WorldWideScience

Sample records for unmasked bomb regions

  1. Satellite Gravity Transforms Unmask Tectonic Pattern of Arabian-African Region

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2017-04-01

    Satellite derived geophysical gravity data are the modern powerful tool of regional tectono-geophysical examination of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. It is well known that regional long-term seismological prognosis, strategy of searching economic deposits and many other important geological-geophysical problems are based mainly on constructions derived from the combined tectono-geophysical zonation. Some authors' experience of the tectono-geophysical zonation in the Eastern Mediterranean (both sea and land) with satellite derived gravity field (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2015a, 2015b) indicates a high effectiveness of the data employment for delineation of different tectono-structural units. Therefore, on the basis of the previous successive application, satellite derived gravity field analysis was applied for a giant (covering > 10 mln. km2) and complex Arabian-African region (including Zagros Mts.). The gravity field retracked from the Geosat and ERS-1 altimetry (e.g., Sandwell and Smith, 2009) was processed by the use of different mathematical apparatus employment enabling to underline these or those tectonic (geodynamic) features of the region under study. The main goals of present investigation are following: (1) employment of a new powerful regional geophysical tool - satellite derived gravity data and its transforms for unmasking some buried tectonic and geodynamic peculiarities of the study area, (2) finding definite relationships between the novel tectonic map and the gravity field transformations, (3) development of a novel tectonic map of this area (on the basis of careful examination of and generalization of available geological and geophysical (mostly satellite gravity) data). The compiled gravity map (for the map compiling more than 4 mln. observations were utilized) with the main tectonic features shows the intricate gravity pattern of the investigated area. An initial analysis of the gravity field behavior enabled to separate two main types of

  2. Genetic effect of A-bomb radiation- Analysis of minisatellite regions detected by DNA fingerprint probe

    Kodaira, Mieko

    1999-01-01

    In author's laboratory, screening of mutation in germ cells of A-bomb survivors is under investigation with use of 8 single-locus minisatellite probes and no increase in mutation rate has been detected hitherto. This paper reported results of screening on the minisatellite region, which consisting of short repeated base sequence, using a DNA fingerprint probe for 33.15 core sequence. Subjects were 50 A-bomb survivor families exposed to mean dose of 1.9 Sv (exposed group) or 0 Gy (control), having 64 or 60 children, respectively. DNA was extracted from their B cells established by EB virus and subjected to agarose-gel electrophoresis followed by southern blotting with some improvements for fingerprinting. On the fingerprints, numbers of the band detected in regions of >3.5 kb were 1080 in children of the exposed group (16.9/child) and 1024 (17.1) in the control group, indicating no detectable effect of exposure on the germ cell mutation rate in the region.(K.H.)

  3. Mortality of Hiroshima A-bomb survivors exposed at the black rain region

    Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Tonda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed on the black rain as a death risk factor of survivors in Hiroshima Uda's (U) light to heavy black rain regions using the positional parameters at their exposure. Subjects were 27,610 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate and direct dose at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was defined to be their all deaths due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia, cancers, etc. Confounding factors were sex (11,457 males/16,153 females), age at exposure (av. 25 y) and dose (av. 0.045 Gy), with which analysis was done by Cox proportional hazard model. The confounding interaction of the age/U region was found significant: e.g., at the exposed age 25 y, the hazard ratio was calculated to be 1.084, indicating about 8% higher hazard ratio of U region than the area outside of U. When the effect of the sex, exposed age and direct dose were adjusted to be minimized, the risk was found distributed mainly in concentric circle from hypocenter, yet still the effect of indirect exposure was observed though. When the distance instead of the indirect dose was used as an explanatory variable, it resulted in being significant with no significance of the direct exposure dose. Risk map employing the positional information at explosion revealed that the risk distribution was locally different even in U region itself. Thus this study suggested that the black rain was a mortality risk factor in the U raining region of Hiroshima. (T.T.)

  4. Bomb CAD

    Massa, R.J.; Howard, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes BombCAD a computer-aided analysis technique for assessing the damage to diverse structures which results from specific high explosive detonations within or near the structure. BombCAD analyzes the vulnerability of specific facilities to bomb attach, and evaluates siting, screening and hardening/softening aspects of comprehensive bomb defense programs. The paper describes BombCAD's architectural models of specific structures, computations of blastwave effects and the paradigms which relate blast wave effects to both structural damage and human injury. The use of BombCAD in bomb attack vulnerability assessment, facility design, bomb threat response planning and post-incident analyses is described and field examples are presented

  5. Bomb parameters

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  6. Love Bomb

    Caruana, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Love Bomb charts evidence of love and hate through a series of still lives constructed and informed by sourcery, chemistry and psychotherapy. The photographic work is a response to the breakup of relationship and metaphorical investigation of the links between the two emotions on wider scale. Restlessly the artist documents her attempts to stay in love, searching for love potions on the internet then making and photographing them in her studio. Interspersed amongst these attempts is the docum...

  7. Spatial consideration of black rainfall region using geographical information system and based on witness of A-bomb survivors and newspaper articles

    Sato, Yuya; Satoh, Kenichi; Shimamoto; Kawano, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    The black rainfall area after the A-bomb explosion was investigated using informational materials in the title because orographic precipitate is important for radioactive substances to spread. Witnesses were collected from questionnaires about exposure done by Asahi Newspapers (Apr., 2005) and by Japan Confederation of A- and H-Bomb Sufferers Organizations (Nov., 1985-Mar., 1986); from Newspaper Data Base in Hiroshima University about articles concerning A-bomb, exposure and black rain; and about geography, from National Digital Cartographic Data Base of Geographical Survey Institute. Geographical Information System was used for identifying the valley and ridge to plot the keywords about the above exposure, black rain and so on. It was found that black rain was experienced in Hiroshima City alone whereas witness of seeing the mushroom cloud was obtained at many places nearby around the City, suggesting the biased black rainfall region within the City. Particularly, when the black rain witnesses in the City were summing up for each region, they were found biased in the west to northern west areas of the hypocenter, that were downwind of the first ridge from the explosion site. Thus the black rainfall was found localized western to northern western from the hypocenter, which was thought to be further confirmed by other evidence like soil analysis. (T.T.)

  8. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  9. Unmasking Abilities Hidden by Developmental Conditions.

    Mallik, Kalisankar, Ed.; Shaver, Elaine M., Ed.

    This document contains 16 papers that were scheduled to be presented at a conference (which was canceled) on approaches and programs for helping developmentally disabled persons to be more self-sufficient. The book is divided into three sections: (1) unmasking vocational abilities, (2) enhancing functional independence, and (3) medical and…

  10. Unmasking of Brugada syndrome by lithium

    Darbar, Dawood; Yang, Tao; Churchwell, Keith; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Roden, Dan M.

    2005-01-01

    Background - The characteristic ECG pattern of ST- segment elevation in V-1 and V-2 in the Brugada syndrome is dynamic; it is often intermittently present in affected individuals and can be unmasked by sodium channel blockers, including antiarrhythmic drugs and tricyclic antidepressants. We report

  11. Contribution of low- and high-frequency bands to binaural unmasking in hearing-impaired listeners

    Locsei, Gusztav; Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of interaural timing differences (ITDs) in different frequency regions to binaural unmasking (BU) of speech. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) and binaural intelligibility level differences (BILDs) were measured in two-talker babble in 6 young normal-hear...

  12. Unmasking sarcoidosis following surgery for Cushing disease

    Diernæs, Jon Erik; Bygum, Anette; Poulsen, Per L

    2016-01-01

    We present a patient with Cushing disease apparently suppressing sarcoidosis, which was unmasked following surgical resection of a pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-producing microadenoma. Case report and a short review of the literature published in this area. A 46-year-old Caucasian woman pr...... successful treatment of Cushing syndrome may have a flare-up or emergence of a corticosteroid-responsive disease.......We present a patient with Cushing disease apparently suppressing sarcoidosis, which was unmasked following surgical resection of a pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-producing microadenoma. Case report and a short review of the literature published in this area. A 46-year-old Caucasian woman...... for which the patient underwent transphenoidal resection. Maintenance corticosteroid therapy was implemented, and the signs and symptoms of Cushing disease began to resolve. Three months after surgery, multiple erythematous painful nodules developed on the patient's arms. Erythema nodosum (EN) was diagnosed...

  13. UV spectra, bombs, and the solar atmosphere

    Judge, Philip G.

    2015-01-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph {\\em IRIS} reports plasma "bombs" with temperatures near \\hot{} within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, firstly because most bomb plasma pressures $p$ (the largest reported case exceeds $10^3$ dyn~cm$^{-2}$) fall well below photospheric pressures ($> 7\\times10^3$), and secondly, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the {\\em IRIS} data is independently analyzed. I...

  14. Influence on social life of atomic bomb, chapter 3

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were far small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 3 ''Influence on social life'', the following matters are described: relations of the atomic bombings to society; destroyed societies such as disruption of regional societies and loss of wealth; life of the sufferers such as occupation, marriage, hardships of life, orphans, livelihood variation, and suffering of foreigners; and mental process of the sufferers. (J.P.N.)

  15. Atomic bomb cataracts

    Shiraeda, Kanji

    1992-01-01

    Eye disturbance caused by atomic bomb radiation can be divided into three groups: direct injury immediately after exposure, eye lesions associated with radiation syndrome, and delayed disturbance. The crystalline lens of the eye is the most radiosensitive. Atomic bomb cataract has been investigated in a number of studies. The first section of this chapter discusses radiation cataract in terms of the incidence and characteristics. The second section deals with atomic bomb cataract, which can be diagnosed based on the four criteria: (1) opacity of the crystalline lens, (2) a history of proximal exposure, (3) lack of eye disease complicating cataract, and (4) non-exposure to radiation other than atomic bombing. The prevalence of cataract and severity of opacity are found to correlate with exposure doses and age at the time of exposure. Furthermore, it is found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter, the condition of shielding, epilation, and the presence or absence or degree of radiation syndrome. (N.K.)

  16. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Ichimaru, M; Tomonaga, M; Amenomori, T; Matsuo, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1991-12-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  17. Cluster bomb ocular injuries.

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamade, Haya; Ghaddar, Ayman; Mokadem, Ahmad Samih; El Hajj Ali, Mohamad; Awwad, Shady

    2012-01-01

    To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006). Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308) of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67%) with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes), corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes), corneal decompensation (2 eyes), ruptured cataract (6 eyes), and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes). The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  18. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  19. Poliosis circumscripta unmasking a scalp melanoma.

    Yeo, L; Husain, E; Rajpara, S

    2015-12-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of a localized patch of grey hair and an underlying darkly pigmented lesion on his right occipital area. Clinical appearance revealed poliosis overlying an asymmetrical plaque with variable degrees of brown pigmentation and white discolouration. Owing to the suspicious nature of the lesion, excision with a 2 mm margin was performed. Histology revealed an invasive melanoma with extensive regression and prominent involvement of multiple hair follicles. Scalp melanoma with associated poliosis is extremely rare, and has only been reported once in the literature to date. There have been two reports in the opthalmology literature regarding eyelash poliosis associated with orbital melanoma. The pathogenesis of poliosis still remains unclear. This is the second reported case of poliosis circmscripta unmasking a scalp melanoma, and highlights the importance of being vigilant when examining patients with poliosis of the scalp. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Systems, Shocks and Time Bombs

    Winder, Nick

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Modelling strategies * Are time-bomb phenomena important? * Heuristic approaches to time-bomb phenomena * Three rational approaches to TBP * Two irrational approaches * Conclusions * References

  1. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors

  2. Asymptomatic myotonia congenita unmasked by severe hypothyroidism.

    Passeri, Elena; Sansone, Valeria A; Verdelli, Chiara; Mendola, Marco; Corbetta, Sabrina

    2014-04-01

    Myotonia congenita is an inherited muscle disorder sustained by mutations in the skeletal muscle chloride channel gene CLCN1. Symptoms vary from mild to severe and generalized myotonia and worsen with cold, stressful events and hormonal fluctuations. Here we report the case of a young woman who sought medical attention because of subacute onset of diffuse and severe limb myotonia. CLCN1 gene sequencing showed a heterozygous transversion (T550M), two polymorphisms and one silent mutation. Thyroid function screening revealed severe hypothyroidism. She was placed on l-thyroxine replacement therapy which dramatically improved myotonia. We conclude that hypothyroidism unmasked a genetically determined, clinically asymptomatic chloride channelopathy. Diagnostic work-up in patients with clinically isolated myotonia should not be limited to genetic screening of non-dystrophic or dystrophic myotonias. Considering the high prevalence of hypothyroidism in females, systematic thyroid function screening by looking for additional hypothyroid symptoms and serum TSH levels measurement is mandatory in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Unmasking sarcoidosis following surgery for Cushing disease.

    Diernaes, Jon E F; Bygum, Anette; Poulsen, Per L

    2016-01-01

    We present a patient with Cushing disease apparently suppressing sarcoidosis, which was unmasked following surgical resection of a pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-producing microadenoma. Case report and a short review of the literature published in this area. A 46-year-old Caucasian woman presented with symptoms of hypercortisolism such as progressive weight gain, Cushingoid appearance, proximal myopathy, easy bruising, and amenorrhea. Blood testing including inferior petrosal sinus sampling uncovered an ACTH-producing microadenoma in the right aspect of the anterior pituitary gland for which the patient underwent transphenoidal resection. Maintenance corticosteroid therapy was implemented, and the signs and symptoms of Cushing disease began to resolve. Three months after surgery, multiple erythematous painful nodules developed on the patient's arms. Erythema nodosum (EN) was diagnosed clinically and a suspicion of underlying sarcoidosis was substantiated by lung imaging and elevated plasma interleukin (IL)-2 receptor. One month later, the lesions spontaneously resolved without therapy other than maintenance glucocorticoid replacement. Physicians should be aware that patients undergoing successful treatment of Cushing syndrome may have a flare-up or emergence of a corticosteroid-responsive disease.

  4. The Freezing Bomb

    Mills, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The extreme pressures that are generated when water freezes were traditionally demonstrated by sealing a small volume in a massive cast iron "bomb" and then surrounding it with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. This vessel would dramatically fail by brittle fracture, but no quantitative measurement of bursting pressure was available. Calculation…

  5. Environmental Composites for Bomb Cyclones of the Western North Atlantic in Reanalysis, 1948-2016.

    Adams, R.; Sheridan, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    "Bomb" cyclones represent a small subset of mid-latitude cyclones characterized by rapid intensification and frequently are associated with extreme weather conditions along the eastern coast of North America. Like other extreme phenomena, bomb cyclone predictions are prone to error leading to inadequate or untimely hazard warnings. The rare nature of bomb cyclones and the uniqueness of their evolutions has made it difficult for researchers to make meaningful generalizations on bomb cyclone events. This paper describes bomb cyclone climatology for the western North Atlantic, using data from the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis for 1948-2016, and uses a synoptic climatological analysis to relate these bombs to their associated atmospheric environments. A self-organizing map (SOM) of 300-hPa geopotential height tendency is created to partition the regional atmospheric environment. Thermodynamic fields are contrasted by each 300-hPa geopotential height tendency pattern for both bomb and non-bomb events in composite difference maps. The SOM patterns most significantly associated with western North Atlantic bomb cyclogenesis are characterized by both strongly and weakly negative height tendencies along the eastern United States. In both cases, these patterns exhibit strong meridional flow, a distinction marked by the weakening and breaking down of the polar vortex in the boreal Winter. The composite maps for each pattern show the mean differences in low-mid level ascent and near surface thermodynamics for bomb environments contrasted with non-bomb environments, resulting in diverse spatiotemporal distributions of bombs in the western North Atlantic.

  6. BOMB STABILIZING STRUCTURE

    Kelley, J.L.; Runyan, C.E.

    1963-12-10

    A stabilizinig structure capable of minimizing deviations of a falling body such as a bomb from desired trajectory is described. The structure comprises a fin or shroud arrangement of double-wedge configuration, the feeding portion being of narrow wedge shape and the after portion being of a wider wedge shape. The structure provides a force component for keeping the body on essentially desired trajectory throughout its fall. (AEC)

  7. Atomic bomb injury: radiation

    Dunham, C L; Cronkite, E P; Le Roy, G V; Warren, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports. In the first report, the clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation syndrome in survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. The syndrome of acute radiation injury is applied to the symptom complex, or diseased state, which results from exposure of the whole body to the initial nuclear radiation of an atomic bomb. It is applied to injuries of the skin and subcutaneous tissues resulting from x-radiation or from contact with radioactive material. Internal radiation injury may result from the selective deposition, such as in bone or thyroid, of radioactive material that has been inhaled or absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or wounds. Radiation syndrome is classified as very severe, severe, and mild. In the second report, a brief discussion is presented on the question of genetic effects in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the third report, a study was carried out on 205 4-1/2 year old children who had been exposed to the atomic bomb blast during the first half of intra-uterine life. Correlation between head size and mental development of the child with distance from the hypocenter, symptoms of radiation effect and type of shielding of the mother is discussed. The conclusion drawn from the present study is that central nervous system defects can be produced in the fetus by atomic bomb radiation, provided that exposure occurs within approximately 1200 meters of the hypocenter and that no effective shielding, such as concrete, protects the fetus from direct irradiation.

  8. Unmasking the social engineer the human element of security

    Hadnagy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Learn to identify the social engineer by non-verbal behavior Unmasking the Social Engineer: The Human Element of Security focuses on combining the science of understanding non-verbal communications with the knowledge of how social engineers, scam artists and con men use these skills to build feelings of trust and rapport in their targets. The author helps readers understand how to identify and detect social engineers and scammers by analyzing their non-verbal behavior. Unmasking the Social Engineer shows how attacks work, explains nonverbal communications, and demonstrates with visuals the c

  9. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  10. The Bomb-Gyroscopes

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is described about the attack at night 16 of May 1943 of year by the English aircraft of 617-y of the squadron of German dams in the Ruhr pond with the use of bombs “Upkeep” and the history of their creation by designer Barns Neville Wallis, is described the device of this weapon and the tactics of its application. The motion of operation is analyzed, in detail it is told about the actions of the crews of the aircraft, тhe motion of operation is analyzed, the losses of sides and consequence of the destruction of dams for the German defense industry are given.

  11. Pre- and Postoperative Binaural Unmasking for Bimodal Cochlear Implant Listeners.

    Sheffield, Benjamin M; Schuchman, Gerald; Bernstein, Joshua G W

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are increasingly recommended to individuals with residual bilateral acoustic hearing. Although new hearing-preserving electrode designs and surgical approaches show great promise, CI recipients are still at risk to lose acoustic hearing in the implanted ear, which could prevent the ability to take advantage of binaural unmasking to aid speech recognition in noise. This study examined the tradeoff between the benefits of a CI for speech understanding in noise and the potential loss of binaural unmasking for CI recipients with some bilateral preoperative acoustic hearing. Binaural unmasking is difficult to evaluate in CI candidates because speech perception in noise is generally too poor to measure reliably in the range of signal to noise ratios (SNRs) where binaural intelligibility level differences (BILDs) are typically observed (binaural benefit, 9 out of 10 listeners tested postoperatively had performance equal to or better than their best pre-CI performance. The listener who retained functional acoustic hearing in the implanted ear also demonstrated a preserved acoustic BILD postoperatively. Approximately half of the CI candidates in this study demonstrated preoperative binaural hearing benefits for audiovisual speech perception in noise. Most of these listeners lost their acoustic hearing in the implanted ear after surgery (using nonhearing-preservation techniques), and therefore lost access to this binaural benefit. In all but one case, any loss of binaural benefit was compensated for or exceeded by an improvement in speech perception with the CI. Evidence of a preoperative BILD suggests that certain CI candidates might further benefit from hearing-preservation surgery to retain acoustic binaural unmasking, as demonstrated for the listener who underwent hearing-preservation surgery. This test of binaural audiovisual speech perception in noise could serve as a diagnostic tool to identify CI candidates who are most likely to receive

  12. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  13. Development of a Dirigible Bomb

    1943-04-15

    X - ¥ control for all future high-angle dirigible bombs in spite of the instrumental complications involved. /. two gyro system consisting of t...ts found thet the bomb wos in roll equilibrium £.t aero roll orientetion . Moreover, these roll equilibrium positions ire stt-ble ss indicated by...tirflow giving rise to voll torques in the seme direction fcs roll dis- placements from the «ero orientetion , the roll equilibrium found for equel pitch

  14. Dirty Bomb Risk and Impact

    Connell, Leonard W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We examined the relative risk and impact of a dirty bomb employing Co-60 and Cs-137, the two most common high activity source materials. We found that the risk of an area denial dirty bomb attack is greater for Cs-137 due to the form and chemistry of CsCl, the soft, powdery salt form currently in use for high activity Cs-137 sources, found in blood and research irradiators.

  15. Bomb pulse biology

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric {sup 14}C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 {mu}g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  16. Neutron bomb and European defense

    Sweet, W.

    1980-08-15

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references. (DCK)

  17. Neutron bomb and European defense

    Sweet, W.

    1980-01-01

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references

  18. Tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors

    Hamada, Tadao; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of atomic bomb on tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors necropsied after 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was opened were observed statistically and the following results were obtained. The morbidity of tuberculosis in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter was higher than that of the control group, but there was not a significant difference between the both groups. The morbidity of all types of tuberculosis was significantly higher in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter than in the control group. The morbidity of tuberculosis tended to decrease in both exposed and non-exposed groups with time. However, the morbidity of miliary or active tuberculosis has tended to rise in the exposed since 1975. The morbidity in young a-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km was higher than that in those of other groups, but there was not a difference in the morbidity among the aged. The higher the rate of complication of active tuberculosis with stomach cancer or acute myelocytic leukemia or liver cirrhosis, the nearer the places of exposure were to the hypocenter. Out of 26 patients with miliary tuberculosis, 6 were suspected to have leukemia while they were alive and were suggested to have leukemoid reaction by autopsy. They all were a-bomb survivors, and 4 of them were exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. BombCAD - A new tool for bomb defense in nuclear facilities

    Massa, D.J.; Howard, J.W.; Sturm, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a new tool for analysis of the specific vulnerability of diverse facilites to bomb attack and for computer-aided-design (CAD) of siting, screening and hardening/softening aspects of comprehensive bomb defense programs. BombCAD combines the extensive architectural and engineering data base and graphics capabilities of modern architectural CAD systems with the bomb effects computational capability of the ''SECUREPLAN'' BOMB UTILITY. BombCAD permits architects/engineers, security professionals and facility managers to analytically estimate and graphically display facility vulnerability and changes (reductions) in vulnerability which result from the adoption of various bomb defense measures

  20. Atom bombs and genetic damage

    Berry, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Comments are made on a 1981 review on genetic damage in the off-spring of the atom bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The main criticisms of the review concerned, 1) the 'minimal' doubling dose value for radiation-induced mutation in man, 2) the gametic doubling dose value for sex chromosome aneuploidy and 3) the validity of trebling an observed acute doubling dose to measure the effect of chronic irradiation. The firmest conclusion which may be deduced from the studies on A-bomb survivors is that humans are fairly resistant to genetic damage from radiation. (U.K.)

  1. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  2. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  3. Bombe udstiller Sinn Feins dilemma

    2010-01-01

    Natten til mandag den 12. april sprang en bombe lige udenfor Belfast. Hverken tid eller sted var tilfældigt. Bomben sprang nemlig på den dag, hvor det justitspolitiske område blev overført til Nordirland. Og den sprang lige bagved den bygning hvor den britiske sikkerhedstjeneste MI5 har deres nye...

  4. Smart bomb for cancer

    Karagiannis, Tom

    2006-01-01

    recognise cell-surface receptors on cancer cells that are either not found on healthy cells or that are found on healthy cells but are expressed at much lower levels. The main focus of our research in the Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre is to develop a type of monoclonal antibody-based cancer therapy referred to as radio-immunotherapy. In its simplest form, radio-immunotherapy involves the use of a monoclonal antibody to deliver a radioactive atom specifically to cancer cells. The idea is that targeting the radiation specifically to cancer cells using a monoclonal antibody will deliver a sufficient radiation dose to kill diseased cells, while minimising the damage to healthy surrounding tissue. To date, the monoclonal antibodies ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and tositumomab (Bexxar), which are labelled with a radioactive atom, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for radio-immunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Our strategy is a more complex multi-step approach. It involves targeting the radioactive atom not only to cancer cells but also to the DNA of those cells. Our smart molecular bombs that consist of three different parts. The first part is a special type of radioactive atom known as an Auger electron-emitting isotope, which is used to destroy the cancer cell. The radioactive atom is then linked to a small drug molecule that binds very tightly to DNA. This DNA-binding drug delivers the radiation in close proximity to the DNA so that the radioactive atom can kill the cancer cell by breaking the genetic material. To make our potential therapy specific for cancer cells we then chemically link the radiation-containing DNA-binding drug to an anti-cancer monoclonal antibody

  5. The bomb 14C transient in the Pacific Ocean

    Rodgers, Keith B.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Cane, Mark A.; Naik, Naomi H.

    2000-04-01

    A modeling study of the bomb 14C transient is presented for the Pacific Ocean. A primitive equation ocean circulation model has been configured for a high-resolution domain that accounts for the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Four separate runs were performed: (1) seasonal forcing with 20 Sv of ITF transport, (2) seasonal forcing with 10 Sv of ITF transport, (3) seasonal forcing with no ITF transport, and (4) interannual forcing with 15 Sv of ITF transport. This study has two main objectives. First, it is intended to describe the time evolution of the bomb 14C transient. This serves as a tool with which one can identify the physical processes controlling the evolving bomb 14C distribution in the Pacific thermocline and thus provides an interpretive framework for the database of Δ14C measurements in the Pacific. Second, transient tracers are applied to the physical oceanographic problem of intergyre exchange. This is of importance in furthering our understanding of the potential role of the upper Pacific Ocean in climate variability. We use bomb 14C as a dye tracer of intergyre exchange between the subtropical gyres and the equatorial upwelling regions of the equatorial Pacific. Observations show that while the atmospheric Δ14C signal peaked in the early to mid-1960s, the Δ14C levels in the surface water waters of the subtropical gyres peaked near 1970, and the Δ14C of surface waters in the equatorial Pacific continued to rise through the 1980s. It is shown that the model exhibits skill in representing the large-scale observed features observed for the bomb 14C transient in the Pacific Ocean. The model successfully captures the basin-scale inventories of bomb 14C in the tropics as well as in the extratropics of the North Pacific. For the equatorial Pacific this is attributed to the model's high meridional resolution. The discrepancies in the three-dimensional distribution of bomb 14C between the model and data are discussed within the context of the dynamical

  6. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Modern forensic science has to deal not only with homicides and other traditional crimes but also with more global threats such as the smuggling of nuclear materials, clandestine production of weapons of mass destruction, stockpiling of illicit drugs by state controlled groups and war crimes. Forensic applications have always benefited from the use of advanced analytical tools that can characterize materials found at crime scenes. In this paper we will discuss the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as an ultrasensitive tool for the crime laboratories of the third millennium. An important objective in forensic science is to order past events chronologically by analysing materials associated with criminal actions. Radiocarbon dating is known to the general public for its application to historical and prehistorical investigations. Examples of forensic significance include the assassination of the Inca Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro in the early 1530s, the possible murder of the Tyrolean Ice Man (Oetzi) 5300 years ago and the analysis of the burial cloths allegedly associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ . Recent murders, including those associated with war crimes in the Balkans during the 1990s, can be studied using 14 C bomb pulse dating. This method has other forensic applications, including investigation of frauds related to food and wine counterfeiting, dating of opium crops and dating of substances used in biological warfare. AMS extends the applicability of the radiocarbon method, allowing the analysis of 14 C in submilligram organic samples. Specific molecular compounds extracted from bones, hair, skin and other carbon bearing substances of forensic significance can now be dated, enhancing the sensitivity and reliability of chronological determinations. AMS can also be used to analyse rare actinide isotopes released into the environment during the clandestine production of nuclear weapons or associated with the smuggling of nuclear materials. In

  7. Bones, Bombs and Break Points: The Geography of Economic Activity

    Donald R. Davis; David E. Weinstein

    2001-01-01

    We consider the distribution of economic activity within a country in light of three leading theories - increasing returns, random growth, and locational fundamentals. To do so, we examine the distribution of regional population in Japan from the Stone Age to the modern era. We also consider the Allied bombing of Japanese cities in WWII as a shock to relative city sizes. Our results support a hybrid theory in which locational fundamentals establish the spatial pattern of relative regional den...

  8. The media and dirty bombs

    Hanley, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    During the recent Jose Padilla 'dirty bomb' scare, an indignant US citizen wrote to his local newspaper in Florida complaining that the news media were giving terrorists a recipe for making dirty bombs. 'Unless the media eases up on scaring us, he wrote, the public won't feel safe even leaving their homes. Or perhaps that is what they want, he said, 'us staying inside our homes watching the news on how terrorists can destroy us all.' It seems our real motivations have finally been uncovered we in the media want to scare them so much they won't leave their TV screens. Based on the previous event an analysis of the role of media and journalists is discussed. Leaders of the news media would, first of all, universally advise full and rapid and authoritative disclosure of what is known. If it isn't coming quickly from the highest levels, then the news will soon deteriorate to what's being heard on the streets, from police officers and fire fighters and other emergency personnel, and from passers-by. Journalists are the first to acknowledge their ignorance.That is why they ask questions. However, they seem to learn fast. It was found that that the term dirty bomb never appeared on Associated Press news wires before the 11 September 2001 attacks. Now it appears every day, and increasingly we are getting the facts right and helping to prepare our audience of millions for this dangerous new world

  9. Pancreatic exocrine secretion in atomic bomb survivors

    Hiraoka, Masataka; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Ohtaki, Megu

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of A-bombing on pancreatic exocrine secretion in 6 A-bomb survivors (an average age of 57 years) and the age- and sex-matched non-exposed 6 persons (an average age of 58 years). Six A-bomb survivors consisted of: three who had been directly exposed to A-bombing, one who had entered the city within 3 days after bombing, one who had worked in caring for A-bomb survivors, and one who had later entered the city. Caerulein-Secretin test revealed no significant difference in the total secretion of lipase, maximum bicarbonate, amylase output, or lipase output between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The concentration of lipase ten min after stimulation was significantly decreased in the exposed group than the control group. This suggests that radiation may be responsible for abnormality in the ability of pancreatic exocrine secretion. (N.K.)

  10. Malignant Lymphoma in an Atomic-bomb Survivor

    Cheng-Chia Lee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomic bomb survivors outside of Japan are few and often hard to follow-up. Spinal malignant lymphoma among these survivors is rare in established studies from Japan or the United States. Here, we report an 81-year-old woman, who experienced the atomic bomb explosion in Nagasaki when she was 19 years old, who presented with papillary thyroid carcinoma when she was 70 years old. Both follicular lymphoma over the right elbow region and vertebral malignant lymphoma were found when she turned 81 years old. Bone scan did not show any increased uptake of isotope. However, thoracolumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple infiltrative soft tissue masses involving vertebral bodies at the T10–11 level. Computed tomography-guided biopsy further showed lymphocyte infiltration. Fortunately, the neurological deficit was improved after chemotherapy. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors should be more careful and aggressive, even when their bone scan results show negative findings. In addition, the authors suggest that atomic bomb survivors should be followed-up carefully throughout their entire life.

  11. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  12. Re-evaluation of atomic bomb radiation

    Okajima, Shunzo

    1984-01-01

    The background and current status of the re-evaluation of atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation doses are presented. Problems in re-evaluating radiation doses are discussed: spectra of gamma-rays and neutrons emitted in the air, A-bomb structures, and meterological elements should be taken into account. In Japan, in an attempt to estimate A-bomb radiation doses, radioactive residues contained in roof tiles, bricks, rocks, and teeth and shell button of clothes are being actually measured. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Ellerman bombs and UV bursts: reconnection at different atmospheric layers?

    Hansteen, V. H.; Ortiz-Carbonell, A. N.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of magnetic flux through the photosphere and into the outer solar atmosphere produces, amongst many other phenomena, the appearance of Ellerman bombs (EBs) in the photosphere. EBs are observed in the wings of H(alpha) and are highly likely to be due to reconnection in the photosphere, below the chromospheric canopy. However, signs of the reconnection process are also observed in several other spectral lines, typical of the chromosphere or transition region. An example are the UV bursts observed in the transition region lines of Si IV. In this work we analyze high cadence coordinated observations between the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope and the IRIS spacecraft in order to study the possible relationship between reconnection events at different layers in the atmosphere, and in particular, the timing history between them. High cadence, high resolution H-alpha images from the SST provide us with the positions, timings and trajectories of Ellerman bombs in an emerging flux region. Simultaneous co-aligned IRIS slit-jaw images at 1400 and 1330 A and detailed Si IV spectra from the fast spectrograph raster allow us to study the transition region counterparts of those photospheric Ellerman bombs. Our main goal is to study whether there is a temporal relationship between the appearance of an EB and the appearance of a UV burst. Eventually we would like to investigate whether reconnection happens at discrete heights, or as a reconnection sheet spanning several layers at the same time.

  14. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. TRIGGERING, VISIBILITY, AND EFFECT ON UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J., E-mail: g.j.m.vissers@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer H{alpha} line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 A with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 A continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 A SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 A shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 A, Fe IX 171 A, and Fe XIV 211 A show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on H{alpha} morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

  15. The bomb and the men

    Kroh, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Since 1945, more than 2000 nuclear weapon tests have been performed in the world, with a perfect knowledge of the irradiation risks. This book tells this story. The one of the men who designed the bombs, who used and improved them. It tells also the story of these men who were injured by nuclear weapons and those who were directly impacted by the fallouts of these tests. Finally, the book does not forget to mention the men who voluntarily dissimulated the ravages of nuclear weapons before discretely recognizing them and thinking of repairing the damage

  16. Early pre-eclampsia unmasks underlying IgA nephropathy

    Mona Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mona Singh, Akhenaton Pappoe, Burl R DonDivision of Nephrology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: Pre-eclampsia is the most ominous complication of pregnancy, and primary glomerular diseases can mimic pre-eclampsia in presentation. A patient presented at 21 weeks gestation with signs and symptoms of both pre-eclampsia and primary glomerular nephropathy. A critical clinical decision whether to continue or terminate the pregnancy was dependent on results of a renal biopsy. The biopsy noted the presence of both pre-eclampsia and immunoglobulin A (IgA nephropathy. Thus, the onset of pre-eclampsia unmasked the presence of unrecognized IgA nephropathy, and the IgA nephropathy was a risk factor for this patient developing pre-eclampsia. The results of a renal biopsy are key in distinguishing pre-eclampsia from other kidney diseases and instituting appropriate clinical management.Keywords: proteinuria, IgA nephropathy, renal biopsy, pre-eclampsia

  17. Development of a Single High Fat Meal Challenge to Unmask ...

    Stress tests are used clinically to determine the presence of underlying disease and predict future cardiovascular risk. In previous studies, we used treadmill exercise stress in rats to unmask the priming effects of air pollution inhalation. Other day-to-day activities stress the cardiovascular system, and when modeled experimentally, may be useful in identifying latent effects of air pollution exposure. For example, a single high fat (HF) meal can cause transient vascular endothelial dysfunction and increases in LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oxidative stress, and inflammation. Given the prevalence of HF meals in western diets, the goal of this study was to develop a HF meal challenge in rats to see if air pollution primes the body for a subsequent stress-induced adverse response. Healthy male Wistar Kyoto rats were fasted for six hours and then administered a single oral gavage of isocaloric lard-based HF or low fat (LF) suspensions, or a water vehicle control. We hypothesized that rats given a HF load would elicit postprandial changes in cardiopulmonary function that were distinct from LF and vehicle controls. One to four hours after gavage, rats underwent whole body plethysmography to assess breathing patterns, cardiovascular ultrasounds, blood draws for measurements of systemic lipids and hormones and a test for sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia. HF gavage caused an increase in circulating TG relative to LF and vehicle controls and an incre

  18. Atomic bombs and conspiracy theories

    Binnie, A.

    2001-01-01

    There have been a number of articles in the press concerning Australia's bid to get the atomic bomb. These articles are based on the recent publication of a book, 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb' by Wayne Reynolds. The book at first sight appears to be very well researched, with many archival references from a number of countries, and the hypotheses appear to be well supported and argued. Its major shortcoming is the way that the science and technology involved is presented. The author seems to have a complete lack of understanding of basic science and engineering principles, and the manner in which scientists and politicians communicate with each other. This paper will attempt to redress these shortcomings, I shall look at the way communities of scientists and politicians present their ideas to each other and to the public at large. By investigating the backgrounds to the establishment of the Snowy Mountains Scheme and the later establishment of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, the author is able to explain how such a hypothesis ever saw the light of day

  19. Gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 2

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Odan, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Inagaki, Kazuo; Tanaka, Issei

    1992-01-01

    During 22 years from 1968 through 1989, 538 A-bomb survivors were operated on for gastric cancer, accounting for 30.9% of 1,741 surgical cases of gastric cancer during that period. To determine whether age at the time of exposure to A-bombing might influenced the occurrrence of gastric cancer, these A-bomb survivors were compared with 1,138 other non-exposed gastric cancer patients. According to age at the time of exposure, the 538 A-bomb survivors were divided into those under the age of 19 (118), those in their twenties (134), those in their thirties (178), and those over the age of 40 (108). The largest number of gastric cancer was those in their thirties at the time of exposure, followed by the twenties, 19 years or less, and 40 years or more in the exposed group. The younger A-bomb survivors were at the time of exposure, the earlier gastric cancer occurred. These findings were common to the non-exposed group. Postoperative 5-year survival rate was 72.0% in A-bomb survivors aged 19 years or less at the time of exposure, which was better than the other age groups. This may be explained by active participation in health examination for A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  20. The birth of the atomic bomb

    Olivier, Louis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes an overview of fifty years of researches and works which resulted in the fabrication and use of an atomic bomb. Thus, he evokes the discovery of radioactivity, experiments made by Rutherford, the discovery of nuclear fission induced uranium bombardment by slow neutrons, the discovery of a possibility of chain reaction with a very low critical mass, the first works on the development of a bomb in the USA and United-Kingdom, and finally the Manhattan project and the realisation of the first bombs, tests, and their use in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  1. The secret of the Soviet hydrogen bomb

    Wellerstein, Alex; Geist, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Was the first Soviet thermonuclear device really a step in the wrong direction? No bomb design has been as much maligned or otherwise disparaged as the first Soviet thermonuclear weapon. Detonated in August 1953, the bomb, officially tested under the name RDS-6s but usually known as Sloika or "layer cake" (the name Andrei Sakharov coined for it), was nothing to sneeze at. Shown in Figure 1 and able to be dropped from aircraft, it released the explosive equivalent, or yield, of almost half a megaton of TNT. The result was a blazing fireball with 20 times the power of the bomb that leveled Nagasaki, Japan.

  2. MAGNETIC FLUX CANCELLATION IN ELLERMAN BOMBS

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Nelson, C. J.; Henriques, V. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Scullion, E. [Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Ray, T., E-mail: areid29@qub.ac.uk [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2016-06-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are often found to be co-spatial with bipolar photospheric magnetic fields. We use H α imaging spectroscopy along with Fe i 6302.5 Å spectropolarimetry from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), combined with data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory , to study EBs and the evolution of the local magnetic fields at EB locations. EBs are found via an EB detection and tracking algorithm. Using NICOLE inversions of the spectropolarimetric data, we find that, on average, (3.43 ± 0.49) × 10{sup 24} erg of stored magnetic energy disappears from the bipolar region during EB burning. The inversions also show flux cancellation rates of 10{sup 14}–10{sup 15} Mx s{sup −1} and temperature enhancements of 200 K at the detection footpoints. We investigate the near-simultaneous flaring of EBs due to co-temporal flux emergence from a sunspot, which shows a decrease in transverse velocity when interacting with an existing, stationary area of opposite polarity magnetic flux, resulting in the formation of the EBs. We also show that these EBs can be fueled further by additional, faster moving, negative magnetic flux regions.

  3. Estimation of the Hiroshima bomb yield and weather conditions at the time of the bomb

    Tajima, Eizo

    1984-01-01

    The results of the survey made immediately after the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were compiled in Collection of Reports on the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb Casualties published in 1953. Much valuable information for the reassessment of dose are included in this document. One of the major problems to be solved for the dose reassessment is the yield of the Hiroshima bomb. Two articles with relatively detailed description were selected, and the estimation of the yield was attempted, based on them. The data on roof tile melting were used for the purpose. Assuming the yield of the Nagasaki bomb as 22 kt, the yield of the Hiroshima bomb was given as 12.4 kt. By the experiment using the charred state of cypress boards, the total radiant energy from the bomb was calculated as 4.6 x 10 12 cal, and the yield of the Hiroshima bomb was estimated as 14.2 kt and 13.2 kt. The true value is likely between 12 and 13 kt. The vapor pressure at the time of bombing significantly affected the neutron spectrum. On the day of bombing, Japan was covered by hot, humid maritime air mass, namely summer monsoon pattern. The air density and water vapor content in the atmosphere were determined by the Japan Weather Association, and compared with the data of Dr. Kerr et al. (Kako, I.)

  4. Neuropsychiatric and psychologic effects of A-bomb radiation

    Yamada, Michiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the influences of A-bombing from both psychiatric and psychologic points of view. This chapter deals with the knowledge of neuropsychiatric and psychologic influences of A-bombing. Many A-bomb survivors were exposed not only to radiation but also to rapid environmental alterations, such as death of family members and destruction of living. In addition, they suffered from sequelae and anxiety. Naturally, these were considered to cause psychological disturbance including autonomic imbalance and neurosis. Psychological survey, made immediately after A-bombing, is presented, with special attention to behavioral patterns in 54 A-bomb survivors by dividing them into 5 stimulation groups. Radiation syndrome occurring early after exposure and leukemia or cancer occurring later were referred to as 'Genbaku-sho' (A-bomb disease). A-bomb survivors' physically eventful conditions tended to induce mental anxiety or the contrary. Depression and phobia seemed to have correlated with physical conditions. In addition to 'A-bomb disease', mass media, dealing with 'A-bomb neurosis,' 'marriage in A-bomb survivors,' 'suicide in A-bomb survivors,' 'A-bomb survivors orphan,' and 'lonely old A-bomb survivors,' had a great impact on A-bomb survivors. For in uterus exposed and infantile A-bomb survivors, there was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups, although the incidence of eye tremor and sleeping disorder is found to be higher in the in uterus exposed group than the control group. (N.K.)

  5. Smoking habits among atomic-bomb survivors

    Akiba, Suminori; Kimura, Masafumi

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation made a research through mailing, the smoking habits among the A-bomb survivors in 1978-79. Statistic analysis was made on the smoking habits and radiation doses. (J.P.N.)

  6. Bomb radiocarbon: imbalance in the budget

    Joos, Fortunat

    1994-01-01

    An improved understanding of the global carbon cycle is crucial to global climate change research. The uncertainties surrounding the level of oceanic carbon uptake are discussed. A revision downwards of 25% in the currently accepted figure is suggested by authors who base their estimates on a new analysis of the oceanic uptake of radiocarbon released in the atomic bomb tests of the late 1950s and early 1960s. The reduction in uptake level is required to take account of a global imbalance in the bomb-radiocarbon budget in the post test-ban period which emerges from recent carbon-cycle models. Large uncertainties exist in the estimate of the imbalance, however, and bomb-radiocarbon and anthropogenic CO 2 do not behave identically. Any revision of CO 2 uptake estimates may be substantially smaller than the 25% put forward for the bomb-radiocarbon inventory. (UK)

  7. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

    Bowers, J.Z.

    1983-01-01

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations with the Japanese. The accumulation of the information presented in this paper derives from research for the preparation of the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In 1975, the commission was passed to Japanese leadership as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

  8. Accident in science history. Hitler's atomic bomb

    Popp, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Up to now the historical explanation for the fact that NS Germany did not develop an atomic bomb was that there was enough scientific and technical knowledge but not enough resources. Recent historical research showed that the German scientists in the ''Uranverein'' did not know the cross section of U-235 and had no possibility to measure these cross sections. There exist only very few documents dealing with the bomb. The bomb was treated as a special case of a reactor. Obviously the German scientists did not know he bomb technology. It seems that the project was not success-oriented because the scientists expected to be sent to the front in case of a project stop.

  9. The Neutron Bomb - a new dread

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This text was written by Engelbert Broda, an Austrian chemist and physicist, in 1977. He is discussing the fundamental principles and the devastating effects of neutron bombs and the emitted fast neutrons. (nowak)

  10. Thyroid disorders in atomic bomb survivors

    Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Inoue, Keisuke; Sugihara, Toru; Oshima, Tetuya; Matsueda, Kazuhiro

    1984-01-01

    There was no difference in blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormones among atomic bomb survivors having normal thyroid function, irrespective of the exposure distance from the explosion. Of 336 atomic bomb survivors admitted to the hospital for health examinations, hyperthyroidism was seen in one patient, hypothyroidism in four, malignant struma in three, and benign tumor in one. The incidence of struma associated with positive antithyroidglobulin antibody tended to be high in atomic bomb survivors living within 1.0 km from the explosion. The overall study in patients visiting the department of internal medicine, in addition to the 336 survivors, revealed that the incidence of thyroid disorders, especially hypothyroidism, was high in survivors directly exposed to atomic bomb. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Leukemia in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Brill, A B; Heyssel, R; Itoga, T; Tomonaga, M

    1960-08-01

    In the 13.5 years following the detonation of the atomic bomb, 95 cases of leukemia have been observed in the Nagasaki survivors. This increase is highly significant statistically. The increased leukemia risk apparently started 1.5 to 2.5 years following radiation exposure, and has lasted through 1958. Acute leukemias of all types and chronic granulocytic leukemia are increased, (with the possible exception of the Schilling type of acute monocytic leukemia). Males in general, and individuals in the younger ages (0 to 09), are apparently most sensitive. The risk of radiation induction of leukemia is related to the size of the dose. The shape of the curve does not differ greatly from a linear model, but is consistent with a variety of hypotheses. The data in the low dose region are too limited to be of significance in evaluating the risk of low doses of radiation. The data suggest that high radiation doses may be associated with a decrease in the latent period to leukemia induction. 43 references, 2 figures, 31 tables.

  12. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    Song, Eun Yeong

    2005-06-01

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  13. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    Song, Eun Yeong

    2005-06-15

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  14. Numerical evaluation of acoustic characteristics and their damping of a thrust chamber using a constant-volume bomb model

    Jianxiu QIN; Huiqiang ZHANG; Bing WANG

    2018-01-01

    In order to numerically evaluate the acoustic characteristics of liquid rocket engine thrust chambers by means of a computational fluid dynamics method, a mathematical model of an artificial constant-volume bomb is proposed in this paper. A localized pressure pulse with a very high amplitude can be imposed on specified regions in a combustion chamber, the numerical procedure of which is described. Pressure oscillations actuated by the released constant-volume bomb can then be analyzed via Fas...

  15. Stomach cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 1950-73

    Nakamura, Kuniomi.

    1978-04-01

    Stomach cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Life Span Study was studied using death certificates for the period 1950-73. A consistent increase in mortality with increasing radiation dose was observed in Hiroshima, the highest rate being in the dose region of 400 - 499 rad. For Nagasaki, however, the evidence of a radiation effect is very weak. An excess in stomach cancer mortality was found only at doses above 500 rad. More evidence is needed to establish radiation as a causative factor in stomach cancer. (author)

  16. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    Nakatsuka, H.; Ezaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  17. Vehicle bomb protection for nuclear power plants

    James, J.W.; Veatch, J.D.; Goldman, L.; Massa, R.

    1989-01-01

    The six-step methodology presented in this paper can be applied to nuclear power reactors to provide protection measures and considerations against vehicle bomb threats. The methodology provides a structured framework for examining the potential vulnerability of a plant to a postulated vehicle bomb and for developing contingency planning strategies for dealing with such a possibility. The six steps are as follows: (1) identify system options available to establish and maintain a safe reactor shutdown; (2) identify buildings or other structures containing critical components and equipment associated with each system option; (3) determine survival envelopes for the system options; (4) review site features to determine vehicle access approach paths and distances as they relate to the survival envelopes; (5) identify measures to limit or thwart vehicle access, and protect and preserve preferred system options; (6) prepare contingency plans and make advance arrangements for implementation of contingency measures for a vehicle bomb attack. Portions of this methodology related to blast effects from vehicle bombs on power reactor components are implemented using BombCAD, a proprietary computer-aided design (CAD)-based blast effects analysis technique

  18. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Ezaki, Haruo.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occurring in A-bomb survivors. (author)

  19. Triggering soft bombs at the LHC

    Knapen, Simon; Griso, Simone Pagan; Papucci, Michele; Robinson, Dean J.

    2017-08-01

    Very high multiplicity, spherically-symmetric distributions of soft particles, with p T ˜ few×100 MeV, may be a signature of strongly-coupled hidden valleys that exhibit long, efficient showering windows. With traditional triggers, such `soft bomb' events closely resemble pile-up and are therefore only recorded with minimum bias triggers at a very low efficiency. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-level triggering strategy that efficiently separates soft bombs from pile-up by searching for a `belt of fire': a high density band of hits on the innermost layer of the tracker. Seeding our proposed high-level trigger with existing jet, missing transverse energy or lepton hardware-level triggers, we show that net trigger efficiencies of order 10% are possible for bombs of mass several × 100 GeV. We also consider the special case that soft bombs are the result of an exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs. The fiducial rate for `Higgs bombs' triggered in this manner is marginally higher than the rate achievable by triggering directly on a hard muon from associated Higgs production.

  20. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  1. Thermal analysis of pyrotechnic mixture-fireworks, atom-bomb

    Rajendran, Jeya; Thanulingam, T.L.

    2008-01-01

    Sound level produced from two varieties of sound producing fireworks of atom-bomb, cake bomb and thunder bomb were measured. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO 3 /S/Al(H 3 BO 3 ) of compositions 57.5/19.9/22.1(0.5)% very much similar to commercial atom-bomb were taken and five cake bomb and seven thunder bomb with different net weight of chemicals were manufactured specifically for analysis. Cake bomb with 1g pyrotechnic mixture and thunder bomb with 2g pyrotechnic mixture produce -3 . Ignition temperature of the mixture is above the melting point of the metallic fuel, Al (660 deg C) and self propagating decomposition occurred at high temperature. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO 3 /S/Al(H 3 BO 3 ) is a safe mixture from accidental factor, static electricity. DSC studies indicate slight formation of potassium nitrite with evolution of NO above 400 deg C. (author)

  2. A-bomb radiation effects digest

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Kamada, Nanao.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is the digest of the book 'Genbaku Hoshasen no Jintai Eikyo (Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body)' (365p.), published in Japanese by Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic deseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosoal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  3. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent...... a catastrophe? I criticize arguments based on ticking bomb scenarios in two steps. First, I show that exceptional resort to torture will not be possible in the situations where it is most needed. Second, I state several pragmatic as well as principled objections against a state sanctioned or tolerated practice...

  4. Indonesian Salafism on Jihad and Suicide Bombings

    Rusli, Rusli

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with jihad and suicide bombings from the perspective of Indonesian salafism. It is argued that there are two different points of view related to this issue. The first is those who are affiliated with Wahhabi salafists such as those involved in Salafi-based foundations like As-Sunnah, Ihyaut Turats, al-Sofwah, Lajnah al-Khairiyah, Lajnah al-Istiqamah, and Wahdah Islamiyyah. They do not agree with suicide bombing directed to Western targets—mainly America—and its symbols. Suici...

  5. The marine radiocarbon bomb pulse across the temperate North Atlantic: a compilation of Delta

    Scourse, J.D.; Wanamaker jr., A.D.; Weidman, C.; Heinemeier, J.; Reimer, P.J.; Butler, P.G.; Witbaard, R.; Richardson, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Marine radiocarbon bomb-pulse time histories of annually resolved archives from temperate regions have been underexploited. We present here series of Delta C-14 excess from known-age annual increments of the long-lived bivalve mollusk Arctica islandica from 4 sites across the coastal North Atlantic

  6. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless the...

  7. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility, or...

  8. Late-onset urea cycle disorder in adulthood unmasked by severe malnutrition.

    Wells, Diana L; Thomas, Jillian B; Sacks, Gordon S; Zouhary, L Anna

    2014-01-01

    Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) most often involve inherited deficiencies in genes that code for enzymes normally used by the urea cycle to breakdown nitrogen. UCDs lead to serious metabolic complications, including severe neurologic decompensation related to hyperammonemia. Although the majority of UCDs are revealed soon after birth, stressful events in adulthood can lead to unmasking of a partial, late-onset UCDs. In this report, we describe a late-onset UCD unmasked by severe malnutrition. Early, specialized nutrition therapy is a fundamental aspect of treating hyperammonemic crises in patients with UCD. The case presented here demonstrates the importance of early recognition of UCD and appropriate interventions with nutrition support. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome unmasking erythema nodosum leprosum: A rare case report

    Geeta Kiran Arakkal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS occurs as an acute symptomatic expression of a latent infection during the recovery of immune system in response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients. IRIS triggers both opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections. We report a case of IRIS in a patient with HIV, presenting as erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL, which led to unmasking of lepromatous leprosy following anti-retroviral therapy (ART.

  10. 8 Museve NBI BombBlast.indd

    Professionals, executives, managers, semi professionals and skilled workers comprised 89.5% of the victims when ... dependants. Being inside a building and within 100 metres from the blast carried the largest risk of injury. A ... Kenya had never experienced a suicidal terrorist bombing ..... Rapid assessment of Injuries.

  11. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    Tomonaga, Y [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls.

  12. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Bernstein, J. [Professor of Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken New Jersey (United States); Cassidy, D. [Professor at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York (United States)

    1995-08-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  14. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Bernstein, J.; Cassidy, D.

    1995-01-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  15. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    Tomonaga, Yu

    1976-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls. (Kanao, N.)

  16. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  17. INDONESIAN SALAFISM ON JIHAD AND SUICIDE BOMBINGS

    Rusli Rusli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with jihad and suicide bombings from the perspective of Indonesian salafism. It is argued that there are two different points of view related to this issue. The first is those who are affiliated with Wahhabi salafists such as those involved in Salafi-based foundations like As-Sunnah, Ihyaut Turats, al-Sofwah, Lajnah al-Khairiyah, Lajnah al-Istiqamah, and Wahdah Islamiyyah. They do not agree with suicide bombing directed to Western targets—mainly America—and its symbols. Suicide bombings are equivalent to killing oneself, and this is extremely forbidden in Islam. The second is Salafi-jihadists who have justified suicide bombing attacks to infidel targets and the symbols of tagut (false god. The reason is blowing oneself is not the same as committing suicide, for suicide is a sin. However, he is believed as carrying out “martyrdom operations”, sacrificing himself for the sake of the superior goal of defending his religion and community, while suicide is a hopeless deed performed by a person who kills himself for his own selfish reason.

  18. Health risks of atomic bomb survivors

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Soda, M.; Mabuchi, K.

    1992-01-01

    At the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor organization, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, mortality and morbidity surveys have been continually carried out on about 1,800 persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Although the effect of radiation exposure was marked enough to permit observation of a dose-response relationship in the 30 known cases of severe mental retardation among the in utero-exposed, the association between in utero exposure and cancer risk is still uncertain. Based on data for all cancers from 1950 through 1984 for the in utero-exposed, the excess risk per 10,000 person-year-Gy was 6.57 and the relative risk at 1 Gy was 3.77. For the recent years 1985-89, there was no evident excess of cancer risk. During the remaining lifetime, it seems unlikely that any great excess of leukemia will appear. As for the risk of solid tumors, further follow up is in progress. The 1950-89 findings for cancer risk among the in utero-exposed will be compared with cancer risk among A-bomb survivors who were less than 10 years old at the time of the bombings. (author)

  19. Cardiovascular disease among atomic bomb survivors.

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Takahashi, Ikuno; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2017-10-01

    The profile of cardiovascular disease in Japan has been different from that in Western countries. Hypertension was the major cause not only for hemorrhagic stroke but also for ischemic stroke and heart disease in the past, and the influence of hypertension has decreased with calendar years because of reduced salt intake and westernization of lifestyle, and also improved medical care. The health status of atomic bomb survivors has reflected this profile as well as radiation effects. It is also likely that this cohort has been affected by the difficult conditions experienced in the aftermath of the war and atomic bombings. In this article, we tried to make a consistent interpretation of epidemiological findings of atomic bomb radiation effects on cardiovascular disease. Among the atomic bomb survivors, radiation exposure was associated with some cardiovascular diseases that are often associated with hypertension, and dose response appeared to be primarily non-linear among those who were exposed at younger ages. These effects are thought to reflect the nature of whole body irradiation. But, some findings remain inconsistent, possibly because of possible misclassification in death certificate diagnoses in the Life Span Study as well as selected information from the Adult Health Study which was limited to participants, focused on specific outcomes, and gathered in selected periods of follow-up. Therefore, a comprehensive and balanced interpretation of the results from both groups is necessary.

  20. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring

  1. The 'secureplan' bomb utility: A PC-based analytic tool for bomb defense

    Massa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper illustrates a recently developed, PC-based software system for simulating the effects of an infinite variety of hypothetical bomb blasts on structures and personnel in the immediate vicinity of such blasts. The system incorporates two basic rectangular geometries in which blast assessments can be made - an external configuration (highly vented) and an internal configuration (vented and unvented). A variety of explosives can be used - each is translated to an equivalent TNT weight. Provisions in the program account for bomb cases (person, satchel, case and vehicle), mixes of explosives and shrapnel aggregates and detonation altitudes. The software permits architects, engineers, security personnel and facility managers, without specific knowledge of explosives, to incorporate realistic construction hardening, screening programs, barriers and stand-off provisions in the design and/or operation of diverse facilities. System outputs - generally represented as peak incident or reflected overpressure or impulses - are both graphic and analytic and integrate damage threshold data for common construction materials including window glazing. The effects of bomb blasts on humans is estimated in terms of temporary and permanent hearing damage, lung damage (lethality) and whole body translation injury. The software system has been used in the field in providing bomb defense services to a number of commercial clients since July of 1986. In addition to the design of siting, screening and hardening components of bomb defense programs, the software has proven very useful in post-incident analysis and repair scenarios and as a teaching tool for bomb defense training

  2. Masked and unmasked priming effects as a function of semantic relatedness and associative strength.

    Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Ferré, Pilar; Demestre, Josep; García-Chico, Teófilo; García-Albea, José E

    2012-11-01

    The study presented in this paper aimed to investigate the pattern of semantic priming effects, under masked and unmasked conditions, in the lexical decision task, manipulating type of semantic relation and associative strength. Three different kinds of word relations were examined in two experiments: only-semantically related words [e.g., codo (elbow)-rodilla (knee)] and semantic/associative related words with strong [e.g., mesa (table)-silla (chair) and weak association strength [e.g., sapo (toad)-rana (frog)]. In Experiment 1 a masked priming procedure was used with a prime duration of 56 ms, and in Experiment 2, the prime was presented unmasked for 150 ms. The results showed that there were masked priming effects with strong associates, but no evidence of these effects was found with weak associates or only-semantic related word pairs. When the prime was presented unmasked, the three types of relations produced significant priming effects and they were not influenced by association strength.

  3. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Tamura, Shozo; Onitsuka, Hideo; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Yukiko; Russell, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose. (author)

  4. Lung cancer among atomic-bomb survivors

    Hamada, Tadao; Akamizu, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Patho-statistical study of the relationship between lung cancer and the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) was made on 259 lung cancer cases autopsied in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital between 1956 and 1983. These autopsy cases were divided into 3 groups; those exposed at 2000 m from the hypocenter or those entering the city after the bombing (group B), and non-exposed group. The incidence of lung cancer was high irrespective of sex in the group A, being 1.8 times higher than in the non-exposed group. It tended to increase rapidly since 1975 in women of the group A, and the ratio of women to men was high, as compared with the other groups. In the group B and the non-exposed group, the incidence of lung cancer tended to increase year by year, particularly in men. Grip-sized adenocarcinoma was seen more frequently in the group A than in the other groups. Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated cancer occurred more frequently than adenocarcinoma in older women of the exposed groups. This seemed to be due to the fact that older patients tended to have squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated cancer more frequently than adenocarcinoma. The incidence of lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, tended to increase in the exposed groups. There was no great difference in the incidence of organ metastasis between the exposed groups and non-exposed group. Twenty-one of 24 cases of multiple cancer were A-bomb victims, although the incidence of complications was independent of exposure status. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Study of apoprotein among atomic bomb survivors

    Takayama, Sadamatsu; Tokunaga, Yutaka; Ishibashi, Shinzo; Mito, Kazuyo; Ito, Chikako; Kato, Masafumi.

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to examine the relationship between A-bomb exposure and arteriosclerosis, the serum concentrations of apoproteins (Apo) were measured in a total of 192 A-bomb survivors, consisting of 28 A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2,000 m from the hypocenter (the exposed group) and 110 A-bomb survivors exposed at ≥3,000 m and entering the city 9 days or later after A-bombing (the control group). No definitive difference in average serum concentrations of Apo A-I and A-II was found between the exposed and control groups; nor did average serum concentrations of Apo B and B/A-I differ between the groups. According to the age group, Apo A-I was significantly higher in men over the age of 70 in the exposed group than the control group. Apo B tended to be higher in men over the age of 50 in the exposed group than the control group. As for men in the control group, there was a significant negative correlation between age group and both Apo A-I and A-II; however, this tendency was not seen in the exposed group. For women, no correlation between Apo and age group was found in either the exposed or control group. There was a tendency among men towards a higher incidence of hypoapoproteinemia A-I in the exposed group than the control group. The incidence of hyperapoproteinemia B was significantly higher as well for men in the exposed group than the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Masked and unmasked error-related potentials during continuous control and feedback

    Lopes Dias, Catarina; Sburlea, Andreea I.; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2018-06-01

    The detection of error-related potentials (ErrPs) in tasks with discrete feedback is well established in the brain–computer interface (BCI) field. However, the decoding of ErrPs in tasks with continuous feedback is still in its early stages. Objective. We developed a task in which subjects have continuous control of a cursor’s position by means of a joystick. The cursor’s position was shown to the participants in two different modalities of continuous feedback: normal and jittered. The jittered feedback was created to mimic the instability that could exist if participants controlled the trajectory directly with brain signals. Approach. This paper studies the electroencephalographic (EEG)—measurable signatures caused by a loss of control over the cursor’s trajectory, causing a target miss. Main results. In both feedback modalities, time-locked potentials revealed the typical frontal-central components of error-related potentials. Errors occurring during the jittered feedback (masked errors) were delayed in comparison to errors occurring during normal feedback (unmasked errors). Masked errors displayed lower peak amplitudes than unmasked errors. Time-locked classification analysis allowed a good distinction between correct and error classes (average Cohen-, average TPR  =  81.8% and average TNR  =  96.4%). Time-locked classification analysis between masked error and unmasked error classes revealed results at chance level (average Cohen-, average TPR  =  60.9% and average TNR  =  58.3%). Afterwards, we performed asynchronous detection of ErrPs, combining both masked and unmasked trials. The asynchronous detection of ErrPs in a simulated online scenario resulted in an average TNR of 84.0% and in an average TPR of 64.9%. Significance. The time-locked classification results suggest that the masked and unmasked errors were indistinguishable in terms of classification. The asynchronous classification results suggest that the

  7. Solar Ellerman Bombs in 1D Radiative Hydrodynamics

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kowalski, A. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, 2000 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory and Planetarium, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Allred, J. C., E-mail: aaron.reid@qub.ac.uk [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Recent observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph appear to show impulsive brightenings in high temperature lines, which when combined with simultaneous ground-based observations in H α , appear co-spatial to Ellerman Bombs (EBs). We use the RADYN one-dimensional radiative transfer code in an attempt to try and reproduce the observed line profiles and simulate the atmospheric conditions of these events. Combined with the MULTI/RH line synthesis codes, we compute the H α , Ca ii 8542 Å, and Mg ii h and k lines for these simulated events and compare them to previous observations. Our findings hint that the presence of superheated regions in the photosphere (>10,000 K) is not a plausible explanation for the production of EB signatures. While we are able to recreate EB-like line profiles in H α , Ca ii 8542 Å, and Mg ii h and k, we cannot achieve agreement with all of these simultaneously.

  8. Adrenal Insufficiency, Sex Reversal, and Angelman Syndrome due to Uniparental Disomy Unmasking a Mutation in CYP11A1.

    Kim, Ahlee; Fujimoto, Masanobu; Hwa, Vivian; Backeljauw, Philippe; Dauber, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder causing primary adrenal insufficiency with or without a 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD). Herein, we report a case of the combination of primary adrenal insufficiency, a DSD (testes with female external genitalia in a setting of a 47,XXY karyotype), and Angelman syndrome. Comprehensive genetic analyses were performed, including a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray and whole-exome sequencing. In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of the novel mutation that was identified by whole-exome sequencing. The patient was found to have segmental uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 15 explaining her diagnosis of Angelman syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing further revealed a novel homozygous intronic variant in CYP11A1, the gene encoding P450scc, found within the region of UPD. In vitro studies confirmed that this variant led to decreased efficiency of CYP11A1 splicing. We report the first case of the combination of 2 rare genetic disorders, Angelman syndrome, and P450scc deficiency. After 20 years of diagnostic efforts, significant advances in genetic diagnostic technology allowed us to determine that these 2 disorders originate from a unified genetic etiology, segmental UPD unmasking a novel recessive mutation in CYP11A1. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Bomb reduction of uranium tetrafluoride. Part II: Influence of the addition elements in the reduction process

    Anca Abati, R.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1962-01-01

    This work shows the influence of uranium oxide and uranyl fluoride in the reduction of uranium with Ca and Mg. These additions are more harmful when using smaller bombs. The uranyl fluoride has influence in the reduction process; the curves yield-concentration shows two regions depending upon the salt concentration. The behaviour of this addition in these regions can be explained following the different decompositions that can take place during the reduction process. (Author) 9 refs

  10. Black-hole bomb and superradiant instabilities

    Cardoso, Vitor; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun

    2004-01-01

    A wave impinging on a Kerr black hole can be amplified as it scatters off the hole if certain conditions are satisfied, giving rise to superradiant scattering. By placing a mirror around the black hole one can make the system unstable. This is the black-hole bomb of Press and Teukolsky. We investigate in detail this process and compute the growing time scales and oscillation frequencies as a function of the mirror's location. It is found that in order for the system black hole plus mirror to become unstable there is a minimum distance at which the mirror must be located. We also give an explicit example showing that such a bomb can be built. In addition, our arguments enable us to justify why large Kerr-AdS black holes are stable and small Kerr-AdS black holes should be unstable

  11. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors

    Schull, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Continued mortality surveillance and incidence studies have revealed the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to increase with increasing dose. Among the sites where the frequency of cancer can be clearly shown to be dose-related are the following: female breast, colon, esophagus, lung, ovary, stomach, thyroid, urinary bladder and leukemia. Although the evidence is less compelling, cancers of the liver, salivary glands, and skin as well as multiple myeloma appear increased too. This increase generally manifests itself when the survivors reach those ages where the natural incidence of cancer begins to rise. Risk is, however, related to the age of the individual at the time of the bombing; the highest risks are associated with individuals who were exposed in the first two decades of life. Current evidence suggests these higher risks decline with increasing time since exposure

  12. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Seiichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1980-01-01

    Though acceleration of aging induced by radiation could not be demonstrated in many investigations on delayed effects of ionizing radiation on a-bomb survivors, studies on acceleration of aging after the exposure to ionizing radiation in human and animals have been carried out. To investigate whether physiological function was related to the exposure to ionizing radiation, a series of examinations concerning age was carried out at the time of general health examinations at ABCC. Simple examinations concerning aging were carried out on 11,351 a-bomb survivors, but the result was essentially negative. If biological or physiological age was defined clearly, the results of functional test would be used as criterion of aging. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  14. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  15. Hiroshima - the effects of the atom bomb

    McClelland, M.

    1977-01-01

    The author, a nurse, describes her personal impressions of a visit to Hiroshima in 1977 and of the medical and nursing facilities available for atomic bomb survivors in Japan. The findings of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are briefly summarized. Hiroshima's Red Cross Hospital, recently re-built, cares for some of the survivors. The problems of discrimination against the survivors in employment and in society are discussed. (U.K.)

  16. [A-bomb experience and Hibakushas' lives].

    Akiba, Tadatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The A-bomb experience of Hiroshima may shed light on the reconstruction plan of the Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and on implementing middle to long range care plans for the victims of the catastrophe. An important element in the success of Hiroshima's reconstruction was the understanding of the realities of everyday life of citizens and hibakusha by local and national government, and incorporation of those points of view into the reconstruction plan. Sharing of accurate and fair information about the disaster, restoration, and reconstruction with citizens was and still is a prerequisite for success. To convey learned lessons from the Hiroshima experience, three books are helpful: "A-bomb Mayor" by Shinzo Hamai, "The Meaning of Survival" compiled by the Chugoku Shimbun and "The Children of the A-bomb" compiled by Arata Osada. They help understand the history of hibakusha psychology from the point of view of their everyday lives and may help those affected by the Earthquake and Tsunami. To summarize the history of psychological changes among the hibakusha, three key transitional pairs of statements used widely by them over the span of 66 years help show the change in their attitude and emotional outlook. Each pair consists of an expression from the period immediately following the bombing and a second more recent expression: (1) Transition from "I would rather die." to "I am glad I am alive." (2) Transition from "I would rather forget." to "We should not forget." (3) Transition from "You will understand if you are a victim." to "No one else should ever suffer as we did".

  17. Radiological Situation at the Bomb Test Sites

    Valkovic, V.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of radiological situation at the selected bomb test sites is presented. The report is based on the reports and measurements performed by IAEA while the author was a head of its Physics-Chemistry-Instrumentation Laboratory. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll (USA testing ground), Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls (French testing ground) and Semipalatinsk (SSSR testing ground) have been discussed in some details. (author)

  18. Should We Let the Bomb Spread

    2016-11-01

    in an ecologically clean manner. According to Schelling, both arms control and energy policy analysts universally rejected the proposal at the time...com/2002/03/01/world/nixon-proposed-using-a-bomb-in-vietnam-war. html. 176 27. Scott D. Sagan, “Realist Perspectives on Ethical Norms and Weapons of...Mass Destruction,” in Sohail H. Hashmi and Steven P. Lee, eds., Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, p

  19. Material for 258 atom bombs disappeared?

    Gruemm, H.

    1988-01-01

    In a report published in the news magazine, 'Der Spiegel', it was said that IAEA safeguards obviously had failed, for large amounts of fissile material had disappeared, which could be turned into 258 atomic bombs. The article in this issue of atw by the former Deputy Director General with the IAEA Safeguards Division sketches the background to the assertions made by 'Der Spiegel' and presents an overview of the inspection and verification methods employed by IAEA. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Basides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreases, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and countinues to increase proportionally with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. (author)

  1. Proximally exposed A-bomb survivors. 2

    Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    Methods for observing chromosomes can be chronologically divided into the era of non-differential staining technique (1962-1975) and the era of differential staining method (since 1976). This paper reviews the literature of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells found in the two eras. Findings during the era of 1962-1975 include the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, comparison of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and T lymphocytes, and annual variation of chromosomal aberrations. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was high in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (90.5% and 52.6% in A-bomb survivors exposed within 500 m and at 501-1,000 m, respectively); on the contrary, it was low in those exposed far from 1,000 m (6.2% or less). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells was lower than that in T lymphocytes (21.5% vs 27.1% in those exposed within 500 m and 14.1% vs 23% in those exposed at 501-1,000 m). Annual analysis for chromosomal aberrations has shown the somewhat dependence upon medullary hematopoiesis and virus infection. The advent of differential staining technique since 1976 has made it possible to clarify the type of chromosomal aberrations and site of breakage. Of 710 bone marrow cells taken from 13 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m, 121 cells (from 11 A-bomb survivors) exhibited chromosomal aberrations. In differential staining analysis, all 121 cells but one were found to be of stable type, such as translocation and inversion. Furthermore, the site of breakage was found to be non-randomly distributed. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells has advantages of reflecting dynamic condition of these cells and determining gradual progression into leukemia. (N.K.)

  2. A-bomb radiation and diseases

    Fujimura, Kingo; Ito, Chikako.

    1994-01-01

    Mass health screening was conducted in 65,483 A-bomb survivors (23,153 men and 42,336 women). Among them, 553 (0.84%) was found to have M proteinemia. The incidence of M proteinemia was higher in men (1.1%) than women (0.72%). M proteinemia was simply classified as benign monoclonal gammopathy (BMG) in 372 A-bomb survivors (67.3%), pre-myeloma (PreMM) in 81 (14.6%), myeloma (MM) in 77 (13.9%), and macroglobulinemia in 23 (4.2%). A higher incidence of M proteinemia was associated with aging; it was rapidly increased in the age-group of 70. Death was seen in 45 (8%) of all cases, frequently due to vascular disorder and cancer. Some of the BMG cases had a long process or developed either PreMM or MM. The incidence of BMG was significantly higher in the group of A-bomb survivors exposed to 100 rad or more than the control group. (N.K.)

  3. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact

  4. Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1978-10-01

    Three hundred and sixty cases of breast cancer were collected from among the 63,000 female members of the RERF extended Life Span Study sample which includes atomic bomb exposed women and controls of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The relationship of these breast cancer cases to A-bomb radiation was sought, and in studying 5-year survival, the following conclusions were obtained concerning its relationship to histopathological findings: 1) The prognosis of the 50 + rad high dose group is the best, followed by the nonexposed group and the low dose group; 2) The apparently better survival may be due, at least in part, to the fact that this group is heavily weighted in favor of those who were younger at the time of the bomb; 3) There is no specificity of the histologic type of breast cancer in the survivors by dose; 4) Nor, is any significant difference observed in the distribution of tumor size and histological grade; 5) Cellular reaction is significantly marked at the stroma of carcinoma tissue in the high dose group; 6) Immune reaction is considered to be strong at the affected site of breast cancer in the high dose group and this can be regarded as a finding suggestive of good prognosis; 7) Further extended studies are therefore warranted. (author)

  5. Radiation standards and A-bomb survivors

    Alvarez, R.

    1984-01-01

    For more than 33 years, the US government has supported the Life Span Study of Japanese survivors as a follow-up of the 1945 nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since 1975, the study has been funded jointly by the United States and Japan under the auspices of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. In the May issue of this bulletin radiation epidemiologists Dr. Alice Stewart and George Kneale raise perhaps the most fundamental question of all: Does the Japanese A-bomb survivor study have any value in deriving risk estimates for low-level radiation. On the basis of data published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in 1978, Stewart and Kneale suggest that Foundation analysts have confused long-term effects of tissue-destructive high doses with single-cell low-dose effects. If they are correct, the method of linear extrapolation from high-dose studies for low-level radiation risk estimates is invalid. The author feels the A-bomb survivors study should be opened up to an independent peer review process

  6. Why the USA dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities

    Bernstein, B.

    1997-01-01

    Why did the USA use atomic bombs on Japanese cities? Because, by summer 1945, the earlier morality that said you should not kill non-combatants had been chipped away, then eroded, and ultimately destroyed by World War II. After Hitler's viciousness, after the Japanese rape of Nanjing, after the killings in Manila, after the savagery through Asia, after Dresden, after Hamburg, after Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Nagoya - over sixty Japanese cities had been bombed before Hiroshima, Hiroshima was inevitable, easy, comfortable, virtually automatic. The transformation was not the use of bomb, but the bombing of non-combatants - massively, intentionally. There was probably a desire to revenge, as well. In addition, there was an expectation that the bombs used on japan would also intimidate the Soviet Union but that was not crucial. Any nation that had the capacity would have used the bomb in righteousness and comfort, self-conceived dignity, amid popular applause from its electorate people

  7. Effects of A-bomb radiation on immunological competence

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of A-bomb radiation on human immunological competence from the current immunological viewpoint. Early disturbance of immunological competence after A-bombing was characterized by (1) rapid decrease of lymphocytes (within one day), (2) decrease in humoral factors such as antibodies and complements (immediately), (3) decrease in neutrophils and monocytes (3-50 days later), and (4) delayed recovery of lymphocytes (more than 4 weeks). Long term effects of A-bombing on immunological competence are discussed in terms of immunocompetent cells. The peripheral lymphocyte response to PHA tended to be noticeable with aging among A-bomb survivors exposed to 2 Gy or more than the control persons. The peripheral lymphocyte response to MLC was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in A-bomb survivors aged 15 years or older at the time of A-bombing. The count of mature T lymphocytes was decreased in elderly A-bomb survivors, although neither functional nor numerical decrease in T lymphocytes was observed in younger A-bomb survivors. This could be explained by the hypothesis that the recovery of T lymphocytes is incomplete in elderly people due to thymus involution. An increased HPRT mutant cells in T lymphocytes correlated with A-bomb radiation doses. The count of B lymphocytes tended to be decreased in elderly A-bomb survivors. A functional and numerical increase in NK cells was associated with advancing age; however, this was not found to be correlated with A-bomb radiation. There was no evidence of correlation between A-bomb radiation and any of bone marrow cells, virus infection, autoimmunity, and tumor-specific immunity. (N.K.) 61 refs

  8. On the anti-neutron bomb movement in the Netherlands

    Hoek, T. van.

    1978-01-01

    The author reports on activities of the Dutch activists group Stop the neutron bomb in his country: Collection of signatures, statements made by about a hundred well-known theologians, two-thirds majority in parliament against the production and emplacement of the neutron bomb, International Forum 1978 in Amsterdam with mass demonstrations. President Carter is said to have been forced to delay the production of the neutron bomb temporarily by means of this international pressure. (HSCH) [de

  9. Estimates of upwelling rates in the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean based on bomb radiocarbon.

    Bhushan, R; Dutta, K; Somayajulu, B L K

    2008-10-01

    Radiocarbon measurements were made in the water column of the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean during 1994, 1995 and 1997 to assess the temporal variations in bomb 14C distribution and its inventory in the region with respect to GEOSECS measurements made during 1977-1978. Four GEOSECS stations were reoccupied (three in the Arabian Sea and one in the equatorial Indian Ocean) during this study, with all of them showing increased penetration of bomb 14C along with decrease in its surface water activity. The upwelling rates derived by model simulation of bomb 14C depth profile using the calculated exchange rates ranged from 3 to 9 m a(-1). The western region of the Arabian Sea experiencing high wind-induced upwelling has higher estimated upwelling rates. However, lower upwelling rates obtained for the stations occupied during this study could be due to reduced 14C gradient compared to that during GEOSECS.

  10. Unmasking Determinants of Specificity in the Human Kinome

    Creixell, Pau; Palmeri, Antonio; Miller, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    spanning distant regions. Our results reveal a likely role for inter-residue allostery in specificity and an evolutionary decoupling of kinase activity and specificity, which appear loaded on independent groups of residues. Finally, we uncover similar properties driving SH2 domain specificity......Protein kinases control cellular responses to environmental cues by swift and accurate signal processing. Breakdowns in this high-fidelity capability are a driving force in cancer and other diseases. Thus, our limited understanding of which amino acids in the kinase domain encode substrate...

  11. Andrew J. Rotter, Hiroshima – The Word’s Bomb

    Pinto, André

    2015-01-01

    O livro Hiroshima – The world’s bomb de Andrew J. Rotter descreve, sob várias perspetivas, um dos incidentes mais marcantes do século XX. O alcance das bombas atómicas lançadas sobre o Japão deu a conhecer ao mundo uma arma com um poder destrutivo de tal ordem que Estados em guerra se poderiam destruir mutuamente em segundos. A ameaça atómica esteve no centro de um dos conflitos mais longos do século XX – a Guerra Fria – e está, ainda hoje, no centro de vários conflitos entre potências region...

  12. Aerodynamic Simulation Analysis of Unmanned Airborne Electronic Bomb

    Yang, Jiaoying; Guo, Yachao

    2017-10-01

    For microelectronic bombs for UAVs, on the basis of the use of rotors to lift the insurance on the basis of ammunition, increased tail to increase stability. The aerodynamic simulation of the outer structure of the ammunition was carried out by FLUENT software. The resistance coefficient, the lift coefficient and the pitch moment coefficient under different angle of attack and Mach number were obtained, and the aerodynamic characteristics of the electronic bomb were studied. The pressure line diagram and the velocity line diagram of the flow around the bomb are further analyzed, and the rationality of the external structure is verified, which provides a reference for the subsequent design of the electronic bomb.

  13. Unmasking Language Lateralization in Human Brain Intrinsic Activity

    McAvoy, Mark; Mitra, Anish; Coalson, Rebecca S.; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Keidel, James L.; Petersen, Steven E.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Lateralization of function is a fundamental feature of the human brain as exemplified by the left hemisphere dominance of language. Despite the prominence of lateralization in the lesion, split-brain and task-based fMRI literature, surprisingly little asymmetry has been revealed in the increasingly popular functional imaging studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the fMRI BOLD signal (so-called resting-state fMRI). Here, we show the global signal, an often discarded component of the BOLD signal in resting-state studies, reveals a leftward asymmetry that maps onto regions preferential for semantic processing in left frontal and temporal cortex and the right cerebellum and a rightward asymmetry that maps onto putative attention-related regions in right frontal, temporoparietal, and parietal cortex. Hemispheric asymmetries in the global signal resulted from amplitude modulation of the spontaneous fluctuations. To confirm these findings obtained from normal, healthy, right-handed subjects in the resting-state, we had them perform 2 semantic processing tasks: synonym and numerical magnitude judgment and sentence comprehension. In addition to establishing a new technique for studying lateralization through functional imaging of the resting-state, our findings shed new light on the physiology of the global brain signal. PMID:25636911

  14. Social restoration process of the A-bomb disaster and social psychological recovering process of the A. bomb victims

    Watanabe, Shoji

    1984-01-01

    The stress before and after the A-bomb exposure, and changes in the cope mechanism and support system during the process of recovering from the disaster were investigated in three A-bomb victims based on the survey of the individual life history from the A-bomb exposure up to the restoration (which has been discussed by the Group of Disaster Aftermath Study). (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Observations and NLTE modeling of Ellerman bombs

    Berlicki, A.; Heinzel, P.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Ellerman bombs (EBs) are short-lived, compact, and spatially well localized emission structures that are observed well in the wings of the hydrogen Hα line. EBs are also observed in the chromospheric CaII lines and in UV continua as bright points located within active regions. Hα line profiles of EBs show a deep absorption at the line center and enhanced emission in the line wings with maxima around ±1 Å from the line center. Similar shapes of the line profiles are observed for the CaII IR line at 8542 Å. In CaII H and K lines the emission peaks are much stronger, and EBs emission is also enhanced in the line center. Aims: It is generally accepted that EBs may be considered as compact microflares located in lower solar atmosphere that contribute to the heating of these low-lying regions, close to the temperature minimum of the atmosphere. However, it is still not clear where exactly the emission of EBs is formed in the solar atmosphere. High-resolution spectrophotometric observations of EBs were used for determining of their physical parameters and construction of semi-empirical models. Obtained models allow us to determine the position of EBs in the solar atmosphere, as well as the vertical structure of the activated EB atmosphere Methods: In our analysis we used observations of EBs obtained in the Hα and CaII H lines with the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT). These one-hour long simultaneous sequences obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution were used to determine the line emissions. To analyze them, we used NLTE numerical codes for the construction of grids of 243 semi-empirical models simulating EBs structures. In this way, the observed emission could be compared with the synthetic line spectra calculated for all such models. Results: For a specific model we found reasonable agreement between the observed and theoretical emission and thus we consider such model as a good approximation to EBs atmospheres. This model is characterized by an

  16. Statistical observation on autopsy cases of malignancy at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital

    Takahara, O; Toyoda, S; Tsuno, S; Mukai, H; Uemura, S [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1976-09-01

    Statistical observation was made as to autopsy cases of atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki. The total of autopsy cases at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital from the opening of the hospital, 1968, to December in 1975 was 1,486 cases (autopsy rate, 65.1%) in which 880 cases of atomic bomb survivors (autopsy rate, 68.0%) were contained. Cases of malignancy totaled 829 and 528 cases of those were atomic bomb survivors. Cases of malignancy were divided into three groups, that is, group exposured to atomic bomb at place within 2 km from the explosion place, group exposured at place from more than 2 km or entering after explosion into the city, and not-exposured group. Relationship between main malignancies and exposure was discussed, and the following results were obtained. 1) Obvious relationship was found to exist between exposure and acute and chronic medullary leukemia. 2) Malignant lymphoma was scarcely correlated with exposure, but its occurrence rate was higher than the mean rate in Japan in reflection the region where this disease occurs much geographically. 3) Relationship between exposure and stomach cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the large intestine, and double cancer was not found obviously, but occurrence rate of hepatic cancer was higher than the mean rate in Japan in three groups. The reason was supposed to be geographical factor. 4) Cases of thyroid gland cancer were a small number in female of the group exposured within 2 km, and cases of prostate cancer were a small number in the group within 2 km, but their occurrence rate was high specifically.

  17. Statistical observation on autopsy cases of malignancy at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital

    Takahara, Osamu; Toyoda, Shigeki; Tsuno, Sumio; Mukai, Hideaki; Uemura, Seiji

    1976-01-01

    Statistical observation was made as to autopsy cases of atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki. The total of autopsy cases at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital from the opening of the hospital, 1968, to December in 1975 was 1,486 cases (autopsy rate, 65.1%) in which 880 cases of atomic bomb survivors (autopsy rate, 68.0%) were contained. Cases of malignancy totaled 829 and 528 cases of those were atomic bomb survivors. Cases of malignancy were divided into three groups, that is, group exposured to atomic bomb at place within 2 km from the explosion place, group exposured at place from more than 2 km or entering after explosion into the city, and not-exposured group. Relationship between main malignancies and exposure was discussed, and the following results were obtained. 1) Obvious relationship was found to exist between exposure and acute and chronic medullary leukemia. 2) Malignant lymphoma was scarecely correlated with exposure, but its occurrence rate was higher than the mean rate in Japan in reflection the region where this disease occurs much geographically. 3) Relationship between exposure and stomach cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the large intestine, and double cancer was not found obviously, but occurrence rate of hepatic cancer was higher than the mean rate in Japan in three groups. The reason was supposed to be geographical factor. 4) Cases of thyroid gland cancer were a small number in female of the group exposured within 2 km, and cases of prostate cancer were a small number in the group within 2 km, but their occurrence rate was high specifically. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. Future use of tritium in mapping pre-bomb groundwater volumes.

    Eastoe, C J; Watts, C J; Ploughe, M; Wright, W E

    2012-01-01

    The tritium input to groundwater, represented as volume-weighted mean tritium concentrations in precipitation, has been close to constant in Tucson and Albuquerque since 1992, and the decrease in tritium concentrations at the tail end of the bomb tritium pulse has ceased. To determine the future usefulness of tritium measurements in southwestern North America, volume-weighted mean tritium levels in seasonal aggregate precipitation samples have been gathered from 26 sites. The averages range from 2 to 9 tritium units (TU). Tritium concentrations increase with site latitude, and possibly with distance from the coast and with site altitude, reflecting local ratios of combination of low-tritium moisture advected from the oceans with high-tritium moisture originating near the tropopause. Tritium used alone as a tool for mapping aquifer volumes containing only pre-bomb recharge to groundwater will become ambiguous when the tritium in precipitation at the end of the bomb tritium pulse decays to levels close to the analytical detection limit. At such a time, tritium in precipitation from the last one to two decades of the bomb pulse will become indistinguishable from pre-bomb recharge. The threshold of ambiguity has already arrived in coastal areas with a mean of 2 TU in precipitation and will follow in the next three decades throughout the study region. Where the mean tritium level is near 5 TU, the threshold will occur between 2025 and 2030, given a detection limit of 0.6 TU. Similar thresholds of ambiguity, with different local timing possible, apply globally. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Superradiance and black hole bomb in five-dimensional minimal ungauged supergravity

    Aliev, Alikram N., E-mail: alikram.n.aliev@gmail.com [Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeni Yüzyıl University, Cevizlibağ-Topkapı, Istanbul, 34010 Turkey (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    We examine the black hole bomb model which consists of a rotating black hole of five-dimenensional minimal ungauged supergravity and a reflecting mirror around it. For low-frequency scalar perturbations, we find solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in the near-horizon and far regions of the black hole spacetime. To avoid solutions with logarithmic terms, we assume that the orbital quantum number l takes on nearly, but not exactly, integer values and perform the matching of these solutions in an intermediate region. This allows us to calculate analytically the frequency spectrum of quasinormal modes, taking the limits as l approaches even or odd integers separately. We find that all l modes of scalar perturbations undergo negative damping in the regime of superradiance, resulting in exponential growth of their amplitudes. Thus, the model under consideration would exhibit the superradiant instability, eventually behaving as a black hole bomb in five dimensions.

  20. Red China’s Capitalist Bomb: Inside the Chinese Neutron Bomb Program

    2015-01-01

    Moscow demanded, “What is the stand of the Peking leaders toward the neutron bomb and all nuclear weapons? Why have Chinese newspapers, magazines , and...for civilian and military use. Programs for laser technology, space, biotechnology , information technology, automation and manufacturing technology

  1. Brain response to masked and unmasked facial emotions as a function of implicit and explicit personality self-concept of extraversion.

    Suslow, Thomas; Kugel, Harald; Lindner, Christian; Dannlowski, Udo; Egloff, Boris

    2017-01-06

    Extraversion-introversion is a personality dimension referring to individual differences in social behavior. In the past, neurobiological research on extraversion was almost entirely based upon questionnaires which inform about the explicit self-concept. Today, indirect measures are available that tap into the implicit self-concept of extraversion which is assumed to result from automatic processing functions. In our study, brain activation while viewing facial expression of affiliation relevant (i.e., happiness, and disgust) and irrelevant (i.e., fear) emotions was examined as a function of the implicit and explicit self-concept of extraversion and processing mode (automatic vs. controlled). 40 healthy volunteers watched blocks of masked and unmasked emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Implicit Association Test and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory were applied as implicit and explicit measures of extraversion which were uncorrelated in our sample. Implicit extraversion was found to be positively associated with neural response to masked happy faces in the thalamus and temporo-parietal regions and to masked disgust faces in cerebellar areas. Moreover, it was positively correlated with brain response to unmasked disgust faces in the amygdala and cortical areas. Explicit extraversion was not related to brain response to facial emotions when controlling trait anxiety. The implicit compared to the explicit self-concept of extraversion seems to be more strongly associated with brain activation not only during automatic but also during controlled processing of affiliation relevant facial emotions. Enhanced neural response to facial disgust could reflect high sensitivity to signals of interpersonal rejection in extraverts (i.e., individuals with affiliative tendencies). Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Binaural unmasking of multi-channel stimuli in bilateral cochlear implant users.

    Van Deun, Lieselot; van Wieringen, Astrid; Francart, Tom; Büchner, Andreas; Lenarz, Thomas; Wouters, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Previous work suggests that bilateral cochlear implant users are sensitive to interaural cues if experimental speech processors are used to preserve accurate interaural information in the electrical stimulation pattern. Binaural unmasking occurs in adults and children when an interaural delay is applied to the envelope of a high-rate pulse train. Nevertheless, for speech perception, binaural unmasking benefits have not been demonstrated consistently, even with coordinated stimulation at both ears. The present study aimed at bridging the gap between basic psychophysical performance on binaural signal detection tasks on the one hand and binaural perception of speech in noise on the other hand. Therefore, binaural signal detection was expanded to multi-channel stimulation and biologically relevant interaural delays. A harmonic complex, consisting of three sinusoids (125, 250, and 375 Hz), was added to three 125-Hz-wide noise bands centered on the sinusoids. When an interaural delay of 700 μs was introduced, an average BMLD of 3 dB was established. Outcomes are promising in view of real-life benefits. Future research should investigate the generalization of the observed benefits for signal detection to speech perception in everyday listening situations and determine the importance of coordination of bilateral speech processors and accentuation of envelope cues.

  3. Commemoration of the bombing of Hiroshima

    Sawada, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    On the occasion of 52 anniversary of bombing Hiroshima this speech is given by one if the survivors, stating that it is obvious that using nuclear weapons is the cruelest and most inexcusable crime in human history. It never should be used against anyone, for any purpose, anywhere. In the Statement of the Pugwash Council, in 1995, the theory of nuclear deterrence was clearly rejected. This certainly played a significant role in the award of 1995 Nobel Prize to Pugwash Conferences. The close of 20th century provides the best occasion to affirm the international political will to prohibit nuclear weapons

  4. Sister chromatoid exchanges in atomic bomb survivors

    Nakano, Mimako; Awa, Akio

    1980-01-01

    Sister chromatoid exchange (SCE) frequencies in the peripheral lymphocyte with and without mitomycin-C (MMC) were studied, in the age of tens and thirties for an atomic-bomb survivor group and in thirties, fifties, and seventies for an unexposed group. The observation of 100 cells showed no statistically significant difference of SCE frequencies with aging or irradiation. The increasing rates of SCE frequencies by MMC showed no difference among the groups. The average increasing ratio by MMC was 3.6. (Nakanishi, T.)

  5. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  6. Carcinoma of the stomach in atomic bomb survivors

    Suehiro, Shinichi; Ogawa, Yuichiro; Nagasue, Naofumi; Abe, Shunichi; Sasaki, Yukiharu.

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective study of 135 atomic bomb survivors (A-bomb group) and 377 non-atomic bomb survivors (control group) who had carcinoma of the stomach was made with respect to surgical and pathological findings of carcinoma. An average age was significantly older in the A-bomb group (65 years) than in the control group (57 years). The number of female patients was significantly larger in the A-bomb group than in the control group. Although there was no difference of incidence in liver and peritoneal metastases, lymph node metastases along the left gastric artery, common hepatic artery and splenic artery, around the celiac artery, and at the splenic hilus occurred less frequently in the A-bomb group than in the control group. When carcinoma of the stomach was histologically classified as differentiated and undifferentiated, the incidence of differentiated type was higher than that of undifferentiated type in the A-bomb group. Regarding postoperative complications and follow-up results, there was no significant difference between the groups, synchronous or heterochronous multiple cancer occurred more frequently in the A-bomb group than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Chromosome break points in T-lymphocytes from atomic bomb survivors

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao; Ohkita, Takeshi; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1982-01-01

    In 22 healthy A-bomb survivors who passed more than 30 years since receiving radiation, distribution of 592 chromosome break points found in T-lymphocytes of the peripheral blood was not proportional to the length, the arm length of chromosomes, nor the length of regions, but it was non-random on the chromosomes. High distribution of chromosome break points occurred in 11 regions: 22q1, 14q3, 5q3, 21q2, 6q2, 18p1, 13q3. The regions, 22q1, 14q3, 21q2, and 6q2, contained the chromosome break points which were frequently found in leukemic chromosomes. Some of the changes in nuclear-type observed in leukemic cells of A-bomb survivors were similar to those found in leukemic cells of non-exposed leukemic patients. In abnormal chromosomes of T-lymphocytes of healthy A-bomb survivors, no cells with abnormal nuclear types such as t(4;11), t(8;21), t(9;22), and t(15;17) which are seen in various types of leukemia were not found. However, cells with chromosome aberrations, 22q-, 14q+, and 6q-, were found to be 0.99%, 0.55%, and 0.25% respectively. On the basis of these results, implication of chromosome aberrations in developing cancer was discussed. (Ueda, J.)

  8. Radiation injuries in atomic bomb survivors, chapter 2

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 2 ''Bodily injuries'', the following matters are described: early bodily injuries such as burns, (blast) external wounds, radiation injuries, and pathology in bodily injuries; later bodily injuries such as keloids, injuries to blood and eyes, injuries in exposed women, injuries in growth, aging and life, injuries in mental/nervous system, malignant tumors, and changes in chromosomes; and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  9. Europe's space camera unmasks a cosmic gamma-ray machine

    1996-11-01

    field with respect to the Earth may contribute to its brightness in gamma-rays. Geminga, Pulsar 1055-52 and another object, Pulsar 0656+14, make a trio that the Milanese astronomers call the Three Musketeers. All have been observed with the Faint Object Camera. They are isolated, elderly neutron stars, some hundreds of thousands of years old, contrasting with the 942 year-old Crab Pulsar which is still surrounded by dispersing debris of a supernova seen by Chinese astronomers in the 11th Century. The mysteries of the neutron stars will keep astronomers busy for years to come, and the Faint Object Camera in the Hubble Space Telescope will remain the best instrument for spotting their faint visible light. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. Note to editors: An image is available of (i) PSR 1055-52 seen by ESA's Faint Object Camera in the Hubble Space Telescope, and (ii) the same region of the sky seen by the European Southern Observatory's New Technology Telescope, with the position of PSR 1055-52 indicated. The image is available on the World Wide Web at http://ecf.hq.eso.org/stecf-pubrel.html http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/h2000/html/snlmain.htm

  10. Unmasking cryptococcal meningitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in pregnancy induced by HIV antiretroviral therapy with postpartum paradoxical exacerbation

    Reuben Kiggundu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is the most common cause of meningitis in Africa due to the high burden of HIV. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS is a frequent and deadly complication of cryptococcal meningitis. We report a fatal case of cryptococcal-IRIS in a pregnant woman that began after starting antiretroviral therapy (unmasking IRIS and markedly worsened postpartum after delivery (paradoxical IRIS.

  11. Nuclear Bombs and Coral: Guam Coral Core Reveals Operation-Specific Radiocarbon Signals from the Pacific Proving Grounds

    Andrews, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analyses on a coral core extracted from the western Central Pacific (Guam) has revealed a series of early peaks in the marine bomb 14C record. The typical marine bomb 14C signal, one that is phase lagged and attenuated relative to atmospheric bomb 14C, is present in the coral core and is consistent with other North Pacific records. However, 14C levels that are well above what can be explained by air-sea diffusion alone punctuate this pattern. This anomaly has been demonstrated to a limited extent in other coral cores of the Indo-Pacific region, but is unmatched relative to the magnitude and temporal resolution recorded in the Guam coral core. Other records have shown an early Δ14C rise on the order of 40-50‰ above pre-bomb levels, with a subsequent decline before continuing the gradual Δ14C rise that is indicative of air-sea diffusion of 14CO2. The Guam coral Δ14C record provided three strong pulses in 1954-55, 1956-57, and 1958-59 that are superimposed on the pre-bomb to initial Δ14C rise from atmospheric bomb 14C. Each of these peaks can be directly linked to testing of thermonuclear devices in the Pacific Proving Grounds at Eniwetok and Bikini Atoll of the Marshall Islands. The measurable lag in reaching Guam can be tied to ocean surface currents and can be traced to other regional Δ14C records from corals, providing a transport timeline to places as distant as the Indonesian throughflow, Okinawa and Palmyra.

  12. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  13. Bombs and reactors: the nuclear divide

    Ikle, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    Many nations now possess, although few have used, the materials and technology to build nuclear weapons. One can wonder how rapidly and how far this awesomely destructive potential would have spread, had nuclear technology offered no peaceful applications. The author feels it is quite likely that such a situation would have made little difference to the four powers that followed the US in acquiring a substantial nuclear arsenal - the USSR, UK, France, and China. But beyond these nations, the diffusion of the knowhow and means to make the bomb would have been substantially slower. It can now be seen that projects for peaceful applications of nuclear technology provided the essential expeditor, or necessary cover, for gaining capabilities to make the bomb. Development of nuclear power in the US and globally is discussed for peaceful uses and for nuclear weapons. The fragility of the present restraints against nuclear proliferation is only partly to be blamed on the conflicting broad objectives in US foreign policy. Much damage has been caused by mistaken approaches to technical and organizational issues. The principal culprit, the author indicates, was the Atoms for Peace program, and it was not so much the idea that caused harm as the way in which it was executed

  14. The genetic effects of the atomic bombs

    Neel, J.V.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the genetic effects of the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been in progress since 1946. The indicators of potential genetic damage in the children of exposees which have been employed are: (1) untoward pregnancy outcomes (major congenital defect and/or stillbirth and/or neonatal death), (2) death of liveborn infants prior to average age 28.8 years, (3) cancer of onset prior to age 20, (4) sex chromosome aneuploidy, (5) mutations affecting protein electrophoretic mobility and/or activity, (6) chromosomal reciprocal translocations, (7) sex-ratio in the children of exposed mothers, and (8) physical development at birth, at 9-months, and at school age. There is no statistically significant effect of parental exposure to the bombs on any of these indicators. The net regression of indicator(s) on dose is, however, positive. On the basis of these regressions and assumptions concerning the contribution of spontaneous mutation to the indicator values in the controls, the gametic doubling dose of acute ionizing radiation under these circumstances is estimated to be 2 Sv. With a dose rate factor of 2, which seems appropriate to these circumstances, the doubling dose for chronic radiation is placed at 4 Sv. This is a substantially higher estimate than previous extrapolations to man from murine experiments

  15. Nutritional survey of atomic bomb survivors, 1

    Murakami, Fumiyo; Tanigawa, Junko; Ito, Chikako

    1978-01-01

    136 cases in which mild anemia was recognized but stomach disease was not recognized by the examination for a-bomb survivors, were investigated concerning living conditions, the habit of food, and the intake amount of nutrition, and the following results were obtained. 1. The mean intake amount of nutritive substances in a-bomb survivors almost reached the level as compared to the necessary amount of nutritive substances in control. 2. Shortage in intake of protein and iron which seemed to be a factor of occurrence of anemia (protein: 50% in men and 19.7% in women, iron: 25% in men and 22.5% in women), much and frequent intake of confectioneries and luxuries, and the rate of going without meal (33.3% of men went without meal one to 6 times a week) were recongized in each case of anemia with high rate. These tendency was marked in men. 3. Anemia was recognized in some of women, although they took all nutritive substances. This seemed to be caused by physiological loss of iron. Accordingly, it was desirable to take an excess amount of iron. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  17. Einstein unmasked

    Foster, Brian

    2008-09-01

    This is a remarkable and, at times, bewilderingly diverse volume. Consisting of 20 essays that represent the proceedings of a conference held in 2005 in Berlin, Germany, during the International Year of Physics, it offers insights into Einstein's influence on a swathe of human activity. In the introduction the distinguished editors make some remarkable claims for the book, calling it "an unique attempt" and saying that "there is no better introduction to...string theory", while the first essay states "Not since Newton's Principia..." Clearly this is a volume that aspires to high standards.

  18. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of leukemias found in atomic bomb survivors

    Kamada, Nanao; Tanaka, Kimio; Eguchi, Mariko

    1994-01-01

    Seventy five radiation-related leukemia patients in Hiroshima including 16 patients exposed to more than one Gray were cytogenetically examined. Statistical analysis of data on the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the survivor groups according to bone marrow doses by DS86 estimation revealed that the heavily exposed group tended to have significantly higher aberration rates compared to the non-exposed group. Furthermore, the chromosomal aberrations in the survivors were observed to be of a more complex nature and had the characteristic findings of secondary leukemia. These observations therefore suggest that patients with a history of heavy exposure to atomic bomb radiation had leukemic cells originating from a stem cell which had been damaged by irradiation at the time of the bombing as well as cells involved in complex chromosome abnormalities. A higher incidence(p=0.06) of 11q23 abnormality was found in acute leukemia patients who had a history of exposure to A-bomb and developed from 1986 to 1993. However, we could not detect rearrangement of MLL gene in these patients. Break point region on 11q23 of radiation induced leukemias may be different from the common 8.5 kb region. Molecular biologic studies on RAS genes in acute and chronic leukemias and the BCR gene in chronic myelocytic leukemia were performed in exposed and non-exposed groups. So far, no distinctive differences have been observed in the frequency and sites of point mutations in N and K-RAS genes or in the rearrangement of the BCR gene. Further, retrospective analysis using DNA from leukemia patients who developed the disease in the early period from atomic bomb radiation exposure would be useful for elucidation of the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia. (author)

  19. The nuclear bomb carbon curve recorded in tree-rings and lake sediments near Taal Volcano, Central Philippines

    Liou, M. S.; Li, H. C.; Huang, S. K.; Guan, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    Dendrochronologies built from precisely dated annual rings have shown to record the regional bomb pulse and the C-14 concentration variations caused by local events. In this study, we collected teak trees Tectona grandis near the Lake Taal, Central Philippines in 2011 for dendrochronological analysis and radiocarbon dating. The tree-ring sample contains 90 rings dated from 1922 to 2011. Currently, 28 selected subsamples have been measured by AMS 14C on bulk carbon with a few samples on holocellulose. The 14C results of the samples indicate that: 1) the results of AMS 14C dating between holocellulose and whole wood from the same ring are similar, so we select whole wood for AMS 14C dating. 2) The nuclear bomb 14C pulse was clearly recorded in the Tectona grandis growth rings. The Δ14C values rose dramatically in 1960 and reached a maximum of 692‰ in 1966. The magnitude and the peak year of the bomb curve in the Tectona grandis tree-ring record are comparable to other published tree-ring records in the tropical regions. 3) The Δ14C values suddenly dropped in 1950, 1964 and 1968, probably affected by CO2 gas releasing due to the Taal volcanic activities. Further study on the tree-ring 14C dating will allow us to evaluate the bomb pulse trends more precisely, and the volcanic activities of Pinatubo and Taal Volcanoes. The tree-ring Δ14C record not only confirms existence of the bomb curve in Taal Lake area, but also allows us compare to the Δ14C record in the lake sediment for chronological construction. A 120-cm gravity core, TLS-2, collected from Lake Taal in 2008, shows the nuclear bomb carbon curve in the TOC of the core. However, the magnitude of the nuclear bomb 14C pulse in the TOC of TLS-2 is much lower than that in the tree-ring records, due to mixing effect of different organic carbon sources, smoothing effect of 14CO2 in multiple years plant growths, local old CO2 emission from volcanic activity, degassing from the lake bottom, and industrial and city

  20. Medical Effects of a Transuranic "Dirty Bomb".

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare. Radioactive dispersal devices (RDDs), including the "dirty bomb," involve the use of organotropic radioisotopes such as iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, and transuranic elements. Some of the current studies of RDDs involve large-scale medical effects, social and economic disruption of the society, logistics of casualty management, cleanup, and transportation preparedness, still insufficiently addressed by the environmental and mass casualty medicine. The consequences of a dirty bomb, particularly in the terrorist use in urban areas, are a subject of international studies of multiple agencies involved in the management of disaster medicine. The long-term somatic and genetic impact of some from among over 400 radioisotopes released in the nuclear fission include somatic and transgenerational genetic effects with the potential challenges of the genomic stability of the biosphere. The global contamination is additionally heightened by the presence of transuranic elements in the modern warzone, including depleted uranium recently found to contain plutonium 239, possibly the most dangerous substance known to man with one pound of plutonium capable of causing 8 billion cancers. The planning for the consequences of radioactive dirty bomb are being currently studied in reference to the alkaline earths, osteotropic, and stem cell hazards of internally deposited radioactive isotopes, in particular

  1. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-08-25

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  2. Health status of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea, 2

    Ishida, Sadamu; Kawamura, Torataro; Kurihara, Minoru; Watanabe, Masaharu; Cheong, Chang-Saeng.

    1980-01-01

    Investigation was made on 405 A-bomb survivors in Hap Cheon Gun who received health examinations from December 1973 to December 1977. Excepting 16 exposed in Nagasaki, they were exposed in Hiroshima. The distribution of their age at the time of exposure showed its peak at the age between 25 and 29 years, and it decreased before and after that age. The percentage of A-bomb survivors exposed directly was 93.3%, and that of A-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from the center of explosion was 51.8%. Seventeen A-bomb survivors were exposed within 1 km. Acute disturbances such as loss of hair (over one second loss), tiredness, fever, vomiting on the day of exposure, and diarrhea were found with high incidence, but incidences of lesions in the oral cavity and the pharynx were low. Incidences of burn and bruise were high, but those of wound and injuries were low. Loss of hair, vomiting, hemorrhage, tiredness, and dairrhea appeared with high incidence in A-bomb survivors whose age advanced at the time of exposure. Most of A-bomb survivors who were young at the time of exposure had not these acute disturbances. These acute symptoms appeared frequently in a short-distance group, and burn, wound and injuries, and bruise also appeared frequently in A-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Hyper-chaos encryption using convolutional masking and model free unmasking

    Qi Guo-Yuan; Matondo Sandra Bazebo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, during the masking process the encrypted message is convolved and embedded into a Qi hyper-chaotic system characterizing a high disorder degree. The masking scheme was tested using both Qi hyper-chaos and Lorenz chaos and indicated that Qi hyper-chaos based masking can resist attacks of the filtering and power spectrum analysis, while the Lorenz based scheme fails for high amplitude data. To unmask the message at the receiving end, two methods are proposed. In the first method, a model-free synchronizer, i.e. a multivariable higher-order differential feedback controller between the transmitter and receiver is employed to de-convolve the message embedded in the receiving signal. In the second method, no synchronization is required since the message is de-convolved using the information of the estimated derivative. (general)

  4. How electronic health records can unmask the hidden value of PAs.

    Ogunfiditimi, Folusho; Sherry, Scott P; Foote, Monica; Christie, Sarah L; Shock, Lisa P; Cawley, James; Browne, Aaron

    2017-06-01

    The Fee for Value (FFV) Task Force, a subgroup of the American Academy of PAs' Research and Strategic Initiatives Commission, has examined tools and mechanisms aimed at better clarifying the volume and value of PA work and how that work contributes to improving access to high-quality care. Establishing the value of PAs has been a challenging task for many healthcare providers. Often, PA value has been defined by their clinical productivity, without any clear direction as to what constitutes value versus productivity. The objective of this article is to unmask the value of PAs through the role of electronic health records and highlight PAs' ability to produce services that are value-oriented and quantifiably productive.

  5. Context Effects in Forensic Entomology and Use of Sequential Unmasking in Casework.

    Archer, Melanie S; Wallman, James F

    2016-09-01

    Context effects are pervasive in forensic science, and are being recognized by a growing number of disciplines as a threat to objectivity. Cognitive processes can be affected by extraneous context information, and many proactive scientists are therefore introducing context-minimizing systems into their laboratories. Forensic entomologists are also subject to context effects, both in the processes they undertake (e.g., evidence collection) and decisions they make (e.g., whether an invertebrate taxon is found in a certain geographic area). We stratify the risk of bias into low, medium, and high for the decisions and processes undertaken by forensic entomologists, and propose that knowledge of the time the deceased was last seen alive is the most potentially biasing piece of information for forensic entomologists. Sequential unmasking is identified as the best system for minimizing context information, illustrated with the results of a casework trial (n = 19) using this approach in Victoria, Australia. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Numerical evaluation of acoustic characteristics and their damping of a thrust chamber using a constant-volume bomb model

    Jianxiu QIN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to numerically evaluate the acoustic characteristics of liquid rocket engine thrust chambers by means of a computational fluid dynamics method, a mathematical model of an artificial constant-volume bomb is proposed in this paper. A localized pressure pulse with a very high amplitude can be imposed on specified regions in a combustion chamber, the numerical procedure of which is described. Pressure oscillations actuated by the released constant-volume bomb can then be analyzed via Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT, and their modes can be identified according to the theoretical acoustic eigenfrequencies of the thrust chamber. The damping performances of the corresponding acoustic modes are evaluated by the half-power bandwidth method. The predicted acoustic characteristics and their damping for a special engine combustor agree well with the experimental data, validating the mathematical model and its numerical procedures. A small-thrust liquid rocket engine chamber is then analyzed by the present model. The First Longitudinal (1L acoustic mode can be excited easily and is hard to be damped. The axial position of the central constant-volume bomb has little influence on the amplitude and damping capacity of the First Radial (1R and 1L acoustic modes. Tangential acoustic modes can only be triggered by an off-centered constant-volume bomb, among which the First Tangential (1T mode is the strongest and regarded as the most harmful one. The amplitude of the 1L acoustic mode is smaller, but its damping factor is larger, as a constant-volume bomb is imposed approaching the injector face. These results are contributed to evaluate the acoustic characteristics and their damping of the combustion chamber. Keywords: Acoustic mode, Constant-volume bomb, Damping characteristics, Damping factor, Half-power bandwidth, Pressure oscillation

  7. High-resolution 129I bomb peak profile in an ice core from SE-Dome site, Greenland.

    Bautista, Angel T; Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Horiuchi, Kazuho

    2018-04-01

    129 I in natural archives, such as ice cores, can be used as a proxy for human nuclear activities, age marker, and environmental tracer. Currently, there is only one published record of 129 I in ice core (i.e., from Fiescherhorn Glacier, Swiss Alps) and its limited time resolution (1-2 years) prevents the full use of 129 I for the mentioned applications. Here we show 129 I concentrations in an ice core from SE-Dome, Greenland, covering years 1956-1976 at a time resolution of ∼6 months, the most detailed record to date. Results revealed 129 I bomb peaks in years 1959, 1962, and 1963, associated to tests performed by the former Soviet Union, one year prior, in its Novaya Zemlya test site. All 129 I bomb peaks were observed in winter (1958.9, 1962.1, and 1963.0), while tritium bomb peaks, another prominent radionuclide associated with nuclear bomb testing, were observed in spring or summer (1959.3, and 1963.6; Iizuka et al., 2017). These results indicate that 129 I bomb peaks can be used as annual and seasonal age markers for these years. Furthermore, we found that 129 I recorded nuclear fuel reprocessing signals and that these can be potentially used to correct timing of estimated 129 I releases during years 1964-1976. Comparisons with other published records of 129 I in natural archives showed that 129 I can be used as common age marker and tracer for different types of records. Most notably, the 1963 129 I bomb peak can be used as common age marker for ice and coral cores, providing the means to reconcile age models and associated trends from the polar and tropical regions, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pathological review of lung cancer among A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima Atomic-bomb Hospital

    Nambu, Shigeru; Akamizu, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1989-01-01

    Autopsy findings were reviewed in 161 A-bomb survivors with lung cancer during the period 1956-1987. The overall ratio of male to female was 2.1. In the group of A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2,000 m from the hypocenter, the ratio of male to female in the incidence of lung cancer was 1.3. According to age groups, it was the highest in people in their seventies. Histology revealed that the incidence was 41.6% for adenocarcinoma, 29.2% for squamous cell carcinoma, 19.9% for small cell carcinoma, 6.8% for large cell carcinoma, and 2.5% for adenosquamous cell carcinoma. The incidence of small cell carcinoma was relatively high in the ≤2,000 m group. For females in the ≤2,000 m group, the incidence of adenocarcinoma was relatively low, and the incidences of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma tended to be high. The incidence of histologic type of lung cancer varied with time: squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were the most predominant during the period 1957-1967; since 1968, it has been gradually replacing by adenocarcinoma. In the ≤2,000 m group, however, small cell carcinoma has still been more predominant even since 1984. For 8 A-bomb survivors exposed at the age of 20 years or less, 7 had adenocarcinoma, showing a significantly higher incidence than those exposed at older ages. (Namekawa, K)

  9. Addiction screening and diagnostic tools: 'Refuting' and 'unmasking' claims to legitimacy.

    Dwyer, Robyn; Fraser, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Human practices of all kinds - substance use, gambling, sex, even eating - are increasingly being reframed through the language of addiction. This 'addicting' of contemporary society is achieved, in part, through the screening and diagnostic tools intended to identify and measure addiction. These tools are a key element in the expert knowledge-making through which realities of addiction emerge. Promoted as objective and accurate, the tools are given legitimacy through application of scientific validation techniques. In this article, we critically examine the operations of these validation techniques as applied to substance addiction tools. Framed by feminist and other scholarship that decentres the epistemological guarantees of objectivity and validity, we structure our analysis using Ian Hacking's (1999) concepts of 'refuting' (showing a thesis to be false) and 'unmasking' (undermining a thesis). Under 'refuting', we consider the methodological validation processes on their own terms, identifying contradictory claims, weak findings and inconsistent application of methodological standards. Under 'unmasking', we critically analyse validation as a concept in itself. Here we identify two fundamental problems: symptom learning and feedback effects; and circularity and assumptions of independence and objectivity. Our analysis also highlights the extra-theoretical functions and effects of the tools. Both on their own terms and when subjected to more searching analysis, then, the validity claims the tools make fail to hold up to scrutiny. In concluding, we consider some of the effects of the processes we identify. Not only do these tools make certainty where there is none, we contend, they actively participate in the creation of social objects and social groups, and in shaping affected individuals and their opportunities. In unpacking in detail the legitimacy of the tools, our aim is to open up for further scrutiny the processes by which they go about making (rather than

  10. Leukemia and lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors

    Finch, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemia has been observed to increase with increasing radiation dose in the A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first radiation-related cases occurred 3 to 5 years following exposure. The peak incidence years were about 7 to 8 years following exposure and the leukemogenic effect has decreased since that time, but it may last for 40 years or longer in the most heavily exposed persons. A bimodal susceptibility pattern was observed, with peaks following exposure during childhood and after age 50. Latent periods for the development of acute leukemia were shortest in the younger exposed persons. Both acute and chronic forms of leukemia occurred in exposed persons at younger ages in life than normally is expected. The most common types of radiation-induced leukemia were acute and chronic granulocytic in adults and children, and acute lymphocytic in children. The highest radiation-related leukemia risk was for chronic granulocytic leukemia following childhood exposure

  11. Eye damage following neutron bomb explosion

    Ciganek, L.; Pasta, J.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review is presented of primary and secondary eye damage due to neutron and/or gamma radiation following the explosion of a neutron bomb. Of early radiation damage of the eye, flash blindness is the most serious effect. Most other early changes can only be expected following doses of at least 1 - 5 Gy. They are therefore worth considering only in cases of irradiation of the head alone since at these doses death of the individual due to damage of other vital systems occurs before the eye symptoms have time to develop. Of delayed effects, the development of radiation cataract, radiodermatitis developing in tumors, the dry eye syndrome, and other changes leading to the development of radiation syndrome can be expected which result in the reduction in the quality of life and may lead to death due to systemic disease. (L.O.)

  12. Eye damage following neutron bomb explosion

    Ciganek, L; Pasta, J

    1986-11-01

    A brief review is presented of primary and secondary eye damage due to neutron and/or gamma radiation following the explosion of a neutron bomb. Of early radiation damage of the eye, flash blindness is the most serious effect. Most other early changes can only be expected following doses of at least 1 - 5 Gy. They are therefore worth considering only in cases of irradiation of the head alone since at these doses death of the individual due to damage of other vital systems occurs before the eye symptoms have time to develop. Of delayed effects, the development of radiation cataract, radiodermatitis developing in tumors, the dry eye syndrome, and other changes leading to the development of radiation syndrome can be expected which result in the reduction in the quality of life and may lead to death due to systemic disease. (L.O.).

  13. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb

    Mania, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  14. Dirty bombs: assesment of radiological impacts

    Trifunovic, D.; Koukouliou, V.

    2009-01-01

    In some countries, regulatory control of radioactive sources, used extensively in medicine and industry, remains weak. Global concerns about the security and safety of radioactive sources escalated following the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States. There are fears that some radioactive sources could be used by terrorists as radiological dispersal devices (RDD's), or so called 'dirty bombs'. The radioactive material dispersed, depending on the amount and intensity, could cause radiation sickness for a limited number of people nearby if, for example, they inhaled large amounts of radioactive dust. But the most severe tangible impacts would likely be the economic costs and social disruption associated with the evacuation and subsequent clean-up of contaminated property. It has been shown that usage of realistic data in a first response decision making as to avoid inappropriate public reaction accompanied by economic and social consequences is necessary.(author)

  15. Bomb blast imaging: bringing order to chaos.

    Dick, E A; Ballard, M; Alwan-Walker, H; Kashef, E; Batrick, N; Hettiaratchy, S; Moran, C G

    2018-06-01

    Blast injuries are complex, severe, and outside of our everyday clinical practice, but every radiologist needs to understand them. By their nature, bomb blasts are unpredictable and affect multiple victims, yet require an immediate, coordinated, and whole-hearted response from all members of the clinical team, including all radiology staff. This article will help you gain the requisite expertise in blast imaging including recognising primary, secondary, and tertiary blast injuries. It will also help you understand the fundamental role that imaging plays during mass casualty attacks and how to avoid radiology becoming a bottleneck to the forward flow of severely injured patients as they are triaged and treated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Preleukemic state in atomic bomb survivors

    Mikami, Motoko

    1980-01-01

    Hematology data before onset of leukemia were available for 55 of the 1462 acute leukemia cases (as of the end of June 1976) collected by RERF. Among these, 8 showed preleukemic state and 2 were polycythemia. In content, preleukemic state comprised anemia, leukopenia and morphological abnormalities of RBC, platelets and WBC. Leukemia cases presenting preleukemic state were, by type, mostly erythroleukemia and monocytic leukemia. Preleukemic state was not necessarily frequent among cases of leukemia in A-bomb survivors exposed to high dose. The prevalence of the 5 items, prescribed as preleukemic state, i.e., anemia (female =50%), and relative monocytosis (>=10%), could not be said to be high in the survivors exposed to high dose. Anemia in males and leukopenia in males and females were increased significantly with age. Leukemia prevalence was significantly high especially in those cases that had presented leukopenia, relative neutropenia or relative lymphocytosis among the 5 items prescribed as preleukemic state. (author)

  17. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1979-07-01

    Although the studies of the effect of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors have not produced any evidence of radiation-induced aging, there have been studies on experimental animals and man which suggest accelerated aging after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if certain physiologic functions could be related to exposure to ionizing radiation, a battery of age-related tests was given at the time of the physical examinations at ABCC. Some 11,351 persons were given these non-invasive age-related tests. The results were essentially negative. Until a satisfactory operational definition of biologic or physiologic age is developed, the administration of functional tests as a measure of aging does not seem justified. (author)

  18. Health examination for A-bomb survivors

    Ito, Chikako

    1996-01-01

    The health examination for A-bomb survivors by national, prefectural and city administrations was described and discussed on its general concept, history, time change of examinee number, improvement of examination, prevalence of individual diseases, significance of cancer examinations, examinees' point of view and future problems. Subjects were the survivors living in Hiroshima city: in 1994, their number was 100,188, whose ages were 63 y in average for males consisting of 39.5% and 67 y for females of 60.5%. The examination was begun in 1957 on the law for medical care for the survivors firstly and then systematically in 1961. From 1965, it was performed 4 times a year, and in 1988, one examination in the four was made for cancer. Authors' Center examined previously 90% but recently 70% of the examinees. The remainder underwent the examination in other medical facilities. Tests are blood analysis, electrocardiography and computed radiography of chest with imaging plate, of which data have been accumulated either in photodisc or in host computer. From 1973 to 1993, the cardiovascular diseases increased from 6.1% to 26.9%, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, 3.6% to 19.7%, and bowel ones, 0.9% to 12.3%. Correlations of these diseases with A-bomb irradiation are not elucidated and possibly poor. Five classes of cancer examinations are performed but the examinee rate in the survivors is as low as 7.6-21.8% (1993). The cancer of the large intestine is increasing. The overall examinee rates in the survivors were 70.6% in 1965-1967, 69.5% in 1976-1977 and 58.2% in 1990. In conclusion, how to examine the survivors, who are getting older, as many as possible is the future problem. (H.O.)

  19. Geographical distribution of radiation risk unaccountable by direct exposure dose in hiroshima A-bomb victims

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Ohani, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Death risks due to solid cancer were estimated from region to region where the A-bomb survivors had been actually exposed, to visualize the risk distribution on the map, which resulting in risk regional difference that had been unaccountable by direct exposure dose estimation. Analysis was performed with 3 hazard models of the previous one, + direct exposed dose as a confounding factor and, further, + spatial distance from the explosion point. Subjects were 37,382 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was set by 4,371 deaths due to cancer except leukemia, cancers of thyroid and breast. Confounding factors in the previous hazard model were sex, age at the exposure, dose and shielding. With the previous model, risk distribution was observed in a concentric circular region around the hypocenter and in an additional west to northwestern suburbs. The latter risk distribution was also seen with the second model in the same region, where dose decreased with -7 powers of the distance. When adjusted with -3 powers of the distance with the third model, the actual risk distribution was found best fitted, indicating the presence of distance-dependent risk. It was suggested that the region exposed to additional dose possibly derived from fallout had been the actual black rainfall area as those regions agreed with each other. (T.T.)

  20. Head and neck injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing at four hospitals.

    Singh, Ajay K; Buch, Karen; Sung, Edward; Abujudeh, Hani; Sakai, Osamu; Aaron, Sodickson; Lev, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of head and neck injuries in patients from the Boston Marathon bombing. A total of 115 patients from the Boston Marathon bombing presenting to four hospitals who underwent imaging to evaluate for head and neck injuries were included in the study. Twelve patients with positive findings on radiography or cross-sectional imaging were included in the final analysis. The radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of these patients were evaluated for the presence of shrapnel and morphological abnormality. Head and neck injuries were seen in 12 out of 115 patients presenting to the four hospitals. There were secondary blast injuries to the head and neck in eight patients, indicated by the presence of shrapnel on imaging. In the four patients without shrapnel, there were two with subgaleal hematomas, one with facial contusion and one with mastoid injury. There were two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one with brain contusion, one with cerebral laceration, and one with globe rupture. There was frontal bone, nasal bone, and orbital wall fracture in one patient each. Imaging identified 26 shrapnel fragments, 21 of which were ball bearings. Injuries to the head and neck region identified on imaging from the Boston Marathon bombing were not common. The injuries seen were predominantly secondary blast injuries from shrapnel, and did not result in calvarial penetration of the shrapnel fragments.

  1. A study of sibling leukemia in the second generations of A-bomb survivors

    Takagi, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Although the sibling leukemia (SL) is very rare, it is known in 4 families living in Osaka and Hiroshima, of which mothers are A-bomb survivors (2 exposed in Hiroshima/2 in Nagasaki). This study was performed on the 8 cases of SL to examine factors concerned with SL morbidity by comparison with SL in families unrelated to A-bomb exposure. Subjects were 4 cases of SL in Osaka, 4 cases in Hiroshima, and comparative 28 cases of age <20 y in 13 families (1930-1974) in a textbook published in 1979. The SL cases from mothers exposed at ages of 10-20 y were 5 males/3 females, and died at ages of 6-17 y (av. 11 y) due to acute, myeloid/monocytic leukemia. Three mothers' exposures were due to entrance in the City just/1 or 10 days after explosion and 2 mothers had lived in the black rain regions of either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Comparisons were made on sex, type of L, age at death, parents' exposure, family composition, complication, and parents' consanguineous marriage. Findings of SL specific in the second generations of A-bomb survivors were from exposed mothers, and were mostly myeloid (monocyte) type leukemia, suggesting the effect of exposure. These facts may suggest that oocytes/ovula are of high sensitivity to internal exposure or low dose exposure. (T.T.)

  2. Some hematological disorders among atomic bomb survivors. Presidential Address

    Watanabe, Susumu

    1977-01-01

    Focusing on their hematological disorders, the late radiation effects among Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, including cytogenetic and cytological studies, are summarized and discussed. Because of personal research experience, the data were concentrated on the Hiroshima survivors

  3. Teaching and Learning Multiple Perspectives: The Atomic Bomb.

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how historical empathy can give students a richer understanding of the past, focusing on the development of the students' historical understanding through an analysis of 18 documents on President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. (CMK)

  4. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author)

  5. Multi-wavelength analysis of Ellerman Bomb Light Curves

    Herlender, M.; Berlicki, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2011), s. 181-186 ISSN 1845-8319 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * chromosphere * Ellerman bomb Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. Detection at a distance of atomic bomb tests

    Nahmias, M E

    1954-01-01

    Nahmias describes the radioassay of air, rain, and snowfall as the basis for detecting atomic bomb tests. Tables and graphs give time vs. Ra equivalents, distance vs Roentgens/h of radiation, and distribution of radioelements which can be expected.

  7. Partial uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 16 unmasks a deleterious biallelic mutation in IFT140 that causes Mainzer-Saldino syndrome.

    Helm, Benjamin M; Willer, Jason R; Sadeghpour, Azita; Golzio, Christelle; Crouch, Eric; Vergano, Samantha Schrier; Katsanis, Nicholas; Davis, Erica E

    2017-07-19

    The ciliopathies represent an umbrella group of >50 clinical entities that share both clinical features and molecular etiology underscored by structural and functional defects of the primary cilium. Despite the advances in gene discovery, this group of entities continues to pose a diagnostic challenge, in part due to significant genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity and variability. We consulted a pediatric case from asymptomatic, non-consanguineous parents who presented as a suspected ciliopathy due to a constellation of retinal, renal, and skeletal findings. Although clinical panel sequencing of genes implicated in nephrotic syndromes yielded no likely causal mutation, an oligo-SNP microarray identified a ~20-Mb region of homozygosity, with no altered gene dosage, on chromosome 16p13. Intersection of the proband's phenotypes with known disease genes within the homozygous region yielded a single candidate, IFT140, encoding a retrograde intraflagellar transport protein implicated previously in several ciliopathies, including the phenotypically overlapping Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Sanger sequencing yielded a maternally inherited homozygous c.634G>A; p.Gly212Arg mutation altering the exon 6 splice donor site. Functional studies in cells from the proband showed that the locus produced two transcripts: a majority message containing a mis-splicing event that caused a premature termination codon and a minority message homozygous for the p.Gly212Arg allele. Zebrafish in vivo complementation studies of the latter transcript demonstrated a loss of function effect. Finally, we conducted post-hoc trio-based whole exome sequencing studies to (a) test the possibility of other causal loci in the proband and (b) explain the Mendelian error of segregation for the IFT140 mutation. We show that the proband harbors a chromosome 16 maternal heterodisomy, with segmental isodisomy at 16p13, likely due to a meiosis I error in the maternal gamete. Using clinical phenotyping

  8. Effects of A-bomb radiation on the human body

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikato; Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    This publication consists of contributions by 39 authors in Hiroshima who are active in the forefront of research, diagnosis and treatment concerning atomic bomb survivors. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosomal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are described. All of the 45 chapters are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  10. Details of Nazis' A-Bomb program surface

    Glanz, J

    2002-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg, leader of the Nazi atomic bomb program, revealed the projects existence to Niels Bohr in a meeting in Copenhagen in 1941. But contrary to several historical accounts of the meeting, Heisenberg never expressed moral qualms about building a bomb for Hitler nor hinted that he might be willing to sabotage the project, according to secret documents cited in a London newspaper yesterday (2 pages).

  11. Hitlers' bomb. The secret story of Germanys' nuclear weapon tests

    Karlsch, R.

    2005-01-01

    This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. (GL) [de

  12. Mental health for elder A-bomb survivors

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Hata, Tomoko [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1994-12-01

    A pilot study was made, based on an interview survey, to improve mental hygiene in A-bomb survivors. The study consisted of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12 items, Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), Social Disabilities Schedule (SDS), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 30 items. A majority of the subjects were those aged in their fifties, sixties, and seventies. Eighty A-bomb survivors answered GHQ 12 items, consisting of 7, 17, and 41 who were exposed at <2.0 km, 2.0-2.9 km, and {>=}3.0 km from the hypocenter, respectively, and 15 who entered the city early after A-bombing. Thirty-three A-bomb survivors answered CIDI. According to the distance from the hypocenter, the corresponding figures were 2, 10, 15, and 6 A-bomb survivors. The survey for GHQ 12 items revealed that more A-bomb survivors exposed nearer the hypocenter suffered from mental problems. In the survey for CIDI, the most common complaints were found to be physical expression disorder (n=9) and chronic pain (n=8), followed by hypochondria (n=4), panic disorder (n=2), and anxiery (n=one). According to the SDS survey, 85% were judged as having no mental disorder, and the remaining 15% as having merely mild or moderate disorder. (N.K.).

  13. Mental health status of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Nakane, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)

  14. Progress in reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry

    Kerr, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Studies for reassessment of A-bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are underway in both Japan and the US. The progress made in various reassessment studies has been reported at several US-Japan joint workshops. The medical follow-up studies by the RERF provide data on dose-related parameters such as the location of the survivors and their shielding by surrounding structures at the times of the bombings. To make accurate estimates of the radiation dose for individual survivors in the two cities, they need reliable information concerning (a) the hypocenters and burst heights of the bombs, (b) the energy yields of the bombs and the source terms for the initial radiations from the bombs, (c) the atmospheric radiation transport to determine the initial radiation fields at the location of the survivors, (d) the attenuation factors for shielding afforded by structures and terrain, and (e) the shielding of specific organs by overlying tissues of the body. A computer code combining the above elements has been installed at the RERF and used in a preliminary reassessment of radiation doses to survivors who were indoors, shielded by houses at the times of the bombings. These results will be presented and discussed. The discussions will be focused, however, on specific areas where binational agreement has been reached and on specific areas where additional work is needed before the reassessment can be considered final

  15. Mental health for elder A-bomb survivors

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Hata, Tomoko

    1994-01-01

    A pilot study was made, based on an interview survey, to improve mental hygiene in A-bomb survivors. The study consisted of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12 items, Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), Social Disabilities Schedule (SDS), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 30 items. A majority of the subjects were those aged in their fifties, sixties, and seventies. Eighty A-bomb survivors answered GHQ 12 items, consisting of 7, 17, and 41 who were exposed at <2.0 km, 2.0-2.9 km, and ≥3.0 km from the hypocenter, respectively, and 15 who entered the city early after A-bombing. Thirty-three A-bomb survivors answered CIDI. According to the distance from the hypocenter, the corresponding figures were 2, 10, 15, and 6 A-bomb survivors. The survey for GHQ 12 items revealed that more A-bomb survivors exposed nearer the hypocenter suffered from mental problems. In the survey for CIDI, the most common complaints were found to be physical expression disorder (n=9) and chronic pain (n=8), followed by hypochondria (n=4), panic disorder (n=2), and anxiery (n=one). According to the SDS survey, 85% were judged as having no mental disorder, and the remaining 15% as having merely mild or moderate disorder. (N.K.)

  16. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  17. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 4

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we clarified that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant in 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of the total 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, and that the correlation was the same even when the cases were divided by sex. In this report, we examined the chronological change of the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, using the data of the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster. It is likely that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors has increased after 1962, especially after 1975 in those exposed within 2.5km from the hypocenter compared to those exposed at 3.0km or more. (author)

  18. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing

    Koguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    It has been thought that A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing were exposed to residual A-bomb radiation both externally and internally (through inhalation, food, drink or skin). This paper summarizes the data on estimated radiation doses in A-bomb survivors who entered Hiroshima within 3 days after A-bombing based on the chromosome staining analysis of lymphocytes of peripheral blood taken from A-bomb survivors. The subjects were 40 A-bomb survivors; according to a stay period and a history of medical irradiation, they were divided into four: group A with a long stay, group B with a long stay + medical irradiation, group C with a short stay, and group D with a short stay + medical irradiation. A mean estimated radiation dose was 4.8 rad (one rad or less to 13.5 rad) in group A, 13.9 rad (one rad or less to 71.2 rad) in group B, one rad or less in group C, and 1.9 rad (one rad or less to 21.2 rad) in group D. The highest rate of chromosomal aberrations was 3.1% in group B, followed by 2.1% in group A, 0.83% in group D, and 0.73% in group C. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was coincident with the duration of stay in the city. Furthermore, medical irradiation seemed to have contributed to the additional effects of A-bomb radiation. (N.K.)

  19. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes.

  20. Exercise haemodynamics may unmask the diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction among patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Maor, Elad; Grossman, Yoni; Balmor, Ronen Gingy; Segel, Michael; Fefer, Paul; Ben-Zekry, Sagit; Buber, Jonathan; DiSegni, Elio; Guetta, Victor; Ben-Dov, Issahar; Segev, Amit

    2015-02-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction can lead to pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of exercise during right heart catheterization in the unmasking of diastolic dysfunction. Between 2004 and 2012, 200 symptomatic patients with exertional dyspnoea, preserved left ventricular systolic function and suspected pulmonary hypertension, underwent right heart catheterization. Included in the study were 63 patients with resting pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) ≤15 mmHg. Patients were divided to three tertiles based on their peak exercise PAWP. Mean age was 60 ± 20 years and 29% were males. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was 31 ± 14 mmHg at rest and 42 ± 18 mmHg upon exercise. Mean change in PAWP between rest and exercise was 0.0 ± 4.3, 4.6 ± 2.4, and 16.6 ± 7.1 mmHg in the lower, middle, and upper tertiles, respectively (P exercise PAWP tertiles were associated with reduced pulmonary vascular resistance (8.3 ± 6.7, 2.9 ± 2.7, and 5.8 ± 4.6 Woods units, respectively; P = 0.004). A multivariate linear regression model demonstrated that each 5 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was associated with 2.5 ± 1.0 mmHg increase in exercise PAWP (P = 0.017). A multivariate binary logistic model showed that subjects with borderline PAWP at rest (12-15 mmHg) were 4.5 times more likely to be in the upper tertile of exercise PAWP (P = 0.011). In symptomatic patients with pulmonary hypertension, preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and PAWP ≤15 mmHg, exercise during right heart catheterization may unmask diastolic dysfunction. This is especially true for obese patients and patients with borderline resting PAWP. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  1. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Tokunga, M.; Land, C.E.; Tokuoka, S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  2. The Potentialities of the Atomic Bomb

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    In January 1949, Norris Bradbury gave a lecture at the National War College which summarized the progress Los Alamos had made since the end of the war. The transcript of the talk was filed and forgotten until it surfaced fifty years later. It is, perhaps, one of the best summaries of the state of the United States nuclear weapons program in 1949. It is also evidence of how Bradbury saw the future of atomic weapons. It is presented in full, with minor editing, and begins as follows: Since the first use of an atomic bomb on August 5 [sic], 1945, over the city of Hiroshima, Japan, there has been a continual flood of speculation and discussion concerning the effect of this new weapon on military technology. Much of this speculation and discussion has been intelligent and fruitful; much, I regret to say, has had neither of these characteristics. The enormity of the device, in terms of potential destruction and loss of life, and the practical necessity to surround the technical facts with full security restrictions have only combined to make the problem more difficult. At the same time, it is imperative that policymaking personnel in charge of long range national planning know the basic facts concerning atomic weapons and have these facts in a reasonable perspective. This document describes these potentialities in detail.

  3. Uranium content in soil after bombing FRY

    Biocanin, B.; Cvijovic, M.; Golobocanin, D.; Markovic, M.; Miljevic, N.; Orlic, M; Todorovic, D.; Veselinovic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of uranium enrichment process and its use is very dangerous and harmful. NATO has used DU ammunition in Yugoslav conflict during its air campaign against the tanks and bunkers. The estimated number of about 3,000-10,000 of 30 mm DU rounds as armor-piercing shells were fired from cannons fitted to A-10 aircraft and probably a usage in some of 1,500 launched Tomahawk Cruise missiles. We measured uranium content in the surface soil (0-5 cm depth) from bomb craters during NATO attack. Selected locations were Belgrade, Smederevo, Nis, Bor, Prahovo, Kadinjaca, Jadovnik, Raska, Sjenica, and Cape Arza. Total uranium concentration and isotopic ratio were determined using γ-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma method. Obtained results were in the range 21 - 762.000 Bq/kg dry soil. They were at the all locations except Cape Arza comparable to the uranium content found in off-side locations of soils. (author)

  4. Iraqi violence, Saudi attack and further bombings

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    Iraq moved closer to all-out civil war following an attack on the Imam Ali al-Hadi mosque in Samarra, one of Shi'i Islam's holiest shrines, on 22nd February. In the days that followed, several hundred Iraqis died in inter-communal violence. Attacks on installations close to the Basrah Oil Terminal were reported. Earlier in the month, the main oil storage facility in Kirkuk was bombed, forcing the Northern Oil Company to shut-in the 0.3 mn bpd field. Oil and electricity supplies in southern Iraq were cut by attacks on installations some 40 miles south of Baghdad. Turkey agreed to resume product exports to Iraq after a deal was agreed on repaying Iraqi debts of $1 bn to Turkish suppliers. An official Australian inquiry into illegal payments made under the UN's oil-for-food programme is to investigate allegations involving two Australian-controlled oil firms. (author)

  5. Health effects of atomic-bomb radiation

    Nakamura, Nori

    2000-01-01

    This review described carcinogenic and genetic effects of A-bomb radiation. Effects have been investigated on 120,000 exposed people for their life span, 20,000 for health examinations, 3,000 people exposed in the womb and 80,000 second-generations of the exposed people. Epidemiological data revealed the presence of carcinogenic effects: Cancer death amounted to 9% from 1950 to 1990. However, carcinogenic mechanism is unknown yet. Genetic effects have been studied from the points of lesion at birth, sex ratio, chromosome aberration, biochemical test and mortality rate of children of exposed people and, although the effects have been experimentally shown in animals, are not observed in those children. This may be derived from the fact that there are few people who were exposed to such a high dose as used experimentally (0.2 Sv exposure to people within 2.5 km diameter-area from the explosion point vs >3 Sv in animals). Data are presented in Research Foundation home page. (K.H.)

  6. ELLERMAN BOMBS WITH JETS: CAUSE AND EFFECT

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Scullion, E.; Gallagher, P. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Shelyag, S., E-mail: areid29@qub.ac.uk [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia)

    2015-05-20

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both data sets show that EBs are connected to the foot points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the Hα blue wing connects to the EB initially fueling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of Hα. In the disk data set, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes. Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5–10 km s{sup −1}, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50 to 80 km s{sup −1}. MURaM simulations of quiet Sun reconnection show that micro-jets with properties similar to those of the observations follow the line of reconnection in the photosphere, with associated Hα brightening at the location of increased temperature.

  7. Aging study on atomic bomb survivors

    Okajima, Shunzo; Aoyama, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nishimori, Issei; Shiomi, Toshio

    1976-01-01

    This is an ad interim report on the survey which is being performed at the Atomic Disease Institute, Nagasaki University School of Medicine for the acceleration of aging in atomic bomb survivors. The survivors group consisted of 50 females between 40 and 49 years of age who were exposed somewhere within 1.4 km where exposure dose could be estimated accurately and whose mean estimated exposure dose was 225.9+-176.8 rads. The control group consisted of females of the same age group who were exposed at sites more than 2.5 km apart (atmospheric dose 2.9 rads). The items for the judgement of aging included physical measurements, external findings, functional findings, and special tests (urine, blood, pattern of serum protein fraction, and chromosome aberrations). As far as chromosome aberrations were concerned, the number of cells with stable aberrations, Cs, showed differences between the two groups, and the number of cells with exchange-type aberrations was large in the survivors group. No significant differences were observed in the other tests. (Serizawa, K.)

  8. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Land, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950 - 80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiation-induced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer. (author)

  9. Cancer developing among atom-bomb survivors

    Yamamoto, T [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-12-01

    Cancer (with the exception of leukemia) which had often been observed among atom bomb survivors was discussed. Prevalence of thyroid carcinoma was high in the people who had been exposed to more than 50 rad of the atomic radiation. A great difference in prevalence of cancer was seen between irradiated people whose age had been under 20 years at the time of exposure and non-irradiated. More women than men had papillary adenocarcinoma. The highest prevalence was seen 16 to 20 years after exposure to atomic radiation, but there was no difference in prevalence between those from Hiroshima and from Nagasaki. Lung cancer comprised 89% of all cancers of the people whose age was 50 years and over. Most of them had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 300 rad. The type was cellular retrograde cancer. The prevalence of gastric carcinoma was low, and breast cancer occurred at an early age before menopause. The occurrence of cancer in juvenile survivors was several times higher in the patients who had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 100 rad than in non-irradiated. These values indicate that cancer occurs more frequently than leukemia does in such survivors.

  10. Infectious diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Incidences of various infectious diseases in 986 autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital and Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital from 1965 to 1975 were compared according to the distance from the explosion place, and the following results were obtained. There was not a significant difference at incidences of most infectious diseases between each exposured group and not-exposured group. Incidence of old tuberculosis focus was a little higher in exposured groups, but incidences of main lesions such as tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and miliary tuberculosis were lower in exposured groups and effect of exposure was negative. Out of urinary tract infections, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidence of cistitis in female was. Incidence of cystitis of female was higher than that of male in the group exposured near to the explosion place. With respect to stomach cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and cerebrovascular disorder, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidences of various infectious diseases were. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Sources of Radioactive Isotopes for Dirty Bombs

    Lubenau, Joel

    2004-05-01

    From the security perspective, radioisotopes and radioactive sources are not created equal. Of the many radioisotopes used in industrial applications, medical treatments, and scientific research, only eight, when present in relatively large amounts in radioactive sources, pose high security risks primarily because of their prevalence and physical properties. These isotopes are americium-241, californium-252, cesium-137, cobalt-60, iridium-192, radium-226, plutonium-238, and strontium-90. Except for the naturally occurring radium-226, nuclear reactors produce the other seven in bulk commercial quantities. Half of these isotopes emit alpha radiation and would, thus, primarily pose internal threats to health; the others are mainly high-energy gamma emitters and would present both external and internal health hazards. Therefore, the response to a "dirty bomb" event depends on what type of radioisotope is chosen and how it is employed. While only a handful of major corporations produce the reactor-generated radioisotopes, they market these materials to thousands of smaller companies and users throughout the world. Improving the security of the high-risk radioactive sources will require, among other efforts, cooperation among source suppliers and regulatory agencies.

  12. Atomic bomb survivor data: utilization and analysis

    Prentice, R.L.; Thompson, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    There were several motivations for organizing the SIMS Conference reported in this monograph. Risk assessment and its methods have been subjects of several SIMS Conferences in the recent past, and focusing these newer, more powerful methods on the largest human experience of exposure to ionizing radiation seemed an appropriate sequel. There was also the conviction that the data resources of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), generated through the mortality and medical follow-up of large samples of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were being under utilized, and that a conference and its proceedings would create interest in exploiting this resource. The time seemed ripe for gathering a small group of current RERF scientists, veteran US statisticians and epidemiologists, and others with more recent entry into the field of radiation biology to consider long range plans for maximizing the output of information not only on the long term effects of ionizing radiation on man but on new knowledge of the determinants of health and disease that can be learned by study of the records of this cohort. This seemed particularly appropriate at this time while intensive joint Japanese-US efforts are underway to provide a new, more accurate dosimetry for use in these studies. Finally, there was a hope that an ad hoc forum of this type would provide not only a summary of current statistical and epidemiologic activities at RERF, but a useful critique of their scope and quality

  13. Nuclear policies: fuel without the bomb

    Wohlstetter, A.; Gilinsky, V.; Gillette, R.; Wohlstetter, R.

    1978-01-01

    The essays, developed from studies conducted by the California seminar on arms control and foreign policy, address technical, political, and economic aspects of nonproliferation. How to halt nuclear proliferation commands worldwide attention today. The search for new energy resources by industrial as well as nonindustral nations has led to the spread of nuclear technology and the production of weapons grade fuel materials such as plutonium and enriched uranium in the name of energy independence. The background and consequences of this growing danger and possible solutions to it are the substance of the essays. Conceding the desirability (if not necessity) of developing nuclear power as an energy source, the writers focus on the different reactor technologies; an historical perspective of proliferation through the example of India; the rationales for stringent international monitoring; and finally, the link between proliferation and the spread of nuclear weapons. The chapters are: Nuclear technology: essential elements for decisionmakers, Robert Gillette; Must we decide now for worldwide commerce in plutonium fuel, Albert Wohlstetter; US peaceful aid and the Indian bomb, Roberta Wohlstetter; International discipline over the uses of nuclear energy, Victor Gilinsky; and Nuclear energy and the proliferation of nuclear weapons, Victor Gilinsky

  14. Application of Bomb Radiocarbon Chronologies to Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)

    Ardizzone, D; Cailliet, G M; Natanson, L J; Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Brown, T A

    2007-07-16

    and the number of samples for MIA analysis was insufficient for some months. Hence, unequivocal validation of shortfin mako age estimates has yet to be accomplished. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s effectively doubled the natural atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). The elevated {sup 14}C levels were first recorded in 1957-58, with a peak around 1963. As a consequence, {sup 14}C entered the ocean through gas exchange with the atmosphere at the ocean surface and in terrestrial runoff. Despite variable oceanographic conditions, a worldwide rise of the bomb {sup 14}C signal entered the ocean mixed layer as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in 1957-58. The large amounts of {sup 14}C released from the bomb tests produced a signature that can be followed through time, throughout the marine food web, and into deeper waters. The marked increase of radiocarbon levels was first measured in the DIC of seawater and in biogenic marine carbonates of hermatypic corals in Florida. Subsequently, this record was documented in corals from other regions and in the thallus of rhodoliths. The accumulation of radiocarbon in the hard parts of most marine organisms in the mixed layer (such as fish otoliths and bivalves) was synchronous with the coral time-series. This technique has been used to validate age estimates and longevity of numerous bony fishes to date, as well as to establish bomb radiocarbon chronologies from different oceans. In the first application of this technique to lamnoid sharks, validated annual band-pair deposition in vertebral growth bands for the porbeagle (Lamna nasus) aged up to 26 years. Radiocarbon values from samples obtained from 15 porbeagle caught in the western North Atlantic Ocean (some of which were known-age) produced a chronology similar in magnitude to the reference carbonate chronology for that region. The observed phase shift of about 3 years was attributed to different sources of carbon between vertebrae and those for

  15. Failure to unmask pseudonormal diastolic function by a valsalva maneuver: tricuspid insufficiency is a major factor.

    Hu, Kai; Liu, Dan; Niemann, Markus; Hatle, Liv; Herrmann, Sebastian; Voelker, Wolfram; Ertl, Georg; Bijnens, Bart; Weidemann, Frank

    2011-11-01

    For the clinical assessment of patients with dyspnea, the inversion of the early (E) and late (A) transmitral flow during Valsalva maneuver (VM) frequently helps to distinguish pseudonormal from normal filling pattern. However, in an important number of patients, VM fails to reveal the change from dominant early mitral flow velocity toward larger late velocity. From December 2009 to October 2010, we selected consecutive patients with abnormal filling with (n=25) and without E/A inversion (n=25) during VM. Transmitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary Doppler traces were recorded and the degree of insufficiency was estimated. After evaluating all standard echocardiographic morphological, functional, and flow-related parameters, it became evident that the failure to unmask the pseudonormal filling pattern by VM was related to the degree of the tricuspid insufficiency (TI). TI was graded as mild in 24 of 25 patients in the group with E/A inversion during VM, whereas TI was graded as moderate to severe in 24 of the 25 patients with pseudonormal diastolic function without E/A inversion during VM. Our data suggest that TI is a major factor to prevent E/A inversion during a VM in patients with pseudonormal diastolic function. This probably is due to a decrease in TI resulting in an increase in forward flow rather than the expected decrease during the VM. Thus, whenever a pseudonormal diastolic filling pattern is suspected, the use of a VM is not an informative discriminator in the presence of moderate or severe TI.

  16. Efficacy and safety of dextrose-insulin in unmasking non-diagnostic Brugada ECG patterns.

    Velázquez-Rodríguez, Enrique; Rodríguez-Piña, Horacio; Pacheco-Bouthillier, Alex; Jiménez-Cruz, Marcelo Paz

    Typical diagnostic, coved-type 1, Brugada ECG patterns fluctuate spontaneously over time with a high proportion of non-diagnostic ECG patterns. Insulin modulates ion transport mechanisms and causes hyperpolarization of the resting potential. We report our experience with unmasking J-ST changes in response to a dextrose-insulin test. Nine patients, mean age 40.5±19.4years (range: 15-65years), presented initially with a non-diagnostic ECG pattern, which was suggestive of Brugada syndrome (group I). They were compared with 10 patients with normal ECG patterns (group II). Participants received an infusion of 50g of 50% dextrose, followed by 10IU of intravenous regular insulin. Positive changes were defined by conversion to a diagnostic ECG pattern. The dextrose-insulin test was positive in six of seven (85.7%) patients (kappa 0.79, p=0.02) that was confirmed with a pharmacologic test (kappa 1, p=0.003). One had an inconclusive test, and two with a negative test had an early repolarization ECG pattern. All subjects in group II had a negative test (pECG patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long QT syndrome unmasked in an adult subject presenting with excited delirium.

    Bozeman, William P; Ali, Karim; Winslow, James E

    2013-02-01

    Excited delirium is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for sudden death, though the specific pathophysiology of these deaths is typically unclear. We describe a survivor of excited delirium that displayed a transient severe prolongation of the QT interval, suggesting unmasking of long QT syndrome as a possible mechanism of sudden death. A 30-year-old man was arrested by police for violent assaultive behavior. Officers at the scene noted confusion, nonsensical speech, sweating, and bizarre agitated behavior; he was transported to the Emergency Department for medical evaluation of possible excited delirium. His initial electrocardiogram revealed a markedly prolonged corrected QT interval of over 600 ms. Intravenous hydration and sodium bicarbonate were administered, with normalization of the QT; he was admitted and recovered uneventfully. We discuss the possible association between long QT syndrome and unexplained sudden deaths seen with excited delirium. Sodium bicarbonate may be considered when long QT syndrome is identified during or after agitated delirium, though its routine use cannot be recommended based on a case report. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Processing of masked and unmasked emotional faces under different attentional conditions: an electrophysiological investigation.

    Marzia eDel Zotto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the interactions between non-spatial selective attention, awareness and emotion processing, we carried out an ERP study using a backward masking paradigm, in which angry, fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions were presented, while participants attempted to detect the presence of one or the other category of facial expressions in the different experimental blocks. ERP results showed that negative emotions enhanced an early N170 response over temporal-occipital leads in both masked and unmasked conditions, independently of selective attention. A later effect arising at the P2 was linked to awareness. Finally, selective attention was found to affect the N2 and N3 components over occipito-parietal leads. Our findings reveal that i the initial processing of facial expressions arises prior to attention and awareness; ii attention and awareness give rise to temporally distinct periods of activation independently of the type of emotion with only a partial degree of overlap; and iii selective attention appears to be influenced by the emotional nature of the stimuli, which in turn impinges on unconscious processing at a very early stage. This study confirms previous reports that negative facial expressions can be processed rapidly, in absence of visual awareness and independently of selective attention. On the other hand, attention and awareness may operate in a synergistic way, depending on task demand.

  19. Metoclopramide unmasks potentially misleading contralateral suppression in patients undergoing adrenal vein sampling for primary aldosteronism.

    Rossitto, Giacomo; Miotto, Diego; Battistel, Michele; Barbiero, Giulio; Maiolino, Giuseppe; Bisogni, Valeria; Sanga, Viola; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2016-11-01

    As metoclopramide stimulates aldosterone secretion, we tested its usefulness in the assessment of lateralization of primary aldosteronism by adrenal vein sampling (AVS). Prospective within-patient study in consecutive patients undergoing AVS for primary aldosteronism subtyping. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of baseline and postmetoclopramide lateralization index and relative (to cortisol) aldosterone secretion indices (RASI) for each adrenal gland with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) determined by the four corners criteria as the reference diagnosis. We recruited 93 consecutive patients (mean age: 52 years; women 31%). Metoclopramide increased plasma aldosterone in the inferior vena cava and in both adrenal veins. The postmetoclopramide lateralization index was accurate in identifying APA, but did not increase diagnostic accuracy over baseline lateralization index, because the RASI increased similarly in both sides. Conversely, metoclopramide raised RASI to values more than 0.90 bilaterally in non-APA patients allowing accurate identification of factitious aldosterone suppression. In contrast, RASI was 0.90 or less in 48% contralateral to the tumor in APA patients. Regression analysis showed the APA patients with persistent suppression of RASI contralaterally showed a more florid primary aldosteronism phenotype. Metoclopramide does not enhance lateralization of aldosterone excess in APA, but consistently increased the value of RASI in non-APA cases, thus unmasking potentially misleading suppression of aldosterone. Postmetoclopramide RASI may therefore allow a more precise diagnosis when AVS can be achieved only unilaterally.

  20. Nagasaki and radiation. Health effects of radiation: atomic bomb, Chernobyl and JCO

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    2005-01-01

    Under the title of Nagasaki and Radiation, this presentation will include the significance of the investigation of health of radiation on A-bomb survivors, dissociation between the scientific results and the public impression at the Chernobyl accident and problems in health control of the people in the regions surrounding JCO, Tokaimura. It is proposed that in the area of the low-dose radiation, economic, ethical, psychological, environmental, and scientific factors are all essential in the policy and regulatory decision-making process to assure public health and well-being. (author)

  1. Tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors. Study of autopsy cases

    Hamada, T [H.ma Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Matsushita, Hiroshi

    1980-03-01

    Effects of atomic bomb on tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors necropsied after 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was opened were observed statistically and the following results were obtained. The morbidity of tuberculosis in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter was higher than that of the control group, but there was not a significant difference between the groups. The morbidity of all types of tuberculosis was significantly higher in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter than in the control group. The morbidity of tuberculosis tended to decrease in both exposed and non-exposed groups with time. However, the morbidity of miliary or active tuberculosis has tended to rise in the exposed since 1975. The morbidity in young a-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km was higher than that in those of other groups, but there was not a difference in the morbidity among the aged. The higher the rate of complication of active tuberculosis with stomach cancer or acute myelocytic leukemia or liver cirrhosis, the nearer the places of exposure were to the hypocenter. Out of 26 patients with miliary tuberculosis, 6 were suspected to have leukemia while they were alive and were suggested to have leukemoid reaction by autopsy. They all were a-bomb survivors, and 4 of them were exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter.

  2. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 5

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    We already reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we confirmed that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant. In Report 4, we clarified that the incidence of skin cancer in proximally exposed Nagasaki A-bomb survivors when compared to distally exposed victims appears to be increasing since 1975. In this final report of the series, we examined the characteristics of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors using 140 skin cancer cases collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. Among the various items examined, the only item that showed a statistical significance was the age at exposure in the cases of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., those exposed within 2.5 km from the hypocenter were significantly younger than those exposed at 3.0 km or more. (author)

  3. Clinical study of aplastic anemia among A-bomb survivors

    Oguma, N.; Dohy, H.; Kyo, T.; Saito, O.; Okita, H. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1980-11-01

    In 90 patients with aplastic anemia who were seen at Dept. Med. RINMB, Hiroshima Univ. from 1962 to March, 1980, clinical findings of 33 A-bomb survivors (which included the second generation of the survivors) and those of 57 nonexposed patients were compared. No relationship was found between the age at the time of exposure and the period preceding onset of the disease. The A-bomb survivors showed higher neutrophil counts and higher reticulocyte counts than the nonexposed patients. There were less severe cases in the A-bomb survivors. There was no difference in the incidence of atypical aplastic anemia between the exposed patients and the nonexposed ones. No difference was found in overall survival (one-year and five-year survival rates) between the exposed and the nonexposed. The A-bomb survivors often had complete remission or maintenance of remission, and rarely had acute progression. These results suggested that clinical picture of aplastic anemia in the A-bomb survivors is different from that in the nonexposed patients.

  4. Study of gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Takayama, Sadamatsu; Tadehara, Futoshi; Okusaki, Ken; Ito, Yoshiko; Ogawa, Junichiro; Kato, Masafumi; Ito, Chikako; Oyama, Hiroko; Mito, Kazuyo.

    1990-01-01

    Ten gastric cancer A-bomb survivors who had been false negative in mass screening for gastric cancer one year before the diagnosis were entered in a study determining an adequate interval of gastric mass screening for A-bomb survivors. Doubling time of cancer was determined on X-ray films. Of the 10 A-bomb survivors, 8 had entered the city after the bombing and the other two had been exposed at 1,700 m and 2,500 m, respectively, from the hypocenter. Six had early gastric cancer and the other 4 had advanced cancer. Doubling time averaged 19.1 months for early cancer and 7.6 months for advanced cancer. Three measurements of tumor diameter available for 4 A-bomb survivors revealed a very rapid increase in doubling time during the progression period from early to advanced cancer. An interval of one year seems to be adequate in mass screening to detect early cancer. (N.K.)

  5. Radiation therapy among A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Russell, W J; Antoku, S

    1971-01-01

    The hospitals and clinics responsible for radiation therapy reported by ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study subjects were surveyed to confirm treatment and estimate doses they received. Of 426 cases, 137 were documented by hospital records. Their ABCC medical records were also reviewed for pertinent clinical information. Excluding the cases not verified because of unavailability of records, confirmation rates were 0.46 in Hiroshima and 0.67 in Nagasaki. Radiation therapy doses according to date of treatment, diagnosis, body site, and source of exposure are included. These data are recorded routinely for future reference, along with doses from diagnostic roentgenology for evaluating overall ionizing radiation exposure of A-bomb survivors and their comparison subjects. Radiation therapy by source and by lesion treated is included. There were three cases with malignancies possibly related to their earlier radiation therapy. One was an A-bomb survivor with lung cancer previously reported as due to ionizing radiation from the A-bomb. Radiation therapy she received for breast cancer 11 years earlier was more likely the cause of the lung lesion than was her relatively small A-bomb dose. The importance of recording all diagnostic and therapeutic radiation, especially that received by those under continuing surveillance for late A-bomb effects, is stressed. (auth)

  6. Clinical study of aplastic anemia among A-bomb survivors

    Oguma, Nobuo; Dohy, Hiroo; Kyo, Taiichi; Saito, Osamu; Okita, Hajime

    1980-01-01

    In 90 patients with aplastic anemia who were seen at Dept. Med. RINMB, Hiroshima Univ. from 1962 to March, 1980, clinical findings of 33 A-bomb survivors (which included the second generation of the survivors) and those of 57 nonexposed patients were compared. No relationship was found between the age at the time of exposure and the period preceding onset of the disease. The A-bomb survivors showed higher neutrophil counts and higher reticulocyte counts than the nonexposed patients. There were less severe cases in the A-bomb survivors. There was no difference in the incidence of atypical aplastic anemia between the exposed patients and the nonexposed ones. No difference was found in overall survival (one-year and five-year survival rates) between the exposed and the nonexposed. The A-bomb survivors often had complete remission or maintenance of remission, and rarely had acute progression. These results suggested that clinical picture of aplastic anemia in the A-bomb survivors is different from that in the nonexposed patients. (Ueda, J.)

  7. Truck bomb and insider threats to nuclear facilities

    Hirsch, D.

    1987-01-01

    In the nuclear field, two the these weak links in the security chain are the truck bomb threat and the insider threat. The risks associated with terrorist use of vehicular bombs against nuclear targets surfaced (actually, resurfaced) followed the terrorist attacks on the US Embassy annex and the Marine compound in Leb Concern was expressed that similar attacks against nuclear facilities could result in substantial damage and release of radioactivity. Since the current regulations of the NRC require licensees to protect only against attacks on foot (and even then, only against very small attacking forces), shortly after the Lebanon bombings, that agency commenced an urgent rulemaking to require its licensees to protect against truck bombs. Inexplicably, that rulemaking was called off after research results indicated that the truck bomb threat to nuclear facilities was even more serious than previously thought. Even were nuclear facilities adequately protected against external attack, be the aim theft or sabotage, the greatest security risk to these sites - the threat of action by insiders - would remain. The traditional methods of protecting against the insider threat - such as the two-person rule, strict compartmentalization of vital areas, and design features that make damage to two or more redundant systems by one individual difficult - are generally expensive and have encountered substantial resistance from the nuclear industry, which has restrained the NRC from requiring them

  8. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    Heyssel, R; Brill, A B; Woodbury, L A; Nishimura, Edwin T; Ghose, Tarunendu; Hoshino, Takashi; Yamasaki, Mitsuru

    1959-03-01

    This report is intended to provide the basic data pertinent to the leukemia experience observed in the survivors of the Hiroshima atomic explosion. Many of the conclusions in this report are tentative. The one clear fact to emerge is that radiation increases the occurrence rate of leukemia and that the magnitude of increase is dependent on dose received. Additional observations can be made, which, while not definitive in themselves, seem to complement each other, and are corroborated by other experiences in radiation biology. From the data a linear relationship between dose and incidence of leukemia is found. The shape of the relation in the lower dose range is not known with certainty. An approximate minimum time for the appearance of leukemia following radiation is 3 years or less. The data suggest that the time of maximum risk of leukemia may be dependent on the dose of radiation received. In this group the mean latent period is found to lie in the interval between 4 and 8 years following exposure. The length of time during which the increased incidence of leukemia persists is not known. The incidence of the acute leukemias and of chronic granulocytic leukemia is increased in the exposed survivors. The chronic granulocytic variety is disproportionately increased in Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb. No effect of radiation on monocytic or chronic lymphatic leukemia incidence is noted. Aplastic anemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis have been investigated. Myelofibrosis is the only one of this group of diseases in which a suggestive relation to radiation exposure is apparent. The natural history of leukemia following radiation does not seem to differ from that of the spontaneously occurring variety. 17 references, 5 figures, 38 tables.

  9. Cataracts in A-bomb survivors

    Neriishi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Described is the process leading to the revision of ICRP recommendation for the threshold dose of cataracts (CA) to be 0.5 Sv (2011). The threshold for CA, posterior subcapsular (ps), was defined to be 2 Gy. However, recent investigations for 837 A-bomb survivors by slit lamp test revealed that, in addition to the CA above, the cortical CA was found to have also responded to the dose. The reanalysis afterward of their stored images showed for the estimated threshold of cortical CA to be 0.6 Sv, and significant dose response with Odds ratio (OR)/Sv of 1.30. For ps-CA, the threshold to be 0.7 Sv and OR/Sv, 1.44 were found. These thresholds were not significantly different from zero. Also found was the dose effect to be significantly decreased with increase of the age at exposure. Similar results had been suggested in cases of Swedish infants, of astronauts, and of Chernobyl clean-up workers. The dose response was further investigated for prevalence and incidence by spreading the criterion of patients to those undergone the operation to remove the lens assuming it had been derived from CA. Analysis of the dose-incidence revealed that the threshold was 0.5 Gy as estimated by the excess relative risk model and 0.45 Gy, by the excess absolute risk model. Findings above indicate that thresholds of CA found recently is much lower than the past 2-5 Gy and can be absent from the statistic aspect, which lead to the revision of the recommendation. The difference between the past and recent threshold is due to the difference of CA tissue types, of the age at exposure and of estimation. (T.T.)

  10. Immunological study in A-bomb survivors

    Imamura, Nobutaka

    1994-01-01

    This study examined peripheral T and B lymphocytes using monoclonal antibodies in twin A-bomb survivors and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients in the exposed and non-exposed groups. The subjects were 10 persons (9 exposed ones and 1 non-exposed one), collected from 6 pairs of twins (in the twin group); 8 MDS patients in the exposed group; and 4 MDS patients in the non-exposed group. In the twin group, an increase in CD4-positive helper/inducer T cells and a decrease in CD8-positive suppressor/cytotoxic T cells were definitely observed. This tended to be noticeable in persons exposed nearer the hypocenter. Furthermore, the twin group had a higher ratio of CD4 to CD8. Immunological findings reflecting B cell abnormalities were not found in this group. In all MDS patients in both the exposed and non-exposed groups, refractory anemia (Hb of 10.0 g/dl or less) were observed. Some of the patients in the exposed group had an increase of T4 (CD4) + T cells, a decrease of T8(CD8) + T cells, a decrease of B-1(CD20) + B cells, and an increase of TQ-1 + cells. Double-fluorescence staining revealed an increase in T4(CD4) + 2H4(CD45RA) + cells in patients with primary acquired refractory anemia. The ratio of CD4 to CD8 in all MDS patients, except for one patient, was normal or increased. Furthermore, neither RAS nor p53 oncogenes were observed in the MDS group. (N.K.)

  11. Thyroid disorders in atomic-bomb survivors

    Imaizumi, M.; Neriishi, K.; Akahoshi, M.; Suzuki, G.; Nakashima, E.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    It is known from several studies, including those from RERF that radiation exposure can cause thyroid tumors (Socolow, N Engl J Med. 1963;268:406, Parker, Ann Intern Med. 1974;80:600). Effects of radiation on autoimmune thyroid disease are not well understood. We have conducted thyroid disease screening on a population of 2856 individuals from the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors for the period of 1984-1987. This study, which for logistical reasons involved survivors only from Nagasaki, revealed a statistically significant relationship between radiation dose and prevalence of solid nodules, including cancer, and that of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Nagataki, JAMA. 1994;272:364). Because the previous thyroid study was conducted only in Nagasaki, the new comprehensive thyroid disease screening study has been ongoing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS participants since March 2000. For about 4,000 participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS cohort, thyroid ultrasonography, aspiration biopsy of nodules, thyroid function test, thyroid autoantibody (thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody) test by highly sensitive assay using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Analysis of data from the 1874 people examined through July 2001 (915 people from Hiroshima, 959 people from Nagasaki) provides evidence that thyroid cancer increases with radiation dose. The prevalence of positive result for thyroid autoantibody test is increased in the people exposed to relative low dose of radiation (0.01-0.99 Sv). Examination and measurements was completed in February 2003 for all patients. The analysis of these data is providing new and more complete insights into relationships between thyroid diseases and low doses of radiation

  12. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  13. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. III. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS WITH IRIS AND SST

    Vissers, G. J. M.; Voort, L. H. M. Rouppe van der; Rutten, R. J.; Carlsson, M.; Pontieu, B. De, E-mail: g.j.m.vissers@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-10-10

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are transient brightenings of the extended wings of the solar Balmer lines in emerging active regions. We describe their properties in the ultraviolet lines sampled by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), using simultaneous imaging spectroscopy in Hα with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) and ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for Ellerman bomb detection and identification. We select multiple co-observed EBs for detailed analysis. The IRIS spectra strengthen the view that EBs mark reconnection between bipolar kilogauss fluxtubes with the reconnection and the resulting bi-directional jet located within the solar photosphere and shielded by overlying chromospheric fibrils in the cores of strong lines. The spectra suggest that the reconnecting photospheric gas underneath is heated sufficiently to momentarily reach stages of ionization normally assigned to the transition region and the corona. We also analyze similar outburst phenomena that we classify as small flaring arch filaments and ascribe to reconnection at a higher location. They have different morphologies and produce hot arches in million-Kelvin diagnostics.

  14. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    Data from 140 A-bomb survivors with skin cancer were analyzed with the purpose of elucidating the relationship between atomic bombing and skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated with the distance from the hypocenter (p<0.01), regardless of sex. Basal cell epithelioma was the most predominant, followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Histology of skin cancer seemed independent of the distance. Since 1965, the incidence of skin cancer has been increased with aging in A-bomb survivors exposed at le2500 m from the hypocenter. It has been significantly higher since 1975 in the le2500 m group than in the ge3000 m group. (N.K.).

  15. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  16. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    Zoppi, U.; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A.

    2004-01-01

    After a brief review of the basics of 14 C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14 C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14 C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14 C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

  17. Extension lectures: the effects of radiation from atomic bombing

    Okumura, Yutaka; Mine, Mariko

    1999-01-01

    About 56,000 A-bomb survivors are living in Nagasaki city even today. Nagasaki citizens, whether they are A-bomb survivors or not, can not live without concerns on the existence of radiation effects. They have fears of any amount of radiation and are afraid that it may harm their life. As results of studies in the university on radiation effects are not familiar to the citizens, we have started extension lectures on 'the effects of radiation from A-bombing' to them since 1990. We discuss the problems as well as significance of the extension lectures by reporting the details of the extension lectures which we have managed in the past. (author)

  18. Reassessing the Bunbury Bombing: Juxtaposition of Political and Media Narratives

    Kate O’Donnell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines an Australian newspaper’s coverage of the bombing of an export port terminal in Bunbury, Western Australia on 19 July, 1976. We wanted to see how The West Australian newspaper framed the story, its precursor events, and the events that followed. We were particularly interested in whether the bombing was reported as an act of terrorism because the then Premier of Western Australia, Sir Charles Court, immediately decried it as “a gross act of terrorism.” We find the newspaper resisted the lure to apply this label, and couched the story in terms of serious criminality. However, it did so before the 1978 Hilton Hotel bombing; an event the news media heralded as the “arrival” of terrorism in Australia. Also, this occurred before what could be argued the sensationalist and politicised reporting of terror-related events became normalised.

  19. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    Zoppi, U.; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A.

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  20. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko

    1989-01-01

    Data from 140 A-bomb survivors with skin cancer were analyzed with the purpose of elucidating the relationship between atomic bombing and skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated with the distance from the hypocenter (p<0.01), regardless of sex. Basal cell epithelioma was the most predominant, followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Histology of skin cancer seemed independent of the distance. Since 1965, the incidence of skin cancer has been increased with aging in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2500 m from the hypocenter. It has been significantly higher since 1975 in the ≤2500 m group than in the ≥3000 m group. (N.K.)

  1. Medical examination of ''Minashi'' atomic bomb survivor in Hiroshima-city, 1

    Kumazawa, Toshihiko

    1978-01-01

    As it is about one year (three examination terms) since health examinations for ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors has been carried out, conditions of these examinations are described. ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors can receive an a-bomb survivor's health notebook when they suffer from 10 damages designated by the Ministry of Public Welfare, and the number of ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors changes frequently. ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors who received a certificate of a recipient of the examination were 2363 at the end of 1977, and by that time, 665 of them (28.1%) also received an a-bomb survivor's health notebook instead of the certificate. Accordingly, the number of persons recognized as ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors at the end of the year was 1703 (688 men and 1015 women). ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors underwent health examinations at the same time and under the same way as a-bomb survivors. There were no great differences in the undergoing rate of general health examinations, the necessity rate for detailed examinations, the undergoing rate of detailed examinations, the necessity rate for treatment, and kinds of diseases requiring treatment between ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors and those in a-bomb survivors. The undergoing rate of general health examinations was 67.6%, (45.6% in a-bomb survivors), the necessity rate for detailed examinations, 43.1% (50.1%), the undergoing rate of detailed examinations, 91.3% (93.3%), and the necessity rate for treatment, 20.3% (29.0%). The undergoing rate of general health examinations in ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors was higher than that in a-bomb survivors, but the necessity rate for detailed examinations, the undergoing rate of detailed examination, and the necessity rate for treatment in ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors were lower than those in a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. Study of thyroid tumors in atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Sekine, Ichiro; Shichijo, Kazuko; Ito, Masahiro; Kishikawa, Masao; Mine, Mariko; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Ooya, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    Thyroid tumors, which were registered during 16 years from 1973 through 1988 in the Nagasaki tumor tissue registration committee, were examined with the purpose of searching for the relationship between thyroid tumors and A-bombing. One hundred and three A-bomb survivors having an A-bomb survivors 'handbook and 89 non-exposed persons born before August 9, 1945 in Nagasaki City were enrolled in the present study. The A-bomb survivors were divided into three groups: people exposed at >2,000 m from the hypocenter (n=20), those exposed at ≤2,000 m (n=68), and those entered the city early after A-bombing (n=15). Thyroid tumors examined were: thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, thyroid adenoma and malignant lymphoma. Crude incidence rate and relative risk of thyroid cancer were higher in all exposed groups, except for the ≤2,000 m group of males, than the non-exposed group. In particular, the >2,000 m group had significantly higher incidence of thyroid cancer, irrespective of sex. These findings confirmed the previous data for the higher incidence of thyroid cancer in A-bomb survivors exposed to higher doses of radiation. According to age, thyroid cancer was the most common in their sixth decade of life in the exposed group and in their fifth decade of life in the non-exposed group. Histologically, follicular carcinoma occupied higher incidence in the exposed group (19.2%) than the non-exposed group (8.7%). (N.K.)

  3. Cold pressor test on atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki

    Sasaki, Tomoyoshi; Sweedler, D R; Okamoto, Akira

    1964-03-12

    Cold pressor test was performed on a sample of 1156 atomic bomb survivors and other persons (ages ranging between 15 to 81 years) residing in Nagasaki City. Response values differed according to such factors as age, sex, blood pressure and month of examination. The response in systolic pressure increased with age but no evidence was found to support an acceleration of aging by irradiation. The response in diastolic blood pressure showed no change with age, but differed between Comparison Groups during the summer months. However, this was apparently due to some other cause than exposure to the atomic bomb. 25 references, 8 tables.

  4. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  5. Radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Arakawa, E T

    1959-01-01

    This report summarizes the present state of knowledge in dosimetry of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. Data have been presented on the physical factors involved in the two cities and on attenuation of radiation by various shielding situations. This information is being used to estimate a tentative radiation dose to individual A-bomb survivors. It should be emphasized that many important problems remain to be solved before accurate doses can be assigned to individual survivors. Such information will greatly strengthen investigation of biological consequences of instantaneous doses of gamma and neutron irradiation in men. 18 references, 9 figures.

  6. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  7. Deconstructing The Bomb: Confessions of a Nuclear Archeologist

    Coster-Mullen, John

    2017-01-01

    I am the author of the groundbreaking book Atom Bombs: The Top Secret Inside Story of Little Boy and Fat Man. I will be sharing some of my quarter century of research and methodology that has allowed me to be the first researcher ever to unravel with an unprecedented level of accuracy, the most closely-guarded secrets of the first two Atomic Bombs (``Little Boy'' and ``Fat Man'') created by the Manhattan Project that were used to end WWII. I refer to this methodology as ``Nuclear Archeology'' and will demonstrate that this was done using entirely ``Open Sources'' of information.

  8. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Gosling, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  9. Why didn't Hitler get the atomic bomb

    Chevassus-au-Louis, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author reports his historical studies on the Nazi's nuclear activities as, by the end of the 1930's, Germany was probably the leader in this domain. He mentions and describes the various programs that were launched between 1939 and 1945, discusses some evidences related to the fact that the Germans probably tried to master nuclear energy production, and that they might have tested a weapon containing fissile materials (probably a dirty bomb). The author analyses the reasons of the failure of this nuclear sector: a lack of organization, war and bombings, and a relative lack of interest of political authorities

  10. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb C

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    the 14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples...... is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C....

  11. Noncancer disease mortality among atomic bomb survivors

    Shimizu, Y.; Pierce, D.A.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, K

    2000-01-01

    We examined the noncancer disease mortality for 86,572 atomic bomb survivors with dose estimates in the Radiation Effect Research Foundation's Life Span Study cohort between 1950 and 1990. There are 27,000 noncancer disease deaths and show a statistically significant increase in noncancer disease death rates with radiation dose. Increasing trends are observed for diseases of the circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems. Rates for those exposed to 1 Sv are elevated about 10%, a relative increase that is considerably smaller than that for cancer. However, because noncancer deaths are much more common than cancer deaths, the absolute increase in noncancer rates is large. The estimates of the number of radiation-related noncancer deaths in the cohort to date are 50% to 100% of the number for solid cancer. There remains uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response. In particular, there is considerable uncertainty regarding risks in the range below 0.2 Sv of primary interest for radiation protection. The data are statistically consistent with curvilinear dose response functions that posit essentially zero risk for doses below 0.5 Sv, but there is no significant evidence against linearity. While the ERR for those exposed as children tends to increase with attained age, there is no statistically significant dependence of ERR on age at exposure or attained age. We also tried to estimate the lifetime risk, allowing for competing risks of cancer mortality. Especially we considered the impact of competing radiation risks since both cancer and noncancer mortality are in part radiation-related. These findings, as they are based on death certificates, have their limitation. However, the present findings can not be explained by biases due to misclassification of the cause of death and confounding factors. In the future, it will be necessary not only to continue mortality follow-up, but also to conduct a clinical study as well as animal experiments and biological

  12. Speech detection in noise and spatial unmasking in children with simultaneous versus sequential bilateral cochlear implants.

    Chadha, Neil K; Papsin, Blake C; Jiwani, Salima; Gordon, Karen A

    2011-09-01

    To measure speech detection in noise performance for children with bilateral cochlear implants (BiCI), to compare performance in children with simultaneous implant versus those with sequential implant, and to compare performance to normal-hearing children. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary academic pediatric center. Children with early-onset bilateral deafness and 2-year BiCI experience, comprising the "sequential" group (>2 yr interimplantation delay, n = 12) and "simultaneous group" (no interimplantation delay, n = 10) and normal-hearing controls (n = 8). Thresholds to speech detection (at 0-degree azimuth) were measured with noise at 0-degree azimuth or ± 90-degree azimuth. Spatial unmasking (SU) as the noise condition changed from 0-degree azimuth to ± 90-degree azimuth and binaural summation advantage (BSA) of 2 over 1 CI. Speech detection in noise was significantly poorer than controls for both BiCI groups (p simultaneous group approached levels found in normal controls (7.2 ± 0.6 versus 8.6 ± 0.6 dB, p > 0.05) and was significantly better than that in the sequential group (3.9 ± 0.4 dB, p simultaneous group but, in the sequential group, was significantly better when noise was moved to the second rather than the first implanted ear (4.8 ± 0.5 versus 3.0 ± 0.4 dB, p sequential group's second rather than first CI. Children with simultaneously implanted BiCI demonstrated an advantage over children with sequential implant by using spatial cues to improve speech detection in noise.

  13. Modeling Sluggishness in Binaural Unmasking of Speech for Maskers With Time-Varying Interaural Phase Differences.

    Hauth, Christopher F; Brand, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In studies investigating binaural processing in human listeners, relatively long and task-dependent time constants of a binaural window ranging from 10 ms to 250 ms have been observed. Such time constants are often thought to reflect "binaural sluggishness." In this study, the effect of binaural sluggishness on binaural unmasking of speech in stationary speech-shaped noise is investigated in 10 listeners with normal hearing. In order to design a masking signal with temporally varying binaural cues, the interaural phase difference of the noise was modulated sinusoidally with frequencies ranging from 0.25 Hz to 64 Hz. The lowest, that is the best, speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were observed for the lowest modulation frequency. SRTs increased with increasing modulation frequency up to 4 Hz. For higher modulation frequencies, SRTs remained constant in the range of 1 dB to 1.5 dB below the SRT determined in the diotic situation. The outcome of the experiment was simulated using a short-term binaural speech intelligibility model, which combines an equalization-cancellation (EC) model with the speech intelligibility index. This model segments the incoming signal into 23.2-ms time frames in order to predict release from masking in modulated noises. In order to predict the results from this study, the model required a further time constant applied to the EC mechanism representing binaural sluggishness. The best agreement with perceptual data was achieved using a temporal window of 200 ms in the EC mechanism.

  14. Using sound to unmask losses disguised as wins in multiline slot machines.

    Dixon, Mike J; Collins, Karen; Harrigan, Kevin A; Graydon, Candice; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2015-03-01

    Losses disguised as wins (LDWs) are slot machine outcomes where participants bet on multiple lines and win back less than their wager. Despite losing money, the machine celebrates these outcomes with reinforcing sights and sounds. Here, we sought to show that psychophysically and psychologically, participants treat LDWs as wins, but that we could expose LDWs as losses by using negative sounds as feedback. 157 participants were allocated into one of three conditions: a standard sound condition where LDWs, despite being losses, are paired with winning sights and sounds; a silent condition, where LDWs are paired with silence; and a negative sound condition where LDWs and regular losses are both followed by a negative sound. After viewing a paytable, participants conducted 300 spins on a slot machine simulator while heart rate deceleration (HRD) and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were monitored. Participants were then shown 20 different spin outcomes including LDWs and asked whether they had won or lost on that outcome. Participants then estimated on how many spins (out of 300) they won more than they wagered. SCRs were similar for losses and LDWs (both smaller than actual wins). HRD, however, was steeper for both wins and LDWs, compared to losses. In the standard condition, a majority of participants (mis)categorized LDWs as wins, and significantly overestimated the number of times they actually won. In the negative sound condition, this pattern was reversed; most participants correctly categorized LDWs as losses, and they gave high-fidelity win estimates. We conclude that participants both think and physiologically react to LDWs as though they are wins, a miscategorization that misleads them to think that they are winning more often than they actually are. Sound can be used to effectively prevent this misconception and unmask the disguise of LDWs.

  15. Unmasking of complements using proteinase-K in formalin fixed paraffin embedded renal biopsies

    R Nada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal biopsy interpretation requires histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF and electron microscopy. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE sent for light microscopy can be used for DIF after antigen retrieval. However, complement staining has not been satisfactory. We standardized DIF using proteinase-K for antigen retrieval in FFPE renal biopsies. A pilot study was conducted on known cases of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN, membranoproliferative type-1 (MPGN-1, immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN, and anti-glomerular basement disease (anti-GBM. Immunofluorescence panel included fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC conjugated IgG, IgA, IgM, complements (C3 and C1q, light chains (kappa, lambda and fibrinogen antibodies. After standardization of the technique, 75 renal biopsies and 43 autopsies cases were stained. Out of 43 autopsy cases, immune-complex mediated glomerulonephritis (GN was confirmed in 18 cases (Lupus nephritis-11, IgAN-6, MGN-1, complement-mediated dense deposit disease (DDD-1 and monoclonal diseases in 4 cases (amyloidosis-3, cast nephropathy-1. Immune-mediated injury was excluded in 17 cases (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis -3, crescentic GN-6 [pauci-immune-3, anti-GBM-3], thrombotic microangiopathy-5, atherosclerosis-3. Renal biopsies (n-75 where inadequate or no frozen sample was available; this technique classified 52 mesangiocapillary pattern as MPGN type-1-46, DDD-2 and (C3GN-4. Others were diagnosed as IgAN-3, lupus nephritis-2, MGN-4, diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN-1, Non-IC crescentic GN-1, monoclonal diseases-3. In nine cases, DIF on FFPE tissue could not help in making diagnosis. Proteinase-K enzymatic digestion of FFPE renal biopsies can unmask complements (both C3 and C1q in immune-complexes mediated and complement-mediated diseases. This method showed good results on autopsy tissues archived for as long as 15 years.

  16. Unmasking of tracheomalacia following short-term mechanical ventilation in a patient of adult respiratory distress syndrome

    Harihar V Hegde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are susceptible to airway malacia, which may be unmasked following mechanical ventilation or tracheostomy decannulation. Dynamic imaging of central airways, a non-invasive test as effective as bronchoscopy to diagnose airway malacia, has increased the recognition of this disorder. We describe a 70-year-old woman admitted with adult respiratory distress syndrome. She had cardiorespiratory arrest on admission, from which she was successfully resuscitated. She had obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, recurrent ventricular tachycardia, sarcoidosis with interstitial lung disease and COPD. She received short-term (18 days mechanical ventilation with tracheostomy and developed respiratory distress following tracheostomy decannulation.

  17. A mathematical model for the interpretation of nuclear bomb test derived {sup 14}C incorporation in biological systems

    Bernard, Samuel [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, INSA de Lyon, F-69621, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5208, Institut Camille Jordan, 43 blvd du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne-Cedex (France); Frisen, Jonas [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Spalding, Kirsty L., E-mail: kirsty.spalding@ki.s [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    Human tissues continually replace dying cells with newborn cells. However, the rate of renewal varies by orders of magnitudes between blood cells, which are renewed every day and neurons, for which renewal is non-existent or limited to specific regions of the brain. Between those extreme are many tissues that turnover on a time scale of years, although no direct measurements have been done. We present here a mathematical method to estimate cell turnover in slowly renewing biological systems. Age distribution of DNA can be estimated from the integration of radiocarbon derived from nuclear bomb-testing during the cold war (1955-1963). For slowly renewing tissues, this method provides a better estimate of the average age of the tissue than direct estimates from the bomb-curve. Moreover, death, birth and turnover rates can be estimated. We highlight this method with data from human fat cells.

  18. Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection

    Yoneda, Minoru; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Plicht, Johannes van der; Uchida, Masao; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uehiro, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Ohno, Terufumi

    2000-01-01

    The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as archaeological interpretation around this region. The lack of adequate collection of the pre-bomb shell from western north Pacific was the biggest problem. Recently we had a chance to examine specimens from an old shell collection stored in Kyoto University, including shell specimens from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Micronesia of 1920s and 1930s. We explored the possibility for usage of specimen without clear evidence of live collection by measuring 30 apparent radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb mollusk shells from 18 sites in Western North Pacific. The preliminary results showed several discrepancies with previously reported results and with each other. We have to carefully select the shell specimen that has biological signs such as articulating fulcrum. In order to exploit this big resource of pre-bomb shell collection, the new technique to distinguish fossils from live collected samples should be developed by using chemical and physical methods

  19. Leukemia in atomic bomb survivors. 1. General observations. Leukemia in survivors of atomic bombing. Cytologic and biochemical studies on the granulocytes in early leukemia among atomic bomb survivors. Leukemogenic effects of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City

    Lange, R D; Moloney, W C; Yamawaki, Tokuso; Kastenbaum, M A

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 4 separate reports on leukemia in survivals of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first report, observations on seventy-five established cases of leukemia occurring in people exposed to atomic bomb radiation are presented. These data indicate a great increase in the incidence of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors due to a single massive exposure to ionizing radiation. The leukemogenic effects of radiation are manifested equally in both sexes and at all age levels represented in this series. The striking preponderance of chronic myelogenous leukemia compared to chronic lymphatic leukemia has been noted in exposed individuals but it is pointed out that chronic lymphatic leukemia is comparatively rare among the Japanese. Cases of leukemia are still appearing in atomic bomb survivors. However, since 1950 there has been a steady decline in the number of cases. The second report consists of a review of all cases of leukemia referred to the ABCC from 1948 to April 1952, a total of 75 cases. In the third report, hematological and biochemical findings in separated leukocytes of four cases of preclinical myelogenous leukemia developing in atomic bomb survivors are described. The incidence of leukemia among survivors in Hiroshima is the topic of the fourth report. 38 references, 8 figures, 10 tables.

  20. Multiple primary cancer in cases of atomic bomb survivors

    Tanaka, Tsuneo; Matsuda, Masahiro; Matsugu, Yasuhiro; Ishimoto, Tatsuro; Nakahara, Hideki; Kagawa, Naoki; Fukuda, Yasuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Multiple primary cancer was investigated in individual atomic bomb survivors more than 50 years after exposure. During the decade from 1995 to 2004, double cancer was detected in 275 individuals visiting our facility. These 275 patients with multiple primary cancer were divided into an atomic bomb-exposed group and a non-exposed group. In terms of age at the time of definite diagnosis of double cancer and age upon onset of the first cancer, there was no significant difference between the atomic bomb-exposed group and the non-exposed group. In both groups, the percentage of males was higher than that of females. However, the percentage of females was higher in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group. Synchronous double cancer (cases where a second cancer develops within one year after onset of the first cancer) was seen in 32 individuals from the exposed group. Triple cancer was seen in 3 cases. In the exposed group, the site affected by cancer was the stomach in 28% and the colon/rectum in 27% of cases. Thus, cancer affected the stomach or colon/rectum in the majority of cases. The most frequent combination of organs affected by double cancer was the stomach+colon/rectum (20 cases, 25%). In a study of multiple primary cancer patients, the percentage of females was higher in the atomic bomb exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. There was no other difference between the two groups. (author)

  1. Health survey of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea

    Arita, Ken-ichi; Iwamori, Hiroshi; Kishi, Akihiro; Koutoku, Michiya

    1988-05-01

    Health survey was undertaken among Korea survivors exposed to atomic bomb in Japan who now reside in South Korea. Of 232 A-bomb survivors on whom raditation exposure information was available, all were exposed to atomic bomb in Hiroshima. According to the distance from the hypocenter, one (0.4 %) A-bomb survior was exposed at < 1,000 m, 60 (25.9 %) at 1,000 - 2,000 m, 124 (53.4 %) at > 2,000 - 3,000 m, and 43 (18.5 %) at < 3,000 m. In the four remaining, it was unknown. According to age, 14.7 % were in their forties, 33.6 % in their fifties, 32.6 % in their sixties, 16.0 % in their severties, and 3.1 % in their eighties, indicating the tendency for the aging of older persons. Common subjective symptoms were lumbar pain and joint pain, which seemed atributable to osteoarthritis. Other diseases included hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sequelae of cerebral stroke, eczema, and mycosis. (Namekawa, K.).

  2. Accurate dating with radiocarbon from the atom bomb tests

    Vogel

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The artificial radiocarbon produced by the thermonuclear bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s significantly increased the level of C-14 in the environment. A detailed record of the subsequent changes in the C-14 concentration of the atmosphere can...

  3. Current trend of malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors

    Hamada, Tadao

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made on 7,589 admitted patients and 1,965 autopsy cases. The overall incidence of malignant neoplasms tended to decrease in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases and to increase in admitted patients. The incidence of pulmonary cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to increase up to 1975, and thereafter tended to decrease. The incidence of liver cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients, which was marked in males. The incidence of leukemia was high in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases, and in the group within 1 km and the group which entered the city after the explosion in admitted patients. The incidence of malignant lymphoma tended to decrease, and the incidence of carcinoma of the colon tended to gradually increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of multiple carcinomas tended to increase in both atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group, being higher in atomic bomb group than in non-exposed group. The incidence of breast cancer became constant since 1970. The incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland tended to decrease, although it was high in the group exposed near the explosion. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. The Neutrino Bomb: A New Weapon of Mass Destruction

    Broda, E.

    1978-01-01

    This text was written by E. Broda in a “Supplementary” paper for Pugwash in the year 1978. It is about the neutrino and a general principle of its use as a potential weapon of mass destruction. It ends with a suggestion to convene a Pugwash workshop for dealing with the threat of the neutrino bomb. (zarka)

  5. 3D reconstructions of a controlled bus bombing

    Villa, Chiara; Hansen, Nikolaj Friis; Hansen, Kamilla Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: to demonstrate the usefulness of 3D reconstructions to better understand the dynamic of a controlled bus bombing. Materials and methods: 3D models of the victims (pigs) were created from post-mortem CT scanning using Mimic software; 3D models of the crime scene (bus) were generated by...

  6. Heisenberg's war. The secret history of the German bomb

    Powers, T.

    1993-01-01

    The history of Second World War Germany's 'Uranium Project', which often is referred to as the 'myth of the German atomic bomb', has been attracting the mind's of secret service men, futurologists, historians and journalists since after the end of the war it has become possible to lift the veil of secrecy. Powers book adds another one to the many investigations published since them. His approach to the piece of history starts with Heisenberg's visit to the U.S.A. in summer 1939, describes the plans of the German Heereswaffenamt pursued with the Uranium Project, and their counterpart on the side of the Allied Forces where German scientists, as immigrants in England and in the U.S.A., were doing their best to launch research for the development of an atomic bomb. The end of this 'competition' is marked by the internment of the ten German scientists and bomb specialists in Fall Hall. The leading story of the book centers on the small group of scientists around Heisenberg, who cleverly 'torpedoed' the development of the German atomic bomb in the years from 1939 until 1944. (HP) [de

  7. The toxicology of zinc chloride smoke producing bombs and screens

    El Idrissi, Ayman; van Berkel, Lisanne; Bonekamp, Nadia E; Dalemans, Diana J Z; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due

  8. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 3

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    In Report 1 of this series, we suspected that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors might have increased based on evidence of chromosomal aberrations and clonal formations in cultured skin cells. In Report 2, we described the results of a preliminary study using 110 cases of skin cancer collected from the three major hospitals in Nagasaki City (Nagasaki University Hospital, A-bomb Hospital and Citizens Hospital). In that study a high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in the analysis of all 110 cases and of the 50 male cases (p<0.01), but no such correlation was noted in a separate analysis of the 60 female cases. In this report, 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts were statistically analyzed in respect to the estimated distance from the hypocenter, using the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of the Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The results disclosed a high correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and the exposure distance (p<0.01). In addition, this correlation was the same even when the cases were analyzed separately according to sex. (author)

  9. Characterising argon-bomb balloons for high-speed photography

    Olivier, M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A method to optimise the geometry, explosive charge mass and volume of an argon bomb for specific lighting requirements has been proposed. The method is specifically aimed at applications that require photographic diagnostics with ultra-high speed...

  10. Lack of strategic insight: the "dirty bomb" effort.

    Goffman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Multiple countries including the United States and France are investing heavily in countermeasures to the threat of a "dirty bomb." All of the machinery simply involves a variation on a Geiger counter that picks up excess photon irradiation. Classically, a "dirty bomb" is defined as a dangerous radioactive material mixed in a variety of ways with high explosive, so when detonated, radioactive material is dispersed. Solid radioactive material such as Cesium or Cobalt sends off very penetrating ('hard') photons from which one cannot simply be protected by sheet lead or a heavy door. For official occasions with dignitaries of State, such a bomb could prove a modest distraction, but simple radiation physics suggests such a bomb would be limited in the damage it could cause, would largely be a mess to be cleaned up by an appropriately trained crew, would involve a very confined area, and thoroughly fails to comprehend the mentality of al-Queda 'central' that wishes to follow 9/11 with an equal or greater show of terrorist force. The author would argue this sort of mind-think occurs when you have too few people in the hard sciences in your intelligence sections.

  11. Satisfaction in life of elder A-bomb survivors

    Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Yutaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi

    1992-01-01

    1500 A-bomb survivor aged more than 65 are sampled and the questionnaire was performed by mailing. 1329 (88.6 %) responded and 937 from the age less than 80 were statistically anylized. Fairly good satisfaction was felt on their daily life, including dwelling, income, work, health and family. (J.P.N.)

  12. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a test or tragedy ?

    Faridah Mohd Idris

    2003-01-01

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki were left as monument by the history of the man civilization. This article discussed some of related issues i.e. the scenarios of the tragedy, the history of atomic bomb - starts with the discovery of neutrons to the day the tragedy happened

  13. Aplastic anemia and related disorders in atomic bomb survivors

    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Yu; Matsunaga, Masako; Sadamori, Naoki; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1978-01-01

    Whether the incidence of aplastic anemia significantly increases due to the later effect of atomic-bomb radiation was studied. After the data of aplastic anemia which occurred within 1950 - 1973 were evaluated and the diagnoses of the cases were certified, the incidence of aplastic anemia per 109,000 inhabitants of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was calculated and compared according to the dose of atomic-bomb radiation. There was no increase in the incidence according to an increase in radiation dose, and there was no fact that aplastic anemia increased in a certain period either. Most of the atomic-bomb survivors who were close to the epicenter and were clinically diagnosed as aplastic anemia had leukemia lesion or myeloid proliferating lesion, and it is likely to be that pathological changes resembling aplastic anemia may appear in a certain phase of myeloid proliferation or as a phenotype of myeloid proliferation. An evaluation was made on cases of aplastic anemia of other groups, but the doses of atomic-bomb radiation which they received were not so much to give effect on the bone marrow except only two cases. (Ueda, J.)

  14. Iran, the bomb and the pursuit of security. Structured conflict analyses; Iran, die Bombe und das Streben nach Sicherheit. Strukturierte Konfliktanalysen

    Bock, Andreas M. [Akkon-Hochschule fuer Humanwissenschaften, Berlin (Germany); Henneberg, Ingo (ed.) [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Governance in Mehrebenensystemen

    2014-07-01

    This volume introduces readers to the structured conflict analysis as a tool of social science research and uses this instrument exemplarily to analyze systematically and on a broad basis the various conflicts that are associated with Iran both domestically and in foreign policy - beyond popular stereotypes such as the ''bomb''. The 13 contributions draw a complex picture of the conflicts with and in Iran and reflect the various aspects of these conflicts from different perspectives and at a high methodological and theoretical level. The nuclear program is examined, inter alia through the eyes of four major theories of International Relations. In addition, the analyses are concerned with the regional security dimension, the relationship USA-Iran, the role of national preferences, and the effect of national processes to the Iranian foreign policy.

  15. Leukemia among a-bomb survivors living in Hiroshima city, 1971-1978

    Kawakami, Masahito; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkita, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Norihiko

    1980-01-01

    The death from leukemia among Hiroshima citizens from 1971 to 1978 was investigated. The total number of dead citizens was 241, and 64 of them were a-bomb survivors. Thirty-seven of a-bomb survivors were exposed to a-bomb within 2 km from hypocenter. Seventy-seven of remaining 177 citizens were born after the explosion of a-bomb, but they were not children of a-bomb survivors exposed directly to a-bomb. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed near the hypocenter was 1.67 (within 2 km) - 2.51 (within 1.5 km) times that of those exposed far from the hypocenter. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed within 1.5 km was significantly high. The death risk from leukemia was significantly high in women. The estimated exposure dose was over 1 rad in 25 of abovementioned 37 a-bomb survivors, and it was over 10 rad in 21 and over 100 rad in 10 of 25. Seven of 10 a-bomb survivors exposed over 100 rad were women. The age at the exposure was under 10 years in 1, teens in 1, twenties in 2, and over thirty in 6. The type of leukemia was acute in 8 and chronic in 2. Both types were myelogenous leukemia. Five of these 10 a-bomb survivors died after 1976. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Imaginary Savior: the image of the nuclear bomb in Korea, 1945-1960.

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2009-01-01

    Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 brought the unexpected liberation of Korea from the 35-year Japanese occupation. Koreans therefore had a very favorable and positive image of the nuclear bomb and nuclear energy from the beginning. The image of the nuclear bomb as "savior" was strengthened during the Korean War when the United States openly mentioned the possible use of the nuclear bomb against North Korean and Chinese military. After the end of the Korean War in July 1953 South Koreans strongly supported the development of the nuclear bomb in order to deter another North Korean invasion. When the US government provided South Korea with a research nuclear reactor in the late 1950s, most South Koreans hailed it as the first step to developing their own nuclear bomb. This paper will analyze how and why the savior image of the nuclear bomb originated and spread in Korea during the 1950s.

  17. Leukemia among atomic bomb survivors during the 1980s

    Kusumi, Shizuyo; Matsuo, Tatsuki

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of the dosimetry system 1986, exposure doses were determined in a cohort of 86,502 subjects for the Life Span Study during the period 1950-1985. A total of 248 people were found to develop leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. This is an analysis of the 248 patients with leukemia in connection with exposure doses, years after A-bombing, age at the time of A-bombing, relative risk, and background. An average exposure dose was 0.20 Gy for Hiroshima and 0.22 Gy for Nagasaki. Relative risk for leukemia tended to show a linear increase in proportion to exposure doses. This was significant for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), regardless of whether A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The younger the age at the time of A-bombing was, the higher excess relative risk for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) was. For AML, however, it was independent of the age at that time. These findings were similar in Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, irrespective of age. As for non-exposed group, the incidence of CML was three times higher in Hiroshima citizen than Nagasaki citizen. Similarly, Hiroshima citizen had a 1.6 fold incidence of AML. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ALL between the cities. The incidences of both AML and ALL tended to increase more and more with aging, but the prevalences tended to increase in younger generation. An increased incidence of CML was associated with aging alone. (N.K.)

  18. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-01-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims' mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  19. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  20. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    Shintani, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1999-01-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10 5 persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. (author)

  1. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Unmasking or Worsening AIDS-Related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: A Literature Review

    Anna Fournier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML in HIV-infected patients has declined in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART era although a growing number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-related PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (PML-IRIS have been published during the same period. Therapeutic management of PML-IRIS is not consensual and mainly relies on corticosteroids. Our main aim was, in addition to provide a thoughtful analysis of published PML-IRIS cases, to assess the benefit of corticosteroids in the management of PML-IRIS, focusing on confirmed cases. We performed a literature review of the 46 confirmed cases of PML-IRIS cases occurring in HIV-infected patients from 1998 to September 2016 (21 unmasking and 25 paradoxical PML-IRIS. AIDS-related PML-IRIS patients were mostly men (sex ratio 4/1 with a median age of 40.5 years (range 12–66. Median CD4 T cell count before cART and at PML-IRIS onset was 45/μl (0–301 and 101/μl (20–610, respectively. After cART initiation, PML-IRIS occurred within a median timescale of 38 days (18–120. Clinical signs were motor deficits (69%, speech disorders (36%, cognitive disorders (33%, cerebellar ataxia (28%, and visual disturbances (23%. Brain MRI revealed hyperintense areas on T2-weighted sequences and FLAIR images (76% and suggestive contrast enhancement (87%. PCR for John Cunningham virus (JCV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was positive in only 84% of cases; however, when performed, brain biopsy confirmed diagnosis of PML in 90% of cases and demonstrated histological signs of IRIS in 95% of cases. Clinical worsening related to PML-IRIS and leading to death was observed in 28% of cases. Corticosteroids were prescribed in 63% of cases and maraviroc in one case. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate significant benefit from steroid treatment, despite spectacular improvement in certain cases. Diagnosis of PML-IRIS should be considered in HIV

  2. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Unmasking or Worsening AIDS-Related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: A Literature Review.

    Fournier, Anna; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Dina, Julia; Kazemi, Apolline; Verdon, Renaud; Mortier, Emmanuel; de La Blanchardière, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV-infected patients has declined in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era although a growing number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (PML-IRIS) have been published during the same period. Therapeutic management of PML-IRIS is not consensual and mainly relies on corticosteroids. Our main aim was, in addition to provide a thoughtful analysis of published PML-IRIS cases, to assess the benefit of corticosteroids in the management of PML-IRIS, focusing on confirmed cases. We performed a literature review of the 46 confirmed cases of PML-IRIS cases occurring in HIV-infected patients from 1998 to September 2016 (21 unmasking and 25 paradoxical PML-IRIS). AIDS-related PML-IRIS patients were mostly men (sex ratio 4/1) with a median age of 40.5 years (range 12-66). Median CD4 T cell count before cART and at PML-IRIS onset was 45/μl (0-301) and 101/μl (20-610), respectively. After cART initiation, PML-IRIS occurred within a median timescale of 38 days (18-120). Clinical signs were motor deficits (69%), speech disorders (36%), cognitive disorders (33%), cerebellar ataxia (28%), and visual disturbances (23%). Brain MRI revealed hyperintense areas on T2-weighted sequences and FLAIR images (76%) and suggestive contrast enhancement (87%). PCR for John Cunningham virus (JCV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive in only 84% of cases; however, when performed, brain biopsy confirmed diagnosis of PML in 90% of cases and demonstrated histological signs of IRIS in 95% of cases. Clinical worsening related to PML-IRIS and leading to death was observed in 28% of cases. Corticosteroids were prescribed in 63% of cases and maraviroc in one case. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate significant benefit from steroid treatment, despite spectacular improvement in certain cases. Diagnosis of PML-IRIS should be considered in HIV

  3. Multi-wavelength Spectral Analysis of Ellerman Bombs Observed by FISS and IRIS

    Hong, Jie; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314-9672 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are a kind of solar activity that is suggested to occur in the lower solar atmosphere. Recent observations using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) show connections between EBs and IRIS bombs (IBs), which imply that EBs might be heated to a much higher temperature (8 × 10{sup 4} K) than previous results. Here we perform a spectral analysis of EBs simultaneously observed by the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph and IRIS. The observational results show clear evidence of heating in the lower atmosphere, indicated by the wing enhancement in H α , Ca ii 8542 Å, and Mg ii triplet lines and also by brightenings in images of the 1700 Å and 2832 Å ultraviolet continuum channels. Additionally, the intensity of the Mg ii triplet line is correlated with that of H α when an EB occurs, suggesting the possibility of using the triplet as an alternative way to identify EBs. However, we do not find any signal in IRIS hotter lines (C ii and Si iv). For further analysis, we employ a two-cloud model to fit the two chromospheric lines (H α and Ca ii 8542 Å) simultaneously, and obtain a temperature enhancement of 2300 K for a strong EB. This temperature is among the highest of previous modeling results, albeit still insufficient to produce IB signatures at ultraviolet wavelengths.

  4. Reanalysis of interviewing study data in the health attitude survey of A-bomb survivors, etc

    Satoh, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    The interviewing study data in the title were initially contained in the official request of Hiroshima City and Prefecture, which had been presented to MHLW (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) in 2010, concerning spread of previously defined A-bomb exposed regions and were statistically reanalyzed based on the requirement of the consequent MHLW council. The data were originally derived from the questionnaire in 2008 about the health attitude survey by Hiroshima authorities, from which 892 survivors had received the interview together with self-writing, and answers of 869 parsons (524 males) were finally subjected to the present reanalysis. Measures of the interview involved the SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36-item Health Survey) for QOL, GHQ28 (General Health Questionnaire 28-item) for screening of neurosis/depression, and CAPS (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) for diagnosis of PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder), etc. These measures were analyzed along with classes of A-bomb experience with adjustment factors of sex, age and income by multiple-/multivariate logistic-regression. It was found that measures were tended to be worse in groups experiencing the black rain without effects of adjustment factors, which was similar to groups experiencing the heavier rainfall; however, these results were statistically insignificant. (T.T.)

  5. Medical examination of A-bomb survivors on Nagasaki A-bomb Casualty

    Tagawa, Masuko

    1996-01-01

    Medical examination of A-bomb survivors was described and discussed on history, time change of examinee number, action for subjects not examined, change of prevalence, cancer examination, examination for the second generation, and education and enlightenment. Free examination of the survivors was begun in 1953 and the present casualty was made in 1958 on the law for medical care for the survivors. Systematic examination started from 1967 and the examination for the 2nd generation, from 1974. Cancer examination was from 1988. The number of the survivors was the maximum of 82,439 in 1974 and decreased to 61,388 in 1994, when the actual number of examinees, which being rather settled recently, was 32,294 and their average age was 64 y. The examination is done by tour or at the Center. Subjects receive the information of the examination twice by mail. Hematopoietic diseases like anemia, hepatic ones, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, renal impairment and others (mostly hyperlipidemia) are increasing recently. The number of examinees for cancer is increasing. Lung cancer is examined by the direct roentgenography, gastric cancer by transillumination, and other cancers like myeloma, those in large bowel, uterus and mammary gland, by the respective suitable methods. Health education and enlightenment have been conceivably effective. (H.O.)

  6. Mortality of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki and Hiroshima

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Okumura, Yutaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao

    2000-01-01

    A data base of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki has been maintained at Division of Scientific Data Registry, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute at Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The data base include personal histories, records of health checks and cause of death. We have published the mortality of non-cancerous disease of A-bomb survivors using old dose estimation system, T65D, elsewhere. The mortality of non-cancerous disease was lower than controls for a dose range 50-99 cGy in male. We reanalyzed the mortality of non-cancerous disease using new dose estimation system, ABS93D. It's result was lower than controls for a dose range 31-40cGy in male. We compared the results of A-bomb survivors in our database with those or LSS's population, RERF. (1) Radiation dose for survivors in Nagasaki have been estimated by Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). To study the mortality rates of A-bomb survivors for the period of 1971 through 1994, we selected 2,743 persons (dose estimate available) and age-matched 8,229 persons as control who were alive in 1971. (2) Another population is Life Span Study by Radiation Effect Research Foundation (RERF). RERF opened the data from 1950 to 1985. The data on deaths are stratified by city, sex, age radiation dose, the observed period and cause of death, yielding 3,640 strata. (1) The study resulted in that males exposed to 31-40cGy showed lower mortality from non-cancerous diseases than that of control. (2) Relative risk of mortality from all causes is lower than controls for a dose range 6-19cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. Relative risk of mortality from non-cancerous disease is significantly lower than controls for a dose range 6-49cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. But result of adjusted for city is no difference. (author)

  7. The threat of a dirty bomb and possible verification measures

    Meer, Klaas van der; Hardeman, Frank; Meier, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses technical aspects of the dirty (radiological dispersion) bomb and the threat that this type of bomb poses to societies and international security. Based on the technology and materials needed to construct a dirty bomb, the relevance of the safeguards system for nuclear material accountancy and chemical and biological control systems is discussed. A dirty bomb consists of a conventional explosive charge combined with radioactive material. Its purpose is to contaminate a large area with radioactive material. The main consequences would be loss of life through direct impact and contamination. In comparison with use of nuclear fission devices, the number of direct casualties due to the impact of the explosion are likely to be small. In the long run, there may be casualties due to radioactive contamination, however, probably fewer than is mentioned in public discussions. Other consequences of the use of a radiological device include widespread panic, fear and uncertainty among the public, high decontamination costs, loss of real estate value and disruption of economic activity in the area concerned. If a terrorist is intent on causing maximum havoc and disruption, the radioactive material of choice should have a reasonably long half life. Access should be easy and such material should be available in sufficient quantities. The most obvious candidates from this perspective are 60 Co and 137 Cs and to a lesser extent 90 Sr. Also some more 'exotic' radionuclides or mixtures cannot absolutely be excluded. 60 Co and 137 Cs are frequently used in medical and industrial equipment. There is currently no international material accountancy system for these materials and thousands of sources have been produced in many countries. One or several of these sources contain sufficient material for the construction of an effective 'dirty bomb'. Approximative dispersion calculations will be performed to determine the spread of radioactive material. Dependent on the

  8. Clinical studies on gastric cancer and breast cancer among A-bomb survivors

    Yamagata, S; Ohya, M; Nagusa, Y; Harada, T; Tani, T [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1977-04-01

    Fifty-five cases of gastric cancer and 14 cases of breast cancer among A-Bomb survivors, which had been treated at Dept. of Surgery, Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology of Hiroshima Univ., were discussed. Both gastric cancer and breast cancer were recognized more in A-Bomb survivors of advanced age. Particularly, the number of gastric cancer in A-Bomb survivors of over 65-year old was about double the number of unexposed persons. Ratio of male to female in A-Bomb survivors with gastric cancer was 1.6:1, and the ratio of female was higher as compared to the ratio in unexposed persons (2.6:1). Gastric cancer of stage III and IV in A-Bomb survivors was 54.5%, and advanced cancer was comparatively few in A-Bomb survivors as compared to in unexposed persons (78.2%). Similarly, comparatively early stage breast cancer of stage I and II was recognized more in A-Bomb survivors. Particularly, T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ in which tumor was small in size showed very high percentage of 92.9% in A-Bomb survivors. In gastric cancer in A-Bomb survivors, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma showed the highest percentage of 34.5%. However, there was no significant difference according to the exposure conditions. As to histological type of breast cancer, medullary tubular adenocarcinoma abounds mostly in both A-Bomb survivors (71.4%) and unexposed persons (75.9%). As the influence of operation, anemia was recognized before operation strongly in A-Bomb survivors with gastric cancer of over 65-year old. After the operation, transient rise of GOT and GPT was recognized in A-Bomb survivors of advanced age with gastric cancer. However, there was no difference in postoperative complications between A-Bomb survivors and unexposed persons.

  9. Destroying of chemical and oil industry, bombing of energy sources and use of depleted uranium ammunition during NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia

    Antic, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    During the NATO bombing of the FR Yugoslavia from March 24 to June 10, 1999, according to NATO's data, there were 34 250 takeoffs of the 1200 aircrafts; 367 000 tonnes of kerosine were consumed; there were 400 Tomahawk cruise missiles and 130 air-to-ground missiles. It is estimated that 22 000-79 000 tonnes of explosives were dropped; in addition to 20 000 smart bombs and 5000 conventional bombs of various weight and purposes. The bombing had the characteristics of an ecological war, among other things. During the air strikes A-10 aircrafts fired shells with depleted uranium from 30 mm guns. According to NATO estimates, around 31 000 projectiles were fired (298 g of depleted uranium for each bullet, and more than 10 tonnes of uranium-238 as a contaminating agent), and according to the Yugoslav Army estimated, around 50 000 were fired. Some radiological, chemical and ethical consequences of NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia are reviewed. (author)

  10. A review of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Nakao, Susumu; Sawai, Terumitsu; Ishii, Toshiyo; Eida, Kazuyuki; Noguchi, Kyoichi; Takahara, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer amongst atomic bomb survivors, who had undergone operations from 1971∼1984, have been reviewed and compared with that of a control group. The survival rate of the atomic bomb survivors over the age of 60 years was statistically better than that of the same age group in the controls. In this age bracket, the control group were in a more advanced stage of the disease than were the survivors, this accounting for the reason why the survivors had better prognosis. Further, the fact that the survivors continually have received more medical attention than have the aged in the control group affects this statistic. (author)

  11. Endocrine and gonadial tumors among A-bomb survivors

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Fujikura, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    A review of 4,136 consecutive autopsies between 1961 and 1977 and surgical cases from A-bomb survivors seen in Hiroshima University School of Medicine was made in terms of pituitary tumors, parathyroid tumors, thyroid cancer, carcinoid, tumors of the adrenal cortex, ovarian tumors, testicular tumors, and multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT). The occurrence of thyroid cancer, parathyroid tumors, and MEGT may be correlated with atomic radiation. Mortality from endocrine and gonadial tumors tended to be higher with increasing T65 doses. As for MEGT, the combination of thyroid cancer and ovarian tumors occurred frequently among A-bomb survivors. The combination of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and pheochromacytoma of the adrenal gland was unlikely to be related to atomic radiation. Further study may be needed in elucidating possible effects of atomic radiation on endocrine hormones. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Oda, Kenji; Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  13. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  14. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, (3)

    Tsubota, Motoki; Ito, Chikako

    1980-01-01

    Mass examinations of the stomach were performed on 13,412 a-bomb survivors from Oct. 1975 to Mar. 1979. The necessity rate for detailed examinations was 13.6% on the average, and it was a little lower than the average in Japan. That in women was higher than that in men. The performance rate of detailed examinations was very high (91.8%), which might be influenced by active appeals to have detailed examinations. The estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer was 0.27% on the average, and it was higher than that in mass examinations of Chugoku and Shikoku districts. A relationship between the estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer and exposure conditions was not clarified. The discovery rate of stomach cancer was supposed to be influenced strongly by aging of a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    Morimoto, Kazue; Inoue, Hisako; Uchino, Chito

    1984-01-01

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Hot spring therapy of atomic bomb exposed patients, (9)

    Hatta, O [Balneogic Sanatorium for the Atomic Bomb Injured Beppu, Oita (Japan); Tsuji, H

    1978-03-01

    The following description shows the statistics and the results of medical examinatin concerning the patients utilized Beppu Atomic Bomb Center from April, 1977, to March, 1978. Number of persons utilized the center was 3904, and 20285 man-days in total. Number of case treated there was 268. Number of diseases amounted to 442 of 66 sorts, excluding temporary of acute diseases such as acute entergastritis and cold diseases, etc. According to the report by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, atomic bomb-exposed persons show twice as much rate of incidence as normal persons, and owing to aging, many of them have more than two kinds of diseases. Among the diseases, 60 cases were hypertension, 32 heart disease, 30 knee-arthritis, 26 diabetes, 25 hepatitis, 23 spondylosis deformans, etc. Among 268 cases treated by hot spring therapy, 6 were totally cured, and 252 showed alleviation, while 10 showed no change.

  17. Surgical resource utilization in urban terrorist bombing: a computer simulation.

    Hirshberg, A; Stein, M; Walden, R

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the utilization of surgical staff and facilities during an urban terrorist bombing incident. A discrete-event computer model of the emergency room and related hospital facilities was constructed and implemented, based on cumulated data from 12 urban terrorist bombing incidents in Israel. The simulation predicts that the admitting capacity of the hospital depends primarily on the number of available surgeons and defines an optimal staff profile for surgeons, residents, and trauma nurses. The major bottlenecks in the flow of critical casualties are the shock rooms and the computed tomographic scanner but not the operating rooms. The simulation also defines the number of reinforcement staff needed to treat noncritical casualties and shows that radiology is the major obstacle to the flow of these patients. Computer simulation is an important new tool for the optimization of surgical service elements for a multiple-casualty situation.

  18. Suicide in paradise: aftermath of the Bali bombings.

    Suryani, L K; Page, A; Lesmana, C B J; Jennaway, M; Basudewa, I D G; Taylor, R

    2009-08-01

    The relationship between the Bali (Indonesia) bombings of October 2002 and suicide has not previously been investigated, despite anecdotal evidence of the economic and psychological consequences of these attacks. Suicide rates were calculated over the period 1994-2006 in three Bali regencies to determine whether suicide increased in the period following the first Bali bombings. Poisson regression and time-series models were used to assess the change in suicide rates by sex, age and area in the periods before and after October 2002. Suicide rates (age-adjusted) increased in males from an average of 2.84 (per 100 000) in the period pre-2002 to 8.10 in the period post-2002, and for females from 1.51 to 3.68. The greatest increases in suicide in the post-2002 period were in the age groups 20-29 and 60 years, for both males and females. Tourist arrivals fell significantly after the bombings, and addition of tourism to models reduced relative risk estimates of suicide, suggesting that some of the increase may be attributable to the socio-economic effects of declines in tourism. There was an almost fourfold increase in male suicide risk and a threefold increase in female suicide risk in the period following the 2002 bombings in Bali. Trends in tourism did not account for most of the observed increases. Other factors such as indirect socio-economic effects and Balinese notions of collective guilt and anxieties relating to ritual neglect are important in understanding the rise in suicide in the post-2002 period.

  19. Investigation of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1976-01-01

    Fourty two cases of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors experienced between 1971 and 1975 were compared to non-exposure cases with lung cancer, and discussed. The mean age of A-bomb survivors with lung cancer was 68.7 year old, and that of control cases was 60 year old. The incidence ratio of male to female in the group was 4 : 1, and that of control group was 5 : 1. Occupation was one of the predisposing causes, but patients who had engaged in the occupation which was considered to predispose lung cancer were three. Among 39 patients with lung cancer whose smoking histories were clarified, 20.5 per cent was nonsmoker, and 69.3 per cent was heavy smoker. Among 39 patients whose cancer histories were clarified, 28.2 per cent of the patients had family history of cancer. Subjective symptoms of this disease were cough, sputum, bloody sputum and chest pain, and some had no symptoms. Seventeen cases (40.5 per cent) were detected in the physical examination for the A-bomb survivors. For the early detection of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors, patients with high risk should be selected to have received clearly established diagnosis. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was seen in many cases, following adenoma, and undifferenciated large cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Disturbances in pulmonary functions were obstructive ventilation, high rate of residual air, lowered diffusions ability. Therapy was operation in stage I, chemotherapy and radiation therapy in stage II and stage III. (Kanao, N.)

  20. Pathological study of multiple myeloma in atomic bomb survivors

    Takaki, Y.; Kishikawa, M.; Bundo, K. (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1980-11-01

    Pathological records of autopsies carried out in Nagasaki from '46 to '77 were reviewed. Of 9331 autopsies, 5787 were unexposed cases and were used as a control. 9.2% of the deaths were due to hematologic disorders. There was no evidence that the incidence of multiple myeloma among a-bomb survivors increased compared with the control. The incidences of leukemia, lymphoma and aplastic anemia were also listed.

  1. Radioactivity of air caused by nuclear bomb tests

    Aron, A; Gross, B

    1957-01-01

    Daily checks of radioactive fallout at the above institute (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro) gave an activity 10 times as high as the average on June 25, 1957. By applying the decay law for fallout of Way and Wigner the origin could be traced to the British H-bomb test at Christmas Island on May 15, 1957. By autoradiography of the filter it was shown that the high activity was caused by only one highly radioactive particle.

  2. Effects of radiation on aging in atomic bomb survivors

    Okajima, Shunzo; Miyajima, Junko; Ichimaru, Michito

    1980-01-01

    Effect of radiation on aging was studied for 122 female a-bomb survivors exposed to more than 100 rad. Correlations of grades of external appearances, Physiological functions, and hematological features with age and radiation were investigated. Several parameters were used for multiple regression analysis, including hair loss, skin elasticity, grip strength, blood pressure, potassium content etc. The comparison of the estimated age of the exposed group and unexposed one showed no statistically significant difference. (Nakanishi, T.)

  3. Biplanes and Bombsights, British Bombing in World War I

    1999-05-01

    to suffer from oxygen deprivation (anoxia typically com- mences between 8,000 and 12,000 feet). They were also sub- jected to ambient temperatures... medio - cre bombing results during the war. Paul’s "lack of confidence" in bombsights and "lack of interest" in accuracy are the opera- tional...a Sqdn. which is doing slightly better work’ but at a high cost of machines and personnel and consequently moral[ el . 208 EIGHTH BRIGADE AND

  4. Autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    Fujihara, Megumu; Kurihara, Kanji; Aimitsu, Shiomi; Yukaya, Hirofumi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1956, 388 autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been obtained at the Hiroshima Red Cross and A-Bomb Survivors Hospital, which consisted of those of proximately exposed 52 A-bomb survivors (mean age, 63.8 years), 105 distally exposed A-bomb survivors (mean age, 64.2 years), and the other 231 non-exposed patients (mean age, 60.6 years). Since 1985, the incidence of HCC tended to be higher in both proximately and distally exposed groups than the non-exposed group. There was no consistent tendency for the incidence of HCC by ages at autopsy and A-bombing. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was approximately 2 times higher in males than females in the non-exposed group, although no gender difference existed after 1981. In the exposed group, the incidence was similar in male and female groups. Approximately 90% of HCC patients had coexistent liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was associated with HCC in 50-60%. No significant differences in these incidences were observed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The proportion of liver cirrhosis associated with HCC became constant in patients over the age of 40 in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, on the other hand, the proportion reached the peak in those in their fifties and sixties. Survival time tended to be longer in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The patients in the non-exposed group tended to have histologically atypical type and metastases, as compared with those in the exposed group. (N.K.)

  5. Chromosome survey for children of A-bomb survivors

    Awa, Akio

    1992-01-01

    To investigate chromosomes from children of A-bomb survivors, cytogenetic survey has been started in 1967 by the ABCC and completed in 1985 by the succeeding RERF. This paper is designed to overview the cytogenetic survey and to discuss the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation. A cohort of 16,298 children of A-bomb survivors, which were collected from mortality survey population in 1974, was enrolled in this survey and was divided into two groups: the proximally exposed group (n=8,322, whose parents exposed to estimated doses of 0.01 Gy or more within 2,000 m from the hypocenter) and the distally exposed group (n=7,976, those exposed to 0.005 Gy or less far from 2,500 m or not in the city). Three chromosomal aberrations were identified: sex chromosome aberrations consisting mainly of XYY, XXY, and mosaic; structural abnormality of autosomes consisting mainly of translocation and inversion; and trisomy of autosomes. Overall, the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was higher in the distally exposed group (6.39%) than the proximally exposed group (5.17%). According to the type of chromosomal aberrations, the incidences of both sex chromosomes and structural abnormality of autosomes were slightly higher in the distally exposed group (0.30% and 0.34%) than the proximally exposed group (0.23% and 0.28%). Trisomy of autosomes was identified in only one child in the proximally exposed group. These findings failed to demonstrate the rationale for the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation; however, cytogenetic risk of radiation has not been denied completely. (N.K.)

  6. Autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    Fujihara, Megumu; Kurihara, Kanji; Aimitsu, Shiomi; Yukaya, Hirofumi [Hiroshima Red Cross Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Hamada, Tadao

    1994-12-01

    Since 1956, 388 autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been obtained at the Hiroshima Red Cross and A-Bomb Survivors Hospital, which consisted of those of proximately exposed 52 A-bomb survivors (mean age, 63.8 years), 105 distally exposed A-bomb survivors (mean age, 64.2 years), and the other 231 non-exposed patients (mean age, 60.6 years). Since 1985, the incidence of HCC tended to be higher in both proximately and distally exposed groups than the non-exposed group. There was no consistent tendency for the incidence of HCC by ages at autopsy and A-bombing. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was approximately 2 times higher in males than females in the non-exposed group, although no gender difference existed after 1981. In the exposed group, the incidence was similar in male and female groups. Approximately 90% of HCC patients had coexistent liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was associated with HCC in 50-60%. No significant differences in these incidences were observed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The proportion of liver cirrhosis associated with HCC became constant in patients over the age of 40 in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, on the other hand, the proportion reached the peak in those in their fifties and sixties. Survival time tended to be longer in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The patients in the non-exposed group tended to have histologically atypical type and metastases, as compared with those in the exposed group. (N.K.).

  7. Surveys right after the atomic bombing and a relief squad

    Mine, Mariko [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    An outline of four survey reports right after the atomic bombing in Nagasaki and Hiroshima is introduced. The report of Manhattan District Atomic Bomb Investigating Groups: The subjects of this survey were 900 inpatients in Nagasaki (for 16 days from September 20) and Hiroshima (for 5 days from October 3). Two hundreds and forty-nine patients (16%) died. In cases died without injury, the severe symptoms were alopecia, purpura, hemorrhage, oral cavity and pharynx lesion, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The residual radioactivity measured at six weeks later was 6-25 roentgen in Hiroshima and 30-110 roentgen in Nagasaki (Nishiyama riverhead area). These values were lower than the predicted value from the clinical consequence. The report of Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb: Following the above survey, about 6500 subjects were investigated both in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Incidence of alopecia was investigated by shielded situation at a spot of 2.1 to 2.5 km from a blast center. It was 7.2% of outdoors (shielded: 7.3%, non-shielded: 17.4%) and 2.9% of indoors. The report of the Special Committee for Atomic Bomb Casualty Investigation and Research of the Scientific Research Council of Japan: General part of the report consists of medical part and physical part, and reports from each university were classified and listed in the supplement. Survey of Nagasaki Medical College (not in public): About 8000 subjects were investigated from October to December. Data were gathered up about lethality, time of death, injury and radiation sickness, etc. There was also autograph of a relief squad of the Nagasaki Medical College. (K.H.)

  8. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors from 1946 to 1975

    Ohkita, Takeshi

    1976-01-01

    In five recent years, 134 deaths from leukemia among Hiroshima citizen were recorded. Of these, 23 cases (17 acute and 6 chronic types) were atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2,000 m of the hypocenter. Fifteen of them (65%) were over 60 years of age. The frequency of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was still low. Although the risk of leukemia was greatly reduced after 1961, and the frequency of chronic granulocytic leukemia (one of the most characteristic type of Hiroshima atomic bomb-induced leukemia) was also decreased, the death rate from leukemia among survivors exposed within 2,000 m or 1,500 m from the hypocenter was about 3 to 4 times higher than the mean death rate in all Japan. Therefore, careful and long-range follow-up surveillance should be continued. A brief review was also made of relevant studies such as the influence of environmental and host factors in the epidemiology of leukemia, the incidence of leukemia in children exposed in utero, and leukemia in offspring of atomic bomb survivors. (Evans, J.)

  9. Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak

    Kutschera, Walter; Liebl, Jakob; Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced {sup 14}C had doubled the {sup 14}C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO{sub 2} cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing {sup 14}C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing {sup 14}C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the {sup 14}C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, {sup 14}C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of {sup 14}C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

  10. Profiles of non-cancer diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    Kazunori Kodama; Saeko Fujiwara; Michiko Yamada; Fumiyoshi Kasagi; Yukiko Shimizu; Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1996-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a recent study of atomic bomb radiation and non-cancer diseases in the AHS (Adult Health Study) population by the RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation) along with a general discussion of previous studies. Recent studies have demonstrated almost certainly that uterine myoma is more frequent among atomic bomb survivors. It cannot, at present, be concluded that uterine myoma is caused by radiation, because there are no reported studies of other exposed populations. Further analyses including the role of confounding factors as well as molecular approaches are needed to verify this radiation effect. The relationship between atomic bomb radiation exposure and hyperparathyroidism can now be said to have been established in view of the strong dose response, the agreement with results of studies of other populations, the high risk in the younger survivors, and the biological plausibility. Future studies by molecular approaches, etc., are needed to determine the pathogenic mechanism. Among other benign tumours, a dose response has been demonstrated for tumours of the thyroid, stomach and ovary. Although fewer studies have been conducted than for cancer, a clear association between radiation and various benign tumours is emerging. 79 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  11. Mass survey of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Mishima, Yasuhiro; Ohmura, Toshio.

    1980-01-01

    Mass survey of lung cancer was performed only by questionnaire together with general health examinations of a-bomb survivors during 3 years between April 1976 and March 1979, and the following results were obtained. The number of men aged more than 40 years old who had questionnaire was 89,778, and those who were required to have detailed examinations because they had bloody sputum and paroxysmal cough + a history of smoking were 1,453. Out of them, 861 a-bomb survivors had detailed examinations. The performance rate of detailed examinations was 59.3%. Lung cancer was found in 23 a-bomb survivors. The discovery rate was 25.6 per 100,000 persons, and it was a little higher than discovery rates reported by many researchers. It was low in men aged more than 40 years old. There was a straight line relationship between logarithm values of the discovery rate of lung cancer and age, and the discovery rate increased markedly with aging. Cytodiagnosis of sputum by Saccomanno method showed a positive test which was 20% higher than that by 3 days serial smear method. To discover lung cancer at an early stage, it is advisable to perform the first screening by chest x-ray examination and questionnaire on men aged over 40 years old, and to perform cytodiagnosis by Saccomanno method on men who were required to have detailed examinations. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Mass survey of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Mishima, Yasuhiro; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1978-01-01

    Men atomic bomb survivors over the age of 40 years received a survey of lung cancer by questionnaire together with the general survey for atomic bomb survivors, and the following results were obtained. The survey by questionnaire was carried out on 29780 cases during one year 1977 to 1978, and 6 cases of lung cancer were discovered. The discovery rate was 20.1 persons against a hundred thousand persons. Lung cancer discovered during 2 years from April, 1976 was 14 cases, and the discovery rate was 23.9 persons against a hundred thousand persons. The discovery rate according to exposure conditions was higher in order of a group entering Hiroshima city after A-bomb explosion and other group (33.2 persons), a group directly exposed over 2 km from the center of explosion (20.0 persons), and a group directly exposed within 2 km (1.5 persons). Therefore, results that the discovery rate of lung cancer was higher in short-distance group could not be obtained. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. Hyperparathyroidism among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1986-88

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Ezaki, Haruo; Sposto, R.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Kodama, Kazunori; Hosoda, Yutaka; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Yoshimitsu, Kengo.

    1990-10-01

    During the two-year period from August 1986 to July 1988, the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was determined among A-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima. The diagnosis of HPT was determined biochemically, based upon the presence of consistent hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels. Among a population of 4,675 individuals (1,527 males, 3,148 females), primary HPT was diagnosed in 22 (3 males, 19 females). Of these, 8 underwent surgery, of whom 6 had a single parathyroid adenoma and 2 had parathyroid hyperplasia. HPT was more prevalent among the A-bomb survivors who received higher radiation doses (p <.001 for linear trend). The prevalence rates predicted from the model were 0.204% (±0.094%) at 0 Gy and 0.893% (±0.237%) at 1 Gy. The background rate of HPT did not differ significantly by sex or by age at the time of the bombing, although the effect of radiation exposure was greater for individuals exposed at a younger age (p <.01). (author)

  14. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Pinkston, J.A.; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1980-10-01

    In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

  15. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Yukiko

    1984-01-01

    Of 108,739 atomic-bomb (A-bomb) victims enrolled in the population of life span survey by Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 730 victims from October 1950 to December 1980 were selected as subjects of colorectal cancer based on death certificates, autopsy and operative findings, and clinicopathological reconfirmation of colorectal cancer. Tentative dose decided in 1965 (T65D) was used to estimate radiation doses of A-bomb victims. Although the incidence of colon cancer was found to be related to radiation, the relation of the incidence of rectal cancer to radiation was not confirmed. Radiation effects were dependent on the age of A-bomb victims at the time of the bombing, which was noted in A-bomb victims aged less than twenty years at that time. Dose-response relationship was found in cases of cancer of the sigmoid colon. Histological types of cancer were independent of radiation doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. A synthetic medical and sociological study of A-bomb exposed twin, 7

    Watanabe, Shoji; Satow, Yukio; Kyo, Taiichi

    1984-01-01

    The status of A-bomb exposure and family or relative relationship were investigated in seven twin pairs exposed to A-bomb (14 survivors). The survivors ranged in age between 4 and 24 years when they were exposed to A-bomb. Twins' relationship was comparatively strong. Both of the twins who were exposed to A-bomb tended to be closely connected with each other because of the fearful experience of A-bomb exposure and the subsequent hard social life. Even though one of the pair was not exposed to A-bomb, he (she) was likely to continue to help the other for a long time to restore from the disaster. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. The Interdependence of Long- and Short-Term Components in Unmasked Repetition Priming: An Indication of Shared Resources.

    Merema, Matt R; Speelman, Craig P

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that unmasked repetition priming is composed of distinct long-and short-term priming components. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between these components by examining the relationship between them. A total of 60 people (45 females, 15 males) participated in a computer-based lexical decision task designed to measure levels of short-term priming across different levels of long-term priming. The results revealed an interdependent relationship between the two components, whereby an increase in long-term priming prompted a decrease in short-term priming. Both long-term and short-term priming were accurately captured by a single power function over seven minutes post repetition, suggesting the two components may draw on the same resources. This interdependence between long- and short-term priming may serve to improve fluency in reading.

  18. The Interdependence of Long- and Short-Term Components in Unmasked Repetition Priming: An Indication of Shared Resources.

    Matt R Merema

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that unmasked repetition priming is composed of distinct long-and short-term priming components. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between these components by examining the relationship between them. A total of 60 people (45 females, 15 males participated in a computer-based lexical decision task designed to measure levels of short-term priming across different levels of long-term priming. The results revealed an interdependent relationship between the two components, whereby an increase in long-term priming prompted a decrease in short-term priming. Both long-term and short-term priming were accurately captured by a single power function over seven minutes post repetition, suggesting the two components may draw on the same resources. This interdependence between long- and short-term priming may serve to improve fluency in reading.

  19. Effects of low doses of A-bomb radiation on human lifespan

    Okumura, Y.; Mine, M.

    1997-01-01

    Among about 100,000 A-bomb survivors registered at Nagasaki University School of Medicine, male subjects exposed to 31 - 40 cGy showed significantly lower mortality from non-cancerous diseases than age-matched unexposed males. And the death rate for exposed male and female was smaller than that for unexposed. It was presented that the low doses of A-bomb radiation increased lifespan of A-bomb survivors. (author)

  20. BDA: Anglo-American Air Intelligence, Bomb Damage Assessment, and the Bombing Campaigns Against Germany, 1914-1945

    2005-05-19

    attention at the Bombing 8 See Colin Sinnott, The RoyalAir Force andAircraft Design, 1923-1939: Air Staff Operational Requirements (London: Frank Cass...supporting, motorized unit fielding five detached parties for ground surveys. The BAU was commanded by Group Captain E.S.D. Drury , the Chief Armament...dossiers, collective analysis of materials, and collaborative production of finished reports. A combined committee, chaired by Drury and Fickel, met

  1. Comparative Test of the Effectiveness of Large Bombs against Reinforced Concrete Structures (Anglo-American Bomb Tests-Project RUBY).

    1946-10-31

    reiiforced concrete structure at FMd ,, full details eof whis are given in Appudix "*C. 7. The Target for the uI= Z0OSIII Filled Bomb Trials# is to . be the...MODIFIED MIll FUZE) & ) CONDENSER rOR IGNITING SQUIBS INITIATING PR•OPELL ING & 7TAIL CHARGES ASSEMBLED DETAILS OF 4500 LB C•/ FtA DISNEY IBOMB, II "’m

  2. The radioecological consequences after explosion of the most powerful atomic bomb over Novaya Zemlya

    Chugunov, V.V.; Ramzaev, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    On the 30 October 1961 an H-bomb of 50 MT TNT-equivalent was exploded at a height of 3.5 km over Novaya Zemlya. This explosion required the expert inspection of the most important regions of Russia Arctic to enforce the system of population radiation safety. It was necessary to inspect 10,000 km of coast and to assess the situation in towns and settlements of the main provinces, districts and autonomous republics. The scientific tasks included aerogamma survey and collection of air and snow samples, samples of local food, daily ration, soil, vegetables and autopsy material. The radioactivity of samples was measured and extensive contaminated material was obtained. Some of the data of importance regarding observed radioactivity in air, lichens, reindeer bones, permanent reindeer meat consumers and vegetables are presented in the present report. 1 fig

  3. Bombs and Flares at the Surface and Lower Atmosphere of the Sun

    Hansteen, V. H.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Carlsson, M.; Van der Voort, L. Rouppe [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Norway, PB 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Archontis, V. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, KY169SS (United Kingdom); Leenaarts, J. [Institute for Solar Physics, Dept. of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Roslagstullbacken 21 SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-04-10

    A spectacular manifestation of solar activity is the appearance of transient brightenings in the far wings of the H α line, known as Ellerman bombs (EBs). Recent observations obtained by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph have revealed another type of plasma “bombs” (UV bursts) with high temperatures of perhaps up to 8 × 10{sup 4} K within the cooler lower solar atmosphere. Realistic numerical modeling showing such events is needed to explain their nature. Here, we report on 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of magnetic flux emergence in the solar atmosphere. We find that ubiquitous reconnection between emerging bipolar magnetic fields can trigger EBs in the photosphere, UV bursts in the mid/low chromosphere and small (nano-/micro-) flares (10{sup 6} K) in the upper chromosphere. These results provide new insights into the emergence and build up of the coronal magnetic field and the dynamics and heating of the solar surface and lower atmosphere.

  4. Iran, the bomb and the pursuit of security. Structured conflict analyses

    Bock, Andreas M.; Henneberg, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the structured conflict analysis as a tool of social science research and uses this instrument exemplarily to analyze systematically and on a broad basis the various conflicts that are associated with Iran both domestically and in foreign policy - beyond popular stereotypes such as the ''bomb''. The 13 contributions draw a complex picture of the conflicts with and in Iran and reflect the various aspects of these conflicts from different perspectives and at a high methodological and theoretical level. The nuclear program is examined, inter alia through the eyes of four major theories of International Relations. In addition, the analyses are concerned with the regional security dimension, the relationship USA-Iran, the role of national preferences, and the effect of national processes to the Iranian foreign policy.

  5. Research on Semi-automatic Bomb Fetching for an EOD Robot

    Qian Jun

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An EOD robot system, SUPER-PLUS, which has a novel semi-automatic bomb fetching function is presented in this paper. With limited support of human, SUPER-PLUS scans the cluttered environment with a wrist-mounted laser distance sensor and plans the manipulator a collision free path to fetch the bomb. The model construction of manipulator, bomb and environment, C-space map, path planning and the operation procedure are introduced in detail. The semi-automatic bomb fetching function has greatly improved the operation performance of EOD robot.

  6. Comments on the exposure distance as a factor of severity of A-bomb cataracts

    Sugimoto, S [Sugimoto Ophthalmological Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1976-09-01

    In the study of A-bomb disorders, it is important in decision of exposure dose to consider not only exposure distance from the hypocenter but also shelter factors, and 8 cases were reported as examples. Group 1 (4 cases) was exposed to A-bomb in the train 750 m east of the hypocenter, and group 2 (4 cases) was exposed in the concrete steel building 620 m east of the hypocenter. Age, exposure distance, exposure place, shelter condition, wounds, acute symptoms due to A-bomb exposure, radiation dose, condition of turbidity of the crystalline lens, effect of A-bomb on visual acuity of eight cases were listed in table. Group 1 was exposed to A-bomb at the place 130 m from the place where group 2 was exposed, but the exposed dose of group 1 was equivalent to twice that of group 2. Acute symptoms due to A-bomb exposure, turbidity of the crystalline lens, and effect of A-bomb on visual acuity were by far stronger in group 1 than in group 2. It was stressed that physical history and treatment course of the patients with A-bomb cataract were enough to be important materials on the study of A-bomb disorders.

  7. Research on Semi-Automatic Bomb Fetching for an EOD Robot

    Zeng Jian-Jun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An EOD robot system, SUPER-PLUS, which has a novel semi-automatic bomb fetching function is presented in this paper. With limited support of human, SUPER-PLUS scans the cluttered environment with a wrist-mounted laser distance sensor and plans the manipulator a collision free path to fetch the bomb. The model construction of manipulator, bomb and environment, C-space map, path planning and the operation procedure are introduced in detail. The semi-automatic bomb fetching function has greatly improved the operation performance of EOD robot.

  8. Outcome and status of microsatellite stability in Japanese atomic bomb survivors with early gastric carcinoma.

    Yamamoto, Manabu; Taguchi, Kenichi; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Ishida, Teruyoshi

    2013-03-01

    In the decade after the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima, a high incidence of leukemia was observed among atomic bomb survivors. However, the incidence of other cancers gradually increased, while that of leukemia decreased after this period. We evaluated the clinical outcome of early gastric cancer and microsatellite stability over a long-term period in atomic bomb survivors. The results of surgical treatment for early gastric cancer were reviewed for 117 atomic bomb survivors and 394 control patients between 1995 and 2006. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for hMSH2 and hMLH1 expression was performed to evaluate the status of microsatellite stability in 57 atomic bomb survivors and 82 control patients. The long-term survival rate for early gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors was significantly lower than that in control patients (p bomb survivorship was related to defective hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 expression. The prognosis of early gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors was poor and was related to age and sex, rather than to being an atomic bomb survivor. Furthermore, a higher rate of defective hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 expression was observed in the survivors.

  9. The UK Nitrate Time Bomb (Invited)

    Ward, R.; Wang, L.; Stuart, M.; Bloomfield, J.; Gooddy, D.; Lewis, M.; McKenzie, A.

    2013-12-01

    The developed world has benefitted enormously from the intensification of agriculture and the increased availability and use of synthetic fertilizers during the last century. However there has also been unintended adverse impact on the natural environment (water and ecosystems) with nitrate the most significant cause of water pollution and ecosystem damage . Many countries have introduced controls on nitrate, e.g. the European Union's Water Framework and Nitrate Directives, but despite this are continuing to see a serious decline in water quality. The purpose of our research is to investigate and quantify the importance of the unsaturated (vadose) zone pathway and groundwater in contributing to the decline. Understanding nutrient behaviour in the sub-surface environment and, in particular, the time lag between action and improvement is critical to effective management and remediation of nutrient pollution. A readily-transferable process-based model has been used to predict temporal loading of nitrate at the water table across the UK. A time-varying nitrate input function has been developed based on nitrate usage since 1925. Depth to the water table has been calculated from groundwater levels based on regional-scale observations in-filled by interpolated river base levels and vertical unsaturated zone velocities estimated from hydrogeological properties and mapping. The model has been validated using the results of more than 300 unsaturated zone nitrate profiles. Results show that for about 60% of the Chalk - the principal aquifer in the UK - peak nitrate input has yet to reach the water table and concentrations will continue to rise over the next 60 years. The implications are hugely significant especially where environmental objectives must be achieved in much shorter timescales. Current environmental and regulatory management strategies rarely take lag times into account and as a result will be poorly informed, leading to inappropriate controls and conflicts

  10. The impact of the reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry

    Kopecky, K.J.; Preston, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    This report examines the anticipated impact of the adoption by RERF of a new atomic bomb radiation dosimetry system to replace the revised tentative 1965 dosimetry system (T65DR). The current binational effort to reassess A-bomb dosimetry will eventually produce information about air doses and attenuation due to shielding by structures and body tissue. A method for computing individual survivors' total body surface exposure doses and organ doses from such data was developed, and a set of interim 1985 dosimetry (I85D) estimates was computed by this method using the data available to RERF in late 1984. Estimates of I85D total body surface exposure doses could be computed for 64,804 of 91,231 exposed survivors with T65DR dose estimates; following present plans, revised dose estimates may become available for an additional group of 10,000 to 12,000 exposed survivors. Mortality from leukemia and from all cancers except leukemia was examined in relation to I85D total body surface exposure doses (gamma plus neutron); parallel analyses using T65DR exposure doses were also conducted for the same set of survivors. Overall estimates of radiogenic excess risk based on I85D total body surface doses were about 50 % greater than those based on T65DR doses. Nonsignificant differences of only 3 % or less between the radiogenic excess risks for Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors were observed in relation to I85D doses. Modification of the radiation dose response by sex, age at the time of the bombing, or time since exposure was qualitatively similar for I85D and T65DR. For both leukemia and nonleukemic cancer mortality, the radiogenic excess risk was found to increase as a linear function of I85D total body surface dose; significantly poorer fits were obtained with pure quadratic dose-response functions, while linear-quadratic dose responses did not provide significantly better fits. (J.P.N.)

  11. 360° FILM BRINGS BOMBED CHURCH TO LIFE

    K. Kwiatek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and has never been rebuilt. The generation of a 3D model of the bombed church started from the creation of five spherical panoramas and through the use of Autodesk ImageModeler software. The processed files were imported and merged together in Autodesk 3ds Max where a visualisation of the ruin was produced. A number of historical images were found and this collection enabled the process of a virtual reconstruction of the site. The aspect of merging two still or two video panoramas (one from 3D modelling software, the other one recorded on the site from the same locations or with the same trajectories is also discussed. The prototype of 360º non-linear film tells a narrative of a wartime wedding that occurred in this church. The film was presented on two 360º screens where members of the audience could make decisions on whether to continue the ceremony or whether to run away when the bombing of the church starts. 3D modelling software made this possible to render a number of different alternati ves (360º images and 360º video. Immersive environments empower the visitor to imagine the building before it was destroyed.

  12. 360° Film Brings Bombed Church to Life

    Kwiatek, K.

    2011-09-01

    This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and has never been rebuilt. The generation of a 3D model of the bombed church started from the creation of five spherical panoramas and through the use of Autodesk ImageModeler software. The processed files were imported and merged together in Autodesk 3ds Max where a visualisation of the ruin was produced. A number of historical images were found and this collection enabled the process of a virtual reconstruction of the site. The aspect of merging two still or two video panoramas (one from 3D modelling software, the other one recorded on the site) from the same locations or with the same trajectories is also discussed. The prototype of 360º non-linear film tells a narrative of a wartime wedding that occurred in this church. The film was presented on two 360º screens where members of the audience could make decisions on whether to continue the ceremony or whether to run away when the bombing of the church starts. 3D modelling software made this possible to render a number of different alternati ves (360º images and 360º video). Immersive environments empower the visitor to imagine the building before it was destroyed.

  13. Two cases of giant parathyroid adenoma in atomic bomb survivors

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Nishida, Toshihiro; Fujikura, Toshio

    1983-12-01

    In a study of parathyroid tumor among autopsy cases at RERF in Hiroshima, 16 cases of parathyroid adenoma were detected among 4,136 autopsies during 1961-77. Of these, two cases were giant adenoma (5 cm in diameter) accompanied by hyperparathyroidism. Both cases were atomic bomb survivors from Hiroshima. One was exposed to 55 rad at age 51 and died at age 71, and the other was exposed to 28 rad at age 45 and died at age 71. These two cases will be reported together with a review of the literature on parathyroid tumors developed following irradiation on the head and neck. (author)

  14. Some thoughts on Hiroshima: 50 years after the bomb

    Kato, Shuichi

    1997-01-01

    Commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima, this paper covers three issues: Personal experience, concluding that the bomb was an extraordinary cruel weapon beyond imagination, Japanese experience, i.e. Japanese attitude against nuclear weapons and the actions to be undertaken in order to achieve nuclear-weapon-free world. The support of Non-proliferation Treaty, as well as the support of the protest against any kind of nuclear weapon experiments should be related to the understanding of the cause of the events against which one is protesting. The radical therapy would be the removal of the cause, i.e. the striking discrepancy of nuclear armaments

  15. Review of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses results of some 1980-1981 studies of neutron and γ-ray exposure to the atomic bomb survivors by W.E. Loewe and E. Mendelsohn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, D.C. Kaul and W.H. Scott of Science Applications, Inc., and J.V. Pace of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Some other special studies which are now underway to complete the review will also be discussed. The expert assistance of others in these special studies is being supported in part by the US Department of Energy and in part by the US Defense Nuclear Agency

  16. Review of Injuries from Terrorist Bombings and Earthquakes

    2016-08-31

    8.50% Compartment Syndrome 28 5.18% Hemopneumothorax 17 3.14% Abdominal Injury 17 3.14% Head Injury 14 2.59% Acute Renal Failure 22 4.07...typically involved the head and neck, extremities, and soft tissues. Glass shattering was a common source of injury. Eight earthquake case studies...car bomb equivalent to 80 kg of TNT exploded at 2:50 pm at The Old Bailey in London, resulting in 160 casualties (Frykberg and Tepas 1988; Caro and

  17. The Madrid Train Bombings: A Decision-Making Model Analysis

    2009-12-11

    3T. K. Lawson Managing Editor, ―Madrid Bombing and Attacks on Trains, Subways ,‖ U.S. Department of State, Diplomatic Security Command Center (17 March...Alfred De Montesquiou, ―Official: Al-Qaeda Like A Fast Food Franchise ‗For Terrorism‘,‖ USA Today, 7 June 2009, http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2009...Fort Leavenworth, KS, 2007): 78; De Montesquiou, ―Official: Al- Qaeda Like A Fast Food Franchise ‗For Terrorism‘.‖ 39Wilson, ―The Evolution of al

  18. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 2010 edition.

    Gosling, F. G.

    2010-01-15

    This historical document is part of a planned 3-volume series. This volume, volume 1, provides a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  19. Hazards of radiation from continuous nuclear bomb tests

    Leipunskii, O I

    1958-01-01

    The hazards from radioactive fallout due to continuous nuclear bomb tests equivalent in intensity to 11 megatons of TNT are studied. Concentrations of /sup 90/Sr in the bones, the rate of leukemia, and the number of the victims of genetic damage are evaluated. The calculations show that towards the end of the century the concentration of /sup 90/Sr in the spine in large groups of the population could exceed the officially permissible dose and each year of continuous tests would result in the birth of 44,000 persons burdened by hereditary sickness, and 29,000 cases of leukemia.

  20. Immunohistochemical detection of VHS virus in paraffin-embedded specimens of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); The influence of primary antibody, fixative, and antigen unmasking on method sensitivity

    Evensen, O.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    performed on parallel specimens, and the virus titer (TCID50/ml) was determined. Purified nucleocapsid protein (N-protein) of the virus was incorporated in an artificial antigen substrate (polymerized bovine serum albumin), fixed as described above, and embedded in paraffin wax. Microwave unmasking...... was performed an formalin-, PLP-, and Bouin's fluid-fixed specimens. The presence of virus peptides in situ or N-protein in the artificial antigen substrates was Visualized using an immunohistochemical method based on alkaline phosphatase or peroxidase and one polyclonal and five monoclonal polypeptide......-specific antibodies. VHS virus was identified in situ in specimens with high virus titers (10(7-8) TCID50/ml) regardless of the fixative and without the need of an unmasking procedure. A pronounced masking effect was observed for the cross-linking formalin and PLP fixatives. Regardless of the primary antibodies used...

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of leukemia recognized in atomic-bomb survivors

    Ichimaru, M [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1978-05-01

    Out of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 256 patients which were diagnosed as having leukemia by 1975 and of which exposure dose was estimated as over 1 rad were described. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CGL) was plentiful in Hiroshima, and acute myelocytic leukemia (AGL) was comparatively plentiful in Nagasaki. Chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) was not recognized in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at places near the center of the explosion, but CLL was recognized plentifully in the atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation of under 1 rad. The incidence of leukemia according to the total dose was higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. When RBE of neutron on the occurrence of leukemia was considered to be five times that of gamma-ray, the occurrence curves in both cities were consistent well. As to a relationship between leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors and the age at the exposure time, CGL occurred early in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at an early age. A specific lesion of leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors was not recognized, but cases of which leukemia cells were negative to peroxidase and were very difficult to be identified were plentiful in the atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from the explosion center. The treatment of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors does not differ from that of general leukemia, but a method of treatment, administration dosage, a method and a kind of supportive care must be discussed according to each case.

  2. The finish. About the reasons and events leading to the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Goldberg, S.

    1995-01-01

    The bombing was decided not only for military reasons. For the Manhattan Project managers, and for General Groves in particular, it was a question of justification of their own work and commitment. The bomb may have actually prolonged the war. (orig.) [de

  3. Memory from the Vel d'Hiv to the H bomb

    Dautray, R.

    2007-01-01

    Robert Dautray plays a major role in the french scientist and military history. He is in particular the father of the french H bomb. He relates in this book the bomb history and in particular the help of other countries via the secret services. He brings his account of the french civil and military nuclear, its hopes and risks. (A.L.B.)

  4. Mental health conditions in Korean atomic bomb survivors. A survey in Seoul

    Koshimoto, Rika; Nakane, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyen

    2011-01-01

    More than 60 years have elapsed since the atomic bombings to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and since all of the atomic bomb survivors have become old, the importance of caring their mental health has become increasing in Japan. Although approximately 70% of overseas atomic bomb are living in Korea, there have been quite few studies on their mental health. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate whether the mental health conditions of atomic bomb survivor in Korea are similar to those in Japan. The subjects were 181 Korean atomic bomb survivors living in Korea (cases) and 209 outpatients of a hospital in Seoul who were not exposed to atomic bombs (controls). Interviewers administered them at the hospital a questionnaire with Impact of Event Scale-Revised, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), Korean version of short form Geriatric Depression Scale and the K scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Excluding subjects with incomplete responses we analyzed 162 cases and 189 controls. The proportion of subjects with high score of GHQ-12 (≥4) was significantly higher in cases (78/162 or 48.1%) than in controls (42/189 or 22.2%) (p<0.0001, Fisher's exact test). The present results, though preliminary, indicate that atomic bomb survivors in Korea have also mental health problems similar to those observed in Japanese atomic bomb survivors, indicating the necessity of a larger study. (author)

  5. Education, Income, and Support for Suicide Bombings: Evidence from Six Muslim Countries

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. The authors make two contributions. First, they present a conceptual model, which has been…

  6. A German catastrophe? German historians and the Allied bombings, 1945-2010

    von Benda-Beckmann, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    As one of the major symbols of German suffering, the Allied bombing war left a strong imprint on German society. To a much wider extent than is often claimed, the Allied bombings became part of German debates on the Second World War. In both the GDR as well as the Federal Republic before and after

  7. Tendency of socio-psychological aftereffects on aged survivors in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors home

    Shimizu, Kiyoshi; Mishima, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Michiko

    1984-01-01

    Psychosomatic status at the time of A-bomb explosion, behavior and impression immediately after the explosion, aftereffects on life, and mental changes were sought through interview for 80 aged survivors in Hiroshima A-bomb survivor home by psychiatric social workers. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) has been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors. (author)

  9. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P bomb survivors.

  10. Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Maruyama, T.

    1986-01-01

    Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) had been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors

  11. Medical and sociological study on the A-bombed twins, 3

    Satow, Yukio; Okamoto, Naomasa; Watanabe, Shoji; Ohkita, Takeshi; Kurihara, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    Three A-bomb exposed and nonexposed pairs of monoxygotic twins were investigated. In two pairs of them, environmental factors had no apparent influence, and genetic factors were dominant. In the other one pair, one of which was a A-bomb survivor exposed at 1.5 km from the explosion center, environmental factors and various effects on them. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) unmasks specific high affinity FSH-binding sites in cell-free membrane preparations of porcine granulosa cells

    Ford, K.A.; LaBarbera, A.R.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine whether changes in FSH receptors correlated with FSH-induced attenuation of FSH-responsive adenylyl cyclase in immature porcine granulosa cells. Cells were incubated with FSH (1-1000 ng/ml) for up to 24 h, treated with acidified medium (pH 3.5) to remove FSH bound to cells, and incubated with (125I)iodo-porcine FSH to quantify FSH-binding sites. FSH increased binding of FSH in a time-, temperature-, and FSH concentration-dependent manner. FSH (200 ng/ml) increased binding approximately 4-fold within 16 h. Analysis of equilibrium saturation binding data indicated that the increase in binding sites reflected a 2.3-fold increase in receptor number and a 5.4-fold increase in apparent affinity. The increase in binding did not appear to be due to 1) a decrease in receptor turnover, since the basal rate of turnover appeared to be very slow; 2) an increase in receptor synthesis, since agents that inhibit protein synthesis and glycosylation did not block the increase in binding; or 3) an increase in intracellular receptors, since agents that inhibit cytoskeletal components had no effect. Agents that increase intracellular cAMP did not affect FSH binding. The increase in binding appeared to result from unmasking of cryptic FSH-binding sites, since FSH increased binding in cell-free membrane preparations to the same extent as in cells. Unmasking of cryptic sites was hormone specific, and the sites bound FSH specifically. Unmasking of sites was reversible in a time- and temperature-dependent manner after removal of bound FSH. The similarity between the FSH dose-response relationships for unmasking of FSH-binding sites and attenuation of FSH-responsive cAMP production suggests that the two processes are functionally linked.

  13. Game of thrown bombs in 3D: using high speed cameras and photogrammetry techniques to reconstruct bomb trajectories at Stromboli (Italy)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, T. R.; Andronico, D.; Kueppers, U.

    2015-12-01

    Large juvenile bombs and lithic clasts, produced and ejected during explosive volcanic eruptions, follow ballistic trajectories. Of particular interest are: 1) the determination of ejection velocity and launch angle, which give insights into shallow conduit conditions and geometry; 2) particle trajectories, with an eye on trajectory evolution caused by collisions between bombs, as well as the interaction between bombs and ash/gas plumes; and 3) the computation of the final emplacement of bomb-sized clasts, which is important for hazard assessment and risk management. Ground-based imagery from a single camera only allows the reconstruction of bomb trajectories in a plan perpendicular to the line of sight, which may lead to underestimation of bomb velocities and does not allow the directionality of the ejections to be studied. To overcome this limitation, we adapted photogrammetry techniques to reconstruct 3D bomb trajectories from two or three synchronized high-speed video cameras. In particular, we modified existing algorithms to consider the errors that may arise from the very high velocity of the particles and the impossibility of measuring tie points close to the scene. Our method was tested during two field campaigns at Stromboli. In 2014, two high-speed cameras with a 500 Hz frame rate and a ~2 cm resolution were set up ~350m from the crater, 10° apart and synchronized. The experiment was repeated with similar parameters in 2015, but using three high-speed cameras in order to significantly reduce uncertainties and allow their estimation. Trajectory analyses for tens of bombs at various times allowed for the identification of shifts in the mean directivity and dispersal angle of the jets during the explosions. These time evolutions are also visible on the permanent video-camera monitoring system, demonstrating the applicability of our method to all kinds of explosive volcanoes.

  14. Review of diagnosis and classification of leukemias that occurred in A-bomb survivors (preliminary report)

    Matsuo, T; Tomonaga, M; Ichimaru, M; Kamata, N; Kuramoto, A

    1984-11-01

    According to the current knowledge of diagnosis and classification, a review of 157 patients who had developed leukemia before June 30, 1967 was made. The incidence of acute leukemia decreased slightly among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima; however, the incidence of acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) increased. The number of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was unchanged. The frequency of CML implied that A-bombing damaged stem cells. Among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, although the number of acute non-lymphatic leukemia decreased, the number of ALL was unchanged. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was diagnosed in 7 A-bomb survivors, confirming that Nagasaki is an endemic area for ATL. These preliminary results seem to be of importance in elucidating the mechanism of leukemia developing among A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.).

  15. Effect of aging on the competence for physical defence among A-bomb survivors, (10)

    Imamura, Nobutada; Miura, Kazuyuki; Dohi, Hiroo; Oguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1984-01-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood and bone marrow were determined using fluorescence activated cell sorter with various monoclonal antibodies in 4 A-bomb exposed and 17 non-exposed patients with aplastic anemia. Decreased T 4 /T 8 ratios of the lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were seen in 2 of the A-bomb exposed patients (50 %) and in 8 of the non-exposed patients (47 %). However, these returned to normal during remission of aplastic anemia in both A-bombed exposed and non-exposed patients. Decreased T 4 /T 8 ratios of lymphocytes in the bone marrow were seen in all A-bomb exposed patients and in 13 of the non-exposed patients (76 %). It seemed that there are no findings specific to A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Review of diagnosis and classification of leukemias that occurred in A-bomb survivors (preliminary report)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Ichimaru, Michito; Kamata, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi.

    1984-01-01

    According to the current knowledge of diagnosis and classification, a review of 157 patients who had developed leukemia before June 30, 1967 was made. The total number of acute leukemia slightly decreased among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima; however, the number of acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) increased. The number of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was unchanged. The frequency of CML implied that A-bombing damaged stem cells in a high incidence. Among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, although the number of acute non-lymphatic leukemia decreased, the number of ALL was unchanged. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was diagnosed in 7 A-bomb survivors, confirming that Nagasaki is an endemic area for ATL. These preliminary results seem to be of importance in elucidating the mechanism of leukemia developiong among A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. The articles on atomic bomb of the newspaper in the past 15 years

    Ubuki, Satoru; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Matsuura, Masaaki; Hatano, Hiroko

    1990-01-01

    A-bomb hazards are given publicity by journalism every year from the end of the 1960s, especially in July and August, in Japan. This is generally termed 'the publication of A-bomb articles'. This paper outlines 'the publication of A-bomb articles' and introduces the actual conditions of A-bomb hazard problems. Articles were selected from three major national newspapers and two domestic newspapers (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) during the past 15 years from 1975 through 1989. Contents of the articles were divided into 20 categories and subdivided into 92 categories. According to newspaper, the Hiroshima domestic newspaper published the articles in the largest number (approximately 30% of all the articles). Overall, approximately 21% of the articles were published in August. The most common article content was A-bomb survivors' experiences, accounting for 47% before 1981 and 60% since 1982. (N.K.)

  18. Potential overestimation of HPV vaccine impact due to unmasking of non-vaccine types: quantification using a multi-type mathematical model.

    Choi, Yoon Hong; Chapman, Ruth; Gay, Nigel; Jit, Mark

    2012-05-14

    Estimates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine impact in clinical trials and modelling studies rely on DNA tests of cytology or biopsy specimens to determine the HPV type responsible for a cervical lesion. DNA of several oncogenic HPV types may be detectable in a specimen. However, only one type may be responsible for a particular cervical lesion. Misattribution of the causal HPV type for a particular abnormality may give rise to an apparent increase in disease due to non-vaccine HPV types following vaccination ("unmasking"). To investigate the existence and magnitude of unmasking, we analysed data from residual cytology and biopsy specimens in English women aged 20-64 years old using a stochastic type-specific individual-based model of HPV infection, progression and disease. The model parameters were calibrated to data on the prevalence of HPV DNA and cytological lesion of different grades, and used to assign causal HPV types to cervical lesions. The difference between the prevalence of all disease due to non-vaccine HPV types, and disease due to non-vaccine HPV types in the absence of vaccine HPV types, was then estimated. There could be an apparent maximum increase of 3-10% in long-term cervical cancer incidence due to non-vaccine HPV types following vaccination. Unmasking may be an important phenomenon in HPV post-vaccination epidemiology, in the same way that has been observed following pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The concept and science process skills analysis in bomb calorimeter experiment as a foundation for the development of virtual laboratory of bomb calorimeter

    Kurniati, D. R.; Rohman, I.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to analyze the concepts and science process skills in bomb calorimeter experiment as a basis for developing the virtual laboratory of bomb calorimeter. This study employed research and development method (R&D) to gain the answer to the proposed problems. This paper discussed the concepts and process skills analysis. The essential concepts and process skills associated with bomb calorimeter are analyze by optimizing the bomb calorimeter experiment. The concepts analysis found seven fundamental concepts to be concerned in developing the virtual laboratory that are internal energy, burning heat, perfect combustion, incomplete combustion, calorimeter constant, bomb calorimeter, and Black principle. Since the concept of bomb calorimeter, perfect and incomplete combustion created to figure out the real situation and contain controllable variables, in virtual the concepts displayed in the form of simulation. Meanwhile, the last four concepts presented in the form of animation because no variable found to be controlled. The process skills analysis detect four notable skills to be developed that are ability to observe, design experiment, interpretation, and communication skills.

  20. Cancer incidence and mortality rate in children of A-bomb survivors

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the previous findings of carcinogenesis and mortality rate in children born to A-bomb survivors. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has collected 72,228 children born to A-bomb survivors from May 1946 through 1984. Of their parents, 31,159 parents had been exposed to significant doses (≥0.01 Sv), with a mean genital dose of 0.435 Sv. Among a hypothetic population of 100,000 children of A-bomb survivors exposed to an mean genital dose of 0.4 SV, radiation-induced diseases were considered to occur in only 250 children or less. An earlier large-scale survey during the period 1948-1956 has revealed an evidence of significant increase in stillborn, congenital malformation, and infantile death. In the 1946-1982 survey concerning carcinogenesis in 72,216 children of A-bomb survivors, cancer was found to be detected in 92 children, with no statistically significant increase in cancer risk with increasing radiation doses in their parents. The survey on mortality rate in 67,586 children of A-bomb survivors has revealed no evidence of significant increase in mortality rate from diseases, other than cancer, and in the incidence of lethal cancer. For A-bomb survivors, genetic doubling doses were considered to be 1 Sv or more. Further, when genetic doubling doses are calculated, the contribution rate of genital cell disturbance should be considered in the incidence of spontaneously induced disease. There is no supportive evidence of genetic effects of A-bomb radiation in children of A-bomb survivors; however, genetic effects of A-bomb radiation cannot be denied completely. Continuing survey is expected to be done for children of A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  1. Sociological and socio-psycho-historical problems of A-bomb exposed twin

    Watanabe, Shoji

    1983-01-01

    The atomic bombing of Hiroshima brought many casualities on human society, and collapsed human communities. The purpose of this study is to make mainly on pairs of monozygotic twins one of whom was exposed and the other was not, or both of whom were exposed, a general socio-psycho-historical investigations through a twin control study to find whether the bombing, which can be considered to cause major environmental changes, has had any psychological effects on the individuals. Due to the limited sample of atomic bomb exposed twins, in numbers available for study, it is necessary to have an understanding for their condions of the living and identity they have developed from the numerous mental stress they suffered, and rapid socio-cultural changes they experienced, including for changes in life from birth until the atomic bombing and aftermath of the disaster. As the result of this study, by depth interview, projective psychological research and research on socio-psycho-history of exposed twin and the nonexposed before the A-bomb and aftermath of disaster, the following were obtained: a) Although at the age of four and eight they exposed, they still keep it in clear memory of the damage and suffering in the minds. b) The damage and suffereng of the family who belonged were relatively small, the effects of their psychological sufferings continued even after these thirtyseven years. c) In the aftermath of the A-bomb disaster, the psychological bond showed strengthen through crises and following social distress. d) During the long period since the bombing, those who did not experienced A-bombing, have shown high degree of support and co-operation on their familial and social role to their counterpart. e) Even though their social or medical effects of A-bombing are relatively limited, if their spouse or close relative suffer psychological stress caused by A-bomb, they too suffer from their similar experiences. (J.P.N.)

  2. The significance of chromosome deletions in atomic-bomb survivors

    Tanaka, Kimio; Shigeta, Chiharu; Oguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao; Deng, Z.; Niimi, Masanobu; Aisaka, Tadaichi.

    1986-01-01

    In 39 A-bomb survivors 40 years after exposure at ≤ 1,000 m from ground zero, the frequency and features of chromosome deletions in peripheral lymphocytes were examined using a differential staining technique. Simultaneously, in vitro irradiation experiment with Cf-252 was made to infer chromosome aberrations occuring immediately after exposure. Californium-252 with 100 rad induced dicentric and ring chromosomes in 40 % of the cells and acentric fragments in 44 %. Among the A-bomb survivors, chromosome aberrations were observed in 651 (21 %) of the total 3,136 cells. There were 146 cells with deletions (22 % of abnormal cells; 5 % of the total cells), and 10 cells with acentric fragment (0.3 % of the total cells). The figure for deletions was far higher than that reported in the literature. A large number of deletions were seen in chromosomes no.4, no.21, and no.22, and a few deletions in chromosomes no.7 and no.20. Significance of chromosome deletions is discussed. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Proliferative and nonproliferative breast disease in atomic-bomb survivors

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Land, C.E.; Aoki, Yoichiro; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Asano, Masahide; Sato, Eiichi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sakamoto, Goi; Page, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    The risk of female breast cancer in association with radiation exposure is well established, on the basis of follow-up studies of the atomic-bomb survivors and other exposed populations. This association is especially strong for women exposed before age 20 yr and appears to be much weaker among women exposed after age 40 yr. In this study, breast-tissue autopsy samples from high-dose and low-dose individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study sample were examined in detail to determine whether nonproliferative or proliferative breast lesions are associated with radiation exposure. The results suggest that proliferative disease in general and atypical hyperplasia in particular are associated with radiation exposure and that the risk is strongest for subjects who were ages 40-49 yr at the time of the bombings. It is hypothesized that this finding may be related to the age dependence of radiation-induced breast cancer, in the sense that potential cancers reflecting early-stage changes induced at these ages by radiation exposure may receive too little hormonal promotion to progress to frank cancers. (author)

  4. Myth-building: The open-quotes Islamicclose quotes bomb

    Hoodbhoy, P.

    1993-01-01

    The open-quotes Islamic Bombclose quotes is roughly understood to be a nuclear weapon aquired for broad ideological reasons--a weapon that supposedly belongs to the Muslim ummah or community and, as such, is the ultimate expression of Islamic solidarity. Concern about the Islamic bomb is at the heart of the intense effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to Muslim countries. The official justification is a general one: proliferation must be curbed globally. But unofficially, the Islamic bomb gets special attention. The reasons behind this special attention are described in this article. The reasons include fear of terrorism, of a jihad willing to indiscriminately use nuclear weapons in hope of a reward in the Hereafter, and of the transfer of nuclear arms from nuclear to non-nuclear Muslim countries in times of crisis. Possibilities for controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Muslim countries are addressed. Reasons are cited as to why various Muslim countries wish to acquire nuclear weapons

  5. The bomb, the dark side of the nuclear world

    Collin, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The reality of the nuclear world can be summarized in few words: a world arsenal of 26000 bombs, enough uranium and plutonium and the know-how to make much more, multiple non-proliferation and weapons limitation treaties which have troubles regulating the diffusion of this technology, indelible environmental and sanitary marks left by 2059 tests, governments secretly wishing to assume this supreme power attribute, a black market, spies and dealers, but also: opponents, political leaders, local representatives and non-governmental organizations who militate for a nuclear weapon-free world. However, this burning question paradoxically remains obscure to citizens and its obscure aspect is relayed by media and politicians. This book aims at decoding the wheels of the international nuclear weapons situation: from the five official nuclear powers to the proliferation actors, from the defense policies to the risks of accidents and the stakes of disarmament, from the bomb fabrication to its devastating effects. It shows how this ultimate weapon has durably pervaded the defense policies and strategies of countries who own it, and how difficult it will be to reconsider this situation

  6. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki; Amemiya, Tsugio

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5±8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  7. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    Srsen, S.

    1984-01-01

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were to small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable

  8. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    Srsen, S. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1984-05-01

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were too small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable.

  9. Study on the multiple cancer in A-bomb survivors

    Wakabayashi, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Tsutomu.

    1984-01-01

    Autopsy data from cohort studies performed on A-bomb victims revealed that the incidence rate of multiple cancer was 7.8% (193 of 2,472 cancer A-bomb victims), being higher than that (5.8%) found from the tumor registry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Multiple cancer occurred more frequently in women than in men in both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The incidence of multiple cancer was 1.5 times higher in the victims exposed to more than 100 rad (Vsub(+) group) than in those exposed to less than one rad (V 0 group), suggesting that there might be dose-response relationship, although this was not statistically significant between the exposed groups. According to the organs, relative risk ratio of developing cancer in the Vsub(+) group to that in the V 0 group was high in the colon and rectum, bladder, lungs, and testes in men; in the thyroid gland, lungs, colon and rectum, bladder, and breast in women, although no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. This was suggestive of cancer that arises frequently in the lungs of men in the Vsub(+) group. Occult cancer of the thyroid gland and testes was also discussed in relation to the incidence of multiple cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Mortality of in-utero children exposed to the A-bomb and of offspring of A-bomb survivors

    Kato, H.

    1978-01-01

    A cohort-type follow-up study has been carried out by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation on the mortality of children exposed to A-bomb radiation while in utero. The mortality increased with tissue dose during the first year of life and did not increase during the following nine years, but an increase with dose was again suggested during 10-32 years of age. A detailed analysis of infant mortality revealed that the dose-associated excess in mortality among those under one year of age, especially within one month after birth, was attributable partly to the mechanical injury of the mother, but this does not provide the whole explanation. There was no increase of mortality from cancer including leukaemia with dose. As the number of cancer deaths is at present only five, further careful follow-up on this cohort is necessary to determine the state of radiation-induced cancer among this cohort. The continuing study on mortality rates among children born to A-bomb survivors has been updated to 1976. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the offspring (average age 24 years) could be demonstrated either by a contingency chi 2 -type of analysis or regression analysis. (author)

  11. Statistical studies on cause of death among a-bomb survivors from 1970 to 1976 in Nagasaki City

    Mine, Mariko; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Fukahori, Miyako

    1980-01-01

    The death rate from malignant neoplasms in a-bomb survivors was higher than that in Japan through the whole period from 1970 to 1976. The death rate from malignant neoplasms was also high in a-bomb survivors in their thirties and fortieth exposed to a-bomb near the hypocenter. Seven thousand, five hundred and twenty-eight a-bomb survivors investigated this time were quivalent to 90% of all 8,334 a-bomb survivors who died during the period from 1970 to 1976. Therefore, the result obtained from this investigation seemed to indicate the cause of death correctly. Remaining 10% are now under investigation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Ancient Artifacts vs. Digital Artifacts: New Tools for Unmasking the Sale of Illicit Antiquities on the Dark Web

    Katie A. Paul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS, also known as Daesh and ISIL in 2014, antiquities have been a widely publicized source of funding for what has become one of the most technologically savvy terrorist organizations of the modern era. The globalization of technology and rise of popularity in cryptocurrencies has changed the face of black-market trade and the actors that carry out these crimes. While art and antiquities have long served as a market with susceptibilities to laundering, the emergence of Dark Web markets, identification-masking software, and untraceable cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin have opened new doors to potential vulnerabilities. The anonymity that is offered by these technologies acts as a roadblock for authorities, while attracting the likes of terrorists and transnational criminals. Investigative research using cyber security platforms to identify digital artifacts connected to potential traffickers provides the opportunity to unmask the seemingly untraceable actors behind these activities. The evidence of illicit antiquities trafficking on the Dark Web displayed in this article can generate a new discussion on how and where to study black-market antiquities to gain needed insight into combating the illicit trade online and the transnational criminal groups it may finance.

  13. Mutations detected in the repetitive sequences in the children of the atomic bomb survivors

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Kodaira, Mieko

    1994-01-01

    We have been examining genetic effects of radiation in the children of the atomic bomb survivors. In a pilot study, 50 exposed families with 64 children and 50 control families with 60 children were examined for trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations at 3 loci and mutations at 6 minisatellite loci. Average dose of the 51 exposed parents was 1.8 Sv. By examining 124 children of 100 families, 65 germ cells derived from exposed parents and 183 germ cells of non-exposed parents were examined. The trinucleotide repeat expansions in genes of certain human genetic diseases show remarkable variation both within the cells of a single individual and among affected members of a single family which have been interpreted as mitotic and meiotic instability. We examined the regions with triplet repeats in the FMR-1, AR and DM genes causative for fragile X syndrome, spinobulbar muscular atrophy and myotonic dystrophy. No mutations were detected in 177 regions derived from 65 germ cells of exposed parents and 443 regions from 183 germ cells of non-exposed parents. No effects on the instability of the triplet repeats in the germ cells derived from exposed or unexposed individuals were observed. In the examinations of the 6 minisatellite loci of Pc-1, λTM-18, ChdTC-15, pλg3, λMS-1, and CEB-1, we detected single mutations at each of the pλg3 and λMS-1, and 4 mutations at the CEB-1 locus which had occurred in the 65 gametes in the exposed parents. Thus, mutation rates per gamete at the pλg3, λMS-1 and CEB-1 were 1.5%, 1.5% and 6.2%. On the other hand, mutations in these 3 loci in the 183 gametes of non-exposed parents were 0, 11 and 11, that is, the mutation rates per gamete were 0%, 6.0% and 6.0%. No significant difference was observed in the mutation rate at each of the 3 loci between 2 groups of parents. These preliminary results suggest that A-bomb exposure seems not to affect the germline instability at these 3 loci. (J.P.N)

  14. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in a fixed population of A-bomb survivors, 1

    Soda, Midori; Yokoyama, Naokata; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Takagi, Miwako; Kitano, Koei; Toyama, Kyoko; Fujikura, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    In a fixed population (7,564 A-bomb survivors) for Adult Health Study performed until December 1985, 28 A-bomb survivors (5 men and 23 women) were diagnosed as having thyroid cancer, and 79 (including one man) as breast cancer. There was an evident tendency among the group receiving 100 rad or more towards higher incidence of cancers of the thyroid and breast and synchronous or metachronous multiple primaries. The incidence of thyroid cancer tended to be higher in A-bomb survivors less than 20 years of age at the time of exposure; however, this tendency was not seen in the case of breast cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer - in contrast to breast cancer - tended to decrease from year to year. Multiple primaries were associated with thyroid cancer in 5 A-bomb survivors and breast cancer in 9 A-bomb survivors. Three A-bomb survivors had both thyroid and breast cancers. Among the 11 A-bomb survivors with multiple primaries, nine had received 100 rad or more. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. The current mortality rates of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city

    Mine, Mariko; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okajima, Shunzo

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to describe and investigate the death rate of about 110,000 A-Bomb survivors who have been registered in Nagasaki-city since 1957. There were 7,780 deaths among the A-Bomb survivors during 1970 -- 76 from which the age-specific death rates are calculated and compared with those of non-exposed controls in Nagasaki-city. The results are as follows: (1) The age-specific death rates by all causes of A-Bomb survivors are lower than those of the controls. (2) The age-specific death rates by the cerebrovascular disease (ICD 430 - 438) are also lower in A-Bomb survivors than in others. (3) The age-specific death rates by all malignant neoplasms are nearly the same between A-Bomb survivors and the controls. It is strongly suggested from these results that, although there may still exist a number of A-Bomb survivors having been suffered from the late effects of radiation, financial or medical aid supplied by the ministry and other organizations have done good work in advancing the health care of A-Bomb survivors. (author)

  16. Recent status and supplementary review of lenticular opacities in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors

    Sugimoto, S [Sugimoto Ophthalmic Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1978-04-01

    A review was made on the progress of lenticular opacities in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors on the basis of three experimental cases. A-bomb cataract is the first late effect of A-bomb radiation which appeared in A-bomb survivors and is the only disorder which can still be visualized at the present time. We have therefore continued to use this as one major evidence that A-bomb injuries have not been cured in spite of our for a complete ban of nuclear weapons. According to the findings of lenticular opacities of typical A-bomb cataract observed in experimental cases, there was in some cases after a latent period progression of opacities from several years to more than 10 years followed by a gradual decrease in opacities, whereas in some cases there was after a latent period a remarkable progress in opacities for several years followed by a marked decrease in the lesions. At the present time there is no evidence of progression and it appears that the progression has ceased. Incipient senile cataract which developed concurrently has completely no transitional relationship to A-bomb cataract and appears to progress slowly but steadily.

  17. Psychological problems of atomic bomb survivors from the medical social worker's standpoint

    Tomoike, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    Mental data from 80 A-bomb survivors were available during a 20-year period 1973-1992. Types of A-bomb survivors were classified into (1) directly exposed A-bomb survivors, (2) A-bomb survivors living in the United States, (3) those living in prefectures other than Nagasaki, (4) ex-soldiers, (5) A-bomb survivors having family problems and others, (6) the demented elderly, (7) the alcoholic, and (8) others. Mental problems were judged as psychogenic, endogenous, and exogenous. Mental problems were most frequently associated with Type 1 (34.9%), followed by Type 8 (21.0%), Type 2 (18.6%), and Type 3 (7.0%). Noticeable finding was that Type 1 A-bomb survivors suffered from psychogenic and exogenous mental problems in an extremely high incidence, as compared with the non-exposed group (66.3% vs 24%). The incidence of both exogenous and endogenous problems was higher in the non-exposed group (32.6% and 24.5%) than the exposed group (23.2% and 10.5%). There was no significant gender difference in the development of mental problems. According to types of A-bomb survivors, both psychogenic and exogenous mental problems were most common for Type 1. The incidence of psychogenic problems was 2.85 times higher than that of exogenous problems. (N.K.)

  18. Psychological problems of atomic bomb survivors from the medical social worker`s standpoint

    Tomoike, Toshio [Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Mental data from 80 A-bomb survivors were available during a 20-year period 1973-1992. Types of A-bomb survivors were classified into (1) directly exposed A-bomb survivors, (2) A-bomb survivors living in the United States, (3) those living in prefectures other than Nagasaki, (4) ex-soldiers, (5) A-bomb survivors having family problems and others, (6) the demented elderly, (7) the alcoholic, and (8) others. Mental problems were judged as psychogenic, endogenous, and exogenous. Mental problems were most frequently associated with Type 1 (34.9%), followed by Type 8 (21.0%), Type 2 (18.6%), and Type 3 (7.0%). Noticeable finding was that Type 1 A-bomb survivors suffered from psychogenic and exogenous mental problems in an extremely high incidence, as compared with the non-exposed group (66.3% vs 24%). The incidence of both exogenous and endogenous problems was higher in the non-exposed group (32.6% and 24.5%) than the exposed group (23.2% and 10.5%). There was no significant gender difference in the development of mental problems. According to types of A-bomb survivors, both psychogenic and exogenous mental problems were most common for Type 1. The incidence of psychogenic problems was 2.85 times higher than that of exogenous problems. (N.K.).

  19. Outline on populations of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and sex ratio in their children

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Inoue, Akira; Shiomi, Toshio

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of file delivered together with A-bomb surrivor's health Cards in Nagasaki, statistical management was performed on a mass of A-bomb survivors. The number of A-bomb survivors in a mass was 97,032. A family investigation by census registration was performed on 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group (the distance from the center of explosion recorded on cards was within 1.5 km) and 2,791 of its control group. As to 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group, each exposure place was determined, the distance from the center of explosion was measured again, and exposure dose was presumed. The mean exposure dose of A-bomb survivor group was 577 rad in male, and 681 rad in female. By adding A-bomb survivor group to the control group, 4,452 pairs of marriage were confirmed by census registration, and the number of their children was 10,073. With respect to changes of sex ratio, in case of exposed mother, it was expected theoretically that the number of male would decrease together with an decrease of dose, but an opposite change was recognized in a result of the investigation. A result in case of exposed father showed an increase of the male number although not significantly and a change towards the expected direction. (Tsunoda, M.)

  20. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  1. Recent status and supplementary review of lenticular opacities in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors

    Sugimoto, Shigenori

    1978-01-01

    A review was made on the progress of lenticular opacities in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors on the basis of three experimental cases. A-bomb cataract is the first late effect of A-bomb radiation which appeared in A-bomb survivors and is the only disorder which can still be visualized at the present time. We have therefore continued to use this as one major evidence that A-bomb injuries have not been cured in spite of our for a complete ban of nuclear weapons. According to the findings of lenticular opacities of typical A-bomb cataract observed in experimental cases, there was in some cases after a latent period progression of opacities from several years to more than 10 years followed by a gradual decrease in opacities, whereas in some cases there was after a latent period a remarkable progress in opacities for several years followed by a marked decrease in the lesions. At the present time there is no evidence of progression and it appears that the progression has ceased. Incipient senile cataract which developed concurrently has completely no transitional relationship to A-bomb cataract and appears to progress slowly but steadily. (auth.)

  2. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  3. Activation of cobalt by neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb

    Kerr, G.D.; Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III; Brodzinski, R.L.; Marcum, J.

    1990-02-01

    A study has been completed of cobalt activation in samples from two new locations in Hiroshima. The samples consisted of a piece of steel from a bridge located at a distance of about 1300 m from the hypocenter and pieces of both steel and concrete from a building located at approximately 700 m. The concrete was analyzed to obtain information needed to calculate the cobalt activation in the two steel samples. Close agreement was found between calculated and measured values for cobalt activation of the steel sample from the building at 700 m. It was found, however, that the measured values for the bridge sample at 1300 m were approximately twice the calculated values. Thus, the new results confirm the existence of a systematic error in the transport calculations for neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb. 52 refs., 32 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Organ dose estimates for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    Kerr, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Recent studies concerning radiation risks to man by the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation have emphasized the need for estimates of dose to organs of the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. Shielding of internal organs by the body has been investigated for fission-weapon gamma rays and neutrons, and ratios of mean absorbed dose in a number of organs to survivors' T65D assignments of tissue kerma in air are provided for adults. Ratios of mean absorbed dose to tissue kerma in air are provided also for the thyroid and active bone marrow of juveniles. These organ dose estimates for juveniles are of interest in studies of radiation risks due to an elevated incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer in survivors exposed as children compared to survivors exposed as adults

  5. Lessons from the atomic bomb about secondary MDS.

    Hata, Tomoko; Imanishi, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) is a hematological neoplasm defined by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplasia of hematopoietic cells, and risk of progression to acute leukemia. MDS occurs as de novo or secondary, and chemoradiotherapy for cancers is thought to increase the risk of MDS among patients. Recently, an epidemiological study for MDS among A-bomb survivors was performed, and it clearly demonstrated that the exposure to external radiation significantly increased the risk of MDS. Precise epidemiological data among survivors have revealed important clinical factors related to the risk of leukemias. In this review, by comparing data for secondary MDS and leukemia/MDS among survivors, several factors which would affect the risk of MDS, especially secondary MDS, are discussed.

  6. Neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City. First report

    Harada, Tomin; Ishida, Morihiro

    1960-04-01

    The 1957-1958 incidence of neoplasms among the survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb, varies directly with radiation dose insofar as it may be inferred from distance from the hypocenter at exposure. The incidence of all malignant neoplasms among the survivors who were within 1000 meters is more than 4 times that of the non-exposed population. The incidence of benign neoplasms among the survivors exposed within 1500 meters is also significantly higher than that among the non-exposed. For survivors under 1500 meters significant differences are seen between the numbers of observed cancers of the lung, stomach, uterus and ovary and the expected cases calculated from the age-specific rates of the non-exposed portion of the Hiroshima population. The increased incidence among survivors within 1500 meters is not related to sex or age. 18 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  7. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Toyota, Emiko; Neriishi, Shotaro; Yamakido, Michio; Matsuo, Miyo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Finch, S.C.

    1989-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  8. Report on results of medical survey of atomic bomb survivors residing in South America

    Mitsuhashi, Akio; Monzen, Tetsuo; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Oguma, Nobuo; Yotsuya, Koichi; Ozaki, Shinpei; Takamatsu, Katsuro; Kawaguchi, Kiyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Medical survey of A-bomb survivors was made from October 21 through November 7, 1985 in Brazil, Argentine, and Paraguay. One hundred fifty four A-bomb survivors were identified in these three countries. Of these A-bomb survivors, 133 (86 %) participated in this survey. Eighy six survivors came from Hiroshima and the other 47 from Nagasaki. The average age of them was 55.8 +- 11.1 yr for men and 56.3 +- 9.9 yr for women. Abnormal findings requiring detailed examinations and life instruction were seen in 56 % of the participants. Common findings were hypertension, heart disease, and obesity. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Penetrating Cardiac and Hepatic Injury; Polytrauma of a Child After Bombing

    Baris Akca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After a bombing attack, patients were brought into hospital suffering from a combination of injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries and burns which as a case of polytrauma. In penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries due to bombing possibility of cardiac injury should be kept in mind. Penetrating cardiac injuries in children are rare but has a high mortality and morbidity. In some cases there may be difficulty in diagnosis of penetrating cardiac injury. In this case we want to share the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up processes of penetrating cardiac and hepatic injury with burns of a politrauma child due to bombing.

  10. Biochemical survey for children of A-bomb survivors

    Sato, Chiyoko

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has conducted biochemical survey in children of A-bomb survivors, with the purpose of elucidating whether or not the rate of genetic mutation in genital cells is increased. This paper describes the previous surveys done at protein levels. Two kinds of indicators have been used: (1) 'rare mutation type' reflecting base substitution mutation, base deletion, and insertion; (2) 'mutation type' reflecting the decrease of red cell enzyme activity. According to the DS86 dosimetry system, the children population of A-bomb survivors were examined by dividing into the exposed group (n=11,364) of their parents exposed to 0.01 Sv or more and the control group (n=12,297) of those exposed to less than 0.01 Sv. 'Rare mutation type' was detected using electrophoresis in a total of 1,233 children in both groups. Of these children, 2 in the exposed group and 4 in the control group had a new 'mutation', i.e., mutation that was considered to have occurred in genital cells of their parents. Survey for genetic foci has revealed mutation in 2 children in the exposed group and 4 children in the control group, with the rate of mutation being 0.37 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation and 0.68 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation, respectively. Mutation type reflecting the decrease in red cell enzyme activity was seen in 26 in the exposed group and 21 in the control group. A total of 41 children were found to have been inherited from their parents. In the survey for genetic foci, only one had mutation in the exposed group, with the rate of mutation being 1.7 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation. These findings have revealed no evidence of significant difference in the rate of mutation between the exposed and control groups. Finally, the future genetic surveys at molecular levels are briefly discussed. (N.K.)

  11. Thyroid cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1958-79

    Akiba, Suminori; Ezaki, Haruo; Ron, E.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Lubin, J.; Asano, Masahide.

    1992-06-01

    One hundred and twelve cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1958-79 among the extended Life Span Study cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied. There was a statistically significant association between thyroid cancer incidence and exposure to atomic bomb radiation. The adjusted excess relative risk (ERR) per gray was 1.1 (95% confidence interval=0.3-2.5) and the adjusted absolute risk per 10 4 PYGy was 0.59 (95% confidence interval=0.2-1.7). Based on a comparison of the deviances obtained from relative and absolute risk models, a simple linear relative risk model appeared to fit the data better than an absolute risk model; however, it would not be appropriate to conclude that the data conform strictly to a relative risk pattern. The incidence of thyroid cancer among the members of the Adult Health Study (AHS) population, who have received biennial medical examinations at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, since 1958, was 70% higher than that among the rest of the extended LSS cohort after adjustments for city, sex, log age, calendar year, and Dosimetry System 1986 dose. There was no significant difference between the slope of the dose-response curve for AHS and non-AHS participants, although the estimated ERRs at 1 Gy for the AHS and non-AHS population were 1.6 and 0.3, respectively. The elevated risk appeared to be confined to women, and there was an increasing risk with decreasing attained age and age at exposure. (J.P.N.)

  12. Noncancer mortality among the Japanese atomic bomb survivor

    Wakeford, R.

    1999-01-01

    Yukiko Shimizu and her colleagues from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima have recently published the results of the updated analysis of deaths from causes other than cancer among the Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb explosions, covering the period 1950-1990 (Shimizu Y, Pierce D A, Preston D L and Mabuchi K 1999 Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part II. Noncancer mortality: 1950-1990 Radiat. Res. 152 374-389). The primary analyses are based on 27 000 deaths, 30% more than in the previous report on this subject. These latest findings confirm a statistically significant trend of an increasing rate of noncancer mortality with increasing dose, due to trends for diseases of circulatory, digestive and respiratory systems. At 1 Sv, the proportional increase is about 10%, much smaller than for cancer (at around 50%), but the numbers of excess deaths are more comparable. The all-important question of the dose-response relationship remains unresolved: linearity is possible, but the data are also consistent with a threshold at 0.5 Sv. The authors conclude that misclassification, confounding or selection effects are unlikely to fully explain the findings. Enhanced knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying these epidemiological observations would enable the nature of the dose-response to be better understood. Also reported is a statistically significant trend of an increasing rate of noncancer blood diseases with dose, which cannot be accounted for by misclassification. This paper also confirms that suicide rates tend to decrease with increasing dose. Clearly, the impact of these latest results for noncancer mortality upon risk estimates for low dose exposures is going to be much discussed by the radiological protection community. (author)

  13. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, 6

    Kato, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Mito, Kazuyo; Kumazawa, Toshihiko; Ito, Chikako.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of the results of gastric mass survey performed during a 3-year period from 1982 through 1984. Included in this survey were 16,781 A-bomb survivors. The subjects were divided into three groups: a group exposed at ≤ 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 1), a group exposed at > 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 2), and a group consisting of those who entered the city after the bombing or others (Group 3). Regarding the rate for necessity of detailed examinations, there was no difference among the groups. The incidence of abnormal findings was 6.1 % in Group 1, 5.4 % in Group 2, and 4.9 % in Group 3, showing significant difference between Groups 1 and 3. Similarly, the incidence of respective disease was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 3: gastritis was the most common (2.7 % vs 2.0 %), followed by gastric polyp (0.9 % vs 0.5 %) and gastric cancer (0.6 % vs 0.2 %). The age-adjusted incidence of gastric cancer and polyp was high, irrespective of sex, in Group 1. This was significant for gastric cancer in women and for gastric polyp in men. The incidence of gastric cancer in any age class was higher in Group 1 than Group 3. The incidence of gastric polyp tended to increase with aging in Group 1, being higher particularly for survivors over the age of 50 than those in Groups 2 and 3. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Studies on the life spans of atom-bomb survivors

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    A shortening of whole life as late injuries of atom-bomb survivors was discussed from the aspects of aging and the studies on the causes of leukemia and cancers. Twenty-one thousands four hundreds and forty-seven of 109000 subjects died during the period between 1950 and 1970. Mortality by exposure doses presented a high value with exposure doses. Mortality of subjects which had received exposure doses of more than 200 rads rose to a level which was 1.27 times in all causes of deaths of the control which had received exposure doses of 0 to 9 rads, and it showed 1.32 times in all deaths of sickness, 18.3 times in leukemia, and 1.48 times in death from cancer. Mortality due to leukemia decreases after 1950-1954, but in the group which had received exposure doses over 100 rads, the mortality was significantly higher than that in all districts in Japan. The shape of dose-reaction curve in Hiroshima was different from that in Nagasaki. In the same dose, mortality due to leukemia in Hiroshima was higher than that in Nagasaki. The younger the age at exposure was, the higher the risk rate of occurring cancer was. Especially, the risk rate of cancer was high in the patients who were exposed to atomic bomb during the age of 0 to 9 years old. Mortality due to cancer increased with the dose. Cancers which statistically showed higher mortality than that in the control group are lung cancer, cancer of the breast (100-199 rad), carcinoma of the esophagus, cancer of the urinary organ (200-299 rad) and gastric cancer (over 300 rads). There are not so clear difference in the mortality due to cancer between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comparing with the mortality due to leukemia. (Kanao, N.)

  15. Studies on the life spans of atom-bomb survivors

    Kato, H [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-12-01

    A shortening of whole life as late injuries of atom-bomb survivors was discussed from the aspects of aging and the studies on the causes of leukemia and cancers. Twenty-one thousands four hundreds and forty-seven of 109000 subjects died during the period between 1950 and 1970. Mortality by exposure doses presented a high value with exposure doses. Mortality of subjects which had received exposure doses of more than 200 rads rose to a level which was 1.27 times in all causes of deaths of the control which had received exposure doses of 0 to 9 rads, and it showed 1.32 times in all deaths of sickness, 18.3 times in leukemia, and 1.48 times in death from cancer. Mortality due to leukemia decreases after 1950-1954, but in the group which had received exposure doses over 100 rads, the mortality was significantly higher than that in all districts in Japan. The shape of dose-reaction curve in Hiroshima was different from that in Nagasaki. In the same dose, mortality due to leukemia in Hiroshima was higher than that in Nagasaki. The younger the age at exposure was, the higher the risk rate of occurring cancer was. Especially, the risk rate of cancer was high in the patients who were exposed to atomic bomb during the age of 0 to 9 years old. Mortality due to cancer increased with the dose. Cancers which statistically showed higher mortality than that in the control group are lung cancer, cancer of the breast (100-199 rad), carcinoma of the esophagus, cancer of the urinary organ (200-299 rad) and gastric cancer (over 300 rads). There are not so clear difference in the mortality due to cancer between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comparing with the mortality due to leukemia.

  16. Chromosomal instability in acute myelocytic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome patients among atomic bomb survivors

    Nakanishi, Mitsue; Tanaka, Kimio; Shintani, Takahiro; Takahashi, Tomoko; Kamada, Nanao

    1999-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of leukemogenesis in atomic bomb survivors, leukemic cells were investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on the basis of conventional G-banding in patients with a history of radiation exposure and also in de novo patients. Conventional G-banding showed higher incidences (p<0.005) of structural and numerical abnormalities without any specific types of chromosome aberrations in the group exposed to a dose of more than one Gy, compared to the non-exposed group. FISH analysis revealed significantly higher incidences (P<0.05) of subclones with monosomy 7 and deletion of the 20q13.2 region, which were not found in conventional cytogenetic analysis in the exposed group (more than one Gy) compared to the non-exposed controls. Furthermore, segmental jumping translocation (SJT) of the c-MYC gene region was observed only in the exposed group. These chromosomal instability suggested that the leukemic cells from the heavily exposed patients contained persistent cellular genetic instability which may strongly influence the development of leukemia in people exposed to radiation. (author)

  17. Mouse-human experimental epigenetic analysis unmasks dietary targets and genetic liability for diabetic phenotypes

    Multhaup, Michael L.; Seldin, Marcus; Jaffe, Andrew E.; Lei, Xia; Kirchner, Henriette; Mondal, Prosenjit; Li, Yuanyuan; Rodriguez, Varenka; Drong, Alexander; Hussain, Mehboob; Lindgren, Cecilia; McCarthy, Mark; Näslund, Erik; Zierath, Juleen R.; Wong, G. William; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Using a functional approach to investigate the epigenetics of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), we combine three lines of evidence – diet-induced epigenetic dysregulation in mouse, epigenetic conservation in humans, and T2D clinical risk evidence – to identify genes implicated in T2D pathogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms related to obesity. Beginning with dietary manipulation of genetically homogeneous mice, we identify differentially DNA-methylated genomic regions. We then replicate these results in adipose samples from lean and obese patients pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, identifying regions where both the location and direction of methylation change is conserved. These regions overlap with 27 genetic T2D risk loci, only one of which was deemed significant by GWAS alone. Functional analysis of genes associated with these regions revealed four genes with roles in insulin resistance, demonstrating the potential general utility of this approach for complementing conventional human genetic studies by integrating cross-species epigenomics and clinical genetic risk. PMID:25565211

  18. Clinical study of infectious diseases on aged A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Welfare Home for aged A-bomb survivors

    Aisaka, Tadakazu; Orimen, Akio; Niimi, Masanobu; Simizu, Kiyoshi.

    1978-01-01

    Infections, especially urinary passage and respiratory infections of aged A-bomb survivers under special protective care was examined. Urinary passage infections have recently shown an increasing tendency. These infections are related to the factors such as their basic diseases and wearing napkins rather than a severe degree of protective care. In the case of respiratory infection, diseases such as influenza are observed rather in patients who can walk, but they tend to be aggravated in bedridden patients. It cannot be said that more urinary passage infections are observed in A-bomb survivers than non A-bomb survivers. Both urinary passage infection and respiratory infection tend to recur repeatedly. Aged A-bomb survivers show no significant difference of acquired immunity from that of non A-bomb survivers group. However, a maintenance of neutralizing antibody by vaccination of influenza in the former is worse than in the latter. Bedridden patients show a higher rate of infection to potential urinary passage diseases than patients who can walk, irrespective of sex. Moreover, bedridden patients have a large number of bacteria, but other significant host reaction couldn't be observed. In bedridden patients with potential urinary passage infection, a variety of bacteria, most of which are bacteria resistant to rutinely used broad spectrum antibiotics, is detected. As a main disease or a direct cause of death, pyelonephritis in women and bronchopneumonia are often observed. (Iwagami, H.)

  19. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. (orig.)

  20. Meteorological and intelligence evidence of long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    Tuite, James J; Haley, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Coalition bombings on the night of 18-19 January 1991, early in the Gulf War, targeted the Iraqi chemical weapons infrastructure. On 19 January 1991, nerve agent alarms sounded within Coalition positions hundreds of kilometers to the south, and the trace presence of sarin vapor was identified by multiple technologies. Considering only surface dispersion of plumes from explosions, officials concluded that the absence of casualties around bombed sites precluded long-distance transit of debris to US troop positions to explain the alarms and detections. Consequently, they were discounted as false positives, and low-level nerve agent exposure early in the air war was disregarded in epidemiologic investigations of chronic illnesses. Newly assembled evidence indicates that plumes from those nighttime bombings of Iraqi chemical facilities would have traversed the stable nocturnal boundary layer and penetrated the residual layer where they would be susceptible to rapid transit by supergeostrophic winds. This explanation is supported by plume height predictions, available weather charts, weather satellite images showing transit of a hot air mass, effects of solar mixing of atmospheric layers, and observations of a stationary weather front and thermal inversion in the region. Current evidence supports long-distance transit. Epidemiologic studies of chronic postwar illness should be reassessed using veterans' reports of hearing nerve agent alarms as the measure of exposure. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Ohtaki, Megu [Hiroshima University, Department of Environmetrics and Biometrics, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Sato, Yuya [Hiroshima University, Division of Radiation Information Registry, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi [Hiroshima University, Department of Epidemiology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Tashiro, Satoshi [Hiroshima University, Division of Radiation Information Registry, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Hiroshima University, Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Department of Radiation Biophysics, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, 6. Gastric mass survey in atomic bomb survivors (1982 - 1984)

    Kato, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Mito, Kazuyo; Kumazawa, Toshihiko; Ito, Chikako

    1986-11-01

    This is a report of the results of gastric mass survey performed during a 3-year period from 1982 through 1984. Included in this survey were 16,781 A-bomb survivors. The subjects were divided into three groups: a group exposed at less than or equal to 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 1), a group exposed at > 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 2), and a group consisting of those who entered the city after the bombing or others (Group 3). Regarding the rate for necessity of detailed examinations, there was no difference among the groups. The incidence of abnormal findings was 6.1% in Group 1, 5.4% in Group 2, and 4.9% in Group 3, showing significant difference between Groups 1 and 3. Similarly, the incidence of respective disease was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 3: gastritis was the most common (2.7% vs 2.0%), followed by gastric polyp (0.9% vs 0.5%) and gastric cancer (0.6% vs 0.2%). The age-adjusted incidence of gastric cancer and polyp was high, irrespective of sex, in Group 1. This was significant for gastric cancer in women and for gastric polyp in men. The incidence of gastric cancer in any age class was higher in Group 1 than Group 3. The incidence of gastric polyp tended to increase with aging in Group 1, being higher particularly for survivors over the age of 50 than those in Groups 2 and 3. (Namekawa, K.).

  3. Threat perception after the Boston Marathon bombings: The effects of personal relevance and conceptual framing.

    Wormwood, Jolie Baumann; Lynn, Spencer K; Feldman Barrett, Lisa; Quigley, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    We examined how the Boston Marathon bombings affected threat perception in the Boston community. In a threat perception task, participants attempted to "shoot" armed targets and avoid shooting unarmed targets. Participants viewing images of the bombings accompanied by affectively negative music and text (e.g., "Terror Strikes Boston") made more false alarms (i.e., more errors "shooting" unarmed targets) compared to participants viewing the same images accompanied by affectively positive music and text (e.g., "Boston Strong") and participants who did not view bombing images. This difference appears to be driven by decreased sensitivity (i.e., decreased ability to distinguish guns from non-guns) as opposed to a more liberal bias (i.e., favouring the "shoot" response). Additionally, the more strongly affected the participant was by the bombings, the more their sensitivity was reduced in the negatively framed condition, suggesting that this framing was particularly detrimental to the most vulnerable individuals in the affected community.

  4. Accident in science history. Hitler's atomic bomb; Stoerfall der Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Hitlers Atombombe

    Popp, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Up to now the historical explanation for the fact that NS Germany did not develop an atomic bomb was that there was enough scientific and technical knowledge but not enough resources. Recent historical research showed that the German scientists in the ''Uranverein'' did not know the cross section of U-235 and had no possibility to measure these cross sections. There exist only very few documents dealing with the bomb. The bomb was treated as a special case of a reactor. Obviously the German scientists did not know he bomb technology. It seems that the project was not success-oriented because the scientists expected to be sent to the front in case of a project stop.

  5. Outline of developing projects of atomic bomb in Japan and USA

    Fukui, Shuji

    2007-01-01

    The content of the title connecting with the World War II is described hoping that younger researchers of nuclear physics could know some of the facts that scientists and the military of Japan and USA, respectively, had have developing projects of atomic bomb by fission reaction, although there are no official documents of those in Japan, even if there are some unofficial documents that are uncertain partly in Japan. Described are a chronological table, the content of research and development of atomic bombs, Japan's experiments by Kikuchi Laboratory of Osaka Imperial University and Nishina Laboratory of RIKEN, as well as the USA's action such as production of fissile nuclide, Pu-239 and U-235, selection of the site to fabricate atomic bomb, investigation the state of research and development of atomic bombs in Germany, Italy and Japan. (S.Y.)

  6. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors; Preliminary report

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-09-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author).

  7. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  8. An Aerodynamic Database for the Mk 82 General Purpose Low Drag Bomb

    Krishnamoorthy, L

    1997-01-01

    The drag database of the Mk 82 General Purpose Low Drag bomb, the primary gravity weapon in the RAAF inventory, has some shortcomings in the quality and traceability of data, and in the variations due...

  9. Radiation exposure and disease questionnaires of early entrants after the Hiroshima bombing

    Imanaka, T.; Endo, S.; Kawano, N.; Tanaka, K.

    2012-01-01

    It is popularly known that people who entered into the ground-zero area shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffered from various syndromes similar to acute radiation effects. External exposures from neutron-induced radionuclides in soil have recently been reassessed based on DS02 calculations as functions of both distance from the hypo-centres and elapsed time after the explosions. Significant exposure due to induced radiation can be determined for those who entered the area within 1000 m from the hypo-centres shortly after the bombing. Although it was impossible to track the action of each of the survivors over the days or weeks following the bombings in order to make reliable dose estimates for their exposures to soil activation or fallout, four individuals among those early entrants were investigated here to describe useful information of what happened shortly after the bombing. (authors)

  10. Sampling Studies at an Air Force Live-Fire Bombing Range Impact Area

    Jenkins, Thomas F; Hewitt, Alan D; Ramsey, Charles A; Bjella, Kevin L; Bigl, Susan R; Lambert, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    .... The main objective was to assess the effectiveness of using a systematic-random, multi-increment sampling strategy for the collection of representative surface soil samples in areas where bombing...

  11. Epidemiological study of recent death risk of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors exposed at close range

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Yutaka.

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the hormetic effect on health of human exposed with very low-dose ionizing radiation, we preliminary investigate the epidemiological study of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. The major results are as follows; (1) Nagasaki A-bomb survivors exposed with 2-18 cGy are investigated, and the epidemiological data-base of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors are updated by these new data. (2) An applicability of the expanded new data-base to epidemiological analysis is investigated. Based on this investigation, the theme of epidemiological study to elucidate the hormetic effect on human health are discussed. (3) Effects of A-bomb dose on risk of total death cause, cancer death and non-cancer death are analysed by epidemiological method. The relative frequency of non-cancer death cause on male survivors exposed with 50-99 cGy is decreased relative to unexposed controls. (author)

  12. An assessment of environmental damage caused by NATO bombing of NIS Jugopetrol facilities

    Milosevic, D.; Radu, A.; Novakovic, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper present our investigation of the effects of NATO bombing of the Jugopetrol facilities in Serbia during the Spring of 1999. Concentrations of hazardous material in air, water and soil have been measured and compared to the situation before the bombing. Only partial results are presented in this paper. High concentrations of hydrocarbons were detected in the air immediately after the bombing and the destruction of installations, due to burning and evaporation of oil derivatives. A great amount of spilled mineral oils has been detected in water and soil near the destroyed installations. We have detected a noticeable increase in pollution after the NATO bombing. In addition to above mentioned pollution, the destruction of large parts of waste treatment system within the Jugopetrol's installations caused severe environmental problems. The recovery of the destroyed installation and waste treatment systems require considerable amount of money and time, and cannot be accomplished without the help of foreign investment. (author)

  13. Self injury of extremities leading to amputation while handling local bomb.

    Bhadani, Umesh Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Self injury while making material which has a tendency to blast is dangerous- whether it is fire cracker or local bomb. Some villagers living nearby forest make bomb to scare wild animals to protect their pet animals. A 22-year old girl while making this kind of local bomb, got injured badly. The injury was sustained while making bomb in a sitting position with face down as it is evident form type of injury. There was lacerated injury of both hands leading to amputation of both hands above wrists. Lacerated injury was present on medial sides of both thighs and gun powder marks on face. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 years of terrorist bombings - A meta-analysis of the casualty and injury profile.

    Edwards, D S; McMenemy, L; Stapley, S A; Patel, H D L; Clasper, J C

    2016-03-01

    Terrorists have used the explosive device successfully globally, with their effects extending beyond the resulting injuries. Suicide bombings, in particular, are being increasingly deployed due to the devastating effect of a combination of high lethality and target accuracy. The aim of this study was to identify trends and analyse the demographics and casualty figures of terrorist bombings worldwide. Analysis of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and a PubMed/Embase literature search (keywords "terrorist", and/or "suicide", and/or "bombing") from 1970 to 2014 was performed. 58,095 terrorist explosions worldwide were identified in the GTD. 5.08% were suicide bombings. Incidents per year are increasing (Pprofile of survivors to guide the immediate response by the medical services and the workload in the coming days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hippocampal serotonin depletion unmasks differences in the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine and MK-801: quantitative versus qualitative analyses

    Wendy K Adams

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors by phencyclidine is thought to underlie its ability to induce a schizophrenia-like syndrome in humans, yet evidence indicates it has a broader pharmacological profile. Our previous lesion studies highlighted a role for serotonergic projections from the median, but not dorsal, raphe nucleus in mediating the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine, without changing the action of the more selective NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Here we compared locomotor responses to phencyclidine and MK 801 in rats that were administered 5,7 dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT into either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus, which are preferentially innervated by median and dorsal raphe, respectively. Dorsal hippocampus lesions potentiated phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion (0.5, 2.5 mg/kg, but not the effect of MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg. Ventral hippocampus lesions did not alter the hyperlocomotion elicited by either compound. Given that phencyclidine and MK-801 may induce different spatiotemporal patterns of locomotor behavior, together with the known role of the dorsal hippocampus in spatial processing, we also assessed whether the 5,7-DHT-lesions caused any qualitative differences in locomotor responses. Treatment with phencyclidine or MK-801 increased the smoothness of the path travelled (reduced spatial d and decreased the predictability of locomotor patterns within the chambers (increased entropy. 5,7-DHT-lesions of the dorsal hippocampus did not alter the effects of phencyclidine on spatial d or entropy—despite potentiating total distance moved—but caused a slight reduction in levels of MK-801-induced entropy. Taken together, serotonergic lesions targeting the dorsal hippocampus unmask a functional differentiation of the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine and MK 801. These findings have implications for studies utilising NMDA receptor antagonists in modeling glutamatergic dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  16. The present state of the medical record data base for the A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki University

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    It has been 13 years since the operation of medical record data base for A-bomb survivors was started in the Scientific Data Center for Atomic Bomb Disaster at the Nagasaki University. This paper presents the basic data in handling the data base. The present data base consists of the following 6 items: (1) 'fundamental data' for approximately 120,000 A-bomb survivors having an A-bomb survivors' handbook who have been living in Nagasaki City; (2) 'Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital's data', covering admission medical records in the ward of internal medicine; (3) 'pathological data', covering autopsy records in Nagasaki City; (4) 'household data reconstructed by the survey data'; (5) 'second generation A-bomb survivors data', including the results of mass screening since 1979, and (6) 'address data'. Based on the data, the number of A-bomb survivors, diagnosis records at the time of death, the number of A-bomb survivors' participants in health examination, tumor registration, records of admission to the internal ward in Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital, autopsy records, and household records are tabulated in relation to annual changes, age at the time of A-bombing, distance from the hypocenter, or sex. (N.K.)

  17. Bomb reduction of uranium tetrafluoride. Part II: Influence of the addition elements in the reduction process; Reduccion del tetrafluoruro de uranio en bomba cerrada. Parte II: Influencia de elementos de adicion en la reducion

    Anca Abati, R; Lopez Rodriguez, M

    1962-07-01

    This work shows the influence of uranium oxide and uranyl fluoride in the reduction of uranium with Ca and Mg. These additions are more harmful when using smaller bombs. The uranyl fluoride has influence in the reduction process; the curves yield-concentration shows two regions depending upon the salt concentration. The behaviour of this addition in these regions can be explained following the different decompositions that can take place during the reduction process. (Author) 9 refs.

  18. Uranium tetrafluoride reduction closed bomb. Part I: Reduction process general conditions

    Anca Abati, R.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1961-01-01

    General conditions about the metallo thermic reduction in small bombs (250 and 800 gr. of uranium) has been investigated. Factors such as kind and granulometry of the magnesium used, magnesium excess and preheating temperature, which affect yields and metal quality have been considered. magnesium excess increased yields in a 15% in the small bomb, about the preheating temperature, there is a range between which yields and metal quality does not change. All tests have been made with graphite linings. (Author) 18 refs

  19. Medical Database for the Atomic-Bomb Survivors at Nagasaki University

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    The Scientific Data Center for Atomic-Bomb Disasters at Nagasaki University was established in 1974. The database of atomicbomb survivors has been in operation since 1977. The database is composed of following 6 physical database : (1) Fundamental information database. (2) Atomic-Bomb Hospital database, (3) Pathological database, (4) Household reconstruction database, (5) Second generation database, and (6) Address database. We review the current contents of the database for its further appli...

  20. Precision closed bomb calorimeter for testing flame and gas producing initiators

    Carpenter, D. R., Jr.; Taylor, A. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A calorimeter has been developed under this study to help meet the needs of accurate performance monitoring of electrically or mechanically actuated flame and gas producing devices, such as squib-type initiators. A ten cubic centimeter closed bomb (closed volume) calorimeter was designed to provide a standard pressure trace and to measure a nominal 50 calorie output, using the basic components of a Parr Model 1411 calorimeter. Two prototype bombs were fabricated, pressure tested to 2600 psi, and extensively evaluated.

  1. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F 1 ). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F 1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts

  2. Reanalysis of atomic bomb survivors' leukemia based on the recent classification for leukemias

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao.

    1990-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-three A-bomb survivors developing leukemia, who had been exposed within 9,000 m from the hypocenter, were entered on the study for reanalysis of their disease based on the new classification. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) showed the highest concordance rate (95%) between the previous and new classifications. For 10 survivors previously diagnosed as having chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a new classification diagnosed CLL as well in 3 and adult T-cell leukemia in the other 7. None of the A-bomb survivors exposed to one Gy or more had subtype M3 of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), although the exposed group had almost the same distribution pattern of AML subtypes as the naturally induced leukemic group. The incidence of CML was significantly lower than that of AML in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. As A-bomb survivors were older at the time of A-bombing, the relative risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was decreased; that of CML and other types of leukemia was increased. An increased relative risk of ALL and CML tended to be associated with larger doses. A significantly shortened interval between A-bomb exposure and the development of leukemia was also associated with larger doses. (N.K.)

  3. Statistical study of autopsy cases in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital 1956-1975

    Hamada, T; Ishida, S [H.ma Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Matsushita, Hiroshi

    1976-03-01

    In order to study the differences in the incidence of a variety of disease (excluding tumors), between the cases exposed to the atomic bomb and those who were unexposed, main lesions were studied statistically by autopsy. The subjects were 1230 cases autopsied at the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital or the Hiroshima Red-Cross Hospital. They were divided into 318 cases exposed at a short distance from the bombed area (within 2 km), and 420 cases exposed at a long distance from that area (more than 2 km), including those who had come to Hiroshima later. Four hundred twenty nine unexposed cases were selected as controls. The incidence of tumor, disturbance of circulation, disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain, blood disease, and respiratory disease was higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. The incidence of cirrhosis of the liver was higher in females than in males, and was lower in cases farther from the bombed area. Cardiac infarction, valvular disease, and endocarditis were more often seen in the cases exposed near the bombed area. The incidence of the blood vessels in the brain was highest in the exposed cases near the bombed area. The incidence of disturbance of circulation, and disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain had a tendency to be higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. This is considered to be due to the advanced age in the exposed cases.

  4. Effect Analysis on the Radiation Dose Rate of Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors by Atmospheric Condition

    Seo, Ji Sun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chang Ho [Innovative Technology Center for Radiation Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Heon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) had been established to evaluate the radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The radiation effects of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the atomic bombs detonated at both cities were analyzed, and two types of radiation transport codes (i.e., MCNP4C and DORT) were employed in their studies. It was specifically investigated for contribution of each type of radiations to total dose. However, it is insufficient to examine the effects by various environmental factors such as weather conditions, because their calculations were only performed under certain condition at the times of the bombings. In addition, the scope of them does not include acute radiation injury of the atomic bomb survivors in spite of important information for investigating hazard of unexpected radiation accident. Therefore, this study analyzed the contribution of primary and secondary effects (i.e., skyshine and groundshine) of neutrons emitted from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. These analyses were performed through a series of radiation transport calculations by using MCNPX 2.6.0 code with variations of atmospheric density. The acute radiation injury by prompt neutrons was also evaluated as a function of distance from the hypocenter, where hypocenter is the point on the ground directly beneath the epicenter which is the burst point of the bomb in air

  5. Personality and Major Depression among Directly Exposed Survivors of the Oklahoma City Bombing

    Carol S. North

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few disaster studies have specifically examined personality and resilience in association with disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and major depression. Methods. 151 directly-exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing randomly selected from a bombing survivor registry completed PTSD, major depression, and personality assessments using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV and the Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively. Results. The most prevalent postdisaster psychiatric disorder was bombing-related PTSD (32%; major depression was second in prevalence (21%. Bombing-related PTSD was associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness and also with high self-transcendence and high harm avoidance in most configurations. Postdisaster major depression was significantly more prevalent among those with (56% than without (5% bombing-related PTSD (P<.001 and those with (72% than without (14% predisaster major depression (P<.001. Incident major depression was not associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Conclusions. Personality features can distinguish resilience to a specific life-threatening stressor from general indicators of well-being. Unlike bombing-related PTSD, major depression was not a robust marker of low resilience. Development and validation of measures of resilience should utilize well-defined diagnoses whenever possible, rather than relying on nonspecific measures of psychological distress.

  6. A statistical study of autopsy cases in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital 1956-1975

    Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    In order to study the differences in the incidence of a variety of disease (excluding tumors), between the cases exposed to the atomic bomb and those who were unexposed, main lesions were studied statistically by autopsy. The subjects were 1230 cases autopsied at the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital or the Hiroshima Red-Cross Hospital. They were divided into 318 cases exposed at a short distance from the bombed area (within 2 km), and 420 cases exposed at a long distance from that area (more than 2 km), including those who had come to Hiroshima later. Four hundred twenty nine unexposed cases were selected as controls. The incidence of tumor, disturbance of circulation, disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain, blood disease, and respiratory disease was higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. The incidence of cirrhosis of the liver was higher in females than in males, and was lower in cases farther from the bombed area. Cardiac infarction, valvular disease, and endocarditis were more often seen in the cases exposed near the bombed area. The incidence of the blood vessels in the brain was highest in the exposed cases near the bombed area. The incidence of disturbance of circulation, and disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain had a tendency to be higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. This is considered to be due to the advanced age in the exposed cases. (Serizawa, K.)

  7. The night of the physicists. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker, and the German bomb; Die Nacht der Physiker. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker und die deutsche Bombe

    Schirach, Richard von

    2014-07-01

    Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.

  8. Strictosidine activation in Apocynaceae: towards a "nuclear time bomb"?

    Guirimand Grégory

    2010-08-01

    strictosidine vacuolar pool upon enzyme-substrate reunion occurring during potential herbivore feeding constituting a so-called "nuclear time bomb" in reference to the "mustard oil bomb" commonly used to describe the myrosinase-glucosinolate defence system in Brassicaceae.

  9. Strictosidine activation in Apocynaceae: towards a "nuclear time bomb"?

    2010-01-01

    upon enzyme-substrate reunion occurring during potential herbivore feeding constituting a so-called "nuclear time bomb" in reference to the "mustard oil bomb" commonly used to describe the myrosinase-glucosinolate defence system in Brassicaceae. PMID:20723215

  10. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    Ashizawa, K.; Imaizumi, M.; Usa, T.; Tominaga, T.; Hida, A.; Ejima, E.; Neriishi, K.; Soda, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Maeda, R.; Akahoshi, M.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purpose/Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) is defined as a biochemical abnormality characterized by a subnormal level of TSH with otherwise normal thyroid tests (F T 3 , F T 4 ) and no clinical symptoms. There are only a small number of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of Sh. With the improvement of the sensitivity of TSH assay, it has become possible to survey the clinical significance of Sh. With regard to both Sh and subclinical hypothyroidism, discussions are being focused on such as the necessity of treatment. In order to elucidate the clinical significance of Sh, examination data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed. Subjects and Method Between 2000 and 2003, of 4,090 A-bomb survivors (1,352 males and 2,738 females with average age of 70.7), 75 individuals (1.83%) with Sh were found who had normal Free T 4 (0.71∼1.51 ng/dL) and TSH<0.45 m U/L. Analysis was limited to those who had not taken antithyroid drugs or thyroxin, and the Sh group (n=35; 9 males and 26 females) was compared with a control group with TSH:0.45∼4.5 m U/L (Group C; N=3,243; 1,109 males and 2,134 females). Result: Nine individuals had TSH<0.1 m U/L. In the Sh group, six individuals were TPO antibody-positive (17%) and 14 were TG antibody-positive (40%); hence, TG antibody-positive was significantly greater in number (p=0.0096). Hematological biochemical tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Electrocardiograms indicated that more individuals had atrial fibrillation [p=0.028; Odds ratio (OR)=3.98; 95% Confidential interval (CI)=1.2-13.7] or ventricular premature contraction [p=0.016; OR=3.29; 95% CI=1.3-8.6] in the Sh group. In terms of the presence or absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperuricemia, there was no difference between the two groups. One individual from the Sh group was confirmed to have Graves' disease two years later. Conclusion: Since more individuals in the Sh group were

  11. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    Ashizawa, K; Imaizumi, M; Usa, T; Tominaga, T; Hida, A; Ejima, E; Neriishi, K; Soda, M; Fujiwara, S; Maeda, R; Akahoshi, M; Nagataki, S; Eguchi, K [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Branch

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Purpose/Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) is defined as a biochemical abnormality characterized by a subnormal level of TSH with otherwise normal thyroid tests (F T{sub 3}, F T{sub 4}) and no clinical symptoms. There are only a small number of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of Sh. With the improvement of the sensitivity of TSH assay, it has become possible to survey the clinical significance of Sh. With regard to both Sh and subclinical hypothyroidism, discussions are being focused on such as the necessity of treatment. In order to elucidate the clinical significance of Sh, examination data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed. Subjects and Method Between 2000 and 2003, of 4,090 A-bomb survivors (1,352 males and 2,738 females with average age of 70.7), 75 individuals (1.83%) with Sh were found who had normal Free T{sub 4} (0.71{approx}1.51 ng/dL) and TSH<0.45 m U/L. Analysis was limited to those who had not taken antithyroid drugs or thyroxin, and the Sh group (n=35; 9 males and 26 females) was compared with a control group with TSH:0.45{approx}4.5 m U/L (Group C; N=3,243; 1,109 males and 2,134 females). Result: Nine individuals had TSH<0.1 m U/L. In the Sh group, six individuals were TPO antibody-positive (17%) and 14 were TG antibody-positive (40%); hence, TG antibody-positive was significantly greater in number (p=0.0096). Hematological biochemical tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Electrocardiograms indicated that more individuals had atrial fibrillation [p=0.028; Odds ratio (OR)=3.98; 95% Confidential interval (CI)=1.2-13.7] or ventricular premature contraction [p=0.016; OR=3.29; 95% CI=1.3-8.6] in the Sh group. In terms of the presence or absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperuricemia, there was no difference between the two groups. One individual from the Sh group was confirmed to have Graves' disease two years later. Conclusion: Since more individuals in

  12. Application of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer to the validation of redfish Centroberyx affinis age

    Kalish, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Validation of methods used to estimate fish age is a critical element of the fish stock assessment process. Despite the importance of validation, few procedures are available that provide unbiased estimates of true fish age and those methods that are available are seldom used. The majority of these methods are unlikely to provide an indication of the true age of individual fish, data that are best suited to the validation process. Accelerator mass spectrometry analyses of radiocarbon in selected regions of Centroberyx affinis otoliths were used to validate the age estimation method for this species. Radiocarbon data from the otoliths of C. affinis with presumed birth dates between 1955 and 1985 described the increase in ocean radiocarbon attributable to the atmospheric detonation of nuclear weapons in the 1950s and 1960s. The results confirm the longevity of C. affinis and demonstrate the effectiveness of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer for the validation of age-estimation methods. (author). 31 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Significance of lenticular opacity from the view point of the exposure dose of A-bomb radiation

    Sugimoto, S [Sugimoto Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    Two cases of lenticular opacity were discussed from the view point of exposure dose of A-bomb radiation. Case 1: female, 22 year and 5 months old when she was exposured to A-bomb radiation. The presumed exposure dose was 482.0 rad. Cataract due to A-bomb radiation. Case 2: female, 21 years and 6 months old when she was exposured to A-bomb radiation. The presumed exposure dose was more than 1,000 rad. Cataract due to A-bomb radiation and incipient cataract senilis. It was reported here that there was a marked difference in opacity findings of cataract due to A-bomb radiation in accordance with difference in exposure dose of radiation. It was also presumed from the findings of incipient cataract senilis that with increasing exposure dose, the aging phenomenon was promoted.

  14. Mortality among atomic-bomb survivors, 1950-1990

    Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Pierce, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of cancer mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors during the period from 1950 through 1990 was recently published in Radiation Research. Work is also nearing completion on an updated analysis of data on noncancer mortality in the LSS. The new LSS mortality reports, collectively called Report 12, differ from earlier LSS reports in several general aspects. The Report includes some simple tabular, and graphical summaries of the excess risks which were developed to make it easier to comprehend the magnitude and nature of the excess risks in this cohort while highlighting uncertainties in the current LSS data. In order to overcome problems inherent in the use of summary risk estimates averaged over the current follow-up, sex- and age-at-exposure-specific lifetime risks computed for the LSS cohort are used as primary summaries of the excess risks. Throughout the new report, risk estimates were derived from models that make explicit allowance for important risk-modifying factors, such as age-at-exposure, sex, or attained age. This chapter contains a brief summary of some of the findings of the cancer mortality report and provides a preview of the latest non-cancer results

  15. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-09-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima who participated in the 1979-81 period of the Adult Health Study, an on-going health follow-up program of the RERF. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers as compared to nonsmokers, levels of total protein, β globulin, and γ globulin were significantly lower (p 1 and α 2 globulin were significantly higher (p 1 globulin. Duration of smoking (years) was related to increased α 1 and α 2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect. Its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins. (author)

  16. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly

  17. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic-bomb survivors

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Carter, R.L.; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic-bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody, and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE) were measured among 2061 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki from December 1987 to November 1989. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor increased in a statistically significant manner with increasing radiation dose. No radiation effect was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody. A statistically significant relationship was also found between radiation exposure and the IgA level in females and the IgM levels in both sexes-both levels increased as radiation dose increased. However, the effects of radiation exposure were not large and accounted for less than 10% of the total variation in each measurement. Levels of IgG and IgE were not affected by radiation exposure. (author)

  18. Increased somatic cell mutant frequency in atomic bomb survivors

    Hakoda, Masayuki; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Awa, A.A.; Yamakido, Michio; Otake, Masanori.

    1988-05-01

    Frequencies of mutant T-cells in peripheral blood, which are deficient in the activity of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) were determined for atomic bomb survivors by direct clonal assay using a previously reported method. Results from 30 exposed survivors (exposed to more than 1 rad) and 17 age- and sex-matched controls (exposed to less than 1 rad) were analyzed. The mean mutant frequency (Mf) in the exposed (5.2 x 10 -6 ; range 0.8 - 14.4 x 10 -6 ) was significantly higher than in controls (3.4 x 10 -6 ; range 1.3 - 9.3 x 10 -6 ), a fact not attributable to lower nonmutant cell cloning efficiencies in the exposed group since cell cloning efficiencies were virtually identical in both groups. An initial analysis of the data did not reveal a significant correlation between individual Mfs and individual radiation dose estimates when the latter were defined by the original, tentative estimates (T65D), even though there was a significant positive correlation of Mfs with individual frequency of lymphocytes bearing chromosome aberration. However, reanalysis using the newer revised individual dose estimates (DS86) for 27 exposed survivors and 17 controls did reveal a significant but shallow positive correlation between T-cell Mf values and individual exposure doses. These results indicate that HPRT mutation in vivo in human T-cells could be detected in these survivors 40 years after the presumed mutational event. (author)

  19. Secular trends of blood pressure in A-bomb survivors

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kitano, Koei

    1986-01-01

    There has been controversy about whether or not radiation exposure plays a major role in advancing age. To preliminarily study this relationship, a statistical analysis was made on blood pressure measurements in a cohort of A-bomb survivors for Adult Health Study carried out during a 22-year period from 1958 through 1980. Systolic blood pressure increased with advancing age in both men and women between 30 and 80 years. During the years 1974 through 1980, it tended to increase in both men and women aged in their thirties and fourties. Diastolic blood pressure for men increased between the ages of 30 and 60 years, and decreased between the ages of 60 and 80 years. It tended to increase from year to year for men. For women, it decreased prior to the 1970's, and thereafter, tended to increase. The parameters, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse pressure, were independent of exposure doses in the subgroups according to age or sex. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Changes in smoking habits of smokers under bombing by rockets.

    Keinan-Boker, L; Enav, T; Rozentraub, T; Shohat, T

    2011-03-01

    Stress is known to impact smoking. This survey assessed changes in smoking behaviour of smokers in Southern Israel during a military operation (December 2008-January 2009) that exposed several civilian communities to intensive rocket bombing and acute stress. Households with an active land telephone line in Jewish Gaza vicinity communities were sampled. Inclusion criteria were age (18+ years) and being a daily or an occasional smoker. A telephone interview was carried out, focusing on socio-demographic characteristics and change in smoking behaviour during the military operation. Personal, demographic and circumstantial correlates of smoking behaviour were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 425 smokers took part in the survey. Most (85%) reported being daily smokers, and smoked, on average, 10-20 cigarettes/day before the operation. During the operation, 38% of the smokers changed their smoking habits and most (88%) reported higher than usual smoking rates. Correlates significantly associated with higher smoking during the operation were sex (female), education (lower) and not working due to the operation. Exposure to acute stress has an impact on smoking rates, especially in certain subgroups of smokers. Relevant smoking cessation interventions should address the special needs of smokers exposed to stressful circumstances.

  1. Cancer risk estimation from the A-bomb survivors

    Pierce, D.A.; Vaeth, M.

    1989-10-01

    Generalizations regarding radiogenic cancer risks from the A-bomb survivor data of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation involve a large number of well-identified uncertainties and approximations. These include extrapolation to low doses and dose rates, projections in time, sampling variation, the quality of the data, extrapolation to other populations, and the use of simplifying conventions. This paper discusses some of these issues, with emphasis on the first three. Results are given regarding the maximum 'linear-quadratic' curvature consistent with these data, taking into account uncertainties in individual exposure estimates. Discussion is given regarding use of relative risk models and projection of lifetime risks, emphasizing results for those who were old enough at exposure to have been followed up for a major part of their lives by now, and stressing the speculative aspects of conclusions about those exposed as children. Combining these results, and brief discussion of other uncertainties itemized above, comment is made on the evolution of risk estimates over the past 15 years. (author)

  2. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    Itoh, Chikako; Naitoh, Yasuo; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1976-01-01

    Fluororoentogenography of stomach was carried out on the cases of which stool-test was positive at the time of general physical examinations from October, 1971 to September, 1975. Necessity rate of detailed examination was high in male, but there was no difference by exposure condition between female and male. Rate of detailed examination carried out tended to be high in female, but there was no difference by exposure condition. Rate showing abnormal findings was high in male, and was high in the aged of both female and male. Rate showing abnormal findings according to exposure condition was higher in the group exposed directly to atomic bomb over 2.1 km from the hypocenter, in the group who entered city after explosion, and in other groups than in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. In findings of the detailed examinations, incidence of gastric ulcer was high in young fellows and male, and incidence of gastric polyp was high in the aged of female. Incidence rate of stomach cancer was high in male, and it increased with increase of age in both female and male. Estimated incidence rate of stomach cancer by exposure condition seemed to be high in the group exposed directly within 1 km from the hypocenter. However, a statistically significant difference was not recognized because of small samples. Incidence rate of stomach cancer by sex was higher in females exposed proximally. (Kanao, N.)

  3. Result of medical survey in atomic bomb survivors

    Ito, Chikako; Tsubota, Motoki; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1980-01-01

    General health examinations were performed on 242,296 a-bomb survivors during 5 years between 1972 and 1977. They were grouped according to exposure conditions, sex, and ages, and the results of examinations were compared. The rate of an erythrocyte count under 3,490,000 or the rate of a hemoglobin under 11.0 g/dl was higher in men of the group exposed within 1.9 km from the hypocenter than those in other exposed groups. The rate of an erythrocyte count under 3,490,000 and the incidence of hypertension were higher in women of the group exposed within 1.9 km than those of other exposed groups. There was a difference in an erythrocyte count, a hemoglobin, a white blood cell count, the rate of positive test for protein and glucose in urine, and blood pressure between men and women. The incidences of mild anemia and hypertension and the rate of positive test for glucose in urine increased with time. An erythrocyte count and a hemoglobin in women aged over 60 and men decreased linearly with their aging, but there was not a difference in them caused by exposure conditions. The maximum blood pressure in men and women increased with their aging, but there was not a difference in them caused by exposure conditions. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Tsutomu

    1992-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence interval 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dose-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  5. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    Hirofumi Nakatsuka; Yukiko Shimizu; Tsutomu Yamamoto; Ichiro Sekine; Haruo Ezaki; Eiichi Tahara; Makoto Takahashi; Takatoshi Shimoyama; Nobuo Mochinaga; Masao Tomita; Ryoichi Tsuchiya; Land, Charles E.

    1992-10-01

    Colerectal cancer incidence in the LSS sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence internal 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dos-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  6. Availability of ultrasonography in health examination of atomic bomb survivors

    Kato, Masafumi; Mito, Kazuyo; Ishibashi, Shinzo; Takayama, Sadamatsu; Ito, Chikako

    1989-01-01

    A total of 1424 A-bomb survivors, consisting of 596 men and 827 women, participated in the health screening during the period from August 1985 through March 1988. Abnormal findings of ultrasonography were observed in 64% for men and 53% for women. According to age groups, the incidence of abnormal findings tended to increase with aging in men. In women, it was independent of aging. The most common abnormal finding was billiary calculus (13%), followed by renal cyst, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and liver disturbance. Suspected hepatic tumor, hepatomegaly, liver disturbance, fatty liver, and liver cirrhosis were more frequent in men than women. The incidence of billiary or gallbladder calculus was significantly higher in women than men. Among 56 survivors (13%) with suspected malignancy, it was confirmed in 25 survivors (19 with primary or metastatic liver carcinoma, 3 with renal cell carcinoma, 2 with cholangiocarcinoma, and one with pancreatic carcinoma). Of 9 hepatoma patients, 8 had an increased alpha-fetoprotein. Hematologic findings were normal in all of the patients with renal cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  7. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    Itoh, C; Naitoh, Y; Kumasawa, T [Hiroshima A-Bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic (Japan)

    1976-09-01

    Fluororoentogenography of stomach was carried out on the cases of which stool-test was positive at the time of general physical examinations from October, 1971 to September, 1975. Necessity rate of detailed examination was high in male, but there was no difference by exposure condition between female and male. Rate of detailed examination carried out tended to be high in female, but there was no difference by exposure condition. Rate showing abnormal findings was high in male, and was high in the aged of both female and male. Rate showing abnormal findings according to exposure condition was higher in the group exposed directly to atomic bomb over 2.1 km from the hypocenter, in the group who entered city after explosion, and in other groups than in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. In findings of the detailed examinations, incidence of gastric ulcer was high in young fellows and male, and incidence of gastric polyp was high in the aged of female. Incidence rate of stomach cancer was high in male, and it increased with increase of age in both female and male. Estimated incidence rate of stomach cancer by exposure condition seemed to be high in the group exposed directly within 1 km from the hypocenter. However, a statistically significant difference was not recognized because of small samples. Incidence rate of stomach cancer by sex was higher in females exposed proximally.

  8. Serum autoantibodies in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamakido, Michio; Hamilton, H.B.; Kobuke, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Yoshimoto, Keiko; Fujikura, Toshio.

    1983-12-01

    In order to evaluate delayed effects of radiation on humoral immunity, an attempt was made to detect antibodies in the serum of atomic bomb survivors against kidney, liver, and parietal cells from rats. The following results were observed. Comparing by sex and age, the detection frequency of antibodies increased significantly for all three organs in the male group only. Analysis of changes in antibody detection frequencies by age and exposure dose without considering sex showed that the rates for those exposed to 100 + rad showed a trend to increase with age for all three organs (P < 0.01). However, in the 0 rad group, a significant trend to increase with age was noted for antikidney and antiliver antibodies only (P < 0.01 for both). Analysis of changes in antibody detection frequencies by sex, age, and exposure dose showed that the detection frequencies increased significantly with age for all three organs in males exposed to 100 + rad (P < 0.05), but only the antiliver antibody frequency increased significantly with age in males in the 0 rad exposure group. Females failed to show any statistical changes in any exposure group. (author)

  9. METROLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF BOMB CALORIMETERS AT REAL CONDITIONS

    Yu. V. Maksimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-usage measurement equipment for heat of combustion of organic fuels are bomb isoperibol calorimeters with a water thermostat. The stability of work of calorimeters at real conditions is important for maintenance of reliability of measurement results. The article purpose – the analysis of stability for parameters of calorimeters to environment changes. In this work influence room temperature (Тк and heat exchange conditions on metrological characteristics of two models of calorimeters is considered with different degree of thermal protection: V-08МА and BIC 100. For calorimeters V-08МА the increase in a effective heat capacity (W on 0,1 % by growth of Tк on everyone 5 °С is established. To use value W in all interval laboratory temperatures Tк = 14–28 °С it is necessary to correct W on 2,8 J/°C on everyone 1 °С changes of Tк. Updating W is required, if the correction exceeds error in determination W. For calorimeter BIC 100 it is not revealed dependences W from Tк. BIC 100 have constant-temperature cap, high stability a temperature in thermostat and stabilized heat exchange. It is established that an standard deviation of cooling constant for all calorimeters in direct proportional to standard deviation W. 

  10. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Negasaki. The indicators are frequency of un toward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during first postnatal week); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an electrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly

  11. The bomb black market - Inquiry about nuclear proliferation

    Tertrais, B.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear weapons remain for a long time in the hands of the five big powers: USA, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and China. Things started to change when Israel, and then India acquired the atomic bomb as well. Pakistan took up the race too but Abdul Qadeer Khan, one of the nuclear program maker of the country, took profit of the situation to set up a huge international proliferation network for the spreading of the technologies, tools and materials necessary for weapons fabrication. He offered his services not only to Iran and North Korea, but to Iraq and Libya as well and probably to some other countries. Today, the Iranian nuclear program generates both envy and fear in the Middle East. Who is going to be the next domino of the nuclear game? Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Turkey are potential candidates. But while Pakistan sinks into crisis, the terrorists are taking interest in nukes. The author of this book has worked for more than 10 years on this dossier. He has had access to the most sensible documents and to essential testimonies. He now lifts the curtain on the secrets of nuclear proliferation. In this book, where reality sometimes surpasses fiction, he explains how the CIA finally succeeded in infiltrating the 'Khan ring' after having closed its eyes on his deals for a long time. He describes the branches of the Pakistani atomic complex and analyses with lucidity the nuclear terrorism risk

  12. Homemade chemical bomb incidents - 15 states, 2003-2011.

    2013-06-21

    Homemade chemical bombs (HCBs) are made from commonly found chemicals. The volume of news reports of HCB explosions suggests they are not uncommon. To determine the number of events involving HCBs in the United States and describe the factors associated with them, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) analyzed data from its surveillance system that tracks spills and leaks of hazardous substances. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, during 2003-2011, a total of 134 events involving HCBs were reported from 15 states. Among those events, 21 (16%) resulted in adverse health effects (i.e., respiratory symptoms, burns, and skin irritation) for 53 persons. The majority (35 [66%]) of these persons were youths.HCBs are hazardous and especially dangerous if detonated in public areas. Increasing awareness of HCBs and their dangers (particularly during summer months) among first-responders, parents, school staff members and others who work with youths might help reduce injuries associated with HCBs.

  13. Evaluation of gynecological tumors in the atomic bomb survivors

    Sawada, Hisao

    1960-07-15

    During a series of routine examinations at ABCC, 1785 exposed women (under 2000 meters from the bomb hypocenter and with major acute radiation symptoms) and 1802 control subjects received physical examinations. Of this group, less than 50% of the married patients accepted pelvic examination as part of the routine physical examination, so that 838 exposed women and 603 controls were examined. Carcinoma of the cervix was the most common neoplasm encountered. Biopsy or autopsy tissue confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained in 9 exposed and in 2 control subjects. When cases, clinically evident but unconfirmed by tissue were added, the total was increased to 11 cases in the exposed and 7 cases in the control. Since fewer control cases accepted pelvic examination, the incidence does not appear increased in the exposed group. (The age of onset of cervical carcinoma was not significantly different between control and radiation-exposed patients.) Only scattered pelvic neoplasms of other types were encountered, but one patient with ovarian thecoma, a tumor reported to be radiation-induced in animals, was seen in the exposed group. These findings from a survey examination emphasize the importance of routine pelvic examination in the detection of major disease, particularly carcinoma of the cervix. Cytologic studies and frequent use of biopsy would be of further value in the detection of this important disease. 8 references, 10 table.

  14. EFFECTIVE WAYS TO MANAGE STRESS AND UNMASK THE ABILITIES OF PEOPLE WITH ASPERGER’S SYNDROME

    Riichiro Ishida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People with Asperger’s syndrome often have superior abilities in various fields, including art, natural science, and solving social problems. However, they tend to become stressed easily due to difficulties in relating to others. This stress sometimes prevents them from showing their full potential. Their abilities and tendency to become stressed are similar to those of people with schizoid temperament. Recent evidence has shown that purpose in life (PIL/ikigai, moderate aerobic exercise, and diet, which are related to each other and to prefrontal lobe function, are effective methods for coping with stress. PIL/ikigai, which is an attitude in which one seeks to establish meaning of life, is developed through positive experiences, such as cordial human relations with suitable role-models, spending time in beautiful natural surroundings, and being moved by people or events. PIL/ikigai for people without schizoid temperament develops through such positive experiences throughout their life. However, PIL/ikigai for people with schizoid temperament/Asperger’s syndrome develops through positive experiences during a limited number of life stages: infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Moderate aerobic exercise, such as walking, running, and swimming, were linked to finding food during the evolution of mankind. In turn, our diet supplies nutrients to our organs. Therefore, we propose that providing positive experiences during the critical periods and maturation periods of particular brain regions may influence PIL/ikigai, which is related to moderate aerobic exercise and diet. This process may help people with Asperger’s syndrome to demonstrate their full potential abilities and to contribute to various fields.

  15. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  16. Design, Development, and Innovation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats

    Chung, Christopher A.; Marwaha, Shweta

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive multimedia simulator for air transportation bomb threat training. The objective of this project is to improve the air transportation sector s capability to respond to bomb threats received by commercial airports and aircraft. The simulator provides realistic training on receiving and responding to a variety of bomb threats that might not otherwise be possible due to time, cost, or operational constraints. Validation analysis indicates that the use of the simulator resulted in statistically significant increases in individual ability to respond to these types of bomb threats.

  17. The 129iodine bomb pulse recorded in Mississippi River Delta sediments: results from isotopes of I, Pu, Cs, Pb, and C

    Oktay, S. D.; Santschi, P. H.; Moran, J. E.; Sharma, P.

    2000-03-01

    129I ( t1/2 = 1.56 × 10 7 yr) has both natural as well as anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic sources from nuclear reprocessing discharges and bomb test fallout have completely overwhelmed the natural signal on the surface of the earth in the last 50 years. However, the transfer functions in and out of environmental compartments are not well known due to temporal variations in the sources of 129I and to a lack of knowledge regarding the forms of iodine. From a vertical profile of 129I/ 127I ratios in sediments located in the Mississippi Delta region in approximately 60 meters water depth, the 129I input function to this region was reconstructed. Dates in the core were assigned based on the plutonium peak at 20 cm depth (assumed to have been deposited in 1963) and the excess 210Pb profile in the same depth interval, and below that, based on the steadily decreasing 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios from a ratio of 0.18 at 22 cm to 0.05 at 57 cm depth, the 1953 horizon. These low 240Pu/ 239Pu values are attributed to low yield, close-in, tropospherically transported bomb fallout produced from the Nevada test site in the early 1950s, which had a value of about 0.035, and strongly suggest a terrestrial source for Pu isotopes. 129I/ 127I ratios increased from 2 × 10 -10 at 3 cm to 4 × 10 -10 at 20 cm, and from there decreased monotonously to pre-anthropogenic values at 53 cm and below. 129I concentrations ranged from 8-13 × 10 6 atoms/g in the top 20 cm, and decreased to values of less than 1 × 10 6 atoms/g below 50 cm. Atom ratios of 129I/ 137Cs, decay corrected to 1962, the year of maximum radionuclide production, are about 0.3, very close to the production ratios of about 0.2 during atomic bomb tests. This evidence, combined with other observations, strongly suggests that 129I in Mississippi River Delta sediments originates from atomic bomb fallout eroded from soils of the Mississippi River drainage basin, with little alteration of the isotopic ratios during transport from

  18. Capillary microscopic observations on the superficial minute vessels of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima 1972-73

    Tsuya, Akira; Wakano, Yoichi; Otake, Masanori; Dock, D.S.

    1978-04-01

    Microscopic and photographic studies were conducted in 1972-73 at ABCC in Hiroshima on the morphology of superficial blood vessels of A-bomb survivors to determine whether the somatic effects of radiation still existed 30 years after the A-bomb. Control curves representing the relationship between age and score values assigned to morphological changes of the minute blood vessels of the fingernail fold, labial mucosa, and lingual mucosa, which could be regarded as an index of aging, were obtained. These were compared with similar curves obtained from A-bomb survivors with the aim of evaluating the effect of radiation on the aging process of these vessels. The late somatic effects of irradiation which were demonstrated 10 years after the A-bomb in a previous study (1956-57) were found to persist in the current study (1972-73) conducted 30 years after the A-bomb though not as pronounced as in the earlier study. A significant effect was observed only in the fingernail fold of those exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 at the time of the bomb. A statistically significant difference was not observed for labial mucosa and lingual mucosa because the number of cases available for scoring was small, but a trend was observed for abnormalities of these two sites to be higher in frequency in the 100+ rad group under the age of 10 ATB than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed between the control and exposed with regard to radiation effect on the aging process using the relationship of score values to age as an index of aging. This is in accord with results of studies of A-bomb survivors which suggested that radiation induces life shortening attributable primarily to cancers, but not a general acceleration of the aging phenomenon. (author)

  19. Capillary microscopic observation on the superficial minute vessels of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima, 1972--1973

    Tsuya, A.; Wakano, Y.; Otake, M.; Dock, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    Microscopic and photographic studies were conducted in 1972 to 1973 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in Hiroshima on the morphology of superficial blood vessels of A-bomb survivors to determine whether the somatic effects of radiation still existed 30 yr after the A-bomb. Control curves representing the relationship between age and score values assigned to morphological changes of the minute blood vessels of the fingernail fold, labial mucosa, and lingual mucosa, which could be regarded as an index of aging, were obtained. These were compared with similar curves obtained from A-bomb survivors with the aim of evaluating the effect of radiation on the aging process of these vessels. The late somatic effects of irradiation which were demonstrated 10 yr after the A-bomb in a previous study (1956 to 1957) were found to persist in the current study (1972 to 1973) conducted 30 yr after the A-bomb, though not as pronounced as in the earlier study. A significant effect was observed only in the nail fold of those exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 at the time of bomb (ATB). A statistically significant difference was not observed with labial and lingual mucosae because the number of cases available for score evaluation was small, but a trend was observed for abnormalities of these two sites to be higher in frequency in the group exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 ATB than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed between the control and exposed with regard to radiation effect on the aging process using the relationship of score values to age as an index of aging

  20. Survey on the frequency of somatic mutations in A-bomb survivors

    Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Several methods have recently been established for quantitatively detecting somatic cell mutations on a specific locus using human blood cells. These methods have enabled the biological estimation of A-bomb radiation doses in surveys on somatic cell mutations. This paper outlines HPRT, GPA, and TCR assays used to measure somatic cell mutations, focusing on the outcome in A-bomb survivors. HPRT assay is based on colony formation with interleukin-2. The frequency of HPRT mutant cells was significantly increased with advancing age in A-bomb survivors and was positively correlated with the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes. There was also a significantly positive correlation between HPRT mutant cell frequencies and DS86 estimated doses, although the slope was slow. In GPA assay, flow cytometric measurements of fluorescence-labeled erythrocytes are used to detect somatic cell mutations. There was a positive correlation between GPA mutant cell frequencies and age in A-bomb survivors. The GPA mutant cell frequencies showed much more positive correlation with lymphocyte chromosomal aberration frequencies than the HPRT mutant cell frequencies. When anti-CD3 antibody and anti-CD4 antibody are labeled with different fluorescences and are analyzed by using flow cytometry, TCR mutant cells having CD3 - 4 + can be detected. When the frequency of TCR mutant cells was examined in 342 A-bomb survivors, it did not correlate with radiation doses. This implies that TCR assay may be unadequate for biological estimation of A-bomb radiation doses throughout a lifetime of A-bomb survivors, because TCR mutant cells seems to be unable to live for a long time due to national selection. (N.K.)

  1. Prospective, unmasked evaluation of the iStent® inject system for open-angle glaucoma: synergy trial.

    Voskanyan, Lilit; García-Feijoó, Julián; Belda, Jose I; Fea, Antonio; Jünemann, Anselm; Baudouin, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Micro-invasive glaucoma surgical implantation of trabecular micro-bypass stents, previously shown to be safe and effective for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) subjects during cataract surgery, was considered for evaluation as a sole procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy after ab interno implantation of two Glaukos Trabecular Micro-Bypass iStent inject second generation devices in subjects with OAG. This study was performed at sites in France, Germany, Italy, Republic of Armenia, and Spain. In this pan-European, multi-center prospective, post-market, unmasked study, 99 patients with OAG on at least two topical ocular hypotensive medications who required additional IOP lowering to control glaucoma disease underwent implantation of two GTS400 stents in a stand-alone procedure. Patients were qualified if they presented with preoperative mean IOP between 22 and 38 mmHg after medication washout. Postoperatively, subjects were assessed at Day 1, Months 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, and 12. IOP, medication use and safety were assessed at each visit. Sixty-six percent of subjects achieved IOP ≤18 mmHg at 12 months without medication, and 81% of subjects achieved Month 12 IOP ≤ 18 mmHg with either a single medication or no medication. Mean baseline washout IOP values decreased by 10.2 mmHg or 39.7% from 26.3 (SD 3.5) mmHg to 15.7 (SD 3.7) mmHg at Month 12. Mean IOP at 12 months was 14.7 (SD 3.1) mmHg in subjects not using ocular hypotensive medications. Reduction from preoperative medication burden was achieved in 86.9% of patients, including 15.2% with reduction of one medication and 71.7% with reduction of two or more medications. Postoperative complications occurred at a low rate and resolved without persistent effects. In this series, implantation of two trabecular micro-bypass second generation stents in subjects with OAG resulted in IOP and medication reduction and favorable safety outcomes.

  2. How to not detonate the bomb: the case of the Italian National Health Service.

    La Torre, G; Federici, A

    2017-12-01

    Why is Italy one of the world's highest ranked for ability and quality of healthcare in relationship to the resources invested? The last decade has been characterized by many Italian Regions with Recovery Plans, whose main focus was on short-term issues with a high impact on healthcare costs. Italy is now leaving this phase and at the regional level there will be an increase of new hirings in the healthcare sectors, as stated by the Ministry of Health. There is a large amount of scientific literature that supports the role of factors such as lifestyles, diet and genetics as the base of population health. The success of the Italian National Health Service (INHS) function is rooted in the ability of a system to adapt to evolving situations, but it is also important to ensure a mechanism of positive feedback correction. In the future, INHS will require a new set of reforms, like the redefinition of structures and mechanisms of governance, the implementation of strategic plans that conjugate better clinical and financial issues. In this context, Health Data Entanglement could be an option to improve the effectiveness of the health governance system in order to develop better quality of care. In Public Health several criticisms could detonate the bomb, and above all the decreasing levels of primary prevention in the fight to obesity (promoting the Mediterranean Diet and physical activity), to smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as to infectious diseases (promoting high vaccination rates). Secondary prevention is also key to this function as a practical experience of re-engineering of the public expense, giving much attention to what works in terms of cost effectiveness, and in particular to cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on cardiac function in atomic bomb survivors, using pulsed doppler method

    Ishibashi, Shinzo; Takayama, Sadamatsu; Nakano, Kikuo; Mito, Kazuyo; Kato, Masafumi; Ito, Chikako

    1989-01-01

    Influences of A-bombing on the cardiovascular system are of great interest in the graying society. Therefore, diastolic blood circulation was examined by pulsed doppler echocardiography in 44 A-bomb survivors (25 men and 19 women), with an average age of 59 years, who had been exposed at ≤ 2000 m from the hypocenter. Age- and sex-matched A-bomb survivors, who had been exposed at ≥ 3000 m or entered the city 4 days after the bombing, served as the control. Regarding both the peak velocity of atrial contraction (PVAC) and peak velocity of rapid filling (PVRF), there was no significant difference between the exposed and control groups. In the control group, PVAC was significantly associated with aging (p<0.05). A decreased PVRF was significantly observed with aging in both the exposed group (p<0.01) and the control group (p<0.001). There was no marked difference in the ratio of PVAC to PVRF among all of the age groups in both groups; it was significantly increased with aging. Deceleration half time of rapid filling was significantly prolonged in older age group in the exposed group, although there was no difference in the acceleration half time between the exposed and control groups. These findings indicated none of the influences of A-bombing on diastolic function of the heart. (N.K.)

  4. Potential influence of new doses of A-bomb after re-evaluation of epidemiological research

    Maruyama, T.

    1983-01-01

    Since the peaceful use of atomic energy appears essential for future human existence, we must provide risk estimates from low-dose exposures to human beings. The largest body of human data has been derived from the studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Recently, it was proposed by an Oak Ridge National Laboratory group that the current free-in-air doses of atomic bombs are significantly different from the doses recalculated on the basis of the new output spectra of neutrons and gamma rays from the atomic bombs which were declassified by the US Department of Energy in 1976. A joint commission on dose re-evaluation of the United States of America and Japan was established in 1981 to pursue the dose reassessment programme between US and Japanese research groups and to decide an agreed best estimate of organ or tissue doses in survivors as soon as possible. The paper reviews the physical concepts of the re-evaluation of atomic bomb doses and discusses the potential influence of new dosimetric parameters on the epidemiological studies of the atomic bomb survivors in future, although the re-assessment programme is still in progress. (author)

  5. Generating Impact Maps from Automatically Detected Bomb Craters in Aerial Wartime Images Using Marked Point Processes

    Kruse, Christian; Rottensteiner, Franz; Hoberg, Thorsten; Ziems, Marcel; Rebke, Julia; Heipke, Christian

    2018-04-01

    The aftermath of wartime attacks is often felt long after the war ended, as numerous unexploded bombs may still exist in the ground. Typically, such areas are documented in so-called impact maps which are based on the detection of bomb craters. This paper proposes a method for the automatic detection of bomb craters in aerial wartime images that were taken during the Second World War. The object model for the bomb craters is represented by ellipses. A probabilistic approach based on marked point processes determines the most likely configuration of objects within the scene. Adding and removing new objects to and from the current configuration, respectively, changing their positions and modifying the ellipse parameters randomly creates new object configurations. Each configuration is evaluated using an energy function. High gradient magnitudes along the border of the ellipse are favored and overlapping ellipses are penalized. Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling in combination with simulated annealing provides the global energy optimum, which describes the conformance with a predefined model. For generating the impact map a probability map is defined which is created from the automatic detections via kernel density estimation. By setting a threshold, areas around the detections are classified as contaminated or uncontaminated sites, respectively. Our results show the general potential of the method for the automatic detection of bomb craters and its automated generation of an impact map in a heterogeneous image stock.

  6. Studies on population change of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture 1965-1979

    Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    Studies of population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors from 1965 to 1979 in Hiroshima prefecture of which registered in Data Base of Atomic Bomb Survivors of RINMB were conducted, and following were obtained: 1. Population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors showed increasing trend until 1976 and diminishing trend from 1977. It would be estimated that reason of increasing trend of Atomic Bomb Survivors was correlated the same trend to get register card of ''Atomic Bomb Treatment Law'', and decreasing trend of them was related so much death of the elderly generations. 2. Analysing by residential place the survivors who make a living in Hiroshima city was almost 110,000, and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city) was 65,000. Considering exposed distance of the survivors in Hiroshima city, those survivors exposed within 2 km showed diminishing trend; and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city), exposed within 2 km showed increasing trend. 3. In 1979, the ratio of male and female survivors by age level showed difference. Those male survivors over 50 years old in Hiroshima city showed much lower percentage than female. 4. In 1979, the population trends of survivors who get the ''card'' before 1964 showed rapid decrease, and those who get the ''card'' after 1965 showed mild decrease. (author)

  7. Mortality statistics among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture. 1968-1972

    Kurihara, M; Munaka, M; Hayakawa, N; Yamamoto, H; Ueoka, H; Ohtaki, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1981-12-01

    In a comparative analysis of mortality among atomic bomb survivors versus the non-exposed, both resident in Hiroshima Prefecture, it was found that in addition to leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the thyroid gland, breast, lung, esophagus, stomach, urinary organs and salivary gland which have been reported from the past to be elevated in risk among atomic bomb survivors, cancers of the colon, larynx, accessory sinuses, uterus, ovary and testis, diseases of the blood, cirrhosis of liver, hypertensive disease and diabetes mellitus were elevated in risk, but the risk of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, senility, and accidents was lower than the non-exposed. The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to the relative risk of cancers of the lung, breast, uterus, and testis could be readily explained, but the relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the relative risk of cancers of many other sites, diseases of the blood, and other causes of death was inconsistent. One of the reasons why the risk of senility was low and the risk of diseases of the blood, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disease was high is considered to be the higher diagnostic accuracy in atomic bomb survivors.

  8. Lenticular opacities in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors and their lately significance

    Sugimoto, S [Sugimoto Ophthalmological Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1978-04-01

    Five cases of lenticular opacities in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (not published yet) were reported with some slides. From these experiment cases, following items were investigated. Significance of A-bomb radiation cataracts: Because cataract is the first manifistation of delayed hazard to a human body caused by A-bomb radiation and can be observed still now, cataract is regarded to be very important for recognizing A-bomb hazard. The manifestation of these findings of cataract is the reason for strong appeals that A-bomb hazard is still existing. Clinical findings of lenticular opacities was searched with reference to the literature. Several findings in experiment cases were described, and the importance of the study about changes of clinical findings was mentioned. It was pointed out that radiation cataract is closely related to the loss of hair in acute atomic radiation hazard. In case of radiation cataract, some difference between right and left eye was sometimes observed. Studies concerning this difference should be further developed in future. The importance of the factors of shielding was pointed out.

  9. Noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb survivors registry over 30 years, 1968-1997

    Kasagi, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    The relation of radiation exposure with noncancer mortality was examined on 44,514 atomic bomb survivors (17,935 males, 26,579 females, and mean age 22.8±15.7 yrs at the time of bombing) registered at Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, based on mortality follow-up over 30 years, 1968-1997. Noncancer mortality was significantly related to radiation dose with relative risk of 1.06 at 1 Sv radiation dose, although weaker than the dose response in solid cancer mortality. The significant dose responses were observed especially in circulatory disease, stroke and urinary organ disease, and suggestive dose response in pneumonia. The temporal pattern in dose response by age at the time of bombing indicated that the relative risk of noncancer mortality was higher with follow-up period, which is contrary to a decreasing dose response in solid cancer mortality with follow-up period. The tendency was remarkable in those survivors younger at the time of bombing. These findings suggest that the significant radiation risk observed in noncancer mortality might increase as the proportion of younger survivors among atomic bomb survivors increases. (author)

  10. Dietary factors and cancer mortality among atomic-bomb survivors

    Sauvaget, Catherine; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Waldren, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Dietary factors such as fruit and vegetables are thought to reduce the risk of cancer incidence and mortality. We investigated the effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables against the long-term effects of radiation exposure on the risk of cancer. A cohort of 36,228 atomic-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for whom radiation dose estimates were currently available, had their diet assessed in 1980. They were followed for a period of 20 years for cancer mortality. The joint-effect of fruit and vegetables intake and radiation exposure on risk of cancer death was examined, in additive (sum of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) and multiplicative (product of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) models. In the additive model, a daily intake of fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the risk of cancer deaths by 13%, compared to an intake of once or less per week. Radiation exposure of 1 Sievert (Sv) increased significantly the risk of cancer death by 48-49%. The additive joint-effects showed a lower risk of cancer among those exposed to 1 Sv who had a diet rich in vegetables (49%-13%=36%) or fruit (48%-13%=35%). The multiplicative model gave similar results. The cancer risk reduction by vegetables in exposed persons went from 52% (effect of radiation alone) to 32% (product of effect of vegetables and radiation), and cancer risk reduction by fruit was 52% (radiation alone) to 34% (product of effect of fruit and radiation). There was no significant evidence to reject either the additive or the multiplicative model. A daily intake of fruit and vegetables was beneficial to the persons exposed to radiation in reducing their risks of cancer death

  11. Biochemical mutations in the children of atomic bomb survivors

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Neel, J.V.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic effects of atomic bombs in children of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied using two biochemical indicators. Eligible children were classified as those born to parents exposed at up to 2,000 m from the hypocenter (Group I, n=13,052); and those born to either parents exposed at a distance of over 2,500 m or parents who were not in the cities (Group II, n=10,609). Thirty blood proteins were examined by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In Group I, 3 mutations altering electrophoretic mobility of proteins were identified among 667,404 locus tests. This corresponded to a mutation rate of 0.45 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. In Group II, 3 mutations among 466,881 locus tests were seen, yielding a mutation rate for electromorphs of 0.64 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. According to the dose schedule developed in 1965 (T65 DR), average gonal doses of gamma and neutrons were 16.9 and 3.4, respectively, for Hiroshima's fathers; 14.0 and 1.3 for Hiroshima's mothers; 26.2 and 0.3 for Nagasaki's fathers; and 19.7 and 0.1 for Nagasaki's mothers. A screening for variants in 9 erythrocyte enzymes with activity ≤66% of normal value revealed one mutation resulting in the loss of enzyme activity in 60,529 tests for Group I, but none of the mutations in 61,741 tests for Group II. The mutation rates in both groups are thus considered to be 0.60 and 0.64 x 10 -5 , respectively, per locus per generation. (Namekawa, K)

  12. Results of lung cancer screening in atomic bomb survivors

    Yamashita, Masayo; Kato, Hironari; Inoue, Noriko; Naito, Kumiko; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Kira, Sakurako; Sasaki, Hideo; Ishida, Hajime; Maeda, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Risk of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors is reportedly increased. The screening in the title has been conducted since 1988 and this report summarizes its results of the latest 6-year term (2004-2009). The total number of subjects who visited authors' facility for the screening in the period was 39,147 men (average age 70.6 y) and 45,351 women (71.8 y), of the age range of 60-89 y. The screening results of the cancer were examined concerning with sex, age and exposure situation. As well, the relationship between the found cancer incidence and exposure in never, formerly and currently smoking subjects were also examined. Exposure situation was divided in 3 groups of the exposure by entrance in the city/by other reasons, within 2 km close (Close, C) to, and out of 2.1 km afar (Distant, D) from, the city. Statistic analysis was performed by Chi-squire and/or Fisher's exact test. The index of positive finding in the screening of the lung cancer per 1,000 subjects was the highest in C men of ages 70s, 2.88 subjects, which was statistically significant from 0.85 in D men of the same generation. In current smokers, the index 5.40 in C men of ages 70s was significantly higher than 0.90 in D men of the same generation. Overall, positive results tended to be high in survivors of C regardless to sex and smoking, and was significantly high in current smokers of C as above, both implying the particular necessity of promotion to stop smoking in survivors. (T.T.)

  13. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    Ito, Chikako; Naito, Yasuo; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1977-01-01

    Indirect gastroroentgenegraphy was performed in 14890 of the survivors, in whom stool examination was positive for occult blood at time of general examinations during 3 years and 11 months from November 1971 to September 1975. The results were as follows. The rate of the survivors to whom precise examination was required was 20.8% in male, 14.0% in female and 16.7% in total at all ages. The rate was higher in male than in female. Precise examination was carried out in 80.1% in male and 83.1% in female, showing higher percentage in female. The rate of the survivors with abnormal findings was higher in male and aged people in both sexes. The rate was also higher in the direct exposed group at more than 2.1 km from hypocenter, settlers into the city after A-bomb explosion and other groups than in the direct exposed group within 2.0 km. The findings of 2024 precise examinations revealed that gastric ulcer was more frequently found in male than in female and in the younger people than in the aged people. Gastric polyp was more frequently seen in female than in male, and in the aged people than in the younger people. The rate of estimated gastric carcinoma was 1.02% in male and 1.19% in female in the direct exposed group within 1.0 km, showing higher percentage than that in the direct exposed group more than 2.1 km, settlers group and other groups. The ratio of male-to-female reached almost 1 in proximally exposed survivors. (Kumagaya, S.)

  14. Clinical study of mass survey for lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Nishimoto, Yukio; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1988-01-01

    In mass screening for lung cancer, chest roentgenography was performed in A-bomb survivors over the age of 50 years. Out of 47,960 A-bomb survivors examined during seven years from 1979 through 1986, 58 were found to have lung cancer. The prevalence of lung cancer was 120.9/100,000, which was extremely higher than previously reported. A-bomb survivors, as well as persons exposed to environmental pollution and occupational hazards, are considered to belong to the high risk group for lung cancer. Asymptomatic lung cancer was of earlier stage than symptomatic lung cancer. It was also associated with higher surgical rate and faborable prognosis. Primary screening failed to detect lung cancer in 20 %, requiring double checking by pulmonary disease specialists. The role of health care workers is stressed in view of the necessity of detailed examination and surgery for lung cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. IV. VISIBILITY IN Na I AND Mg I

    Rutten, R. J.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Vissers, G. J. M., E-mail: R.J.Rutten@uu.nl [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-08-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the solar Balmer lines that mark reconnection in the photosphere. Ellerman noted in 1917 that he did not observe such brightenings in the Na i D and Mg i b lines. This non-visibility should constrain EB interpretation, but has not been addressed in published bomb modeling. We therefore test Ellerman’s observation and confirm it using high-quality imaging spectrometry with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. However, we find a diffuse brightness in these lines that seems to result from prior EBs. We tentatively suggest this is a post-bomb hot-cloud phenomenon also found in recent EB spectroscopy in the ultraviolet.

  16. Immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    Yamamoto, Masami; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Hata, Jotaro; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Tahara, Eiichi.

    1987-01-01

    In order to elucidate the biological characteristics of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, a total of 159 cases of colorectal cancers comprising 73 cases in exposed atomic bomb survivors and 86 cases in non-exposed individuals were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for various functioning proteins. No statistical differences could be demonstrated in the incidence of various marker expressions of colorectal cancers between the exposed group and control group. However, comparison by the site of colorectal cancer showed that sigmoid colon cancers in the exposed group or high dose group showed a significantly higher frequency of glycoproteins such as α 1 -antichymotrypsin (ACT), secretory component (SC), α 1 -antitrypsin (AAT), and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) when compared with the control group. These results correlated well with the epidemiological data that the radiation effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors was most remarkable in the sigmoid colon. (author)

  17. Cytogenetic studies on leukemia and preleukemic state in atomic bomb survivors

    Sadamori, Naoki; Tomonaga, Yu; Tagawa, Masuko; Kusano, Miyuki; Nishino, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    Chromosomal abberation of bone marrow cells in healthy persons and patients with various hematologic diseases both of the exposed and the non-exposed were discussed. One healthy a-bomb survivor exposed near the hypocenter and structural abnormality of chromosomes closely similar to that found out in a small number of patients with hematologic diseases, but clone formation was not recognized. Though it was clarified that there was chromosomal abberation peculiar to each hematologic disease, specific chromosomal abberation peculiar to a-bomb survivors with hematologic diseases was not recognized. There were many a-bomb survivors with hemopoietic dysplasia who had structural abnormality of chromosomes, and their frequency was significantly higher than that of the non-exposed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1993-01-01

    The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

  19. Organ doses to atomic bomb survivors from radiological examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    Kato, Kazuo; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Sawada, Shozo; Russell, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    When estimating the risks of oncogenesis and cancer mortality as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure, medical X-ray doses received by the A-bomb survivors must also be estimated and considered. Using a phantom human, we estimated the X-ray doses received by A-bomb survivors during routine biennial medical examinations conducted at RERF as part of the long-term Adult Health Study (AHS), since these examinations may represent about 45 % of the survivors' total medical irradiations. Doses to the salivary glands, thyroid gland, lung, breast, stomach and colon were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results reported here will aid in estimating organ doses received by individual AHS participants. (author)

  20. The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1955 - 1984

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Yoshida, Hikotaro; Ichimaru, Michito; Honda, Takeo; Yoshida, Katsuro; Fujiwara, Naoko; Sadamori, Michiko.

    1988-01-01

    Of 20,348 persons included in the extended Life Span Study in Nagasaki, 59 persons were registered as having skin tumors during the years 1955 - 1984. Included in this study were 40 patients with histologically proven skin cancer. Thirty five patients were considered to be exposed to ≥ one cGy. There was statistically significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure doses in both men and women (p < 0.01). Overall, the incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated as well with the distance from the hypocenter; however, this was not significant when restricted to either men or women. Because the incidence of skin cancer has definitively increased since 1955 among A-bomb survivors, follow-up of A-bomb survivors is warranted with respect to atomic bomb-related skin cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Natural history of disease in atomic bomb exposed twins in Hiroshima

    Satow, Yukio; Ohmae, Kiyokazu; Okamoto, Naomasa; Abe, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Shoji

    1982-01-01

    The subjects of this study are mainly pairs of monozygotic twins, one of whom was exposed to the atomic bomb and the other not exposed, and the natural history of the diseases of these twins was analyzed to find out genetic and environmental factors of the diseases and some biological effect of the atomic bomb exposure or other. In this study, 13 pairs of monozygotic and 5 pairs of dizygotic twins and other 34 cases of non-twins were examined by means of heart and lung X-ray films and electrocardiograms. The results suggest that most of the monozygotic twins show the similar findings of chest X-ray films, though their electrocardiograms have a tendency to deviate to the left in the QRS axis. These findings will not be enough to clear up the relation between the atomic bomb exposed and the abnormal electrocardiograms. (author)

  2. Mass survey of gastric diseases in over 60 years of atomic bomb survivors

    Ito, C; Kawase, T; Sato, K; Kumasawa, T [Hiroshima A-Bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic

    1980-11-01

    Gastric diseases screening examination was received by 2165 of A-bomb survivors over 60 years for one year. The close investigation was required in 11.5% of them, and 96% of them received the close examination. The detection rate of gastric cancer was estimated to be 1.00% in males and 0.51% in females. This investigation disclosed 14 gastric cancers. The rate of early cancer was 64.2%, which was significantly higher than 24.2% in the investigation on A-bomb survivors who had anemia and occult blood positive test results. It is considered that 66.7% of the early cancer which was found this time could not have been detected unless the present general screening examination was used. Qualitative reevaluation of general screening examination is necessary for aged A-bomb survivors.

  3. Sulfur activation at the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly: a replica of the Hiroshima bomb

    Kerr, G.D.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1985-04-01

    Studies have been completed on the activation of sulfur by fast neutrons from the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly which replicates the general features of the Hiroshima bomb. The complex effects of the bomb's design and construction on leakage of sulfur-activation neutrons were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Our sulfur activation studies were performed as part of a larger program to provide benchmark data for testing of methods used in recent source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb. Source neutrons capable of activating sulfur play an important role in determining neutron doses in Hiroshima at a kilometer or more from the point of explosion. 37 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Statistical aspects of the program of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

    Beebe, G W

    1961-02-24

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) is a medical research institute in Hiroshima and Nagasaki devoted to long term study of the late effects of nuclear radiation upon man. The work draws its great interest from the paucity of existing information on the effect of radiation on man; from the unique radiation experience of the atomic bomb survivors; from the increasing utilization of nuclear energy in modern technology; and from humanitarian concern for the survivors of the bombs. The ABCC program provides the statistician with an important opportunity to apply the tools and concepts of statistics, for the inferences to be drawn are largely statistical inferences growing out of the comparison of samples defined as to radiation exposure. The work is of international as well as statistical interest by virtue of its subject matter and as a meeting-ground for statisticians trained in different countries.

  5. The current mortality rates of a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city

    Okajima, Shunzo; Mine, Mariko; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi

    1980-01-01

    The causes of death for 9814 a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city from '70 to '76 were investigated. The mortality rates of the survivors in the aged group were slightly lower than those of both unexposed citizens in Nagasaki and the national average. No difference of the mortality ratios with respect to sex and the distance from a-bomb at exposure was observed. For the cause of death, the cerebrovascular diseases came next to malignant neoplasms in the a-bomb survivors, which order was reverse in the non-exposed population. The mortality rate of the cerebrovascular diseases in the survivors was lower than the expected value. The mortality rate of survivors due to neoplasms was slightly higher than the national average, although almost the same as that of unexposed citizens in Nagasaki. (Nakanishi, T.)

  6. Observation of a cytoplasmic inclusion in peripheral blood of a-bomb survivors

    Neriishi, Shotaro; Ohgushi, Yasutaka; Sadamori, Naoki.

    1978-01-01

    Whether cytoplasmic inclusion (CI) is useful as an index for the effects of atomic bomb radiation was discussed. Subjects of this study were 16 healthy people with chromosomal aberration due to atomic bomb radiation (8 males and 8 females) (Group 1) and 31 people with a history of malignant tumors (10 males and 21 females) (Group 2) who were living in Nagasaki City. For the purpose of observing chromosome and CI, blood was collected together in the period from 1970 to 1972. In Group 1, a total number of cells obseved was 14,513 and no Cl was found in them. In Group 2, a total number of cells observed was 31,289, and CI was found in 2 of them. CI which is a reaction of a living body in an acute stage following accidental irradiation seemed to have already disappeared. Therefore, usefulness of CI as an indicator for the effect of atomic bomb radiation was denied. (Ueda, J.)

  7. The effect of using bomb calorimeter in improving science process skills of physics students

    Edie, S. S.; Masturi; Safitri, H. N.; Alighiri, D.; Susilawati; Sari, L. M. E. K.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The bomb calorimeter is laboratory equipment which serves to calculate the value of combustion heat or heat capacity of a sample in excess oxygen combustion. This study aims to determine the effect of using bomb calorimeter on science process skill of physics students. Influences include the effectiveness of using the equipment and knowing the improvement of students’ science process skills before and after using tools. The sample used simple random sampling with one group pretest-posttest research design. The instrument that used is written test that adjusts with science process skills aspect. Analysis of the effectiveness of bomb calorimeter showed useful result 87.88%, while the study of science skill improvement showed n-gain value 0.64 that is the medium category.

  8. Impact of Nagasaki atomic bomb exposure on myelodysplastic syndrome patients who are treated with azacitidine.

    Jo, Tatsuro; Horio, Kensuke; Shigematsu, Kazuto

    2015-05-01

    High-dose radiation exposure greatly increases the risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), however the clinical characteristics of MDS among atomic bomb survivors have not been thoroughly investigated to date. We designed this study to identify these characteristics. We retrospectively evaluated data from 13 atomic bomb survivors with MDS and 15 elderly patients with de novo MDS who were diagnosed between April 2011 and April 2013 at the Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital. All patients were treated with azacitidine (AZA; a hypomethylating agent) and overall survival rates were estimated. No clear difference was observed in the clinical response to AZA between the two groups. However, atomic bomb survivors had a survival disadvantage, independent of their karyotype. Minute genetic alterations caused by exposure to atomic radiation can adversely affect the response to AZA, even 66 years after the exposure. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Ms. Mentor Unmasked

    Krebs, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Emily Toth, who writes the monthly "Ms. Mentor" academic advice column in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" and teaches in the English department at Louisiana State University, in Baton Rouge. She is the author of "Ms. Mentor's Impeccable Advice for Women in Academia" (1997), "Inside Peyton Place: The Life…

  10. Electromagnetic radiation unmasked

    Hart, P.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the nature of the electromagnetic waves, what they are and how do they affect us. Current concern is focused on exposure to low level power-frequency magnetic fields like microwave radiation from mobile phones and leaking microwave ovens; high power radiation from defence and airport radars; fields close to high voltage transmission lines; radio frequency fields from industrial welders and heaters and DC magnetic fields in aluminium smelters. These fields with frequency less than 300 GHz do not carry sufficient energy to break chemical bonds and it is assumed that they cannot damage cell DNA. The amount of radiation absorbed by a human exposed to far field electromagnetic radiation (EMR) depends on the orientation and size of the person. In the 30-300 MHz range it is possible to excite resonance in the whole or partial body such as the head. It is emphasised that since there are some evidence that electromagnetic fields do harm, a policy of prudent avoidance is recommended, especially for children. ills

  11. Unmasking the Terror.

    Chambers, Jamie C.

    2000-01-01

    Author recounts his personal experiences growing up as a youth of color and subsequent work as a youth counselor. Argues that all young people choose purposive behavior based on competing inborn motivational systems. Fear in any degree is an innate protective mechanism, but racism is an irrational fear. Provides strategies for confronting…

  12. Unmasking diogenes syndrome

    Kashinath Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diogenes syndrome is characterized by extreme self-neglect, social withdrawal, and poor personal and domestic hygiene. We report a case of Diogenes syndrome presenting with dermatitis passivata. An unusual "mask" of dirt resembling a carapace, onset of neglect after awareness of a breast lump and resumption of personal grooming and social activities after removal of the lump and counseling were seen.

  13. Seeing the Light: Visibility of the July '45 Trinity Atomic Bomb Test from the Inner Solar System

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2006-01-01

    In his "The Making of the Atomic Bomb," Richard Rhodes remarks of the July 16, 1945, Trinity atomic bomb test in New Mexico that "had astronomers been watching they could have seen it reflected from the moon, literal moonshine," an allusion to Ernest Rutherford's famous dismissal of the prospect of atomic energy. Investigating…

  14. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 500...

  15. A community study of the psychological effects of the Omagh car bomb on adults.

    Michael Duffy

    Full Text Available The main aims of the study were to assess psychological morbidity among adults nine months after a car bomb explosion in the town of Omagh, Northern Ireland and to identify predictors of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.A questionnaire was sent to all adults in households in The Omagh District Council area. The questionnaire comprised established predictors of PTSD (such as pre-trauma personal characteristics, type of exposure, initial emotional response and long-term adverse physical or financial problems, predictors derived from the Ehlers and Clark (2000 cognitive model, a measure of PTSD symptoms and the General Health Questionnaire.Among respondents (n = 3131 the highest rates of PTSD symptoms and probable casesness (58.5% were observed among people who were present in the street when the bomb exploded but elevated rates were also observed in people who subsequently attended the scene (21.8% probable caseness and among people for whom someone close died (11.9%. People with a near miss (left the scene before the explosion did not show elevated rates. Exposure to the bombing increased PTSD symptoms to a greater extent than general psychiatric symptoms. Previously established predictors accounted for 42% of the variance in PTSD symptoms among people directly exposed to the bombing. Predictors derived from the cognitive model accounted for 63%.High rates of chronic PTSD were observed in individuals exposed to the bombing. Psychological variables that are in principle amenable to treatment were the best predictors of PTSD symptoms. Teams planning treatment interventions for victims of future bombings and other traumas may wish to take these results into account.

  16. Leukaemia following childhood radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in medically exposed groups

    Little, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence and mortality risks of radiation-associated leukaemia are surveyed in the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors exposed in early childhood and in utero. Leukaemia incidence and mortality risks are also surveyed in 16 other studies of persons who received appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment in childhood and for whom there is adequate dosimetry and cancer incidence or mortality follow-up. Relative risks tend to be lower in the medical series than in the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The relative risks in the medical studies tend to diminish with increasing average therapy dose. After taking account of cell sterilisation and dose fractionation, the apparent differences between the relative risks for leukaemia in the Japanese A-bomb survivors and in the medical series largely disappear. This suggests that cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy between the relative risks in the Japanese data and the medical studies. Excess absolute risk has also been assessed in four studies, and there is found to be more variability in this measure than in excess relative risk. In particular, there is a substantial difference between the absolute risk in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor data and those in three other (European) populations. In summary, the relative risks of leukaemia in studies of persons exposed to appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions in childhood are generally less than those in the Japanese A-bomb survivor data. The effects of cell sterilisation can largely explain the discrepancy between the Japanese and the medical series. (authors)

  17. Pathological study on autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital, September 1956 - March 1988

    Nambu, Shigeru; Fujihara, Megumu; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective review was made of 2,659 autopsy patients obtained during the past 31 years and a half in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital. Of the patients, 1,328 (49.9%) were A-bomb survivors. Five hundred and six A-bomb survivors (38.1%) had been exposed at up to 2,000 m from the hypocenter. There was no correlation between the incidence of malignancy and the presence of exposure to A-bombing. The incidence of multiple malignancy was slightly higher in A-bomb survivors exposed at the place nearer the hypocenter. In the group of A-bomb survivors, cancer of the lung was the most common for men; and cancer of the stomach was the most common for women. The incidence of malignancy has been high in the exposed group during the early eras of examination; however, this figure has recently become high in the non-exposed group. Regarding the kinds of malignancy, there was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The incidence of leukemia was high during the early eras, and tentatively decreased in both the exposed and non-exposed groups. It has recently increased again. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma rapidly increased during the recent eras, regardless of sex, in both groups; this was marked in women in the exposed group. Thyroid and breast cancers tentatively increased in women in the exposed group. Benign diseases were seen in 35% for the exposed group and 33% for the non-exposed group; liver diseases were most frequent in both groups. In the exposed group, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and central nervous diseases has recently increased. (N.K.)

  18. Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases Among Atomic Bomb Survivors Exposed in Childhood.

    Imaizumi, Misa; Ohishi, Waka; Nakashima, Eiji; Sera, Nobuko; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sugino, Keizo; Ando, Takao; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi

    2017-07-01

    The risk of thyroid cancer increases and persists for decades among individuals exposed to ionizing radiation in childhood, although the long-term effects of childhood exposure to medium to low doses of radiation on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases have remained unclear. To evaluate radiation dose responses for the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid disease among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years old at exposure underwent thyroid examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation between 2007 and 2011, which was 62 to 66 years after the bombing. Data from 2668 participants (mean age, 68.2 years; 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; dose range, 0 to 4.040 Gy) were analyzed. Dose-response relationships between atomic bomb radiation dose and the prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease), and positive for antithyroid antibodies. Prevalences were determined for hypothyroidism (129 cases, 7.8%), hyperthyroidism (32 cases of Graves' disease, 1.2%), and positive for antithyroid antibodies (573 cases, 21.5%). None of these was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Neither thyroid antibody-positive nor -negative hypothyroidism was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Additional analyses using alternative definitions of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism found that radiation dose responses were not significant. Radiation effects on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases were not observed among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood, at 62 to 66 years earlier. The cross-sectional design and survival bias were limitations of this study. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  19. Living with the bomb: American and Japanese cultural conflicts in the nuclear age

    Hein, L.; Selden, M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a book about how Japanese, Americans -- not the least Korean-Japanese and Japanese-Americans directly affected by the bombings -- and the rest of the world have lived with the history of atomic destruction, how they have remembered, forgotten, commemorated, and erased that history. A powerful collection that confronts the consequences of the atomic bombing of Japan for that nation, for the United States, and for the world. Stripping away the veils of carefully manufactured illusions, it brings readers face-to-face with the realities of the nuclear era

  20. Bomb-Making for Beginners’: Inside al Al-Qaeda E-Learning Course

    Anne Stenersen

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how terrorists utilise the Internet to learn bomb-making skills. Unlike previous studies, it does not focus on assessing the quality of online bomb recipes. Rather, it discusses the efforts being made by on-line jihadists to help others learn by providing so-called “e-learning courses.” As of today, such courses have few active participants yet they tend to attract large interest – indicating that there is a demand among Al-Qaeda’s online sympathise...