Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among infections pertaining to head and neck rhinosinusitis holds a significant position both with regard to the prevalence and morbidity. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS was initially considered a counterpart of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis when first diagnosed by Sa firstein in 1976 due to its clinical presentations and seemingly similar pathogenesis. Initially only Aspergillus was known as the causative, but now various other fungal species are known to cause chronic rhinosinusitis; hence, the terminology allergic fungal sinusitis was preferred. Exposure to fungi results in similar as asthma in atopic individuals, but then, some nonatopic individuals may also present with similar symptoms. It has also been studied that the presence of serum immunoglobulin E does not ensure the presence of allergy. Till date, there are several controversies regarding pathogenesis, whether humoral or immune mediated, population at risk, variations in presentations, diagnostic parameters, and treatment protocols. In this review, we try to revisit and learn from past documented experiences to further our attempt toward better understanding of the disease process, its diagnosis, and management.

  1. INCIDENCE OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aims to evaluate the incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a widely prevalent condition globally as well as in India. Fungal rhinosinusitis is classified into two subgroups: three invasive forms (acute necrotizing, chronic invasive, granulomatous invasive, and two noninvasive forms (fungal ball and allergic fungal. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients attending the Department of ENT at Adesh institute of medical science & research, Bathinda (Punjab between Jan 2016 and Dec 2016 one year duration 82 cases were included in this retrospective analysis with features suggestive of chronic rhinosinusitis. Based on clinical, endoscopic and radiological parameters, 82 cases were diagnosed to have rhinosinusitis. In these cases, postoperatively after HPE examination, 16 cases were confirmed to have mycotic infection. RESULTS Out of 16 cases, In Allergic fungal rhino sinusitis(AFRS, Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus was the most common fungus isolated ten cases (71.42%.. In fungal ball, A. flavus was isolated in two cases (14.25% and Aspergillus niger (A. niger was isolated in two cases (14.25%. In invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS mucormycosis was isolated in two cases (12.5%. CONCLUSION The incidence of ARFS is about 12.2% of chronic rhinosinusitis. The commonest age group is second & third decade

  2. [Clinical effect of bipolar radiofrequency thermotherapy on allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyake, Daisuke; Ochi, Kentaro; Takatsu, Mitsuharu; Shintani, Toshiharu; Umehara, Tsuyoshi; Koizuka, Izumi

    2004-07-01

    The clinical effect of bipolar radiofrequency thermotherapy on allergic rhinitis was evaluated. A bipolar radiofrequency system (CelonLab ENT) was used to treat 16 patients suffering from allergic rhinitis between February 2003 and August 2003. The thermotherapy was performed under local anesthesia at the otolaryngology outpatient clinic of St. Marianna University Toyoko Hospital. Data were collected by questionnaire and rhinomanometry preoperatively and 2 months postoperatively. The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) score for intraoperative pain was 31 mm (range, 0-100), and nearly all the patients felt no or a subtle pain during the thermotherapy. Postoperative pain was also well tolerated, with nearly all the patients not requiring analgesic drugs. Postoperative bleeding was minor, and none of the patients required additional treatment for bleeding. Nearly all the patients reported an improvement in their nasal patency, rhinorrhea, headaches, and sleeping. Statistically significant improvements were observed for all the measured VAS scores: nasal patency, rhinorrhea, headache, and olfactory function. Nasal resistance, as measured by anterior rhinomanometry, significantly improved after treatment. The effect of decongestion was also measured using anterior rhinomanometry. The ratio of nasal resistance before and after decongestion was significantly higher after thermotherapy, suggesting that nasal decongestion had a smaller effect on nasal patency after treatment. The current results suggest that the CelonLab ENT device is an effective and safe treatment for allergic rhinitis.

  3. B-Glucan exacerbates allergic asthma independent of fungal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundAllergic sensitization to fungi has been associated with asthma severity. As a result, it has been largely assumed that the contribution of fungi to allergic disease is mediated through their potent antigenicity.ObjectiveWe sought to determine the mechanism by which fungi affect asthma development and severity.MethodsWe integrated epidemiologic and experimental asthma models to explore the effect of fungal exposure on asthma development and severity.ResultsWe report that fungal exposure enhances allergen-driven TH2 responses, promoting severe allergic asthma. This effect is independent of fungal sensitization and can be reconstituted with β-glucan and abrogated by neutralization of IL-17A. Furthermore, this severe asthma is resistant to steroids and characterized by mixed TH2 and TH17 responses, including IL-13+IL-17+CD4+ double-producing effector T cells. Steroid resistance is dependent on fungus-induced TH17 responses because steroid sensitivity was restored in IL-17rc−/− mice. Similarly, in children with asthma, fungal exposure was associated with increased serum IL-17A levels and asthma severity.ConclusionOur data demonstrate that fungi are potent immunomodulators and have powerful effects on asthma independent of their potential to act as antigens. Furthermore, our results provide a strong rationale for combination treatment strategies targeting IL-17A for this subgroup of fungus-exposed patients with difficult-to-treat asthma. To describe th

  4. The perception of hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The fourth chapter deals with the profusion of factors determining the differing assessment of hazards by our society. Subjective factors influencing risk perception comprise, among others, general knowledge and recognition of a hazard; the degree of voluntariness when taking the risk and its influencibility; the problem of large scale accidents; immediate and delayed results. Next to the objective and the subjective risks, the individual and the social or collective risks are assessed differently. The author dicusses in detail recent investigations into and study methods for the determination of risk perception, while eliminating systematic trends from subjective perception since common assessments are shared by whole groups of individuals time and again which allow a better understanding of today's handling of hazards. (HSCH) [de

  5. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  6. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties.

  7. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

  8. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  9. Hazard Communication Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

  10. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  11. Are unnecessary follow-up procedures induced by computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in mammography? Comparison of mammographic diagnosis with and without use of CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Christiane; Malich, Ansgar; Facius, Mirjam; Grebenstein, Uta; Sauner, Dieter; Pfleiderer, Stefan O.R.; Kaiser, Werner A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the rate of unnecessary follow-up procedures recommended by radiologists using a CAD-system. Materials and methods: 185 patients (740 images) were consecutively selected from three groups (36 histologically proven cancers=group 1; 49 histologically proven benign lesions=group 2 and 100 screening cases (4 years-follow up=group 3). Mammograms were evaluated by a CAD system (Second Look [reg] , CADx, Canada). Five blinded radiologists assessed the images without/with CAD outputs. Diagnostic decisions were ranked from surely benign to surely malignant according to BIRADS classification, follow-up procedures were recommended for each observed lesion (a, screening; b, short interval follow-up examination in 6 months; c, pathologic clarification). Results: CAD-system detected 32/36 cancers (88.9%) (FP-rate: 1.04 massmarks and 0.27 calcmarks/image). The following values were reached by all observers without/with CAD in the mean: Sensitivity 80.6/80.0%, specificity 83.2/86.4%, PPV 53.1/58.1%, and NPV 94.6/94.7%. Observers described a similar number of additional lesions without/with the use of CAD (325/326). Whereas the number of unnecessary short-time follow up recommendations increased in all case-subgroups with CAD: 40.8/42.9% (group 1), 35.6/38.1% (group 2), 44.7/46.8% (group 3), respectively, the number of recommended biopsies decreased in all subgroups: group 1: 34.7/27.1%; group 2: 47.4/41.5%, group 3: 33.3/22.0%, respectively. Conclusion: In this rather small population additional usage of CAD led to a lower rate of unnecessary biopsies. The observed decrease of recommended unnecessary biopsies due to the usage of CAD in the screening group suggests a potential financial benefit by using CAD as diagnostic aid

  12. The efficacy of Otirin Nasal Spray® in the treatment of allergic rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Tech. (Homoeopathy) Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is the inflammation of the nasal and often conjunctival mucous membrane. It manifests due to the exposure of inhaled allergic agents and results in an immunoglobulin E (lgE) mediated reaction (DiPiro et al., 2002; Shargel et al., 2001). Allergic rhinitis is characterised by four principle symptoms, watery rhinorrhoea, nasal obstruction, nasal itching and sneezing (Min, 2010). In addition to the cardinal symptoms experienced during AR other commo...

  13. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders.

  14. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Diesel

    2017-01-01

    Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to...

  15. Report of a patient with complex composites of hepatitis B virus, allergic asthma and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Shamsadin Athari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available HBV is a non-cytopathic virus and cell mediated immune response against this. Humoral mediated immune response are responsible for allergic diseases. Balance between these two subsets of Th CD4+ cells are result of the immune system response. A 56 year old woman presented with chronic HBV infection, allergic asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure and high blood lipid. Patients should be followed for the allergic and autoimmune diseases along with their viral reactivation.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis: A commentary on the relationship between T lymphocytes and skin sensitising potency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, Ian; Maxwell, Gavin; Gilmour, Nicky; Dearman, Rebecca J.; Friedmann, Peter S.; Martin, Stefan F.

    2012-01-01

    T lymphocytes mediate skin sensitisation and allergic contact dermatitis. Not unexpectedly, therefore, there is considerable interest in the use of T lymphocyte-based assays as alternative strategies for the identification of skin sensitising chemicals. However, in addition to accurate identification of hazards the development of effective risk assessments requires that information is available about the relative skin sensitising potency of contact allergens. The purpose of this article is to consider the relationships that exist between the characteristics of T lymphocyte responses to contact allergens and the effectiveness/potency of sensitisation. We propose that there are 3 aspects of T lymphocyte responses that have the potential to impact on the potency of sensitisation. These are: (a) the magnitude of response, and in particular the vigour and duration of proliferation and the clonal expansion of allergen-reactive T lymphocytes, (b) the quality of response, including the balance achieved between effector and regulatory cells, and (c) the breadth of response and the clonal diversity of T lymphocyte responses. A case is made that there may be opportunities to exploit an understanding of T lymphocyte responses to contact allergens to develop novel paradigms for predicting skin sensitising potency and new approaches to risk assessment.

  17. The treatment of allergic rhinitis improves the recovery from asthma and upper respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Sarti

    Full Text Available Forty-six asthmatic children with repeated respiratory infections presented symptoms of allergic rhinitis. All patients were treated locally for allergic rhinitis either with disodium cromoglycate or beclomethasone dipropionate. After six months of treatment, 95% of the children showed improvement of allergic rhinitis and 84% improvement of bronchial asthma, as well as fewer infections. We concluded that allergic rhinitis plays an important role in facilitating infections of the upper respiratory tract, and a possible association of rhinitis, viral infections and bronchial asthma is discussed.

  18. Assessment of sensitization to insect aeroallergens among patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd City, Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Bemanian; Narges Alizadeh Korkinejad; Shima Shirkhoda; Mohammad Nabavi; Zahra Pourpak

    2012-01-01

    The  frequency of  allergic diseases such  as allergic rhinitis is considerable in general population. Insect aeroallergens are important allergens which can induce airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to insect aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis patients in Yazd as a desert city in Iran.A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 95 allergic rhinitis patients who were referred to allergy clinic of Yazd city. Skin prick tests (SPT) by stand...

  19. A review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of allergic reactions in the dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Christopher; Milles, Maano

    2011-02-01

    Since more than 50 million people in the United States have allergies, knowledge of the management of allergic reactions in the dental office is extremely important. Appropriate care may range from a simple referral to a primary care physician to lifesaving measures implemented during acute anaphylactic reactions. The authors present a basic review of the pathophysiology of allergic reactions and provide information detailing the diagnosis and management of allergic reactions that may be encountered in the dental office. Utilizing this information, the dental practitioner and ancillary staff will have a thorough understanding of allergic reactions and be prepared to successfully identify and treat these reactions.

  20. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Diesel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  1. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Alison

    2017-05-09

    Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly "feline atopic syndrome" when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  2. Stressors of School-age Children With Allergic Diseases: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Misa; Hamaguchi, Mana; Nagata, Mayumi; Yoshida, Koichi

    2018-05-08

    Most studies of stress in children with chronic diseases have been geared toward parents and caregivers have not considered allergic diseases together. This study aimed to identify the stressors associated with allergic diseases in Japanese school-age children. Stressors associated with allergic diseases of 11 school-age children (seven boys and four girls; age range: 9-12 years) were investigated using semi-structured interviews. In the qualitative thematic analysis of stressors about allergic diseases, two themes: allergic disease-specific stressors and common stressors in chronic diseases, and 12 categories were identified. A thematic map was applied to four domains of stressor: physiological factors, psychological factors, social factors, and environmental factors. The results showed that school-age children with allergic diseases have a variety of stressors. Future studies should aim to develop an allergic disease-specific stress management program with school-age children. In children with allergic diseases, not only is stress management in daily life important, but also stress management for disease-specific matters to control the symptoms and maintain mental health. Stress management should be supported for school-age children with allergic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium con...

  4. SCI Hazard Report Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

  5. Stop radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Brief general advice is presented for the employer unused to handling radioactive materials or using x-ray techniques. Topics mentioned are the definition of radiation and its hazards, measuring and monitoring the working environment, how to decide on and obtain equipment, standards and regulations, codes of practice, records, training, and useful sources of information. (U.K.)

  6. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  7. Hazardous industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Hilda; Salas, Juan Carlos; Romero, Luis Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author) [es

  8. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

  9. Maintenance and hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhl, K.; Terwoert, J.; Cabecas, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance workers come into close contact with a broad variety of often hazardous chemicals. Depending on the specific type, these chemicals may not only cause diseases like skin sores or cancer, but many of them are highly flammable and explosive. This e-facts focuses on the specific risks

  10. Assessing storm erosion hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Callaghan, D.; Ciavola, Paolo; Coco, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The storm erosion hazard on coasts is usually expressed as an erosion volume and/or associated episodic coastline retreat. The accurate assessment of present-day and future storm erosion volumes is a key task for coastal zone managers, planners and engineers. There are four main approaches that can

  11. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  12. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  13. The development of the globally harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labelling of hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winder, Chris; Azzi, Rola; Wagner, Drew

    2005-01-01

    The hazards of chemicals can be classified using classification criteria that are based on physical, chemical and ecotoxicological endpoints. These criteria may be developed be iteratively, based on scientific or regulatory processes. A number of national and international schemes have been developed over the past 50 years, and some, such as the UN Dangerous Goods system or the EC system for hazardous substances, are in widespread use. However, the unnecessarily complicated multiplicity of existing hazard classifications created much unnecessary confusion at the user level, and a recommendation was made at the 1992 Rio Earth summit to develop a globally harmonized chemical hazard classification and compatible labelling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, that could be used for manufacture, transport, use and disposal of chemical substances. This became the globally harmonized system for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The developmental phase of the GHS is largely complete. Consistent criteria for categorising chemicals according to their toxic, physical, chemical and ecological hazards are now available. Consistent hazard communication tools such as labelling and material safety data sheets are also close to finalisation. The next phase is implementation of the GHS. The Intergovernmental Forum for Chemical Safety recommends that all countries implement the GHS as soon as possible with a view to have the system fully operational by 2008. When the GHS is in place, the world will finally have one system for classification of chemical hazards

  14. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  15. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  16. Inducing maternal inflammation promotes leptin production in offspring but does not improve allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Imai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The intrauterine environment is considered to affect immunological development in fetus, leading to an increased risk of developing allergy. In particular, maternal lipopolysaccharides (LPS administration might regulate the development of allergic disease in offspring. Several studies have shown that being obese relates to a higher prevalence of allergic diseases compared to normal weight. The present study explored the effects of inducing maternal inflammation with LPS before pregnancy on body weight, physical composition including body fat, adipokine production, and pathology of allergic rhinitis in offspring. Main methods: Female mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (2 μg/g BW. After 5 days of LPS administration, female mice were mated with males, and experimental allergic rhinitis was induced in female offspring. Immunization and nasal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA were performed at 7 and 8 weeks of age. Allergic rhinitis-like symptoms, OVA-specific IgE and adipokines in sera, body weight, fat pad weight, and cytokine production by splenocytes in these 9-week-old offspring. Key findings: Maternal LPS administration results in a significant increase in body weight, visceral fat accumulation, and serum leptin concentration, and the dominance of Th1 in Th balance. Nevertheless, there was no statistical difference in OVA-specific IgE titer and allergic-like symptoms between the groups. Significance: In conclusion, maternal LPS promoted leptin production and altered Th balance in mice offspring, but not improved allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. It might suggest that inflammation during pregnancy plays a role in the adipose tissue function which could diversely influence allergic inflammation in offspring. Keywords: Immunology, Metabolism, Nutrition, Health Sciences

  17. Hazard management at the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasfazilah Hassan; Azimawati Ahmad; Syed Asraf Fahlawi Wafa S M Ghazi; Hairul Nizam Idris

    2005-01-01

    Failure to ensure health and safety environment at workplace will cause an accident involving loss to the time, human resource, finance and for the worse case effect the moral value of an organization. If we go through to the cause of the accident, it is impossible to have a totally safety workplace. It is because every process in work activities has it own hazard elements. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the best action to prevent from the hazard with a comprehensive and effectiveness hazard management. Hazard management is the one of the pro-active hazard control. With this we manage to identify and evaluate the hazard and control the hazard risk. Therefore, hazard management should be screened constantly and continuously to make sure work hazard always in control. (Author)

  18. ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY: VACCINES FOR ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Fedorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT is the most effective method of allergy treatment which consists of exposure to small doses of antigen responsible for development of allergic condition in the particular patient. Therefore, one may achieve desensitization to this antigen. The history of ASIT application lasts for more than 100 years, and, over this time, huge clinical evidence for the usage of the method has been accumulated. Use of ASIT causes reduction of allergy symptoms and treatment needs and, moreover, it has the potential for long-term clinical benefit, by preventing the development of allergy and its symptoms. The treatment affects basic immunological mechanisms responsible for the development of clinical symptoms. ASIT is an antiinflammatory, pathogenetic and prophylactic treatment of allergic airway disease. The review considers the results of major clinical trials of the ASIT applications for treatment of allergic diseases of the respiratory system (allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Various schemes of ASIT are discussed including its different variants (injectable and sublingual ASIT, the issues of preparation choice for ASIT from those currently available on the pharmaceutical market, patient selection criteria, and the issues of modern molecular allergodiagnostic (allergic sensitization mapping of the patient at molecular level, in order to optimize them. Immunological mechanisms of ASIT are also considered, since appropriate views are rather contraversial. The ASIT effect is mediated through the following basic immunological mechanisms: the suppressed increase of the eosinophil concentrations, reduced duration of the delayed hypersensitivity phase, as well as initiation and maintenance of the Th2-to-Th1-like immune response transition. Regulatory T-cells play a major role in implementation of the immunological mechanism in ASIT, they have a significant impact on the Th2 response suppression. Such suppression may proceed

  19. Local Effect of Neurotrophin-3 in Neuronal Inflammation of Allergic Rhinitis: Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmi, Onur; Özcan, Cengiz; Karabacak, Tuba; Polat, Gürbüz; Vayisoğlu, Yusuf; Güçlütürk, Taylan; Görür, Kemal

    2015-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common inflammatory nasal mucosal disease characterized by sneezing, watery nasal discharge, nasal obstruction and itching. Although allergen-specific antibodies play a main role in the allergic airway inflammation, neuronal inflammation may also contribute to the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Neuronal inflammation is primarily caused by the stimulation of sensory nerve endings with histamine. It has been shown that neurotrophins may also have a role in allergic reactions and neuronal inflammation. Nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), neurotrophin 4/5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are members of the neurotrophin family. Although nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are well studied in allergic rhinitis patients, the exact role of Neurotrophin-3 is not known. To investigate the possible roles of neurotrophin-3 in allergic rhinitis patients. Case-control study. Neurotrophin-3 levels were studied in the inferior turbinate and serum samples of 20 allergic rhinitis and 13 control patients. Neurotrophin-3 staining of nasal tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ELISA was used for the determination of serum Neurotrophin-3 levels. Neurotrophin-3 staining scores were statistically higher in the study group than in the control patients (p=0.001). Regarding serum Neurotrophin-3 levels, no statistically significant difference could be determined between allergic rhinitis and control patients (p=0.156). When comparing the serum NT-3 levels with tissue staining scores, there were no statistically significant differences in the allergic rhinitis and control groups (p=0.254 for allergic rhinitis and p=0.624 for control groups). We suggest that Neurotrophin-3 might affect the nasal mucosa locally without being released into the systemic circulation in allergic rhinitis patients.

  20. Breast feeding and allergic diseases in infants—a prospective birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, I; Wickman, M; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S; Pershagen, G

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effect of breast feeding on allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age. Methods: A birth cohort of 4089 infants was followed prospectively in Stockholm, Sweden. Information about various exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires when the infants were 2 months old, and about allergic symptoms and feeding at 1 and 2 years of age. Duration of exclusive and partial breast feeding was assessed separately. Symptom related definitions of various allergic diseases were used. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in a multiple logistic regression model. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. Results: Children exclusively breast fed during four months or more exhibited less asthma (7.7% v 12%, ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8), less atopic dermatitis (24% v 27%, ORadj = 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.0), and less suspected allergic rhinitis (6.5% v 9%, ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) by 2 years of age. There was a significant risk reduction for asthma related to partial breast feeding during six months or more (ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9). Three or more of five possible allergic disorders—asthma, suspected allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy related symptoms, and suspected allergic respiratory symptoms after exposure to pets or pollen—were found in 6.5% of the children. Exclusive breast feeding prevented children from having multiple allergic disease (ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) during the first two years of life. Conclusion: Exclusive breast feeding seems to have a preventive effect on the early development of allergic disease—that is, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and suspected allergic rhinitis, up to 2 years of age. This protective effect was also evident for multiple allergic disease. PMID:12456543

  1. Obese and Allergic Related Asthma Phenotypes Among Children Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mindy K; Romero, Tahmineh; Sim, Myung S; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2018-04-19

    Pediatric asthma is heterogeneous with phenotypes that reflect differing underlying inflammation and pathophysiology. Little is known about the national prevalence of certain obesity and allergy related asthma phenotypes or associated characteristics. We therefore assessed the national prevalence, risk factors, and parent-reported severity of four asthma phenotypes: not-allergic-not-obese, allergic-not-obese, obese-not-allergic, and allergic-and-obese. We analyzed data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) of 10-17 year-olds with parent-reported asthma. We described sociodemographic and health risk factors of each phenotype and then applied logistic and ordinal regression models to identify associated risk factors and level of severity of the phenotypes. Among 4,427 children with asthma in this NSCH cohort, the association between race and phenotype is statistically significant (p<0.0001); white children with asthma were most likely to have allergic-not-obese asthma while black and Hispanic children with asthma were most likely to have the obese-non-allergic phenotype (p<0.001). ADD/ADHD was more likely to be present in allergic-not-obese children (OR 1.50, CI 1.14-1.98, p = 0.004). The phenotype with the highest risk for more severe compared to mild asthma was the obese-and-allergic asthma phenotype (OR 3.34, CI 2.23-5.01, p<0.001). Allergic-not-obese asthma comprised half of our studied asthma phenotypes, while obesity-related asthma (with or without allergic components) comprised one-fifth of asthma phenotypes in this cohort representative of the U.S. Children with both obese and allergic asthma are most likely to have severe asthma. Future management of childhood asthma might consider more tailoring of treatment and management plans based upon different childhood asthma phenotypes.

  2. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  3. Effects of yttrium 90 on experimental allergic arthritis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier-Ruge, W.; Mueller, W.; Pavelka, K.

    1976-01-01

    Fifteen weeks after allergic arthritis developed in the knee joint of 17 immunized rabbits, 8 animals were given an injection of 200 μCi yttrium 90( 90 Y) into the left joint cavity and 7 were injected with 400 μCi. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and at 6 to 12 months after the injection. Two uninjected animals used as morphological controls were sacrificed 13 weeks after immunization, and showed allergic arthritis had progressed to severe inflammation of the knee joint marked by massive round-cell infiltration, oedema, and proliferation of synovial mesothelium in the synovial villi and joint capsule. Treatment with 90 Y was effective 2 weeks after injection and the disappearance of inflammatory odema and marked regression of round-cell infiltration. This was accompanied by degeneration of the synovial mesothelium and fibrosis of the subsynovial tissue and synovial vessels as a secondary effect of the radiation. In the animals with severe allergic arthritis, the healing effects of 90 Y were more marked than the secondary effects of the radiation which were dose-dependent. Treatment with 90 Y of arthritic knee joints with the lowest effective dose of the isotope - if necessay with repeated application - seems justified. A single large dose does not have a greater therapeutic effect and causes more radiation damage to the joint. In view of the possible secondary effects in the joint, the indication for 90 Y therapy should be restricted, particularly in young patients, to cases of chronic relapsing arthritis unresponsive to other treatment. (U.K.)

  4. Aspergillus fumigatus viability drives allergic responses to inhaled conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Croston, Tara L; Lemons, Angela R; Goldsmith, W T; Marshall, Nikki B; Kashon, Michael L; Germolec, Dori R; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

    2018-04-13

    Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergic airway disease has been shown to involve conidial germination in vivo but the immunological mechanisms remain uncharacterized. A subchronic murine exposure model was used to examine the immunological mediators that are regulated in response to either culturable or non-culturable A. fumigatus conidia. Female B6C3F1/N mice were repeatedly dosed via inhalation with 1 x 105 viable or heat inactivated conidia (HIC), twice a week for 13 weeks (26 exposures). Control mice inhaled HEPA-filtered air. The influence of A. fumigatus conidial germination on the pulmonary immunopathological outcomes was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis of cellular infiltration in the airways, assessment of lung mRNA expression, and quantitative proteomics and histopathology of whole lung tissue. Repeated inhalation of viable conidia, but not HIC, resulted in allergic inflammation marked by vascular remodeling, extensive eosinophilia, and accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) in the murine airways. More specifically, mice that inhaled viable conidia resulted in a mixed TH1 and TH2 (IL-13) cytokine response. Recruitment of eosinophils corresponded with increased Ccl11 transcripts. Furthermore, genes associated with M2 or alternatively activated macrophage polarization (e.g. Arg1, Chil3 and Retnla) were significantly upregulated in viable A. fumigatus exposed mice. In mice inhaling HIC, CD4+ T cells expressing IFN-γ (TH1) dominated the lymphocytic infiltration. Quantitative proteomics of the lung revealed metabolic reprogramming accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulated by oxidative stress from repetitive microbial insult. Our studies demonstrate that A. fumigatus conidial viability in vivo is critical to the immunopathological presentation of chronic fungal allergic disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Allergic aspergillosis and the antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Singh, Seema; Asif, Abdul R; Oellerich, Michael; Sharma, Gainda L

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of fungal infections has increased alarmingly in past few decades. Of the fungal pathogens, the Aspergillus fumigatus has been a major cause of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) which has five main stages--the acute, remission, exacerbation, glucocorticoid dependent and fibrotic stage. The diagnosis of ABPA remains difficult due to its overlapping clinical and radiological features with tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis. From past few decades, the crude fractions of A. fumigatus have been used for immunodiagnosis of ABPA. Most of the detection kits based on crude fractions of A. fumigatus are quite sensitive but have low specificity. Till date 21 known and 25 predicted allergens of A. fumigatus have been identified. Of these allergens, only five recombinants (rAsp f1-f4 and f6) are commercially used for diagnosis of allergic aspergillosis. Remaining allergens of A. fumigatus have been restricted for use in specific diagnosis of ABPA, due to sharing of common antigenic epitopes with other allergens. Complete sequencing of A. fumigatus genome identified 9926 genes and the reports on the proteome of A. fumigatus have shown the presence of large number of their corresponding proteins in the pathogen. The analysis of immunoproteomes developed from crude fractions of A. fumigatus by IgG/IgE reactivity with ABPA patients and animal sera have identified the panel of new antigens. A brief description on the current status of A. fumigatus antigens is provided in this review. The implementation of advance recombinant expression and peptidomic approaches on the A. fumigatus antigens may help in the selection of appropriate molecules for the development of tools for more specific early diagnosis of ABPA, and desensitization therapies for patients of allergic disorders.

  6. Preservatives as important etiologic factors of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kręcisz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. Material and Methods: A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 males was examined in 2011–2013. In all participants patch tests with a series of 13 preservatives (paraben mix, formaldehyde, Quaternium 15, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mix, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, benzalkonium chloride, sodium metabisulfite, produced by Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden were performed. Results: Of the 405 patients 74 (including 52 females showed positive results of patch tests. Contact allergy to at least 1 preservative was noted in 47 (11.6% patients, including 34 (11% females and 13 (13.4% males. Methylisothiazolinone proved to be the most frequent sensitizer – 4.7% (5.2% females, 3.1% males while parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and imidazolidinyl urea (0.2% were found to be the least frequent. Fourteen (3.4% participants, 10 women and 4 men, were allergic to formaldehyde and/or formaldehyde releasers. In 11 (78.6% of them monovalent hypersensitivity was observed. In 13 (3.2% of the examined group patients allergy to preservatives might have been of occupational origin. Conclusions: Preservatives, particularly isothiazolinones, are significant causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis, including occupational cases. Individuals sensitized to formaldehyde may react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers, however, such reactions are relatively rare. Med Pr 2015;66(3:327–332

  7. Fexofenadine hydrochloride in the treatment of allergic disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Axelrod

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available David Axelrod1, Leonard Bielory2Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, 1Department of Medicine, 2Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Newark, New Jersey, USAAbstract: Fexofenadine is a selective, non-sedating H1 receptor antagonist, marketed in the United States since 2000. The FDA approved an oral suspension in 2006, for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria in children. The tablet, capsule, and oral suspension are bioequivalent. Although fexofenadine does not use P450 CYP 3A4 it does interact with a number of drugs at P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporter polypeptides. The risk of toxicity from other drugs may increase with the administration of fexofenadine. Orange and grapefruit juices reduce the bioavailability of fexofenadine. Fexofenadine has been shown to have an impact on inflammatory mediators, other than histamine, such as decreasing the production of LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, PGE2, and PGF2α; inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase 2, thromboxane; limiting iNOS generation of NO; decreasing cytokine levels (ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VCAM-1, RANTES, I-TAC, MDC, TARC, MMP-2, MMP-9, tryptase; and diminishing eosinophil adherence, chemotaxis, and opsonization of particles. These effects may provide benefit to some of the inflammatory responses of an acute allergic reaction and provide a basis for future development of H1 antagonists with stronger anti-inflammatory effects. These studies also support the contention that fexofenadine is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinits and chronic idiopathic urticaria.Keywords: fexofenadine, allergy, oral suspension, formulations, pharmacology

  8. Effects of yttrium 90 on experimental allergic arthritis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Ruge, W [Sandoz A.G., Basel (Switzerland); Mueller, W; Pavelka, K

    1976-02-01

    Fifteen weeks after allergic arthritis developed in the knee joint of 17 immunized rabbits, 8 animals were given an injection of 200 ..mu..Ci yttrium 90(/sup 90/Y) into the left joint cavity and 7 were injected with 400 ..mu..Ci. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and at 6 to 12 months after the injection. Two uninjected animals used as morphological controls were sacrificed 13 weeks after immunization, and showed allergic arthritis had progressed to severe inflammation of the knee joint marked by massive round-cell infiltration, oedema, and proliferation of synovial mesothelium in the synovial villi and joint capsule. Treatment with /sup 90/Y was effective 2 weeks after injection and the disappearance of inflammatory odema and marked regression of round-cell infiltration. This was accompanied by degeneration of the synovial mesothelium and fibrosis of the subsynovial tissue and synovial vessels as a secondary effect of the radiation. In the animals with severe allergic arthritis, the healing effects of /sup 90/Y were more marked than the secondary effects of the radiation which were dose-dependent. Treatment with /sup 90/Y of arthritic knee joints with the lowest effective dose of the isotope - if necessay with repeated application - seems justified. A single large dose does not have a greater therapeutic effect and causes more radiation damage to the joint. In view of the possible secondary effects in the joint, the indication for /sup 90/Y therapy should be restricted, particularly in young patients, to cases of chronic relapsing arthritis unresponsive to other treatment.

  9. Spectrum of Misdiagnosis of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis: Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM is most commonly seen in cystic fibrosis and bronchial asthma. Most of patients are misdiagnosed at initial outpatient department visit due to low suspicion, lack of awareness of entity and similarity in clinical symptoms and radiological findings with other common pulmonary diseases. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common entity diagnosed, and anti-tubercular treatment is the most commonly abused chemotherapy. Careful history taking, astute initial examination and awareness may help in curbing wrong diagnosis and treatment. This article present two cases of ABPM who were initially misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis and carcinoma lung, respectively.

  10. Desacetylmatricarin, an anti-allergic component from Taraxacum platycarpum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, H; Choi, E J; Yoo, G S; Kim, K M; Ryu, S Y; Ho, C

    1998-08-01

    The bioassay-guided fractionation of Taraxacum platycarpum (Compositae) extract led to the isolation of a desacetylmatricarin (1) as an active principle responsible for the anti-allergic property. It showed a potent inhibitory activity upon the beta-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells in a dose-dependent manner and the IC50 was 7.5 microM. Two structurally related guaianolide sesquiterpenes, achillin and leucodin, were also examined and their IC50 values were determined as 100 microM and 80 microM, respectively.

  11. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    2004-01-01

    in a double-blind, randomized repeated open application test (ROAT) using two coded liquid soaps with and without MDBGN. Areas of 50 cm2 on the lower arms were washed with the soaps twice a day for up to 28 days; two of the subjects continued for 34 days. The subjects were also patch tested with a dilution...... series of MDBGN to determine their patch test threshold values. RESULTS: Seven presensitized individuals (37%) developed allergic contact dermatitis from the soap containing MDBGN. The mean dose of MDBGN per application was 2.2 micro g cm-2 and the reactions appeared between days 6 and 34. All nine...

  12. Kaposi′s Varicelliform Eruption In Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42 year old male having airborne allergic contact dermatitis suddenly developed high grade fever, chills and prostation on 7th day of admission. Two days later he developed generalized papulovescles which became haemorrhagic and crusted within one to two days. These lesions later evolved into grouped erosions. Simultaneously, he developed swelling of the face and generalized lymphadenopathy. Tzanck smear demonstrated giant cell and the patients was diagnosed as having kaposis’s varicelliform eruption. He responded to oral acycolvir. The case is reported for its rarity.

  13. Development of an Allergic Conjunctivitis Model in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kocatürk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To develop an animal model that simulates human allergic conjunctivitis to understand the physiopathogenesis of allergic diseases and for developing novel therapeutic interventions. Ma te ri al and Met hod: BALB/c mice (12 males were divided into two groups each comprised of six mice. For sensitization, on the 1st and 8th days, a 0.2 ml mixed solution, adjusted to a concentration to 5mg/ml of ovalbumin (OVA and 15mg/ml of aluminium hydroxide, was administered intraperitoneally to the mice in Group 1 and 0.2 ml saline solution to the mice in Group 2. To induce experimental allergic conjunctivitis, an antigen challenge was made on days 15 and 18, using an OVA solution (5mg/ml instilled into both eyes of the mice in Group 1; while the mice in Group 2 received Human Balanced Salt Solution instead of OVA. For the clinical evaluation, the occurrence of conjunctival and palpebral oedema, conjunctival hyperaemia, and lacrimation were observed. For the histological examination, eyeballs, eyelids, and lacrimal glands were removed and prepared according to the routine processing method of the tissue laboratory. Immunohistochemical examination was made with mast cell tryptase using the labeled streptavidin–biotin amplification method and 3.3´-diaminobenzidine, in addition to hematoxylin-eosin (HE, and toluidine blue (TB staining. Re sults: Evident conjunctival oedema, palpebral oedema, conjunctival hyperaemia, and lacrimation were observed in Group 1. Mean mast cell density in cells/mm2, infiltrating the subconjunctival tissue was significantly high in Group 1 (allergy group, 23.17±7.46, p<0.0001 when compared to Group 2 (5.58±3.12. There was no increase in eosinophil and lymphocyte counts as well as vascular intensity in the subconjunctival tissue in any group. Dis cus si on: The murine model developed is similar to the human allergic conjunctivitis both clinically and histopathologically and can be used as a template for future studies

  14. Probiotics and down-regulation of the allergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliomäki, Marko A; Isolauri, Erika

    2004-11-01

    The first clinical trials with probiotics, especially in the treatment of atopic eczema, have yielded encouraging results. Experimental studies have found that probiotics exert strain-specific effects in the intestinal lumen and on epithelial cells and immune cells with anti-allergic potential. These effects include enhancement in antigen degradation and gut barrier function and induction of regulatory and proinflammatory immune responses, the latter of which occurs more likely beyond the intestinal epithelium. Future studies should address more accurately how these and other possible mechanisms operate in the complex gastrointestinal macroenvironment in vivo and how these mechanisms are related to the clinical effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  15. Homeopathy for allergic rhinitis: protocol for a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a global health problem that is often treated with homeopathy. The objective of this review will be to evaluate the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods/Design The authors will conduct a systematic review. We will search Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, CAM-Quest, Google Scholar and reference lists of identified studies up to December 2013. The review will include randomized controlled trials that evaluate homeopathic treatment of allergic rhinitis. Studies with participants of all ages, with acute or chronic comorbidities will be included. Patients with immunodeficiency will not be included. The diagnosis will be based on the published guidelines of diagnosis and classification. Studies of all homeopathy modalities (clinical, complex and classical homeopathy, and isopathy) will be included. We will include trials with both active controls (conventional therapy, standard care) and placebo controls. The primary outcomes are: an improvement of global symptoms recorded in validated daily or weekly diaries and any scores from validated visual analogue scales; the total Quality of Life Score (such as the Juniper RQLQ);individual symptoms scores which include any appropriate measures of nasal obstruction, runny nose, sneezing, itching, and eye symptoms; and number of days requiring medication. Secondary outcomes selected will include serum immunoglobin E (IgE) levels, individual ocular symptoms, adverse events, and the use of rescue medication. Treatment effects will be measured by calculating the mean difference and the standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous data. Risk ratio or, if feasible, odds ratio will be calculated with 95% CI for dichotomous data. After assessing clinical and statistical heterogeneity, meta-analysis will be performed, if appropriate. The individual participant will be the unit of analysis. Descriptive information on missing data will be

  16. Miliary nodules in a patient of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N A; Sumon, S M; Rahman, A; Hossain, M A; Ferdous, J; Bari, M R

    2014-04-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis (ABPA) is immunological pulmonary disease caused by hypersensitivity of aspergillus fumigatus usually occurs in patients with chronic asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiactasis. This disease may present with divers radiological presentation like; fleeting pulmonary opacities, bronchiactasis, mucoid impaction, perihilar opacity (hailer lymphadenopathy), and lung mass or pleural effusion. We describe the case of a 30 year old housewife who presented with progressive dysponea, low grade fever, dry cough, weight loss and miliary nodule in chest radiograph and high-resolution CT (HRCT) in a tertiary level hospital of Bangladesh. A diagnosis of ABPA was established on the basis of sputum routine microscopy and culture examination for fungus (Aspergillus).

  17. Hazard perception in traffic. [previously knows as: Hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential part of the driving task. There are clear indications that insufficient skills in perceiving hazards play an important role in the occurrence of crashes, especially those involving novice drivers. Proper hazard perception not only consists of scanning and perceiving

  18. UV radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is, for most people, a daily occurrence. Significant quantities of ultraviolet are present in sunlight, and this environmental exposure usually greatly exceeds that necessary for vitamin D production, the only certain benefit of UVR. In addition, occupational exposure to artificial sources of UVR is commonly encountered in commerce, industry and medicine. Exposure to UVR can present a hazard, principally to the eyes and exposed areas of the skin. The potential for any given source of UVR to cause photobiological damage depends on the spectral composition of the incident radiation, the geometry of optical coupling into the tissues at risk, the spectral sensitivity to damage of the irradiated tissue, the total accumulated exposure, and the action of any biological repair processes. In the ultraviolet region the photobiological interactions of concern are mainly photochemical. Hazard analysis and radiation protection require an appropriate framework of radiation measurement for the quantitative assessment of exposure and for the specification of safe exposure limits

  19. Immobilisation of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste, e.g. radioactive waste, particularly that containing caesium-137, is immobilised by mixing with cement and solidifiable organic polymeric material. When first mixed, the organic material is preferably liquid and at this time can be polymerisable or already polymerised. The hardening can result from cooling or further polymerisation e.g. cross-linking. The organic material may be wax, or a polyester which may be unsaturated and cross-linkable by reaction with styrene. (author)

  20. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities

  1. Hazard waste risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of risk assessment for hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste management. The overall objective is to provide technical assistance to OOS in developing cost-effective risk assessment tools and strategies for bringing DOE facilities into compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Major efforts during FY 1985 included (1) completing the modification of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and developing training manuals and courses to assist in field office implementation of the modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS); (2) initiating the development of a system for reviewing field office HRS/mHRS evaluations for appropriate use of data and appropriate application of the methodology; (3) initiating the development of a data base management system to maintain all field office HRS/mHRS scoring sheets and to support the master OOS environmental data base system; (4) developing implementation guidance for Phase I of the DOE CERCLA Program, Installation Assessment; (5) continuing to develop an objective, scientifically based methodology for DOE management to use in establishing priorities for conducting site assessments under Phase II of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; and (6) participating in developing the DOE response to EPA on the proposed listing of three sites on the National Priorities List

  2. Radiation hazard control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Hisanaga, Saemi; Miki, Ryota; Kawai, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yutaka; Sone, Koji; Okada, Hirokazu

    1990-01-01

    The report describes the radiation hazard control activities performed at the Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University, Japan, during the one-year period from April 1989 to March 1990. Personal radiation hazard control is outlined first focusing on results of physical examination and data of personal exposure dose equivalent. Radiation control in laboratory is then described. Dose equivalent at various places is discussed on the basis of monthly total dose equivalent measured on film badges, measurements made by TLD, and observations made through a continuous radiations monitoring system. The concentration of radiations in air and water is discussed focusing on their measured concentrations in air at the air outlets of tracer/accelerator facilities, and radioactivity in waste water sampled in the reactor facilities and tracer/accelerator facilities. Another discussion is made on the surface contamination density over the floors, draft systems, sink surface, etc. Concerning outdoor radiation hazard control, furthermore, TLD measurements of environmental gamma-rays, data on total gamma-ray radioactivity in environmental samples, and analysis of gamma-ray emitting nuclides in environmental samples are described and discussed. (N.K.)

  3. Hazard Communication Guidelines for Compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is based on a simple concept that employees have both a need and a right to know the hazards and identities of the chemicals they are exposed to when working...

  4. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  5. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  6. Modulation of neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor expression in nasal mucosa after nasal allergen provocation in allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raap, U.; Fokkens, W.; Bruder, M.; Hoogsteden, H.; Kapp, A.; Braunstahl, G.-J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) feature both allergic airway inflammation and a hyperresponsiveness to nonspecific stimuli which is partly neuronally controlled. Still, it is unclear whether or not neurotrophins are involved in airway pathophysiology of AR and in nasobronchial

  7. SQ house dust mite sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK) improves allergic rhinitis in patients with house dust mite allergic asthma and rhinitis symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Holger; Canonica, G Walter; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of a SQ HDM sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark) in adults and adolescents with HDM respiratory...... allergic disease and report the AR results. METHODS: Six hundred four subjects at least 14 years old with HDM AR and mild to moderate HDM allergic asthma were randomized 1:1:1:1 to double-blinded daily treatment with 1, 3, 6 SQ-HDM or placebo. End-of-treatment rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication...... score were predefined extrapulmonary end points. A subgroup analysis was conducted post hoc in subjects with a total combined rhinitis score (TCRS) > 0 (ie, with AR symptoms and/or AR medication use during the 4-week baseline period). The subgroup was comprised of 498 subjects (82%). RESULTS...

  8. Industrial hazard and safety handbook

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralph W

    1979-01-01

    Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook (Revised Impression) describes and exposes the main hazards found in industry, with emphasis on how these hazards arise, are ignored, are identified, are eliminated, or are controlled. These hazard conditions can be due to human stresses (for example, insomnia), unsatisfactory working environments, as well as secret industrial processes. The book reviews the cost of accidents, human factors, inspections, insurance, legal aspects, planning for major emergencies, organization, and safety measures. The text discusses regulations, codes of practice, site layou

  9. The ARIA score of allergic rhinitis using mobile technology correlates with quality-of-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Arnavielhe, S; Bedbrook, A

    2018-01-01

    Mobile technology has been used to appraise allergic rhinitis control but more data are needed. In order to better assess the importance of mobile technologies in rhinitis control, the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) score ranging from 0 to 4 of the Allergy Diary was compared wi...

  10. Brief Report: "Allergic Symptoms" in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. More than Meets the Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Asadi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Bodi; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have either family and/or personal history of "allergic symptomatology", often in the absence of positive skin or RAST tests. These symptoms may suggest mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. Moreover, children with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a spectrum of rare…

  11. Real-life study showing better control of allergic rhinitis by immunotherapy than regular pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droessaert, V.; Timmermans, M.; Dekimpe, E.; Seys, S.; Ceuppens, J. J.; Fokkens, W. J.; Hellings, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for allergic rhinitis (AR) aims at reducing the burden of allergic inflammation, either by suppression of the nasal inflammation with pharmacotherapy or by inducing tolerance via immunotherapy (IT). At present, we lack information on the comparison between the degree of symptom control in

  12. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, A.; Knulst, A.C.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Michelsen, A.; Houben, G.F.; Baumert, J.L.; Os-Medendorp, H. van

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to

  13. Quality of life is significantly impaired in non-allergic rhinitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segboer, Christine L.; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Gevorgyan, Artur; Hellings, Peter W.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.; Fokkens, Wytske J.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the well-known significant impairment of quality of life (QoL) in allergic rhinitis (AR), the degree of impairment in QoL in non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) remained unknown for a long time, due to a lack of a validated questionnaire to assess QoL in the NAR patient group. In this study a

  14. Cofactors in allergic reactions to food : physical exercise and alcohol are the most important

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Astrid; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Kruizinga, Astrid G; Blom, W Marty; Houben, Geert F; Knulst, André C

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Involvement of cofactors, like physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of several types of medication, are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. However, there is limited evidence on how often cofactors play a role in food allergic reactions. The study aimed to get

  15. Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test (CARAT) : dissemination and applications in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azevedo, Pedro; Correia-de-Sousa, Jaime; Bousquet, Jean; Bugalho-Almeida, Antonio; Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Demoly, Pascal; Haahtela, Tari; Jacinto, Tiago; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; van der Molen, Thys; Morais-Almeida, Mario; Nogueira-Silva, Luis; Pereira, Ana M.; Roman-Rodrigues, Miguel; Silva, Barbara G.; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G.; Yaman, Hakan; Yawn, Barbara; Fonseca, Joao A.

    Asthma frequently occurs in association with allergic rhinitis and a combined management approach has been suggested. The Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test (CARAT) is the first questionnaire to assess control of both diseases concurrently. However, to have an impact on healthcare it needs

  16. Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Arnved, John; Rønborg, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can protect against allergic airway inflammation in experimental models and have been associated with a reduced risk of atopy and a reduced course of asthma in some observational studies. Although no clinical evidence exists to support the use of helminth therapy...... for allergic disease, the helminth Trichuris suis has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease....

  17. The Early Efficacy of Topical Levocabastine in Patients with Allergic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujishima

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: Although artificial tears had a positive effect in reducing symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, by the washing out of allergens, levocabastine was more effective than artificial tears in controlling acute symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, demonstrating that the selective H1 histamine-receptor antagonist action of levocabastine is rapidly effective in a clinical setting.

  18. Parental Burden in Families with a Young Food-Allergic Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen, Kati

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the parental burden in families with a food-allergic child under the age of four. This study was carried out using a descriptive correlational research design. The subjects of this study were 104 families with a young food-allergic child who observed a restricted diet. The majority of the children were…

  19. Unintended allergens in precautionary labelled and unlabelled products pose significant risks to UK allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remington, B.C.; Baumert, J.L.; Blom, W.M.; Houben, G.F.; Taylor, S.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergens in food may pose a risk to allergic consumers. While there is EU regulation for allergens present as an ingredient, this is not the case for unintended allergen presence (UAP). Food companies use precautionary allergen labels to inform allergic individuals of a potential risk

  20. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, A.; Knulst, A. C.; Kruizinga, A. G.; Michelsen, A.; Houben, G. F.; Baumert, J. L.; van Os-Medendorp, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to

  1. Systematic Review on the Definition of Allergic Diseases in Children : The MeDALL Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinart, Mariona; Albang, Richard; Maier, Dieter; Duran-Tauleria, Enric; Mena, Guillermo; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Solà, Ivan; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Guerra, Stefano; Stein, Renato T; Benet, Marta; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Herr, Marie; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Momas, Isabelle; Pin, Isabelle; Rancière, Fanny; Smit, Henriëtte A; Varraso, Raphaelle; Bonfill, Xavier; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Antó, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the last decades, a large number of phenotypes and disease classifications of allergic diseases have been proposed. Despite the heterogeneity across studies, no systematic review has been conducted on phenotype classification and the criteria that define allergic diseases. We

  2. Targeted testing with diethylthiourea often reveals clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis caused by neoprene rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Anne B-H; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2012-01-01

    Background. Diethylthiourea is widely used in the rubber industry, particularly in neoprene rubber, and may cause allergic contact dermatitis. However, as thiourea allergens are not part of the European baseline series, the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds...

  3. Anti-allergic properties of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and contribution of its glucosylxanthone mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Dagmar García; Balmaseda, Ivones Hernández; León, Alina Alvarez; Hernández, Belkis Cancio; Montiel, Lucía Márquez; Garrido, Gabino Garrido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Hernández, René Delgado

    2006-03-01

    Vimang is the brand name of formulations containing an extract of Mangifera indica L., ethnopharmacologically used in Cuba for the treatment of some immunopathological disorders, including bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases. However, the effects of Vimang on allergic response have not been reported until now. In this study, the effects of Vimang and mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone isolated from the extract, on different parameters of allergic response are reported. Vimang and mangiferin showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of IgE production in mice and anaphylaxis reaction in rats, histamine-induced vascular permeability and the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from rat mast cells, and of lymphocyte proliferative response as evidence of the reduction of the amount of B and T lymphocytes able to contribute to allergic response. In these experiments, ketotifen, promethazine and disodium cromoglicate were used as reference drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Vimang had an effect on an in-vivo model of inflammatory allergy mediated by mast cells. These results constitute the first report of the anti-allergic properties of Vimang on allergic models, as well as suggesting that this natural extract could be successfully used in the treatment of allergic disorders. Mangiferin, the major compound of Vimang, contributes to the anti-allergic effects of the extract.

  4. Secular trends of allergic asthma in Danish adults. The Copenhagen Allergy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported increases in asthma prevalence among children world-wide. Less is known about similar trends in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of allergic asthma symptoms had increased in an adult general population. Two cross-sectional surveys using identical......, the prevalence of allergic asthma symptoms increased significantly in this adult general population over a 9-year period....

  5. Tyrosol Suppresses Allergic Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Mast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Gyu Je

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis are attractive research areas. Tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenylethanol is a polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis models were used for the immediate-type allergic responses. Oral administration of tyrosol reduced the allergic symptoms of hypothermia and pigmentation in both animal models. Mast cells that secrete allergic mediators are key regulators on allergic inflammation. Tyrosol dose-dependently decreased mast cell degranulation and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular calcium levels and activation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK regulate cytokine expression and degranulation. Tyrosol blocked calcium influx and phosphorylation of the IKK complex. To define the molecular target for tyrosol, various signaling proteins involved in mast cell activation such as Lyn, Syk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, and Akt were examined. Our results showed that PI3K could be a molecular target for tyrosol in mast cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects by inhibiting the degranulation of mast cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines; these effects are mediated via PI3K. Therefore, we expect tyrosol become a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis in Danish children referred for patch testing - a nationwide multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne Birgitte; Deleuran, Mette; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard

    2014-01-01

    -17 years, 25.1% had one or more positive patch test reactions. The associated relevance was 66.4%. The most common sensitizers were metals, fragrances, and hair dyes. The frequency of positive patch test reactions and allergic contact dermatitis was significantly higher among girls. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic...

  7. Allergic Contact Dermatitis with Diffuse Erythematous Reaction from Diisopropanolamine in a Compress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Rind

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Compresses containing a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID are commonly used in Japan. However, this treatment may induce both allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from the NSAIDs and their ingredients. Here, we describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis with diffuse erythematous reaction due to diisopropanolamine in the applied compress. The absorption of diisopropanolamine might have been enhanced by the occlusive condition.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact...... dermatitis may be encountered as the use of this biocide increases in the market place....

  9. Laryngeal effects of nasal allergen provocation in singers with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verguts, Monique M. L.; Eggermont, Anita; Decoster, Wivine; de Jong, Felix I. C. R. S.; Hellings, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of our recent insight into nasobronchial interaction mechanisms in allergic airway disease, the association between allergic rhinitis and voice complaints remains obscure. To evaluate the effects of nasal allergen provocation and seasonal grass pollen exposure on subjective and objective

  10. The pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis : cellular aspects with special emphasis on Langerhans cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Fokkens (Wytske)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractPresent ideas concerning the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis are largely deduced from systemic investigations and extrapolated from studies in the skin and the lung. Studies on allergic rhinitis generally comprise clinical aspects and/or biochemical, humoral and cellular features of

  11. Shared genetic origin of asthma, hay fever and eczema elucidates allergic disease biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Manuel A; Vonk, Judith M; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Marenholz, Ingo; Tian, Chao; Hoffman, Joshua D; Helmer, Quinta; Tillander, Annika; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; van Dongen, Jenny; Lu, Yi; Rüschendorf, Franz; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Medway, Chris W; Mountjoy, Edward; Burrows, Kimberley; Hummel, Oliver; Grosche, Sarah; Brumpton, Ben M; Witte, John S; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zheng, Jie; Rodríguez, Elke; Hotze, Melanie; Franke, Andre; Revez, Joana A; Beesley, Jonathan; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bain, Lisa M; Fritsche, Lars G; Gabrielsen, Maiken E; Balliu, Brunilda; Nielsen, Jonas B; Zhou, Wei; Hveem, Kristian; Langhammer, Arnulf; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Løset, Mari; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Willer, Cristen J; Arnold, Andreas; Homuth, Georg; Schmidt, Carsten O; Thompson, Philip J; Martin, Nicholas G; Duffy, David L; Novak, Natalija; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-01-01

    Asthma, hay fever (or allergic rhinitis) and eczema (or atopic dermatitis) often coexist in the same individuals, partly because of a shared genetic origin. To identify shared risk variants, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS; n = 360,838) of a broad allergic disease phenotype that

  12. Prevalence of rhinitis allergic in populations of several states of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar Mancilla-Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: With the use of the questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies in the four cities in four different states, we found a prevalence of allergic rhinitis of 15% in ≥13 yearpopulation and 13% in ≤12 year-old children.

  13. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  14. Hazards in the chemical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretherick, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Preface; Introduction; Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; Safety Planning and Management; Fire Protection; Reactive Chemical Hazards; Chemical Hazards and Toxicology; Health Care and First Aid; Hazardous Chemicals; Precautions against Radiations; and An American View

  15. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  16. Evaluation of Inferior Turbinate Stroma with Ultrasound Elastography in Allergic Rhinitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Turhal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis is primarily based on history, physical examination and allergy testing. A technique that noninvasively evaluates the soft tissue changes in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients has not been defined. Aims: To assess nasal mucosal changes and measure the submucosal fibrosis in allergic rhinitis patients with sonoelastography. Study Design: Case control study. Methods: Eighty-eight turbinates of 44 patients were included in the study. There were 23 prick test positive allergic rhinitis patients. The control group constituted 21 patients. The rhinitis quality of life questionnaire and the visual analogue scale were applied to the allergic rhinitis patients. A higher visual analogue scale score indicated more severe allergic rhinitis symptoms. Sonoelastographic measurements were made from the lateral nasal wall. The propagation speed of sound waves was recorded in m/s. The presence of asthma and the type of allergic rhinitis (seasonal or perennial was noted. Results: Ten patients had seasonal allergic rhinitis and thirteen patients had perennial allergic rhinitis. Six patients (26.1% had accompanying asthma along with allergic rhinitis. The median visual analogue scale score was 7 (3-9 in allergic rhinitis patients. The median symptom duration was 7 (1-24 months. The median quality of life questionnaire score was 3.39 (1.68-5.43 points. The median sonoelastography scores of allergic rhinitis patients and healthy subjects were 2.38 m/s (0.9-4.47 and 2.42 m/s (1.62-3.50, respectively. Sonoelastographic measurements of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis patients did not differ significantly (p>0.05. The presence of asthma did not have a significant impact on the elastography measurements (p>0.05. However, regression analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation (coefficients: B=0.005, standard error=0.097, beta 0=0.008 between the visual analogue scale and sonoelastography scores (p<0

  17. Mandatory imaging cuts costs and reduces the rate of unnecessary surgeries in the diagnostic work-up of patients suspected of having appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaye, M.J.; Lambregts, D.M.J.; Mutsaers, E.; Beets-Tan, R.G.H. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Essers, B.A.B. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Medical Technology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Breukink, S.; Beets, G.L. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Cappendijk, V.C. [Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Department of Radiology, ' s Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate whether mandatory imaging is an effective strategy in suspected appendicitis for reducing unnecessary surgery and costs. In 2010, guidelines were implemented in The Netherlands recommending the mandatory use of preoperative imaging to confirm/refute clinically suspected appendicitis. This retrospective study included 1,556 consecutive patients with clinically suspected appendicitis in 2008-2009 (756 patients/group I) and 2011-2012 (800 patients/group II). Imaging use (none/US/CT and/or MRI) was recorded. Additional parameters were: complications, medical costs, surgical and histopathological findings. The primary study endpoint was the number of unnecessary surgeries before and after guideline implementation. After clinical examination by a surgeon, 509/756 patients in group I and 540/800 patients in group II were still suspected of having appendicitis. In group I, 58.5% received preoperative imaging (42% US/12.8% CT/3.7% both), compared with 98.7% after the guidelines (61.6% US/4.4% CT/ 32.6% both). The percentage of unnecessary surgeries before the guidelines was 22.9%. After implementation, it dropped significantly to 6.2% (p<0.001). The surgical complication rate dropped from 19.9% to 14.2%. The average cost-per-patient decreased by 594 EUR from 2,482 to 1,888 EUR (CL:-1081; -143). Increased use of imaging in the diagnostic work-up of patients with clinically suspected appendicitis reduced the rate of negative appendectomies, surgical complications and costs. (orig.)

  18. Perceived history of anaphylaxis and parental overprotection, autonomy, anxiety, and depression in food allergic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults did not differ from healthy peers. However, food allergic young adults who reported having experienced an anaphylactic reaction described their disease as more severe, reported more worry about their disease, and rated their parents as more overprotective than food allergic young adults who reported never having experienced anaphylaxis. The experience of anaphylaxis may be a reliable indicator of food allergic individuals who are at risk for psychological distress.

  19. Human FcγRIIA induces anaphylactic and allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Friederike; Mancardi, David A; Zhao, Wei; Kita, Yoshihiro; Iannascoli, Bruno; Khun, Huot; van Rooijen, Nico; Shimizu, Takao; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Daëron, Marc; Bruhns, Pierre

    2012-03-15

    IgE and IgE receptors (FcεRI) are well-known inducers of allergy. We recently found in mice that active systemic anaphylaxis depends on IgG and IgG receptors (FcγRIIIA and FcγRIV) expressed by neutrophils, rather than on IgE and FcεRI expressed by mast cells and basophils. In humans, neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils do not express FcγRIIIA or FcγRIV, but FcγRIIA. We therefore investigated the possible role of FcγRIIA in allergy by generating novel FcγRIIA-transgenic mice, in which various models of allergic reactions induced by IgG could be studied. In mice, FcγRIIA was sufficient to trigger active and passive anaphylaxis, and airway inflammation in vivo. Blocking FcγRIIA in vivo abolished these reactions. We identified mast cells to be responsible for FcγRIIA-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, and monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils to be responsible for FcγRIIA-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis. Supporting these findings, human mast cells, monocytes and neutrophils produced anaphylactogenic mediators after FcγRIIA engagement. IgG and FcγRIIA may therefore contribute to allergic and anaphylactic reactions in humans.

  20. Frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens in allergic patients

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    Heriberto Camero-Martínez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy is deemed to have a worldwide prevalence ranging from 2 to 10 %. Objective: To determine the frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens by age groups. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, prolective, observational study. Patients aged from 2 to 64 years with symptoms consistent with allergic disease were included. Skin prick tests were carried out with food allergens. Frequencies and percentages were estimated. Results: One-hundred and ninety-one patients were included, out of which 63.4% were females. Mean age was 22.5 years; 19.3 % showed positive skin reactivity to at least one food. Distribution by age group was as follows: preschool children 13.5 %, schoolchildren 24.3 %, adolescents 2.7 % and adults 59.5 %. Diagnoses included allergic rhinitis in 84.3 %, asthma in 19.4 %, urticaria in 14.1 % and atopic dermatitis in 8.4 %. Positive skin reactivity frequency distribution in descending order was: soybeans with 5.2 %, peach with 4.7 %, grapes, orange and apple with 3.6 %, nuts with 3.1 %, pineapple, avocado, tomato and tuna with 2.6 %. Conclusion: The frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens was similar to that reported in the national and Latin American literature, but sensitization to each specific allergen varied for each age group.

  1. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

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    Irfan Moinuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI. Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI.

  2. Climate change, air pollution, and allergic respiratory diseases: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The rising trend in prevalence of allergic respiratory disease and bronchial asthma, observed over the last decades, can be explained by changes occurring in the environment, with increasing presence of biologic, such as allergens, and chemical atmospheric trigger factors able to stimulate the sensitization and symptoms of these diseases. Many studies have shown changes in production, dispersion, and allergen content of pollen and spores because of climate change with an increasing effect of aeroallergens on allergic patients. Over the last 50 years, global earth's temperature has markedly risen likely because of growing emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by human activity, have a major impact on the biosphere and human environment.Urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions are correlated to an increase in the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy prevalent in people who live in urban areas compared with those who live in rural areas. Measures of mitigation need to be applied for reducing future impacts of climate change on our planet, but until global emissions continue to rise, adaptation to the impacts of future climate variability will also be required.

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine for allergic rhinitis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Syuji; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Daiju; Sakurai, Toshioki; Iinuma, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Heizaburou; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Kurono, Yuichi; Honda, Kohei; Majima, Yuichi; Masuyama, Keisuke; Takeda, Noriaki; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Ogino, Satoshi; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2017-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is extensively used in patients with allergic diseases worldwide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual situation of CAM practice in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We distributed questionnaires to otolaryngologists at 114 facilities in Japan. The subjects who participated in this study included children effective. The main reasons for CAM use were safety, convenience and low price. However, the group who spent more than $1000 on CAM felt more dissatisfaction and anxiety related to treatment at the hospital. The situation of CAM practice was not consistent and was instead influenced by the backgrounds of the subjects. Many patients who receive CAM report feeling that the effects of treatment provided by hospitals are insufficient and have concerns about the side effects of such treatments. Information regarding standard treatments, as described in the guidelines, should become widely known and diffused, and strong communication with patients should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optic Nerve Injury in a Patient with Chronic Allergic Conjunctivitis

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    Ribhi Hazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of the optic nerve can lead to irreversible vision changes. We present a patient with a past medical history of skin allergy and allergic conjunctivitis (AC who presented with insidious unexplained unilateral vision loss. Physical exam revealed significant blepharospasm, mild lid edema, bulbar conjunctival hyperemia, afferent pupillary defect, and slight papillary hypertrophy. Slit lamp examination demonstrated superior and inferior conjunctival scarring as well as superior corneal scarring but no signs of external trauma or neurological damage were noted. Conjunctival cultures and cytologic evaluation demonstrated significant eosinophilic infiltration. Subsequent ophthalmoscopic examination revealed optic nerve atrophy. Upon further questioning, the patient admitted to vigorous itching of the affected eye for many months. Given the presenting symptoms, history, and negative ophthalmological workup, it was determined that the optic nerve atrophy was likely secondary to digital pressure from vigorous itching. Although AC can be a significant source of decreased vision via corneal ulceration, no reported cases have ever described AC-induced vision loss of this degree from vigorous itching and chronic pressure leading to optic nerve damage. Despite being self-limiting in nature, allergic conjunctivitis should be properly managed as extreme cases can result in mechanical compression of the optic nerve and compromise vision.

  5. [Frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens in allergic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camero-Martínez, Heriberto; López-García, Aída Inés; Rivero-Yeverino, Daniela; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Rojas-Méndez, Isabel Cristina; Vázquez-Rojas, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is deemed to have a worldwide prevalence ranging from 2 to 10 %. To determine the frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens by age groups. Cross-sectional, descriptive, prolective, observational study. Patients aged from 2 to 64 years with symptoms consistent with allergic disease were included. Skin prick tests were carried out with food allergens. Frequencies and percentages were estimated. One-hundred and ninety-one patients were included, out of which 63.4% were females. Mean age was 22.5 years; 19.3 % showed positive skin reactivity to at least one food. Distribution by age group was as follows: preschool children 13.5 %, schoolchildren 24.3 %, adolescents 2.7 % and adults 59.5 %. Diagnoses included allergic rhinitis in 84.3 %, asthma in 19.4 %, urticaria in 14.1 % and atopic dermatitis in 8.4 %. Positive skin reactivity frequency distribution in descending order was: soybeans with 5.2 %, peach with 4.7 %, grapes, orange and apple with 3.6 %, nuts with 3.1 %, pineapple, avocado, tomato and tuna with 2.6 %. The frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens was similar to that reported in the national and Latin American literature, but sensitization to each specific allergen varied for each age group.

  6. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Swiahb, Jamil N.; Al-Ammar, A.; Al-Dousary, Surayie H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)

  7. Effects of corticosteroids on hyposmia in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Iuliu V; Chirila, Magdalena; Negoias, Simona; Bologa, Ramona; Cosgarea, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    To asses the effects of two topical nasal corticosteroids sprays on hyposmia in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. The study was a prospective clinical trial and it included twenty four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) and hyposmia (H). The patients were divided into two groups depending on the type of corticosteroid topical nasal spray treatment: group A, 200 micrograms dose of mometasone furoate (MF) and group B, 110 micrograms dose of fluticasone furoate (FF) both administered in the morning for 4 weeks. The olfactory function of the patients was evaluated with the extended Test battery "Sniffin' Sticks". The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for the assessment of hyposmia, nasal discharge. The level of the nasal obstruction, before and after the treatment, was evaluated through the anterior rhinomanometry. The comparisons between the two types of topical corticosteroids showed a significant improvement separately between scores of the odor threshold (OT), odor discrimination (OD) and odor identification (OI) and also on the final olfactory score (SDI) before and after 4 weeks of the treatment. The comparisons of the VAS scores pre and post treatment showed a significant improvement in hyposmia and nasal obstruction. The nasal airflow and the nasal discharge scores were improved, but the differences were not statistically significant between the groups. The final statistical analysis found no significant differences between the two patients groups. The study concludes that fluticasone furoate and mometasone furoate have quite the same effects on hyposmia and on the classical symptoms from PER.

  8. Allergic risks of consuming edible insects: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José Carlos; Cunha, Luís Miguel; Sousa-Pinto, Bernardo; Fonseca, João

    2018-01-01

    The expected future demand for food and animal-derived protein will require environment-friendly novel food sources with high nutritional value. Insects may be one of such novel food sources. However, there needs to be an assessment of the risks associated with their consumption, including allergic risks. Therefore, we performed a systematic review aiming to analyse current data available regarding the allergic risks of consuming insects. We reviewed all reported cases of food allergy to insects, and studied the possibility of cross-reactivity and co-sensitisation between edible insects, crustaceans and house dust mites. We analysed a total of 25 articles - eight assessing the cross-reactivity/co-sensitisation between edible insects, crustaceans and house dust mites; three characterizing allergens in edible insects and 14 case reports, describing case series or prevalence studies of food allergy caused by insects. Cross-reactivity/co-sensitisation between edible insects and crustaceans seems to be clinically relevant, while it is still unknown if co-sensitisation between house dust mites and edible insects can lead to a food allergy. Additionally, more information is also needed about the molecular mechanisms underlying food allergy to insects, although current data suggest that an important role is played by arthropod pan-allergens such as tropomyosin or arginine kinase. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Allergic colitis in exclusively breast-fed infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Salinas, C; Blasco Alonso, J; Olivares Sánchez, L; Barco Gálvez, A; del Río Mapelli, L

    2006-02-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is induced by antigens present in cow's milk proteins in formula or human milk. In the last few years, an increasing number of cases have been diagnosed in exclusively breast-fed infants. We performed a retrospective study of 13 infants diagnosed with allergic colitis in our unit between January 1997 and January 2004. All the infants had been exclusively breast-fed. In all patients, initial symptoms were digestive (12 with mucus and bloody stools). Onset of symptoms occurred at 0-3 months in 77 %. Laboratory data of the allergic compound were negative. The main locations were the descending and sigmoid colon (75 %). Biopsy demonstrated acute inflammation, with neutrophil infiltration and an increase in eosinophils. In all patients, initial treatment consisted of exclusion of cow's milk proteins from the mother's diet. Ten of the 13 patients showed no improvement, requiring exclusive administration of protein-free hydrolyzate. In 3 infants, breastfeeding was maintained (breastfeeding without cow's milk proteins plus hydrolyzate). Diagnosis of eosinophilic colitis is based on exclusion of other causes of specific colitis and typical endoscopic and ultrastructural findings. Moreover, a satisfactory response to dietary treatment must be demonstrated. This diagnosis should be considered in breast-fed infants with rectal bleeding without involvement of general health status.

  10. [Allergic responses to date palm and pecan pollen in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisel, Y; Keynan, N; Gil, T; Tayar, D; Bezerano, A; Goldberg, A; Geller-Bernstein, C; Dolev, Z; Tamir, R; Levy, I

    1994-03-15

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees are commonly planted in Israel for fruit, for shade, or as ornamental plants. Pollen grains of both species are allergenic; however, the extent of exposure to such pollen and the incidence of allergic response have not been studied here. We therefore investigated skin-test responses to pollen extracts of 12 varieties of palm and 9 of pecan in 705 allergic patients living in 3 cities and 19 rural settlements. Sensitivity to the pollen extracts of both species was much higher among residents of rural than of urban communities. Moreover, there was a definite relationship between the abundance of these trees in a region and the incidence of skin responders to their pollen. Sensitivity was frequent in settlements rich in these 2 species, such as those with nearby commercial date or pecan plantations. In general, sensitivity to date pollen extracts was lower than to pecan. However, differences in skin responses to pollen extracts of various clones were substantiated. Air sampling revealed that pollen pollution decreased considerably with distance from the trees. At approximately 100 m from a source concentrations of airborne pollen were low. Since planting of male palm and pecan trees in population centers would increase pollen pollution, it should be avoided.

  11. Immunological Changes on Allergic Response after Beevenom Immunotherapy

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    Dong-Ha Han

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Beevenom immunotherapy(BVIT in allergic patients is a well-established treatment modality for the prevention of systemic anaphylactic reactions caused by insect stings. BVIT is accompanied by increases in allergen-specific IgG, particularly the IgG4 isotype, which blocks not only IgE-dependent histamine release from basophils but also IgE-mediated antigen presentation to T cells. Inhibition of T cells after BVIT also involves decreased induction of the costimulatory molecule ICOS, which, in turn, seems to be dependent on the presence of IL-10, also associated with the inhibited status of T cells after BVIT. Suppression of T cells by IL-10 is an active process, which depends on the expression and participation of CD28. Immune tolerance in specific allergen immunotherapy might be a consequence of decreased Th2 or increased Th1 response of allergen specific T lymphocytes. BVIT shifted cytokine responses to allergen from a TH-2 to a TH-1 dominant pattern, suggesting direct effects on T cells. Many studies showed that severe side effects due to venom immunotherapy are rare. These results suggest that immunological changes after BVIT may be applied to be therapeutic alternative of general allergic diseases including beevenom allergy.

  12. The history and progression of treatments for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Nancy K

    2014-01-01

    This article intends to place new treatments in the context of allergic rhinitis (AR) treatment history. The medical literature was searched for significant advances and changes in AR treatment. Historical data on AR treatment options and management were selected. Reviews of AR management published throughout the 20th century were included to provide context for treatment advances. Modern AR treatment began in the early 20th century with immunotherapy and was soon followed by the emergence of antihistamine therapy in the 1930s. Numerous treatments for AR have been used over the ensuing decades, including decongestants, mast cell stabilizers, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Topical corticosteroid options were developed the 1950s, and, added to baseline antihistamine therapy, became the foundation of AR treatment. Treatment options were significantly impacted after the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which phased out the use of chlorofluorocarbon propellant aerosols because of environmental concerns. From the mid-1990s until recently, this left only aqueous solution options for intranasal corticosteroids (INSs). The approval of the first hydrofluoroalkane propellant aerosol INSs for AR in 2012 restored a "dry" aerosol treatment option. The first combination intranasal antihistamine/INSs was also approved in 2012, providing a novel treatment option for AR. Treatment of AR has progressed with new therapeutic options now available. This should continue to move forward with agents to alter the allergic mechanism itself and impact the disease burden that has a significant impact on patient outcomes.

  13. Report of Allergic Reaction After Application of Botulinum Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careta, Mariana Figueiroa; Delgado, Livia; Patriota, Régia

    2015-07-01

    Botulinum toxin is a widely used treatment with satisfactory results, and it is relatively safe in the doses used for cosmetic procedures. The authors report a case of allergic reaction to Chinese botulinum toxin serotype A (CBTX-A). Although this is a rare adverse event, it is nonetheless clinically relevant to healthcare professionals. A 44-year-old woman presented to the authors' hospital complaining of dynamic wrinkles. CBTX-A was used to treat her. Minutes after application, she developed urticarial plaques proximal to the injection site. The patient had an allergic reaction, as documented by a positive skin test, which was controlled by the administration of antihistamines and systemic corticosteroids. This report is intended to guide healthcare professionals faced with this type of adverse event regarding how to proceed without hindering the delivery and effectiveness of the treatment. When performed by a qualified health professional, this treatment brings excellent results in the vast majority of cases. 5 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Healthcare professional versus patient goal setting in intermittent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J; Seeto, C; Saini, B; Bosnic-Anticevich, S; Krass, I; Armour, C; Smith, L

    2008-01-01

    To examine the impact of healthcare professional versus patient goal setting for the self-management of intermittent allergic rhinitis (AR) on symptom severity and quality of life. This was a 6 week, parallel group study. Group A participants, with pharmacist facilitation, nominated personally relevant goals and strategies relating to their AR. Group B participants had their goals and strategies set by the pharmacist. The main outcome measures used included perceived symptom severity and quality of life. In addition, goals and strategies data from participants of both groups were collected and analysed. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in symptom severity and quality of life scores however Group B symptom severity scores improved more. Group B set a greater number of goals and strategies which were better structured and more task specific. This is the first study to investigate the impact of goal setting on patient behaviour in a chronic yet episodic illness. Our results suggest that self-management goals set by the healthcare professional which are clinically indicated but tailored to the patient's nominated symptoms yields better outcomes than goals nominated by the patient. A brief, structured intervention, tailored to patient symptoms, can enhance self-management of intermittent allergic rhinitis.

  15. Anti-Allergic Activity of a Platycodon Root Ethanol Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yeul Kwon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae is used as traditional medicine in Asian countries. In Korean traditional medicine, Platycodon root has been widely used since ancient times as a traditional drug to treat cold, cough and asthma. However, its effects on bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC-mediated allergy and inflammation mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the biological effect of Platycodon root ethanol extract (PE was evaluated in BMMC after induction of allergic mediators by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187 stimulation. The effect of PE on the production of several allergic mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2, leukotriene C4 (LTC4, β-Hexosaminidase (β-Hex and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 protein, was investigated. The results demonstrate that PE inhibits PMA + A23187 induced production of IL-6, PGD2, LTC4, β-Hexosaminidase and COX-2 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that PE has the potential for use in the treatment of allergy.

  16. Effects of vernal and allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Cinar, Yasin; Turkcu, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Yuksel, Harun; Sahin, Muhammed; Caca, Ihsan

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the effects of two different types of allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus (KC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 171 KC patients referred between June 2010 and June 2011. The KC patients were divided into 3 groups as KC (group A), KC with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) (group B) and KC with allergic conjunctivitis (AC) (group C). Main outcome measures were demographic and ocular clinical features including age at presentation, gender, spherical equivalent (SE), best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA), mean keratometric measurement (Km), central corneal thickness (CCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP). Groups were compared in term of study variables. The median age at presentation was significantly lower in group B (P<0.001). According to the median SE (P=0.003), BCVA (P=0.022), Km (P<0.001), CCT (P=0.015) and Amsler-Krumeich classification (P<0.001), KC was more severe in group B. There was no significant difference in terms of IOP and corrected IOP among the groups (P=0.44), however there were 4 patients who had increased corrected IOP developed after topical corticosteroid use in group B. The differences among the groups persisted even after controlling for age and gender. Our findings demonstrated a more severe KC in VKC patients despite their younger age which suggests evaluation of VKC patients as a separate group in keratoconus disease.

  17. Effects of vernal and allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Sahin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To demonstrate the effects of two different types of allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus (KC.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 171 KC patients referred between June 2010 and June 2011. The KC patients were divided into 3 groups as KC (group A, KC with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC (group B and KC with allergic conjunctivitis (AC (group C. Main outcome measures were demographic and ocular clinical features including age at presentation, gender, spherical equivalent (SE, best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA, mean keratometric measurement (Km, central corneal thickness (CCT, and intraocular pressure (IOP. Groups were compared in term of study variables. RESULTS: The median age at presentation was significantly lower in group B (P<0.001. According to the median SE (P=0.003, BCVA (P=0.022, Km (P<0.001, CCT (P=0.015 and Amsler–Krumeich classification (P<0.001, KC was more severe in group B. There was no significant difference in terms of IOP and corrected IOP among the groups (P=0.44, however there were 4 patients who had increased corrected IOP developed after topical corticosteroid use in group B. The differences among the groups persisted even after controlling for age and gender.CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated a more severe KC in VKC patients despite their younger age which suggests evaluation of VKC patients as a separate group in keratoconus disease.

  18. Bronchopulmonary allergic aspergillosis Aspergilosis broncopulmonar alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramírez

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A series of well defined entitles associated with colonization or invasion by fungi of the genus Aspergillus are grouped under the term Aspergillosis; there are various modalities of pulmonary involvement, namely, extrinsec asthma, extrinsec allergic alveolitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and an invasive form in debilitated terminal patients; besldes there exists a form of food poisoning. We report on the case of a 45 year-old asthmatic woman suffering from allerglc bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and sum. maryze the clinical and laboratory features of the different pulmonary forms of aspergillosis.

    El término Aspergllosis reúne una serle de entidades bien definidas, causadas por hongos del género Aspergillus. En este artículo se presenta el caso de una mujer de 45 años con aspergllosis broncopulmonar alérgica, atendida en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín y se hace una somera revisión clínico-patológica de las diferentes formas de aspergllosis pulmonar.

  19. The Prevalence and Patterns of Allergic Sensitization in Isparta, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Aynali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of allergic sensitization in Isparta. Material and Method: Of the patients, 266 were children, 213 were women, and 119 were men. Serum specific IgE levels were analyzed by %uFB02uoroenzymeimmunoassay method (UniCAP, Pharmacia and Upjohn Diagnostics AB, Uppsala, Sweden. Results: Serum specific IgE levels were positive in 27.1% of the adults and in 26.3% of the children. Hypersensitivity to allergens was determined in 32.9% of boys, in 16.7% of girls, in 40.3% of men, and in 19.7% of women. There was no difference in allergy prevalence in terms of age (p> 0.05. However, the prevalence of allergic sensitization in males was found significantly higher than in the females (p< 0.05. The most frequently encountered allergens were as follows: Ambrosia trifida(31.6 %, honey bee (31.2 %, elm (27.6 %, nuts (18.5 %, cow epithelium (17.4%, Acarus siro (11.5 %, and penicillin G (4.2 %. Discussion: It was determined that the rates of sensitization against grass and weed pollens, tree pollens, and foods were high in Isparta and they exhibited an increased tendency in males.

  20. Clinical implications of mast cell involvement in allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elieh Ali Komi, D; Rambasek, T; Bielory, L

    2018-03-01

    The conjunctiva is a common site for the allergic inflammatory response due to it being highly vascularized, having constant exposure to environmental pollutants and allergenic pollens and having a unique conjunctival associated lymphoid tissue. The primary morbidity of anterior surface conjunctival disorders that include allergic conjunctivitis and tear film disorders is associated with its high frequency of involvement rather than its severity, although the more chronic forms can involve the cornea and lead to sight-threatening conditions. Ocular allergy is associated with IgE-mediated mast cell activation in conjunctival tissue leading to the release of preformed mediators including histamine and proteases and subsequent de novo formation of lipid-derived mediators and cytokines that trigger a cascade of cellular and molecular events leading to extensive migration and infiltration of inflammatory cells to the ocular surface. The trafficking of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes to the ocular surface is due to establishing various chemokine gradients (mainly CCL11, CCL24, CCL5, MCP-3, and MCP-4), cell surface expression of adhesion molecules (such as VCAM-1 the ligand for VLA-4), and leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. The release of preformed mediators underlies the acute ocular surface response while the secondary influx of inflammatory cells leading to the recruitment and activation of eosinophils and the subsequent activation of Th2 and Th1 lymphocytes at the level of the conjunctiva reflects the late-phase reaction. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.