WorldWideScience

Sample records for unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft

  1. Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

    2010-04-01

    dynamic acquisition, i.e. survey mission inflight reprioritization). We describe and report on a one year effort with as primary goal to provide a recommendation to SERDP for a path forward in the implementation of one or more autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms. This recommendation (which is provided in chapter 6) is based on the following three elements a) An assessment on the applicability of autonomous rotorcraft magnetometer systems to the current DoD site inventory, and an initial assessment of which type(s) of autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms (in terms of performance characteristics such as payload, altitude, obstacle avoidance, production rate and flight time) would be most relevant to this inventory (chapter 3); b) An evaluation of the feasibility of assembling such platforms from commercial components (unmanned rotorcraft, control systems and sensors – both magnetometer sensors and supporting sensors). This evaluation included several highly successful field tests (chapter 4 and 5); c) A recommendation of the path forward, which includes a detailed outline of the efforts required in the design, assembly and testing of different modular platforms (chapter 6)

  2. Low-Altitude Operation of Unmanned Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Sebastian

    Currently deployed unmanned rotorcraft rely on preplanned missions or teleoperation and do not actively incorporate information about obstacles, landing sites, wind, position uncertainty, and other aerial vehicles during online motion planning. Prior work has successfully addressed some tasks such as obstacle avoidance at slow speeds, or landing at known to be good locations. However, to enable autonomous missions in cluttered environments, the vehicle has to react quickly to previously unknown obstacles, respond to changing environmental conditions, and find unknown landing sites. We consider the problem of enabling autonomous operation at low-altitude with contributions to four problems. First we address the problem of fast obstacle avoidance for a small aerial vehicle and present results from over a 1000 rims at speeds up to 10 m/s. Fast response is achieved through a reactive algorithm whose response is learned based on observing a pilot. Second, we show an algorithm to update the obstacle cost expansion for path planning quickly and demonstrate it on a micro aerial vehicle, and an autonomous helicopter avoiding obstacles. Next, we examine the mission of finding a place to land near a ground goal. Good landing sites need to be detected and found and the final touch down goal is unknown. To detect the landing sites we convey a model based algorithm for landing sites that incorporates many helicopter relevant constraints such as landing sites, approach, abort, and ground paths in 3D range data. The landing site evaluation algorithm uses a patch-based coarse evaluation for slope and roughness, and a fine evaluation that fits a 3D model of the helicopter and landing gear to calculate a goodness measure. The data are evaluated in real-time to enable the helicopter to decide on a place to land. We show results from urban, vegetated, and desert environments, and demonstrate the first autonomous helicopter that selects its own landing sites. We present a generalized

  3. Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. McKay; Matthew O. Anderson

    2011-08-01

    Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly

  4. A Vision-Based Method for Autonomous Landing of a Rotor-Craft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a real-time vision-based method for guided autonomous landing of a rotor-craft unmanned aerial vehicle. In the process of designing the pattern of landing target, we have fully considered how to make this easier for simplified identification and calibration. A linear algorithm was also applied using a three-dimensional structure estimation in real time. In addition, multiple-view vision technology is utilized to calibrate intrinsic parameters of camera online, so calibration prior to flight is unnecessary and the focus of camera can be changed freely in flight, thus upgrading the flexibility and practicality of the method.

  5. Design Requirements for Unmanned Rotorcraft Used in Low-Risk Concepts of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Neogi, Natasha A.; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    This technical report presents the results of the second of two research studies on design and performance requirements supporting airworthiness certification of midrange unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) intended for commercial use. The two studies focused attention on UAS in the middle of the multidimensional spectrum of UAS; that is, UAS with attributes and capabilities exceeding the criteria to operate under Part 107 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs), but without the design or operational capabilities to comply with the airworthiness standards for commercially-operated manned aircraft. The goal of the two studies was to help address the gap in airworthiness standards for some UAS that fall between the extremes.

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A LIGHT-WEIGHT MULTI-ECHO LIDAR FOR UNMANNED ROTORCRAFT APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Conte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a light-weight and low-cost airborne terrain mapping system. The developed Airborne LiDAR Scanner (ALS system consists of a high-precision GNSS receiver, an inertial measurement unit and a magnetic compass which are used to complement a LiDAR sensor in order to compute a digital surface model. Evaluation of the accuracy of the generated surface model is presented. Additionally, a comparison is provided between the surface model generated from the developed ALS system and a model generated using a commercial photogrammetric software. Finally, the multi-echo capability of the used LiDAR sensor is evaluated in areas covered with dense vegetation. The ALS system and camera systems were mounted on-board an industrial unmanned helicopter of around 100 kilograms maximum take-off weight. Presented results are based on real flight-test data.

  7. Report on gravity measurements and replacement of an unmanned magnetometer in the Sor Rondane Mountains, Eastern Dronning Maud Land, 2013 (JARE-55

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Suganuma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gravity measurements, replacement of the unmanned magnetometer, and a reconnaissance flight to the Belgica Mountains were carried out in the Sor Rondane Mountains as a part of the 55 th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-55. The field party comprised two geodesists, one geomorphologists, and one magnetospheric scientist. The Belgian Antarctic Research Expedition (BELARE and International Polar Foundation (IPF supported this field expedition. Dronning Maud Land Air Network (DROMLAN provided airborne access from Cape Town, South Africa to the Sor Rondane Mountains via Novolazarevskaya Airbase. The survey areas of this field expedition are the central parts of the Sor Rondane Mountains and the Belgica Mountains. This report summarizes the field expedition in terms of operations, logistics, and weather observations.

  8. Magnetogama: an open schematic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi; Khakhim, Nurul; Kuntoro, Tri; Mardiatno, Djati; Rakhman, Afif; Setyo Handaru, Anas; Akhmad Mufaqih, Adien; Marwan Irnaka, Theodosius

    2017-09-01

    Magnetogama is an open schematic hand-assembled fluxgate magnetometer. Compared to another magnetometer, Magnetogama has more benefit concerning its price and its ease of use. Practically Magnetogama can be utilized either in land or attached to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Magnetogama was designed to give open access to a cheap and accurate alternative to magnetometer sensor. Therefore it can be used as a standard design which is directly applicable to the low-budget company or education purposes. Schematic, code and several verification tests were presented in this article ensuring its reproducibility. Magnetogama has been tested with two kind of tests: a comparison with two nearest observatories at Learmonth (LRM) and Kakadu (KDU) and the response of magnetic substance.

  9. Magnetogama: an open schematic magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetogama is an open schematic hand-assembled fluxgate magnetometer. Compared to another magnetometer, Magnetogama has more benefit concerning its price and its ease of use. Practically Magnetogama can be utilized either in land or attached to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. Magnetogama was designed to give open access to a cheap and accurate alternative to magnetometer sensor. Therefore it can be used as a standard design which is directly applicable to the low-budget company or education purposes. Schematic, code and several verification tests were presented in this article ensuring its reproducibility. Magnetogama has been tested with two kind of tests: a comparison with two nearest observatories at Learmonth (LRM and Kakadu (KDU and the response of magnetic substance.

  10. Autonomous, Safe Take-Off and Landing Operations for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS's) and in particular intelligent, autonomous rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft have the potential to significantly impact modern...

  11. The MASCOT Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herčík, David; Auster, Hans-Ulrich; Blum, Jürgen; Fornaçon, Karl-Heinz; Fujimoto, Masaki; Gebauer, Kathrin; Güttler, Carsten; Hillenmaier, Olaf; Hördt, Andreas; Liebert, Evelyn; Matsuoka, Ayako; Nomura, Reiko; Richter, Ingo; Stoll, Bernd; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2017-07-01

    The Mobile Asteroid Scout (MASCOT) is a small lander on board the Hayabusa2 mission of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency to the asteroid 162173 Ryugu. Among the instruments on MASCOT is a fluxgate magnetometer, the MASCOT Magnetometer (MasMag). The magnetometer is a lightweight (˜280 g) and low power (˜0.5 W) triaxial fluxgate magnetometer. Magnetic field measurements during the landing period and during the surface operational phase shall provide information about any intrinsic magnetic field of the asteroid and its remanent magnetization. This could provide important constraints on planet formation and the thermal and aqueous evolution of primitive asteroids.

  12. Tuned cavity magnetometer sensitivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (magnetometer that utilizes a novel optical (interferometric) detection technique. Further miniaturization and low-power operation are key advantages of this magnetometer, when compared to systems using SQUIDs which require liquid Helium temperatures and associated overhead to achieve similar sensitivity levels.

  13. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  14. GOES Space Environment Monitor, Magnetometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three orthogonal flux-gate magnetometer elements, (spinning twin fluxgate magnetometer prior to GOES-8) provide magnetic field measurements in three mutually...

  15. Scalar magnetometers for space applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz

    A survey of existing instrumentation and developments is presented emphasizing instrumentation for in-flight calibration of vector magnetometers on magnetic mapping missions. Proton free or forced precession magnetometers are at the focus as calibration references, because the proton gyromagnetic...

  16. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Anderson, B. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Bromund, K. R.; Dearborn, D.; Fischer, D.; Le, G.; Leinweber, H. K.; Leneman, D.; Magnes, W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The success of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission depends on the accurate measurement of the magnetic field on all four spacecraft. To ensure this success, two independently designed and built fluxgate magnetometers were developed, avoiding single-point failures. The magnetometers were dubbed the digital fluxgate (DFG), which uses an ASIC implementation and was supplied by the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the analogue magnetometer (AFG) with a more traditional circuit board design supplied by the University of California, Los Angeles. A stringent magnetic cleanliness program was executed under the supervision of the Johns Hopkins University,s Applied Physics Laboratory. To achieve mission objectives, the calibration determined on the ground will be refined in space to ensure all eight magnetometers are precisely inter-calibrated. Near real-time data plays a key role in the transmission of high-resolution observations stored onboard so rapid processing of the low-resolution data is required. This article describes these instruments, the magnetic cleanliness program, and the instrument pre-launch calibrations, the planned in-flight calibration program, and the information flow that provides the data on the rapid time scale needed for mission success.

  17. THOR Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Eastwood, Jonathan; Magnes, Werner; Carr, Christopher, M.; O'Brien, Helen, L.; Narita, Yasuhito; K, Chen, Christopher H.; Berghofer, Gerhard; Valavanoglou, Aris; Delva, Magda; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Cupido, Emanuele; Soucek, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG) measures the background to low frequency magnetic field. The high sensitivity measurements of MAG enable to characterize the nature of turbulent fluctuations as well as the large-scale context. MAG will provide the reference system for determining anisotropy of field fluctuations, pitch-angle and gyro-phase of particles. The design of the magnetometer consists of two tri-axial sensors and the related magnetometer electronics; the electronics are hosted on printed circuit boards in the common electronics box of the fields and wave processor (FWP). A fully redundant two- sensor system mounted on a common boom and the new miniaturized low noise design based on MMS and Solar Orbiter instruments enable accurate measurement throughout the region of interest for THOR science. The usage of the common electronics hosted by FWP guarantees to fulfill the required timing accuracy with other fields measurements. These improvements are important to obtain precise measurements of magnetic field, which is essential to estimate basic plasma parameters and correctly identify the spatial and temporal scales of the turbulence. Furthermore, THOR MAG provides high quality data with sufficient overlap with the Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM) in frequency space to obtain full coverage of the wave forms over all the frequencies necessary to obtain the full solar wind turbulence spectrum from MHD to kinetic range with sufficient accuracy. We discuss the role of MAG in THOR key science questions and present the new developments during Phase A such as the finalised instrument design, MAG relevant requirement, and new calibraion schemes.

  18. The IRM fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehr, H.; Kloecker, N.; Oelschlaegel, W.; Haeusler, B.; Acuna, M.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the three-axis fluxgate magnetometer instrument on board the AMPTE IRM spacecraft. Important features of the instrument are its wide dynamic range (0.1-60,000 nT), a high resolution (16-bit analog to digital conversion) and the capability to operate automatically or via telecommand in two gain states. In addition, the wave activity is monitored in all three components up to 50 Hz. Inflight checkout proved the nominal functioning of the instrument in all modes.

  19. Cryostats for SQUID magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testard, O.A.; Locatelli, M.

    1982-05-01

    A non metallic and non magnetic cryostat, with a very low thermal budget and a container type autonomy was developed, to condition S.Q.U.I.D. magnetometers which maximum sensitivity reaches 10 -14 Tesla Hertzsup(-1/2). This instrumentation puts in hand new concepts of composite materials, thermal shock and vibration resistant, multilayer thermal radiative insulation also to the prouve of vibrations with thermal equivalent emissivity lower than 10 -3

  20. Free Flight Rotorcraft Flight Test Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.

    1994-01-01

    A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.

  1. The New Evolution for SIA Rotorcraft UAV Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntong Qi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent research on the design, implement, and testing of a new small-scaled rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (RUAV system—ServoHeli-40. A turbine-powered UAV weighted less than 15 kg was designed, and its major components were tested at the Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shenyang, China. The aircraft was designed to reach a top speed of more than 20 mps, flying a distance of more than 10 kilometers, and it is going to be used as a test-bed for experimentally evaluating advanced control methodologies dedicated on improving the maneuverability, reliability, as well as autonomy of RUAV. Sensors and controller are all onboard. The full system has been tested successfully in the autonomous mode using the multichannel active modeling controller. The results show that in a real windy environment the rotorcraft UAV can follow the trajectory which was assigned by the ground control station exactly, and the new control method is obviously more effective than the one in the past year's research.

  2. Scalar Calibration of Vector Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence...

  3. Wireless Sensors Pinpoint Rotorcraft Troubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Helicopters present many advantages over fixed-wing aircraft: they can take off from and land in tight spots, they can move in any direction with relative ease, and they can hover in one area for extended periods of time. But that maneuverability comes with costs. For example, one persistent issue in helicopter maintenance and operation is that their components are subject to high amounts of wear compared to fixed-wing aircraft. In particular, the rotor drive system that makes flight possible undergoes heavy vibration during routine performance, slowly degrading components in a way that can cause failures if left unmonitored. The level of attention required to ensure flight safety makes helicopters very expensive to maintain. As a part of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program, the Subsonic Rotary Wing Project seeks to advance knowledge about and improve prediction capabilities for rotorcraft, with the aim of developing technology that will meet future civilian requirements like higher efficiency and lower noise flights. One of the program s goals is to improve technology to detect and assess the health of critical components in rotorcraft drive systems.

  4. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual...

  5. High Accuracy Vector Helium Magnetometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed HAVHM instrument is a laser-pumped helium magnetometer with both triaxial vector and omnidirectional scalar measurement capabilities in a single...

  6. Optical Magnetometer Incorporating Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor; Florescu, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    According to a proposal, photonic crystals would be used to greatly increase the sensitivities of optical magnetometers that are already regarded as ultrasensitive. The proposal applies, more specifically, to a state-of-the-art type of quantum coherent magnetometer that exploits the electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) method for determining a small change in a magnetic field indirectly via measurement of the shift, induced by that change, in the hyperfine levels of resonant atoms exposed to the field.

  7. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR RAPID NEAR SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Stoll

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS options and deals with a magnetometer sensor system which might be of interest in conducting rapid near surface geophysical measurements. Few of the traditional airborne geophysical sensors are now capable of being miniaturized to sizes and payload within mini UAS limits (e.g. airborne magnetics, gamma ray spectrometer. Here the deployment of a fluxgate magnetometer mounted on an UAS is presented demonstrating its capability of detecting metallic materials that are buried in the soil. The effectiveness in finding ferrous objects (e.g. UXO, landslides is demonstrated in two case studies.

  8. Fluxgate vector magnetometers: A multisensor device for ground, UAV, and airborne magnetic surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Gavazzi , Bruno; Le Maire , Pauline; Munschy , Marc; Dechamp , Aline

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Fluxgate magnetometers are quite uncommon in geophysics. Recent advances in calibration of the devices and their magnetic compensation ability led Institut de Physique du Globe de Stras-bourg to develop instruments for magnetic measurements at different scales for a wide range of applications — from submetric measurements on the ground to aircraft-conducted acquisition by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A case study on the aerial military base BA112 shows the usefulne...

  9. Digital fluxgate magnetometer: design notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyayev, Serhiy; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-01-01

    We presented an approach to understanding the performance of a fully digital fluxgate magnetometer. All elements of the design are important for the performance of the instrument, and the presence of the digital feed-back loop introduces certain peculiarities affecting the noise and dynamic performance of the instrument. Ultimately, the quantisation noise of the digital to analogue converter is found to dominate the noise of the current design, although noise shaping alleviates its effect to some extent. An example of magnetometer measurements on board a sounding rocket is presented, and ways to further improve the performance of the instrument are discussed. (paper)

  10. Digital fluxgate magnetometer: design notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyayev, Serhiy; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-12-01

    We presented an approach to understanding the performance of a fully digital fluxgate magnetometer. All elements of the design are important for the performance of the instrument, and the presence of the digital feed-back loop introduces certain peculiarities affecting the noise and dynamic performance of the instrument. Ultimately, the quantisation noise of the digital to analogue converter is found to dominate the noise of the current design, although noise shaping alleviates its effect to some extent. An example of magnetometer measurements on board a sounding rocket is presented, and ways to further improve the performance of the instrument are discussed.

  11. Physics Based Tool for Rotorcraft Computational Aeroacoustics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduction of noise is critical to the public acceptance and mission suitability of rotorcraft. Accurate prediction of rotorcraft noise is directly related to the...

  12. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    which are used to measure the small magnetic signals from brain. Other types of vector magnetometers are fluxgate , coil based, and magnetoresistance...concentrator with the magnetometer currently used in Army multimodal sensor systems, the Brown fluxgate . One sees the MEMS fluxgate magnetometer is...Guedes, A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G

  13. An Arduino-Based Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Mike

    2017-01-01

    An Arduino-based system with a triple axis magnetometer chip may be used to plot both the strength and direction of the magnetic field of a magnet directly on a sheet of paper. Before taking measurements, it is necessary either to correct for or to eliminate soft and hard iron effects. The same sensor may be used to determine the presence of soft…

  14. Magnetometer calibration and test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear waste has been sluiced and pumped from storage tank 241-AX-104, leaving a contaminated heel volume. These operations did not include measurements of the removed waste volume leaving an unknown heel volume in the tank. A magnetometer transducer will be lowered through tank riser ports to rest on the heel's surface. The heel thickness will control the distance between the transducer and the tank's bottom The instrument's output varies with the distance from a magnetic mass, such as the tank's steel bottom, thereby enabling a measurement of the heel depth. Measurements at several tank locations will permit an estimate of the tank's heel volume. The magnetometer's output is influenced by adjacent magnetic materials, such as the tank walls, air lift circulators or other equipment installed in the tank. An adjacent vertical steel surface produces a voltage offset in the instrument's output. Measurements near a tank wall or other tank components may be corrected by noting the offset before the instrument's output is influenced by the tank bottom. An unlevel or uneven heel surface could orient the magnetometer transducer so that it is not vertically level. The magnetometer readings are influenced by these skewed transducer orientations. The magnitude of these errors and offsets must be characterized to bound the heel volume estimate range. The data collected by this activity will be statistically analyzed by SESC to state the confidence level of the heel volume estimates. A test report will document the results of the measurements

  15. Experimental and Computational Instrumentation for Rotorcraft Noise and Vibration Control Research at the Penn State Rotorcraft Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Edward

    2001-01-01

    A team of faculty at the Penn State Rotorcraft Center of Excellence has integrated five new facilities into a broad range of research and educational programs focused on rotorcraft noise and vibration control...

  16. NDARC - NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) software is an aircraft system analysis tool that supports both conceptual design efforts and technology impact assessments. The principal tasks are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to meet specified requirements, including vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) operation, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of conditions. For broad and lasting utility, it is important that the code have the capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and weights of advanced rotor concepts. The architecture of the NDARC code accommodates configuration flexibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization. Initially the software is implemented with low-fidelity models, typically appropriate for the conceptual design environment. An NDARC job consists of one or more cases, each case optionally performing design and analysis tasks. The design task involves sizing the rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions. The analysis tasks can include off-design mission performance calculation, flight performance calculation for point operating conditions, and generation of subsystem or component performance maps. For analysis tasks, the aircraft description can come from the sizing task, from a previous case or a previous NDARC job, or be independently generated (typically the description of an existing aircraft). The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated; and the aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. Description and analysis of conventional rotorcraft configurations is facilitated, while retaining the capability to model novel and advanced concepts. Specific rotorcraft configurations considered are single-main-rotor and tail

  17. NDARC NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne R.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) software is an aircraft system analysis tool intended to support both conceptual design efforts and technology impact assessments. The principal tasks are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to meet specified requirements, including vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) operation, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of conditions. For broad and lasting utility, it is important that the code have the capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and weights of advanced rotor concepts. The architecture of the NDARC code accommodates configuration flexibility; a hierarchy of models; and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization. Initially the software is implemented with lowfidelity models, typically appropriate for the conceptual design environment. An NDARC job consists of one or more cases, each case optionally performing design and analysis tasks. The design task involves sizing the rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions. The analysis tasks can include off-design mission performance calculation, flight performance calculation for point operating conditions, and generation of subsystem or component performance maps. For analysis tasks, the aircraft description can come from the sizing task, from a previous case or a previous NDARC job, or be independently generated (typically the description of an existing aircraft). The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated; and the aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. Description and analysis of conventional rotorcraft configurations is facilitated, while retaining the capability to model novel and advanced concepts. Specific rotorcraft configurations considered are single main-rotor and

  18. Design of Quiet Rotorcraft Approach Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Burley, Casey L.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    A optimization procedure for identifying quiet rotorcraft approach trajectories is proposed and demonstrated. The procedure employs a multi-objective genetic algorithm in order to reduce noise and create approach paths that will be acceptable to pilots and passengers. The concept is demonstrated by application to two different helicopters. The optimized paths are compared with one another and to a standard 6-deg approach path. The two demonstration cases validate the optimization procedure but highlight the need for improved noise prediction techniques and for additional rotorcraft acoustic data sets.

  19. Induction Magnetometers – Design Peculiarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy KOREPANOV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Induction or search-coil magnetometers (IM are widely used in many branches of science and industry. The frequency range and dynamic range of IMs are probably the widest of all existing magnetometers: they are used for the measurement of magnetic field variations in the frequency band from ~10-4 till ~106 Hz with the intensities from fractions of femtotesla till tens of tesla. This explains the permanent interest to IM design and the attempts to construct the IMs with best possible parameters. The present paper deals with the peculiarities of IM design. An attempt to re-establish the correctness of priorities in the field is made and the approaches to the IM optimization and their quality estimation are described.

  20. Atomic magnetometer for human magnetoencephalograpy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwindt, Peter; Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (<5 fTesla/{radical}Hz), fiber-optically coupled magnetometer to detect magnetic fields produced by the human brain. This is the first demonstration of a noncryogenic sensor that could replace cryogenic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and is an important advance in realizing cost-effective MEG. Within the sensor, a rubidium vapor is optically pumped with 795 laser light while field-induced optical rotations are measured with 780 nm laser light. Both beams share a single optical axis to maximize simplicity and compactness. In collaboration with neuroscientists at The Mind Research Network in Albuquerque, NM, the evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer and a commercial SQUID-based MEG system with signals comparing favorably. Multi-sensor operation has been demonstrated with two AMs placed on opposite sides of the head. Straightforward miniaturization would enable high-density sensor arrays for whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  1. Miniature Rotorcraft Flight Control Stabilization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-30

    forgetting factor g = Magnitude of earth’s gravity Bgv , = gravity vector expressed in the body and inertial frames Igv intlon, intlat = lateral and...algorithm and QUEST on an example small rotorcraft a set of data was generated as shown in Fig. 1. Using the known Euler angles, Igv , and measurement data

  2. Vector Fluxgate Magnetometer (VMAG) Development for DSX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2010-1056 Vector Fluxgate Magnetometer (VMAG) Development for DSX Mark B. Moldwin UCLA Institute of Geophysics... Fluxgate Magnetometer (VMAG) Development for DSX 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark B. Moldwin 5d. PROJECT...axis fluxgate magnetometer for the AFRL-mission. The instrument is designed to measure the medium-Earth orbit geomagnetic field with precision of 0.1

  3. DSCOVR Magnetometer Level 2 One Minute Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interplanetary magnetic field observations collected from magnetometer on DSCOVR satellite - 1-minute average of Level 1 data

  4. DSCOVR Magnetometer Level 2 One Second Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interplanetary magnetic field observations collected from magnetometer on DSCOVR satellite - 1-second average of Level 1 data

  5. A History of Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    A history of the development of rotorcraft comprehensive analyses is presented. Comprehensive analyses are digital computer programs that calculate the aeromechanical behavior of the rotor and aircraft, bringing together the most advanced models of the geometry, structure, dynamics, and aerodynamics available in rotary wing technology. The development of the major codes of the last five decades from industry, government, and universities is described. A number of common themes observed in this history are discussed.

  6. Applications of artificial intelligence to rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy H.

    1987-01-01

    The application of AI technology may have significant potential payoff for rotorcraft. In the near term, the status of the technology will limit its applicability to decision aids rather than total automation. The specific application areas are categorized into onboard and nonflight aids. The onboard applications include: fault monitoring, diagnosis, and reconfiguration; mission and tactics planning; situation assessment; navigation aids, especially in nap-of-the-earth flight; and adaptive man-machine interfaces. The nonflight applications include training and maintenance diagnostics.

  7. Rotorcraft research in India: recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguli, Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss published research in rotorcraft which has taken place in India during the last ten years The helicopter research is divided into the following parts health monitoring smart rotor design optimization control helicopter rotor dynamics active control of structural response (ACSR) and helicopter design and development Aspects of health monitoring and smart rotor are discussed in detail Further work needed and areas for international collaboration...

  8. Fluxgate vector magnetometers: Compensated multi-sensor devices for ground, UAV and airborne magnetic survey for various application in near surface geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Bruno; Le Maire, Pauline; Munschy, Marc; Dechamp, Aline

    2017-04-01

    Fluxgate 3-components magnetometer is the kind of magnetometer which offers the lightest weight and lowest power consumption for the measurement of the intensity of the magnetic field. Moreover, vector measurements make it the only kind of magnetometer allowing compensation of magnetic perturbations due to the equipment carried with it. Unfortunately, Fluxgate magnetometers are quite uncommon in near surface geophysics due to the difficulty to calibrate them precisely. The recent advances in calibration of the sensors and magnetic compensation of the devices from a simple process on the field led Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg to develop instruments for georeferenced magnetic measurements at different scales - from submetric measurements on the ground to aircraft-conducted acquisition through the wide range offered by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) - with a precision in the order of 1 nT. Such equipment is used for different kind of application: structural geology, pipes and UXO detection, archaeology.

  9. Adaptive Rotorcraft Condition and Usage Tracking System (ARCUTS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Electronic Machines (IEM), a leader in the development of innovative sensor solutions for transportation systems, will develop the Adaptive Rotorcraft...

  10. Computational Wind Tunnel: A Design Tool for Rotorcraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During initial design studies, parametric variation of vehicle geometry is routine. In addition, rotorcraft engineers traditionally use the wind tunnel to evaluate...

  11. Computational Wind Tunnel: A Design Tool for Rotorcraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rotorcraft engineers traditionally use the wind tunnel to evaluate and finalize designs. Insufficient correlation between wind tunnel results and flight tests, have...

  12. Digitalization of highly precise fluxgate magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Ales; Kuna, A.; Ripka, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the theory behind all three known ways of digitalizing the fluxgate magnetometers: analogue magnetometers with digitalized output using high resolution ADC, application of the delta-sigma modulation to the sensor feedback loop and fully digital signal detection. At present time...... the Delta-Sigma ADCs are mostly used for the digitalization of the highly precise fluxgate magnetorneters. The relevant part of the paper demonstrates some pitfalls of their application studied during the design of the magnetometer for the new Czech scientific satellite MIMOSA. The part discussing...... the application of the A-E modulation to the sensor feedback loop theoretically derives the main advantage of this method-increasing of the modulation order and shows its real potential compared to the analog magnetometer with consequential digitalization. The comparison is realized on the modular magnetometer...

  13. Unmanned Systems in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    36Gertler, 41-42. 37Gertler, 42; Spencer Ackerman, “Exclusive Pics: The Navy’s Unmanned, Autonomous ‘ UFO ’,” Wired, 31 July 2012, http...Pics: The Navy’s Unmanned, Autonomous ‘ UFO ’.” Wired, 31 July 2012. http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/07/x47b (accessed 1 March 2014). Air Force

  14. Rotorcraft Optimization Tools: Incorporating Rotorcraft Design Codes into Multi-Disciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Larry A.

    2018-01-01

    One of the goals of NASA's Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology Project (RVLT) is to provide validated tools for multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization (MDAO) of vertical lift vehicles. As part of this effort, the software package, RotorCraft Optimization Tools (RCOTOOLS), is being developed to facilitate incorporating key rotorcraft conceptual design codes into optimizations using the OpenMDAO multi-disciplinary optimization framework written in Python. RCOTOOLS, also written in Python, currently supports the incorporation of the NASA Design and Analysis of RotorCraft (NDARC) vehicle sizing tool and the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics II (CAMRAD II) analysis tool into OpenMDAO-driven optimizations. Both of these tools use detailed, file-based inputs and outputs, so RCOTOOLS provides software wrappers to update input files with new design variable values, execute these codes and then extract specific response variable values from the file outputs. These wrappers are designed to be flexible and easy to use. RCOTOOLS also provides several utilities to aid in optimization model development, including Graphical User Interface (GUI) tools for browsing input and output files in order to identify text strings that are used to identify specific variables as optimization input and response variables. This paper provides an overview of RCOTOOLS and its use

  15. Integration of Environment Sensing and Control Functions for Robust Rotorcraft UAV (RUAV) Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadkhah Tehrani, Navid

    Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) have started supplanting manned aircraft in a broad range of tasks. Vehicles such as miniature rotorcrafts with broad maneuvering range and small size can enter remote locations that are hard to reach using other air and ground vehicles. Developing a guidance system which enables a Rotorcraft UAV (RUAV) to perform such tasks involves combing key elements from robotics motion planning, control system design, trajectory optimization as well as dynamics modeling. The focus of this thesis is to integrate a guidance system for a small-scale rotorcraft to enable a high level of performance and situational awareness. We cover large aspects of the system integration including modeling, control system design, environment sensing as well as motion planning in the presence of uncertainty. The system integration in this thesis is performed around a Blade-CX2 miniature coaxial helicopter. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the parameterized model for the Blade-CX2 helicopter with an emphasis on the coaxial rotor configuration. The model explicitly accounts for the dynamics of lower rotor and uses an implicit lumped parameter model for the upper rotor and stabilizer-bar. The parameterized model was identified using frequency domain system identification. In the second part of the thesis, we use the identified model to design a control law for the Blade-CX2 helicopter. The control augmentation for the Blade-CX2 helicopter was based on a nested attitude-velocity loop control architecture and was designed following classical loop-shaping and dynamic inversion techniques. A path following layer wrapped around the velocity control system enables the rotorcraft to follow reference trajectories specified by a sequence of waypoints and velocity vectors. Such reference paths are common in autonomous guidance systems. Finally, the third part of the thesis addresses the problem of autonomous navigation through a partially known or

  16. Acoustically Tailored Composite Rotorcraft Fuselage Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambric, Stephen; Shepherd, Micah; Koudela, Kevin; Wess, Denis; Snider, Royce; May, Carl; Kendrick, Phil; Lee, Edward; Cai, Liang-Wu

    2015-01-01

    A rotorcraft roof sandwich panel has been redesigned to optimize sound power transmission loss (TL) and minimize structure-borne sound for frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz where gear meshing noise from the transmission has the most impact on speech intelligibility. The roof section, framed by a grid of ribs, was originally constructed of a single honeycomb core/composite face sheet panel. The original panel has coincidence frequencies near 700 Hz, leading to poor TL across the frequency range of 1 to 4 kHz. To quiet the panel, the cross section was split into two thinner sandwich subpanels separated by an air gap. The air gap was sized to target the fundamental mass-spring-mass resonance of the double panel system to less than 500 Hz. The panels were designed to withstand structural loading from normal rotorcraft operation, as well as 'man-on-the-roof' static loads experienced during maintenance operations. Thin layers of VHB 9469 viscoelastomer from 3M were also included in the face sheet ply layups, increasing panel damping loss factors from about 0.01 to 0.05. Measurements in the NASA SALT facility show the optimized panel provides 6-11 dB of acoustic transmission loss improvement, and 6-15 dB of structure-borne sound reduction at critical rotorcraft transmission tonal frequencies. Analytic panel TL theory simulates the measured performance quite well. Detailed finite element/boundary element modeling of the baseline panel simulates TL slightly more accurately, and also simulates structure-borne sound well.

  17. A simple fluxgate magnetometer using amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, S.K.; Mitra, A.

    1992-01-01

    A simple fluxgate magnetometer is developed using low magnetostrictive ferromagnetic amorphous alloy acting as a sensing element. It uses the fact that the magnetization of sensing element symmetrically magnetized by a sinusoidal field contains even harmonic components in presence of dc signal field H and the amplitude of the second harmonic component of magnetization is proportional to H. The sensitivity and linearity of the magnetometer with signal field are studied for parallel configuration and the field ranging from 10 nT to 10 μT can be measured. The functioning of the magnetometer is demonstrated by studying the shielding and flux-trapping phenomena in high-Tc superconductor. (orig.)

  18. All optical vector magnetometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research project will investigate a novel method of operating an atomic magnetometer to simultaneously measure total magnetic fields and vector magnetic...

  19. The Fluxgate Magnetometer Simulation in Comsol Multiphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomeytsev Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fluxgate magnetometer simulation in Comsol Multiphysics software package. The simulation results coincide with the experiment described earlier. Decomposition of the output signal by the Fourier coefficients shows a frequency doubling.

  20. The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer and utilizes magnetic ring core sensors with biaxial orthogonal sense coils. The instrument is a single-range, triaxial-fluxgate magnetometer capable of measuring fields of up to 1 mT along each orthogonal axis, with a maximum resolution of 1 microT.

  1. The Fluxgate Magnetometer Simulation in Comsol Multiphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Kolomeytsev Andrey; Baranov Pavel; Zatonov Ivan

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the fluxgate magnetometer simulation in Comsol Multiphysics software package. The simulation results coincide with the experiment described earlier. Decomposition of the output signal by the Fourier coefficients shows a frequency doubling.

  2. Magnetometer Data recovered from 35mm film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The L57 CDMP recovery project takes magnetometer data on 35mm film stored at the archive's climate controlled warehouse and digitizes them.

  3. Development of a nuclear precession magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgens Alves, J.G. das.

    1983-12-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop a proton precession magnetometer for geophysical prospecting and base stations. The proton procession magnetometer measures the total magnetic fields intensity. It operates on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance by determining the processing frequency of protons of a non viscous liquid in the terrestrial magnetic fields. The instrument was tested in field to evaluate signal/noise ratio, supportable gradient and battery consumption. Application test was carried out to take diurnal variation data and, reconnaissance and detail surveys data on an archaeological site in the Marajo Island-Pa. The test results were confronted with two commercial magnetometers-GP-70, McPhar e G-816, Geometric - and, with data from Observatorio Magnetico Ilha de Tatuoca as well. For all cases, the data comparison showed a good performance of the magnetometer tested. (author)

  4. ATS-6 - UCLA fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpherron, R. L.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Snare, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the design of the University of California at Los Angeles' fluxgate magnetometer is presented. Instrument noise in the bandwidth 0.001 to 1.0 Hz is of order 85 m gamma. The DC field of the spacecraft transverse to the earth-pointing axis is 1.0 + or - 21 gamma in the X direction and -2.4 + or - 1.3 gamma in the Y direction. The spacecraft field parallel to this axis is less than 5 gamma. The small spacecraft field has made possible studies of the macroscopic field not previously possible at synchronous orbit. At the 96 W longitude of Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6), the earth's field is typically inclined 30 deg to the dipole axis at local noon. Most perturbations of the field are due to substorms. These consist of a rotation in the meridian to a more radial field followed by a subsequent rotation back. The rotation back is normally accompanied by transient variations in the azimuthal field. The exact timing of these perturbations is a function of satellite location and the details of substorm development.

  5. Observatory Magnetometer In-Situ Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marusenkov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental validation of the in-situ calibration procedure, which allows estimating parameters of observatory magnetometers (scale factors, sensor misalignment without its operation interruption, is presented. In order to control the validity of the procedure, the records provided by two magnetometers calibrated independently in a coil system have been processed. The in-situ estimations of the parameters are in very good agreement with the values provided by the coil system calibration.

  6. Rotorcraft Low Altitude CNS (Communications, Navigation and Surveillance) Benefit/Cost Analysis, Rotorcraft Operations Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    inventory of rotorcraft activity by mission and location. 17. Key Words 18. Distribution Statement Helicopter Helicopter Missions This document is available...helicopter is used to transport skiers /hikers to remote, normally inaccessible places. This mission is performed in rural or wilderness areas at altitudes...their applicability to the CNS benefit/cost analysis. Because of the uncertainty in the knowledge of the characteristics of both current and future

  7. A new robust control for minirotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, M Rida; Cherki, Brahim

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new robust control based on finite-time Lyapunov stability controller and proved with backstepping method for the position and the attitude of a small rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle subjected to bounded uncertainties and disturbances. The dynamical motion equations are obtained by the Newton-Euler formalism. The proposed controller combines the advantage of the backstepping approach with finite-time convergence techniques to generate a control laws to guarantee the faster convergence of the state variables to their desired values in short time and compensate for the bounded disturbances. A formal proof of the closed-loop stability and finite-time convergence of tracking errors is derived using the Lyapunov function technique. Simulation results are presented to corroborate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed control method. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Multidisciplinary Rotorcraft Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Diskin, Boris; Biedron, Robert T.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Bauchau, Olivier A.

    2017-01-01

    A multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis of rotorcraft simulations involving tightly coupled high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics and comprehensive analysis solvers is presented and evaluated. An unstructured sensitivity-enabled Navier-Stokes solver, FUN3D, and a nonlinear flexible multibody dynamics solver, DYMORE, are coupled to predict the aerodynamic loads and structural responses of helicopter rotor blades. A discretely-consistent adjoint-based sensitivity analysis available in FUN3D provides sensitivities arising from unsteady turbulent flows and unstructured dynamic overset meshes, while a complex-variable approach is used to compute DYMORE structural sensitivities with respect to aerodynamic loads. The multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis is conducted through integrating the sensitivity components from each discipline of the coupled system. Numerical results verify accuracy of the FUN3D/DYMORE system by conducting simulations for a benchmark rotorcraft test model and comparing solutions with established analyses and experimental data. Complex-variable implementation of sensitivity analysis of DYMORE and the coupled FUN3D/DYMORE system is verified by comparing with real-valued analysis and sensitivities. Correctness of adjoint formulations for FUN3D/DYMORE interfaces is verified by comparing adjoint-based and complex-variable sensitivities. Finally, sensitivities of the lift and drag functions obtained by complex-variable FUN3D/DYMORE simulations are compared with sensitivities computed by the multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis, which couples adjoint-based flow and grid sensitivities of FUN3D and FUN3D/DYMORE interfaces with complex-variable sensitivities of DYMORE structural responses.

  9. Directly coupled YBCO dc SQUID magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, P.R.E.; Shen, Y.Q.; Holst, T.; Larsen, B.H.; Sager, M.P.; Bindslev Hansen, J.

    1999-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- x magnetometers have been made on 10mmx10mm MgO substrates by directly coupling the magnetometer pick-up loop to a dc SQUID with narrow strip lines. The dc SQUIDs were made with YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x step-edge Josephson junctions. The layout of the magnetometer pick-up loop was chosen as a compromise between maximizing the loop effective area and minimizing the loop inductance. The SQUID was designed to have L S ∼100 pH in order to obtain β L =2I 0 L S /Φ 0 approx.= 1 with the single-junction critical current I 0 ∼10 μA. We have made magnetometers with white noise levels down to 55 fT Hz -1/2 and a 1/f knee at 1 Hz (ac biased). Noise measurements were made on a field-cooled magnetometer. The noise measured at 1 Hz when cooled in 'zero field' was 175 fT Hz -1/2 . When cooled in magnetic fields of B = 50 μT and B = 100 μT we measured the noise at 1 Hz to be 430 fT Hz -1 2 and 1.3 pT Hz -1/2 , respectively. (author)

  10. 78 FR 12254 - Interest in Restructure of Rotorcraft Airworthiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...: FAA, Rotorcraft Directorate, Regulations and Policy Group (Attn: John Vanhoudt, ASW-111), 2601 Meacham... standards and safety levels, or whether the existing standards philosophy based on weight (currently 7,000...

  11. Silent Localization of Underwater Sensors Using Magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Callmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor localization is a central problem for sensor networks. If the sensor positions are uncertain, the target tracking ability of the sensor network is reduced. Sensor localization in underwater environments is traditionally addressed using acoustic range measurements involving known anchor or surface nodes. We explore the usage of triaxial magnetometers and a friendly vessel with known magnetic dipole to silently localize the sensors. The ferromagnetic field created by the dipole is measured by the magnetometers and is used to localize the sensors. The trajectory of the vessel and the sensor positions are estimated simultaneously using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF. Simulations show that the sensors can be accurately positioned using magnetometers.

  12. Mechanisms and actuators for rotorcraft blade morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocke, Robert D., III

    The idea of improved fight performance through changes in the control surfaces dates back to the advent of aviation with the Wright brothers' pioneering work on "wing warping," but it was not until the recent progress in material and actuator development that such control surfaces seemed practical for modern aircraft. This has opened the door to a new class of aircraft that have the ability to change shape or morph, which are being investigated due to the potential to have a single platform serve multiple mission objectives, as well as improve performance characteristics. While the majority of existing research for morphing aircraft has focused on fixedwing aircraft, rotary-wing aircraft have begun to receive more attention. The purpose of this body of work is to investigate the current state of morphing actuation technology for rotorcraft and improve upon it. Specifically, this work looks at two types of morphing: Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) actuated trailing edge flaps and conformal variable diameter morphing. First, active camber changes through the use of PAM powered trailing edge flaps were investigated due to the potential for reductions in power requirements and vibration/noise levels. A PAM based antagonistic actuation system was developed utilizing a novel combination of mechanism geometry and PAM bias contraction optimization to overcome the natural extension stiffening characteristics of PAMs. In open-loop bench-top testing against a "worst-case" constant torsional loading, the system demonstrated actuation authority suitable for both primary control and vibration/noise reduction. Additionally, closed-loop test data indicated that the system was capable of tracking complex waveforms consistent with those needed for rotorcraft control. This system demonstrated performance on-par with the state of the art pneumatic trailing edge flap actuators, yet with a much smaller footprint and impact on the rotor-blade. The second morphing system developed in

  13. Man-Portable Simultaneous Magnetometer and EM System (MSEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    limited to cesium vapor magnetometers outputting a Larmor signal. It cannot, as presently configured, be used with less expensive fluxgate magnetometers ...pulses to convert the frequency-based Larmor signal into nT. A fluxgate magnetometer does not employ the resonance mechanism of an alkali vapor...Simultaneous Magnetometer and EM System (MSEMS) December 2008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  14. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quality metric tracking history . 1.4.3.4 Technical Management Division The mission of the RS JPO Technical Management (Tech Mgt) Division is to...missions dictate radio capabilities. IP version 4 ( IPv4 ) is the common IP standard used on IP addressable devices of UGVs, however, Unmanned Ground...Systems Roadmap UNCLASSIFIED 26 UNCLASSIFIED July 2011 IPv4 addresses are projected to run out and UGV systems will need to migrate to IP version 6

  15. Determination of the Overhauser magnetometer uncertainty

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulvr, M.; Zikmund, A.; Kupec, J.; Janošek, M.; Vlk, Michal; Bayer, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, 7/s (2015), s. 26-29 ISSN 1335-3632 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Overhauser magnetometer * Earth `s magnetic field * comparison * uncertainty Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.407, year: 2015

  16. Large rotorcraft transmission technology development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Testing of a U.S. Army XCH-62 HLH aft rotor transmission under NASA Contract NAS 3-22143 was successfully completed. This test establishes the feasibility of large, high power rotorcraft transmissions as well as demonstrating the resolution of deficiencies identified during the HLH advanced technology programs and reported by USAAMRDLTR-77-38. Over 100 hours of testing was conducted. At the 100% design power rating of 10,620 horsepower, the power transferred through a single spiral bevel gear mesh is more than twice that of current helicopter bevel gearing. In the original design of these gears, industry-wide design methods were employed and failures were experienced which identified problem areas unique to gear size. To remedy this technology shortfall, a program was developed to predict gear stresses using finite element analysis for complete and accurate representation of the gear tooth and supporting structure. To validate the finite element methodology gear strain data from the existing U.S. Army HLH aft transmission was acquired, and existing data from smaller gears were made available.

  17. Cost Analysis for Large Civil Transport Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, John J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents cost analysis of purchase price and DOC+I (direct operating cost plus interest) that supports NASA s study of three advanced rotorcraft concepts that could enter commercial transport service within 10 to 15 years. The components of DOC+I are maintenance, flight crew, fuel, depreciation, insurance, and finance. The cost analysis aims at VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) and CTOL (conventional takeoff and landing) aircraft suitable for regional transport service. The resulting spreadsheet-implemented cost models are semi-empirical and based on Department of Transportation and Army data from actual operations of such aircraft. This paper describes a rationale for selecting cost tech factors without which VTOL is more costly than CTOL by a factor of 10 for maintenance cost and a factor of two for purchase price. The three VTOL designs selected for cost comparisons meet the mission requirement to fly 1,200 nautical miles at 350 knots and 30,000 ft carrying 120 passengers. The lowest cost VTOL design is a large civil tilt rotor (LCTR) aircraft. With cost tech factors applied, the LCTR is reasonably competitive with the Boeing 737-700 when operated in economy regional service following the business model of the selected baseline operation, that of Southwest Airlines.

  18. Inexpensive Reliable Oil-Debris Optical Sensor for Rotorcraft Health Monitoring, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rotorcrafts form a unique subset of air vehicles in that a rotorcraft's propulsion system is used not only for propulsion, but it also serves as the primary source...

  19. Stable Hovering Flight for a Small Unmanned Helicopter Using Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable hover flight control for small unmanned helicopter under light air turbulent environment is presented. Intelligent fuzzy logic is chosen because it is a nonlinear control technique based on expert knowledge and is capable of handling sensor created noise and contradictory inputs commonly encountered in flight control. The fuzzy nonlinear control utilizes these distinct qualities for attitude, height, and position control. These multiple controls are developed using two-loop control structure by first designing an inner-loop controller for attitude angles and height and then by establishing outer-loop controller for helicopter position. The nonlinear small unmanned helicopter model used comes from X-Plane simulator. A simulation platform consisting of MATLAB/Simulink and X-Plane© flight simulator was introduced to implement the proposed controls. The main objective of this research is to design computationally intelligent control laws for hovering and to test and analyze this autopilot for small unmanned helicopter model on X-Plane under ideal and mild turbulent condition. Proposed fuzzy flight controls are validated using an X-Plane helicopter model before being embedded on actual helicopter. To show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy control method and its ability to cope with the external uncertainties, results are compared with a classical PD controller. Simulated results show that two-loop fuzzy controllers have a good ability to establish stable hovering for a class of unmanned rotorcraft in the presence of light turbulent environment.

  20. Vector Magnetometer Application with Moving Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Prystai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In magnetic prospecting the aeromagnetic survey is a widespread method used for research in large territories or in the areas with difficult access (forests, swamps, shallow waters. At present, a new type of mobile carriers – remotely piloted vehicles or drones – is becoming very common. The drones supplied by magnetometer can be also used for underground utility location (for example, steel and concrete constructions, buried power cables, to name a few. For aeromagnetic survey, obtaining of 3-component magnetic field data gives higher processing precision, so the fluxgate magnetometers (FGM seem to be the most preferable by reason of low weight, noise, power consumption and costs. During movement of FGM fixed to a drone practically permanent attitude changes in the Earth’s magnetic field arises with corresponding changes of its projection at FGM axes. Also the electromagnetic interference from the drone motor and uncontrolled oscillations of drone and suspension are the factors which limit the magnetometer sensitivity level. Aroused because of this, signals significantly exceed the expected signals from a studied object and so should be removed by proper interference filtration and use of stabilized towed construction, as well as at data processing. To find the necessary resolution threshold of a drone-portable FGM, the modeling was made to estimate magnetic field value from a small sphere about 1 cm radius at the minimal altitude of drone flight and it was shown that such a small object can be reliably detected if the FGM noise level is less than 0.15 nT. Next requirement is the necessity to decrease as much as possible the FGM power consumption with retention of low noise level. Finally, because of drone movement, the broadening of a frequency range should be done. The LEMI-026 magnetometer was developed satisfying all requirements to the drone-mounted device. The field tests were successfully performed using two of LEMI-026

  1. Toward autonomous rotorcraft flight in degraded visual environments: experiments and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambler, Adam; Spiker, Spencer; Bergerman, Marcel; Singh, Sanjiv

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned cargo delivery to combat outposts will inevitably involve operations in degraded visual environments (DVE). When DVE occurs, the aircraft autonomy system needs to be able to function regardless of the obscurant level. In 2014, Near Earth Autonomy established a baseline perception system for autonomous rotorcraft operating in clear air conditions, when its m3 sensor suite and perception software enabled autonomous, no-hover landings onto unprepared sites populated with obstacles. The m3's long-range lidar scanned the helicopter's path and the perception software detected obstacles and found safe locations for the helicopter to land. This paper presents the results of initial tests with the Near Earth perception system in a variety of DVE conditions and analyzes them from the perspective of mission performance and risk. Tests were conducted with the m3's lidar and a lightweight synthetic aperture radar in rain, smoke, snow, and controlled brownout experiments. These experiments showed the capability to penetrate through mild DVE but the perceptual capabilities became degraded with the densest brownouts. The results highlight the need for not only improved ability to see through DVE, but also for improved algorithms to monitor and report DVE conditions.

  2. 77 FR 50576 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures; OMB Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Composite Rotorcraft Structures; OMB Approval of Information Collection AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Rotorcraft Structures,'' which was published on December 1, 2011. DATES: The rule published on December 1... and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures,'' published in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  3. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft, the... along and among the hull and auxiliary floats, if used, in a rational and conservative manner, assuming...

  4. Computer vision techniques for rotorcraft low altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar

    1990-01-01

    Rotorcraft operating in high-threat environments fly close to the earth's surface to utilize surrounding terrain, vegetation, or manmade objects to minimize the risk of being detected by an enemy. Increasing levels of concealment are achieved by adopting different tactics during low-altitude flight. Rotorcraft employ three tactics during low-altitude flight: low-level, contour, and nap-of-the-earth (NOE). The key feature distinguishing the NOE mode from the other two modes is that the whole rotorcraft, including the main rotor, is below tree-top whenever possible. This leads to the use of lateral maneuvers for avoiding obstacles, which in fact constitutes the means for concealment. The piloting of the rotorcraft is at best a very demanding task and the pilot will need help from onboard automation tools in order to devote more time to mission-related activities. The development of an automation tool which has the potential to detect obstacles in the rotorcraft flight path, warn the crew, and interact with the guidance system to avoid detected obstacles, presents challenging problems. Research is described which applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigtion. The effort emphasizes the development of a methodology for detecting the ranges to obstacles in the region of interest based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors. The range map derived from the obstacle-detection approach can be used as obstacle data for the obstacle avoidance in an automatic guidance system and as advisory display to the pilot. The lack of suitable flight imagery data presents a problem in the verification of concepts for obstacle detection. This problem is being addressed by the development of an adequate flight database and by preprocessing of currently available flight imagery. The presentation concludes with some comments on future work and how research in this area relates to the guidance of other autonomous vehicles.

  5. NDARC NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft. Appendix 6; Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) software is an aircraft system analysis tool that supports both conceptual design efforts and technology impact assessments. The principal tasks are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to meet specified requirements, including vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) operation, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of conditions. For broad and lasting utility, it is important that the code have the capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and weights of advanced rotor concepts. The architecture of the NDARC code accommodates configuration flexibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization. Initially the software is implemented with low-fidelity models, typically appropriate for the conceptual design environment. An NDARC job consists of one or more cases, each case optionally performing design and analysis tasks. The design task involves sizing the rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions. The analysis tasks can include off-design mission performance calculation, flight performance calculation for point operating conditions, and generation of subsystem or component performance maps. For analysis tasks, the aircraft description can come from the sizing task, from a previous case or a previous NDARC job, or be independently generated (typically the description of an existing aircraft). The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated; and the aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. Description and analysis of conventional rotorcraft configurations is facilitated, while retaining the capability to model novel and advanced concepts. Specific rotorcraft configurations considered are single-main-rotor and tail

  6. NDARC NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft - Input, Appendix 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) software is an aircraft system analysis tool that supports both conceptual design efforts and technology impact assessments. The principal tasks are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to meet specified requirements, including vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) operation, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of conditions. For broad and lasting utility, it is important that the code have the capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and weights of advanced rotor concepts. The architecture of the NDARC code accommodates configuration exibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization. Initially the software is implemented with low-fidelity models, typically appropriate for the conceptual design environment. An NDARC job consists of one or more cases, each case optionally performing design and analysis tasks. The design task involves sizing the rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions. The analysis tasks can include off-design mission performance calculation, flight performance calculation for point operating conditions, and generation of subsystem or component performance maps. For analysis tasks, the aircraft description can come from the sizing task, from a previous case or a previous NDARC job, or be independently generated (typically the description of an existing aircraft). The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated; and the aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. Description and analysis of conventional rotorcraft configurations is facilitated, while retaining the capability to model novel and advanced concepts. Specific rotorcraft configurations considered are single-main-rotor and tail

  7. NDARC NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft. Appendix 5; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) software is an aircraft system analysis tool that supports both conceptual design efforts and technology impact assessments. The principal tasks are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to meet specified requirements, including vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) operation, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of conditions. For broad and lasting utility, it is important that the code have the capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and weights of advanced rotor concepts. The architecture of the NDARC code accommodates configuration flexibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization. Initially the software is implemented with low-fidelity models, typically appropriate for the conceptual design environment. An NDARC job consists of one or more cases, each case optionally performing design and analysis tasks. The design task involves sizing the rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions. The analysis tasks can include off-design mission performance calculation, flight performance calculation for point operating conditions, and generation of subsystem or component performance maps. For analysis tasks, the aircraft description can come from the sizing task, from a previous case or a previous NDARC job, or be independently generated (typically the description of an existing aircraft). The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated; and the aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. Description and analysis of conventional rotorcraft configurations is facilitated, while retaining the capability to model novel and advanced concepts. Specific rotorcraft configurations considered are single-main-rotor and tail

  8. NDARC NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft Theory Appendix 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) software is an aircraft system analysis tool that supports both conceptual design efforts and technology impact assessments. The principal tasks are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to meet specified requirements, including vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) operation, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of conditions. For broad and lasting utility, it is important that the code have the capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and weights of advanced rotor concepts. The architecture of the NDARC code accommodates configuration flexibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization. Initially the software is implemented with low-fidelity models, typically appropriate for the conceptual design environment. An NDARC job consists of one or more cases, each case optionally performing design and analysis tasks. The design task involves sizing the rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions. The analysis tasks can include off-design mission performance calculation, flight performance calculation for point operating conditions, and generation of subsystem or component performance maps. For analysis tasks, the aircraft description can come from the sizing task, from a previous case or a previous NDARC job, or be independently generated (typically the description of an existing aircraft). The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated; and the aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. Description and analysis of conventional rotorcraft configurations is facilitated, while retaining the capability to model novel and advanced concepts. Specific rotorcraft configurations considered are single-main-rotor and tail

  9. NDARC: NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft. Appendix 3; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) software is an aircraft system analysis tool that supports both conceptual design efforts and technology impact assessments. The principal tasks are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to meet speci?ed requirements, including vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) operation, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of conditions. For broad and lasting utility, it is important that the code have the capability to model general rotorcraft con?gurations, and estimate the performance and weights of advanced rotor concepts. The architecture of the NDARC code accommodates con?guration ?exibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization. Initially the software is implemented with low-?delity models, typically appropriate for the conceptual design environment. An NDARC job consists of one or more cases, each case optionally performing design and analysis tasks. The design task involves sizing the rotorcraft to satisfy speci?ed design conditions and missions. The analysis tasks can include off-design mission performance calculation, ?ight performance calculation for point operating conditions, and generation of subsystem or component performance maps. For analysis tasks, the aircraft description can come from the sizing task, from a previous case or a previous NDARC job, or be independently generated (typically the description of an existing aircraft). The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated; and the aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. Description and analysis of conventional rotorcraft con?gurations is facilitated, while retaining the capability to model novel and advanced concepts. Speci?c rotorcraft con?gurations considered are single-main-rotor and tail-rotor helicopter

  10. A Web Server for MACCS Magnetometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG5-3719 was provided to Augsburg College to support the development of a web server for the Magnetometer Array for Cusp and Cleft Studies (MACCS), a two-dimensional array of fluxgate magnetometers located at cusp latitudes in Arctic Canada. MACCS was developed as part of the National Science Foundation's GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) Program, which was designed in part to complement NASA's Global Geospace Science programs during the decade of the 1990s. This report describes the successful use of these grant funds to support a working web page that provides both daily plots and file access to any user accessing the worldwide web. The MACCS home page can be accessed at http://space.augsburg.edu/space/MaccsHome.html.

  11. Midlatitude magnetometer chains during the IMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcpherron, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) is an international program to study global problems of magnetospheric dynamics. A key element of the U.S. participation in this program was the establishment of a ground magnetometer network. This network included a number of arrays at high and low latitudes. This report describes three chains established at midlatitudes, including the IMS Midlatitude Chain, the AFGL Magnetometer Network, and the Bell Lab Conjugate Array. Descriptions of the type of equipment, station locations, types of data display, and availability of data for each chain are presented in this report. A major problem of the data analysis phase of the IMS will be reducing selected subsets of these data to a common format. Currently, there are no plans to do this in a systematic manner

  12. Digital Detection and feedback Fluxgate Magnetometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil-Henriksen, J.; Merayo, José M.G.; Nielsen, Otto V

    1996-01-01

    A new full Earth's field dynamic feedback fluxgate magnetometer is described. It is based entirely on digital signal processing and digital feedback control, thereby replacing the classical second harmonic tuned analogue electronics by processor algorithms. Discrete mathematical cross......-correlation routines and substantial oversampling reduce the noise to 71 pT root-mean-square in a 0.25-10 Hz bandwidth for a full Earth's field range instrument....

  13. High temperature superconductive flux gate magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenson, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes a different type of HTS superconducting magnetometer based on the non-linear magnetic behavior of bulk HTS materials. The device design is based on the generation of second harmonics which arise as a result of non-linear magnetization observed in Type-II superconductors. Even harmonics are generated from the non-linear interaction of an ac excitation signal with an external DC magnetic field which acts as a bias signal

  14. Mathematical model of a fluxgate magnetometer

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov Pavel F.; Baranova Vitalia E.; Nesterenko Tamara G.

    2018-01-01

    In paper analytical equations for calculate the electromotive force in the measuring coil of the fluxgate magnetometer independent of the drive signal frequency content are presented. Also, the equations for es-timation of the fluxgate sensitivity at any harmonic and for study fluxgates operation with a glance to the waveform and the polynomial approximation of the mean magnetization curve of the core are provided.

  15. Mathematical model of a fluxgate magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov Pavel F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper analytical equations for calculate the electromotive force in the measuring coil of the fluxgate magnetometer independent of the drive signal frequency content are presented. Also, the equations for es-timation of the fluxgate sensitivity at any harmonic and for study fluxgates operation with a glance to the waveform and the polynomial approximation of the mean magnetization curve of the core are provided.

  16. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  17. Fluxgate Magnetometer system mounted on UAS system: First field test at Dominga IOCG deposit, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, G. A.; Banchero, L.; Marco, A.; Figueroa, R.

    2016-12-01

    With the support of Fundacion Chile (FCH) grant, we developed an airborne magnetic system (GeoMagDrone GFDAS) mounted on a UAS octodrone platform (DJI, S1000), based on a low cost/light-weight fluxgate magnetometer (FGM-301) and a robust/light-weight data logger for position, temperature, radar altimeter and 3 magnetic components at 16 Hz recording. Fluxgate magnetometer is hanging from the UAS platform at a distance of 2.5m where the EM noise is reduced to less than 2 nT. The whole geophysical system, including batteries, weights 650 gr., with an autonomy of 2 hours. Magnetometer calibration includes the 9 coefficients of amplitude, offset, and orthogonality, and temperature correction. We test the system over the IOCG deposit of Dominga-Chile, a magnetite ore (40%) (a block of 2x3 km with NS lines separated every 50m and a clearance of 40m, the mineral deposit buried 50-100m from the surface, where a ground magnetic survey was conducted previously. Ground conditions includes relatively rough topography with slopes of 10-20%, and some windy days. We use the digital terrain model SRTM30 to define the drape flight shape Average flight performance includes a mean speed of 35-40 km/hour, and an UAS battery consumption of 18-12 minutes depending on the wind conditions. A good correspondence was found between plan deployment and survey results in terms of line direction/separation/clearance. Line path were flown with errors less than 5 meters, whereas clearance of 40m was kept depending on the amount of control points used. The comparison between ground survey and GeoMagDrone results show a perfect match (anomaly amplitude/shape and noise envelope), validating in this way the system developed. Main concern for the productive application of this technology in unmanned geophysical platforms is the battery performance and the quality of digital terrain models to follow the topography.

  18. System Identification and Verification of Rotorcraft UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Zachary M.

    The task of a controls engineer is to design and implement control logic. To complete this task, it helps tremendously to have an accurate model of the system to be controlled. Obtaining a very accurate system model is not a trivial one, as much time and money is usually associated with the development of such a model. A typical physics based approach can require hundreds of hours of flight time. In an iterative process the model is tuned in such a way that it accurately models the physical system's response. This process becomes even more complicated for unstable and highly non-linear systems such as the dynamics of rotorcraft. An alternate approach to solving this problem is to extract an accurate model by analyzing the frequency response of the system. This process involves recording the system's responses for a frequency range of input excitations. From this data, an accurate system model can then be deduced. Furthermore, it has been shown that with use of the software package CIFER® (Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses), this process can both greatly reduce the cost of modeling a dynamic system and produce very accurate results. The topic of this thesis is to apply CIFER® to a quadcopter to extract a system model for the flight condition of hover. The quadcopter itself is comprised of off-the-shelf components with a Pixhack flight controller board running open source Ardupilot controller logic. In this thesis, both the closed and open loop systems are identified. The model is next compared to dissimilar flight data and verified in the time domain. Additionally, the ESC (Electronic Speed Controller) motor/rotor subsystem, which is comprised of all the vehicle's actuators, is also identified. This process required the development of a test bench environment, which included a GUI (Graphical User Interface), data pre and post processing, as well as the augmentation of the flight controller source code. This augmentation of code allowed for

  19. The MAGSAT vector magnetometer: A precision fluxgate magnetometer for the measurement of the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Scearce, C. S.; Seek, J.; Scheifele, J.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the precision triaxial fluxgate magnetometer to be flown aboard the MAGSAT spacecraft is presented. The instrument covers the range of + or - 64,000 nT with a resolution of + or - 0.5 nT, an intrinsic accuracy of + or - 0.001% of full scale and an angular alignment stability of the order of 2 seconds of arc. It was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and represents the state-of-the-art in precision vector magnetometers developed for spaceflight use.

  20. Incorporating Handling Qualities Analysis into Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the initial development of a framework to incorporate handling qualities analyses into a rotorcraft conceptual design process. In particular, the paper describes how rotorcraft conceptual design level data can be used to generate flight dynamics models for handling qualities analyses. Also, methods are described that couple a basic stability augmentation system to the rotorcraft flight dynamics model to extend analysis to beyond that of the bare airframe. A methodology for calculating the handling qualities characteristics of the flight dynamics models and for comparing the results to ADS-33E criteria is described. Preliminary results from the application of the handling qualities analysis for variations in key rotorcraft design parameters of main rotor radius, blade chord, hub stiffness and flap moment of inertia are shown. Varying relationships, with counteracting trends for different handling qualities criteria and different flight speeds are exhibited, with the action of the control system playing a complex part in the outcomes. Overall, the paper demonstrates how a broad array of technical issues across flight dynamics stability and control, simulation and modeling, control law design and handling qualities testing and evaluation had to be confronted to implement even a moderately comprehensive handling qualities analysis of relatively low fidelity models. A key outstanding issue is to how to 'close the loop' with an overall design process, and options for the exploration of how to feedback handling qualities results to a conceptual design process are proposed for future work.

  1. Development of a Micro-Fabricated Total-Field Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    are made with fluxgate technologies. Fluxgates have lower sensitivity than Cs magnetometers , yet they continue to be used in small wands simply...extraction process by providing the sensitivity of a Cs magnetometer with the convenience and low cost of a fluxgate wand. Extremely small and low cost...FINAL REPORT Development of a Micro-Fabricated Total-Field Magnetometer SERDP Project MR-1512 MARCH 2011 Mark Prouty Geometrics, Inc

  2. General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP): Theory manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Hopkins, A. Stewart; Kunz, Donald L.; Hinnant, Howard E.

    1990-01-01

    The general rotorcraft aeromechanical stability program (GRASP) was developed to calculate aeroelastic stability for rotorcraft in hovering flight, vertical flight, and ground contact conditions. GRASP is described in terms of its capabilities and its philosophy of modeling. The equations of motion that govern the physical system are described, as well as the analytical approximations used to derive them. The equations include the kinematical equation, the element equations, and the constraint equations. In addition, the solution procedures used by GRASP are described. GRASP is capable of treating the nonlinear static and linearized dynamic behavior of structures represented by arbitrary collections of rigid-body and beam elements. These elements may be connected in an arbitrary fashion, and are permitted to have large relative motions. The main limitation of this analysis is that periodic coefficient effects are not treated, restricting rotorcraft flight conditions to hover, axial flight, and ground contact. Instead of following the methods employed in other rotorcraft programs. GRASP is designed to be a hybrid of the finite-element method and the multibody methods used in spacecraft analysis. GRASP differs from traditional finite-element programs by allowing multiple levels of substructure in which the substructures can move and/or rotate relative to others with no small-angle approximations. This capability facilitates the modeling of rotorcraft structures, including the rotating/nonrotating interface and the details of the blade/root kinematics for various types. GRASP differs from traditional multibody programs by considering aeroelastic effects, including inflow dynamics (simple unsteady aerodynamics) and nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients.

  3. Unmanned and Unarmed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian Søby; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Schaub Jr, Gary John

    , the American, British, French, and Danish experiences highlight difficulties developing, acquiring, and operating UAVs. The Danish government should consider the tasks that UAVs are best-suited to perform, the costs associated with the entire UAV system, and the operational, doctrinal, and other challenges...... that must be addressed to integrate UAV capabilities into the Danish armed forces. These are not trivial considerations. Larger UAVs are very complex systems with which the Danish armed forces have limited experience, and introducing radically new technology always comes with substantial risks. Should...... Denmark decide to procure larger unmanned systems, such as Reapers or Global Hawks, it should cooperate with Allies to purchase, operate, and integrate these capabilities as smoothly as possible and mitigate these risks. It should also establish a joint unit dedicated to house, train, educate, and operate...

  4. Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Juan Carlos; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-01-01

    Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided an ideal platform for exploring these emergent morphing concepts since at this scale a greater amount of risk can be taken, as well as having more manageable fabrication and cost requirements. This review focuses on presenting the role UAVs have in morphing research by giving an overview of the UAV morphing concepts, designs, and technologies described in the literature. A presentation of quantitative information as well as a discussion of technical issues is given where possible to begin gaining some insight into the overall assessment and performance of these technologies. (topical review)

  5. Choice of optimal parameters for the superconductive quantum magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, B V; Ivanenko, A I; Trofimov, V N

    1974-12-31

    The problem of choosing the optimal coupling coefficient and optimal working frequency for superconductive quantum magnetometer is considered. The present experimental signalnoise dependence confirms the drawn conclusions. (auth)

  6. High Tc Josephson Junctions, SQUIDs and magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1991-01-01

    There has recently been considerable progress in the state-of-the-art of high-T c magnetometers based on dc SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices). This progress is due partly to the development of more manufacturable Josephson junctions, making SQUIDs easier to fabricate, and partly to the development of multiturn flux transformers that convert the high sensitivity of SQUIDs to magnetic flux to a correspondingly high sensitivity to magnetic field. Needless to say, today's high-T c SQUIDs are still considerably less sensitive than their low-T c counterparts, particularly at low frequencies (f) where their level of 1/f noise remains high. Nonetheless, the performance of the high-T c devices has now reached the point where they are adequate for a number of the less demanding applications; furthermore, as we shall see, at least modest improvements in performance are expected in the near future. In this article, the author outlines these various developments. This is far from a comprehensive review of the field, however, and, apart from Sec. 2, he describes largely his own work. He begins in Sec. 2 with an overview of the various types of Josephson junctions that have been investigated, and in Sec. 3, he describes some of the SQUIDs that have been tested, and assess their performance. Section 4 discuss the development of the multilayer structures essential for an interconnect technology, and, in particular, for crossovers and vias. Section 5 shows how this technology enables one to fabricate multiturn flux transformers which, in turn, can be coupled to SQUIDs to make magnetometers. The performance and possible future improvements in these magnetometers are assessed, and some applications mentioned

  7. Corrosion measurement using flux gate magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashdi Shah Ahmad; Chong Cheong Wei

    2001-01-01

    The ability of fluxgate magnetometer to detect and measure quantitatively the magnetic field generated by electrochemical corrosion is presented. In this study, each sample (iron plate) was exposed to a range of increasingly corrosive environment. During the exposure, we measured the magnetic field above the sample for specific duration of time. The result shows that there is a clear relationship between corrosivity of the environment and the change in magnitude of magnetic field that was generated by the corrosion reaction. Therefore, the measurement of magnetic field might be used to determine the corrosion rates. (Author)

  8. Automated system for the calibration of magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucha, Vojtech; Kaspar, Petr; Ripka, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    A completely nonmagnetic calibration platform has been developed and constructed at DTU Space (Technical University of Denmark). It is intended for on-site scalar calibration of high-precise fluxgate magnetometers. An enhanced version of the same platform is being built at the Czech Technical Uni...... through custom-made optical incremental sensors. The system is controlled by a microcontroller, which executes commands from a computer. The properties of the system as well as calibration and measurement results will be presented. ©2009 American Institute of Physics...

  9. Performances and place of magnetometers based on amorphous wires compared to conventional magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbes, D.; Dolabdjian, C.; Monfort, Y.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss and compare performances of various room temperature magnetometers. The work is directed towards the search of those magnetometers having a high sensitivity (>1000 V/T), a very low noise level (>1 pT/√Hz at white noise) attainable in a volume typically smaller than 1 cm 3 . The choice of this set of parameters is related to the useful comparison of room temperature magnetometers versus cryogenic ones, such as Superconducting Quantum Interferometer Devices (SQUIDs). The latter have highly degraded performances when their working operations needs an open unshielded environment as required for example in industrial application (non-destructive evaluation). SQUIDs have also a rather poor spatial resolution, and could be replaced by room temperature sensors in some magnetic imaging systems, which require a high spatial resolution. The paper is 'highlighted' in the field of magnetic sensors based on amorphous magnetic wires that were used to carry out wide bandwidth (>100 kHz), very low noise flux gate (∼pT/√Hz at white noise) and highly sensitive, low noise magnetometers (∼pT/√Hz at white noise) Colpitts oscillator configuration use by K. Bushida's

  10. Digital Fluxgate Magnetometer for Detection of Microvibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghui Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineering practice, instruments, such as accelerometer and laser interferometer, are widely used in vibration measurement of structural parts. A method for using a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer as a microvibration sensor to measure low-frequency pendulum microvibration (not translational vibration is proposed in this paper, so as to detect vibration from low-frequency vibration sources, such as large rotating machine, large engineering structure, earthquake, and microtremor. This method provides vibration detection based on the environmental magnetic field signal to avoid increased measurement difficulty and error due to different relative positions of permanent magnet and magnetometer on the device under test (DUT when using the original magnetic measurement method. After fixedly connecting the fluxgate probe with the DUT during the test, the angular displacement due to vibration can be deduced by measuring the geomagnetic field’s magnetic induction intensity change on the orthogonal three components during the vibration. The test shows that the microvibration sensor has angular resolution of over 0.05° and maximum measuring frequency of 64 Hz. As an exploring test aimed to detect the microvibration of earth-orbiting satellite in the in-orbit process, the simulation experiment successfully provides the real-time microvibration information for attitude and orbit control subsystem.

  11. Automated system for the calibration of magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrucha, Vojtech; Kaspar, Petr; Ripka, Pavel; Merayo, Jose M. G.

    2009-01-01

    A completely nonmagnetic calibration platform has been developed and constructed at DTU Space (Technical University of Denmark). It is intended for on-site scalar calibration of high-precise fluxgate magnetometers. An enhanced version of the same platform is being built at the Czech Technical University. There are three axes of rotation in this design (compared to two axes in the previous version). The addition of the third axis allows us to calibrate more complex devices. An electronic compass based on a vector fluxgate magnetometer and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer is one example. The new platform can also be used to evaluate the parameters of the compass in all possible variations in azimuth, pitch, and roll. The system is based on piezoelectric motors, which are placed on a platform made of aluminum, brass, plastic, and glass. Position sensing is accomplished through custom-made optical incremental sensors. The system is controlled by a microcontroller, which executes commands from a computer. The properties of the system as well as calibration and measurement results will be presented

  12. Magnetoresistive magnetometer for space science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P; Beek, T; Carr, C; O’Brien, H; Cupido, E; Oddy, T; Horbury, T S

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the in situ dc magnetic field on space science missions is most commonly achieved using instruments based on fluxgate sensors. Fluxgates are robust, reliable and have considerable space heritage; however, their mass and volume are not optimized for deployment on nano or picosats. We describe a new magnetometer design demonstrating science measurement capability featuring significantly lower mass, volume and to a lesser extent power than a typical fluxgate. The instrument employs a sensor based on anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) achieving a noise floor of less than 50 pT Hz −1/2 above 1 Hz on a 5 V bridge bias. The instrument range is scalable up to ±50 000 nT and the three-axis sensor mass and volume are less than 10 g and 10 cm 3 , respectively. The ability to switch the polarization of the sensor's easy axis and apply magnetic feedback is used to build a driven first harmonic closed loop system featuring improved linearity, gain stability and compensation of the sensor offset. A number of potential geospace applications based on the initial instrument results are discussed including attitude control systems and scientific measurement of waves and structures in the terrestrial magnetosphere. A flight version of the AMR magnetometer will fly on the TRIO-CINEMA mission due to be launched in 2012. (paper)

  13. Feasibility Study for an Autonomous UAV -Magnetometer System -- Final Report on SERDP SEED 1509:2206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelof Versteeg; Mark McKay; Matt Anderson; Ross Johnson; Bob Selfridge; Jay Bennett

    2007-09-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area scanning is a multi-level one, in which medium altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry followed by surface investigations using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be effective for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements means that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus, other systems are needed allowing for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it would be safer for the operators, cheaper in initial and O&M costs, and more effective in terms of site characterization. However, while UAV data acquisition from fixed wing platforms for large (> 200 feet) stand off distances is relatively straight forward, a host of challenges exist for low stand-off distance (~ 6 feet) UAV geophysical data acquisition. The objective of SERDP SEED 1509:2006 was to identify the primary challenges

  14. Battlefield Applications for the Polatomic 2000 Magnetometer/Gradiometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuhlman, G

    2002-01-01

    ... He(4) scalar magnetometer/gradiometer. A major innovation in the P-2000 helium magnetometer is the introduction of a laser pump source to replace the conventional RF discharge helium lamp used in the Navy AN/ASQ-81/208 MAD Set...

  15. Choice of Magnetometers and Gradiometers after Signal Space Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Pilar; López-Sanz, David; Maestú, Fernando; Pereda, Ernesto

    2017-12-16

    Modern Elekta Neuromag MEG devices include 102 sensor triplets containing one magnetometer and two planar gradiometers. The first processing step is often a signal space separation (SSS), which provides a powerful noise reduction. A question commonly raised by researchers and reviewers relates to which data should be employed in analyses: (1) magnetometers only, (2) gradiometers only, (3) magnetometers and gradiometers together. The MEG community is currently divided with regard to the proper answer. First, we provide theoretical evidence that both gradiometers and magnetometers result from the backprojection of the same SSS components. Then, we compare resting state and task-related sensor and source estimations from magnetometers and gradiometers in real MEG recordings before and after SSS. SSS introduced a strong increase in the similarity between source time series derived from magnetometers and gradiometers (r² = 0.3-0.8 before SSS and r² > 0.80 after SSS). After SSS, resting state power spectrum and functional connectivity, as well as visual evoked responses, derived from both magnetometers and gradiometers were highly similar (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.8, r² > 0.8). After SSS, magnetometer and gradiometer data are estimated from a single set of SSS components (usually ≤ 80). Equivalent results can be obtained with both sensor types in typical MEG experiments.

  16. Digital fluxgate magnetometer for the "Astrid-2" satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Bøje; Primdahl, Fritz; Petersen, Jan Raagaard

    1999-01-01

    The design and performance of the Astrid-2 magnetometer are described. The magnetometer uses mathematical routines implemented by software for commercially available digital dignal processors to determine the magnetic field from the fluxgate sensor. The sensor is from the latest generation of amo...

  17. Analysing Harmonic Motions with an iPhone's Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone's (or iPad's) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone's magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone's screen using the "Sensor Kinetics"…

  18. Structures technology for a new generation of rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Felton D., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of structures research at the U. S. Army Aerostructures Directorate. The objectives of this research are to investigate, explore, and demonstrate emerging technologies that will provide lighter, safer, more survivable, and more cost-effective structures for rotorcraft in the 1990s and beyond. The emphasis of today's R&D is to contribute proven structures technology to the U. S. rotorcraft industry and Army aviation that directly impacts tomorrow's fleet readiness and mission capabilities. The primary contributor toward meeting these challenges is the development of high-strength and durable composites to minimize structural weight while maximizing cost effectiveness. Special aviation issues such as delamination of dynamic components, impact damage to thin skins, crashworthiness, and affordable manufacturing need to be resolved before the full potential of composites technology can be realized. To that end, this paper highlights research into composites structural integrity, crashworthiness, and materials applications which addresses these issues.

  19. Blade vortex interaction noise reduction techniques for a rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Bruce D. (Inventor); Hassan, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Tadghighi, Hormoz (Inventor); JanakiRam, Ram D. (Inventor); Sankar, Lakshmi N. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active control device for reducing blade-vortex interactions (BVI) noise generated by a rotorcraft, such as a helicopter, comprises a trailing edge flap located near the tip of each of the rotorcraft's rotor blades. The flap may be actuated in any conventional way, and is scheduled to be actuated to a deflected position during rotation of the rotor blade through predetermined regions of the rotor azimuth, and is further scheduled to be actuated to a retracted position through the remaining regions of the rotor azimuth. Through the careful azimuth-dependent deployment and retraction of the flap over the rotor disk, blade tip vortices which are the primary source for BVI noise are (a) made weaker and (b) pushed farther away from the rotor disk (that is, larger blade-vortex separation distances are achieved).

  20. New Concepts and Perspectives on Micro-Rotorcraft and Small Autonomous Rotary-Wing Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.; Aiken, E. W.; Johnson, J. L.; Demblewski, R.; Andrews, J.; Aiken, Irwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A key part of the strategic vision for rotorcraft research as identified by senior technologists within the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Division at NASA Ames Research Center is the development and use of small autonomous rotorcraft. Small autonomous rotorcraft are defined for the purposes of this paper to be a class of vehicles that range in size from rotary-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) to larger, more conventionally sized, rotorcraft uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) - i.e. vehicle gross weights ranging from hundreds of grams to thousands of kilograms. The development of small autonomous rotorcraft represents both a technology challenge and a potential new vehicle class that will have substantial societal impact for: national security, personal transport, planetary science, and public service.

  1. Controlling Unmanned Vehicles : the Human Factors Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments and experiences have proven the usefulness and potential of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs). Emerging technologies enable new missions, broadening the applicability of UVs from simple remote spies towards unmanned combat vehicles carrying lethal weapons. However, despite the emerging

  2. Collaborative Unmanned Vehicles for Maritime Domain Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Healey, A. J; Horner, D. P; Kragelund, S. P

    2005-01-01

    Unmanned vehicles are becoming a critical component of military operations. As the vehicles develop in capability, there will be a trend for heterogeneous classes of unmanned vehicles to be able to work in a more collaborative fashion...

  3. Handling Qualities of Large Rotorcraft in Hover and Low Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    shaft axes can themselves be a function of the nacelle angle. Following the rules of calculus of variations, the variation for the -force from Eq. (7...their preference. Main inceptor forces, in terms of gradients , breakouts, damping, and friction are provided by a hydraulic McFadden variable force...during training and formal evaluation. 29 Table 8. Inceptor force-displacement characteristics. Cockpit Control Rotorcraft Configuration Gradient

  4. Smart Rotorcraft Field Assistants for Terrestrial and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Field science in extreme terrestrial environments is often difficult and sometimes dangerous. Field seasons are also often short in duration. Robotic field assistants, particularly small highly mobile rotary-wing platforms, have the potential to significantly augment a field season's scientific return on investment for geology and astrobiology researchers by providing an entirely new suite of sophisticated field tools. Robotic rotorcraft and other vertical lift planetary aerial vehicle also hold promise for supporting planetary science missions.

  5. Contributions to the Characterization and Mitigation of Rotorcraft Brownout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritschler, John Kirwin

    Rotorcraft brownout, the condition in which the flow field of a rotorcraft mobilizes sediment from the ground to generate a cloud that obscures the pilot's field of view, continues to be a significant hazard to civil and military rotorcraft operations. This dissertation presents methodologies for: (i) the systematic mitigation of rotorcraft brownout through operational and design strategies and (ii) the quantitative characterization of the visual degradation caused by a brownout cloud. In Part I of the dissertation, brownout mitigation strategies are developed through simulation-based brownout studies that are mathematically formulated within a numerical optimization framework. Two optimization studies are presented. The first study involves the determination of approach-to-landing maneuvers that result in reduced brownout severity. The second study presents a potential methodology for the design of helicopter rotors with improved brownout characteristics. The results of both studies indicate that the fundamental mechanisms underlying brownout mitigation are aerodynamic in nature, and the evolution of a ground vortex ahead of the rotor disk is seen to be a key element in the development of a brownout cloud. In Part II of the dissertation, brownout cloud characterizations are based upon the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), a metric commonly used in the optics community for the characterization of imaging systems. The use of the MTF in experimentation is examined first, and the application of MTF calculation and interpretation methods to actual flight test data is described. The potential for predicting the MTF from numerical simulations is examined second, and an initial methodology is presented for the prediction of the MTF of a brownout cloud. Results from the experimental and analytical studies rigorously quantify the intuitively-known facts that the visual degradation caused by brownout is a space and time-dependent phenomenon, and that high spatial frequency

  6. Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design for Reduced-Emission Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Christopher; Johnson, Wayne; Solis, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Python-based wrappers for OpenMDAO are used to integrate disparate software for practical conceptual design of rotorcraft. The suite of tools which are connected thus far include aircraft sizing, comprehensive analysis, and parametric geometry. The tools are exercised to design aircraft with aggressive goals for emission reductions relative to fielded state-of-the-art rotorcraft. Several advanced reduced-emission rotorcraft are designed and analyzed, demonstrating the flexibility of the tools to consider a wide variety of potentially transformative vertical flight vehicles. To explore scale effects, aircraft have been sized for 5, 24, or 76 passengers in their design missions. Aircraft types evaluated include tiltrotor, single-main-rotor, coaxial, and side-by-side helicopters. Energy and drive systems modeled include Lithium-ion battery, hydrogen fuel cell, turboelectric hybrid, and turboshaft drive systems. Observations include the complex nature of the trade space for this simple problem, with many potential aircraft design and operational solutions for achieving significant emission reductions. Also interesting is that achieving greatly reduced emissions may not require exotic component technologies, but may be achieved with a dedicated design objective of reducing emissions.

  7. Automated Design of Noise-Minimal, Safe Rotorcraft Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert A.; Venable, K. Brent; Lindsay, James

    2012-01-01

    NASA and the international community are investing in the development of a commercial transportation infrastructure that includes the increased use of rotorcraft, specifically helicopters and aircraft such as a 40-passenger civil tilt rotors. Rotorcraft have a number of advantages over fixed wing aircraft, primarily in not requiring direct access to the primary fixed wing runways. As such they can operate at an airport without directly interfering with major air carrier and commuter aircraft operations. However, there is significant concern over the impact of noise on the communities surrounding the transportation facilities. In this paper we propose to address the rotorcraft noise problem by exploiting powerful search techniques coming from artificial intelligence, coupled with simulation and field tests, to design trajectories that are expected to improve on the amount of ground noise generated. This paper investigates the use of simulation based on predictive physical models to facilitate the search for low-noise trajectories using a class of automated search algorithms called local search. A novel feature of this approach is the ability to incorporate constraints into the problem formulation that addresses passenger safety and comfort.

  8. Hall probe magnetometer for SSC magnet cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Goldfarb, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper constructed a Hall probe magnetometer to measure the magnetization hysteresis loops of Superconducting Super Collider magnet cables. The instrument uses two Hall-effect field sensors to measure the applied field H and the magnetic induction B. Magnetization M is calculated from the difference of the two quantities. The Hall probes are centered coaxially in the bore of a superconducting solenoid with the B probe against the sample's broad surface. An alternative probe arrangement, in which M is measured directly, aligns the sample probe parallel to the field. The authors measured M as a function of H and field cycle rate both with and without a dc transport current. Flux creep as a function of current was measured from the dependence of ac loss on the cycling rate and from the decay of magnetization with time. Transport currents up to 20% of the critical current have minimal effect on magnetization and flux creep

  9. Quantum critical environment assisted quantum magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaseem, Noufal; Omkar, S.; Shaji, Anil

    2018-04-01

    A central qubit coupled to an Ising ring of N qubits, operating close to a critical point is investigated as a potential precision quantum magnetometer for estimating an applied transverse magnetic field. We compute the quantum Fisher information for the central, probe qubit with the Ising chain initialized in its ground state or in a thermal state. The non-unitary evolution of the central qubit due to its interaction with the surrounding Ising ring enhances the accuracy of the magnetic field measurement. Near the critical point of the ring, Heisenberg-like scaling of the precision in estimating the magnetic field is obtained when the ring is initialized in its ground state. However, for finite temperatures, the Heisenberg scaling is limited to lower ranges of N values.

  10. Analysis of Unmanned Systems in Military Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    performance measures: customer satisfaction , flexibility, visibility, and trust. If we apply this explanation of Li and Schulze (2011) to the military...unmanned systems, initially, we aimed to define current and proposed unmanned applications in civilian-sector logistics and current military...aimed to define current and proposed unmanned applications in civilian-sector logistics and current military logistics challenges. Then, justifying

  11. Unmanned Maritime Systems Incremental Acquisition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH 5. FUNDING...Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH Thomas Driscoll, Lieutenant...UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH ABSTRACT The purpose of this MBA report is to explore and understand the issues

  12. Hybrid Finite Element Developments for Rotorcraft Interior Noise Computations within a Multidisciplinary Design Environment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the main attributes contributing to the civil competitiveness of rotorcraft, is the continuously increasing expectations for passenger comfort which is...

  13. Rotorcraft On-Blade Pressure and Strain Measurements Using Wireless Optical Sensor System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental measurements of rotor blades are important for understanding the aerodynamics and dynamics of a rotorcraft. This understanding can help in solving...

  14. Building Change Detection from Harvey using Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A.; Yeom, J.; Jung, J.; Choi, I.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) is getting to be the most important technique in recent days since the fine spatial and high temporal resolution data previously unobtainable from traditional remote sensing platforms. Advanced UAS data can provide a great opportunity for disaster monitoring. Especially, building change detection is the one of the most important topics for damage assessment and recovery from disasters. This study is proposing a method to monitor building change with UAS data for Holiday Beach in Texas, where was directly hit by Harvey on 25 August 2017. This study adopted 3D change detection to monitor building damage and recovery levels with building height as well as natural color information. We used a rotorcraft UAS to collect RGB data twice on 9 September and 18 October 2017 after the hurricane. The UAS data was processed using Agisoft Photoscan Pro Software to generate super high resolution dataset including orthomosaic, DSM (Digital Surface Model), and 3D point cloud. We compared the processed dataset with an airborne image considerable as before-hurricane data, which was acquired on January 2016. Building damage and recovery levels were determined by height and color change. The result will show that UAS data is useful to assess building damage and recovery for affected area by the natural disaster such as Harvey.

  15. Handbook of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Vachtsevanos, George

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a reference text for the academic and research communities, industry, manufacturers, users, practitioners, Federal Government, Federal and State Agencies, the private sector, as well as all organizations that are and will be using unmanned aircraft in a wide spectrum of applications. The Handbook covers all aspects of UAVs, from design to logistics and ethical issues. It is also targeting the young investigator, the future inventor and entrepreneur by providing an overview and detailed information of the state-of-the-art as well as useful new concepts that may lead to innovative research. The contents of the Handbook include material that addresses the needs and ‘know how’ of all of the above sectors targeting a very diverse audience. The Handbook offers a unique and comprehensive treatise of everything one needs to know about unmanned aircrafts, from conception to operation, from technologies to business activities, users, OEMs, reference sources, conferences, ...

  16. Natural interaction for unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Glenn; Purman, Ben; Schermerhorn, Paul; Garcia-Sampedro, Guillermo; Lanting, Matt; Quist, Michael; Kawatsu, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Military unmanned systems today are typically controlled by two methods: tele-operation or menu-based, search-andclick interfaces. Both approaches require the operator's constant vigilance: tele-operation requires constant input to drive the vehicle inch by inch; a menu-based interface requires eyes on the screen in order to search through alternatives and select the right menu item. In both cases, operators spend most of their time and attention driving and minding the unmanned systems rather than on being a warfighter. With these approaches, the platform and interface become more of a burden than a benefit. The availability of inexpensive sensor systems in products such as Microsoft Kinect™ or Nintendo Wii™ has resulted in new ways of interacting with computing systems, but new sensors alone are not enough. Developing useful and usable human-system interfaces requires understanding users and interaction in context: not just what new sensors afford in terms of interaction, but how users want to interact with these systems, for what purpose, and how sensors might enable those interactions. Additionally, the system needs to reliably make sense of the user's inputs in context, translate that interpretation into commands for the unmanned system, and give feedback to the user. In this paper, we describe an example natural interface for unmanned systems, called the Smart Interaction Device (SID), which enables natural two-way interaction with unmanned systems including the use of speech, sketch, and gestures. We present a few example applications SID to different types of unmanned systems and different kinds of interactions.

  17. High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantsker, E.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1997-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO 3 -YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room

  18. High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantsker, Eugene [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO3-YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room.

  19. Search Coil vs. Fluxgate Magnetometer Measurements at Interplanetary Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.B., III

    2012-01-01

    We present magnetic field observations at interplanetary shocks comparing two different sample rates showing significantly different results. Fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar supercritical shock transitions at roughly 11 samples/s. Search coil magnetometer measurements at 1875 samples/s, however, show large amplitude (dB/B as large as 2) fluctuations that are not resolved by the fluxgate magnetometer. We show that these fluctuations, identified as whistler mode waves, would produce a significant perturbation to the shock transition region changing the interpretation from laminar to turbulent. Thus, previous observations of supercritical interplanetary shocks classified as laminar may have been under sampled.

  20. Self-Compensating Excitation of Fluxgate Sensors for Space Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Alec; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of the new self-compensating excitation circuitry to the new generation of high-precise space vector magnetometers. The application starts with complex study including design of new robust model of the non-linear inductor leading to investigation...... of the most crucial points, continuous by design of the self-compensating excitation unit and concludes with unit complex testing and application to the magnetometer. The application of the self-compensation of the excitation decreases temperature drift of the magnetometer offset caused by the temperature...

  1. Analysing harmonic motions with an iPhone’s magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone’s (or iPad’s) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone’s magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone’s screen using the Sensor Kinetics application. Data from this application was analysed with Eureqa software to establish the equation of the harmonic motion. Analyses show that the use of an iPhone’s magnetometer to analyse harmonic motion is a practical and effective method for small oscillations and frequencies less than 15-20 Hz.

  2. RISK DEFINITION IN CIVIL UNMANNED AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  3. 77 FR 4890 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation for Composite Rotorcraft Structures, and Damage Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...-AJ52, 2120-AJ51 Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation for Composite Rotorcraft Structures, and Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation for Metallic Structures; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation for Composite Rotorcraft Structures'' (76 FR 74655), published December 1...

  4. GIOTTO MAGNETOMETER 8 SECOND DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the Giotto Magnetometer Experiment is the investigation of the interaction between Comet Halley and the solar wind at a distance of 0.9 AU from...

  5. Developement of a Fluxgate Magnetometer for the KITSAT-3 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Hwang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetometer is one of the most important payloads of scientific satellites to monitor the near-earth space environment. The electromagnetic variations of the space environment can be observed with the electric and magnetic field measurements. In practice, it is well known that the measurement of magnetic fields needs less technical complexities than that of electric fields in space. Therefore the magnetometer has long been recognized as one of the basic payloads for the scientific satellites. In this paper, we discuss the scientific fluxgate magnetometer which will be on board the KITSAT-3. The main circuit design of the present magnetometer is based on that of KISAT-1 and -2 but its facilities have been re-designed to improve the resolution to about 5nT for scientific purpose. The calibration and noise level test of this circuit have been performed at the laboratory of the Tierra Tecnica company in Japan.

  6. Differential Search Coils Based Magnetometers: Conditioning, Magnetic Sensitivity, Spatial Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofeeva Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical and experimental comparison of optimized search coils based magnetometers, operating either in the Flux mode or in the classical Lenz-Faraday mode, is presented. The improvements provided by the Flux mode in terms of bandwidth and measuring range of the sensor are detailed. Theory, SPICE model and measurements are in good agreement. The spatial resolution of the sensor is studied which is an important parameter for applications in non destructive evaluation. A general expression of the magnetic sensitivity of search coils sensors is derived. Solutions are proposed to design magnetometers with reduced weight and volume without degrading the magnetic sensitivity. An original differential search coil based magnetometer, made of coupled coils, operating in flux mode and connected to a differential transimpedance amplifier is proposed. It is shown that this structure is better in terms of volume occupancy than magnetometers using two separated coils without any degradation in magnetic sensitivity. Experimental results are in good agreement with calculations.

  7. VOYAGER 1 SATURN MAGNETOMETER RESAMPLED DATA 9.60 SEC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Voyager 1 Saturn encounter magnetometer data that have been resampled at a 9.6 second sample rate. The data set is composed of 6 columns: 1)...

  8. Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal describes proposed development of a conceptual design for a Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) for design and fabrication...

  9. VOYAGER 2 JUPITER MAGNETOMETER RESAMPLED DATA 48.0 SEC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Voyager 2 Jupiter encounter magnetometer data that have been resampled at a 48.0 second sample rate. The data set is composed of 6 columns: 1)...

  10. Application of Machine Learning to Rotorcraft Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Tyler; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is a powerful tool for data exploration and model building with large data sets. This project aimed to use machine learning techniques to explore the inherent structure of data from rotorcraft gear tests, relationships between features and damage states, and to build a system for predicting gear health for future rotorcraft transmission applications. Classical machine learning techniques are difficult, if not irresponsible to apply to time series data because many make the assumption of independence between samples. To overcome this, Hidden Markov Models were used to create a binary classifier for identifying scuffing transitions and Recurrent Neural Networks were used to leverage long distance relationships in predicting discrete damage states. When combined in a workflow, where the binary classifier acted as a filter for the fatigue monitor, the system was able to demonstrate accuracy in damage state prediction and scuffing identification. The time dependent nature of the data restricted data exploration to collecting and analyzing data from the model selection process. The limited amount of available data was unable to give useful information, and the division of training and testing sets tended to heavily influence the scores of the models across combinations of features and hyper-parameters. This work built a framework for tracking scuffing and fatigue on streaming data and demonstrates that machine learning has much to offer rotorcraft health monitoring by using Bayesian learning and deep learning methods to capture the time dependent nature of the data. Suggested future work is to implement the framework developed in this project using a larger variety of data sets to test the generalization capabilities of the models and allow for data exploration.

  11. Quantifying the In-Flight Yaw, Pitch, and Roll of a Semi-Rigidly Mounted Potassium Vapour Magnetometer Suspended Under a Heavy-Lift Multi-Rotor UAV and its Impact on Data Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, C. A.; Braun, A.; Fotopoulos, G.

    2017-12-01

    Research is being conducted to develop an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) that is capable of reliably and efficiently collecting high resolution, industry standard magnetic data (magnetic data with a fourth difference of +/- 0.05 nT) via an optically pumped vapour magnetometer. The benefits of developing a UAS with these capabilities include improvements in the resolution of localized airborne surveys (2.5 km by 2.5 km) and the ability to conduct 3D magnetic gradiometry surveys in the observation gap evident between traditional terrestrial and manned airborne magnetic surveys (surface elevation up to 120 m). Quantifying the extent of an optically pumped vapour magnetometer's 3D orientation variations, while in-flight and suspended under a UAS, is a significant advancement to existing knowledge as optically pumped magnetometers have an orientation-dependent (to the primary magnetic field vector) process for measuring the magnetic field. This study investigates the orientation characteristics of a GEM Systems potassium vapour magnetometer, GSMP-35U, while semi-rigidly suspended 3 m under a DJI S900, heavy-lift multi-rotor UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) during an airborne surveying campaign conducted Northeast of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. A nine degrees of freedom IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit), the Adafruit GY-80, was used to quantify the 3D orientation variations (yaw, pitch and roll) of the magnetic sensor during flight. The orientation and magnetic datasets were indexed and linked with a date and time stamp (within 1 ms) via a Raspberry Pi 2, acting as an on-board computer and data storage system. Analysing the two datasets allowed for the in-flight orientation variations of the potassium vapour magnetometer to be directly compared with the gathered magnetic and signal quality data of the magnetometer. The in-flight orientation characteristics of the magnetometer were also quantified for a range of air-speeds and flight maneuvers throughout the survey. Overall

  12. Ultrasensitive magnetometers based on rotational magnetic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Svec, P. Sr.

    2014-01-01

    Three new types of fluxgate magnetometers are presented in this paper, able to monitor the three components of the ambient field, all of them based on the principle of rotational excitation field. The first type is based on Yttrium- Iron Garnet (YIG) single crystal film, magnetized with rotational field on its plane, where the 2"n"d, 4"t"h and 6"t"h harmonics offer the three components of the ambient field with sensitivity better than 1 pT at 0.2 Hz, its size being 25 cm"3. The second type is based on permalloy film, where the rotational excitation field on its plane offers change of magnetoresistance with sensitivity better than 10 pT at 1 Hz, uncertainty of 1 ppm and size ∼ 8 cm"3. The third type, is based on amorphous film, where the rotation field mode offer sensitivity better than 100 pT at 1 Hz, uncertainty of 10 ppm and size ∼ 10 mm"3. (authors)

  13. The Search-Coil Magnetometer for MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Contel, O.; Leroy, P.; Roux, A.; Coillot, C.; Alison, D.; Bouabdellah, A.; Mirioni, L.; Meslier, L.; Galic, A.; Vassal, M. C.; Torbert, R. B.; Needell, J.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Ergun, R. E.; Westfall, J.; Summers, D.; Wallace, J.; Magnes, W.; Valavanoglou, A.; Olsson, G.; Chutter, M.; Macri, J.; Myers, S.; Turco, S.; Nolin, J.; Bodet, D.; Rowe, K.; Tanguy, M.; de la Porte, B.

    2016-03-01

    The tri-axial search-coil magnetometer (SCM) belongs to the FIELDS instrumentation suite on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission (Torbert et al. in Space Sci. Rev. (2014), this issue). It provides the three magnetic components of the waves from 1 Hz to 6 kHz in particular in the key regions of the Earth's magnetosphere namely the subsolar region and the magnetotail. Magnetospheric plasmas being collisionless, such a measurement is crucial as the electromagnetic waves are thought to provide a way to ensure the conversion from magnetic to thermal and kinetic energies allowing local or global reconfigurations of the Earth's magnetic field. The analog waveforms provided by the SCM are digitized and processed inside the digital signal processor (DSP), within the Central Electronics Box (CEB), together with the electric field data provided by the spin-plane double probe (SDP) and the axial double probe (ADP). On-board calibration signal provided by DSP allows the verification of the SCM transfer function once per orbit. Magnetic waveforms and on-board spectra computed by DSP are available at different time resolution depending on the selected mode. The SCM design is described in details as well as the different steps of the ground and in-flight calibrations.

  14. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Atomic Magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The PowerPoint presentation focused on research goals, specific information about the atomic magnetometer, response and resolution factors of the SERF magnetometer, FC+AM systems, tests of field transfer and resolution on FC, gradient cancellation, testing of AM performance, ideas for a multi-channel AM, including preliminary sensitivity testing, and a description of a 6 channel DAQ system. A few ideas for future work ended the presentation.

  15. Testing the three axis magnetometer and gradiometer MOURA and data comparison on San Pablo de los Montes Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen Fernandez, Ana; Sanz, Ruy; Covisa, Pablo; Tordesillas, Jose Manuel; Diaz-Michelena, Marina

    2013-04-01

    A magnetometer and gradiometer named MOURA has been developed with the objective to measure the magnetic field on Mars in the frame of Mars MetNet Precursor Mission (MMPM) [1]. MOURA is a compact, miniaturized, intelligent and low cost instrument, based on two sets of triaxial magnetometers separated one centimeter from each other to do gradiometry studies. It has a resolution of 2.2 nT, and a field range of + 65μT, which can be extended to +130 μT when sensors are saturated. [2] These sensor heads are Anisotropic MagnetoResistances (AMR) Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) by Honeywell, specifically HMC1043, which has been selected due to their relative low consumption, weight and size, factors very important for the mission with very limited mass and power budget (shared 150 g for three full payloads). Also, this technology has been previously successfully employed on board Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to perform geomagnetic surveys in extreme conditions areas [3], and in several space missions for different applications. [4] After the development of the MOURA Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) in November 2011, an exhaustive set of tests have been performed to validate and fully characterize the instrument. Compensation equations have been derived for the temperature corrections in the operation range (between -135 °C and 30 °C) in controlled environments. These compensation equations have been applied to field data, which have shown to follow the daily Earth's magnetic field variations as registered by San Pablo Geomagnetic Observatory (IAGA code: SPT) (available at www.ign.es and www.intermagnet.org) with deviations lower than 40 nT. These deviations were attributed to several error factors as the different locations between MOURA and SPT and other possible different geomagnetic conditions. Due to the above, a measurement campaign on SPT installations are been done. The main objective is to compare MOURA measurements on a relevant environment, with data

  16. Magnetometer and Gyroscope Calibration Method with Level Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongkai Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro electro mechanical system (MEMS gyroscopes and magnetometers are usually integrated into a sensor module or chip and widely used in a variety of applications. In existing integrated gyroscope and magnetometer calibration methods, rotation in all possible orientations is a necessary condition for a good calibration result. However, rotation around two or more axes is difficult to attain, as it is limited by the range of movement of vehicles such as cars, ships, or planes. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an integrated magnetometer and gyroscope calibration method with level rotation. The proposed method presents a redefined magnetometer output model using level attitude. New gyroscope and magnetometer calibration models are then deduced. In addition, a simplified cubature Kalman filter (CKF is established to estimate calibration parameters. This method possesses important value for application in actual systems, as it only needs level rotation for real-time calibration of gyroscopes and magnetometers. Theoretical analysis and test results verify the validity and feasibility of this method.

  17. Autonomous Aeromagnetic Surveys Using a Fluxgate Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Macharet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the research of autonomous vehicles have showed a vast range of applications, such as exploration, surveillance and environmental monitoring. Considering the mining industry, it is possible to use such vehicles in the prospection of minerals of commercial interest beneath the ground. However, tasks such as geophysical surveys are highly dependent on specific sensors, which mostly are not designed to be used in these new range of autonomous vehicles. In this work, we propose a novel magnetic survey pipeline that aims to increase versatility, speed and robustness by using autonomous rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. We also discuss the development of a state-of-the-art three-axis fluxgate, where our goal in this work was to refine and adjust the sensor topology and coupled electronics specifically for this type of vehicle and application. The sensor was built with two ring-cores using a specially developed stress-annealed CoFeSiB amorphous ribbon, in order to get sufficient resolution to detect concentrations of small ferrous minerals. Finally, we report on the results of experiments performed with a real UAV in an outdoor environment, showing the efficacy of the methodology in detecting an artificial ferrous anomaly.

  18. Autonomous Aeromagnetic Surveys Using a Fluxgate Magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharet, Douglas G; Perez-Imaz, Héctor I A; Rezeck, Paulo A F; Potje, Guilherme A; Benyosef, Luiz C C; Wiermann, André; Freitas, Gustavo M; Garcia, Luis G U; Campos, Mario F M

    2016-12-17

    Recent advances in the research of autonomous vehicles have showed a vast range of applications, such as exploration, surveillance and environmental monitoring. Considering the mining industry, it is possible to use such vehicles in the prospection of minerals of commercial interest beneath the ground. However, tasks such as geophysical surveys are highly dependent on specific sensors, which mostly are not designed to be used in these new range of autonomous vehicles. In this work, we propose a novel magnetic survey pipeline that aims to increase versatility, speed and robustness by using autonomous rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). We also discuss the development of a state-of-the-art three-axis fluxgate, where our goal in this work was to refine and adjust the sensor topology and coupled electronics specifically for this type of vehicle and application. The sensor was built with two ring-cores using a specially developed stress-annealed CoFeSiB amorphous ribbon, in order to get sufficient resolution to detect concentrations of small ferrous minerals. Finally, we report on the results of experiments performed with a real UAV in an outdoor environment, showing the efficacy of the methodology in detecting an artificial ferrous anomaly.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Rotorcraft Outwash in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Philip E.; Overmeyer, Austin D.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    The wake characteristics of a rotorcraft are affected by the proximity of a rotor to the ground surface, especially during hover. Ground effect is encountered when the rotor disk is within a distance of a few rotor radii above the ground surface and results in an increase in thrust for a given power relative to that same power condition with the rotor out of ground effect. Although this phenomenon has been highly documented and observed since the beginning of the helicopter age, there is still a relatively little amount of flow-field data existing to help understand its features. Joint Army and NASA testing was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center using a powered rotorcraft model in hover at various rotor heights and thrust conditions in order to contribute to the complete outwash data set. The measured data included outwash velocities and directions, rotor loads, fuselage loads, and ground pressures. The researchers observed a linear relationship between rotor height and percent download on the fuselage, peak mean outwash velocities occurring at radial stations between 1.7 and 1.8 r/R regardless of rotor height, and the measurement azimuthal dependence of the outwash profile for a model incorporating a fuselage. Comparisons to phase-locked PIV data showed similar contours but a more contracted wake boundary for the PIV data. This paper describes the test setup and presents some of the averaged results.

  20. A Higher Harmonic Optimal Controller to Optimise Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, Jane Anne

    1996-01-01

    Three methods to optimize rotorcraft aeromechanical behavior for those cases where the rotorcraft plant can be adequately represented by a linear model system matrix were identified and implemented in a stand-alone code. These methods determine the optimal control vector which minimizes the vibration metric subject to constraints at discrete time points, and differ from the commonly used non-optimal constraint penalty methods such as those employed by conventional controllers in that the constraints are handled as actual constraints to an optimization problem rather than as just additional terms in the performance index. The first method is to use a Non-linear Programming algorithm to solve the problem directly. The second method is to solve the full set of non-linear equations which define the necessary conditions for optimality. The third method is to solve each of the possible reduced sets of equations defining the necessary conditions for optimality when the constraints are pre-selected to be either active or inactive, and then to simply select the best solution. The effects of maneuvers and aeroelasticity on the systems matrix are modelled by using a pseudo-random pseudo-row-dependency scheme to define the systems matrix. Cases run to date indicate that the first method of solution is reliable, robust, and easiest to use, and that it was superior to the conventional controllers which were considered.

  1. Bespilotne letjelice : Unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Jurić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bespilotne letjelice imaju širok spektar uporabe, i svrha im svakim danom sve više dobiva na značaju. Konstrukcija im se poboljšava, pronalaze se materijali koji su optimalniji za obavljanje funkcija s kojima se trebaju suočiti. Pravna regulativa za bespilotne letjelice do 150 kg težine na polijetanju (MTOW se razlikuje od države do države. : Unmanned aerial vehicles have a wide range of applications, and their purpose is every day more important. Construction has been improving, finding the materials that are optimal for carrying out the functions which need to be cope with. Legal regulations for unmanned aircrafts up to 150 kg take-off weight (MTOW varies from country to country.

  2. Unmanned operation of Hydro Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regula, E.

    2008-01-01

    Intentions to launch unmanned operation are no news, the very first occurred in Hydro Power Plants (HPP) at the time when the first computer technology was implemented into process of power generation, i.e. no later than in 1960 s . ENEL entering Slovenske elektrarne not only revived but significantly accelerated the implementation process of unmanned operation. Experience of ENEL says that unmanned operation means better reliability of the HPP and this is the priority. (author)

  3. Design and implementation of JOM-3 Overhauser magnetometer analog circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jianchang; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Zhou, Tingting

    2017-09-01

    Overhauser magnetometer, a kind of static-magnetic measurement system based on the Overhauser effect, has been widely used in archaeological exploration, mineral resources exploration, oil and gas basin structure detection, prediction of engineering exploration environment, earthquakes and volcanic eruotions, object magnetic measurement and underground buried booty exploration. Overhauser magnetometer plays an important role in the application of magnetic field measurement for its characteristics of small size, low power consumption and high sensitivity. This paper researches the design and the application of the analog circuit of JOM-3 Overhauser magnetometer. First, the Larmor signal output by the probe is very weak. In order to obtain the signal with high signal to noise rstio(SNR), the design of pre-amplifier circuit is the key to improve the quality of the system signal. Second, in this paper, the effectual step which could improve the frequency characters of bandpass filter amplifier circuit were put forward, and theoretical analysis was made for it. Third, the shaping circuit shapes the amplified sine signal into a square wave signal which is suitable for detecting the rising edge. Fourth, this design elaborated the optimized choice of tuning circuit, so the measurement range of the magnetic field can be covered. Last, integrated analog circuit testing system was formed to detect waveform of each module. By calculating the standard deviation, the sensitivity of the improved Overhauser magnetometer is 0.047nT for Earth's magnetic field observation. Experimental results show that the new magnetometer is sensitive to earth field measurement.

  4. Aeromechanics and man-machine integration technology opportunities for rotorcraft of the 1990s and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Andrew W.

    1989-01-01

    Programs related to rotorcraft aeromechanics and man-machine integration are discussed which will support advanced army rotorcraft design. In aeromechanics, recent advances in computational fluid dynamics will be used to characterize the complex unsteady flowfields of rotorcraft, and a second-generation comprehensive helicopter analysis system will be used along with models of aerodynamics, engines, and control systems to study the structural dynamics of rotor/body configurations. The man-machine integration program includes the development of advanced cockpit design technology and the evaluation of cockpit and mission equipment concepts in a real-time full-combat environment.

  5. In-flight performance optimization for rotorcraft with redundant controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Gurbuz Taha

    A conventional helicopter has limits on performance at high speeds because of the limitations of main rotor, such as compressibility issues on advancing side or stall issues on retreating side. Auxiliary lift and thrust components have been suggested to improve performance of the helicopter substantially by reducing the loading on the main rotor. Such a configuration is called the compound rotorcraft. Rotor speed can also be varied to improve helicopter performance. In addition to improved performance, compound rotorcraft and variable RPM can provide a much larger degree of control redundancy. This additional redundancy gives the opportunity to further enhance performance and handling qualities. A flight control system is designed to perform in-flight optimization of redundant control effectors on a compound rotorcraft in order to minimize power required and extend range. This "Fly to Optimal" (FTO) control law is tested in simulation using the GENHEL model. A model of the UH-60, a compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and vectored thrust ducted propeller (VTDP), and a generic compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and propeller were developed and tested in simulation. A model following dynamic inversion controller is implemented for inner loop control of roll, pitch, yaw, heave, and rotor RPM. An outer loop controller regulates airspeed and flight path during optimization. A Golden Section search method was used to find optimal rotor RPM on a conventional helicopter, where the single redundant control effector is rotor RPM. The FTO builds off of the Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) method of Gilyard by performing low frequency sweeps on a redundant control for a fixed wing aircraft. A method based on the APO method was used to optimize trim on a compound rotorcraft with several redundant control effectors. The controller can be used to optimize rotor RPM and compound control effectors through flight test or simulations in order to

  6. Computer vision techniques for rotorcraft low-altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Cheng, Victor H. L.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of research that applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The effort emphasizes the development of a methodology for detecting the ranges to obstacles in the region of interest based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors. The range map derived from the obstacle detection approach can be used as obstacle data for the obstacle avoidance in an automataic guidance system and as advisory display to the pilot. The lack of suitable flight imagery data, however, presents a problem in the verification of concepts for obstacle detection. This problem is being addressed by the development of an adequate flight database and by preprocessing of currently available flight imagery. Some comments are made on future work and how research in this area relates to the guidance of other autonomous vehicles.

  7. Vision based techniques for rotorcraft low altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Suorsa, Ray; Smith, Philip

    1991-01-01

    An overview of research in obstacle detection at NASA Ames Research Center is presented. The research applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The development of a methodology for detecting the range to obstacles based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors is emphasized. The development of a flight and image data base for verification of vision-based algorithms, and a passive ranging methodology tailored to the needs of helicopter flight are discussed. Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to obtain adequate range estimates except at regions close to the FOE. Closer to the FOE, the error in range increases since the magnitude of the disparity gets smaller, resulting in a low SNR.

  8. Design of Quiet Rotorcraft Approach Trajectories: Verification Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Flight testing that is planned for October 2010 will provide an opportunity to evaluate rotorcraft trajectory optimization techniques. The flight test will involve a fully instrumented MD-902 helicopter, which will be flown over an array of microphones. In this work, the helicopter approach trajectory is optimized via a multiobjective genetic algorithm to improve community noise, passenger comfort, and pilot acceptance. Previously developed optimization strategies are modified to accommodate new helicopter data and to increase pilot acceptance. This paper describes the MD-902 trajectory optimization plus general optimization strategies and modifications that are needed to reduce the uncertainty in noise predictions. The constraints that are imposed by the flight test conditions and characteristics of the MD-902 helicopter limit the testing possibilities. However, the insights that will be gained through this research will prove highly valuable.

  9. Calibration of three-axis magnetometers with differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junya; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Wan, Chengbiao; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of three-axis magnetometers is influenced by different scale and bias of each axis and nonorthogonality between axes. One limitation of traditional iteration methods is that initial parameters influence the calibration, thus leading to the local optimal or wrong results. In this paper, a new method is proposed to calibrate three-axis magnetometers. To employ this method, a nonmagnetic rotation platform, a proton magnetometer, a DM-050 three-axis magnetometer and the differential evolution (DE) algorithm are used. The performance of this calibration method is analyzed with simulation and experiment. In simulation, the calibration results of DE, unscented Kalman filter (UKF), recursive least squares (RLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) are compared. RMS error using DE is least, which is reduced from 81.233 nT to 1.567 nT. Experimental results show that comparing with UKF, RLS and GA, the DE algorithm has not only the least calibration error but also the best robustness. After calibration, RMS error is reduced from 68.914 nT to 2.919 nT. In addition, the DE algorithm is not sensitive to initial parameters, which is an important advantage compared with traditional iteration algorithms. The proposed algorithm can avoid the troublesome procedure to select suitable initial parameters, thus it can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers. - Highlights: • The calibration results and robustness of UKF, GA, RLS and DE algorithm are analyzed. • Calibration error of DE is the least in simulation and experiment. • Comparing with traditional calibration algorithms, DE is not sensitive to initial parameters. • It can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers

  10. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  11. Calibration of the Ørsted vector magnetometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Sabaka, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The vector fluxgate magnetometer of the Orsted satellite is routinely calibrated by comparing its output with measurements of the absolute magnetic intensity from the Overhauser instrument, which is the second magnetometer of the satellite. We describe the method used for and the result obtained...... coordinate system and the reference system of the star imager. This is done by comparing the magnetic and attitude measurements with a model of Earth's magnetic field. The Euler angles describing this rotation are determined in this way with an accuracy of better than 4 arcsec....

  12. Microfabricated optically pumped magnetometer arrays for biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, A. R.; Sheng, D.; Krzyzewski, S. P.; Geller, S.; Knappe, S.

    2017-02-01

    Optically-pumped magnetometers have demonstrated magnetic field measurements as precise as the best superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers. Our group develops miniature alkali atom-based magnetic sensors using microfabrication technology. Our sensors do not require cryogenic cooling, and can be positioned very close to the sample, making these sensors an attractive option for development in the medical community. We will present our latest chip-scale optically-pumped gradiometer developed for array applications to image magnetic fields from the brain noninvasively. These developments should lead to improved spatial resolution, and potentially sensitive measurements in unshielded environments.

  13. Electromagnetic induction imaging with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deans, Cameron; Marmugi, Luca, E-mail: l.marmugi@ucl.ac.uk; Hussain, Sarah; Renzoni, Ferruccio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-07

    We report on a compact, tunable, and scalable to large arrays imaging device, based on a radio-frequency optically pumped atomic magnetometer operating in magnetic induction tomography modality. Imaging of conductive objects is performed at room temperature, in an unshielded environment and without background subtraction. Conductivity maps of target objects exhibit not only excellent performance in terms of shape reconstruction but also demonstrate detection of sub-millimetric cracks and penetration of conductive barriers. The results presented here demonstrate the potential of a future generation of imaging instruments, which combine magnetic induction tomography and the unmatched performance of atomic magnetometers.

  14. Unmanned Mobile Monitoring for Nuclear Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, YoungSoo; Park, JongWon; Kim, TaeWon; Jeong, KyungMin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Severe accidents at nuclear power plant have led to significant consequences to the people, the environment or the facility. Therefore, the appropriate response is required for the mitigation of the accidents. In the past, most of responses were performed by human beings, but it was dangerous and risky. In this paper, we proposed unmanned mobile system for the monitoring of nuclear accident in order to response effectively. For the integrity of reactor cooling and containment building, reactor cooling pipe and hydrogen distribution monitoring with unmanned ground vehicle was designed. And, for the safety of workers, radiation distribution monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicle was designed. Unmanned mobile monitoring system was proposed to respond nuclear accidents effectively. Concept of reinforcing the integrity of RCS and containment building, and radiation distribution monitoring were described. RCS flow measuring, hydrogen distribution measuring and radiation monitoring deployed at unmanned vehicle were proposed. These systems could be a method for the preparedness of effective response of nuclear accidents.

  15. International Conference on Intelligent Unmanned Systems (ICIUS)

    CERN Document Server

    Kartidjo, Muljowidodo; Yoon, Kwang-Joon; Budiyono, Agus; Autonomous Control Systems and Vehicles : Intelligent Unmanned Systems

    2013-01-01

    The International Conference on Intelligent Unmanned Systems 2011 was organized by the International Society of Intelligent Unmanned Systems and locally by the Center for Bio-Micro Robotics Research at Chiba University, Japan. The event was the 7th conference continuing from previous conferences held in Seoul, Korea (2005, 2006), Bali, Indonesia (2007), Nanjing, China (2008), Jeju, Korea (2009), and Bali, Indonesia (2010). ICIUS 2011 focused on both theory and application, primarily covering the topics of robotics, autonomous vehicles, intelligent unmanned technologies, and biomimetics. We invited seven keynote speakers who dealt with related state-of-the-art technologies including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs), flapping wings (FWs), unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), underwater vehicles (UVs), bio-inspired robotics, advanced control, and intelligent systems, among others. This book is a collection of excellent papers that were updated after presentation at ICIUS2011. All papers ...

  16. 75 FR 793 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... metal structures are different. Composites are complex materials that have unique advantages in fatigue... stiffness, dynamic behavior, loads, and functional performance of composite structures. In the existing rule... and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  17. The Effects of Degraded Visual Cueing and Divided Attention on Obstruction Avoidance in Rotorcraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoh, Roger

    1990-01-01

    .... in such flight conditions, the pilot workload was very high, just for aircraft control. This left the pilot very little excess workload capacity to maintain awareness of the rotorcraft position and rates with respect to obstructions...

  18. Long-term vacuum tests of single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes used for a scalar magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C.; Ellmeier, M.; Piris, J.; Lammegger, R.; Jernej, I.; Magnes, W.; Murphy, E.; Pollinger, A.; Erd, C.; Baumjohann, W.

    2017-11-01

    Scalar magnetometers measure the magnitude of the magnetic field, while vector magnetometers (mostly fluxgate magnetometers) produce three-component outputs proportional to the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field. While scalar magnetometers have a high accuracy, vector magnetometers suffer from parameter drifts and need to be calibrated during flight. In some cases, full science return can only be achieved by a combination of vector and scalar magnetometers.

  19. Evaluating Detection and Estimation Capabilities of Magnetometer-Based Vehicle Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    fluxgate magnetometers whose operating characteristics are well documented [1, 2]. Such magnetometers measure two perpendicular magnetic components of...of surveillance scenarios. As part of that work, this analysis focuses on UGS utilizing of two-axis fluxgate magnetometers . Two MOPs are 12 -60 -40 -20...Proceedings of the IEEE, 78(6):973–989, June 1990. [2] E. M. Billingsley and S. W. Billingsley. Fluxgate magnetometers . Proceedings of the IEEE, 5090(194

  20. Design and analysis of miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai

    2017-02-01

    The detection technology of weak magnetic field is widely used in Earth resource survey and geomagnetic navigation. Useful magnetic field information can be obtained by processing and analyzing the measurement data from magnetic sensors. A miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer is proposed in this paper. This miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer with ring-core structure has a dynamic range of the Earth’s field ±65,000 nT, resolution of several nT. It has three independent parts placed in three perpendicular planes for measuring three orthogonal magnetic field components, respectively. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to generate stimulation signal, analog-to-digital (A/D) convertor control signal, and feedback digital-to-analog (D/A) control signal. Design and analysis details are given to improve the dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and linearity. Our prototype was measured and compared with a commercial standard Magson fluxgate magnetometer as a reference. The results show that our miniature fluxgate magnetometer can follow the Magson’s change trend well. When used as a magnetic compass, our prototype only has ± 0.3∘ deviation compared with standard magnetic compass.

  1. The Pioneer 11 high-field fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    The High Field Fluxgate Magnetometer Experiment flow aboard the Pioneer 11 spacecraft to investigate Jupiter's magnetic field is described. The instrument extends the spacecraft's upper limit measurement capability by more than an order of magnitude to 17.3 gauss with minimum power and volume requirements.

  2. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  3. Observations of interplanetary dust by the Juno magnetometer investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Mathias; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2017-01-01

    One of the Juno magnetometer investigation's star cameras was configured to search for unidentified objects during Juno's transit en route to Jupiter. This camera detects and registers luminous objects to magnitude 8. Objects persisting in more than five consecutive images and moving with an appa...... on the distribution and motion of interplanetary (>μm sized) dust....

  4. Ionospheric travelling convection vortices observed by the Greenland magnetometer chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Stolle, Claudia; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2013-01-01

    The Greenland magnetometer array continuously provides geomagnetic variometer data since the early eighties. With the polar cusp passing over it almost every day, the array is suitable to detect ionospheric traveling convection vortices (TCVs), which were rst detected by Friis-Christensen et al...

  5. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  6. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Pérez; Claudio Aroca; Marina Díaz-Michelena; David Ciudad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  7. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  8. Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK) on the Vision II turbine rotorcraft UAV over the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holasek, R. E.; Nakanishi, K.; Swartz, B.; Zacaroli, R.; Hill, B.; Naungayan, J.; Herwitz, S.; Kavros, P.; English, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NASA ROSES program, the NovaSol Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK) was flown as the payload on the unmanned Vision II helicopter. The goal of the May 2013 data collection was to obtain high resolution visible and near-infrared (visNIR) hyperspectral data of seagrasses and coral reefs in the Florida Keys. The specifications of the SHARK hyperspectral system and the Vision II turbine rotorcraft will be described along with the process of integrating the payload to the vehicle platform. The minimal size, weight, and power (SWaP) specifications of the SHARK system is an ideal match to the Vision II helicopter and its flight parameters. One advantage of the helicopter over fixed wing platforms is its inherent ability to take off and land in a limited area and without a runway, enabling the UAV to be located in close proximity to the experiment areas and the science team. Decisions regarding integration times, waypoint selection, mission duration, and mission frequency are able to be based upon the local environmental conditions and can be modified just prior to take off. The operational procedures and coordination between the UAV pilot, payload operator, and scientist will be described. The SHARK system includes an inertial navigation system and digital elevation model (DEM) which allows image coordinates to be calculated onboard the aircraft in real-time. Examples of the geo-registered images from the data collection will be shown. SHARK mounted below VTUAV. SHARK deployed on VTUAV over water.

  9. A theoretical and experimental investigation of the proton magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancke, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    This study comprises the investigation of the properties of the proton magnetometer based on the free precession of protons. The basic principle of the free precession of protons in the earth's magnetic field is described and the most important factors affecting this free precession are examined. It is shown that very important parameters to keep in mind are the polarization time and the magnitude of the polarization field. A discussion of the errors of a proton magnetometer built on the periodometer principles is given and it is shown that the error in counting of the number of precession periods during the time of measurement contributes most to the total error. The magnitude of this error depends on the signal-to-noise ratio, the instability of the operating threshold of the discriminator of the period counter, it's operating time and the tuning accuracy of the sensor to the precession frequency. The penetration to a magnetometer input of variable magnetic and electric interferences, their influence on the phase of the useful signal, and the resulting measurement errors are examined and methods of reducing the effects of interferences are discussed. The optimization of sensor design is very important in the development of proton magnetometers. The coil geometry, physical size, the working substance and the polarization design are important parameters. The selection of a method for processing the precession signal of a proton magnetometer is examined, given a sensor and signal amplifier with fixed parameters. A method is proposed and compared with known methods. Measurement errors are computed for various signal-to-noise ratios and times of observation of the precession signal, and it is shown that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods found in commercial instruments

  10. Unmanned systems win unexpected support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneiderman, R.

    1991-09-01

    A review of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is presented in which emphasis is given to recent mission accomplishments and current directions of research. Existing and new military UAV programs are listed with reference to funding, the type of vehicle, and level of development. Several trends are established including the reliance of UVAs on global positioning satellites and advanced electronics and the growth of the UVA industry. UVAs that are in advanced stages of development or have been deployed include short-range UAV such as the Pioneer, the Pointer, the Sky Owl, and the Hunter. Key UAV systems are described such as the Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System, the Maritime Vertical Takeoff and Landing, and other VTOL systems. Very small UVAs and Exdrones are also discussed, and a weather reconnaissance system and surveillance systems are mentioned.

  11. Embedded Data Acquisition Tools for Rotorcraft Diagnostic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Rotorcraft drive trains must withstand enormous pressure while operating continuously in extreme temperature and vibration environments. Captive components, such as planetary and spiral bevel gears, see enormous strain but are not accessible to fixed instrumentation, such as a piezoelectric transducer. Thus, it is difficult to directly monitor components that are most susceptible to damage. This innovation is a self-contained data processing unit within a specialized fixture that installs directly inside the rotating pinion gear in the gearbox. From this location, it detects and transmits high-resolution prognostic data to a fixed transceiver. The sensor is based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and uses innovative circuit designs to capture high-bandwidth data and transmit it wirelessly from inside an operational helicopter transmission. With Ridgetop's advanced MEMS-based sensor, researchers have, for the first time, been able to extract high-resolution acoustic signatures wirelessly from sensors within the transmission that would otherwise be muffled by background gear noises. Ridgetop's innovative instrument will help researchers perform dynamic analysis of gear interaction and develop improved designs for gear components. In addition, data from this instrument can be used to validate new algorithms that detect and predict faults based on external acoustic signatures, for prognostic purposes. The result of this work will be an improvement in safety, performance, and cost for future generations of rotating components.

  12. Airspace Integration Plan for Unmanned Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The Office of the Secretary of Defense Airspace Integration Plan for Unmanned Aviation outlines the key issues that must be addressed to achieve the goal of safe, routine use of the National Airspace System (NAS...

  13. Formation keeping of unmanned ground vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muangmin Kamonwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling motions of an unmanned ground vehicle becomes more popular in real world practices. Its application is useful for household chores, military services, medical purposes, and industrial revolutions, etc. An analysis of motions by using the Fundamental Equations of Constrained Motion (FECM is one effective tool to determine the motions. Its conceptualization is done in three-step procedure as follows: (I Determining an unconstrained motion (II Assigning constraint equations and (III Computing a constrained motion. The equations of motion obtained are expressed as liner functions of acceleration. Then other kinematical information of the unmanned ground vehicles can be obtained by integration its acceleration. In this work, the FECM is used as a tool to analyze motions of a group of unmanned ground vehicles in various forms. The simulation results show that control forces obtained from the approach can regulate motions of unmanned ground vehicles to maneuver in desired formations.

  14. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Tactical Behaviors Technology Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Childers, Marshal A; Bodt, Barry A; Hill, Susan G; Camden, Richard; Dean, Robert M; Dodson, William F; Sutton, Lyle G; Sapronov, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    During 4-14 February 2008, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and General Dynamics Robotic Systems conducted an unmanned systems tactical behaviors technology assessment at three training areas of Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA...

  15. Design of a Low-Cost 2-Axes Fluxgate Magnetometer for Small Satellite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jeoung Kim

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design and analysis results of a 2-axes magnetometer for attitude determination of small satellite. A low-cost and efficient 2-axes fluxgate magnetometer was selected as the most suitable attitude sensor for LEO microsatellites which require a low-to-medium level pointing accuracy. An optimization trade-off study has been performed for the development of 2-axes fluxgate magnetometer. All the relevant parameters such as permeability, demagnetization factor, coil diameter, core thickness, and number of coil turns were considered for the sizing of a small satellite magnetometer. The magnetometer which is designed, manufactured, and tested in-house as described in this paper satisfies linearity requirement for determining attitude position of small satellites. On the basis of magnetometer which is designed in Space System Research Lab. (SSRL, commercial magnetometer will be developed.

  16. STUDY ON SAFETY TECHNOLOGY SCHEME OF THE UNMANNED HELICOPTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the unmanned helicopter is widely used for its' unique strongpoint, however, the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter seriously limits its further application and development. For solving the above problems, in this paper, the reasons for the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter is analyzed and the corresponding solution schemes are proposed. The main problem of the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is the aircraft engine fault, and the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is analyzed particularly. In order to improving the safety performance of unmanned helicopter system, the scheme of adding the safety parachute system to the unmanned helicopter system is proposed and introduced. These schemes provide the safety redundancy of the unmanned helicopter system and lay on basis for the unmanned helicopter applying into residential areas.

  17. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap, 2005-2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    UCAV Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle ISS Integrated Sensor Suite UCS Unmanned Control System ITU International Telecommunications Union UFO UHF...RDC) at Groton, CT. These have included alien and drug interdiction along the Texas coast and in the Caribbean, UA launch and recovery systems...altitude aircraft and UA; and narrowband services to support mobile and handheld services as a replacement or follow-on for the UHF Follow-On ( UFO

  18. Assessment of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) electric motors for rotorcraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doernbach, Jay

    1990-01-01

    The successful development of high temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. Applications of high temperature superconductors have been envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft and solar powered aircraft. The potential of HTS electric motors and generators for providing primary shaft power for rotorcraft propulsion is examined. Three different sized production helicopters were investigated; namely, the Bell Jet Ranger, the Sikorsky Black Hawk and the Sikorsky Super Stallion. These rotorcraft have nominal horsepower ratings of 500, 3600, and 13400 respectively. Preliminary results indicated that an all-electric HTS drive system produces an improvement in rotorcraft Takeoff Gross Weight (TOGW) for those rotorcraft with power ratings above 2000 horsepower. The predicted TOGW improvements are up to 9 percent for the medium-sized Sikorsky Black Hawk and up to 20 percent for the large-sized Sikorsky Super Stallion. The small-sized Bell Jet Ranger, however, experienced a penalty in TOGW with the all-electric HTS drive system.

  19. Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an inverse-cubed distance law associated with any simple dipole model. Contributions from higher-order multipoles are significant, with the quadrupole and octupole being 24 and 21 percent of the dipole moment, respectively. Implications of the results for the study of trapped particles, planetary radio emission, and planetary interiors are discussed. Major conclusions are that the deviation of the main planetary magnetic field from a simple dipole leads to distortion of the L shells of the charged particles and to warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Amalthea and Io are predicted.

  20. Fluxgate Magnetometer Array for Geomagnetic Abnormal Phenomena Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to develop a flexible observation mode for a geomagnetic abnormal phenomena tracking system. The instrument, based on ring core fluxgate magnetometer technology, improves the field environment performance. Using wireless technology provides on-the-spot mobile networking for the observational data, with efficient access to the earthquake precursor observation network. It provides a powerful detection method for earthquake short-term prediction through installation of a low-noise fluxgate magnetometer array, intensely observing the phenomenon of geomagnetic disturbances and abnormal low-frequency electromagnetic signals in different latitudes, then carrying out observational data processing and exploring the relationship between earthquake activity and geomagnetic field changes.

  1. Machine Learning Based Localization and Classification with Atomic Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Cameron; Griffin, Lewis D.; Marmugi, Luca; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate identification of position, material, orientation, and shape of objects imaged by a Rb 85 atomic magnetometer performing electromagnetic induction imaging supported by machine learning. Machine learning maximizes the information extracted from the images created by the magnetometer, demonstrating the use of hidden data. Localization 2.6 times better than the spatial resolution of the imaging system and successful classification up to 97% are obtained. This circumvents the need of solving the inverse problem and demonstrates the extension of machine learning to diffusive systems, such as low-frequency electrodynamics in media. Automated collection of task-relevant information from quantum-based electromagnetic imaging will have a relevant impact from biomedicine to security.

  2. General theory of detection of signal induced in vibrating magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacyna, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Assuming the point dipole approximation only and making use of the vectorial notation, signal (EMF) induced in a single-turn pick-up coil of the vibrating magnetometer are calculated for the case of any orientation of the coil, of vibration axis and of the magnetic moment of the sample. On the basis of formula obtained, three types of measurement geometries have been distinquished and for these the qualitative analysis is made. (author)

  3. Athermal fiber laser for the SWARM absolute scalar magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcault, W.; Léger, J.-M.; Costes, V.; Fratter, I.; Mondin, L.

    2017-11-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) developed by CEA-LETI/CNES is an optically pumped 4He magnetic field sensor based on the Zeeman effect and an electronic magnetic resonance whose effects are amplified by a laser pumping process [1-2]. Consequently, the role of the laser is to pump the 4He atoms at the D0 transition as well as to allow the magnetic resonance signal detection. The ASM will be the scalar magnetic reference instrument of the three ESA Swarm satellites to be launched in 2012 in order to carry out the best ever survey of the Earth magnetic field and its temporal evolution. The sensitivity and accuracy of this magnetometer based on 4He optical pumping depend directly on the characteristics of its light source, which is the key sub-system of the sensor. We describe in this paper the selected fiber laser architecture and its wavelength stabilization scheme. Its main performance in terms of spectral emission, optical power at 1083 nm and intensity noise characteristics in the frequency bands used for the operation of the magnetometer, are then presented. Environmental testing results (thermal vacuum cycling, vibrations, shocks and ageing) are also reported at the end of this paper.

  4. Swarm Optimization-Based Magnetometer Calibration for Personal Handheld Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser El-Sheimy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inertial Navigation Systems (INS consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a processor that generates position and orientation solutions by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the user heading based on Earth’s magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are usually corrupted by several errors, including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometers. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can help in the development of Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs when combined with inertial sensors and GPS/Wi-Fi for indoor navigation and Location Based Services (LBS applications.

  5. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and DigitalFluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, LosAngeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since thesuccessful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the groundcalibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluatetwelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers usingalgorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF,UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tonesand harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA.IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolutegains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS andgive examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  6. New Magneto-Inductive DC Magnetometer for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldwin, M.; Bronner, B.; Regoli, L.; Thoma, J.; Shen, A.; Jenkins, G.; Cutler, J.

    2017-12-01

    A new magneto-inductive DC magnetometer is being developed at the University of Michigan that provides fluxgate quality measurements in a low mass, volume, power and cost package. The magnetometer enables constellation-class missions not only due to its low-resource requirements, but also its potential for commercial integrated circuit fabrication. The magneto-inductive operating principle is based on a simple resistance-inductor (RL) circuit and involves measurement of the time it takes to charge and discharge the inductor between an upper and lower threshold by means of a Schmitt trigger oscillator. This time is proportional to the inductance that in turn is proportional to the field strength. We have modeled the operating principle in the circuit simulator SPICE and have built a proto-type using modified commercial sensors. The performance specifications include a dynamic range over the full-Earth's field, sampling rates up to 80 Hz, sensor and electronics mass of about 30 g, circuit board and sensor housing volume of magnetometer.

  7. A spinner magnetometer for large Apollo lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Quesnel, Y.; Lepaulard, C.; Lima, E. A.; Manfredi, M.; Rochette, P.

    2017-10-01

    We developed a spinner magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of large Apollo lunar rocks in the storage vault of the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility (LSLF) of NASA. The magnetometer mainly consists of a commercially available three-axial fluxgate sensor and a hand-rotating sample table with an optical encoder recording the rotation angles. The distance between the sample and the sensor is adjustable according to the sample size and magnetization intensity. The sensor and the sample are placed in a two-layer mu-metal shield to measure the sample natural remanent magnetization. The magnetic signals are acquired together with the rotation angle to obtain stacking of the measured signals over multiple revolutions. The developed magnetometer has a sensitivity of 5 × 10-7 Am2 at the standard sensor-to-sample distance of 15 cm. This sensitivity is sufficient to measure the natural remanent magnetization of almost all the lunar basalt and breccia samples with mass above 10 g in the LSLF vault.

  8. A spinner magnetometer for large Apollo lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M; Gattacceca, J; Quesnel, Y; Lepaulard, C; Lima, E A; Manfredi, M; Rochette, P

    2017-10-01

    We developed a spinner magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of large Apollo lunar rocks in the storage vault of the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility (LSLF) of NASA. The magnetometer mainly consists of a commercially available three-axial fluxgate sensor and a hand-rotating sample table with an optical encoder recording the rotation angles. The distance between the sample and the sensor is adjustable according to the sample size and magnetization intensity. The sensor and the sample are placed in a two-layer mu-metal shield to measure the sample natural remanent magnetization. The magnetic signals are acquired together with the rotation angle to obtain stacking of the measured signals over multiple revolutions. The developed magnetometer has a sensitivity of 5 × 10 -7 Am 2 at the standard sensor-to-sample distance of 15 cm. This sensitivity is sufficient to measure the natural remanent magnetization of almost all the lunar basalt and breccia samples with mass above 10 g in the LSLF vault.

  9. Particle swarm optimization algorithm based low cost magnetometer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. S.; Siddharth, S., Syed, Z., El-Sheimy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a microprocessor provide inertial digital data from which position and orientation is obtained by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the absolute user heading based on Earth's magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are corrupted by several errors including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometer. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. The estimated bias and scale factor errors from the proposed algorithm improve the heading accuracy and the results are also statistically significant. Also, it can help in the development of the Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with the INS and GPS/Wi-Fi especially in the indoor environments

  10. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.

    2015-12-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and Digital Fluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since the successful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the ground calibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluate twelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers using algorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF, UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tones and harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA. IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolute gains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS and give examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  11. Through-barrier electromagnetic imaging with an atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Cameron; Marmugi, Luca; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2017-07-24

    We demonstrate the penetration of thick metallic and ferromagnetic barriers for imaging of conductive targets underneath. Our system is based on an 85 Rb radio-frequency atomic magnetometer operating in electromagnetic induction imaging modality in an unshielded environment. Detrimental effects, including unpredictable magnetic signatures from ferromagnetic screens and variations in the magnetic background, are automatically compensated by active compensation coils controlled by servo loops. We exploit the tunability and low-frequency sensitivity of the atomic magnetometer to directly image multiple conductive targets concealed by a 2.5 mm ferromagnetic steel shield and/or a 2.0 mm aluminium shield, in a single scan. The performance of the atomic magnetometer allows imaging without any prior knowledge of the barriers or the targets, and without the need of background subtraction. A dedicated edge detection algorithm allows automatic estimation of the targets' size within 3.3 mm and of their position within 2.4 mm. Our results prove the feasibility of a compact, sensitive and automated sensing platform for imaging of concealed objects in a range of applications, from security screening to search and rescue.

  12. Detection Range of Airborne Magnetometers in Magnetic Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjing Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne magnetometers are utilized for the small-range search, precise positioning, and identification of the ferromagnetic properties of underwater targets. As an important performance parameter of sensors, the detection range of airborne magnetometers is commonly set as a fixed value in references regardless of the influences of environment noise, target magnetic properties, and platform features in a classical model to detect airborne magnetic anomalies. As a consequence, deviation in detection ability analysis is observed. In this study, a novel detection range model is proposed on the basis of classic detection range models of airborne magnetometers. In this model, probability distribution is applied, and the magnetic properties of targets and the environment noise properties of a moving submarine are considered. The detection range model is also constructed by considering the distribution of the moving submarine during detection. A cell-averaging greatest-of-constant false alarm rate test method is also used to calculate the detection range of the model at a desired false alarm rate. The detection range model is then used to establish typical submarine search probabilistic models. Results show that the model can be used to evaluate not only the effects of ambient magnetic noise but also the moving and geomagnetic features of the target and airborne detection platform. The model can also be utilized to display the actual operating range of sensor systems.

  13. A broadband two axis flux-gate magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A broadband two axis flux-gate magnetometer was developed to obtain high sensitivity in magnetotelluric measurements. In magnetotelluric sounding, natural low frequency electromagnetic fields are used to estimate the conductivity of the Earth's interior. Because variations in the natural magnetic field have small amplitude(10-100 pT in the frequency range 1 Hz to 100 Hz, highly sensitive magnetic sensors are required. In magnetotelluric measurements two long and heavy solenoids, which must be installed, in the field station, perpendicular to each other (north-south and east-west and levelled in the horizontal plane are used. The coil is a critical component in magnetotelluric measurements because very slight motions create noise voltages, particularly troublesome in wooded areas; generally the installation takes place in a shallow trench. Moreover the coil records the derivative of the variations rather than the magnetic field variations, consequently the transfer function (amplitude and phase of this sensor is not constant throughout the frequency range 0.001-100 Hz. The instrument, developed at L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory, has a flat response in both amplitude and phase in the frequency band DC-100 Hz, in addition it has low weight, low power, small volume and it is easier to install in the field than induction magnetometers. The sensivity of this magnetometer is 10 pT rms.

  14. NDARC NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft - Input, Appendix 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The NDARC code performs design and analysis tasks. The design task involves sizing the rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions. The analysis tasks can include off-design mission performance analysis, flight performance calculation for point operating conditions, and generation of subsystem or component performance maps. The principal tasks (sizing, mission analysis, flight performance analysis) are shown in the figure as boxes with heavy borders. Heavy arrows show control of subordinate tasks. The aircraft description consists of all the information, input and derived, that denes the aircraft. The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. This information can be the result of the sizing task; can come entirely from input, for a fixed model; or can come from the sizing task in a previous case or previous job. The aircraft description information is available to all tasks and all solutions. The sizing task determines the dimensions, power, and weight of a rotorcraft that can perform a specified set of design conditions and missions. The aircraft size is characterized by parameters such as design gross weight, weight empty, rotor radius, and engine power available. The relations between dimensions, power, and weight generally require an iterative solution. From the design flight conditions and missions, the task can determine the total engine power or the rotor radius (or both power and radius can be fixed), as well as the design gross weight, maximum takeoff weight, drive system torque limit, and fuel tank capacity. For each propulsion group, the engine power or the rotor radius can be sized. Missions are defined for the sizing task, and for the mission performance analysis. A mission consists of a number of mission segments, for which time, distance, and fuel burn are evaluated. For the sizing task, certain missions are designated to be used for design gross weight calculations; for

  15. Design and development of an active Gurney flap for rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Gómez, Jon; Booker, Julian D.; Mellor, Phil H.

    2013-03-01

    The EU's Green Rotorcraft programme will develop an Active Gurney Flap (AGF) for a full-scale helicopter main rotor blade as part of its `smart adaptive rotor blade' technology demonstrators. AGFs can be utilized to provide a localized and variable lift enhancement on the rotor, enabling a redistribution of loading on the rotor blade around the rotor azimuth. Further advantages include the possibility of using AGFs to allow a rotor speed reduction, which subsequently provides acoustic benefits. Designed to be integrable into a commercial helicopter blade, and thereby capable of withstanding real in-flight centrifugal loading, blade vibrations and aerodynamic loads, the demonstrator is expected to achieve a high technology readiness level (TRL). The AGF will be validated initially by a constant blade section 2D wind tunnel test and latterly by full blade 3D whirl tower testing. This paper presents the methodology adopted for the AGF concept topology selection, based on a series of both qualitative and quantitative performance criteria. Two different AGF candidate mechanisms are compared, both powered by a small commercial electromagnetic actuator. In both topologies, the link between the actuator and the control surface consists of two rotating torque bars, pivoting on flexure bearings. This provides the required reliability and precision, while making the design virtually frictionless. The engineering analysis presented suggests that both candidates would perform satisfactorily in a 2D wind tunnel test, but that equally, both have design constraints which limit their potential to be further taken into a whirl tower test under full scale centrifugal and inertial loads.

  16. Range and Endurance Tradeoffs on Personal Rotorcraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotorcraft design has always been a challenging tradeoff among overall size, capabilities, complexity, and other factors based on available technology and customer requirements. Advancements in propulsion, energy systems and other technologies have enabled new vehicles and missions; complementary advances in analysis methods and tools enable exploration of these enhanced vehicles and the evolving mission design space. A system study was performed to better understand the interdependency between vehicle design and propulsion system capabilities versus hover / loiter requirements and range capability. Three representative vertical lift vehicles were developed to explore the tradeoff in capability between hover efficiency versus range and endurance capability. The vehicles were a single-main rotor helicopter, a tilt rotor, and a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew) and maximum range within one hour of flight (100-200 miles, depending on vehicle). Two types of propulsion and energy storage systems were used in this study. First was traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (such as Otto, diesel or gas turbine cycles). Second was an all-electric system using electric motors, power management and distribution, assuming batteries for energy storage, with the possibility of hydrocarbon-fueled range extenders. The high power requirements for hover significantly reduced mission radius capability. Loiter was less power intensive, resulting in about 1/2 the equivalent mission radius penalty. With so many design variables, the VTOL aircraft has the potential to perform well for a variety of missions. This vehicle is a good candidate for additional study; component model development is also required to adequately assess performance over the design space of interest.

  17. NDARC-NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft Theoretical Basis and Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical basis and architecture of the conceptual design tool NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) are described. The principal tasks of NDARC are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of off-design missions and point operating conditions. The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated. The aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. NDARC provides a capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and attributes of advanced rotor concepts. The software has been implemented with low-fidelity models, typical of the conceptual design environment. Incorporation of higher-fidelity models will be possible, as the architecture of the code accommodates configuration flexibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization.

  18. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results

  19. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  1. Optimization of the Flight Path of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Myklukha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of optimizing the flight path of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The paper analyzes the composition and designation of main equipment and payload of unmanned aerial vehicle. In particular, attention is drawn to the basic requirements that relate to the unmanned aerial vehicle today.

  2. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...

  3. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T’ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam; Rouvreau, Sebastian; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; hide

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity combustion phenomena have been an active area of research for the past 3 decades however, there have been very few experiments directly studying spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample and environment sizes typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. All previous experiments have been limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. Terrestrial fire safety standards for all other habitable volumes on earth, e.g. mines, buildings, airplanes, ships, etc., are based upon testing conducted with full-scale fires. Given the large differences between fire behavior in normal and reduced gravity, this lack of an experimental data base at relevant length scales forces spacecraft designers to base their designs using 1-g understanding. To address this question a large scale spacecraft fire experiment has been proposed by an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status and concept of this collaborative international project to examine spacecraft material flammability at realistic scales. The concept behind this project is to utilize an unmanned spacecraft such as Orbital Cygnus vehicle after it has completed its delivery of cargo to the ISS and it has begun its return journey to earth. This experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the examination of fire behavior on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This will be

  4. Quad Rotorcraft Control Vision-Based Hovering and Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    García Carrillo, Luis Rodolfo; Lozano, Rogelio; Pégard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Quad-Rotor Control develops original control methods for the navigation and hovering flight of an autonomous mini-quad-rotor robotic helicopter. These methods use an imaging system and a combination of inertial and altitude sensors to localize and guide the movement of the unmanned aerial vehicle relative to its immediate environment. The history, classification and applications of UAVs are introduced, followed by a description of modelling techniques for quad-rotors and the experimental platform itself. A control strategy for the improvement of attitude stabilization in quad-rotors is then proposed and tested in real-time experiments. The strategy, based on the use of low-cost components and with experimentally-established robustness, avoids drift in the UAV’s angular position by the addition of an internal control loop to each electronic speed controller ensuring that, during hovering flight, all four motors turn at almost the same speed. The quad-rotor’s Euler angles being very close to the origin, oth...

  5. ARM Unmanned Aerial Systems Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) coupled with changes in the regulatory environment for operations of UAS in the National Airspace increase the potential value of UAS to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. UAS include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and tethered balloon systems (TBS). The roles UAVs and TBSs could play within the ARM Facility, particularly science questions they could help address, have been discussed in several workshops, reports, and vision documents, including: This document describes the implementation of a robust and vigorous program for use of UAV and TBS for the science missions ARM supports.

  6. Remote sensing and actuation using unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Haiyang

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned systems and robotics technologies have become very popular recently owing to their ability to replace human beings in dangerous, tedious, or repetitious jobs. This book fill the gap in the field between research and real-world applications, providing scientists and engineers with essential information on how to design and employ networked unmanned vehicles for remote sensing and distributed control purposes. Target scenarios include environmental or agricultural applications such as river/reservoir surveillance, wind profiling measurement, and monitoring/control of chemical leaks.

  7. Miniature scientific-grade induction magnetometer for cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira

    2017-04-01

    One of the main areas of space research is the study and forecasting of space weather. The society is more and more depending nowadays on satellite technology and communications, so it is vital to understand the physical process in the solar-terrestrial system which may disturb them. Besides the solar radiation and Space Weather effects, the Earth's ionosphere is also modified by the ever increasing industrial activity. There have been also multiple reports relating VLF and ELF wave activity to atmospheric storms and geological processes, such as earthquakes and volcanic activity. For advancing in these fields, the AC magnetic field permanent monitoring is crucial. Using the cubesat technology would allow increasing the number of measuring points dramatically. It is necessary to mention that the cubesats use for scientific research requires the miniaturization of scientific sensors what is a serious problem because the reduction of their dimensions leads, as a rule, to the parameters degradation, especially of sensitivity threshold. Today, there is no basic model of a sensitive miniature induction magnetometer. Even the smallest one of the known - for the Bepi-Colombo mission to Mercury - is too big for cubesats. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensor for measurement of alternative vector magnetic fields - induction magnetometer (IM). The study directions were concentrated on the ways and possibilities to create the miniature magnetometer with best combination of parameters. For this a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Finally, the LEMI-151 IM was developed for the SEAM cubesat mission with optimal performances within the

  8. Multilayer Based Technology to Build RTD Fluxgate Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ANDO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the main features of the Residence Times Difference Fluxgate Magnetometer. A low-cost technology, negligible onboard power requirements and the intrinsic digital form of the readout signal are the main advantages of the proposed strategy. Results obtained show the possibility to realise low-cost devices exploiting Printed Circuit Board (PCB technology for applications requiring resolution in the nanotesla range as the ferrous object (or particles detection, being the performance obtained suitable to detect the presence or the transit of ferrous materials via their interaction with the geomagnetic field.

  9. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda, E-mail: spradhan@barc.gov.in, E-mail: pradhans75@gmail.com [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  10. The simple procedure for the fluxgate magnetometers calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusenkov, Andriy

    2014-05-01

    The fluxgate magnetometers are widely used in geophysics investigations including the geomagnetic field monitoring at the global network of geomagnetic observatories as well as for electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust conductivity. For solving these tasks the magnetometers have to be calibrated with an appropriate level of accuracy. As a particular case, the ways to satisfy the recent requirements to the scaling and orientation errors of 1-second INTERNAGNET magnetometers are considered in the work. The goal of the present study was to choose a simple and reliable calibration method for estimation of scale factors and angular errors of the three-axis magnetometers in the field. There are a large number of the scalar calibration methods, which use a free rotation of the sensor in the calibration field followed by complicated data processing procedures for numerical solution of the high-order equations set. The chosen approach also exploits the Earth's magnetic field as a calibrating signal, but, in contrast to other methods, the sensor has to be oriented in some particular positions in respect to the total field vector, instead of the sensor free rotation. This allows to use very simple and straightforward linear computation formulas and, as a result, to achieve more reliable estimations of the calibrated parameters. The estimation of the scale factors is performed by the sequential aligning of each component of the sensor in two positions: parallel and anti-parallel to the Earth's magnetic field vector. The estimation of non-orthogonality angles between each pair of components is performed after sequential aligning of the components at the angles +/- 45 and +/- 135 degrees of arc in respect to the total field vector. Due to such four positions approach the estimations of the non-orthogonality angles are invariant to the zero offsets and non-linearity of transfer functions of the components. The experimental justifying of the proposed method by means of the

  11. A simple vibrating sample magnetometer for macroscopic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Dominguez, V.; Quesada, A.; Guzmán-Mínguez, J. C.; Moreno, L.; Lere, M.; Spottorno, J.; Giacomone, F.; Fernández, J. F.; Hernando, A.; García, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We here present a simple model of a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The system allows recording magnetization curves at room temperature with a resolution of the order of 0.01 emu and is appropriated for macroscopic samples. The setup can be mounted with different configurations depending on the requirements of the sample to be measured (mass, saturation magnetization, saturation field, etc.). We also include here examples of curves obtained with our setup and comparison curves measured with a standard commercial VSM that confirms the reliability of our device.

  12. 14 CFR 61.161 - Aeronautical experience: Rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... category and helicopter class rating. 61.161 Section 61.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... helicopter class rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating, must have at least 1,200 hours of total time as a pilot that...

  13. A simplified analog for a rotorcraft-in-ground-effect flow using a forced impinging jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Jayson; Kiger, Ken

    2010-11-01

    The phenomenon of rotorcraft brown-out is defined as the intense suspension and re-ingestion of sand during the take-off and landing of a rotor-lifted aircraft. To mitigate the problem of rotorcraft brown-out, the non-equilibrium sediment suspension process that occurs within a typical rotorcraft wake must be understood. We attempt to understand the most basic aspects of this complex flow through the use of an axisymmetric forced impinging jet. While this flow neglects the swirl component associated with a rotorcraft, it does reproduce the typical coherent vortex structures, and permits their repeatable generation within an axisymmetric mean stagnation flow. The goal of the current work is to determine the forcing conditions that produce isolated, but intense and repeatable structures that can be followed through their interaction with the wall boundary. Stereo PIV imaging is applied to detail the breakdown of a vortex ring in the wall jet zone. The secondary vortex generation and decay are observed experimentally with 3-D vector fields, and their results are interpreted with respect to their significance in the context of sediment mobilization.

  14. On the control of magnetic perturbing field onboard landers: the Magnetometer Protection program for the ESA ExoMars/Humboldt MSMO magnetometer experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menvielle, M.; Primdahl, Fritz; Brauer, Peter

    to planetary research. The major difficulty in implementing a magnetometer experiment onboard a lander is to achieve at acceptable costs a good Magnetometer Protection, namely to control the perturbing magnetic field generated by the lander during operations at the planetary surfa ce, so as to achieve...... scientific payload in the frame of the ESA ExoMars mission. Experience from previous missions constitutes the background for the MSMO Magnetometer Protection strategy. DC and AC lander generated magnetic perturbations are discussed, with particular attention to those related to solar generators. Emphasis...... and very resource consuming....

  15. Munitions Detection Using Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Equipped with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    buried target. The RTG is a small passive magnetic sensor using fluxgate magnetometers measuring 3- orthogonal magnetic-field vector components at 3...surveys. Figure 6 shows the RTG magnetic sensor in both an open (showing the fluxgate magnetometers ) and enclosed state (mode for integration onto...7.6 Real-time Tracking Gradiometer (RTG) System The RTG is a small passive magnetic sensor using fluxgate magnetometers measuring 3- orthogonal

  16. Adapting existing training standards for unmanned aircraft: finding ways to train staff for unmanned aircraft operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, CR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available - unmanned aircraft; pilot training. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aircraft offer flexibility not found in manned aircraft. They can be made smaller and cheaper to operate. They offer payload advantages relative to small manned aircraft. They can also perform... certificate to non-state users. To facilitate useful operations by UAs, future operations must be subject to no more than routine notification (e.g. an ATC flight plan), just like manned aircraft already are. Before such operations can be established, some...

  17. Exploiting nonlinear dynamics in a coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulsara, Adi R; In, Visarath; Kho, Andy; Longhini, Patrick; Neff, Joe; Anderson, Gregory; Obra, Christopher; Palacios, Antonio; Baglio, Salvatore; Ando, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Unforced bistable dynamical systems having dynamics of the general form τ F x-dot (t)=-∇ x U(x) cannot oscillate (i.e. switch between their stable attractors). However, a number of such systems subject to carefully crafted coupling schemes have been shown to exhibit oscillatory behavior under carefully chosen operating conditions. This behavior, in turn, affords a new mechanism for the detection and quantification of target signals having magnitude far smaller than the energy barrier height in the potential energy function U(x) for a single (uncoupled) element. The coupling-induced oscillations are a feature that appears to be universal in systems described by bi- or multi-stable potential energy functions U(x), and are being exploited in a new class of dynamical sensors being developed by us. In this work we describe one of these devices, a coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer (CCFM), whose operation is underpinned by this dynamic behavior. We provide an overview of the underlying dynamics and, also, quantify the performance of our test device; in particular, we provide a quantitative performance comparison to a conventional (single-core) fluxgate magnetometer via a 'resolution' parameter that embodies the device sensitivity (the slope of its input–output transfer characteristic) as well as the noise floor

  18. A radiation hardened digital fluxgate magnetometer for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, D. M.; Bennest, J. R.; Mann, I. R.; Millling, D. K.

    2013-09-01

    Space-based measurements of Earth's magnetic field are required to understand the plasma processes responsible for energising particles in the Van Allen radiation belts and influencing space weather. This paper describes a prototype fluxgate magnetometer instrument developed for the proposed Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) mission and which has applications in other space and suborbital applications. The magnetometer is designed to survive and operate in the harsh environment of Earth's radiation belts and measure low-frequency magnetic waves, the magnetic signatures of current systems, and the static background magnetic field. The new instrument offers improved science data compared to its predecessors through two key design changes: direct digitisation of the sensor and digital feedback from two cascaded pulse-width modulators combined with analog temperature compensation. These provide an increase in measurement bandwidth up to 450 Hz with the potential to extend to at least 1500 Hz. The instrument can resolve 8 pT on a 65 000 nT field with a magnetic noise of less than 10 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz. This performance is comparable with other recent digital fluxgates for space applications, most of which use some form of sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulation for feedback and omit analog temperature compensation. The prototype instrument was successfully tested and calibrated at the Natural Resources Canada Geomagnetics Laboratory.

  19. Multi-flux-transformer MRI detection with an atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, Igor; Karaulanov, Todor

    2014-12-01

    Recently, anatomical ultra-low field (ULF) MRI has been demonstrated with an atomic magnetometer (AM). A flux-transformer (FT) has been used for decoupling MRI fields and gradients to avoid their negative effects on AM performance. The field of view (FOV) was limited because of the need to compromise between the size of the FT input coil and MRI sensitivity per voxel. Multi-channel acquisition is a well-known solution to increase FOV without significantly reducing sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate twofold FOV increase with the use of three FT input coils. We also show that it is possible to use a single atomic magnetometer and single acquisition channel to acquire three independent MRI signals by applying a frequency-encoding gradient along the direction of the detection array span. The approach can be generalized to more channels and can be critical for imaging applications of non-cryogenic ULF MRI where FOV needs to be large, including head, hand, spine, and whole-body imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Delegation control of multiple unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Susan R.; Shively, Robert J.

    2010-04-01

    Maturing technologies and complex payloads coupled with a future objective to reduce the logistics burden of current unmanned aerial systems (UAS) operations require a change to the 2-crew employment paradigm. Increased automation and operator supervisory control of unmanned systems have been advocated to meet the objective of reducing the crew requirements, while managing future technologies. Specifically, a delegation control employment strategy has resulted in reduced workload and higher situation awareness for single operators controlling multiple unmanned systems in empirical studies1,2. Delegation control is characterized by the ability for an operator to call a single "play" that initiates prescribed default actions for each vehicle and associated sensor related to a common mission goal. Based upon the effectiveness of delegation control in simulation, the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) developed a Delegation Control (DelCon) operator interface with voice recognition implementation for play selection, real-time play modification, and play status with automation transparency to enable single operator control of multiple unmanned systems in flight. AFDD successfully demonstrated delegation control in a Troops-in-Contact mission scenario at Ft. Ord in 2009. This summary showcases the effort as a beneficial advance in single operator control of multiple UAS.

  1. Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-03

    I I Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles F49620-01-1-0337 6. AUTHOR(S... Autonomous Vehicles Final Report Kendall E. Nygard Department of Computer Science and Operations Research North Dakota State University Fargo, ND 58105-5164

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Photogrammetry Produces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinus Boon

    Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of ... The technique also only requires a few control measurements and the ... The number of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) referenced in the 2013 ... model aircraft airfield east of the R25 road, just south of the M6 intersection, up until ...

  3. Exploring Security Vulnerabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodday, Nils Miro; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    We are currently observing a significant increase in the popularity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), popularly also known by their generic term drones. This is not only the case for recreational UAVs, that one can acquire for a few hundred dollars, but also for more sophisticated ones, namely

  4. Pressure-Sensitive Paints Advance Rotorcraft Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The rotors of certain helicopters can spin at speeds as high as 500 revolutions per minute. As the blades slice through the air, they flex, moving into the wind and back out, experiencing pressure changes on the order of thousands of times a second and even higher. All of this makes acquiring a true understanding of rotorcraft aerodynamics a difficult task. A traditional means of acquiring aerodynamic data is to conduct wind tunnel tests using a vehicle model outfitted with pressure taps and other sensors. These sensors add significant costs to wind tunnel testing while only providing measurements at discrete locations on the model's surface. In addition, standard sensor solutions do not work for pulling data from a rotor in motion. "Typical static pressure instrumentation can't handle that," explains Neal Watkins, electronics engineer in Langley Research Center s Advanced Sensing and Optical Measurement Branch. "There are dynamic pressure taps, but your costs go up by a factor of five to ten if you use those. In addition, recovery of the pressure tap readings is accomplished through slip rings, which allow only a limited amount of sensors and can require significant maintenance throughout a typical rotor test." One alternative to sensor-based wind tunnel testing is pressure sensitive paint (PSP). A coating of a specialized paint containing luminescent material is applied to the model. When exposed to an LED or laser light source, the material glows. The glowing material tends to be reactive to oxygen, explains Watkins, which causes the glow to diminish. The more oxygen that is present (or the more air present, since oxygen exists in a fixed proportion in air), the less the painted surface glows. Imaged with a camera, the areas experiencing greater air pressure show up darker than areas of less pressure. "The paint allows for a global pressure map as opposed to specific points," says Watkins. With PSP, each pixel recorded by the camera becomes an optical pressure

  5. Calibration of a fluxgate magnetometer array and its application in magnetic object localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-01-01

    The magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization. Calibration is important to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array. A magnetic sensor array built with four three-axis DM-050 fluxgate magnetometers is designed, which is connected by a cross aluminum frame. In order to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array, a calibration process is presented. The calibration process includes magnetometer calibration, coordinate transformation and misalignment calibration. The calibration system consists of a magnetic sensor array, a GSM-19T proton magnetometer, a two-dimensional nonmagnetic rotation platform, a 12 V-dc portable power device and two portable computers. After magnetometer calibration, the RMS error has been decreased from an original value of 125.559 nT to a final value of 1.711 nT (a factor of 74). After alignment, the RMS error of misalignment has been decreased from 1322.3 to 6.0 nT (a factor of 220). Then, the calibrated array deployed on the nonmagnetic rotation platform is used for ferromagnetic object localization. Experimental results show that the estimated errors of X, Y and Z axes are −0.049 m, 0.008 m and 0.025 m, respectively. Thus, the magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization in three dimensions. (paper)

  6. Swarm's absolute magnetometer experimental vector mode, an innovative capability for space magnetometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, Gauthier; Vigneron, Pierre; Leger, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    , combining ASM scalar data with independent uxgate magnetometer vector data. The high level of agreement between these models demonstrates the potential of the ASM's vector mode for data quality control and as a stand alone magnetometer, and illustrates the way the evolution of key eld features can easily...

  7. Preliminary Report: DESiGN and Test Result of KSR-3 Rocket Magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Min Kim

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar wind contributes to the formation of unique space environment called the Earth's magnetosphere by various interactions with the Earth's magnetic field. Thus the solar-terrestrial environment affects the Earth's magnetic field, which can be observed with an instrument for the magnetic field measurement, the magnetometer usually mounted on the rocket and the satellite and based on the ground observatory. The magnetometer is a useful instrument for the spacecraft attitude control as well as the Earth's magnetic field measurements for a scientific purpose. In this paper, we present the preliminary design and test results of the two onboard magnetometers of KARI's (Korea Aerospace Research Institute sounding rocket, KSR-3, which will be launched four times during the period of 2001-02. The KSR-3 magnetometers consist of the fluxgate magnetometer, MAG/AIM (Attitude Information Magnetometer for acquiring the rocket flight attitude information, and of the search-coil magnetometer, MAG/SIM (Scientific Investigation Magnetometer for the observation of the Earth's magnetic field fluctuations. With the MAG/AIM, the 3-axis attitude information can be acquired by the comparison of the resulting dc magnetic vector field with the IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field. The Earth's magnetic field fluctuations ranging from 10 to 1,000 Hz can also be observed with the MAG/SIM measurement.

  8. Calibration of a fluxgate magnetometer array and its application in magnetic object localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-07-01

    The magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization. Calibration is important to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array. A magnetic sensor array built with four three-axis DM-050 fluxgate magnetometers is designed, which is connected by a cross aluminum frame. In order to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array, a calibration process is presented. The calibration process includes magnetometer calibration, coordinate transformation and misalignment calibration. The calibration system consists of a magnetic sensor array, a GSM-19T proton magnetometer, a two-dimensional nonmagnetic rotation platform, a 12 V-dc portable power device and two portable computers. After magnetometer calibration, the RMS error has been decreased from an original value of 125.559 nT to a final value of 1.711 nT (a factor of 74). After alignment, the RMS error of misalignment has been decreased from 1322.3 to 6.0 nT (a factor of 220). Then, the calibrated array deployed on the nonmagnetic rotation platform is used for ferromagnetic object localization. Experimental results show that the estimated errors of X, Y and Z axes are -0.049 m, 0.008 m and 0.025 m, respectively. Thus, the magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization in three dimensions.

  9. Closed-cycle gas flow system for cooling a HTc dc-SQUID magnetometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den P.J.; Holland, H.J.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Rogalla, H.

    1994-01-01

    A closed-cycle gas flow system for cooling a high-crit. temp. d.c.-superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer by means of a cryocooler has been designed, constructed and tested. The magnetometer is aimed to measure heart signals with a sensitivity of 0.1 pT/Hz1/2. The required

  10. The absolute magnetometers on board Swarm, lessons learned from more than two years in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, Gauthier; Leger, Jean-Michel; Vigneron, Pierre

    ESA's Swarm satellites carry 4He absolute magnetometers (ASM), designed by CEA-Léti and developed in partnership with CNES. These instruments are the first-ever space-borne magnetometers to use a common sensor to simultaneously deliver 1Hz independent absolute scalar and vector readings of the ma...

  11. Correlation between fluxgate and SQUID magnetometer data sets for geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matladi Thabang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a need to monitor the near Earth's magnetic field, as this monitoring provides understanding and possible predictions of Space Weather events such as geomagnetic storms. Conventional magnetometers such as fluxgates have been used for decades for Space Weather research. The use of highly sensitive magnetometers such as Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs, promise to give more insight into Space Weather. SQUIDs are relatively recent types of magnetometers that exploit the superconductive effects of flux quantization and Josephson tunneling to measure magnetic flux. SQUIDs have a very broad bandwidth compared to most conventional magnetometers and can measure magnetic flux as low as a few femtotesla. Since SQUIDs have never been used in Space Weather research, unshielded, it is necessary to investigate if they can be reliable Space Weather instruments. The validation is performed by comparing the frequency content of the SQUID and fluxgate magnetometers, as reported by Phiri.

  12. Associating ground magnetometer observations with current or voltage generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartinger, M. D.; Xu, Z.; Clauer, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    A circuit analogy for magnetosphere-ionosphere current systems has two extremes for driversof ionospheric currents: ionospheric elec tric fields/voltages constant while current/conductivity vary—the“voltage generator”—and current constant while electric field/conductivity vary—the “current generator.......”Statistical studies of ground magnetometer observations associated with dayside Transient High LatitudeCurrent Systems (THLCS) driven by similar mechanisms find contradictory results using this paradigm:some studies associate THLCS with voltage generators, others with current generators. We argue that mostof...... these two assumptions substantially alter expectations for magnetic perturbations associatedwith either a current or a voltage generator. Our results demonstrate that before interpreting groundmagnetometer observations of THLCS in the context of current/voltage generators, the location...

  13. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G. [Department of Quantum Detection, Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena 07745 (Germany); Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M. [Supracon AG, An der Lehmgrube 11, Jena 07751 (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  14. Magnetometer-Augmented IMU Simulator: In-Depth Elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brunner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The location of objects is a growing research topic due, for instance, to the expansion of civil drones or intelligent vehicles. This expansion was made possible through the development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, inexpensive and miniaturized inertial sensors. In this context, this article describes the development of a new simulator which generates sensor measurements, giving a specific input trajectory. This will allow the comparison of pose estimation algorithms. To develop this simulator, the measurement equations of every type of sensor have to be analytically determined. To achieve this objective, classical kinematic equations are used for the more common sensors, i.e., accelerometers and rate gyroscopes. As nowadays, the MEMS inertial measurement units (IMUs are generally magnetometer-augmented, an absolute world magnetic model is implemented. After the determination of the perfect measurement (through the error-free sensor models, realistic error models are developed to simulate real IMU behavior. Finally, the developed simulator is subjected to different validation tests.

  15. Vision enhanced navigation for unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Brandon Loy

    A vision based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm is evaluated for use on unmanned systems. SLAM is a technique used by a vehicle to build a map of an environment while concurrently keeping track of its location within the map, without a priori knowledge. The work in this thesis is focused on using SLAM as a navigation solution when global positioning system (GPS) service is degraded or temporarily unavailable. Previous work on unmanned systems that lead up to the determination that a better navigation solution than GPS alone is first presented. This previous work includes control of unmanned systems, simulation, and unmanned vehicle hardware testing. The proposed SLAM algorithm follows the work originally developed by Davidson et al. in which they dub their algorithm MonoSLAM [1--4]. A new approach using the Pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking algorithm from Intel's OpenCV (open computer vision) library is presented as a means of keeping correct landmark correspondences as the vehicle moves through the scene. Though this landmark tracking method is unusable for long term SLAM due to its inability to recognize revisited landmarks, as opposed to the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), its computational efficiency makes it a good candidate for short term navigation between GPS position updates. Additional sensor information is then considered by fusing INS and GPS information into the SLAM filter. The SLAM system, in its vision only and vision/IMU form, is tested on a table top, in an open room, and finally in an outdoor environment. For the outdoor environment, a form of the slam algorithm that fuses vision, IMU, and GPS information is tested. The proposed SLAM algorithm, and its several forms, are implemented in C++ using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Experiments utilizing a live video feed from a webcam are performed. The different forms of the filter are compared and conclusions are made on

  16. Miniaturized digital fluxgate magnetometer for small spacecraft applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forslund, Åke; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Olsson, Göran; Edberg, Terry; Belyayev, Serhiy; Marusenkov, Andriy

    2008-01-01

    A novel design of an Earth field digital fluxgate magnetometer is presented, the small magnetometer in low-mass experiment (SMILE). The combination of a number of new techniques results in significant miniaturization of both sensor and electronics. The design uses a sensor with volume compensation, combining three dual rod cores in a Macor® cube with the side dimension of 20 mm. Use of volume compensation provides high geometrical stability of the axes and improved performance compared to component compensated sensors. The sensor is operated at an excitation frequency of 8 kHz. Most of the instrument functionality is combined in a digital signal processing core, implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The pick-up signal is digitized after amplification and filtering, and values of compensation currents for each of the axes are determined by a digital correlation algorithm, equivalent to a matched filter, and are fed to a hybrid pulse-width modulation/delta-sigma digital-to-analogue converter driving the currents through the compensation coils. Using digital design makes the instrument very flexible, reduces power consumption and opens possibilities for the customization of the operation modes. The current implementation of the design is based on commercial off-the-shelf components. A calibration of the SMILE instrument was carried out at the Nurmijärvi Geophysical Observatory, showing high linearity (within 6 nT on the whole ±50 µT scale), good orthogonality (22 arcmin) and very good temperature stability of the axes

  17. Rotorcraft system identification techniques for handling qualities and stability and control evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W. E., Jr.; Gupta, N. K.; Hansen, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    An integrated approach to rotorcraft system identification is described. This approach consists of sequential application of (1) data filtering to estimate states of the system and sensor errors, (2) model structure estimation to isolate significant model effects, and (3) parameter identification to quantify the coefficient of the model. An input design algorithm is described which can be used to design control inputs which maximize parameter estimation accuracy. Details of each aspect of the rotorcraft identification approach are given. Examples of both simulated and actual flight data processing are given to illustrate each phase of processing. The procedure is shown to provide means of calibrating sensor errors in flight data, quantifying high order state variable models from the flight data, and consequently computing related stability and control design models.

  18. Concepts for Multi-Speed Rotorcraft Drive System - Status of Design and Testing at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Lewicki, David G.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies and on-going developments for advanced rotorcraft, the need for variable/multi-speed capable rotors has been raised. Speed changes of up to 50 percent have been proposed for future rotorcraft to improve vehicle performance. A rotor speed change during operation not only requires a rotor that can perform effectively over the operating speed/load range, but also requires a propulsion system possessing these same capabilities. A study was completed investigating possible drive system arrangements that can accommodate up to a 50 percent speed change. Key drivers were identified from which simplicity and weight were judged as central. This paper presents the current status of two gear train concepts coupled with the first of two clutch types developed and tested thus far with focus on design lessons learned and areas requiring development. Also, a third concept is presented, a dual input planetary differential as leveraged from a simple planetary with fixed carrier.

  19. Measurement of Rotorcraft Blade Deformation Using Projection Moiré Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A. Fleming

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Projection Moiré Interferometry (PMI has been used to obtain near instantaneous, quantitative blade deformation measurements of a generic rotorcraft model at several test conditions. These laser-based measurements provide quantitative, whole field, dynamic blade deformation profiles conditionally sampled as a function of rotor azimuth. The instantaneous nature of the measurements permits computation of the mean and unsteady blade deformation, blade bending, and twist. The PMI method is presented, and the image processing steps required to obtain quantitative deformation profiles from PMI interferograms are described. Experimental results are provided which show blade bending, twist, and unsteady motion. This initial proof-of-concept test has demonstrated the capability of PMI to acquire accurate, full field rotorcraft blade deformation data.

  20. A robust direct-integration method for rotorcraft maneuver and periodic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Brahmananda

    1992-01-01

    The Newmark-Beta method and the Newton-Raphson iteration scheme are combined to develop a direct-integration method for evaluating the maneuver and periodic-response expressions for rotorcraft. The method requires the generation of Jacobians and includes higher derivatives in the formulation of the geometric stiffness matrix to enhance the convergence of the system. The method leads to effective convergence with nonlinear structural dynamics and aerodynamic terms. Singularities in the matrices can be addressed with the method as they arise from a Lagrange multiplier approach for coupling equations with nonlinear constraints. The method is also shown to be general enough to handle singularities from quasisteady control-system models. The method is shown to be more general and robust than the similar 2GCHAS method for analyzing rotorcraft dynamics.

  1. International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Paul; Piegl, Les

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have seen unprecedented levels of growth during the last decade in both military and civilian domains. It is anticipated that civilian applications will be dominant in the future, although there are still barriers to be overcome and technical challenges to be met. Integrating UAS into, for example, civilian space, navigation, autonomy, see-detect-and-avoid systems, smart designs, system integration, vision-based navigation and training, to name but a few areas, will be of prime importance in the near future. This special volume is the outcome of research presented at the International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, held in Orlando, Florida, USA, from June 23-25, 2008, and presents state-of-the-art findings on topics such as: UAS operations and integration into the national airspace system; UAS navigation and control; micro-, mini-, small UAVs; UAS simulation testbeds and frameworks; UAS research platforms and applications; UAS applications. This book aims at serving as ...

  2. A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorder, Peter James

    1993-01-01

    Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

  3. Rotorcraft Use in Disaster Relief and Mass Casualty Incidents - Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Disaster Relief and Mass 6. Performing Organization Code C asuallty Incidents- C ase Studies 8._P rfo minOr ani ati nR porNo 7. Author (s) 8...disaster planning process; and 3) produce a color video tape promoting the need for and the use of rotorcraft and heliports in disaster relief. 17...disaster prepaLedness ageicies for use in the integration of local helicopter assets into the disaster planning process; and 3) produce a color video tape

  4. A REVIEW OF TACTICAL UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE DESIGN STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Sezer; Oktay, Tugrul

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a literaturesearch was conducted on tactical unmanned aerial vehicles. First of all, it wasclassified as an unmanned aerial vehicle. It is mentioned about thecharacteristics of ZANKA-III, which is highly autonomous, passive and activemorphing, aerodynamically perfect, tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (TUAV)ZANKA-III, supported by TUBITAK's 1001 Ardeb program 115M603 by TUBITAK and itis mentioned that they have superior characteristics from other tacticalunmanned aerial veh...

  5. OPTIMUM PROGRAMMABLE CONTROL OF UNMANNED FLYING VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. А. Lobaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an analytical synthesis problem pertaining to programmable control of an unmanned flying vehicle while steering it to the fixed space point. The problem has been solved while applying a maximum principle which takes into account a final control purpose and its integral expenses. The paper presents an optimum law of controlling overload variation of a flying vehicle that has been obtained analytically

  6. Unmanned Systems Roadmap 2007-2032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    advances in each of the three fields, as shown from the following selected summaries from the study: Transgenic biopolymers fall at the intersection...cowlings) for unmanned systems. As an example, the silk -producing gene of spiders has been spliced into the mammary gland gene of sheep, from whose...subsequent milk the silk protein can be extracted. Breeding herds of such sheep enable spider silk , known for its light weight and high strength, to be

  7. The prospects for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Brookes, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    In this study Andrew Brookes argues that Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is the military fashion of the moment. Since the end of the 1990s many nations have added UAVs to their military inventories, and in 1999 half a dozen nations used UAVs over Kosovo. In the light of operational experience in Kosovo, Brookes re-evaluates the potential of this vehicle, and examines the roles, capabilities and future challenges of UAV.

  8. Applications for Navy Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    comunication intelligence (COMINT) collection, and airborne electronic attack applications. If the UCAS-D program is successful in addressing many of the...position navigation and timing RF radio frequency RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition SAB Scientific Advisory Board SAR synthetic...Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2005–2030 and Unmanned Systems Roadmap 2007–2032, and the 2003 Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) UAS study

  9. A Method for Simulation of Rotorcraft Fly-In Noise for Human Response Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Christian, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The low frequency content of rotorcraft noise allows it to be heard over great distances. This factor contributes to the disruption of natural quiet in national parks and wilderness areas, and can lead to annoyance in populated areas. Further, it can result in detection at greater distances compared to higher altitude fixed wing aircraft operations. Human response studies conducted in the field are made difficult since test conditions are difficult to control. Specifically, compared to fixed wing aircraft, the source noise itself may significantly vary over time even for nominally steady flight conditions, and the propagation of that noise is more variable due to low altitude meteorological conditions. However, it is possible to create the salient features of rotorcraft fly-in noise in a more controlled laboratory setting through recent advancements made in source noise synthesis, propagation modeling and reproduction. This paper concentrates on the first two of these. In particular, the rotorcraft source noise pressure time history is generated using single blade passage signatures from the main and tail rotors. These may be obtained from either acoustic source noise predictions or back-propagation of ground-based measurements. Propagation effects include atmospheric absorption, spreading loss, Doppler shift, and ground plane reflections.

  10. A Recording-Based Method for Auralization of Rotorcraft Flyover Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Nicholas M.; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Krishnamurthy, Siddhartha; Fuller, Christopher R.; Christian, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Rotorcraft noise is an active field of study as the sound produced by these vehicles is often found to be annoying. A means to auralize rotorcraft flyover noise is sought to help understand the factors leading to annoyance. Previous work by the authors focused on auralization of rotorcraft fly-in noise, in which a simplification was made that enabled the source noise synthesis to be based on a single emission angle. Here, the goal is to auralize a complete flyover event, so the source noise synthesis must be capable of traversing a range of emission angles. The synthesis uses a source noise definition process that yields periodic and aperiodic (modulation) components at a set of discrete emission angles. In this work, only the periodic components are used for the source noise synthesis for the flyover; the inclusion of modulation components is the subject of ongoing research. Propagation of the synthesized source noise to a ground observer is performed using the NASA Auralization Framework. The method is demonstrated using ground recordings from a flight test of the AS350 helicopter for the source noise definition.

  11. Practices to identify and preclude adverse Aircraft-and-Rotorcraft-Pilot Couplings - A design perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Marilena D.; Masarati, Pierangelo; Gennaretti, Massimo; Jump, Michael; Zaichik, Larisa; Dang-Vu, Binh; Lu, Linghai; Yilmaz, Deniz; Quaranta, Giuseppe; Ionita, Achim; Serafini, Jacopo

    2015-07-01

    Understanding, predicting and supressing the inadvertent aircraft oscillations caused by Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC) is a challenging problem for designers. These are potential instabilities that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. The present paper reviews, updates and discusses desirable practices to be used during the design process for unmasking A/RPC phenomena. These practices are stemming from the European Commission project ARISTOTEL Aircraft and Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings - Tools and Techniques for Alleviation and Detection (2010-2013) and are mainly related to aerodynamic and structural modelling of the aircraft/rotorcraft, pilot modelling and A/RPC prediction criteria. The paper proposes new methodologies for precluding adverse A/RPCs events taking into account the aeroelasticity of the structure and pilot biodynamic interaction. It is demonstrated that high-frequency accelerations due to structural elasticity cause negative effects on pilot control, since they lead to involuntary body and limb-manipulator system displacements and interfere with pilot's deliberate control activity (biodynamic interaction) and, finally, worsen handling quality ratings.

  12. ICAROUS: Integrated Configurable Architecture for Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) project aims at enabling near-term, safe operations of small UAS vehicles in uncontrolled airspace, i.e., Class G airspace. A far-term goal of UTM research and development is to accommodate the expected rise in small UAS traffic density throughout the National Airspace System (NAS) at low altitudes for beyond visual line-of-sight operations. This video describes a new capability referred to as ICAROUS (Integrated Configurable Algorithms for Reliable Operations of Unmanned Systems), which is being developed under the auspices of the UTM project. ICAROUS is a software architecture comprised of highly assured algorithms for building safety-centric, autonomous, unmanned aircraft applications. Central to the development of the ICAROUS algorithms is the use of well-established formal methods to guarantee higher levels of safety assurance by monitoring and bounding the behavior of autonomous systems. The core autonomy-enabling capabilities in ICAROUS include constraint conformance monitoring and autonomous detect and avoid functions. ICAROUS also provides a highly configurable user interface that enables the modular integration of mission-specific software components.

  13. Unmanned Mine of the 21st Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semykina, Irina; Grigoryev, Aleksandr; Gargayev, Andrey; Zavyalov, Valeriy

    2017-11-01

    The article is analytical. It considers the construction principles of the automation system structure which realize the concept of «unmanned mine». All of these principles intend to deal with problems caused by a continuous complication of mining-and-geological conditions at coalmine such as the labor safety and health protection, the weak integration of different mining automation subsystems and the deficiency of optimal balance between a quantity of resource and energy consumed by mining machines and their throughput. The authors describe the main problems and neck stage of mining machines autonomation and automation subsystem. The article makes a general survey of the applied «unmanned technology» in the field of mining such as the remotely operated autonomous complexes, the underground positioning systems of mining machines using infrared radiation in mine workings etc. The concept of «unmanned mine» is considered with an example of the robotic road heading machine. In the final, the authors analyze the techniques and methods that could solve the task of underground mining without human labor.

  14. Development of Magnetometer Digital Circuit for KSR-3 Rocket and Analytical Study on Calibration Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Seok Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the re-design and the calibration results of the MAG digital circuit onboard the KSR-3. We enhanced the sampling rate of magnetometer data. Also, we reduced noise and increased authoritativeness of data. We could confirm that AIM resolution was decreased less than 1nT of analog calibration by a digital calibration of magnetometer. Therefore, we used numerical-program to correct this problem. As a result, we could calculate correction and error of data. These corrections will be applied to magnetometer data after the launch of KSR-3.

  15. Development of a Geospatial Data-Sharing Method for Unmanned Vehicles Based on the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    the Office of the Secretary of Defense chartered the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Ground Systems ( JAUGS ) Working Group to address these concerns...The JAUGS Working Group was tasked with developing an initial standard for interoperable unmanned ground systems. In 2002, the charter of the... JAUGS Working Group was 1 2 modified such that their efforts would extend to all unmanned systems, not only ground systems. The standard was

  16. Intelligent autonomy for unmanned naval systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Marc

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development and demonstration of intelligent autonomy technologies for control of heterogeneous unmanned naval air and sea vehicles and describes some of the current limitations of such technologies. The focus is on modular technologies that support highly automated retasking and fully autonomous dynamic replanning for up to ten heterogeneous unmanned systems based on high-level mission objectives, priorities, constraints, and Rules-of-Engagement. A key aspect of the demonstrations is incorporating frequent naval operator evaluations in order to gain better understanding of the integrated man/machine system and its tactical utility. These evaluations help ensure that the automation can provide information to the user in a meaningful way and that the user has a sufficient level of control and situation awareness to task the system as needed to complete complex mission tasks. Another important aspect of the program is examination of the interactions of higher-level autonomy algorithms with other relevant components that would be needed within the decision-making and control loops. Examples of these are vision and other sensor processing algorithms, sensor fusion, obstacle avoidance, and other lower level vehicle autonomous navigation, guidance, and control functions. Initial experiments have been completed using medium and high-fidelity vehicle simulations in a virtual warfare environment and inexpensive surrogate vehicles in flight and in-water demonstrations. Simulation experiments included integration of multi-vehicle task allocation, dynamic replanning under constraints, lower level autonomous vehicle control, automatic assessment of the impact of contingencies on plans, management of situation awareness data, operator alert management, and a mixed-initiative operator interface. In-water demonstrations of a maritime situation awareness capability were completed in both a river and a harbor environment using unmanned surface

  17. Rad-Hard Sigma-Delta 3-Channel ADC for Fluxgate Magnetometers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The measurement of the magnetic field vector is of fundamental importance to space physics missions. The fluxgate magnetometer is a device developed for precise...

  18. Measuring In-Flight Angular Motion With a Low-Cost Magnetometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harkins, Thomas E; Wilson, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    A technique for obtaining pitch, yaw, and roll rates of a projectile from a single, low-cost, commercial off-the-shelf magnetometer has been developed at the Advanced Munitions Concepts Branch of the U.S...

  19. Rad-Hard Sigma-Delta 3-channel ADC for Fluxgate Magnetometers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project aims to develop a multi-channel analog to digital converter (ADC) required for a fluxgate magnetometer (EPD) employed on NASA's planetary...

  20. Simplified High-Performance Roll Out Composite Magnetometer Boom, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need for compact, low-cost deployable magnetometer booms for CubeSats, Roccor proposes to develop a Simple High-performance Roll-Out Composite...

  1. Basic technical parameters of magnetometers with ferromagnetic transducers and a method to define them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiello, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The basic technical parameters of magnetometers with ferromagnetic transducers and measuring methods to define these parameters have been discussed. Special attention was paid to factors which essentially affect the inaccuracy of these measuring instruments. (author)

  2. Venus Lightning: What We Have Learned from the Venus Express Fluxgate Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Wei, H. Y.; Zhang, T. L.

    2010-03-01

    The Venus Express magnetometer sees short (tens of milliseconds) pulses of EM waves in the Venus ionosphere as predicted by the lightning model for the PVO electric pulses. These waves are stronger than similar terrestrial signals produced by lightning.

  3. Sensitivity optimization of Bell-Bloom magnetometers by manipulation of atomic spin synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbaran, M.; Tehranchi, M. M.; Hamidi, S. M.; Khalkhali, S. M. H.

    2018-05-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to the developments of atomic magnetometers for achieving the high sensitivity required in biomagnetic applications. To reach the high sensitivity, many types of atomic magnetometers have been introduced for optimization of the creation and relaxation rates of atomic spin polarization. In this paper, regards to sensitivity optimization techniques in the Mx configuration, we have proposed a novelty approach for synchronization of the spin precession in the Bell-Bloom magnetometers. We have utilized the phenomenological Bloch equations to simulate the spin dynamics when modulation of pumping light and radio frequency magnetic field were both used for atomic spin synchronization. Our results showed that the synchronization process, improved the magnetometer sensitivity respect to the classical configurations.

  4. IceBridge Scintrex CS-3 Cesium Magnetometer L1B Geolocated Magnetic Anomalies, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Scintrex CS-3 Cesium Magnetometer L1B Geolocated Magnetic Anomalies (IMCS31B) data set contains magnetic field readings taken over Greenland using...

  5. IceBridge Scintrex CS-3 Cesium Magnetometer L0 Raw Magnetic Field, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Scintrex CS-3 Cesium Magnetometer L0 Raw Magnetic Field data set contains magnetic field readings and fluxgate values taken over Greenland using...

  6. Feasibility study on measurement of magnetocardiography (MCG) using fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengottuvel, S.; Sharma, Akash; Biswal, Deepak; Khan, Pathan Fayaz; Swain, Pragyna Parimita; Patel, Rajesh; Gireesan, K.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the feasibility of measuring weak magnetic fields generated by the electrical activity of the heart using a portable tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer inside a magnetically shielded room. Measurement of Magnetocardiogram (MCG) signals could be successfully demonstrated from a healthy subject using a novel set-up involving a reference fluxgate sensor which simultaneously measures the magnetic fields associated with the ECG waveform measured on the same subject. The timing information provided by R wave peaks of ECG recorded by the reference sensor is utilized to generate trigger locked average of the sensor output of the measurement fluxgate, and extract MCG signals in all the three orthogonal directions (X, Y and Z) on the anterior thorax. It is expected that such portable room temperature measurements using fluxgate sensor could assist in validating the direction of the equivalent current dipole associated with the electrical activity of the human heart. This is somewhat difficult in conventional MCG measurements using SQUID sensors, which usually furnish only the z component of the magnetic field and its spatial derivatives.

  7. CLUSTER STAFF search coils magnetometer calibration - comparisons with FGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Piberne, R.; de Conchy, Y.; Lacombe, C.; Bouzid, V.; Grison, B.; Alison, D.; Canu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The main part of Cluster Spatio Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment consists of triaxial search coils allowing the measurements of the three magnetic components of the waves from 0.1 Hz up to 4 kHz. Two sets of data are produced, one by a module to filter and transmit the corresponding waveform up to either 10 or 180 Hz (STAFF-SC) and the second by an onboard Spectrum Analyser (STAFF-SA) to compute the elements of the spectral matrix for five components of the waves, 3 × B and 2 × E (from EFW experiment) in the frequency range 8 Hz to 4 kHz. In order to understand the way the output signal of the search coils are calibrated, the transfer functions of the different parts of the instrument are described as well as the way to transform telemetry data into physical units, across various coordinate systems from the spinning sensors to a fixed and known frame. The instrument sensitivity is discussed. Cross-calibration inside STAFF (SC and SA) is presented. Results of cross-calibration between the STAFF search coils and the Cluster Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM) data are discussed. It is shown that these cross-calibrations lead to an agreement between both data sets at low frequency within a 2% error. By means of statistics done over 10 yr, it is shown that the functionalities and characteristics of both instruments have not changed during this period.

  8. CLUSTER-STAFF search coil magnetometer calibration - comparisons with FGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Piberne, R.; de Conchy, Y.; Lacombe, C.; Bouzid, V.; Grison, B.; Alison, D.; Canu, P.

    2014-09-01

    The main part of the Cluster Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment consists of triaxial search coils allowing the measurements of the three magnetic components of the waves from 0.1 Hz up to 4 kHz. Two sets of data are produced, one by a module to filter and transmit the corresponding waveform up to either 10 or 180 Hz (STAFF-SC), and the second by the onboard Spectrum Analyser (STAFF-SA) to compute the elements of the spectral matrix for five components of the waves, 3 × B and 2 × E (from the EFW experiment), in the frequency range 8 Hz to 4 kHz. In order to understand the way the output signals of the search coils are calibrated, the transfer functions of the different parts of the instrument are described as well as the way to transform telemetry data into physical units across various coordinate systems from the spinning sensors to a fixed and known frame. The instrument sensitivity is discussed. Cross-calibration inside STAFF (SC and SA) is presented. Results of cross-calibration between the STAFF search coils and the Cluster Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) data are discussed. It is shown that these cross-calibrations lead to an agreement between both data sets at low frequency within a 2% error. By means of statistics done over 10 yr, it is shown that the functionalities and characteristics of both instruments have not changed during this period.

  9. A xylophone bar magnetometer for micro/pico satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Hervé; Niyonzima, Innocent; Rochus, Pierre; Rochus, Véronique

    2010-10-01

    The Belgian Institute of Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), "Centre Spatial de Liège" (CSL), "Laboratoire de Techniques Aéronautiques et Spatiales" (LTAS) of University of Liège, and the Microwave Laboratory of University of Louvain-La-Neuve (UCL) are collaborating in order to develop a miniature version of a xylophone bar magnetometer (XBM) using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. The device is based on a classical resonating xylophone bar. A sinusoidal current is supplied to the bar oscillating at the fundamental transverse resonant mode of the bar. When an external magnetic field is present, the resulting Lorentz force causes the bar to vibrate at its fundamental frequency with an amplitude directly proportional to the vertical component of the ambient magnetic field. In this paper we illustrate the working principles of the XBM and the challenges to reach the required sensitivity in space applications (measuring magnetic fields with an accuracy of approximately of 0.1 nT). The optimal dimensions of the MEMS XBM are discussed as well as the constraints on the current flowing through the bar. Analytical calculations as well as simulations with finite element methods have been used. Prototypes have been built in the Microwave Laboratory using silicon on insulator (SOI) and bulk micromachining processes. Several methods to accurately measure the displacement of the bar are proposed.

  10. Reducing systematic errors in measurements made by a SQUID magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, L.F.; Kaptás, D.; Balogh, J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple method is described which reduces those systematic errors of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer that arise from possible radial displacements of the sample in the second-order gradiometer superconducting pickup coil. By rotating the sample rod (and hence the sample) around its axis into a position where the best fit is obtained to the output voltage of the SQUID as the sample is moved through the pickup coil, the accuracy of measuring magnetic moments can be increased significantly. In the cases of an examined Co 1.9 Fe 1.1 Si Heusler alloy, pure iron and nickel samples, the accuracy could be increased over the value given in the specification of the device. The suggested method is only meaningful if the measurement uncertainty is dominated by systematic errors – radial displacement in particular – and not by instrumental or environmental noise. - Highlights: • A simple method is described which reduces systematic errors of a SQUID. • The errors arise from a radial displacement of the sample in the gradiometer coil. • The procedure is to rotate the sample rod (with the sample) around its axis. • The best fit to the SQUID voltage has to be attained moving the sample through the coil. • The accuracy of measuring magnetic moment can be increased significantly

  11. Obtaining 'images' from iron objects using a 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilo, Jose; Jabor, Abbas; Lizska, Ludwik; Eide, Age J.; Lindblad, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic objects can cause local variations in the Earth's magnetic field that can be measured with a magnetometer. Here we used tri-axial magnetometer measurements and an analysis method employing wavelet techniques to determine the 'signature' or 'fingerprint' of different iron objects. Clear distinctions among the iron samples were observed. The time-dependent changes in the frequency powers were extracted by use of the Morlet wavelet corresponding to frequency bands from 0.1 to 100 Hz

  12. Manned-Unmanned Teaming of Aircraft - Literature Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    restricted to 2003 2013. Literature searches were conducted in eight databases Aerospace and High Technology, Scopus , NTIS, Inspec, Compendex, DTIC, Jane’si...Buddy Unmanned wingman Manned-Unmanned Teaming Dec 2013 Page 35 of 37 7.1.2 Sources Online databases • Scopus • Aerospace and High Technology

  13. High-sensitivity dc field magnetometer using nonlinear resonance magnetoelectric effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdin, D.A.; Chashin, D.V.; Ekonomov, N.A.; Fetisov, Y.K.; Stashkevich, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The design and operation principle of dc field magnetometer using nonlinear resonance magnetoelectric effect in a ferromagnetic–piezoelectric structure are described. It is shown that under action of ac pumping magnetic field the structure generates the output voltage containing higher harmonics whose amplitudes depend on the dc magnetic field. Best performance of the device is obtained if the signal of the third harmonics is used for the dc field measurement. The sensitivity can be considerably (by approximately three orders of magnitude) increased if advantage is taken of the acoustic resonance of the structure at this frequency. There exists the optimal pumping field ensuring the highest sensitivity. Further increasing of this field expands the range of measurable dc fields at the expense of deteriorated sensitivity. The magnetometer fabricated on the basis of a planar langatate-Metglas structure had sensitivity up to ~1 V/Oe and allowed detection of the fields as low as ~10"−"5 Oe. - Highlights: • Operational principle and design of new type dc field magnetometer is described. • Magnetometer uses nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in a langatate-Metglas structure. • Magnetometer has sensitivity of ~1 V/Oe and detects fields as low as 10"−"5 Oe. • The proposed magnetometer can compete with well known fluxgate sensors.

  14. High-sensitivity dc field magnetometer using nonlinear resonance magnetoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, D.A.; Chashin, D.V.; Ekonomov, N.A. [Moscow State University of Information Technologies, Radio Engineering and Electronics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fetisov, Y.K., E-mail: fetisov@mirea.ru [Moscow State University of Information Technologies, Radio Engineering and Electronics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stashkevich, A.A. [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2016-05-01

    The design and operation principle of dc field magnetometer using nonlinear resonance magnetoelectric effect in a ferromagnetic–piezoelectric structure are described. It is shown that under action of ac pumping magnetic field the structure generates the output voltage containing higher harmonics whose amplitudes depend on the dc magnetic field. Best performance of the device is obtained if the signal of the third harmonics is used for the dc field measurement. The sensitivity can be considerably (by approximately three orders of magnitude) increased if advantage is taken of the acoustic resonance of the structure at this frequency. There exists the optimal pumping field ensuring the highest sensitivity. Further increasing of this field expands the range of measurable dc fields at the expense of deteriorated sensitivity. The magnetometer fabricated on the basis of a planar langatate-Metglas structure had sensitivity up to ~1 V/Oe and allowed detection of the fields as low as ~10{sup −5} Oe. - Highlights: • Operational principle and design of new type dc field magnetometer is described. • Magnetometer uses nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in a langatate-Metglas structure. • Magnetometer has sensitivity of ~1 V/Oe and detects fields as low as 10{sup −5} Oe. • The proposed magnetometer can compete with well known fluxgate sensors.

  15. The low cost Proton Precession Magnetometer developed at the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahavarkar, P.; Singh, S.; Labde, S.; Dongre, V.; Patil, A.

    2017-01-01

    Proton magnetometers are the oldest scalar magnetometers. The first commercial units were produced in early 1960s as portable instruments. In continuation airborne instruments appeared with optimized speed of readings and sensitivity, large sensors etc. Later development of Overhauser and optically pumped magnetometers has eliminated Proton magnetometers from airborne surveys. However they remain very popular in various ground surveys and observatories. With this primary purpose of generating the ground based magnetic data, the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG) for the last 3 decades have been developing low cost Proton Precession Magnetometers (PPM). Beginning with the 1 nT PPM which has undergone several changes in design, the successor PM7 the advanced version has been successfully developed by the institute and is installed at various observatories of the institute. PM7 records the total field 'F' with accuracy of 0.1 nT and a sampling rate of 10 seconds/sample. This article briefly discusses the design and development of this IIG make PM7 and compares the data recorded by this instrument with one of the commercially available Overhauser magnetometer in the world market. The quality of data recorded by PM7 is in excellent agreement with the Overhauser. With the available quality of data generated by this instrument, PM7 is an affordable PPM for scientific institutions, schools and colleges intending to carry out geomagnetic studies. The commercial cost of PM7 is ≈ 20% of the cost of Overhauser available in market.

  16. The low cost Proton Precession Magnetometer developed at the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, P.; Singh, S.; Labde, S.; Dongre, V.; Patil, A.

    2017-05-01

    Proton magnetometers are the oldest scalar magnetometers. The first commercial units were produced in early 1960s as portable instruments. In continuation airborne instruments appeared with optimized speed of readings and sensitivity, large sensors etc. Later development of Overhauser and optically pumped magnetometers has eliminated Proton magnetometers from airborne surveys. However they remain very popular in various ground surveys and observatories. With this primary purpose of generating the ground based magnetic data, the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG) for the last 3 decades have been developing low cost Proton Precession Magnetometers (PPM). Beginning with the 1 nT PPM which has undergone several changes in design, the successor PM7 the advanced version has been successfully developed by the institute and is installed at various observatories of the institute. PM7 records the total field `F' with accuracy of 0.1 nT and a sampling rate of 10 seconds/sample. This article briefly discusses the design and development of this IIG make PM7 and compares the data recorded by this instrument with one of the commercially available Overhauser magnetometer in the world market. The quality of data recorded by PM7 is in excellent agreement with the Overhauser. With the available quality of data generated by this instrument, PM7 is an affordable PPM for scientific institutions, schools and colleges intending to carry out geomagnetic studies. The commercial cost of PM7 is ≈ 20% of the cost of Overhauser available in market.

  17. A portable Hall magnetometer probe for characterization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jefferson F.D.F.; Costa, Mateus C.; Louro, Sonia R.W.; Bruno, Antonio C., E-mail: acbruno@puc-rio.br

    2017-03-15

    We have built a portable Hall magnetometer probe, for measuring magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be used for bulk materials and liquid samples as well. The magnetometer probe consists of four voltage-programmable commercial Hall sensors and a thin acrylic plate for positioning the sensors. In order to operate, it needs to be attached to a pole of an electromagnet and connected to an AD converter and a computer. It acquires a complete magnetization curve in a couple of minutes and has a magnetic moment sensitivity of 3.5×10{sup −7} Am{sup 2}. We tested its performance with magnetic nanoparticles containing an iron oxide core and having coating layers with different sizes. The magnetization results obtained were compared with measurements performed on commercial stand-alone magnetometers, and exhibited errors of about ±0.2 Am{sup 2}/kg (i.e 0.4%) at saturation and below 0.5 Am{sup 2}/kg (i.e. 10%) at remanence. - Highlights: • A low-cost portable Hall magnetometer probe has been built. • The Hall magnetometer probe can be attached to any electromagnet. • The Hall probe was calibrated and successfully compared to industry standard magnetometers. • The Hall probe was able to measure iron oxide nanoparticles with different coatings.

  18. A portable Hall magnetometer probe for characterization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson F.D.F.; Costa, Mateus C.; Louro, Sonia R.W.; Bruno, Antonio C.

    2017-01-01

    We have built a portable Hall magnetometer probe, for measuring magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be used for bulk materials and liquid samples as well. The magnetometer probe consists of four voltage-programmable commercial Hall sensors and a thin acrylic plate for positioning the sensors. In order to operate, it needs to be attached to a pole of an electromagnet and connected to an AD converter and a computer. It acquires a complete magnetization curve in a couple of minutes and has a magnetic moment sensitivity of 3.5×10 −7 Am 2 . We tested its performance with magnetic nanoparticles containing an iron oxide core and having coating layers with different sizes. The magnetization results obtained were compared with measurements performed on commercial stand-alone magnetometers, and exhibited errors of about ±0.2 Am 2 /kg (i.e 0.4%) at saturation and below 0.5 Am 2 /kg (i.e. 10%) at remanence. - Highlights: • A low-cost portable Hall magnetometer probe has been built. • The Hall magnetometer probe can be attached to any electromagnet. • The Hall probe was calibrated and successfully compared to industry standard magnetometers. • The Hall probe was able to measure iron oxide nanoparticles with different coatings.

  19. Transitioning Unmanned Technologies for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, L. J.; Douglas, J.

    2008-12-01

    Development of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has progressed dramatically in recent years along with miniaturization of sensor technology. This confluence of development paths has resulted in greater capability in smaller, less expensive platforms allowing research to be performed where manned airborne platforms are impractical or dangerous. Recent applications include small UAS for studies involving hurricanes, volcanic activity, sea ice changes, glacier melt, biological monitoring of land and sea species, wildfire monitoring, and others. However, the majority of UAS employed in these investigations were originally developed for non-civilian applications and many of the required interfaces are locked behind proprietary specifications, requiring expensive customization by the manufacturer to transform a military UAS into one suitable for civilian work. A small UAS for scientific research should be standards-based, low-cost, user friendly, field serviceable, and be designed to accept a range of payloads. The AV8R UAS is one example of an unmanned system that has been developed for specific application to earth observation missions. This system is designed to be operated by the user with difficult environmental conditions and field logistics in mind. Numerous features and innovations that advance this technology as a research tool as well as its planned science missions will be presented. Most importantly, all interfaces to the system required for successful design and integration of various payloads will be openly available. The environment of open, standards based development allow the small technologies companies that serve as the backbone for much of the technology development to participate in the rapid development of industry capabilities. This is particularly true with UAS technologies. Programs within the USA such as the STTR foster collaborations with small businesses and university researchers. Other innovations related to autonomous unmanned systems

  20. Developments and challenges for autonomous unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    It is widely anticipated that autonomous vehicles will have a transformational impact on military forces and will play a key role in many future force structures. As a result, many tasks have already been identified that unmanned systems could undertake more readily than humans. However, for this to occur, such systems will need to be agile, versatile, persistent, reliable, survivable and lethal. This will require many of the vehicles 'cognitive' or higher order functions to be more fully developed, whereas to date only the 'component' or physical functions have been successfully automated and

  1. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  2. A Model Stitching Architecture for Continuous Full Flight-Envelope Simulation of Fixed-Wing Aircraft and Rotorcraft from Discrete Point Linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AND ROTORCRAFT FROM DISCRETE -POINT LINEAR MODELS Eric L. Tobias and Mark B. Tischler Aviation Development Directorate Aviation and Missile...Stitching Architecture for Continuous Full Flight-Envelope Simulation of Fixed-Wing Aircraft and Rotorcraft from Discrete -Point Linear Models 5...of discrete -point linear models and trim data. The model stitching simulation architecture is applicable to any aircraft configuration readily

  3. In-Flight Calibration of the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Huang, B. G.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present an overview of the approach to in-flight calibration, which is a coordinated effort between the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF) and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). We present details of the calibration effort at GSFC. During the first dayside season of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, the in-flight calibration process for the Fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) implemented an algorithm that selected a constant offset (zero-level) for each sensor on each orbit. This method was generally able to reduce the amplitude of residual spin tone to less than 0.2 nT within the region of interest. However, there are times when the offsets do show significant short-term variations. These variations are most prominent in the nighttime season (phase 1X), when eclipses are accompanied by offset changes as large as 1 nT. Eclipses are followed by a recovery period as long as 12 hours where the offsets continue to change as temperatures stabilize. Understanding and compensating for these changes will become critical during Phase 2 of the mission in 2017, when the nightside will become the focus of MMS science. Although there is no direct correlation between offset and temperature, the offsets are seen for the period of any given week to be well-characterized as function of instrument temperature. Using this property, a new calibration method has been developed that has proven effective in compensating for temperature-dependent offsets during phase 1X of the MMS mission and also promises to further refine calibration quality during the dayside season.

  4. Rotorcraft pursuit-evasion in nap-of-the-earth flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.

    1990-01-01

    Two approaches for studying the pursuit-evasion problem between rotorcraft executing nap-of-the-earth flight are presented. The first of these employs a constant speed kinematic helicopter model, while the second approach uses a three degree of freedom point-mass model. The candidate solutions to the first differential game are generated by integrating the state-costate equations backward in time. The second problem employs feedback linearization to obtain guidance laws in nonlinear feedback form. Both approaches explicitly use the terrain profile data. Sample extremals are presented.

  5. Engineering science research issues in high power density transmission dynamics for aerospace applications. [rotorcraft geared rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical and experimental approaches that will be needed to understand dynamic, vibro-acoustic and design characteristics of high power density rotorcraft transmissions. Complexities associated with mathematical modeling of such systems will be discussed. An overview of research work planned during the next several years will be presented, with emphasis on engineering science issues such as gear contact mechanics, multi-mesh drive dynamics, parameter uncertainties, vibration transmission through bearings, and vibro-acoustic characteristics of geared rotor systems and housing-mount structures. A few examples of work in progress are cited.

  6. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual: Rotorcraft System Noise Prediction System (ROTONET), part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Donald S.; Jumper, Stephen J.; Burley, Casey L.; Golub, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the theoretical methods used in the rotorcraft noise prediction system (ROTONET), which is a part of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). The ANOPP code consists of an executive, database manager, and prediction modules for jet engine, propeller, and rotor noise. The ROTONET subsystem contains modules for the prediction of rotor airloads and performance with momentum theory and prescribed wake aerodynamics, rotor tone noise with compact chordwise and full-surface solutions to the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings equations, semiempirical airfoil broadband noise, and turbulence ingestion broadband noise. Flight dynamics, atmosphere propagation, and noise metric calculations are covered in NASA TM-83199, Parts 1, 2, and 3.

  7. Aerodynamics of Rotorcraft (L’Aerodynamique des Aeronefs a Voilure Tournante)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    appreciate wether or not the airfoil drag was liable to differ significantly from the 2-D value imposed In the CAMRAD calculation. Rotor blade boundary layer...0079, 1986 24. P.G. Wilby, M.J. Riley, Judith Miller, "Some unsteady effects on helicopter rotors." 7th European Rotorcraft and Powered Lift Forum...1981 W b 9-20 25. H.J. Riley, Judith Miller, "Pressure distributions on a helicopter swept tip from flight tests and from calculations", Paper No 9, 9th

  8. Weed detection using unmanned aircraft vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pflanz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to agricultural remote sensing technologies, which are based on images from satellites or manned aircrafts, photogrammetry at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles lead to higher spatial resolution, real-time processing and lower costs. Moreover multicopter aircrafts are suitable vehicles to perform precise path or stationary flights. In terms of vegetation photogrammetry this minimises motion blur and provide better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and through the recent increase in the availability of powerful batteries, microcontrollers and multispectral cameras, it can be expected in future that spatial mapping of weeds from low altitudes will be promoted. A small unmanned aircraft vehicle with a modified RGB camera was tested taking images from agricultural fields. A microcopter with six rotors was applied. The hexacopter in particular is GPS controlled and operates within predefined areas at given altitudes (from 5 to 10 m. Different scenarios of photogrammetrically weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. First experiences with microcopter showed a high potential for site-specific weed control. Images analyses with regards to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide applications to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  9. Radiation tolerance of a spin-dependent tunnelling magnetometer for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Anders; Thornell, Greger; Nguyen, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand for miniaturized space instruments, efforts have been made to miniaturize traditional magnetometers, e.g. fluxgate and spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometers. These have, for different reasons, turned out to be difficult. New technologies are needed, and promising in this respect are tunnelling magnetoresistive (TMR) magnetometers, which are based on thin film technology. However, all new space devices first have to be qualified, particularly in terms of radiation resistance. A study on TMR magnetometers' vulnerability to radiation is crucial, considering the fact that they employ a dielectric barrier, which can be susceptible to charge trapping from ionizing radiation. Here, a TMR-based magnetometer, called the spin-dependent tunnelling magnetometer (SDTM), is presented. A magnetometer chip consisting of three Wheatstone bridges, with an angular pitch of 120°, was fabricated using microstructure technology. Each branch of the Wheatstone bridges consists of eight pairs of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) connected in series. Two such chips are used to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field vector. To investigate the SDTM's resistance to radiation, one branch of a Wheatstone bridge was irradiated with gamma rays from a Co 60 source with a dose rate of 10.9 rad min −1 to a total dose of 100 krad. The TMR of the branch was monitored in situ, and the easy axis TMR loop and low-frequency noise characteristics of a single MTJ were acquired before and after irradiation with the total dose. It was concluded that radiation did not influence the MTJs in any noticeable way in terms of the TMR ratio, coercivity, magnetostatic coupling or low-frequency noise

  10. Research on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Composite powered Unmanned Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yun; Wang, Lu; Ma, Chengyu; Xia, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The main structure of the composite powered unmanned airship is consists of airbags and four-rotor system, which airbag increases the available lift, and has more advantages in terms of load and flight when compared with the traditional four-rotor. In order to compare the aerodynamic performance of the composite powered unmanned airship and the traditional four-rotor, the SIMPLE algorithm and the RNG k-epsilon model method are be used. The energy consumption of the composite powered unmanned airship is lesser than the traditional four-rotor under the same load and range was found.

  11. Nonlinear temperature compensation of fluxgate magnetometers with a least-squares support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Feilu

    2012-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometers are widely used for magnetic field measurement. However, their accuracy is influenced by temperature. In this paper, a new method was proposed to compensate the temperature drift of fluxgate magnetometers, in which a least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is utilized. The compensation performance was analyzed by simulation, which shows that the LSSVM has better performance and less training time than backpropagation and radical basis function neural networks. The temperature characteristics of a DM fluxgate magnetometer were measured with a temperature experiment box. Forty-five measured data under different magnetic fields and temperatures were obtained and divided into 36 training data and nine test data. The training data were used to obtain the parameters of the LSSVM model, and the compensation performance of the LSSVM model was verified by the test data. Experimental results show that the temperature drift of magnetometer is reduced from 109.3 to 3.3 nT after compensation, which suggests that this compensation method is effective for the accuracy improvement of fluxgate magnetometers. (paper)

  12. A dumbbell-shaped hybrid magnetometer operating in DC-10 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongyu; Wang, Yanzhang; Chen, Siyu; Lin, Jun

    2017-12-01

    This study is motivated by the need to design a hybrid magnetometer operating in a wide-frequency band from DC to 10 kHz. To achieve this objective, a residence times difference fluxgate magnetometer (RTDFM) and an induction magnetometer (IM) have been integrated into a compact form. The hybrid magnetometer has a dumbbell-shaped structure in which the RTDFM transducer is partially inserted into the tube cores of the IM. Thus, the sensitivity of the RTDFM is significantly improved due to the flux amplification. The optimal structure, which has maximum sensitivity enhancement, was obtained through FEM analysis. To validate the theoretical analysis, the optimal hybrid magnetometer was manufactured, and its performance was evaluated. The device has a sensitivity of 45 mV/nT at 1 kHz in IM mode and 0.38 μs/nT in RTDFM mode, which is approximately 3.45 times as large as that of the single RTDFM structure. Furthermore, to obtain a lower noise performance in the entire frequency band, two operation modes switch at the cross frequency (0.16 Hz) of their noise levels. The noise level is 30 pT/√Hz in RTDFM mode and 0.07 pT/√Hz at 1 kHz in IM mode.

  13. Nonlinear temperature compensation of fluxgate magnetometers with a least-squares support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Feilu

    2012-02-01

    Fluxgate magnetometers are widely used for magnetic field measurement. However, their accuracy is influenced by temperature. In this paper, a new method was proposed to compensate the temperature drift of fluxgate magnetometers, in which a least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is utilized. The compensation performance was analyzed by simulation, which shows that the LSSVM has better performance and less training time than backpropagation and radical basis function neural networks. The temperature characteristics of a DM fluxgate magnetometer were measured with a temperature experiment box. Forty-five measured data under different magnetic fields and temperatures were obtained and divided into 36 training data and nine test data. The training data were used to obtain the parameters of the LSSVM model, and the compensation performance of the LSSVM model was verified by the test data. Experimental results show that the temperature drift of magnetometer is reduced from 109.3 to 3.3 nT after compensation, which suggests that this compensation method is effective for the accuracy improvement of fluxgate magnetometers.

  14. NetPICOmag: A low-cost networked magnetometer and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-03-01

    NetPICOmag (NPM) is the culmination of a design effort to build a compact, low-cost, laboratory-grade, networked magnetometer designed for remote autonomous operation, suited for research and education. NPM allows wide placement of magnetometers sensitive enough to detect auroral activity and the daily variation, and is suitable for education projects and a range of geophysical applications. The use of networked microcontrollers and GPS timing is applicable to other small instruments for field or local deployment, and an onboard data logging capability has also been demonstrated. We illustrate the value of the placement of low-cost magnetometers to increase coverage in an area through the study of a Pc 5 pulsation event which took place on September 4, 2010. By combining results with those from auroral zone magnetometers supporting the THEMIS project, we find that the phase velocity of these morning sector pulsations was northward on the ground. The event took place under very quiet solar wind conditions, and credible mapping associates it with the inner magnetosphere. Another aspect beyond increasing areal coverage is increasing density of coverage, which becomes feasible with instruments of very low cost. We examine aspects of the April 5, 2010 space weather event which are possible to deduce from closely spaced magnetometers.

  15. Responsibility practices and unmanned military technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorman, Merel

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of increasingly autonomous military robots has raised concerns about the obfuscation of human responsibility. This papers argues that whether or not and to what extent human actors are and will be considered to be responsible for the behavior of robotic systems is and will be the outcome of ongoing negotiations between the various human actors involved. These negotiations are about what technologies should do and mean, but they are also about how responsibility should be interpreted and how it can be best assigned or ascribed. The notion of responsibility practices, as the paper shows, provides a conceptual tool to examine these negotiations as well as the interplay between technological development and the ascription of responsibility. To illustrate the dynamics of responsibility practices the paper explores how the introduction of unmanned aerial vehicles has led to (re)negotiations about responsibility practices, focusing particularly on negotiations within the US Armed Forces.

  16. Pipeline monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, L. I.

    2018-05-01

    Pipeline leakage during transportation of combustible substances leads to explosion and fire thus causing death of people and destruction of production and accommodation facilities. Continuous pipeline monitoring allows identifying leaks in due time and quickly taking measures for their elimination. The paper describes the solution of identification of pipeline leakage using unmanned aerial vehicles. It is recommended to apply the spectral analysis with input RGB signal to identify pipeline damages. The application of multi-zone digital images allows defining potential spill of oil hydrocarbons as well as possible soil pollution. The method of multi-temporal digital images within the visible region makes it possible to define changes in soil morphology for its subsequent analysis. The given solution is cost efficient and reliable thus allowing reducing timing and labor resources in comparison with other methods of pipeline monitoring.

  17. A survey of hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Adnan S.; Younes, Ahmad Bani; Cai, Chenxiao; Cai, Guowei

    2018-04-01

    This article presents a comprehensive overview on the recent advances of miniature hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). For now, two conventional types, i.e., fixed-wing UAV and Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) UAV, dominate the miniature UAVs. Each type has its own inherent limitations on flexibility, payload, flight range, cruising speed, takeoff and landing requirements and endurance. Enhanced popularity and interest are recently gained by the newer type, named hybrid UAV, that integrates the beneficial features of both conventional ones. In this survey paper, a systematic categorization method for the hybrid UAV's platform designs is introduced, first presenting the technical features and representative examples. Next, the hybrid UAV's flight dynamics model and flight control strategies are explained addressing several representative modeling and control work. In addition, key observations, existing challenges and conclusive remarks based on the conducted review are discussed accordingly.

  18. Mathematical Modelling of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sarwar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available UAVs (Unmanned Arial Vehicleis UAVs are emerging as requirement of time and it is expected that in next five to ten years, complete air space will be flooded with UAVs, committed in varied assignments ranging from military, scientific and commercial usage. Non availability of human pilot inside UAV necessitates the requirement of an onboard autopilot in order to maintain desired flight profile against any unexpected disturbance and/or parameter variations. Design of such an autopilot requires an accurate mathematical model of UAV. The aim of this paper is to present a consolidated picture of UAV model. This paper first consolidates complete 6 DOF Degree of Freedom equations of motion into a nonlinear mathematical model and its simulation using model parameters of a real UAV. Model is then linearized into longitudinal and lateral modes. State space models of linearized modes are simulated and analyzed for stability parameters. The developed model can be used to design autopilot for UAV

  19. Robust obstacle detection for unmanned surface vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yueming; Zhang, Xiuzhi

    2018-03-01

    Obstacle detection is of essential importance for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV). Although some obstacles (e.g., ships, islands) can be detected by Radar, there are many other obstacles (e.g., floating pieces of woods, swimmers) which are difficult to be detected via Radar because these obstacles have low radar cross section. Therefore, detecting obstacle from images taken onboard is an effective supplement. In this paper, a robust vision-based obstacle detection method for USVs is developed. The proposed method employs the monocular image sequence captured by the camera on the USVs and detects obstacles on the sea surface from the image sequence. The experiment results show that the proposed scheme is efficient to fulfill the obstacle detection task.

  20. Risk Assessment for an Unmanned Merchant Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø.J. Rødseth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The MUNIN project is doing a feasibility study on an unmanned bulk carrier on an intercontinental voyage. To develop the technical and operational concepts, MUNIN has used a risk-based design method, based on the Formal Safety Analysis method which is also recommended by the International Mari-time Organization. Scenario analysis has been used to identify risks and to simplify operational scope. Systematic hazard identification has been used to find critical safety and security risks and how to address these. Technology and operational concept testing is using a hypothesis-based test method, where the hypotheses have been created as a result of the risk assessment. Finally, the cost-benefit assessment will also use results from the risk assessment. This paper describes the risk assessment method, some of the most important results and also describes how the results have been or will be used in the different parts of the project.

  1. Mathematical modelling of unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, S.; Rehman, S.U.

    2013-01-01

    UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) UAVs are emerging as requirement of time and it is expected that in next five to ten years, complete air space will be flooded with UAVs, committed in varied assignments ranging from military, scientific and commercial usage. Non availability of human pilot inside UAV necessitates the requirement of an onboard auto pilot in order to maintain desired flight profile against any unexpected disturbance and/or parameter variations. Design of such an auto pilot requires an accurate mathematical model of UAV. The aim of this paper is to present a consolidated picture of UAV model. This paper first consolidates complete 6 DOF Degree of Freedom) equations of motion into a nonlinear mathematical model and its simulation using model parameters of a real UAV. Model is then linearized into longitudinal and lateral modes. State space models of linearized modes are simulated and analyzed for stability parameters. The developed model can be used to design auto pilot for UAV. (author)

  2. National Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, Susan E.; Sloan, Jeff L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office leads the implementation of UAS technology in the Department of the Interior (DOI). Our mission is to support the transition of UAS into DOI as a new cost-effective tool for collecting remote-sensing data to monitor environmental conditions, respond to natural hazards, recognize the consequences and benefits of land and climate change and conduct wildlife inventories. The USGS is teaming with all DOI agencies and academia as well as local, State, and Tribal governments with guidance from the Federal Aviation Administration and the DOI Office of Aviation Services (OAS) to lead the safe, efficient, costeffective and leading-edge adoption of UAS technology into the scientific research and operational activities of the DOI.

  3. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  4. Autonomous vertical autorotation for unmanned helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are considered the stepping stone for the integration of civil unmanned vehicles in the National Airspace System (NAS) because of their low cost and risk. Such systems are aimed at a variety of applications including search and rescue, surveillance, communications, traffic monitoring and inspection of buildings, power lines and bridges. Amidst these systems, small helicopters play an important role because of their capability to hold a position, to maneuver in tight spaces and to take off and land from virtually anywhere. Nevertheless civil adoption of such systems is minimal, mostly because of regulatory problems that in turn are due to safety concerns. This dissertation examines the risk to safety imposed by UAS in general and small helicopters in particular, focusing on accidents resulting in a ground impact. To improve the performance of small helicopters in this area, the use of autonomous autorotation is proposed. This research goes beyond previous work in the area of autonomous autorotation by developing an on-line, model-based, real-time controller that is capable of handling constraints and different cost functions. The approach selected is based on a non-linear model-predictive controller, that is augmented by a neural network to improve the speed of the non-linear optimization. The immediate benefit of this controller is that a class of failures that would otherwise result in an uncontrolled crash and possible injuries or fatalities can now be accommodated. Furthermore besides simply landing the helicopter, the controller is also capable of minimizing the risk of serious injury to people in the area. This is accomplished by minimizing the kinetic energy during the last phase of the descent. The presented research is designed to benefit the entire UAS community as well as the public, by allowing for safer UAS operations, which in turn also allow faster and less expensive integration of UAS in the NAS.

  5. Comparison of a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and Toftness sensometer for body surface EMF measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, John; Toftness, Dave; Snyder, Brian; Nosco, Dennis; Balcavage, Walter; Nindl, Gabi

    2004-12-01

    The use of magnetic fields to treat disease has intrigued mankind since the time of the ancient Greeks. More recently it has been shown that electromagnetic field (EMF) treatment aids bone healing, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be beneficial in treating schizophrenia and depression. Since external EMFs influence internal body processes, we hypothesized that measurement of body surface EMFs might be used to detect disease states and direct the course of subsequent therapy. However, measurement of minute body surface EMFs requires use of a sensitive and well documented magnetometer. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity and frequency response of a fluxgate magnetometer with a triaxial probe for use in detecting body surface EMF and we compared the magnetometer readings with a signal from a Toftness Sensometer, operated by an experienced clinician, in the laboratory and in a clinical setting. A Peavy Audio Amplifier and variable power output Telulex signal generator were used to develop 50 microT EMFs in a three coil Merritt coil system. A calibrated magnetometer was used to set a 60 Hz 50 microT field in the coil and an ammeter was used to measure the current required to develop the 50 microT field. At frequencies other than 60 Hz, the field strength was maintained at 50 microT by adjusting the Telulex signal output to keep the current constant. The field generated was monitored using a 10 turn coil connected to an oscilloscope. The oscilloscope reading indicated that the field strength was the same at all frequencies tested. To determine if there was a correspondence between the signals detected by a fluxgate magnetometer (FGM1) and the Toftness Sensometer both devices were placed in the Merritt coil and readings were recorded from the FGM1 and compared with the ability of a highly experienced Toftness operator to detect the 50 microT field. Subsequently, in a clinical setting, FGM1 readings made by an FGM1 technician and

  6. Construction and calibration of a low cost and fully automated vibrating sample magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Alaily, T.M.; El-Nimr, M.K.; Saafan, S.A.; Kamel, M.M.; Meaz, T.M.; Assar, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    A low cost vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) has been constructed by using an electromagnet and an audio loud speaker; where both are controlled by a data acquisition device. The constructed VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. The apparatus has been calibrated and tested by using magnetic hysteresis data of some ferrite samples measured by two scientifically calibrated magnetometers; model (Lake Shore 7410) and model (LDJ Electronics Inc. Troy, MI). Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability. - Highlights: • A low cost automated vibrating sample magnetometer VSM has been constructed. • The VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. • The VSM has been calibrated and tested by using some measured ferrite samples. • Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability

  7. Construction and calibration of a low cost and fully automated vibrating sample magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Alaily, T.M., E-mail: toson_alaily@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); El-Nimr, M.K.; Saafan, S.A.; Kamel, M.M.; Meaz, T.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Assar, S.T. [Engineering Physics and Mathematics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt)

    2015-07-15

    A low cost vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) has been constructed by using an electromagnet and an audio loud speaker; where both are controlled by a data acquisition device. The constructed VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. The apparatus has been calibrated and tested by using magnetic hysteresis data of some ferrite samples measured by two scientifically calibrated magnetometers; model (Lake Shore 7410) and model (LDJ Electronics Inc. Troy, MI). Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability. - Highlights: • A low cost automated vibrating sample magnetometer VSM has been constructed. • The VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. • The VSM has been calibrated and tested by using some measured ferrite samples. • Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability.

  8. Field-Programmable Gate Array-based fluxgate magnetometer with digital integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butta, Mattia; Janosek, Michal; Ripka, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a digital magnetometer based on printed circuit board fluxgate is presented. The fluxgate is pulse excited and the signal is extracted by gate integration. We investigate the possibility to perform integration on very narrow gates (typically 500 ns) by using digital techniques. The magnetometer is based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) card: we will show all the advantages and disadvantages, given by digitalization of fluxgate output voltage by means of analog-to-digital converter on FPGA card, as well as digitalization performed by external digitizer. Due to very narrow gate, it is shown that a magnetometer entirely based on a FPGA card is preferable, because it avoids noise due to trigger instability. Both open loop and feedback operative mode are described and achieved results are presented.

  9. Development of a {sup 3}He magnetometer for a neutron electric dipole moment experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Andreas; Heil, Werner; Lauer, Thorsten; Neumann, Daniel [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Koch, Hans-Christian [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); University of Fribourg, Physics Department, Fribourg (Switzerland); Daum, Manfred [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Pazgalev, Anatoly [Ioffe Institute, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sobolev, Yuri [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Weis, Antoine [University of Fribourg, Physics Department, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive {sup 3}He magnetometer for the accurate measurement of the magnetic field in an experiment searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron. By measuring the Larmor frequency of nuclear spin polarized {sup 3}He atoms a sensitivity on the femto-Tesla scale can be achieved. A {sup 3}He/Cs-test facility was established at the Institute of Physics of the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz to investigate the readout of {sup 3}He free induction decay with a lamp-pumped Cs magnetometer. For this we designed and built an ultra-compact and transportable polarizer unit which polarizes {sup 3}He gas up to 55% by metastability exchange optical pumping. The polarized {sup 3}He was successfully transfered from the polarizer into a glass cell mounted in a magnetic shield and the {sup 3}He free induction decay was detected by a lamp-pumped Cs magnetometer. (orig.)

  10. Estimation and Prediction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Trajectories, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is serious concern about the introduction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in the National Air Space (NAS) because of their potential to increase the risk of...

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geer, Harlan; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Furthermore, the military effectiveness of UAVs in recent conflicts such as Iraq (1990) and Kosovo (1999) opened the eyes of many to both the advantages and disadvantages provided by unmanned aircraft...

  12. Windhover Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Software Ecosystem, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The safety of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flights is currently the responsibility of the pilot who is required to keep the vehicle within their line of sight...

  13. Autonomous Agricultural Application using Unmanned Aircraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Interest in Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for civilian use has increased greatly in recent years and is expected to grow significantly in the future. NASA is...

  14. Core Flight Software for Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) is increasing worldwide, but multiple technical barriers restrict the greater use of UASs. The safe operation of UASs in the...

  15. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an increasing need to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) to perform missions of vital importance to national security...

  16. Defining Handling Qualities of Unmanned Aerial Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) are here to stay and operators are demanding access to the National Airspace System (NAS) for a wide variety of missions. This includes a...

  17. Defining Handling Qualities of Unmanned Aerial Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) are no longer coming, they are here, and operators from first responders to commercial operators are demanding access to the National...

  18. Evaluation and development of unmanned aircraft (UAV) for UDOT needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This research involved the use of high-resolution aerial photography obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to aid UDOT in monitoring and documenting State Roadway structures and associated issues. Using geo-referenced UAV high resolution aeria...

  19. Information Exchange Architecture for Integrating Unmanned Vehicles into Maritime Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woolsey, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    .... The focus of this study is to analyze the structure of information flow for unmanned systems and suggest an exchange architecture to successfully inform and build decision maker understanding based...

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Road to Effective Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrock, Christopher T; Huizenga, Thomas D

    2006-01-01

    ...) sharing airspace with manned assets. There have been at least two recent collisions between unmanned and rotary-wing aircraft at lower altitudes in Iraq, as well as numerous near misses with fixed-wing aircraft at higher altitudes...

  1. Optimum Route Planning and Scheduling for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonmezocak, Erkan; Kurt, Senol

    2008-01-01

    .... The route planning of UAVs is the most critical and challenging problem of wartime. This thesis will develop three algorithms to solve a model that produces executable routings in order to dispatch three Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV...

  2. 75 FR 50688 - Special Conditions: Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated S-64E and S-64F Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... rotorcraft load combination classes for the special condition requirements concerning placards. (d) Modifying... of weight, altitude, and temperature for which takeoff and landing data are scheduled. The flight... determined at each weight, altitude, and temperature for which certification is sought with one engine...

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Emerging Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    tools are becoming available that can produce a robust set of products including a geo-referenced base for value added investigations. Much like the use of global positioning systems, unmanned aircraft systems have the potential of enabling us to be better stewards of the land. We are actively working to develop applications of the traditional full motion video capabilities and are engaged in developing additional sensor capabilities for sUAS including- magnetometers, temperature, radio telemetry, chemical and biological gas detection, and gimbal mounted "photogrammetric" cameras.

  4. A Queueing Model for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Autonomous Vehicles Joseph DiVita, PhD Robert L. Morris Maria Olinda Rodas SSC Pacific Approved...298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 09–2013 Final A Queueing Model for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles Joseph...Mission Area: Command and Control, Queueing Model; Supervisory Control; Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles M. O. Rodas U U U U 38 (619)

  5. Coherent population trapping magnetometer by differential detecting magneto–optic rotation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Tian Yuan; Zhang Yi; Gu Si-Hong

    2016-01-01

    A pocket coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic magnetometer scheme that uses a vertical cavity surface emitting laser as a light source is proposed and experimentally investigated. Using the differential detecting magneto–optic rotation effect, a CPT spectrum with the background canceled and a high signal-to-noise ratio is obtained. The experimental results reveal that the sensitivity of the proposed scheme can be improved by half an order, and the ability to detect weak magnetic fields is extended one-fold. Therefore, the proposed scheme is suited to realize a pocket-size CPT magnetometer. (paper)

  6. Obtaining 'images' from iron objects using a 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilo, Jose [University of Gaevle, S-80176 Gaevle (Sweden); Jabor, Abbas [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Lizska, Ludwik [Swedish Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden); Eide, Age J. [Ostfold University College, N-1757 Halden (Norway); Lindblad, Thomas [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: lindblad@particle.kth.se

    2007-10-01

    Magnetic objects can cause local variations in the Earth's magnetic field that can be measured with a magnetometer. Here we used tri-axial magnetometer measurements and an analysis method employing wavelet techniques to determine the 'signature' or 'fingerprint' of different iron objects. Clear distinctions among the iron samples were observed. The time-dependent changes in the frequency powers were extracted by use of the Morlet wavelet corresponding to frequency bands from 0.1 to 100 Hz.

  7. Construction and calibration of a low cost and fully automated vibrating sample magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Alaily, T. M.; El-Nimr, M. K.; Saafan, S. A.; Kamel, M. M.; Meaz, T. M.; Assar, S. T.

    2015-07-01

    A low cost vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) has been constructed by using an electromagnet and an audio loud speaker; where both are controlled by a data acquisition device. The constructed VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. The apparatus has been calibrated and tested by using magnetic hysteresis data of some ferrite samples measured by two scientifically calibrated magnetometers; model (Lake Shore 7410) and model (LDJ Electronics Inc. Troy, MI). Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability.

  8. Integrated high-transition temperature magnetometer with only two superconducting layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, R.; Kingston, J.J.; Miklich, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and testing of an integrated YBa2Cu3O7-x thin-film magnetometer consisting of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), with biepitaxial grain boundary junctions, integrated with a flux transformer on a single substrate. Only two superconducting layers...... are required, the SQUID body serving as the crossunder that completes the multiturn flux transformer. The highest temperature at which any of the magnetometers functioned was 76 K. At 60 K the magnetic field gain of this device was 63, and the magnetic field noise was 160 fT Hz-1/2 at 2 kHz, increasing to 3...

  9. Membrane-based torque magnetometer: Enhanced sensitivity by optical readout of the membrane displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenhorn, M.; Heintze, E.; Slota, M.; van Slageren, J.; Moores, B. A.; Degen, C. L.; Bogani, L.; Dressel, M.

    2017-09-01

    The design and realization of a torque magnetometer is reported that reads the deflection of a membrane by optical interferometry. The compact instrument allows for low-temperature measurements of tiny crystals less than a microgram with a significant improvement in sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio as well as data acquisition time compared with conventional magnetometry and offers an enormous potential for further improvements and future applications in different fields. Magnetic measurements on single-molecule magnets demonstrate the applicability of the membrane-based torque magnetometer.

  10. Vector magnetometer design study: Analysis of a triaxial fluxgate sensor design demonstrates that all MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer specifications can be met

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. F.; Hartmann, U. G.; Lazarow, L. L.; Maloy, J. O.; Mohler, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The design of the vector magnetometer selected for analysis is capable of exceeding the required accuracy of 5 gamma per vector field component. The principal elements that assure this performance level are very low power dissipation triaxial feedback coils surrounding ring core flux-gates and temperature control of the critical components of two-loop feedback electronics. An analysis of the calibration problem points to the need for improved test facilities.

  11. Lunar magnetic anomalies detected by the Apollo substatellite magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L.L.; Coleman, P.J.; Russell, C.T.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Properties of lunar crustal magnetization thus far deduced from Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data are reviewed using two of the most accurate presently available magnetic anomaly maps - one covering a portion of the lunar near side and the other a part of the far side. The largest single anomaly found within the region of coverage on the near-side map correlates exactly with a conspicuous, light-colored marking in western Oceanus Procellarum called Reiner Gamma. This feature is interpreted as an unusual deposit of ejecta from secondary craters of the large nearby primary impact crater Cavalerius. An age for Cavalerius (and, by implication, for Reiner Gamma) of 3.2 ?? 0.2 ?? 109 y is estimated. The main (30 ?? 60 km) Reiner Gamma deposit is nearly uniformly magnetized in a single direction, with a minimum mean magnetization intensity of ???7 ?? 10-2 G cm3/g (assuming a density of 3 g/cm3), or about 700 times the stable magnetization component of the most magnetic returned samples. Additional medium-amplitude anomalies exist over the Fra Mauro Formation (Imbrium basin ejecta emplaced ???3.9 ?? 109 y ago) where it has not been flooded by mare basalt flows, but are nearly absent over the maria and over the craters Copernicus, Kepler, and Reiner and their encircling ejecta mantles. The mean altitude of the far-side anomaly gap is much higher than that of the near-side map and the surface geology is more complex, so individual anomaly sources have not yet been identified. However, it is clear that a concentration of especially strong sources exists in the vicinity of the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken. Numerical modeling of the associated fields reveals that the source locations do not correspond with the larger primary impact craters of the region and, by analogy with Reiner Gamma, may be less conspicuous secondary crater ejecta deposits. The reason for a special concentration of strong sources in the Van de Graaff-Aitken region is unknown, but may be indirectly

  12. Focused Lens on Unmanned Aerial Systems: An Evaluation of Department of Defense’s Unmanned Aerial Vision 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Break Free of Regulations.” 69Barbara Opall -Rome, “ Israel Tackles The Last Frontier Of UAS Technology: Israel Moves Closer Toward Flying UASs In...with the new F-35 Joint Strike Fighter once it comes online, or with helicopters aboard the Littoral Combat Ship. Unmanned mine hunters could operate...Office, 2002. ———. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2005-2030. Washington, DC: Government Publishing Office, 2005. Opall -Rome, Barbra. “Israel

  13. A unified flight control methodology for a compound rotorcraft in fundamental and aerobatic maneuvering flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Adam

    This study investigates a novel approach to flight control for a compound rotorcraft in a variety of maneuvers ranging from fundamental to aerobatic in nature. Fundamental maneuvers are a class of maneuvers with design significance that are useful for testing and tuning flight control systems along with uncovering control law deficiencies. Aerobatic maneuvers are a class of aggressive and complex maneuvers with more operational significance. The process culminating in a unified approach to flight control includes various control allocation studies for redundant controls in trim and maneuvering flight, an efficient methodology to simulate non-piloted maneuvers with varying degrees of complexity, and the setup of an unconventional control inceptor configuration along with the use of a flight simulator to gather pilot feedback in order to improve the unified control architecture. A flight path generation algorithm was developed to calculate control inceptor commands required for a rotorcraft in aerobatic maneuvers. This generalized algorithm was tailored to generate flight paths through optimization methods in order to satisfy target terminal position coordinates or to minimize the total time of a particular maneuver. Six aerobatic maneuvers were developed drawing inspiration from air combat maneuvers of fighter jet aircraft: Pitch-Back Turn (PBT), Combat Ascent Turn (CAT), Combat Descent Turn (CDT), Weaving Pull-up (WPU), Combat Break Turn (CBT), and Zoom and Boom (ZAB). These aerobatic maneuvers were simulated at moderate to high advance ratios while fundamental maneuvers of the compound including level accelerations/decelerations, climbs, descents, and turns were investigated across the entire flight envelope to evaluate controller performance. The unified control system was developed to allow controls to seamlessly transition between manual and automatic allocations while ensuring that the axis of control for a particular inceptor remained constant with flight

  14. Development and Validation of a Multidisciplinary Tool for Accurate and Efficient Rotorcraft Noise Prediction (MUTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Diskin, Boris

    2011-01-01

    A physics-based, systematically coupled, multidisciplinary prediction tool (MUTE) for rotorcraft noise was developed and validated with a wide range of flight configurations and conditions. MUTE is an aggregation of multidisciplinary computational tools that accurately and efficiently model the physics of the source of rotorcraft noise, and predict the noise at far-field observer locations. It uses systematic coupling approaches among multiple disciplines including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD), and high fidelity acoustics. Within MUTE, advanced high-order CFD tools are used around the rotor blade to predict the transonic flow (shock wave) effects, which generate the high-speed impulsive noise. Predictions of the blade-vortex interaction noise in low speed flight are also improved by using the Particle Vortex Transport Method (PVTM), which preserves the wake flow details required for blade/wake and fuselage/wake interactions. The accuracy of the source noise prediction is further improved by utilizing a coupling approach between CFD and CSD, so that the effects of key structural dynamics, elastic blade deformations, and trim solutions are correctly represented in the analysis. The blade loading information and/or the flow field parameters around the rotor blade predicted by the CFD/CSD coupling approach are used to predict the acoustic signatures at far-field observer locations with a high-fidelity noise propagation code (WOPWOP3). The predicted results from the MUTE tool for rotor blade aerodynamic loading and far-field acoustic signatures are compared and validated with a variation of experimental data sets, such as UH60-A data, DNW test data and HART II test data.

  15. An Investigation of Rotorcraft Stability-Phase Margin Requirements in Hover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Chris L.; Lusardi, Jeff A.; Ivler, Christina M.; Tischler, Mark B.; Hoefinger, Marc T.; Decker, William A.; Malpica, Carlos A.; Berger, Tom; Tucker, George E.

    2009-01-01

    A cooperative study was performed to investigate the handling quality effects from reduced flight control system stability margins, and the trade-offs with higher disturbance rejection bandwidth (DRB). The piloted simulation study, perform on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, included three classes of rotorcraft in four configurations: a utility-class helicopter; a medium-lift helicopter evaluated with and without an external slung load; and a large (heavy-lift) civil tiltrotor aircraft. This large aircraft also allowed an initial assessment of ADS-33 handling quality requirements for an aircraft of this size. Ten experimental test pilots representing the U.S. Army, Marine Corps, NASA, rotorcraft industry, and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), evaluated the four aircraft configurations, for a range of flight control stability-margins and turbulence levels, while primarily performing the ADS-33 Hover and Lateral Reposition MTEs. Pilot comments and aircraft-task performance data were analyzed. The preliminary stability margin results suggest higher DRB and less phase margin cases are preferred as the aircraft increases in size. Extra care will need to be taken to assess the influence of variability when nominal flight control gains start with reduced margins. Phase margins as low as 20-23 degrees resulted in low disturbance-response damping ratios, objectionable oscillations, PIO tendencies, and a perception of an incipient handling qualities cliff. Pilot comments on the disturbance response of the aircraft correlated well to the DRB guidelines provided in the ADS-33 Test Guide. The A D-3S3 mid-term response-to-control damping ratio metrics can be measured and applied to the disturbance-response damping ratio. An initial assessment of LCTR yaw bandwidth shows the current Level 1 boundary needs to be relaxed to help account for a large pilot off-set from the c.g. Future efforts should continue to investigate the applicability/refinement of the current ADS-33

  16. Robustness of mission plans for unmanned aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niendorf, Moritz

    This thesis studies the robustness of optimal mission plans for unmanned aircraft. Mission planning typically involves tactical planning and path planning. Tactical planning refers to task scheduling and in multi aircraft scenarios also includes establishing a communication topology. Path planning refers to computing a feasible and collision-free trajectory. For a prototypical mission planning problem, the traveling salesman problem on a weighted graph, the robustness of an optimal tour is analyzed with respect to changes to the edge costs. Specifically, the stability region of an optimal tour is obtained, i.e., the set of all edge cost perturbations for which that tour is optimal. The exact stability region of solutions to variants of the traveling salesman problems is obtained from a linear programming relaxation of an auxiliary problem. Edge cost tolerances and edge criticalities are derived from the stability region. For Euclidean traveling salesman problems, robustness with respect to perturbations to vertex locations is considered and safe radii and vertex criticalities are introduced. For weighted-sum multi-objective problems, stability regions with respect to changes in the objectives, weights, and simultaneous changes are given. Most critical weight perturbations are derived. Computing exact stability regions is intractable for large instances. Therefore, tractable approximations are desirable. The stability region of solutions to relaxations of the traveling salesman problem give under approximations and sets of tours give over approximations. The application of these results to the two-neighborhood and the minimum 1-tree relaxation are discussed. Bounds on edge cost tolerances and approximate criticalities are obtainable likewise. A minimum spanning tree is an optimal communication topology for minimizing the cumulative transmission power in multi aircraft missions. The stability region of a minimum spanning tree is given and tolerances, stability balls

  17. Space Weather Magnetometer Set with Automated AC Spacecraft Field Correction for GEO-KOMPSAT-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, U.; Magnes, W.; Delva, M.; Valavanoglou, A.; Leitner, S.; Hillenmaier, O.; Strauch, C.; Brown, P.; Whiteside, B.; Bendyk, M.; Hilgers, A.; Kraft, S.; Luntama, J. P.; Seon, J.

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring the solar wind conditions, in particular its magnetic field (interplanetary magnetic field) ahead of the Earth is essential in performing accurate and reliable space weather forecasting. The magnetic condition of the spacecraft itself is a key parameter for the successful performance of the magnetometer onboard. In practice a condition with negligible magnetic field of the spacecraft cannot always be fulfilled and magnetic sources on the spacecraft interfere with the natural magnetic field measured by the space magnetometer. The presented "ready-to-use" Service Oriented Spacecraft Magnetometer (SOSMAG) is developed for use on any satellite implemented without magnetic cleanliness programme. It enables detection of the spacecraft field AC variations on a proper time scale suitable to distinguish the magnetic field variations relevant to space weather phenomena, such as sudden increase in the interplanetary field or southward turning. This is achieved through the use of dual fluxgate magnetometers on a short boom (1m) and two additional AMR sensors on the spacecraft body, which monitor potential AC disturbers. The measurements of the latter sensors enable an automated correction of the AC signal contributions from the spacecraft in the final magnetic vector. After successful development and test of the EQM prototype, a flight model (FM) is being built for the Korean satellite Geo-Kompsat 2A, with launch foreseen in 2018.

  18. Mapping of Ambient Magnetic Fields within Liquid Helium Dewar for Testing of a DC SQUID Magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newhouse, Randal

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore the cavity lights phenomenon, Experimental Facilities Department at SLAC is testing a DC SQUID magnetometer. Due to the nature of the SQUID magnetometer and the intended tests, the earth's magnetic field must be negated. It is proposed to reduce ambient fields using bucking coils. First, however, an accurate map of the magnetic field inside the liquid helium Dewar where the experiment is going to take place needed to be made. This map was made using a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer mounted on a 3D positioning device made for this purpose. A ten inch tall volume within the Dewar was measured at data points approximately an inch from each other in all three axes. A LabVEIW program took readings from the magnetometer at 2 ms intervals for 1000 readings in such a way as to eliminate any ambient 60 Hz signals that may be present in the data. This data was stored in spreadsheet format and was analyzed to determine how the magnetic field within the Dewar was changing as a function of position

  19. Magnetorelaxometry of magnetic nanoparticles with fluxgate magnetometers for the analysis of biological targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Frank; Heim, Erik; Maeuselein, Sascha; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Schilling, Meinhard

    2005-01-01

    A magnetorelaxometry system based on sensitive fluxgate magnetometers for the analysis of the relaxation behavior of magnetic nanoparticles is presented. The system is tested with a dilution series of magnetite. The results are directly compared with data obtained with a SQUID magnetorelaxometry system measured on the same samples. Advantages of using fluxgates rather than SQUIDs for magnetorelaxometry are discussed

  20. Z3 model of Saturns magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Acuna, M.H.; Ness, N.F.

    1984-05-01

    Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z(sub 3) zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the Z(sub 3) model field are found to be small (approximately 1%) and quantitatively consistent with the expected instrumental accuracy. A detailed examination of these differences in spacecraft payload coordinates shows that they are uniquely associated with the instrument frame of reference and operation. A much improved fit to the Pioneer 11 observations is obtained by rotation of the instrument coordinate system about the spacecraft spin axis by 1.4 degree. With this adjustment, possibly associated with an instrumental phase lag or roll attitude error, the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations are fully consistent with the Voyager Z(sub 3) model

  1. A novel HTS magnetometer, exploiting the low jc of bulk YBCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallop, J.C.; Lilleyman, S.; Langham, C.D.; Radcliffe, W.J.; Stewart, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report here a novel of magnetometer which is based on the low critical magnetic field H/sub cl/ of sintered samples of the high temperature ceramic superconductor YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub y/. By driving a sample of the superconductor around a magnetization hysteresis loop, at a frequency of --100 kHz, and detecting the induced voltage in a coil coupled to the sample, at the second harmonic of the drive frequency, the authors find that this voltage is linearly dependent on the aplied d.c. magnetic field in which the sample is situated. They present a model which explains the operation of this magnetometer. This device, while not as sensitive as a SQUID, has the advantage of a wider dynamic range and direct measurement of flux density, unlike a SQUID which is only capable of sensing flux density changes. When operated at 77K the prototype magnetometer has already demonstrated a sensitivity at least 10 times better than that of a commercial fluxgate magnetometer. The system also appears to provide a simple method for investigation of flux flow in these materials

  2. Harmonic detection of magnetic resonance for sensitivity improvement of optical atomic magnetometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjbaran, M. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tehranchi, M.M., E-mail: teranchi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamidi, S.M. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalkhali, S.M.H. [Physics Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Highly sensitive atomic magnetometers use optically detected magnetic resonance of atomic spins to measure extremely weak magnetic field changes. The magnetometer sensitivity is directly proportional to the ratio of intensity to line-shape of the resonance signal. To obtain narrower resonance signal, we implemented harmonic detection of magnetic resonance method in M{sub x} configuration. The nonlinear spin polarization dynamics in detection of the higher harmonics were employed in phenomenological Bloch equations. The measured and simulated harmonic components of the resonance signals in frequency domain yielded significantly narrower line-width accompanying much improved sensitivity. Our results confirm the sensitivity improvement by a factor of two in optical atomic magnetometer via second harmonic signal which can open a new insight in the weak magnetic field measurement system design. - Highlights: • Highly sensitive atomic magnetometers have been used to measure weak magentic filed. • To obtain narrower resonance signal, we impalnted harmonic detection of magnetic resonance. • The nonlinear spin polarization dynamics in detetion of the higher harmonics were imployed.

  3. Performance Improvement of Inertial Navigation System by Using Magnetometer with Vehicle Dynamic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehee Won

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A navigation algorithm is proposed to increase the inertial navigation performance of a ground vehicle using magnetic measurements and dynamic constraints. The navigation solutions are estimated based on inertial measurements such as acceleration and angular velocity measurements. To improve the inertial navigation performance, a three-axis magnetometer is used to provide the heading angle, and nonholonomic constraints (NHCs are introduced to increase the correlation between the velocity and the attitude equation. The NHCs provide a velocity feedback to the attitude, which makes the navigation solution more robust. Additionally, an acceleration-based roll and pitch estimation is applied to decrease the drift when the acceleration is within certain boundaries. The magnetometer and NHCs are combined with an extended Kalman filter. An experimental test was conducted to verify the proposed method, and a comprehensive analysis of the performance in terms of the position, velocity, and attitude showed that the navigation performance could be improved by using the magnetometer and NHCs. Moreover, the proposed method could improve the estimation performance for the position, velocity, and attitude without any additional hardware except an inertial sensor and magnetometer. Therefore, this method would be effective for ground vehicles, indoor navigation, mobile robots, vehicle navigation in urban canyons, or navigation in any global navigation satellite system-denied environment.

  4. Validation of the GOES-16 magnetometer using multipoint measurements and magnetic field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califf, S.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Redmon, R. J.; Sarris, T. E.; Brito, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been providing continuous geomagnetic field measurements for over 40 years. While the primary purpose of GOES is operational, the magnetometer data are also widely used in the scientific community. In an effort to validate the recently launched GOES-16 magnetometer, we compare the measurements to existing magnetic field models and other GOES spacecraft currently on orbit. There are four concurrent measurements from GOES-13, 14, 15 and 16 spanning 75W to 135W longitude. Also, GOES-13 is being replaced by GOES-16 in the GOES-East location, and during the transition, GOES-13 and GOES-16 will be parked nearby in order to assist with calibration of the new operational satellite. This work explores techniques to quantify the performance of the GOES-16 magnetometer by comparison to data from nearby spacecraft. We also build on previous work to assimilate in situ measurements with existing magnetic field models to assist in comparing data from different spatial locations. Finally, we use this unique dataset from four simultaneous geosynchronous magnetometer measurements and the close separation between GOES-13 and GOES-16 to study the spatial characteristics of ULF waves and other magnetospheric processes.

  5. MgB2 magnetometer with directly coupled pick-up loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portesi, C.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, Dick; Brinkman, Alexander; Monticone, E.; Gonnelli, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which

  6. Design Principles of A Sigma-delta Flux-gate Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnes, W.; Valavanoglou, A.; Pierce, D.; Frank, A.; Schwingenschuh, K.

    A state-of-the-art flux-gate magnetometer is characterised by magnetic field resolution of several pT in a wide frequency range, low power consumption, low weight and high robustness. Therefore, flux-gate magnetometers are frequently used for ground-based Earth's field observation as well as for measurements aboard scientific space missions. But both traditional analogue and recently developed digital flux-gate magnetometers need low power and high-resolution analogue-to-digital converters for signal quan- tization. The disadvantage of such converters is the low radiation hardness. This fact has led to the idea of combining a traditional analogue flux-gate regulation circuit with that of a discretely realized sigma-delta converter in order to get a radiation hard and further miniaturized magnetometer. The name sigma-delta converter is derived from putting an integrator in front of a 1-bit delta modulator which forms the sigma-delta loop. It is followed by a digital decimation filter realized in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The flux-gate regulation and the sigma-delta loop are quite similar in the way of realizing the integrator and feedback circuit, which makes it easy to com- bine these two systems. The presented talk deals with the design principles and the results of a first bread board model.

  7. The Future of Ground Magnetometer Arrays in Support of Space Weather Monitoring and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Mark; Zesta, Eftyhia

    2017-11-01

    A community workshop was held in Greenbelt, Maryland, on 5-6 May 2016 to discuss recommendations for the future of ground magnetometer array research in space physics. The community reviewed findings contained in the 2016 Geospace Portfolio Review of the Geospace Section of the Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Science of the National Science Foundation and discussed the present state of ground magnetometer arrays and possible pathways for a more optimal, robust, and effective organization and scientific use of these ground arrays. This paper summarizes the report of that workshop to the National Science Foundation (Engebretson & Zesta, as well as conclusions from two follow-up meetings. It describes the current state of U.S.-funded ground magnetometer arrays and summarizes community recommendations for changes in both organizational and funding structures. It also outlines a variety of new and/or augmented regional and global data products and visualizations that can be facilitated by increased collaboration among arrays. Such products will enhance the value of ground-based magnetometer data to the community's effort for understanding of Earth's space environment and space weather effects.

  8. Two-channel recoder for magnetometer with energy-independent mass memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzinin, V.N.; Selivanov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a two-channel digit-to-analog recorder designed for converting the sequence of pulses from proton magnetometer (MMH-203) outlet; the device enables processing of the pulses and their recording in RAM and on the tape of the analog recorder. The availability of nonvolotile RAM allows to transmit digit information to a computer (BK-0010) for its further processing

  9. A nitrogen triple-point thermal storage unit for cooling a SQUID magnetometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.P.; Meenderink, D.J.; Reincke, H.A.; Venhorst, G.C.F.; Holland, H.J.; Brake, ter H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve turnkey operation, the use is planned of cryocoolers to cool a SQUID magnetometer system. To minimize the magnetical and mech. interference from the coolers, they are switched off during the actual measurements. Consequently, a thermal storage unit (TSU) is required with

  10. A nitrogen triple-point thermal storage unit for cooling a SQUID magnetometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.P.; Meenderink, D.J.; Reincke, H.A.; Venhorst, G.C.F.; Venhorst, G.C.F.; Holland, Herman J.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve turnkey operation, we plan to use cryocoolers to cool a SQUID magnetometer system. To minimize the magnetical and mechanical interference from the coolers, we intend to switch them off during the actual measurements. Consequently, a thermal storage unit (TSU) is required with

  11. Characterization and demonstration results of a SQUID magnetometer system developed for geomagnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, J.; Miyamoto, M.; Kawabata, M.; Nosé, M.; Haruta, Y.; Uehara, G.

    2017-08-01

    We characterized a low temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system developed for high-sensitivity geomagnetic field measurement, and demonstrated the detection of weak geomagnetic signals. The SQUID magnetometer system is comprised of three-axis SQUID magnetometers housed in a glass fiber reinforced plastic cryostat, readout electronics with flux locked loop (FLL), a 24-bit data logger with a global positioning system and batteries. The system noise was approximately 0.2 pT √Hz- 1/2 in the 1-50 Hz frequency range. This performance was determined by including the thermal noise and the shielding effect of the copper shield, which covered the SQUID magnetometers to eliminate high-frequency interference. The temperature drift of the system was ˜0.8 pT °C- 1 in an FLL operation. The system operated for a month using 33 l liquid helium. Using this system, we performed the measurements of geomagnetic field in the open-air, far away from the city. The system could detect weak geomagnetic signals such as the Schumann resonance with sixth harmonics, and the ionospheric Alfvén resonance appearing at night, for the north-south and east-west components of the geomagnetic field. We confirm that the system was capable of high-sensitivity measurement of the weak geomagnetic activities.

  12. Magnetogate: Using an iPhone Magnetometer for Measuring Kinematic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to measure the movement of an object from specific locations on a straight line using an iPhone's magnetometer. In this method, called "magnetogate," an iPhone is placed on a moving object (in this case a toy car) and small neodymium magnets are arranged at equal intervals on one side of a straight line. The…

  13. Land Survey from Unmaned Aerial Veichle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, V.; Mesarič, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we present, how we use a quadrocopter unmanned aerial vehicle with a camera attached to it, to do low altitude photogrammetric land survey. We use the quadrocopter to take highly overlapping photos of the area of interest. A "structure from motion" algorithm is implemented to get parameters of camera orientations and to generate a sparse point cloud representation of objects in photos. Than a patch based multi view stereo algorithm is applied to generate a dense point cloud. Ground control points are used to georeference the data. Further processing is applied to generate digital orthophoto maps, digital surface models, digital terrain models and assess volumes of various types of material. Practical examples of land survey from a UAV are presented in the paper. We explain how we used our system to monitor the reconstruction of commercial building, then how our UAV was used to assess the volume of coal supply for Ljubljana heating plant. Further example shows the usefulness of low altitude photogrammetry for documentation of archaeological excavations. In the final example we present how we used our UAV to prepare an underlay map for natural gas pipeline's route planning. In the final analysis we conclude that low altitude photogrammetry can help bridge the gap between laser scanning and classic tachymetric survey, since it offers advantages of both techniques.

  14. Measured Noise from Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Randolph; McSwain, Robert; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), including home package delivery, have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. This paper discusses results of flyover noise measurements of four small UAVs, including an internal combustion-powered model airplane and three battery-powered multicopters. Basic noise characteristics of these vehicles are discussed, including spectral properties and sound level metrics such as sound pressure level, effective perceived noise level, and sound exposure level. The size and aerodynamic characteristics of the multicopters in particular make their flight path susceptible to atmospheric disturbances such as wind gusts. These gusts, coupled with a flight control system that varies rotor speed to maintain vehicle stability, create an unsteady acoustic signature. The spectral variations resulting from this unsteadiness are explored, in both hover and flyover conditions for the multicopters. The time varying noise, which differs from the relatively steady noise generated by large transport aircraft, may complicate the prediction of human annoyance using conventional sound level metrics.

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  16. Fuzzy Logic Unmanned Air Vehicle Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Sabo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of scenarios in which the mission objectives rely on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV being capable of maneuvering in an environment containing obstacles in which there is little prior knowledge of the surroundings. With an appropriate dynamic motion planning algorithm, UAVs would be able to maneuver in any unknown environment towards a target in real time. This paper presents a methodology for two-dimensional motion planning of a UAV using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy inference system takes information in real time about obstacles (if within the agent's sensing range and target location and outputs a change in heading angle and speed. The FL controller was validated, and Monte Carlo testing was completed to evaluate the performance. Not only was the path traversed by the UAV often the exact path computed using an optimal method, the low failure rate makes the fuzzy logic controller (FLC feasible for exploration. The FLC showed only a total of 3% failure rate, whereas an artificial potential field (APF solution, a commonly used intelligent control method, had an average of 18% failure rate. These results highlighted one of the advantages of the FLC method: its adaptability to complex scenarios while maintaining low control effort.

  17. A game-theoretic approach for calibration of low-cost magnetometers under noise uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, S.; Ali, A. S.; El-Sheimy, N.; Goodall, C. L.; Syed, Z. F.

    2012-02-01

    Pedestrian heading estimation is a fundamental challenge in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-denied environments. Additionally, the heading observability considerably degrades in low-speed mode of operation (e.g. walking), making this problem even more challenging. The goal of this work is to improve the heading solution when hand-held personal/portable devices, such as cell phones, are used for positioning and to improve the heading estimation in GNSS-denied signal environments. Most smart phones are now equipped with self-contained, low cost, small size and power-efficient sensors, such as magnetometers, gyroscopes and accelerometers. A magnetometer needs calibration before it can be properly employed for navigation purposes. Magnetometers play an important role in absolute heading estimation and are embedded in many smart phones. Before the users navigate with the phone, a calibration is invoked to ensure an improved signal quality. This signal is used later in the heading estimation. In most of the magnetometer-calibration approaches, the motion modes are seldom described to achieve a robust calibration. Also, suitable calibration approaches fail to discuss the stopping criteria for calibration. In this paper, the following three topics are discussed in detail that are important to achieve proper magnetometer-calibration results and in turn the most robust heading solution for the user while taking care of the device misalignment with respect to the user: (a) game-theoretic concepts to attain better filter parameter tuning and robustness in noise uncertainty, (b) best maneuvers with focus on 3D and 2D motion modes and related challenges and (c) investigation of the calibration termination criteria leveraging the calibration robustness and efficiency.

  18. A game-theoretic approach for calibration of low-cost magnetometers under noise uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddharth, S; Ali, A S; El-Sheimy, N; Goodall, C L; Syed, Z F

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrian heading estimation is a fundamental challenge in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-denied environments. Additionally, the heading observability considerably degrades in low-speed mode of operation (e.g. walking), making this problem even more challenging. The goal of this work is to improve the heading solution when hand-held personal/portable devices, such as cell phones, are used for positioning and to improve the heading estimation in GNSS-denied signal environments. Most smart phones are now equipped with self-contained, low cost, small size and power-efficient sensors, such as magnetometers, gyroscopes and accelerometers. A magnetometer needs calibration before it can be properly employed for navigation purposes. Magnetometers play an important role in absolute heading estimation and are embedded in many smart phones. Before the users navigate with the phone, a calibration is invoked to ensure an improved signal quality. This signal is used later in the heading estimation. In most of the magnetometer-calibration approaches, the motion modes are seldom described to achieve a robust calibration. Also, suitable calibration approaches fail to discuss the stopping criteria for calibration. In this paper, the following three topics are discussed in detail that are important to achieve proper magnetometer-calibration results and in turn the most robust heading solution for the user while taking care of the device misalignment with respect to the user: (a) game-theoretic concepts to attain better filter parameter tuning and robustness in noise uncertainty, (b) best maneuvers with focus on 3D and 2D motion modes and related challenges and (c) investigation of the calibration termination criteria leveraging the calibration robustness and efficiency. (paper)

  19. Unmanned aircraft system bridge inspection demonstration project phase II final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within the aircraft. Unmanned aircraft are familiarly referred to as drones, a...

  20. Learning Mobility: Adaptive Control Algorithms for the Novel Unmanned Ground Vehicle (NUGV)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackburn, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Mobility is a serious limiting factor in the usefulness of unmanned ground vehicles, This paper contains a description of our approach to develop control algorithms for the Novel Unmanned Ground Vehicle (NUGV...

  1. Tracking Unmanned Aerial Vehicle CTU FTS - Application of equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hůlek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Article which is about the Tracking Unmanned Aerial Vehicle continues in the description of the project development dealing with the utilization of the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle. Documentation of the project progresses builds on the previous article. In that article the selection of observation and transmission equipment was summarized. In the article, the reader learns about an installation of the equipment on the UAV (helicopter, about an interconnection of the equipment to create complete and functional system, about testing of the UAV, about the solutions of the problems which came into being during testing and about protection of the equipment against unfavourable effects. The location of equipment on the unmanned vehicle was chosen after a considering of several parameters. These parameters are preservation of the functionality or an influence to the balance. To find out how the added equipment affect the centre of gravity of the UAV the tabular method of the centre of gravity calculation was used. The results of the existing work on the project are location and attaching of the equipment to the unmanned vehicle, balance of the unmanned vehicle, solutions of the problems coming into being during the testing and design of the equipment protection against unfavourable effects.

  2. Vulnerability Analysis of the MAVLink Protocol for Command and Control of Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    Patton, Nikos Karapanos, Lorenz Meier, Peter Schwabe, Andrew Tridgell, Michael Oborne, Dr. Gareth Owen, and Capt Matthew Vincie, all of whom greatly...Frew and T. Brown . Networking Issues For Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems. In Unmanned Aircraft Systems : International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial

  3. Empirical Determination of Efficient Sensing Frequencies for Magnetometer-Based Continuous Human Contact Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Kuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The high linear correlation between the smartphone magnetometer readings in close proximity can be exploited for physical human contact detection, which could be useful for such applications as infectious disease contact tracing or social behavior monitoring. Alternative approaches using other capabilities in smartphones have aspects that do not fit well with the human contact detection. Using Wi-Fi or cellular fingerprints have larger localization errors than close human contact distances. Bluetooth beacons could reveal the identity of the transmitter, threatening the privacy of the user. Also, using sensors such as GPS does not work for indoor contacts. However, the magnetometer correlation check works best in human contact distances that matter in infectious disease transmissions or social interactions. The omni-present geomagnetism makes it work both indoors and outdoors, and the measured magnetometer values do not easily reveal the identity and the location of the smartphone. One issue with the magnetometer-based contact detection, however, is the energy consumption. Since the contacts can take place anytime, the magnetometer sensing and recording should be running continuously. Therefore, how we address the energy requirement for the extended and continuous operation can decide the viability of the whole idea. However, then, we note that almost all existing magnetometer-based applications such as indoor location and navigation have used high sensing frequencies, ranging from 10 Hz to 200 Hz. At these frequencies, we measure that the time to complete battery drain in a typical smartphone is shortened by three to twelve hours. The heavy toll raises the question as to whether the magnetometer-based contact detection can avoid such high sensing rates while not losing the contact detection accuracy. In order to answer the question, we conduct a measurement-based study using independently produced magnetometer traces from three different

  4. Empirical Determination of Efficient Sensing Frequencies for Magnetometer-Based Continuous Human Contact Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Seungho; Kim, Junha; Park, Yongtae; Kim, Hyogon

    2018-04-27

    The high linear correlation between the smartphone magnetometer readings in close proximity can be exploited for physical human contact detection, which could be useful for such applications as infectious disease contact tracing or social behavior monitoring. Alternative approaches using other capabilities in smartphones have aspects that do not fit well with the human contact detection. Using Wi-Fi or cellular fingerprints have larger localization errors than close human contact distances. Bluetooth beacons could reveal the identity of the transmitter, threatening the privacy of the user. Also, using sensors such as GPS does not work for indoor contacts. However, the magnetometer correlation check works best in human contact distances that matter in infectious disease transmissions or social interactions. The omni-present geomagnetism makes it work both indoors and outdoors, and the measured magnetometer values do not easily reveal the identity and the location of the smartphone. One issue with the magnetometer-based contact detection, however, is the energy consumption. Since the contacts can take place anytime, the magnetometer sensing and recording should be running continuously. Therefore, how we address the energy requirement for the extended and continuous operation can decide the viability of the whole idea. However, then, we note that almost all existing magnetometer-based applications such as indoor location and navigation have used high sensing frequencies, ranging from 10 Hz to 200 Hz. At these frequencies, we measure that the time to complete battery drain in a typical smartphone is shortened by three to twelve hours. The heavy toll raises the question as to whether the magnetometer-based contact detection can avoid such high sensing rates while not losing the contact detection accuracy. In order to answer the question, we conduct a measurement-based study using independently produced magnetometer traces from three different countries. Specifically, we

  5. Detail design of empennage of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Md. Samad; Panday, Shoyon; Rasel, Md; Salam, Md. Abdus; Faisal, Kh. Md.; Farabi, Tanzimul Hasan

    2017-12-01

    In order to maintain the operational continuity of air defense systems, unmanned autonomous or remotely controlled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) plays a great role as a target for the anti-aircraft weapons. The aerial vehicle must comply with the requirements of high speed, remotely controlled tracking and navigational aids, operational sustainability and sufficient loiter time. It can also be used for aerial reconnaissance, ground surveillance and other intelligence operations. This paper aims to develop a complete tail design of an unmanned aerial vehicle using Systems Engineering approach. The design fulfils the requirements of longitudinal and directional trim, stability and control provided by the horizontal and vertical tail. Tail control surfaces are designed to provide sufficient control of the aircraft in critical conditions. Design parameters obtained from wing design are utilized in the tail design process as required. Through chronological calculations and successive iterations, optimum values of 26 tail design parameters are determined.

  6. 3D Reconfigurable MPSoC for Unmanned Spacecraft Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the design of a new lightweight spacecraft navigation system for unmanned space missions. The system addresses the demands for more efficient autonomous navigation in the near-Earth environment or deep space. The proposed instrumentation is directly suitable for unmanned systems operation and testing of new airborne prototypes for remote sensing applications. The system features a new sensor technology and significant improvements over existing solutions. Fluxgate type sensors have been traditionally used in unmanned defense systems such as target drones, guided missiles, rockets and satellites, however, the guidance sensors' configurations exhibit lower specifications than the presented solution. The current implementation is based on a recently developed material in a reengineered optimum sensor configuration for unprecedented low-power consumption. The new sensor's performance characteristics qualify it for spacecraft navigation applications. A major advantage of the system is the efficiency in redundancy reduction achieved in terms of both hardware and software requirements.

  7. Unmanned systems to support the human exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    2010-04-01

    Robots and other unmanned systems will play many critical roles in support of a human presence on Mars, including surveying candidate landing sites, locating ice and mineral resources, establishing power and other infrastructure, performing construction tasks, and transporting equipment and supplies. Many of these systems will require much more strength and power than exploration rovers. The presence of humans on Mars will permit proactive maintenance and repair, and allow teleoperation and operator intervention, supporting multiple dynamic levels of autonomy, so the critical challenges to the use of unmanned systems will occur before humans arrive on Mars. Nevertheless, installed communications and navigation infrastructure should be able to support structured and/or repetitive operations (such as excavation, drilling, or construction) within a "familiar" area with an acceptable level of remote operator intervention. This paper discusses some of the factors involved in developing and deploying unmanned systems to make humans' time on Mars safer and more productive, efficient, and enjoyable.

  8. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy F.; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J.

    2013-11-01

    There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations).

  9. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  10. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Timothy F; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J

    2013-01-01

    There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations). (paper)

  11. Unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to prevent drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Celia; Blaquière, Gilles; Loundou, Anderson; Michelet, Pierre; Markarian, Thibaut

    2018-06-01

    Drowning literature have highlighted the submersion time as the most powerful predictor in assessing the prognosis. Reducing the time taken to provide a flotation device and prevent submersion appears of paramount importance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can provide the location of the swimmer and a flotation device. The objective of this simulation study was to evaluate the efficiency of a UAV in providing a flotation device in different sea conditions, and to compare the times taken by rescue operations with and without a UAV (standard vs UAV intervention). Several comparisons were made using professional lifeguards acting as simulated victims. A specifically-shaped UAV was used to allow us to drop an inflatable life buoy into the water. During the summer of 2017, 28 tests were performed. UAV use was associated with a reduction of time it took to provide a flotation device to the simulated victim compared with standard rescue operations (p < 0.001 for all measurements) and the time was reduced even further in moderate (81 ± 39 vs 179 ± 78 s; p < 0.001) and rough sea conditions (99 ± 34 vs 198 ± 130 s; p < 0.001). The times taken for UAV to locate the simulated victim, identify them and drop the life buoy were not altered by the weather conditions. UAV can deliver a flotation device to a swimmer safely and quickly. The addition of a UAV in rescue operations could improve the quality and speed of first aid while keeping lifeguards away from dangerous sea conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Geomagnetic Monitoring System Using a Magnetometer for the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Wook; Choi, Eun-Kyeong; Kim, In-Soo

    2014-05-01

    Three institutes including KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration), KSWC (Korean Space Weather Center) of NRRA (National Radio Research Agency) and KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) are now operating magnetic observatories. Those observatories observe the total intensity and three components of geomagnetic element. This paper comes up with a magnetic monitoring system now under development that uses a magnetometer for field survey. In monitoring magnetic variations in areas (active faults or volcanic regions), more reliable results can be obtained when an array of several magnetometers are used rather than a single magnetometer. In order to establish and operate a magnetometer array, such factors as expenses, convenience of the establishment and operation of the array should be taken into account. This study has come up with a magnetic monitoring system complete with a magnetometer for the field survey of our own designing. A magnetic monitoring system, which is composed of two parts. The one is a field part and the other a data part. The field part is composed of a magnetometer, an external memory module, a power supply and a set of data transmission equipment. The data part is a data server which can store the data transmitted from the field part, analyze the data and provide service to the web. This study has developed an external memory module for ENVI-MAG (Scintrex Ltd.) using an embedded Cortex-M3 board, which can be programmed, attach other functional devices (SD memory cards, GPS antennas for time synchronization, ethernet cards and so forth). The board thus developed can store magnetic measurements up to 8 Gbytes, synchronize with the GPS time and transmit the magnetic measurements to the data server which is now under development. A monitoring system of our own developing was installed in Jeju island, taking measurements throughout Korea. Other parts including a data transfer module, a server and a power supply using solar

  13. Design and Performance Optimizations of Advanced Erosion-Resistant Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings for Rotorcraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future rotorcraft engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. For thermal barrier coatings designed for rotorcraft turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability, because the rotorcraft are often operated in the most severe sand erosive environments. Advanced low thermal conductivity and erosion-resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with the current emphasis being placed on thermal barrier coating toughness improvements using multicomponent alloying and processing optimization approaches. The performance of the advanced thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in a high temperature erosion burner rig and a laser heat-flux rig to simulate engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition and architecture optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic oxidation durability

  14. Model Following and High Order Augmentation for Rotorcraft Control, Applied via Partial Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, James Michael

    This dissertation consists of two main studies, a few small studies, and design documentation, all aimed at improving rotorcraft control by employing multi-input multi-output (MIMO) command-modelfollowing control as a baseline, together with a selectable (and de-selectable) MIMO high order compensator that augments the baseline. Two methods of MIMO command-model-following control design are compared for rotorcraft flight control. The first, Explicit Model Following (EMF), employs SISO inverse plants with a dynamic decoupling matrix, which is a purely feed-forward approach to inverting the plant. The second is Dynamic Inversion (DI), which involves both feed-forward and feedback path elements to invert the plant. The EMF design is purely linear, while the DI design has some nonlinear elements in vertical rate control. For each of these methods, an architecture is presented that provides angular rate model-following with selectable vertical rate model-following. Implementation challenges of both EMF and DI are covered, and methods of dealing with them are presented. These two MIMO model-following approaches are evaluated regarding (1) fidelity to the command model, and (2) turbulence rejection. Both are found to provide good tracking of commands and reduction of cross coupling. Next, an architecture and design methodology for high order compensator (HOC) augmentation of a baseline controller for rotorcraft is presented. With this architecture, the HOC compensator is selectable and can easily be authority-limited, which might ease certification. Also, the plant for this augmentative MIMO compensator design is a stabilized helicopter system, so good flight test data could be safely gathered for more accurate plant identification. The design methodology is carried out twice on an example helicopter model, once with turbulence rejection as the objective, and once with the additional objective of closely following pilot commands. The turbulence rejection HOC is feedback

  15. A Review of the Characteristics of Modern Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Georgi Valentinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to present the modern unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs and the possibilities for real-time remote monitoring of flight parameters and payload data. In the introduction section of the paper we briefly present the characteristics of the UAVs and which are their major application areas. Later, the main parameters and the various data types for remote control and monitoring of the unmanned aerial vehicles are presented and discussed. The paper continues with the methods and the technologies for transmission of these parameters and then presents a general hardware model for data transmission and a software model of a communication system suitable for UAVs.

  16. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Geoffrey [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The use of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) with miniature sensor systems for atmospheric research is an important capability to develop. The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) project, lead by Dr. Gijs de Boer of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES- a partnership of NOAA and CU-Boulder), is a significant milestone in realizing this new potential. This project has clearly demonstrated that the concept of sUAS utilization is valid, and miniature instrumentation can be used to further our understanding of the atmospheric boundary layer in the arctic.

  17. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Colomina, Ismael; Molina, Pere

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last...

  18. Probabilistic resident space object detection using archival THEMIS fluxgate magnetometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Julian; Holzinger, Marcus J.

    2018-05-01

    Recent progress in the detection of small space objects, at geosynchronous altitudes, through ground-based optical and radar measurements is demonstrated as a viable method. However, in general, these methods are limited to detection of objects greater than 10 cm. This paper examines the use of magnetometers to detect plausible flyby encounters with charged space objects using a matched filter signal existence binary hypothesis test approach. Relevant data-set processing and reduction of archival fluxgate magnetometer data from the NASA THEMIS mission is discussed in detail. Using the proposed methodology and a false alarm rate of 10%, 285 plausible detections with probability of detection greater than 80% are claimed and several are reviewed in detail.

  19. Loop-locked coherent population trapping magnetometer based on a fiber electro-optic modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Feng, Y Y; Xu, Chi; Xue, H B; Sun, Li

    2014-04-01

    We have set up a coherent population trapping (CPT)-based magnetometer prototype with the D1 line of ⁸⁷Rb atoms. The dichromatic light field is derived from a fiber electro-optic modulator (FEOM) connected to an external cavity laser diode. A CPT resonance signal with a 516 Hz linewidth is observed. By feeding back the derivative of the resonance curve to the FEOM with a proportional integral controller, of which the voltage output is directly converted to the measured magnetic field intensity, the resonance peak is locked to the environmental magnetic field. The measurement data we have achieved are well matched with the data measured by a commercial fluxgate magnetometer within 2 nT, and the sensitivity is better than 8 pT/√Hz in a parallel B field.

  20. New type of fluxgate magnetometer for the heart’s magnetic fields detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybalko Ruslan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application area of fluxgate sensors is limited by their sensitivity. Medical researches create high demand on the magnetometers with the characteristics of high accuracy and sensibility for measuring weak magnetic fields produced by the human body, such as the heart‘s magnetic field. Due to the insufficient sensitivity of fluxgate sensors, superconducting magnetometers (SQUID take the dominant position for the cardiomagnetic measurements. They have to be cooled by liquefied gases and it leads to high service costs. Therefore an idea of creating a high sensitive sensor based on fluxgate principles and known methods of measurement is attractive and up to date. This paper is dedicated to the modified flux-gate sensors based on Racetrack technology with a new approach of signal demodulation. The improved fluxgate sensor system provides detection of the heart‘s magnetic field without additional expenditures for use.

  1. On-orbit real-time magnetometer bias determination for micro-satellites without attitude information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the disadvantages such as complex calculation, low accuracy of estimation, and being non real time in present methods, a new real-time algorithm is developed for on-orbit magnetometer bias determination of micro-satellites without attitude knowledge in this paper. This method uses the differential value approach. It avoids the impact of quartic nature and uses the iterative method to satisfy real-time applications. Simulation results indicate that the new real-time algorithm is more accurate compared with other methods, which are also tested by an experiment system using real noise data. With the new real-time algorithm, a magnetometer calibration can be taken on-orbit and will reduce the demand for computing power effectively.

  2. Research on Intelligent Control System of DC SQUID Magnetometer Parameters for Multi-channel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Yang, Kang; Lu, Li; Kong, Xiangyan; Wang, Hai; Wu, Jun; Wang, Yongliang

    2018-03-01

    In a multi-channel SQUID measurement system, adjusting device parameters to optimal condition for all channels is time-consuming. In this paper, an intelligent control system is presented to determine the optimal working point of devices which is automatic and more efficient comparing to the manual one. An optimal working point searching algorithm is introduced as the core component of the control system. In this algorithm, the bias voltage V_bias is step scanned to obtain the maximal value of the peak-to-peak current value I_pp of the SQUID magnetometer modulation curve. We choose this point as the optimal one. Using the above control system, more than 30 weakly damped SQUID magnetometers with area of 5 × 5 mm^2 or 10 × 10 mm^2 are adjusted and a 36-channel magnetocardiography system perfectly worked in a magnetically shielded room. The average white flux noise is 15 μΦ_0/Hz^{1/2}.

  3. Searching for axion stars and Q-balls with a terrestrial magnetometer network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson Kimball, D. F. [Cal State, East Bay; Budker, D. [UC, Berkeley; Eby, J. [Fermilab; Pospelov, M. [Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Pustelny, S. [Jagiellonian U.; Scholtes, T. [Fribourg U.; Stadnik, Y. V. [Helmholtz Inst., Mainz; Weis, A. [Fribourg U.; Wickenbrock, A. [Mainz U.

    2017-10-11

    Light (pseudo-)scalar fields are promising candidates to be the dark matter in the Universe. Under certain initial conditions in the early Universe and/or with certain types of self-interactions, they can form compact dark-matter objects such as axion stars or Q-balls. Direct encounters with such objects can be searched for by using a global network of atomic magnetometers. It is shown that for a range of masses and radii not ruled out by existing observations, the terrestrial encounter rate with axion stars or Q-balls can be sufficiently high (at least once per year) for a detection. Furthermore, it is shown that a global network of atomic magnetometers is sufficiently sensitive to pseudoscalar couplings to atomic spins so that a transit through an axion star or Q-ball could be detected over a broad range of unexplored parameter space.

  4. Automatic torque magnetometer for vacuum-to-high-pressure hydrogen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, J.W.; Livesay, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    An automatic torque magnetometer has been developed for use in high-pressure hydrogen. It will contain pressures ranging from vacuum to 200 atm of hydrogen gas at sample temperatures greater than 400 0 C. This magnetometer, which uses an optical lever postion sensor and a restoring force technique has an operating range of 2.0 x 10 3 dyn cm to l.6 x 10 -4 dyn cm. An accompanying digital data collection system extends the sensitivity to 1 x 10 -5 dyn cm as well as increasing the data handling capacity of the system. The magnetic properties of thin films in high-temperature and high-pressure hydrogen environments can be studied using this instruments

  5. Micromechanical ``Trampoline'' Magnetometers for Use in Pulsed Magnetic Fields Exceeding 60 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirev, F. F.; Boebinger, G. S.; Aksyuk, V.; Gammel, P. L.; Haddon, R. C.; Bishop, D. J.

    1998-03-01

    We present the design, construction, and operation of a novel magnetometer for use in intense pulsed magnetic fields. The magnetometer consists of a silicon micromachined "trampoline" to which the sample is attached. The small size of the device (typically 400 microns on a side) gives a fast mechanical response (10,000 to 50,000 Hz) and extremely high sensitivity (10-11 Am^2, corresponding to 10-13 Am^2/Hz^(1/2)). The device is robust against electrical and mechanical noise and requires no special vibration isolation from the pulsed magnet. As a demonstration, we present data taken in a 60 tesla pulsed magnetic field which show clear de Haas-van Alphen oscillations in a one microgram sample of the organic superconductor K-(BEDT-TTF)_2Cu(NCS)_2.

  6. Feasibility study of a sup 3 He-magnetometer for neutron electric dipole moment experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Borisov, Y; Leduc, M; Lobashev, V; Otten, E W; Sobolev, Y

    2000-01-01

    We report on a sup 3 He-magnetometer capable of detecting tiny magnetic field fluctuations of less than 10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 T in experiments for measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron. It is based on the Ramsey technique of separated oscillating fields and uses nuclear spin-polarized sup 3 He gas which is stored in two vessels of V approx =10 l in a sandwich-type arrangement around the storage bottle for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN). The gas is polarized by means of optical pumping in a separate, small discharge cell at pressures around 0.5 mbar and is then expanded into the actual magnetometer volume. To detect the polarization of sup 3 He gas at the end of the storage cycle the gas is pumped out by means of an oil-diffusion pump and compressed again into the discharge cell where optical detection of nuclear polarization is used.

  7. Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Mid-Latitude Geomagnetic Field During International Quiet Days: BOH Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Bohyunsan Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. In 2007, we installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we use the H, D, Z components of fluxgate magnetometer data to investigate the characteristics of mid-latitude geomagnetic field variation. To remove the temporary changes in Earth’s geomagnetic filed by space weather, we use the international quiet days’ data only. In other words, we performed a superposed epoch analysis using five days per each month during 2008-2011. We find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency compared to previous results using all days. That is, H, D, Z all three components’ quiet intervals terminate near the sunrise and shows maximum 2-3 hours after the culmination and the quiet interval start from near the sunset. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the Sun. As it becomes hot season, the geomagnetic field variation’s amplitude becomes large and the quiet interval becomes shortened. It is well-known that these variations are effects of Sq current system in the Earth’s atmosphere. We confirm that the typical mid-latitude geomagnetic field variations due to the Sq current system by excluding all possible association with the space weather.

  8. Mid-latitude Geomagnetic Field Analysis Using BOH Magnetometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Mt. Bohyun Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. We, in 2007, installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we provide the preliminary and the first statistical analysis using the BOH magnetometer installed at Mt. Bohyun Observatory. By superposed analysis, we find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency, that is, about 30 minutes before the meridian (11:28 a minimum appears and the time after about 3 hours and 30 minutes (15:28 a maximum appears. Also, a quiet interval start time (19:06 is near the sunset time, and a quiet interval end time (06:40 is near the sunrise time. From the sunset to the sunrise, the value of H has a nearly constant interval, that is, the sun affects the changes in H values. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the sun. Local time variations show that noon region has the biggest variations and midnight region has the smallest variations. We compare the correlations between geomagnetic variations and activity indices as we expect the geomagnetic variation would contain the effects of geomagnetic activity variations. As a result, the correlation coefficient between H and Dst is the highest (r = 0.947, and other AL, AE, AU index and showed a high correlation. Therefore, the effects of geomagnetic storms and geomagnetic substorms might contribute to the geomagnetic changes significantly.

  9. Magnetic shield effect simulation of superconducting film shield covering directly coupled HTS dc-SQUID magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, N.; Noguchi, S.; Igarashi, H.

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting film shield over a SQUID ring improves the robustness of the SQUID with respect to magnetic noise. Supercurrent in the SQUID magnetometer and the superconducting film shield were simulated. The superconducting film shield reduces the influence of the external magnetic field on the SQUID ring. An HTS SQUID is a high sensitive magnetic sensor. In recent years, the HTS SQUID is widely used in various applications. In some applications, high robustness with respect to magnetic noise is required to realize stable operation at outside of a magnetic shielding room. The target of this paper is a directly coupled HTS dc-SQUID magnetometer. To enhance the robustness of the SQUID magnetometer, use of a superconducting thin film shield has been proposed. The magnetic field directly penetrating the SQUID ring causes the change of the critical current of Josephson junction, and then the SQUID magnetometer transitions into inoperative state. In order to confirm the magnetic shield effect of the superconducting film shield, electromagnetic field simulation with 3D edge finite element method was performed. To simulate the high temperature superconductor, E-J characteristics and c-axis anisotropy are considered. To evaluate the effect of the superconducting film shield, an external magnetic field which is supposed to be a magnetic noise is applied. From the simulation results, the time transition of the magnetic flux penetrating the SQUID ring is investigated and the effect of the superconducting film shield is confirmed. The amplitude of the magnetic flux penetrating the SQUID ring can be reduced to about one-sixth since the superconducting film shield prevents the magnetic noise from directly penetrating the SQUID ring.

  10. Identification of Mobile Phones Using the Built-In Magnetometers Stimulated by Motion Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Baldini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the identification of mobile phones through their built-in magnetometers. These electronic components have started to be widely deployed in mass market phones in recent years, and they can be exploited to uniquely identify mobile phones due their physical differences, which appear in the digital output generated by them. This is similar to approaches reported in the literature for other components of the mobile phone, including the digital camera, the microphones or their RF transmission components. In this paper, the identification is performed through an inexpensive device made up of a platform that rotates the mobile phone under test and a fixed magnet positioned on the edge of the rotating platform. When the mobile phone passes in front of the fixed magnet, the built-in magnetometer is stimulated, and its digital output is recorded and analyzed. For each mobile phone, the experiment is repeated over six different days to ensure consistency in the results. A total of 10 phones of different brands and models or of the same model were used in our experiment. The digital output from the magnetometers is synchronized and correlated, and statistical features are extracted to generate a fingerprint of the built-in magnetometer and, consequently, of the mobile phone. A SVM machine learning algorithm is used to classify the mobile phones on the basis of the extracted statistical features. Our results show that inter-model classification (i.e., different models and brands classification is possible with great accuracy, but intra-model (i.e., phones with different serial numbers and same model classification is more challenging, the resulting accuracy being just slightly above random choice.

  11. Simulation and measurement of ferromagnetic impurities in non-magnetic aeroengine turbine disks using fluxgate magnetometers

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Hantscher; Ruixin Zhou; Albert Seidl; Johann Hinken; Christian Ziep

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ferromagnetic impurities in paramagnetic aeroengine turbine disks are investigated. Because such inclusions represent a significant threat in aviation, a detailed analysis is required for impured turbine disks. For this purpose, sensitive fluxgate magnetometers are used. After a premagnetisation, this sensor is able to detect small ferromagnetic particles by recording the variation of the magnetic flux density while the disk rotates below the sensor head. This trajectory create...

  12. High-Sensitivity Low-Noise Miniature Fluxgate Magnetometers Using a Flip Chip Conceptual Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff; Chiu, Po-Kai; Chiu, Shih-Liang; Jeng, Jen-Tzong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB) substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current “flip chip” concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. P...

  13. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Sagavanirktok Quadrangle, Alaska. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The results obtained from an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over the Sagavanirktok map area of Alaska are presented. Based on the criteria outlined in the general section on interpretation, a total of eight uranium anomalies have been outlined on the interpretation map. However, all of these zones are only weakly to moderately anomalous. None are thought to be indicative of local enrichment of uranium to economically significant levels. No follow-up work is recommended

  14. Hypervelocity dust particle impacts observed by the Giotto Magnetometer and Plasma Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer, F. M.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Coates, A. J.; Goldstein, R.; Acuña, M. H.; Musmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    We report thirteen very short events in the magnetic field of the inner magnetic pile‐up region of comet Halley observed by the Giotto magnetometer experiment together with simultaneous plasma data obtained by the Johnstone plasma analyzer and the ion mass spectrometer experiments. The events are due to dust impacts in the milligram range on the spacecraft at the relative velocity between the cemetery dust and the spacecraft of 68 km/sec. They are generally consistent with dust impact events ...

  15. New vector/scalar Overhauser DNP magnetometers POS-4 for magnetic observatories and directional oil drilling support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapunov V.A., Denisov A.Y., Saveliev D.V., Soloviev A.A., Khomutov S.Y., Borodin P.B., Narkhov E.D., Sergeev A.V., Shirokov A.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers same results of the research directed at developing an absolute vector proton magnetometer POS-4 based on the switching bias magnetic fields methods. Due to the high absolute precision and stability magnetometer POS-4 found application not only for observatories and to directional drilling support of oi and gas well. Also we discuss the some basic errors of measurements and discuss the long-term experience in the testing of magnetic observatories ART and PARATUNKA.

  16. The MAGIC of CINEMA: first in-flight science results from a miniaturised anisotropic magnetoresistive magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Archer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the first in-flight results from a novel miniaturised anisotropic magnetoresistive space magnetometer, MAGIC (MAGnetometer from Imperial College, aboard the first CINEMA (CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons and MAgnetic fields spacecraft in low Earth orbit. An attitude-independent calibration technique is detailed using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF, which is temperature dependent in the case of the outboard sensor. We show that the sensors accurately measure the expected absolute field to within 2% in attitude mode and 1% in science mode. Using a simple method we are able to estimate the spacecraft's attitude using the magnetometer only, thus characterising CINEMA's spin, precession and nutation. Finally, we show that the outboard sensor is capable of detecting transient physical signals with amplitudes of ~ 20–60 nT. These include field-aligned currents at the auroral oval, qualitatively similar to previous observations, which agree in location with measurements from the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program and POES (Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites spacecraft. Thus, we demonstrate and discuss the potential science capabilities of the MAGIC instrument onboard a CubeSat platform.

  17. Fluxgate magnetometer offset vector determination by the 3D mirror mode method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, F.; Goetz, C.; Volwerk, M.; Richter, I.; Frühauff, D.; Narita, Y.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2017-07-01

    Fluxgate magnetometers on-board spacecraft need to be regularly calibrated in flight. In low fields, the most important calibration parameters are the three offset vector components, which represent the magnetometer measurements in vanishing ambient magnetic fields. In case of three-axis stabilized spacecraft, a few methods exist to determine offsets: (I) by analysis of Alfvénic fluctuations present in the pristine interplanetary magnetic field, (II) by rolling the spacecraft around at least two axes, (III) by cross-calibration against measurements from electron drift instruments or absolute magnetometers, and (IV) by taking measurements in regions of well-known magnetic fields, e.g. cometary diamagnetic cavities. In this paper, we introduce a fifth option, the 3-dimensional (3D) mirror mode method, by which 3D offset vectors can be determined using magnetic field measurements of highly compressional waves, e.g. mirror modes in the Earth's magnetosheath. We test the method by applying it to magnetic field data measured by the following: the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms-C spacecraft in the terrestrial magnetosheath, the Cassini spacecraft in the Jovian magnetosheath and the Rosetta spacecraft in the vicinity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The tests reveal that the achievable offset accuracies depend on the ambient magnetic field strength (lower strength meaning higher accuracy), on the length of the underlying data interval (more data meaning higher accuracy) and on the stability of the offset that is to be determined.

  18. Integrated de SQUID magnetometer with high dV/dB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drung, D.; Cantor, R.; Peters, M.; Ryhanen, T.; Kochi, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a directly coupled dc SQUID magnetometer with very simple feedback electronics. The magnetometer has been integrated on a 7.2 x 7.2 mm 2 chip and fabricated using a four-level Nb/Si x N v /Nb process. Eight pick-up loops are connected in parallel to directly form the SQUID inductance of about 0.4 nH which leads to a high sensitivity B/Φ = 0.47 nT/Φ. An Additional Positive Feedback (APF) circuit on the magnetometer chip has been used to increase the gradient of the V-μ characteristic to dV/dΦ ≅ 300 μV/Φ 0 at the SQUID operating point. The resulting gradient of the transfer function of dV/dB ≅ 640 μV/nT makes it possible to directly read out the SQUID without helium temperature impedance matching circuits or flux modulation techniques

  19. Intense auroral field-aligned currents and electrojets detected by rocket-borne fluxgate magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Fumio; Fukunishi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takao; Kokubun, Susumu; Fujii, Ryoichi; Yamagishi, Hisao.

    1988-01-01

    The S-310JA-11 and S-310JA-12 rockets, having a vector magnetometer with high sensitivity (1.8 nT) and high sampling frequency (100 Hz), were launched into the aurora on May 29 and July 12, 1985, from Syowa Station, Antarctica. The S-310JA-11 rocket penetrated twice quiet arcs, while the S-310JA-12 rocket traversed across intense and active auroral arcs during a large magnetic substorm. In the S-310JA-12 rocket experiment, intense field-aligned currents of 400 - 600 nT were observed when the rocket penetrated an active arc during the descending flight. The magnetometer on board the S-310JA-12 rocket also detected intense electrojet currents with a center at 110 km on the upward leg and at 108 km on the downward leg. The magnetometer data of the S-310JA-11 rocket showed no distinguished magnetic field variation due to field-aligned current and electrojet. (author)

  20. Attitude Determination with Magnetometers and Accelerometers to Use in Satellite Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Koiti Kuga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attitude control of artificial satellites is dependent on information provided by its attitude determination process. This paper presents the implementation and tests of a fully self-contained algorithm for the attitude determination using magnetometers and accelerometers, for application on a satellite simulator based on frictionless air bearing tables. However, it is known that magnetometers and accelerometers need to be calibrated so as to allow that measurements are used to their ultimate accuracy. A calibration method is implemented which proves to be essential for improving attitude determination accuracy. For the stepwise real-time attitude determination, it was used the well-known QUEST algorithm which yields quick response with reduced computer resources. The algorithms are tested and qualified with actual data collected on the streets under controlled situations. For such street runaways, the experiment employs a solid-state magnetoresistive magnetometer and an IMU navigation block consisting of triads of accelerometers and gyros, with MEMS technology. A GPS receiver is used to record positional information. The collected measurements are processed through the developed algorithms, and comparisons are made for attitude determination using calibrated and noncalibrated data. The results show that the attitude accuracy reaches the requirements for real-time operation for satellite simulator platforms.

  1. Study on modulation amplitude stabilization method for PEM based on FPGA in atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Quan, Wei; Duan, Lihong

    2017-10-01

    Atomic magnetometer which uses atoms as sensitive elements have ultra-high precision and has wide applications in scientific researches. The photoelastic modulation method based on photoelastic modulator (PEM) is used in the atomic magnetometer to detect the small optical rotation angle of a linearly polarized light. However, the modulation amplitude of the PEM will drift due to the environmental factors, which reduces the precision and long-term stability of the atomic magnetometer. Consequently, stabilizing the PEM's modulation amplitude is essential to precision measurement. In this paper, a modulation amplitude stabilization method for PEM based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is proposed. The designed control system contains an optical setup and an electrical part. The optical setup is used to measure the PEM's modulation amplitude. The FPGA chip, with the PID control algorithm implemented in it, is used as the electrical part's micro controller. The closed loop control method based on the photoelastic modulation detection system can directly measure the PEM's modulation amplitude in real time, without increasing the additional optical devices. In addition, the operating speed of the modulation amplitude stabilization control system can be greatly improved because of the FPGA's parallel computing feature, and the PID control algorithm ensures flexibility to meet different needs of the PEM's modulation amplitude set values. The Modelsim simulation results show the correctness of the PID control algorithm, and the long-term stability of the PEM's modulation amplitude reaches 0.35% in a 3-hour continuous measurement.

  2. MgB{sub 2} magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portesi, C [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Turin (Italy); Mijatovic, D [Low Temperature Division and Mesa Research Institute, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Veldhuis, D [Low Temperature Division and Mesa Research Institute, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Brinkman, A [Low Temperature Division and Mesa Research Institute, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Monticone, E [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Turin (Italy); Gonnelli, R S [INFM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    In this work, we show the results obtained in the fabrication and characterization of an MgB{sub 2} magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which incorporates two nanobridges as weak links in a superconducting loop. The nanobridges were realized by focused ion beam milling; they were 240 nm wide and had a critical current density of 10{sup 7} A cm{sup -2}. The magnetometer was characterized at different temperatures and also measurements of the noise levels have been performed. The device shows Josephson quantum interference up to 20 K and the calculated effective area at low temperatures was 0.24 mm{sup 2}. The transport properties of the magnetometer allow determining fundamental materials properties of the MgB{sub 2} thin films, such as the penetration depth.

  3. MgB2 magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portesi, C.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, D.; Brinkman, A.; Monticone, E.; Gonnelli, R. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we show the results obtained in the fabrication and characterization of an MgB2 magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which incorporates two nanobridges as weak links in a superconducting loop. The nanobridges were realized by focused ion beam milling; they were 240 nm wide and had a critical current density of 107 A cm-2. The magnetometer was characterized at different temperatures and also measurements of the noise levels have been performed. The device shows Josephson quantum interference up to 20 K and the calculated effective area at low temperatures was 0.24 mm2. The transport properties of the magnetometer allow determining fundamental materials properties of the MgB2 thin films, such as the penetration depth.

  4. The MAGIC of CINEMA: first in-flight science results from a miniaturised anisotropic magnetoresistive magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M. O.; Horbury, T. S.; Brown, P.; Eastwood, J. P.; Oddy, T. M.; Whiteside, B. J.; Sample, J. G.

    2015-06-01

    We present the first in-flight results from a novel miniaturised anisotropic magnetoresistive space magnetometer, MAGIC (MAGnetometer from Imperial College), aboard the first CINEMA (CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons and MAgnetic fields) spacecraft in low Earth orbit. An attitude-independent calibration technique is detailed using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF), which is temperature dependent in the case of the outboard sensor. We show that the sensors accurately measure the expected absolute field to within 2% in attitude mode and 1% in science mode. Using a simple method we are able to estimate the spacecraft's attitude using the magnetometer only, thus characterising CINEMA's spin, precession and nutation. Finally, we show that the outboard sensor is capable of detecting transient physical signals with amplitudes of ~ 20-60 nT. These include field-aligned currents at the auroral oval, qualitatively similar to previous observations, which agree in location with measurements from the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) and POES (Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites) spacecraft. Thus, we demonstrate and discuss the potential science capabilities of the MAGIC instrument onboard a CubeSat platform.

  5. Comparison of Vertical Drifts of ISR and Magnetometer Data Measurements at the Magnetic Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condor P, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    We compare vertical drifts measured with the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR) and drifts estimated from magnetometer data applying a Neural Network data processing technique. For the application of the Neural Network (NN) method, we use the magnitude of the horizontal (H) component of the magnetic field measured with magnetometers at Jicamarca and Piura (Peru). The data was collected between the years 2002 and 2013. In training the NN we use the difference between the magnitudes of the horizontal components (dH) measured at JRO (placed at the magnetic equator) and Piura (displaced 5° away). Additional parameters used are F10.7 and Ap indexes. The estimates obtained with the NN procedure are very good. We have an RMS error of 3.7 m/s using dH as an input of the NN while the error is 3.9 m/s when we use the component H of JRO as an input. The results are validated using the set of vertical drifts observations collected with the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar. The estimated drifts can be accessed using the following website: http://jro.igp.gob.pe/driftnn. In the poster, we show the comparison of vertical drifts from 2002 to 2013 where we discuss the agreement between magnetometer and ISR data.

  6. Attitude-independent magnetometer calibration for marine magnetic surveys: regularization issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhitian; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an attitude-independent calibration method for a shipboard magnetometer to estimate the absolute strength of the geomagnetic field from a marine vessel. The three-axis magnetometer to be calibrated is fixed on a rigid aluminium boom ahead of the vessel to reduce the magnetic effect of the vessel. Due to the constrained manoeuvres of the vessel, a linear observational equation system for calibration parameter estimation is severely ill-posed. Consequently, if the issue is not mitigated, traditional calibration methods may result in unreliable or unsuccessful solutions. In this paper, the ill-posed problem is solved by using the truncated total least squares (TTLS) technique. This method takes advantage of simultaneously considering errors on both sides of the observation equation. Furthermore, the TTLS method suits strongly ill-posed problems. Simulations and experiments have been performed to assess the performance of the TTLS method and to compare it with the performance of conventional regularization approaches such as the Tikhonov method and truncated single value decomposition. The results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively mitigate the ill-posed problem and is more stable than the compared regularization methods for magnetometer calibration applications. (paper)

  7. Combined spacecraft orbit and attitude control through extended Kalman filtering of magnetometer, gyro, and GPS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Mekky Ahmed Habib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to establish spacecraft orbit and attitude control algorithms based on extended Kalman filter which provides estimates of spacecraft orbital and attitude states. The control and estimation algorithms must be capable of dealing with the spacecraft conditions during the detumbling and attitude acquisition modes of operation. These conditions are characterized by nonlinearities represented by large initial attitude angles, large initial angular velocities, large initial attitude estimation error, and large initial position estimation error. All of the developed estimation and control algorithms are suitable for application to the next Egyptian scientific satellite, EGYPTSAT-2. The parameters of the case-study spacecraft are similar but not identical to the former Egyptian satellite EGYPTSAT-1. This is done because the parameters of EGYPTSAT-2 satellite have not been consolidated yet. The sensors utilized are gyro, magnetometer, and GPS. Gyro and magnetometer are utilized to provide measurements for the estimates of spacecraft attitude state vector where as magnetometer and GPS are utilized to provide measurements for the estimates of spacecraft orbital state vector.

  8. Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Nazli E.

    The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with

  9. A hybrid SEA/modal technique for modeling structural-acoustic interior noise in rotorcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, V; Bonilha, M W

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a hybrid technique that combines Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) predictions for structural vibration with acoustic modal summation techniques to predict interior noise levels in rotorcraft. The method was applied for predicting the sound field inside a mock-up of the interior panel system of the Sikorsky S-92 helicopter. The vibration amplitudes of the frame and panel systems were predicted using a detailed SEA model and these were used as inputs to the model of the interior acoustic space. The spatial distribution of the vibration field on individual panels, and their coupling to the acoustic space were modeled using stochastic techniques. Leakage and nonresonant transmission components were accounted for using space-averaged values obtained from a SEA model of the complete structural-acoustic system. Since the cabin geometry was quite simple, the modeling of the interior acoustic space was performed using a standard modal summation technique. Sound pressure levels predicted by this approach at specific microphone locations were compared with measured data. Agreement within 3 dB in one-third octave bands above 40 Hz was observed. A large discrepancy in the one-third octave band in which the first acoustic mode is resonant (31.5 Hz) was observed. Reasons for such a discrepancy are discussed in the paper. The developed technique provides a method for modeling helicopter cabin interior noise in the frequency mid-range where neither FEA nor SEA is individually effective or accurate.

  10. Overview of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) Full Scale Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin; Littell, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) full-scale tests were performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility in 2013 and 2014. Two CH-46E airframes were impacted at 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocities onto soft soil, which represents a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. TRACT 1 provided a baseline set of responses, while TRACT 2 included retrofits with composite subfloors and other crash system improvements based on TRACT 1. For TRACT 2, a total of 18 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and activation of emergency locator transmitters and crash sensors. Combinations of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 ATDs were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. The structural response of the airframe was assessed based on accelerometers located throughout the airframe and using three-dimensional photogrammetric techniques. Analysis of the photogrammetric data indicated regions of maximum deflection and permanent deformation. The response of TRACT 2 was noticeably different in the horizontal direction due to changes in the cabin configuration and soil surface, with higher acceleration and damage occurring in the cabin. Loads from ATDs in energy absorbing seats and restraints were within injury limits. Severe injury was likely for ATDs in forward facing passenger seats.

  11. Helical Face Gear Development Under the Enhanced Rotorcraft Drive System Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Gregory F.; Slaughter, Stephen C.; Fisher, David J.; Lewicki, David G.; Fetty, Jason

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Army goals for the Enhanced Rotorcraft Drive System Program are to achieve a 40 percent increase in horsepower to weight ratio, a 15 dB reduction in drive system generated noise, 30 percent reduction in drive system operating, support, and acquisition cost, and 75 percent automatic detection of critical mechanical component failures. Boeing s technology transition goals are that the operational endurance level of the helical face gearing and related split-torque designs be validated to a TRL 6, and that analytical and manufacturing tools be validated. Helical face gear technology is being developed in this project to augment, and transition into, a Boeing AH-64 Block III split-torque face gear main transmission stage, to yield increased power density and reduced noise. To date, helical face gear grinding development on Northstar s new face gear grinding machine and pattern-development tests at the NASA Glenn/U.S. Army Research Laboratory have been completed and are described.

  12. Optimizations of spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer based on potassium and rubidium hybrid optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao; Li, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometers have not realized its theoretical sensitivity, the optimization is critical for optimal performance. The optimizations proposed in this paper are suitable for hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometer, which contains two alkali species. To optimize the parameters, the dynamic equations of spin evolution with two alkali species were solved, whose steady-state solution is used to optimize the parameters. The demand of the power of the pump beam is large for hybrid optical pumping. Moreover, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer increases with the increase of the power density of the pump beam. The density ratio between the two alkali species is especially important for hybrid optical pumping magnetometer. A simple expression for optimizing the density ratio is proposed in this paper, which can help to determine the mole faction of the alkali atoms in fabricating the hybrid cell before the cell is sealed. The spin-exchange rate between the two alkali species is proportional to the saturated density of the alkali vapor, which is highly dependent on the temperature of the cell. Consequently, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer is dependent on the temperature of the cell. We proposed the thermal optimization of the hybrid cell for a hybrid optical pumping magnetometer, which can improve the sensitivity especially when the power of the pump beam is low. With these optimizations, a sensitivity of approximately 5 fT/Hz 1/2 is achieved with gradiometer arrangement

  13. Diagnosis of airspeed measurement faults for unmanned aerial vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Blanke, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    Airspeed sensor faults are common causes for incidents with unmanned aerial vehicles with pitot tube clogging or icing being the most common causes. Timely diagnosis of such faults or other artifacts in signals from airspeed sensing systems could potentially prevent crashes. This paper employs...

  14. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  15. Challenges of Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In Civil Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, B M; Albatsh, F; Faris, W F; Chebil, J

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. There have been an increased number of studies aiming at improving UAV and in its use for different civil applications. This paper highlights the fundamentals of UAV system and examines the challenges related with the major components such as motors, drives, power systems, communication systems and image processing tools and equipment

  16. Distributed sensing and actuation over bluetooth for unmanned air vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, José A.; Coelho, Ezequiel T.; Carvalhal, Paulo; Ferreira, Manuel João Oliveira; Santos, Cristina; Silva, Luís F.; Almeida, Heitor

    2006-01-01

    A short range wireless network platform, based on Bluetooth technology and on a Round Robin scheduling is presented. The objective is to build an application independent platform, to support a distributed sensing and actuation control system, which will be used in an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This platform provides the advantages of wireless communications while assuring low weight, small energy consumption and reliable communications.

  17. Unmanned Aerial System Four-Dimensional Gunnery Training Device Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Aerial System (UAS) Four-Dimensional Gunnery Training Device: Training Effectiveness Assessment (James & Miller, in press). 31 Technical ...Research Product 2018-05 Unmanned Aerial System Four-Dimensional Gunnery Training Device Development David R. James...for the Department of the Army by Northrop Grumman Corporation. Technical review by Thomas Rhett Graves, Ph.D., U.S. Army Research Institute

  18. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USE FOR WOOD CHIPS PILE VOLUME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokroš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000. We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993. We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  19. CADASTRAL AUDIT AND ASSESSMENTS USING UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cunningham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground surveys and remote sensing are integral to establishing fair and equitable property valuations necessary for real property taxation. The International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO has embraced aerial and street-view imaging as part of its standards related to property tax assessments and audits. New technologies, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS paired with imaging sensors, will become more common as local governments work to ensure their cadastre and tax rolls are both accurate and complete. Trends in mapping technology have seen an evolution in platforms from large, expensive manned aircraft to very small, inexpensive UAS. Traditional methods of photogrammetry have also given way to new equipment and sensors: digital cameras, infrared imagers, light detection and ranging (LiDAR laser scanners, and now synthetic aperture radar (SAR. At the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF, we work extensively with unmanned aerial systems equipped with each of these newer sensors. UAF has significant experience flying unmanned systems in the US National Airspace, having begun in 1969 with scientific rockets and expanded to unmanned aircraft in 2003. Ongoing field experience allows UAF to partner effectively with outside organizations to test and develop leading-edge research in UAS and remote sensing. This presentation will discuss our research related to various sensors and payloads for mapping. We will also share our experience with UAS and optical systems for creating some of the first cadastral surveys in rural Alaska.

  20. Where am I? Creating spatial awareness in unmanned ground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a survey of Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) algorithms for unmanned ground robots. SLAM is the process of creating a map of the environment, sometimes unknown a priori, while at the same time localizing the robot in the same map. The map could be one of different types i.e. metrical, ...

  1. A usage-centered evaluation methodology for unmanned ground vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Looije, R.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Smets, N.J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a usage-centered evaluation method to assess the capabilities of a particular Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for establishing the operational goals. The method includes a test battery consisting of basic tasks (e.g., slalom, funnel driving, object detection). Tests can be of

  2. Augmenting camera images for operators of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Oving, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    The manual control of the camera of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be difficult due to several factors such as 1) time delays between steering input and changes of the monitor content, 2) low update rates of the camera images and 3) lack of situation awareness due to the remote position of the

  3. Mechanical Design of a Manipulation System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, A.Q.L.; Fumagalli, M.; Stramigioli, S.; Carloni, R.

    In this paper, we present the mechanical design and modeling of a manipulation system for unmanned aerial vehicles, which have to physically interact with environments and perform ultrasonic non-destructive testing experiments and other versatile tasks at unreachable locations for humans. The

  4. Surfzone monitoring using rotary wing unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.L.; De Schipper, M.A.; Rynne, P.F.; Graham, F.J.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Macmahan, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of rotary wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor the surfzone. This paper shows that these UAVs are extremely flexible surveying platforms that can gather nearcontinuous moderate spatial resolution and high temporal resolution imagery from a fixed

  5. Optimal event handling by multiple unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, Martijn; Frasca, Paolo; Carloni, Raffaella

    This paper proposes a control architecture for a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles that is responsible for handling the events that take place in a given area. The architecture guarantees that each event is handled by the required number of vehicles in the shortest time, while the rest of the fleet

  6. The QuakeFinder Magnetometer Network - a Platform for Earth and Space Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, T.; Kappler, K. N.; Schneider, D.

    2016-12-01

    QuakeFinder (QF) is a humanitarian research and development project attempting to characterize earth-emitting electromagnetic (EM) signals as potential precursors to earthquakes. Beginning in 2005, QF designed, built, deployed and now maintains an array of 165 remote monitoring stations in 6 countries (US/California, Taiwan, Greece, Indonesia, Peru and Chile). Having amassed approximately 70 TB of data and greater than 140 earthquakes (M4+), QF is focused on the data analysis and signal processing algorithms in our effort to enable a forecasting capability. QF's autonomous stations, located along major fault lines, collect and transmit electromagnetic readings from 3-axis induction magnetometers and positive/negative ion sensors, a geophone, as well as various station health status and local conditions. The induction magnetometers, oriented N-S,E-W and vertically, have a 40 nT range and 1 pT sensitivity. Data is continuously collected at 50 samples/sec (sps), GPS time-stamped and transmitted, primarily through cell phone networks, to our data center in Palo Alto, California. The induction magnetometers routinely detect subtle geomagnetic and ionospheric disturbances as observed worldwide. QF seeks to make available both historic data and the array platform to strategic partners in the EM-related research and operation fields. The QF system will be described in detail with examples of local and regional geomagnetic activity. The stations are robust and will be undergoing a system-level upgrade in the near future. Domestically, QF maintains a 98% `up time' among the 120 stations in California while internationally our metric is typically near 80%. Irregular cell phone reception is chief among the reasons for outages although little data has been lost as the stations can store up to 90 days of data. These data are retrieved by QF personnel or, when communication is reestablished, the QF data ingest process automatically updates the database. Planned station upgrades

  7. Magnetometer Data in the Classroom as a part of the NASA THEMIS Satellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Bean, J.; Walker, A.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA-funded THEMIS mission was designed to determine the onset time and location of magnetic substorms of Earth's space environment, a prerequisite to understanding space weather. THEMIS is an acronym for Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms. he Geomagnetic Event Observation Network by Students (GEONS) project was the flagship, formal education component of the E/PO program. With the placement of magnetometers in the proximity of rural schools throughout the country, middle and high school teachers along with their students benefited from the opportunity to work with 'real-time' data and participated in hands-on space science activities. Particular attention was paid to placing the magnetometer stations at schools in rural communities whose students were traditionally underserved and underrepresented in the sciences. The project offered to the teachers of these students long-term professional development opportunities that centered around THEMIS-related space science and the magnetometer data. The THEMIS E/PO final evaluation report for the main phase of the THEMIS mission covered the period from 2003-2009, describing the impact of this program such as this program placed magnetometers sites at 13 rural, underserved schools/communities, two-fifths of which are on tribal lands; and provided intensive professional development for 20 teachers from 2004 through 2009. A core group of eight teachers estimated reaching more than 2,720 students with THEMIS-related materials/ideas. 75% of these students are minorities in science. Core teachers provided evidence of the project's positive impact on students' attitudes toward science and their choices for courses that position them for STEM-related careers. Core teachers reported sharing THEMIS-related materials/ideas with 275 colleagues. The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer featured the Petersburg, Alaska site potentially reaching more than 5 million viewers in two airings, according to Nielsen

  8. Tracking of a Fluorescent Dye in a Freshwater Lake with an Unmanned Surface Vehicle and an Unmanned Aircraft System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Powers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent catastrophic events in our oceans, including the spill of toxic oil from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig and the rapid dispersion of radioactive particulates from the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, underscore the need for new tools and technologies to rapidly respond to hazardous agents. Our understanding of the movement and aerosolization of hazardous agents from natural aquatic systems can be expanded upon and used in prevention and tracking. New technologies with coordinated unmanned robotic systems could lead to faster identification and mitigation of hazardous agents in lakes, rivers, and oceans. In this study, we released a fluorescent dye (fluorescein into a freshwater lake from an anchored floating platform. A fluorometer (fluorescence sensor was mounted underneath an unmanned surface vehicle (USV, unmanned boat and was used to detect and track the released dye in situ in real-time. An unmanned aircraft system (UAS was used to visualize the dye and direct the USV to sample different areas of the dye plume. Image processing tools were used to map concentration profiles of the dye plume from aerial images acquired from the UAS, and these were associated with concentration measurements collected from the sensors onboard the USV. The results of this project have the potential to transform monitoring strategies for hazardous agents, enabling timely and accurate exposure assessment and response in affected areas. Fast response is essential in reacting to the introduction of hazardous agents, in order to quickly predict and contain their spread.

  9. An unmanned search and rescue mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaro Mascarello, Laura; Quagliotti, Fulvia; Bertini, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) are becoming more and more powerful and innovative and they have an increased interest in civil applications, in particular, after natural hazard phenomena. The RPAS is useful in search and rescue missions in high mountain where scenarios are unfriendly and the use of helicopters is often not profitable. First, the unmanned configuration is safer because there is no hazards for human life that is not on board. Moreover, it is cheaper due to the use of electric propulsion instead of internal combustion engine and to its small dimensions and weights. Finally, the use of the RPAS is faster while the helicopter is often not available because is involved in other missions or it cannot be used if the search mission is in impervious scenario, such as forests with thick vegetation. For instance, the RPAS can be used after an avalanche when victims have little time to be saved before the death by hypothermia. In most conditions, the body maintains a healthy temperature. However, if it is exposed to cold temperatures, especially with a high cooling factor from wind and high humidity, for extended periods, the control mechanisms of the body may not be able to maintain a normal body temperature. When you lose more heat than the body can generate, it takes over hypothermia, defined as a body temperature below 35° C. Wet clothing, fall into cold water or not adequately cover themselves during the cold season, are all factors that can increase the chances of hypothermia. Signs and symptoms (tremor, slurred speech, breathing abnormally slow, cold and pale skin, loss of coordination, fatigue, lethargy or apathy, confusion or memory loss) usually develop slowly. People with hypothermia typically experience a gradual loss of mental acuity and physical capacity, and realize that you have need of emergency medical care. For these reasons, the use of an RPAS could be crucial for the survival of disappeared people in high mountain. In

  10. The application of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in geophysical investigations of geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, J. M.; Egger, A. E.; Ippolito, C.; Phelps, G. A.; Berthold, R.; Lee, R.; Spritzer, J. M.; Tchernychev, M.

    2012-12-01

    Investigations of geothermal systems typically involve ground-based geological and geophysical studies in order to map structures that control and facilitate fluid flow. The spatial extent of ground-based investigations can be limited, however, by surficial hot springs, dense foliage, and roadless or private lands. This can result in data gaps in key areas, particularly around active hydrothermal springs. Manned aircraft can provide access to these areas and can yield broad and uniform data coverage, but high-resolution surveys are costly and relatively inflexible to changes in the survey specifications that may arise as data are collected. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are well suited for conducting these surveys, but until recently, various factors (scientific instrumentation requirements, platform limitations, and size of the survey area) have required the use of large UAS platforms, rendering unmanned aerial surveys unsuitable for most investigations. We have developed and tested a new cesium magnetometer system to collect magnetic data using two different small-platform UAS that overcomes many of the challenges described above. We are deploying this new system in Surprise Valley, CA, to study the area's active geothermal field. Surprise Valley is ideally suited to testing UAS due to its low population density, accessible airspace, and broad playa that provides ample opportunity to safely land the aircraft. In combination with gravity and topographic data, magnetic data are particularly useful for identifying buried, intra-basin structures, especially in areas such as Surprise Valley where highly magnetic, dense mafic volcanic rocks are interbedded with and faulted against less magnetic, less dense sedimentary rock. While high-resolution gravity data must be collected at point locations on the ground, high-resolution magnetic data can be obtained by UAS that provide continuous coverage. Once acquired, the magnetic data obtained by the UAS will be combined with

  11. Reliability Assessment for Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Paul Michael

    Existing low-cost unmanned aerospace systems are unreliable, and engineers must blend reliability analysis with fault-tolerant control in novel ways. This dissertation introduces the University of Minnesota unmanned aerial vehicle flight research platform, a comprehensive simulation and flight test facility for reliability and fault-tolerance research. An industry-standard reliability assessment technique, the failure modes and effects analysis, is performed for an unmanned aircraft. Particular attention is afforded to the control surface and servo-actuation subsystem. Maintaining effector health is essential for safe flight; failures may lead to loss of control incidents. Failure likelihood, severity, and risk are qualitatively assessed for several effector failure modes. Design changes are recommended to improve aircraft reliability based on this analysis. Most notably, the control surfaces are split, providing independent actuation and dual-redundancy. The simulation models for control surface aerodynamic effects are updated to reflect the split surfaces using a first-principles geometric analysis. The failure modes and effects analysis is extended by using a high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft simulation. A trim state discovery is performed to identify the achievable steady, wings-level flight envelope of the healthy and damaged vehicle. Tolerance of elevator actuator failures is studied using familiar tools from linear systems analysis. This analysis reveals significant inherent performance limitations for candidate adaptive/reconfigurable control algorithms used for the vehicle. Moreover, it demonstrates how these tools can be applied in a design feedback loop to make safety-critical unmanned systems more reliable. Control surface impairments that do occur must be quickly and accurately detected. This dissertation also considers fault detection and identification for an unmanned aerial vehicle using model-based and model-free approaches and applies those

  12. Studies of Polar Current Systems Using the IMS Scandinavian Magnetometer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiedt, J.; Baumjohann, W.

    1993-09-01

    As a contribution to the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS, 1976 1979) a two-dimensional array of 42 temporary magnetometer stations was run in Scandinavia, supplementary to the permanent observatories and concentrated in the northern part of the region. This effort aimed at the time-dependent (periods above about 100 s) determination of the two-dimensional structure of substorm-related magnetic fields at the Earth's surface with highest reasonable spatial resolution (about 100 km, corresponding to the height of the ionosphere) near the footpoints of field-aligned electric currents that couple the disturbed magnetosphere to the ionosphere at auroral latitudes. It has been of particular advantage for cooperative studies that not only simultaneous data were available from all-sky cameras, riometers, balloons, rockets, and satellites, but also from the STARE radar facility yielding colocated two-dimensional ionospheric electric field distributions. In many cases it therefore was possible to infer the three-dimensional regional structure of substorm-related ionospheric current systems. The first part of this review outlines the basic relationships and methods that have been used or have been developed for such studies. The second short part presents typical equivalent current patterns observed by the magnetometer array in the course of substorms. Finally we review main results of studies that have been based on the magnetometer array observations and on additional data, omitting studies on geomagnetic pulsations. These studies contributed to a clarification of the nature of auroral electrojets including the Harang discontinuity and of ionospheric current systems related to auroral features such as the break-up at midnight, the westward traveling surge, eastward drifting omega bands, and spirals.

  13. Magnetic profiling of the San Andreas Fault using a dual magnetometer UAV aerial survey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, J. A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Masongsong, E. V.; Yang, J.; Medina, H. R.; Moon, S.; Davis, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Aeromagnetic survey methods using planes are more time-effective than hand-held methods, but can be far more expensive per unit area unless large areas are covered. The availability of low cost UAVs and low cost, lightweight fluxgate magnetometers (FGMs) allows, with proper offset determination and stray fields correction, for low-cost magnetic surveys. Towards that end, we have developed a custom multicopter UAV for magnetic mapping using a dual 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer system: the GEOphysical Drone Enhanced Survey Instrument (GEODESI). A high precision sensor measures the UAV's position and attitude (roll, pitch, and yaw) and is recorded using a custom Arduino data processing system. The two FGMs (in-board and out-board) are placed on two ends of a vertical 1m boom attached to the base of the UAV. The in-board FGM is most sensitive to stray fields from the UAV and its signal is used, after scaling, to clean the signal of the out-board FGM from the vehicle noise. The FGMs record three orthogonal components of the magnetic field in the UAV body coordinates which are then transformed into a north-east-down coordinate system using a rotation matrix determined from the roll-pitch-yaw attitude data. This ensures knowledge of the direction of all three field components enabling us to perform inverse modeling of magnetic anomalies with greater accuracy than total or vertical field measurements used in the past. Field tests were performed at Dragon's Back Pressure Ridge in the Carrizo Plain of California, where there is a known crossing of the San Andreas Fault. Our data and models were compared to previously acquired LiDAR and hand-held magnetometer measurements. Further tests will be carried out to solidify our results and streamline our processing for educational use in the classroom and student field training.

  14. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Alaska. Final report, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    During the months of July and August of 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 3 0 x 1 0 and one (1) 4 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles of the Alaska North Slope. These include the Barrow, Wainwright, Meade River, Teshekpuk, Harrison Bay, Beechey Point, Point Lay, Utukok River, Lookout Ridge, Ikpikpuk River, Umiat, and Sagavanirktok quadrangles. This report discusses the results obtained over the Harrison Bay map area

  15. A summary of the results from the UCLA OGO-5 fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    The OGO-5 fluxgate magnetometer experiment (E-14) was designed to measure the vector magnetic field over the full range of the OGO-5 orbit. Thus, it had a dynamic range of + or - 64,000 gamma yet it maintained a precision of + or - 1/16 gamma at all times. This enabled a broad spectrum of problems to be attached. Studies of the magnetospheric waves, currents, waves-particle interactions, pitch angle distributions and wave normal directions were made. The structure of the magnetopause, the magnetotail, and bow shock were probed, waves and discontinuities in the solar wind were examined and the various phases of substorms were examined in depth.

  16. Elimination of the induced current error in magnetometers using superconducting flux transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dummer, D.; Weyhmann, W.

    1987-01-01

    The changing magnetization of a sample in a superconducting flux transformer coupled magnetometer induces a current in the transformer which in turn changes the field at the sample. This ''image'' field and the error caused by it can be eliminated by sensing the current in the loop and nulling it by feedback through a mutual inductance. We have tested the technique on the superconducting transition of indium in an applied magnetic field and shown that the observed width of the transition is greatly reduced by maintaining zero current in the flux transformer

  17. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Aberdeen quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Aberdeen, South Dakota map area. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  18. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: north/south tieline. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted along the 99 0 longitude meridian from the Canadian border southward to the Mexican border. A total of 1555 line miles of geophysical data were acquired and, subsequently, compiled. The north-south tieline was flown as part of the National Uranium Resources Evaluation. NURE is a program of the US Department of Energy's Grand Junction, Colorado, office to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States

  19. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Networks of ground-based magnetometers now provide the basis for the diagnosis of magnetic disturbances associated with solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling on a truly global scale. Advances in sensor and digitisation technologies offer increases in sensitivity in fluxgate, induction coil, and new micro-sensor technologies - including the promise of hybrid sensors. Similarly, advances in remote connectivity provide the capacity for truly real-time monitoring of global dynamics at cadences sufficient for monitoring and in many cases resolving system level spatio-temporal ambiguities especially in combination with conjugate satellite measurements. A wide variety of the plasmaphysical processes active in driving geospace dynamics can be monitored based on the response of the electrical current system, including those associated with changes in global convection, magnetospheric substorms and nightside tail flows, as well as due to solar wind changes in both dynamic pressure and in response to rotations of the direction of the IMF. Significantly, any changes to the dynamical system must be communicated by the propagation of long-period Alfven and/or compressional waves. These wave populations hence provide diagnostics for not only the energy transport by the wave fields themselves, but also provide a mechanism for diagnosing the structure of the background plasma medium through which the waves propagate. Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves are especially significant in offering a monitor for mass density profiles, often invisible to particle detectors because of their very low energy, through the application of a variety of magneto-seismology and cross-phase techniques. Renewed scientific interest in the plasma waves associated with near-Earth substorm dynamics, including magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at substorm onset and their relation to magnetotail flows, as well the importance of global scale ultra-low frequency waves for the energisation, transport

  20. Note: Commercial SQUID magnetometer-compatible NMR probe and its application for studying a quantum magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennemann, T; Jeong, M; Yoon, D; Magrez, A; Berger, H; Yang, L; Živković, I; Babkevich, P; Rønnow, H M

    2018-04-01

    We present a compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe which is compatible with a magnet of a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and demonstrate its application to the study of a quantum magnet. We employ trimmer chip capacitors to construct an NMR tank circuit for low temperature measurements. Using a magnetic insulator MoOPO 4 with S = 1/2 (Mo 5+ ) as an example, we show that the T-dependence of the circuit is weak enough to allow the ligand-ion NMR study of magnetic systems. Our 31 P NMR results are compatible with previous bulk susceptibility and neutron scattering experiments and furthermore reveal unconventional spin dynamics.

  1. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Point Lay Quadrangle, Alaska. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The results obtained from an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over the Point Lay map area of Alaska are presented. Based on the criteria outlined in the general section on interpretation, a total of six uranium anomalies have been indicated on the interpretation map. All six are only weakly to moderately anomalous in either uranium or the uranium ratios. None of these are thought to be of any economic significance. No follow-up work is recommended for the Point Lay Quadrangle

  2. Note: Readout of a micromechanical magnetometer for the ITER fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimminen, H.; Kyynäräinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present readout instrumentation for a MEMS magnetometer, placed 30 m away from the MEMS element. This is particularly useful when sensing is performed in high-radiation environment, where the semiconductors in the readout cannot survive. High bandwidth transimpedance amplifiers are used to cancel the cable capacitances of several nanofarads. A frequency doubling readout scheme is used for crosstalk elimination. Signal-to-noise ratio in the range of 60 dB was achieved and with sub-percent nonlinearity. The presented instrument is intended for the steady-state magnetic field measurements in the ITER fusion reactor.

  3. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Wainwright Quadrangle, Alaska. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The results obtained from a gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over the Wainwright map area of Alaska are presented. Based on the criteria outlined in the general section of interpretation, a total of seven uranium anomalies have been outlined on the interpretation map. With the exception of Anomaly 1, all are located over the higher terrain of the foothills in the southern portion of the quadrangle. All seven anomalies are only weakly to moderately anomalous. There are no indications anywhere within the area of any significant preferential accumulations of uranium. None of the anomalies are thought to be of any economic importance. No follow-up work is recommended

  4. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Meade River Quadrangle, Alaska. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The results obtained from an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over the Meade River map area of Alaska are presented. Based on the criteria outlined in the general section on interpretation, a total of eight uranium anomalies have been outlined on the interpretation map. Most of these are only weakly to moderately anomalous. Zones 3 and 7 are relatively better than the others though none of the anomalies are thought to be of any economic significance. No follow-up work is recommended

  5. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Devils Lake quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Devil's Lake map area of North Dakota. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  6. Note: Commercial SQUID magnetometer-compatible NMR probe and its application for studying a quantum magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennemann, T.; Jeong, M.; Yoon, D.; Magrez, A.; Berger, H.; Yang, L.; Živković, I.; Babkevich, P.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    We present a compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe which is compatible with a magnet of a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and demonstrate its application to the study of a quantum magnet. We employ trimmer chip capacitors to construct an NMR tank circuit for low temperature measurements. Using a magnetic insulator MoOPO4 with S = 1/2 (Mo5+) as an example, we show that the T-dependence of the circuit is weak enough to allow the ligand-ion NMR study of magnetic systems. Our 31P NMR results are compatible with previous bulk susceptibility and neutron scattering experiments and furthermore reveal unconventional spin dynamics.

  7. Is light narrowing possible with dense-vapor paraffin coated cells for atomic magnetometers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Runqi; Balabas, Mikhail; Hovde, Chris; Li, Wenhao; Roig, Hector Masia; Wang, Tao; Wickenbrock, Arne; Zhivun, Elena; You, Zheng; Budker, Dmitry

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the operation of an all-optical rubidium-87 atomic magnetometer with amplitude-modulated light. To study the suppression of spin-exchange relaxation, three schemes of pumping were implemented with room-temperature and heated paraffin coated vacuum cells. Efficient pumping and accumulation of atoms in the F=2 ground state were obtained. However, the sought-for narrowing of the resonance lines has not been achieved. A theoretical analysis of the polarization degree is presented to illustrate the absence of light narrowing due to radiation trapping at high temperature.

  8. Trends in the development of unmanned marine technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article constitutes an attempt to identify current tendencies regarding the development of unmanned marine technologies such as unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. The analyses were performed on the basis of available literature, databases on research projects and internet sources. The material has been divided with regard to the location the research was conducted, the following groups being identified: the European Union, the United States of America and Poland. On the basis of the review of objectives and final effects of projects, tendencies in the development of the discussed marine technology have been identified. An interesting result of the review consists in an observation that Polish R&D works in this area are placed within the main identified developmental trends. Unfortunately, their effects are incomparable due to the minuteness of national funds allocated to R&D as opposed to other countries.

  9. Quantifying ground impact fatality rate for small unmanned aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    is based on a standard stochastic model, and employs a parameterized high fidelity ground impact distribution model that accounts for both aircraft specifications, parameter uncertainties, and wind. The method also samples the flight path to create an almost continuous quantification of the risk......One of the major challenges of conducting operation of unmanned aircraft, especially operations beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS), is to make a realistic and sufficiently detailed risk assessment. An important part of such an assessment is to identify the risk of fatalities, preferably...... in a quantitative way since this allows for comparison with manned aviation to determine whether an equivalent level of safety is achievable. This work presents a method for quantifying the probability of fatalities resulting from an uncontrolled descent of an unmanned aircraft conducting a BVLOS flight. The method...

  10. Bio-inspired computation in unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Bio-inspired Computation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles focuses on the aspects of path planning, formation control, heterogeneous cooperative control and vision-based surveillance and navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from the perspective of bio-inspired computation. It helps readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of control-related problems in UAVs, presenting the latest advances in bio-inspired computation. By combining bio-inspired computation and UAV control problems, key questions are explored in depth, and each piece is content-rich while remaining accessible. With abundant illustrations of simulation work, this book links theory, algorithms and implementation procedures, demonstrating the simulation results with graphics that are intuitive without sacrificing academic rigor. Further, it pays due attention to both the conceptual framework and the implementation procedures. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and graduate students in the field of Control, Aeros...

  11. Evaluation of Small Unmanned Aircraft Flight Trajectory Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramūnas Kikutis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today small unmanned aircraft are being more widely adapted for practical tasks. These tasks require high reliability and flight path accuracy. For such aircraft we have to deal with the chalenge how to compensate external factors and how to ensure the accuracy of the flight trajectory according to new regulations and standards. In this paper, new regulations for the flights of small unmanned aircraft in Lithuanian air space are discussed. Main factors, which affect errors of the autonomous flight path tracking, are discussed too. The emphasis is on the wind factor and the flight path of Dubbin’s trajectories. Research was performed with mathematical-dynamic model of UAV and it was compared with theoretical calculations. All calculations and experiments were accomplished for the circular part of Dubbin’s paths when the airplane was trimmed for circular trajectory flight in calm conditions. Further, for such flight the wind influence was analysed.

  12. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Geothermal Exploitation Monitoring: Khankala Field Example

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Cherkasov; Anvar M. Farkhutdinov; Dmitriy P. Rykovanov; Arbi A. Shaipov

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for geothermal waters exploitation monitoring. Development of a geothermal reservoir usually requires a system of wells, pipelines and pumping equipment and control of such a system is quite complicated. In this regard, use of unmanned aerial vehicle is relevant. Two test unmanned aerial vehicle based infrared surveys have been conducted at the Khankala field (Chechen Republic) with the Khankala geothermal plant operating at differe...

  13. Use of Unmanned Aerial Assault Vehicles (UAAV) as an Asymmetric Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Eker, Alper Alpaslan; Sallar, Eray; Turan, Yasin

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, unmanned systems (especially unmanned aerial vehicles) will play a dominant role in the operational fields. Thanks to the technological developments witnessed in many fields, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles for military purposes is becoming easier. Looking at the operations carried out over the last 25 years, it can be seen that most were conducted in residential areas, where and techniques, tactics and equipment with asymmetric effects will make significant differenc...

  14. Building Toward an Unmanned Aircraft System Training Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and fly at altitudes higher than commercial airlines do. They file instrument flight rules flight plans. However, BAMS-D and Triton do not...incorporate sense-and-avoid technology, and conflicts can exist with visual flight rules aircraft in the airspace. Airspace issues exist at some Navy training...MODS, Washington, DC, February 2011, p. 1 of 10. 164 Peter La Franchi , “Directory: Unmanned Air Vehicles,” Flight International, June 21st, 2005, p. 56

  15. A new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Molina, J.C.; Guerrero González, A.; Gilabert, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles is presented. This control system is characterized by a distribution in control over two network of type CANBus and Ethernet. This new electronic control system integrates functionalities of AUVs, as the automatic execution of preprogrammed trajectories. The control system also integrates an acoustic positioning system based on USBL. The information of relative positioning is sent through specific...

  16. Unmanned air vehicles - real time intelligence without the risk

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, James Bryan.

    1988-01-01

    Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of supporting the officer in tactical command (OTC) by gathering intelligence in real- or near real-time. UAVs now under development will be able to collect high-resolution imagery, and thus provide the OTC with the option of gathering tactical intelligence without using manned reconnaissance platforms. This thesis asserts that UAVs should be used to supplement existing intelligence sensors, particularly in those cases where current sources are too amb...

  17. Integrating the Unmanned Aircraft System into the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-18

    HALE High Altitude Long Endurance IFR Instrument Flight Rules ISR Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance JFC Joint Force Commander JP...many advantages and disadvantages of unmanned aircraft now made national headlines as UAS executed missions, once reserved for manned aircraft...of this research. To operate above 18,000 feet MSL the UAS must be filed under Instrument Flight Rules, or IFR flight plan. Additionally, the

  18. A concept of unmanned aerial vehicles in amphibious operations

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Kipp A.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The purpose of this thesis was to perform a conceptual study of using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in amphibious operations. It focused on the command relations, tasking and critical problems in UAV amphibious operations. This thesis investigated the question of whether using UAVs at sea is a feasible complement to current amphibious operational doctrine and, if so, then what expense is incurred to assets on which it is embarked an...

  19. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    González_Espasandín, Oscar; Leo Mena, Teresa de Jesus; Navarro Arevalo, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order t...

  20. PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF LONGITUDINAL STABILITY UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievgen Udartsev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 We consider the aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned aircraft container type, which were obtained in a wind tunnel and refined amended by soot blowing elements propeller system and the influence of the earth's surface. The estimation of longitudinal static stability and its dependence on altitude, damping, coordinates of center of gravity, shoulder horizontal tail, wings rejection of mechanization. The variation of these parameters enables to optimize balancing system with minimal losses. Normal 0 false false false

  1. Piecewise affine control for fast unmanned ground vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benine Neto , André; Grand , Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) may experience skidding when moving at high speeds, and therefore have its safety jeopardized. For this reason the nonlinear dynamics of lateral tire forces must be taken into account into the design of steering controllers for autonomous vehicles. This paper presents the design of a state feedback piecewise affine controller applied to an UGV to coordinate the steering and torque distribution inputs in order to reduce vehicle skidding on...

  2. An intelligent navigation system for an unmanned surface vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Tao

    2007-01-01

    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/2768 on 27.03.2017 by CS (TIS) A multi-disciplinary research project has been carried out at the University of Plymouth to design and develop an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) named ýpringer. The work presented herein relates to formulation of a robust, reliable, accurate and adaptable navigation system to enable opringei to undertake various environmental monitoring tasks. Synergistically, sensor mathematical modelling, fuzzy logic, Multi-S...

  3. Fuzzy-4D/RCS for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Campoy, Pascual; Mondragon, Ivan F.; Martinez, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents an improvement of the cognitive architecture, 4D/RCS, developed by the NIST. This improvement consist of the insertion of Fuzzy Logic cells (FLCs), in different parts and hierarchy levels of the architecture, and the adaptation of this architecture for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). This advance provides an improvement in the functionality of the system based on the uses of the Miguel Olivares’ Fuzzy Software for the definition of the FLCs and its...

  4. Search and Pursuit with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    landmark tracking, Andersen and Taylor [7] show that with a planar ground assumption, a homography-based visual odometry algorithm can be combined with...7] Evan D. Andersen and Clark N. Taylor. Improving MAV pose estimation using visual information. In IEEE International Conference on Intelligent...patrol and surveillance missions using multiple unmanned air vehicles. In IEEE Confer- ence on Decision and Control, 2004. [53] Arthur S. Goldstein

  5. Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Wilhelm, A. N., Surgenor, B. W., and Pharoah, J. G., “Design and evaluation of a micro-fuel-cell-based power system for a mobile robot,” Mechatronics ... Embedded Control Systems ], Control Engineering, 91–116, Birkhuser Boston (2005). [12] Alur, R., Courcoubetis, C., Halbwachs, N., Henzinger, T., Ho, P.-H...Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle Power System John Brodericka∗, Jack Hartnerb, Dawn Tilburya, and Ella Atkinsa aThe University

  6. Routing Unmanned Vehicles in GPS-Denied Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Kaarthik; Misra, Sohum; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Sharma, Rajnikant

    2017-01-01

    Most of the routing algorithms for unmanned vehicles, that arise in data gathering and monitoring applications in the literature, rely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) information for localization. However, disruption of GPS signals either intentionally or unintentionally could potentially render these algorithms not applicable. In this article, we present a novel method to address this difficulty by combining methods from cooperative localization and routing. In particular, the article...

  7. FY2009-2034 Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-20

    to vocal and forceful remonstrations by the threatened communities. Unmanned systems offer as yet largely unseen operational capabilities, and these...flexible wings, which fold around its fuselage, allowing the entire UAS to be stored in a 22- inch long, 5-inch diameter tube and carried in the user’s...wounded soldiers on the battlefield who might otherwise die from loss of airway, hemorrhage , or other acute injuries, such as a tension pneumothorax

  8. Gas magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  9. Intelligent Unmanned Vehicle Systems Suitable For Individual or Cooperative Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew O. Anderson; Mark D. McKay; Derek C. Wadsworth

    2007-04-01

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching autonomous unmanned vehicle systems for the past several years. Areas of research have included unmanned ground and aerial vehicles used for hazardous and remote operations as well as teamed together for advanced payloads and mission execution. Areas of application include aerial particulate sampling, cooperative remote radiological sampling, and persistent surveillance including real-time mosaic and geo-referenced imagery in addition to high resolution still imagery. Both fixed-wing and rotary airframes are used possessing capabilities spanning remote control to fully autonomous operation. Patented INL-developed auto steering technology is taken advantage of to provide autonomous parallel path swathing with either manned or unmanned ground vehicles. Aerial look-ahead imagery is utilized to provide a common operating picture for the ground and air vehicle during cooperative missions. This paper will discuss the various robotic vehicles, including sensor integration, used to achieve these missions and anticipated cost and labor savings.

  10. Classification of robotic battery service systems for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Tien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing examples of prototypes of ground-based robotic platforms used as a landing site for unmanned aerial vehicles are considered. In some cases, they are equipped with a maintenance mechanism for the power supply module. The main requirements for robotic multi-copter battery maintenance systems depending on operating conditions, required processing speed, operator experience and other parameters are analyzed. The key issues remain questions of the autonomous landing of the unmanned aerial vehicles on the platform and approach to servicing battery. The existing prototypes of service robotic platforms are differed in the complexity of internal mechanisms, speed of service, algorithms of joint work of the platform and unmanned aerial vehicles during the landing and maintenance of the battery. The classification of robotic systems for servicing the power supply of multi-copter batteries criteria is presented using the following: the type of basing, the method of navigation during landing, the shape of the landing pad, the method of restoring the power supply module. The proposed algorithmic model of the operation of battery power maintenance system of the multi-copter on ground-based robotic platform during solving the target agrarian problem is described. Wireless methods of battery recovery are most promising, so further development and prototyping of a wireless charging station for multi-copter batteries will be developed.

  11. UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE STABILIZATION BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Andropov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A problem of stabilizing for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle in an environment with external disturbances is researched. A classic proportional-integral-derivative controller is analyzed, its flaws are outlined: inability to respond to changing of external conditions and the need for manual adjustment of coefficients. The paper presents an adaptive adjustment method for coefficients of the proportional-integral-derivative controller based on neural networks. A neural network structure, its input and output data are described. Neural networks with three layers are used to create an adaptive stabilization system for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle. Training of the networks is done with the back propagation method. Each neural network produces regulator coefficients for each angle of stabilization as its output. A method for network training is explained. Several graphs of transition process on different stages of learning, including processes with external disturbances, are presented. It is shown that the system meets stabilization requirements with sufficient number of iterations. Described adjustment method for coefficients can be used in remote control of unmanned aerial vehicles, operating in the changing environment.

  12. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKissock, B.I.; Bloomfield, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. The shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary space station and advanced manned lunar base. (author)

  13. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckissock, B.I.; Bloomfield, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances, and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. Shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary space station, and advanced manned lunar base

  14. ICAROUS - Integrated Configurable Algorithms for Reliable Operations Of Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, María; Muñoz, César; Hagen, George; Narkawicz, Anthony; Balachandran, Swee

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) project aims at enabling near-term, safe operations of small UAS vehicles in uncontrolled airspace, i.e., Class G airspace. A far-term goal of UTM research and development is to accommodate the expected rise in small UAS traffic density throughout the National Airspace System (NAS) at low altitudes for beyond visual line-of-sight operations. This paper describes a new capability referred to as ICAROUS (Integrated Configurable Algorithms for Reliable Operations of Unmanned Systems), which is being developed under the UTM project. ICAROUS is a software architecture comprised of highly assured algorithms for building safety-centric, autonomous, unmanned aircraft applications. Central to the development of the ICAROUS algorithms is the use of well-established formal methods to guarantee higher levels of safety assurance by monitoring and bounding the behavior of autonomous systems. The core autonomy-enabling capabilities in ICAROUS include constraint conformance monitoring and contingency control functions. ICAROUS also provides a highly configurable user interface that enables the modular integration of mission-specific software components.

  15. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, I.; Molina, P.

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last five years, these two sister disciplines have developed technology and methods that challenge the current aeronautical regulatory framework and their own traditional acquisition and processing methods. Navety and ingenuity have combined off-the-shelf, low-cost equipment with sophisticated computer vision, robotics and geomatic engineering. The results are cm-level resolution and accuracy products that can be generated even with cameras costing a few-hundred euros. In this review article, following a brief historic background and regulatory status analysis, we review the recent unmanned aircraft, sensing, navigation, orientation and general data processing developments for UAS photogrammetry and remote sensing with emphasis on the nano-micro-mini UAS segment.

  16. Intelligent Terrain Analysis and Tactical Support System (ITATSS) for Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Randolph M; Arkin, Ron; Sidki, Nahid

    2005-01-01

    ...). The system enable unmanned combat and support vehicles to achieve significant new levels of autonomy, mobility, rapid response, coordination and effectiveness, while simultaneously enriching human...

  17. Evaluating the Impact of Unrestricted Operation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can be used for scientific, emergency management, and defense missions, among others. The existing federal air regulations,...

  18. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Multi-Objective Genetic Programming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barlow, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become increasingly popular for many applications, including search and rescue, surveillance, and electronic warfare, but almost all UAVs are controlled remotely by humans...

  19. A Distributed Resilient Autonomous Framework for Manned/Unmanned Trajectory-Based Operations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resilient Ops, working in collaboration with Metron Aviation, Inc., proposes to develop a prototype system for planning Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) trajectories...

  20. Effect of second harmonic in pulse-width-modulation-based DAC for feedback of digital fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyayev, Serhiy; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2018-04-01

    Digital fluxgate magnetometers employ processing of the measured pickup signal to produce the value of the compensation current. Using pulse-width modulation with filtering for digital to analog conversion is a convenient approach, but it can introduce an intrinsic source of nonlinearity, which we discuss in this design note. A code shift of one least significant bit changes the second harmonic content of the pulse train, which feeds into the pick-up signal chain despite the heavy filtering. This effect produces a code-dependent nonlinearity. This nonlinearity can be overcome by the specific design of the timing of the pulse train signal. The second harmonic is suppressed if the first and third quarters of the excitation period pulse train are repeated in the second and fourth quarters. We demonstrate this principle on a digital magnetometer, achieving a magnetometer noise level corresponding to that of the sensor itself.