Topology Identification of General Dynamical Network with Distributed Time Delays
Zhao-Yan, Wu; Xin-Chu, Fu
2009-01-01
General dynamical networks with distributed time delays are studied. The topology of the networks are viewed as unknown parameters, which need to be identified. Some auxiliary systems (also called the network estimators) are designed to achieve this goal. Both linear feedback control and adaptive strategy are applied in designing these network estimators. Based on linear matrix inequalities and the Lyapunov function method, the sufficient condition for the achievement of topology identification is obtained. This method can also better monitor the switching topology of dynamical networks. Illustrative examples are provided to show the effectiveness of this method. (general)
Generalized Synchronization of Time-Delayed Discrete Systems
Jing Jianyi; Min Lequan
2009-01-01
This paper establishes two theorems for two time-delayed (chaotic) discrete systems to achieve time-delayed generalized synchronization (TDGS). These two theorems uncover the general forms of two TDGS systems via a prescribed transformation. As examples, we convert the Lorenz three-dimensional chaotic map to an equal time-delayed system as the driving system, and construct the TDGS driven systems according to the Theorems 1 and 2. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed theorems. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Generalized synchronization-based multiparameter estimation in modulated time-delayed systems
Ghosh, Dibakar; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut K.
2011-09-01
We propose a nonlinear active observer based generalized synchronization scheme for multiparameter estimation in time-delayed systems with periodic time delay. A sufficient condition for parameter estimation is derived using Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory. The suggested tool proves to be globally and asymptotically stable by means of Krasovskii-Lyapunov method. With this effective method, parameter identification and generalized synchronization of modulated time-delayed systems with all the system parameters unknown, can be achieved simultaneously. We restrict our study for multiple parameter estimation in modulated time-delayed systems with single state variable only. Theoretical proof and numerical simulation demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed technique. The block diagram of electronic circuit for multiple time delay system shows that the method is easily applicable in practical communication problems.
Travelling Solitary Wave Solutions for Generalized Time-delayed Burgers-Fisher Equation
Deng Xijun; Han Libo; Li Xi
2009-01-01
In this paper, travelling wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation are studied. By using the first-integral method, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra, we obtain a class of travelling solitary wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation. A minor error in the previous article is clarified. (general)
Si, Wenjie; Dong, Xunde; Yang, Feifei
2018-03-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of decentralized adaptive backstepping state-feedback control for uncertain high-order large-scale stochastic nonlinear time-delay systems. For the control design of high-order large-scale nonlinear systems, only one adaptive parameter is constructed to overcome the over-parameterization, and neural networks are employed to cope with the difficulties raised by completely unknown system dynamics and stochastic disturbances. And then, the appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the property of hyperbolic tangent functions are used to deal with the unknown unmatched time-delay interactions of high-order large-scale systems for the first time. At last, on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory, the decentralized adaptive neural controller was developed, and it decreases the number of learning parameters. The actual controller can be designed so as to ensure that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) and the tracking error converges in the small neighborhood of zero. The simulation example is used to further show the validity of the design method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Consensus Analysis of Second-Order Multiagent Systems with General Topology and Time Delay
Bo Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the consensus of second-order multiagent systems with general topology and time delay based on the nearest neighbor rule. By using the Laplace transform technique, it is proved that the second-order multi-agent system in the presence of time-delay can reach consensus if the network topology contains a globally reachable node and time delay is bounded. The bound of time-delay only depends on eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix of the system. The main contribution of this paper is that the accurate state of the consensus center and the upper bound of the communication delay to make the agents reach consensus are given. Some numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.
Yanbo Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of the design of robust guaranteed cost observer for a class of linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability. In this singular model, each transition rate can be completely unknown or only its estimate value is known. Based on stability theory of stochastic differential equations and linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, we design an observer to ensure that, for all uncertainties, the resulting augmented system is regular, impulse free, and robust stochastically stable with the proposed guaranteed cost performance. Finally, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the suboptimal guaranteed cost filters for linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability.
The generalized correlation method for estimation of time delay in power plants
Kostic, Lj.
1981-01-01
The generalized correlation estimation is developed for determining time delay between signals received at two spatially separated sensors in the presence of uncorrelated noise in a power plant. This estimator can be realized as a pair of receiver prefilters followed by a cross correlator. The time argument at which the correlator achieves a maximum is the delay estimate. (author)
General Relativistic Theory of the VLBI Time Delay in the Gravitational Field of Moving Bodies
Kopeikin, Sergei
2003-01-01
The general relativistic theory of the gravitational VLBI experiment conducted on September 8, 2002 by Fomalont and Kopeikin is explained. Equations of radio waves (light) propagating from the quasar to the observer are integrated in the time-dependent gravitational field of the solar system by making use of either retarded or advanced solutions of the Einstein field equations. This mathematical technique separates explicitly the effects associated with the propagation of gravity from those associated with light in the integral expression for the relativistic VLBI time delay of light. We prove that the relativistic correction to the Shapiro time delay, discovered by Kopeikin (ApJ, 556, L1, 2001), changes sign if one retains direction of the light propagation but replaces the retarded for the advanced solution of the Einstein equations. Hence, this correction is associated with the propagation of gravity. The VLBI observation measured its speed, and that the retarded solution is the correct one.
Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Different Neural Networks with Mixed Time Delays
Xuefei Wu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The generalized projective synchronization (GPS between two different neural networks with nonlinear coupling and mixed time delays is considered. Several kinds of nonlinear feedback controllers are designed to achieve GPS between two different such neural networks. Some results for GPS of these neural networks are proved theoretically by using the Lyapunov stability theory and the LaSalle invariance principle. Moreover, by comparison, we determine an optimal nonlinear controller from several ones and provide an adaptive update law for it. Computer simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.
Dan Ye
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with delay-dependent stochastic stability for time-delay Markovian jump systems (MJSs with sector-bounded nonlinearities and more general transition probabilities. Different from the previous results where the transition probability matrix is completely known, a more general transition probability matrix is considered which includes completely known elements, boundary known elements, and completely unknown ones. In order to get less conservative criterion, the state and transition probability information is used as much as possible to construct the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and deal with stability analysis. The delay-dependent sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities to guarantee the stability of systems. Finally, numerical examples are exploited to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Kim, Kyungsoo; Lim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jaeseok; Kang, Won-Seok; Moon, Cheil; Choi, Ji-Woong
2016-01-01
Electroencephalograms (EEGs) measure a brain signal that contains abundant information about the human brain function and health. For this reason, recent clinical brain research and brain computer interface (BCI) studies use EEG signals in many applications. Due to the significant noise in EEG traces, signal processing to enhance the signal to noise power ratio (SNR) is necessary for EEG analysis, especially for non-invasive EEG. A typical method to improve the SNR is averaging many trials of event related potential (ERP) signal that represents a brain’s response to a particular stimulus or a task. The averaging, however, is very sensitive to variable delays. In this study, we propose two time delay estimation (TDE) schemes based on a joint maximum likelihood (ML) criterion to compensate the uncertain delays which may be different in each trial. We evaluate the performance for different types of signals such as random, deterministic, and real EEG signals. The results show that the proposed schemes provide better performance than other conventional schemes employing averaged signal as a reference, e.g., up to 4 dB gain at the expected delay error of 10°. PMID:27322267
Kyungsoo Kim
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Electroencephalograms (EEGs measure a brain signal that contains abundant information about the human brain function and health. For this reason, recent clinical brain research and brain computer interface (BCI studies use EEG signals in many applications. Due to the significant noise in EEG traces, signal processing to enhance the signal to noise power ratio (SNR is necessary for EEG analysis, especially for non-invasive EEG. A typical method to improve the SNR is averaging many trials of event related potential (ERP signal that represents a brain’s response to a particular stimulus or a task. The averaging, however, is very sensitive to variable delays. In this study, we propose two time delay estimation (TDE schemes based on a joint maximum likelihood (ML criterion to compensate the uncertain delays which may be different in each trial. We evaluate the performance for different types of signals such as random, deterministic, and real EEG signals. The results show that the proposed schemes provide better performance than other conventional schemes employing averaged signal as a reference, e.g., up to 4 dB gain at the expected delay error of 10°.
Suresh, R.; Senthilkumar, D.V.; Lakshmanan, M.; Kurths, J.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We have identified that a common generalized synchronization manifold exist for symmetrically coupled structurally different time-delay systems with different orders. • We have provided a theoretical formulation for the existence of a common generalized synchronization manifold based on the auxiliary system approach. • We have pointed out the existence of a transition from partial to global generalized synchronization. • We have corroborated our results using the maximal transverse Lyapunov exponent, correlation coefficient, mutual false nearest neighbor method. - Abstract: We point out the existence of a transition from partial to global generalized synchronization (GS) in symmetrically coupled structurally different time-delay systems of different orders using the auxiliary system approach and the mutual false nearest neighbor method. The present authors have recently reported that there exists a common GS manifold even in an ensemble of structurally nonidentical scalar time-delay systems with different fractal dimensions and shown that GS occurs simultaneously with phase synchronization (PS). In this paper we confirm that the above result is not confined just to scalar one-dimensional time-delay systems alone but there exists a similar type of transition even in the case of time-delay systems with different orders. We calculate the maximal transverse Lyapunov exponent to evaluate the asymptotic stability of the complete synchronization manifold of each of the main and the corresponding auxiliary systems, which in turn ensures the stability of the GS manifold between the main systems. Further we estimate the correlation coefficient and the correlation of probability of recurrence to establish the relation between GS and PS. We also calculate the mutual false nearest neighbor parameter which doubly confirms the occurrence of the global GS manifold.
Shen, Qikun; Zhang, Tianping
2015-05-01
The paper addresses a practical issue for adaptive synchronization in master-slave large-scale systems with constant channel time-delay., and a novel adaptive synchronization control scheme is proposed to guarantee the synchronization errors asymptotically converge to the origin, in which the matching condition as in the related literatures is not necessary. The real value of channel time-delay can be estimated online by a proper adaptation mechanism, which removes the conditions that the channel time-delay should be known exactly as in existing works. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.
Qi, Donglian; Liu, Meiqin; Qiu, Meikang; Zhang, Senlin
2010-08-01
This brief studies exponential H(infinity) synchronization of a class of general discrete-time chaotic neural networks with external disturbance. On the basis of the drive-response concept and H(infinity) control theory, and using Lyapunov-Krasovskii (or Lyapunov) functional, state feedback controllers are established to not only guarantee exponential stable synchronization between two general chaotic neural networks with or without time delays, but also reduce the effect of external disturbance on the synchronization error to a minimal H(infinity) norm constraint. The proposed controllers can be obtained by solving the convex optimization problems represented by linear matrix inequalities. Most discrete-time chaotic systems with or without time delays, such as Hopfield neural networks, cellular neural networks, bidirectional associative memory networks, recurrent multilayer perceptrons, Cohen-Grossberg neural networks, Chua's circuits, etc., can be transformed into this general chaotic neural network to be H(infinity) synchronization controller designed in a unified way. Finally, some illustrated examples with their simulations have been utilized to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita
2011-01-01
This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…
Lagorce, Xavier; Benosman, Ryad
2015-11-01
There has been significant research over the past two decades in developing new platforms for spiking neural computation. Current neural computers are primarily developed to mimic biology. They use neural networks, which can be trained to perform specific tasks to mainly solve pattern recognition problems. These machines can do more than simulate biology; they allow us to rethink our current paradigm of computation. The ultimate goal is to develop brain-inspired general purpose computation architectures that can breach the current bottleneck introduced by the von Neumann architecture. This work proposes a new framework for such a machine. We show that the use of neuron-like units with precise timing representation, synaptic diversity, and temporal delays allows us to set a complete, scalable compact computation framework. The framework provides both linear and nonlinear operations, allowing us to represent and solve any function. We show usability in solving real use cases from simple differential equations to sets of nonlinear differential equations leading to chaotic attractors.
Dynamics of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems
Lakshmanan, Muthusamy
2010-01-01
Synchronization of chaotic systems, a patently nonlinear phenomenon, has emerged as a highly active interdisciplinary research topic at the interface of physics, biology, applied mathematics and engineering sciences. In this connection, time-delay systems described by delay differential equations have developed as particularly suitable tools for modeling specific dynamical systems. Indeed, time-delay is ubiquitous in many physical systems, for example due to finite switching speeds of amplifiers in electronic circuits, finite lengths of vehicles in traffic flows, finite signal propagation times in biological networks and circuits, and quite generally whenever memory effects are relevant. This monograph presents the basics of chaotic time-delay systems and their synchronization with an emphasis on the effects of time-delay feedback which give rise to new collective dynamics. Special attention is devoted to scalar chaotic/hyperchaotic time-delay systems, and some higher order models, occurring in different bran...
Massimo Tinto
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.
Time-Delay System Identification Using Genetic Algorithm
Yang, Zhenyu; Seested, Glen Thane
2013-01-01
Due to the unknown dead-time coefficient, the time-delay system identification turns to be a non-convex optimization problem. This paper investigates the identification of a simple time-delay system, named First-Order-Plus-Dead-Time (FOPDT), by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique. The qual......Due to the unknown dead-time coefficient, the time-delay system identification turns to be a non-convex optimization problem. This paper investigates the identification of a simple time-delay system, named First-Order-Plus-Dead-Time (FOPDT), by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique...
Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs
Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune
1996-01-01
Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied....... This is accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the actual force(s) applied to the structure. The white noise input(s) and the structures responses are then used...
Time Delay Estimation Algoritms for Echo Cancellation
Kirill Sakhnov
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The following case study describes how to eliminate echo in a VoIP network using delay estimation algorithms. It is known that echo with long transmission delays becomes more noticeable to users. Thus, time delay estimation, as a part of echo cancellation, is an important topic during transmission of voice signals over packetswitching telecommunication systems. An echo delay problem associated with IP-based transport networks is discussed in the following text. The paper introduces the comparative study of time delay estimation algorithm, used for estimation of the true time delay between two speech signals. Experimental results of MATLab simulations that describe the performance of several methods based on cross-correlation, normalized crosscorrelation and generalized cross-correlation are also presented in the paper.
Time delay interferometry with moving spacecraft arrays
Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.
2004-01-01
Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel-times will necessarily be unequal, time varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up and down links. The reduction of data from moving interferometric laser arrays in solar orbit will in fact encounter nonsymmetric up- and down-link light time differences that are about 100 times larger than has previously been recognized. The time-delay interferometry (TDI) technique uses knowledge of these delays to cancel the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and yields a variety of data combinations sensitive to gravitational waves. Under the assumption that the (different) up- and down-link time delays are constant, we derive the TDI expressions for those combinations that rely only on four interspacecraft phase measurements. We then turn to the general problem that encompasses time dependence of the light-travel times along the laser links. By introducing a set of noncommuting time-delay operators, we show that there exists a quite general procedure for deriving generalized TDI combinations that account for the effects of time dependence of the arms. By applying our approach we are able to re-derive the 'flex-free' expression for the unequal-arm Michelson combinations X 1 , and obtain the generalized expressions for the TDI combinations called relay, beacon, monitor, and symmetric Sagnac
Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi
2015-01-01
Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773
Time delayed Ensemble Nudging Method
An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry
Optimal nudging method based on time delayed embedding theory has shows potentials on analyzing and data assimilation in previous literatures. To extend the application and promote the practical implementation, new nudging assimilation method based on the time delayed embedding space is presented and the connection with other standard assimilation methods are studied. Results shows the incorporating information from the time series of data can reduce the sufficient observation needed to preserve the quality of numerical prediction, making it a potential alternative in the field of data assimilation of large geophysical models.
Another definition for time delay
Narnhofer, H.
1980-01-01
Time delay is defined by geometrical considerations which work in classical as well as in quantum mechanics, and its connection with the S-matrix and the virial is proven for potentials with V(x vector) and x vector V(x vector) vanishing as rsup(-1-epsilon) for r -> infinity. (Author)
Time-delayed autosynchronous swarm control.
Biggs, James D; Bennet, Derek J; Dadzie, S Kokou
2012-01-01
In this paper a general Morse potential model of self-propelling particles is considered in the presence of a time-delayed term and a spring potential. It is shown that the emergent swarm behavior is dependent on the delay term and weights of the time-delayed function, which can be set to induce a stationary swarm, a rotating swarm with uniform translation, and a rotating swarm with a stationary center of mass. An analysis of the mean field equations shows that without a spring potential the motion of the center of mass is determined explicitly by a multivalued function. For a nonzero spring potential the swarm converges to a vortex formation about a stationary center of mass, except at discrete bifurcation points where the center of mass will periodically trace an ellipse. The analytical results defining the behavior of the center of mass are shown to correspond with the numerical swarm simulations.
Time-delayed feedback control of diffusion in random walkers
Ando, Hiroyasu; Takehara, Kohta; Kobayashi, Miki U.
2017-07-01
Time delay in general leads to instability in some systems, while specific feedback with delay can control fluctuated motion in nonlinear deterministic systems to a stable state. In this paper, we consider a stochastic process, i.e., a random walk, and observe its diffusion phenomenon with time-delayed feedback. As a result, the diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing delay time. We analytically illustrate this suppression of diffusion by using stochastic delay differential equations and justify the feasibility of this suppression by applying time-delayed feedback to a molecular dynamics model.
Global chaos synchronization with channel time-delay
Jiang Guoping; Zheng Weixing; Chen Guanrong
2004-01-01
This paper addresses a practical issue in chaos synchronization where there is a time-delay in the receiver as compared with the transmitter. A new synchronization scheme and a general criterion for global chaos synchronization are proposed and developed from the approach of unidirectional linear error feedback coupling with time-delay. The chaotic Chua's circuit is used for illustration, where the coupling parameters are determined according to the criterion under which the global chaos synchronization of the time-delay coupled systems is achieved
Memorized discrete systems and time-delay
Luo, Albert C J
2017-01-01
This book examines discrete dynamical systems with memory—nonlinear systems that exist extensively in biological organisms and financial and economic organizations, and time-delay systems that can be discretized into the memorized, discrete dynamical systems. It book further discusses stability and bifurcations of time-delay dynamical systems that can be investigated through memorized dynamical systems as well as bifurcations of memorized nonlinear dynamical systems, discretization methods of time-delay systems, and periodic motions to chaos in nonlinear time-delay systems. The book helps readers find analytical solutions of MDS, change traditional perturbation analysis in time-delay systems, detect motion complexity and singularity in MDS; and determine stability, bifurcation, and chaos in any time-delay system.
Time-delay interferometry for LISA
Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.
2002-01-01
LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a mission to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation through its influence on the phases or frequencies of laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft. We previously showed how, with lasers of identical frequencies on stationary spacecraft, the measurement of twelve time series of Doppler shifts could be combined to cancel exactly the phase noise of the lasers and the Doppler fluctuations due to noninertial motions of the six optical benches, while preserving gravitational wave signals. Here we generalize those results on gravitational wave detection with time-delay interferometry to the expected LISA instrument. The six lasers have different center frequencies (in the nominal LISA configuration these center frequencies may well differ by several hundred megahertz) and the distances between spacecraft pairs will change with time (these slowly varying orbital Doppler shifts are expected to be up to tens of megahertz). We develop time-delay data combinations which, as previously, preserve gravitational waves and exactly cancel the leading noise source (phase fluctuations of the six lasers); these data combinations then imply transfer functions for the remaining system noises. Using these, we plot frequency and phase power spectra for modeled system noises in the unequal Michelson combination X and the symmetric Sagnac combination ζ. Although optical bench noise can no longer be cancelled exactly, with the current LISA specifications it is suppressed to negligible levels. It is known that the presently anticipated laser center frequency differences and the orbital Doppler drifts introduce another source of phase noise, arising from the onboard oscillators required to track the photodetector fringes. For the presently planned mission, our analysis indeed demonstrates that noise from current-generation ultrastable oscillators would, if uncorrected, dominate the LISA noise budget. To meet the
Time delays, population, and economic development
Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro
2018-05-01
This research develops an augmented Solow model with population dynamics and time delays. The model produces either a single stationary state or multiple stationary states (able to characterise different development regimes). The existence of time delays may cause persistent fluctuations in both economic and demographic variables. In addition, the work identifies in a simple way the reasons why economics affects demographics and vice versa.
Time delay of quantum scattering processes
Martin, P.A.
1981-01-01
The author presents various aspects of the theory of the time delay of scattering processes. The author mainly studies non-relativistic two-body scattering processes, first summarizing briefly the theory of simple scattering systems. (Auth.)
Time delay in a multichannel formalism
Haberzettl, Helmut; Workman, Ron
2007-01-01
We reexamine the time-delay formalism of Wigner, Eisenbud, and Smith, which was developed to analyze both elastic and inelastic resonances. An error in the paper of Smith has propagated through the literature. We correct this error and show how the results of Eisenbud and Smith are related. We also comment on some recent time-delay studies, based on Smith's erroneous interpretation of the Eisenbud result
Relativity time-delay experiments utilizing 'Mariner' spacecraft
Esposito, P. B.; Anderson, J. D.
1974-01-01
Relativity predicts that the transit time of a signal propagated from the earth to a spacecraft and retransmitted back to earth ought to exhibit an additional, variable time delay. The present work describes some of the analytical techniques employed in experiments using Mariner spacecraft designed to test the accuracy of this prediction. Two types of data are analyzed in these relativity experiments; these include phase-coherent, two-way Doppler shift and round-trip, transit-time measurements. Results of Mariner 6 and 7 relativistic time-delay experiments are in agreement with Einstein's theory of general relativity with an uncertainty of 3%.
Travelling wave solutions for some time-delayed equations through factorizations
Fahmy, E.S.
2008-01-01
In this work, we use factorization method to find explicit particular travelling wave solutions for the following important nonlinear second-order partial differential equations: The generalized time-delayed Burgers-Huxley, time-delayed convective Fishers, and the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher. Using the particular solutions for these equations we find the general solutions, two-parameter solution, as special cases
Estimation of unknown nuclear masses by means of the generalized mass relations. Pt. 3
Popa, S.M.
1980-01-01
A survey of the estimations of the unknown nuclear masses by means of the generalized mass relations is presented. One discusses the new hypotheses supplementing the original general Garvey-Kelson scheme, reviewing the generalized mass relations and formulae, according to the present status of this new formalism. A critical discussions is given of the reliability of these new Garvey-Kelson type extrapolation procedures. (author)
Tang, Yang; Fang, Jian-an
2008-03-01
This work is concerned with the general methods for modified projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems. A systematic method of active control is developed to synchronize two hyperchaotic systems with known parameters. Moreover, by combining the adaptive control and linear feedback methods, general sufficient conditions for the modified projective synchronization of identical or different chaotic systems with fully unknown or partially unknown parameters are presented. Meanwhile, the speed of parameters identification can be regulated by adjusting adaptive gain matrix. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Global synchronization criteria with channel time-delay for chaotic time-delay system
Sun Jitao
2004-01-01
Based on the Lyapunov stabilization theory, matrix measure, and linear matrix inequality (LMIs), this paper studies the chaos synchronization of time-delay system using the unidirectional linear error feedback coupling with time-delay. Some generic conditions of chaos synchronization with time-delay in the transmission channel is established. The chaotic Chua's circuit is used for illustration, where the coupling parameters are determined according to the criteria under which the global chaos synchronization of the time-delay coupled systems is achieved
Gravitational Lens Time Delays Using Polarization Monitoring
Andrew Biggs
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Gravitational lens time delays provide a means of measuring the expansion of the Universe at high redshift (and therefore in the ‘Hubble flow’ that is independent of local calibrations. It was hoped that many of the radio lenses found in the JVAS/CLASS survey would yield time delays as these were selected to have flat spectra and are dominated by multiple compact components. However, despite extensive monitoring with the Very Large Array (VLA, time delays have only been measured for three of these systems (out of 22. We have begun a programme to reanalyse the existing VLA monitoring data with the goal of producing light curves in polarized flux and polarization position angle, either to improve delay measurements or to find delays for new sources. Here, we present preliminary results on the lens system B1600+434 which demonstrate the presence of correlated and substantial polarization variability in each image.
The Strong Lensing Time Delay Challenge (2014)
Liao, Kai; Dobler, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Rumbaugh, N.; Linder, E.; Hojjati, A.
2014-01-01
Time delays between multiple images in strong lensing systems are a powerful probe of cosmology. At the moment the application of this technique is limited by the number of lensed quasars with measured time delays. However, the number of such systems is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. Hundred such systems are expected within this decade, while the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to deliver of order 1000 time delays in the 2020 decade. In order to exploit this bounty of lenses we needed to make sure the time delay determination algorithms have sufficiently high precision and accuracy. As a first step to test current algorithms and identify potential areas for improvement we have started a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). An "evil" team has created realistic simulated light curves, to be analyzed blindly by "good" teams. The challenge is open to all interested parties. The initial challenge consists of two steps (TDC0 and TDC1). TDC0 consists of a small number of datasets to be used as a training template. The non-mandatory deadline is December 1 2013. The "good" teams that complete TDC0 will be given access to TDC1. TDC1 consists of thousands of lightcurves, a number sufficient to test precision and accuracy at the subpercent level, necessary for time-delay cosmography. The deadline for responding to TDC1 is July 1 2014. Submissions will be analyzed and compared in terms of predefined metrics to establish the goodness-of-fit, efficiency, precision and accuracy of current algorithms. This poster describes the challenge in detail and gives instructions for participation.
Time-delay analyzer with continuous discretization
Bayatyan, G.L.; Darbinyan, K.T.; Mkrtchyan, K.K.; Stepanyan, S.S.
1988-01-01
A time-delay analyzer is described which when triggered by a start pulse of adjustable duration performs continuous discretization of the analyzed signal within nearly 22 ns time intervals, the recording in a memory unit with following slow read-out of the information to the computer and its processing. The time-delay analyzer consists of four CAMAC-VECTOR systems of unit width. With its help one can separate comparatively short, small-amplitude rare signals against the background of quasistationary noise processes. 4 refs.; 3 figs
Vaginal symptoms of unknown etiology - a study in dutch general-practice
Dekker, Janny H.; Boeke, A. Joan P.; Janssens, J; van Eijk, J.Th.M.
Vaginal symptoms are frequently presented by women to general practitioners. In many cases, the aetiology of these symptoms remains unknown. This study focused on the factors associated with microbiologically unexplained vaginal symptoms, the course of symptoms and signs in these cases, and factors
Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.
2012-01-01
This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…
STEMI time delays: A clinical perspective
M.J. de Boer (Menko Jan); F. Zijlstra (Felix)
2015-01-01
textabstractSTEMI time delays have been introduced as a performance indicator or marker of quality of care. As they are only one part of a very complex medical process, one should be aware of concomitant issues that may be overlooked or even be more important with regard to clinical outcome of STEMI
Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation
Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup
2004-01-01
Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.
Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates
Gallmann, L.; Jordan, I.; Wörner, H. J.; Castiglioni, L.; Hengsberger, M.; Osterwalder, J.; Arrell, C. A.; Chergui, M.; Liberatore, E.; Rothlisberger, U.; Keller, U.
2017-01-01
Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface. PMID:29308414
Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates
L. Gallmann
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface.
4-channel time delayed pulse generator
Wetzel, L.F.S.; Rossi, J.O.; Del Bosco, E.
1987-02-01
It is described the project of a 4-channel delayed pulse generator employed to trigger the plasma centrifuge experiment of the Laboratorio Associado de Plasmas. The circuit delivers pulses with amplitude of 15V, full width at half maximum of 50μs and rise time of 0.7μs. The maximum time delay is 100ms. There are two channels with a fine adjustment of 0-1ms. The system can be manually or automatically driven. (author) [pt
Multiplicity counting from fission detector signals with time delay effects
Nagy, L.; Pázsit, I.; Pál, L.
2018-03-01
In recent work, we have developed the theory of using the first three auto- and joint central moments of the currents of up to three fission chambers to extract the singles, doubles and triples count rates of traditional multiplicity counting (Pázsit and Pál, 2016; Pázsit et al., 2016). The objective is to elaborate a method for determining the fissile mass, neutron multiplication, and (α, n) neutron emission rate of an unknown assembly of fissile material from the statistics of the fission chamber signals, analogous to the traditional multiplicity counting methods with detectors in the pulse mode. Such a method would be an alternative to He-3 detector systems, which would be free from the dead time problems that would be encountered in high counting rate applications, for example the assay of spent nuclear fuel. A significant restriction of our previous work was that all neutrons born in a source event (spontaneous fission) were assumed to be detected simultaneously, which is not fulfilled in reality. In the present work, this restriction is eliminated, by assuming an independent, identically distributed random time delay for all neutrons arising from one source event. Expressions are derived for the same auto- and joint central moments of the detector current(s) as in the previous case, expressed with the singles, doubles, and triples (S, D and T) count rates. It is shown that if the time-dispersion of neutron detections is of the same order of magnitude as the detector pulse width, as they typically are in measurements of fast neutrons, the multiplicity rates can still be extracted from the moments of the detector current, although with more involved calibration factors. The presented formulae, and hence also the performance of the proposed method, are tested by both analytical models of the time delay as well as with numerical simulations. Methods are suggested also for the modification of the method for large time delay effects (for thermalised neutrons).
COSMOLOGY FROM GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS AND PLANCK DATA
Suyu, S. H.; Treu, T.; Sonnenfeld, A.; Hilbert, S.; Spiniello, C.; Auger, M. W.; Collett, T.; Blandford, R. D.; Marshall, P. J.; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G.; Tewes, M.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.
2014-01-01
Under the assumption of a flat ΛCDM cosmology, recent data from the Planck satellite point toward a Hubble constant that is in tension with that measured by gravitational lens time delays and by the local distance ladder. Prosaically, this difference could arise from unknown systematic uncertainties in some of the measurements. More interestingly—if systematics were ruled out—resolving the tension would require a departure from the flat ΛCDM cosmology, introducing, for example, a modest amount of spatial curvature, or a non-trivial dark energy equation of state. To begin to address these issues, we present an analysis of the gravitational lens RXJ1131–1231 that is improved in one particular regard: we examine the issue of systematic error introduced by an assumed lens model density profile. We use more flexible gravitational lens models with baryonic and dark matter components, and find that the exquisite Hubble Space Telescope image with thousands of intensity pixels in the Einstein ring and the stellar velocity dispersion of the lens contain sufficient information to constrain these more flexible models. The total uncertainty on the time-delay distance is 6.6% for a single system. We proceed to combine our improved time-delay distance measurement with the WMAP9 and Planck posteriors. In an open ΛCDM model, the data for RXJ1131–1231 in combination with Planck favor a flat universe with Ω k =0.00 −0.02 +0.01 (68% credible interval (CI)). In a flat wCDM model, the combination of RXJ1131–1231 and Planck yields w=−1.52 −0.20 +0.19 (68% CI)
Time-delayed fronts from biased random walks
Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni
2007-01-01
We generalize a previous model of time-delayed reaction-diffusion fronts (Fort and Mendez 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 867) to allow for a bias in the microscopic random walk of particles or individuals. We also present a second model which takes the time order of events (diffusion and reproduction) into account. As an example, we apply them to the human invasion front across the USA in the 19th century. The corrections relative to the previous model are substantial. Our results are relevant to physical and biological systems with anisotropic fronts, including particle diffusion in disordered lattices, population invasions, the spread of epidemics, etc
Controlling flow time delays in flexible manufacturing cells
Slomp, J.; Caprihan, R.; Bokhorst, J. A. C.
2009-01-01
Flow time delays in Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMCs) are caused by transport and clamping/reclamping activities. This paper shows how dynamic scheduling parameters may control the flow times of jobs and the available task windows for flow time delays.
Modelling biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays: a hybrid semi-parametric approach
Oliveira Rui
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a method for modelling dynamical biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays. Since the fundamental mechanisms leading to such delays are many times unknown, non conventional modelling approaches become necessary. Herein, a hybrid semi-parametric identification methodology is proposed in which discrete time series are incorporated into fundamental material balance models. This integration results in hybrid delay differential equations which can be applied to identify unknown cellular dynamics. Results The proposed hybrid modelling methodology was evaluated using two case studies. The first of these deals with dynamic modelling of transcriptional factor A in mammalian cells. The protein transport from the cytosol to the nucleus introduced a delay that was accounted for by discrete time series formulation. The second case study focused on a simple network with distributed time delays that demonstrated that the discrete time delay formalism has broad applicability to both discrete and distributed delay problems. Conclusions Significantly better prediction qualities of the novel hybrid model were obtained when compared to dynamical structures without time delays, being the more distinctive the more significant the underlying system delay is. The identification of the system delays by studies of different discrete modelling delays was enabled by the proposed structure. Further, it was shown that the hybrid discrete delay methodology is not limited to discrete delay systems. The proposed method is a powerful tool to identify time delays in ill-defined biochemical networks.
Xu Chang-Jin; Li Pei-Luan; Pang Yi-Cheng
2017-01-01
This paper is concerned with fractional-order bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time delays. Applying Laplace transform, the generalized Gronwall inequality and estimates of Mittag–Leffler functions, some sufficient conditions which ensure the finite-time stability of fractional-order bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays are obtained. Two examples with their simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical findings. Our results are new and complement previously known results. (paper)
Time-delayed chameleon: Analysis, synchronization and FPGA implementation
Rajagopal, Karthikeyan; Jafari, Sajad; Laarem, Guessas
2017-12-01
In this paper we report a time-delayed chameleon-like chaotic system which can belong to different families of chaotic attractors depending on the choices of parameters. Such a characteristic of self-excited and hidden chaotic flows in a simple 3D system with time delay has not been reported earlier. Dynamic analysis of the proposed time-delayed systems are analysed in time-delay space and parameter space. A novel adaptive modified functional projective lag synchronization algorithm is derived for synchronizing identical time-delayed chameleon systems with uncertain parameters. The proposed time-delayed systems and the synchronization algorithm with controllers and parameter estimates are then implemented in FPGA using hardware-software co-simulation and the results are presented.
Periodic flows to chaos in time-delay systems
Luo, Albert C J
2017-01-01
This book for the first time examines periodic motions to chaos in time-delay systems, which exist extensively in engineering. For a long time, the stability of time-delay systems at equilibrium has been of great interest from the Lyapunov theory-based methods, where one cannot achieve the ideal results. Thus, time-delay discretization in time-delay systems was used for the stability of these systems. In this volume, Dr. Luo presents an accurate method based on the finite Fourier series to determine periodic motions in nonlinear time-delay systems. The stability and bifurcation of periodic motions are determined by the time-delayed system of coefficients in the Fourier series and the method for nonlinear time-delay systems is equivalent to the Laplace transformation method for linear time-delay systems. Facilitates discovery of analytical solutions of nonlinear time-delay systems; Illustrates bifurcation trees of periodic motions to chaos; Helps readers identify motion complexity and singularity; Explains pro...
On the time delay between ultra-relativistic particles
Fleury, Pierre
2016-01-01
The time delay between the receptions of ultra-relativistic particles emitted simultaneously is a useful observable for both fundamental physics and cosmology. The expression of the delay when the particles travel through an arbitrary spacetime has been derived recently by Fanizza et al., using a particular coordinate system and self-consistent assumptions. The present article shows that this formula enjoys a simple physical interpretation: the relative velocity between two ultra-relativistic particles is constant. This result reveals an interesting kinematical property of general relativity, namely that the tidal forces experienced by ultra-relativistic particles in the direction of their motion are much smaller than those experienced orthogonally to their motion.
On the time delay between ultra-relativistic particles
Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.fleury@uct.ac.za [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)
2016-09-10
The time delay between the receptions of ultra-relativistic particles emitted simultaneously is a useful observable for both fundamental physics and cosmology. The expression of the delay when the particles travel through an arbitrary spacetime has been derived recently by Fanizza et al., using a particular coordinate system and self-consistent assumptions. The present article shows that this formula enjoys a simple physical interpretation: the relative velocity between two ultra-relativistic particles is constant. This result reveals an interesting kinematical property of general relativity, namely that the tidal forces experienced by ultra-relativistic particles in the direction of their motion are much smaller than those experienced orthogonally to their motion.
Time delayed K sup + N reactions and exotic baryon resonances
Kelkar, N G; Khemchandani, K P
2003-01-01
Evidence and hints, from both the theoretical and experimental sides, of exotic baryon resonances with B = S, have been with us for the last 30 years. The poor status of the general acceptance of these Z* resonances is partly due to the prejudice against penta-quark baryons and partly due to the opinion that a proof of the existence of exotic states must be rigorous. This can refer to the quality and amount of data gathered, and also to the analytical methods applied in the study of these resonances. It then seems mandatory that all possibilities and aspects be exploited. We do that by analysing the time delay in K sup + N scattering, encountering clear signals of the exotic Z* resonances close to the pole values found in partial wave analyses.
The effect of visual-motion time-delays on pilot performance in a simulated pursuit tracking task
Miller, G. K., Jr.; Riley, D. R.
1977-01-01
An experimental study was made to determine the effect on pilot performance of time delays in the visual and motion feedback loops of a simulated pursuit tracking task. Three major interrelated factors were identified: task difficulty either in the form of airplane handling qualities or target frequency, the amount and type of motion cues, and time delay itself. In general, the greater the task difficulty, the smaller the time delay that could exist without degrading pilot performance. Conversely, the greater the motion fidelity, the greater the time delay that could be tolerated. The effect of motion was, however, pilot dependent.
Mathematical model of tuberculosis epidemic with recovery time delay
Iskandar, Taufiq; Chaniago, Natasya Ayuningtia; Munzir, Said; Halfiani, Vera; Ramli, Marwan
2017-12-01
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease which can cause death. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis which generally affects lungs and other organs such as lymph gland, intestine, kidneys, uterus, bone, and brain. The spread of TB occurs through the bacteria-contaminated air which is inhaled into the lungs. The symptoms of the TB patients are cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, appetite lose, weight lose, fever, cold, and fatigue. World Health Organization (WHO) reported that Indonesia placed the second in term of the most TB cases after India which has 23 % cases while China is reported to have 10 % cases in global. TB has become one of the greatest death threats in global. One way to countermeasure TB disease is by administering vaccination. However, a medication is needed when one has already infected. The medication can generally take 6 months of time which consists of two phases, inpatient and outpatient. Mathematical models to analyze the spread of TB have been widely developed. One of them is the SEIR type model. In this model the population is divided into four groups, which are suspectible (S), exposed (S), infected (I), recovered (R). In fact, a TB patient needs to undergo medication with a period of time in order to recover. This article discusses a model of TB spread with considering the term of recovery (time delay). The model is developed in SIR type where the population is divided into three groups, suspectible (S), infected (I), and recovered (R). Here, the vaccine is given to the susceptible group and the time delay is considered in the group undergoing the medication.
Liu, Wanli
2017-03-08
The time delay calibration between Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) is an essential prerequisite for its applications. However, the correspondences between LiDAR and IMU measurements are usually unknown, and thus cannot be computed directly for the time delay calibration. In order to solve the problem of LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration, this paper presents a fusion method based on iterative closest point (ICP) and iterated sigma point Kalman filter (ISPKF), which combines the advantages of ICP and ISPKF. The ICP algorithm can precisely determine the unknown transformation between LiDAR-IMU; and the ISPKF algorithm can optimally estimate the time delay calibration parameters. First of all, the coordinate transformation from the LiDAR frame to the IMU frame is realized. Second, the measurement model and time delay error model of LiDAR and IMU are established. Third, the methodology of the ICP and ISPKF procedure is presented for LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration. Experimental results are presented that validate the proposed method and demonstrate the time delay error can be accurately calibrated.
Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition
Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah
2014-01-01
Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…
Robust control of time-delay chaotic systems
Hua Changchun; Guan Xinping
2003-01-01
Robust control problem of nonlinear time-delay chaotic systems is investigated. For such uncertain systems, we propose adaptive feedback controller and novel nonlinear feedback controller. They are both independent of the time delay and can render the corresponding closed-loop systems globally uniformly ultimately bounded stable. The simulations on controlling logistic system are made and the results show the controllers are feasible
Feng Cun-Fang; Wang Ying-Hai
2011-01-01
Projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems is studied by applying an active control method. Based on the Lyapunov asymptotical stability theorem, the controller and sufficient condition for projective synchronization are calculated analytically. We give a general method with which we can achieve projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed chaotic systems. This method allows us to adjust the desired scaling factor arbitrarily. The effectiveness of our method is confirmed by using the famous delay-differential equations related to optical bistable or hybrid optical bistable devices. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach. (general)
Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Outputs Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems
Ruliang Wang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers an adaptive neural control for a class of outputs time-delay nonlinear systems with perturbed or no. Based on RBF neural networks, the radius basis function (RBF neural networks is employed to estimate the unknown continuous functions. The proposed control guarantees that all closed-loop signals remain bounded. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Time-Delay Effects on Constitutive Gene Expression*
Feng Yan-Ling; Wang Dan; Tang Xu-Lei; Dong Jian-Min
2017-01-01
The dynamics of constitutive gene expression with delayed mRNA degradation is investigated, where the intrinsic noise caused by the small number of reactant molecules is introduced. It is found that the oscillatory behavior claimed in previous investigations does not appear in the approximation of small time delay, and the steady state distribution still follows the Poisson law. Furthermore, we introduce the extrinsic noise induced by surrounding environment to explore the effects of this noise and time delay on the Fano factor. Based on a delay Langevin equation and the corresponding Fokker–Planck equation, the distribution of mRNA copy-number is achieved analytically. The time delay and extrinsic noise play similar roles in the gene expression system, that is, they are able to result in the deviation of the Fano factor from 1 evidently. The measured Fano factor for constitutive gene expression is slightly larger than 1, which is perhaps attributed to the time-delay effect. (paper)
A Framework for telerobotics across the time delays of space
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal will develop a novel intelligent time-delay mitigation framework to be used in bilateral space telerobotics. This framework will consist of master...
Stability analysis of linear switching systems with time delays
Li Ping; Zhong Shouming; Cui Jinzhong
2009-01-01
The issue of stability analysis of linear switching system with discrete and distributed time delays is studied in this paper. An appropriate switching rule is applied to guarantee the stability of the whole switching system. Our results use a Riccati-type Lyapunov functional under a condition on the time delay. So, switching systems with mixed delays are developed. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.
Time delay systems theory, numerics, applications, and experiments
Ersal, Tulga; Orosz, Gábor
2017-01-01
This volume collects contributions related to selected presentations from the 12th IFAC Workshop on Time Delay Systems, Ann Arbor, June 28-30, 2015. The included papers present novel techniques and new results of delayed dynamical systems. The topical spectrum covers control theory, numerical analysis, engineering and biological applications as well as experiments and case studies. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of time delay systems, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students alike. .
A Fault Prognosis Strategy Based on Time-Delayed Digraph Model and Principal Component Analysis
Ningyun Lu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Because of the interlinking of process equipments in process industry, event information may propagate through the plant and affect a lot of downstream process variables. Specifying the causality and estimating the time delays among process variables are critically important for data-driven fault prognosis. They are not only helpful to find the root cause when a plant-wide disturbance occurs, but to reveal the evolution of an abnormal event propagating through the plant. This paper concerns with the information flow directionality and time-delay estimation problems in process industry and presents an information synchronization technique to assist fault prognosis. Time-delayed mutual information (TDMI is used for both causality analysis and time-delay estimation. To represent causality structure of high-dimensional process variables, a time-delayed signed digraph (TD-SDG model is developed. Then, a general fault prognosis strategy is developed based on the TD-SDG model and principle component analysis (PCA. The proposed method is applied to an air separation unit and has achieved satisfying results in predicting the frequently occurred “nitrogen-block” fault.
Dual-anticipating, dual and dual-lag synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems
Ghosh, Dibakar; Chowdhury, A. Roy
2010-01-01
In this Letter, dual synchronization in modulated time delay system using delay feedback controller is proposed. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we suggest a general method to achieve the dual-anticipating, dual, dual-lag synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems and we find both its existing and sufficient stability conditions. Numerically it is shown that the dual synchronization is also possible when driving system contain two completely different systems. Effect of parameter mismatch on dual synchronization is also discussed. As an example, numerical simulations for the Mackey-Glass and Ikeda systems are conducted, which is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.
Instability in time-delayed switched systems induced by fast and random switching
Guo, Yao; Lin, Wei; Chen, Yuming; Wu, Jianhong
2017-07-01
In this paper, we consider a switched system comprising finitely or infinitely many subsystems described by linear time-delayed differential equations and a rule that orchestrates the system switching randomly among these subsystems, where the switching times are also randomly chosen. We first construct a counterintuitive example where even though all the time-delayed subsystems are exponentially stable, the behaviors of the randomly switched system change from stable dynamics to unstable dynamics with a decrease of the dwell time. Then by using the theories of stochastic processes and delay differential equations, we present a general result on when this fast and random switching induced instability should occur and we extend this to the case of nonlinear time-delayed switched systems as well.
Bounds and enhancements for negative scattering time delays
Muga, J.G.; Egusquiza, I.L.; Damborenea, J.A.; Delgado, F.
2002-01-01
The time of passage of the transmitted wave packet in a tunneling collision of a quantum particle with a square potential barrier becomes independent of the barrier width in a range of barrier thickness. This is the Hartman effect, which has been frequently associated with 'superluminality'. A fundamental limitation on the effect is set by nonrelativistic 'causality conditions'. We demonstrate first that the causality conditions impose more restrictive bounds on the negative time delays (time advancements) when no bound states are present. These restrictive bounds are in agreement with a naive, and generally false, causality argument based on the positivity of the 'extrapolated phase time', one of the quantities proposed to characterize the duration of the barrier's traversal. Nevertheless, square wells may in fact lead to much larger advancements than square barriers. We point out that close to the thresholds of new bound states, the time advancement increases considerably, while, at the same time, the transmission probability is large, which facilitates the possible observation of the enhanced time advancement
An adaptive robust controller for time delay maglev transportation systems
Milani, Reza Hamidi; Zarabadipour, Hassan; Shahnazi, Reza
2012-12-01
For engineering systems, uncertainties and time delays are two important issues that must be considered in control design. Uncertainties are often encountered in various dynamical systems due to modeling errors, measurement noises, linearization and approximations. Time delays have always been among the most difficult problems encountered in process control. In practical applications of feedback control, time delay arises frequently and can severely degrade closed-loop system performance and in some cases, drives the system to instability. Therefore, stability analysis and controller synthesis for uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems are important both in theory and in practice and many analytical techniques have been developed using delay-dependent Lyapunov function. In the past decade the magnetic and levitation (maglev) transportation system as a new system with high functionality has been the focus of numerous studies. However, maglev transportation systems are highly nonlinear and thus designing controller for those are challenging. The main topic of this paper is to design an adaptive robust controller for maglev transportation systems with time-delay, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, an adaptive robust control (ARC) is designed for this purpose. It should be noted that the adaptive gain is derived from Lyapunov-Krasovskii synthesis method, therefore asymptotic stability is guaranteed.
Sudheer, K. Sebastian; Sabir, M.
2011-01-01
In this Letter we consider modified function projective synchronization of unidirectionally coupled multiple time-delayed Rossler chaotic systems using adaptive controls. Recently, delay differential equations have attracted much attention in the field of nonlinear dynamics. The high complexity of the multiple time-delayed systems can provide a new architecture for enhancing message security in chaos based encryption systems. Adaptive control can be used for synchronization when the parameters of the system are unknown. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control law and the parameter update law are derived to make the state of two chaotic systems are function projective synchronized. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controllers.
Passivity analysis and synthesis for uncertain time-delay systems
Magdi S. Mahmoud
2001-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the robust passivity analysis and synthesis problems for a class of uncertain time-delay systems. This class of systems arises in the modelling effort of studying water quality constituents in fresh stream. For the analysis problem, we derive a sufficient condition for which the uncertain time-delay system is robustly stable and strictly passive for all admissible uncertainties. The condition is given in terms of a linear matrix inequality. Both the delay-independent and delay-dependent cases are considered. For the synthesis problem, we propose an observer-based design method which guarantees that the closed-loop uncertain time-delay system is stable and strictly passive for all admissible uncertainties. Several examples are worked out to illustrate the developed theory.
The WS transform for the Kuramoto model with distributed amplitudes, phase lag and time delay
Lohe, M. A.
2017-12-01
We apply the Watanabe-Strogatz (WS) transform to a generalized Kuramoto model with distributed parameters describing the amplitude of oscillation, phase lag, and time delay at each node of the system. The model has global coupling and identical frequencies, but allows for repulsive interactions at arbitrary nodes leading to conformist-contrarian phenomena together with variable amplitude and time-delay effects. We show how to determine the initial values of the WS system for any initial conditions for the Kuramoto system, and investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the WS variables. For the case of zero time delay the possible asymptotic configurations are determined by the sign of a single parameter μ which measures whether or not the attractive nodes dominate the repulsive nodes. If μ>0 the system completely synchronizes from general initial conditions, whereas if μ<0 one of two types of phase-locked synchronization occurs, depending on the initial values, while for μ=0 periodic solutions can occur. For the case of arbitrary non-uniform time delays we derive a stability condition for completely synchronized solutions.
Singular perturbation methods for nonlinear dynamic systems with time delays
Hu, H.Y.; Wang, Z.H.
2009-01-01
This review article surveys the recent advances in the dynamics and control of time-delay systems, with emphasis on the singular perturbation methods, such as the method of multiple scales, the method of averaging, and two newly developed methods, the energy analysis and the pseudo-oscillator analysis. Some examples are given to demonstrate the advantages of the methods. The comparisons with other methods show that these methods lead to easier computations and higher accurate prediction on the local dynamics of time-delay systems near a Hopf bifurcation.
Time-delayed feedback control of coherence resonance chimeras
Zakharova, Anna; Semenova, Nadezhda; Anishchenko, Vadim; Schöll, Eckehard
2017-11-01
Using the model of a FitzHugh-Nagumo system in the excitable regime, we investigate the influence of time-delayed feedback on noise-induced chimera states in a network with nonlocal coupling, i.e., coherence resonance chimeras. It is shown that time-delayed feedback allows for the control of the range of parameter values where these chimera states occur. Moreover, for the feedback delay close to the intrinsic period of the system, we find a novel regime which we call period-two coherence resonance chimera.
Kalman filtering for time-delayed linear systems
LU Xiao; WANG Wei
2006-01-01
This paper is to study the linear minimum variance estimation for discrete- time systems. A simple approach to the problem is presented by developing re-organized innovation analysis for the systems with instantaneous and double time-delayed measurements. It is shown that the derived estimator involves solving three different standard Kalman filtering with the same dimension as the original system. The obtained results form the basis for solving some complicated problems such as H∞ fixed-lag smoothing, preview control, H∞ filtering and control with time delays.
Period doubling phenomenon in a class of time delay equations
Oliveira, C.R. de; Malta, C.P.
1985-01-01
The properties of the solution of a nonlinear time delayed differential equation (infinite dimension) as function of two parameters: the time delay tau and another parameter A (nonlinearity) are investigated. After a Hopf bifurcation period doubling may occur and is characterized by Feigenbaum's delta. A strange atractor is obtained after the period doubling cascade and the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated indicating that the attractor has low dimension. The behaviour of this Liapunov exponent as function of tau is different from its behaviour as function of A. (Author) [pt
Time delay correlations in chaotic scattering and random matrix approach
Lehmann, N.; Savin, D.V.; Sokolov, V.V.; Sommers, H.J.
1994-01-01
We study the correlations in the time delay a model of chaotic resonance scattering based on the random matrix approach. Analytical formulae which are valid for arbitrary number of open channels and arbitrary coupling strength between resonances and channels are obtained by the supersymmetry method. The time delay correlation function, through being not a Lorentzian, is characterized, similar to that of the scattering matrix, by the gap between the cloud of complex poles of the S-matrix and the real energy axis. 28 refs.; 4 figs
Coherence resonance in an excitable system with time delay
Sethia, Gautam C.; Kurths, Juergen; Sen, Abhijit
2007-01-01
We study the noise activated dynamics of a model excitable system that consists of a subcritical Hopf oscillator with a time delayed nonlinear feedback. The coherence of the noise driven pulses of the system exhibits a novel double peaked structure as a function of the noise amplitude. The two peaks correspond to separate optimal noise levels for excitation of single spikes and multiple spikes (bursts) respectively. The relative magnitudes of these peaks are found to be a sensitive function of time delay. The physical significance of our results and its practical implications in various real life systems are discussed
Xiuchun Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available When the parameters of both drive and response systems are all unknown, an adaptive sliding mode controller, strongly robust to exotic perturbations, is designed for realizing generalized function projective synchronization. Sliding mode surface is given and the controlled system is asymptotically stable on this surface with the passage of time. Based on the adaptation laws and Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive sliding controller is designed to ensure the occurrence of the sliding motion. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method even when both drive and response systems are perturbed with external disturbances.
A simple time-delayed method to control chaotic systems
Chen Maoyin; Zhou Donghua; Shang Yun
2004-01-01
Based on the adaptive iterative learning strategy, a simple time-delayed controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in chaotic attractors. This controller includes two parts: one is a linear feedback part; the other is an adaptive iterative learning estimation part. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the effectiveness of this controller
A time-delayed method for controlling chaotic maps
Chen Maoyin; Zhou Donghua; Shang Yun
2005-01-01
Combining the repetitive learning strategy and the optimality principle, this Letter proposes a time-delayed method to control chaotic maps. This method can effectively stabilize unstable periodic orbits within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. Numerical simulations of some chaotic maps verify the effectiveness of this method
Partial synchronization in diffusively time-delay coupled oscillator networks
Steur, E.; Oguchi, T.; Leeuwen, van C.; Nijmeijer, H.
2012-01-01
We study networks of diffusively time-delay coupled oscillatory units and we show that networks with certain symmetries can exhibit a form of incomplete synchronization called partial synchronization. We present conditions for the existence and stability of partial synchronization modes in networks
On Tuning PI Controllers for Integrating Plus Time Delay Systems
David Di Ruscio
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Some analytical results concerning PI controller tuning based on integrator plus time delay models are worked out and presented. A method for obtaining PI controller parameters, Kp=alpha/(k*tau, and, Ti=beta*tau, which ensures a given prescribed maximum time delay error, dtau_max, to time delay, tau, ratio parameter delta=dau_max/tau, is presented. The corner stone in this method, is a method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. Analytical relations between the PI controller parameters, Ti, and, Kp, and the time delay error parameter, delta, is presented, and we propose the setting, beta=c/a*(delta+1, and, alpha=a/(delta+1, which gives, Ti=c/a*(delta+1*tau, and Kp=a/((delta+1*k*tau, where the parameter, a, is constant in the method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. It also turns out that the integral time, Ti, is linear in, delta, and the proportional gain, Kp, inversely proportional to, delta+1. For the original Ziegler Nichols (ZN method this parameter is approximately, c=2.38, and the presented method may e.g., be used to obtain new modified ZN parameters with increased robustness margins, also documented in the paper.
Quadratic theory and feedback controllers for linear time delay systems
Lee, E.B.
1976-01-01
Recent research on the design of controllers for systems having time delays is discussed. Results for the ''open loop'' and ''closed loop'' designs will be presented. In both cases results for minimizing a quadratic cost functional are given. The usefulness of these results is not known, but similar results for the non-delay case are being routinely applied. (author)
Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions
Long, X.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Aarts, R.M.; Haakma, R.; Fonseca, P.; Rolink, J.
2015-01-01
Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by
Lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear
In this paper, the lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear terms via impulsive control is investigated. Based on the stability theory of impulsive delayed differential equations, some sufficient conditions are obtained guaranteeing the synchronized behaviours between two delayed chaotic systems.
Stability Criteria for Differential Equations with Variable Time Delays
Schley, D.; Shail, R.; Gourley, S. A.
2002-01-01
Time delays are an important aspect of mathematical modelling, but often result in highly complicated equations which are difficult to treat analytically. In this paper it is shown how careful application of certain undergraduate tools such as the Method of Steps and the Principle of the Argument can yield significant results. Certain delay…
Effect of Magnetic Activity on Ionospheric Time Delay at Low ...
E) using dual frequency (1575.42 and 1227.60 MHz) GPS measurements. Data from GSV4004A GPS Iono- spheric Scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM) have been chosen to study these effects. This paper presents the results of ionospheric time delay during quiet and disturbed days for the year 2005. Results show that.
Liu, Peilu; Li, Xinghua; Li, Haopeng; Su, Zhikun; Zhang, Hongxu
2017-10-12
In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC) filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter's pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA). In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.
Peilu Liu
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter’s pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA. In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.
A comparison of cosmological models using time delay lenses
Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio, E-mail: jjwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2014-06-20
The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of ΛCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between competing models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of ∼70%-80% that the R {sub h} = ct universe is the correct cosmology versus ∼20%-30% for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic samples to estimate how large they would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ∼99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ∼150 time-delay lenses would be sufficient to rule out R {sub h} = ct at this level of accuracy, while ∼1000 time-delay lenses would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe is instead R {sub h} = ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.
A comparison of cosmological models using time delay lenses
Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio
2014-01-01
The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of ΛCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between competing models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of ∼70%-80% that the R h = ct universe is the correct cosmology versus ∼20%-30% for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic samples to estimate how large they would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ∼99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ∼150 time-delay lenses would be sufficient to rule out R h = ct at this level of accuracy, while ∼1000 time-delay lenses would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe is instead R h = ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.
Shahnazi, Reza; Haghani, Adel; Jeinsch, Torsten
2015-01-01
An observer-based output feedback adaptive fuzzy controller is proposed to stabilize a class of uncertain chaotic systems with unknown time-varying time delays, unknown actuator nonlinearities and unknown external disturbances. The actuator nonlinearity can be backlash-like hysteresis or dead-zone. Based on universal approximation property of fuzzy systems the unknown nonlinear functions are approximated by fuzzy systems, where the consequent parts of fuzzy rules are tuned with adaptive schemes. The proposed method does not need the availability of the states and an observer based output feedback approach is proposed to estimate the states. To have more robustness and at the same time to alleviate chattering an adaptive discontinuous structure is suggested. Semi-global asymptotic stability of the overall system is ensured by proposing a suitable Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional candidate. The approach is applied to stabilize the time-delayed Lorenz chaotic system with uncertain dynamics amid significant disturbances. Analysis of simulations reveals the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of coping well with the modeling uncertainties, nonlinearities in actuators, unknown time-varying time-delays and unknown external disturbances while maintaining asymptotic convergence
Huang, Chengdai; Cao, Jinde; Xiao, Min; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar
2018-04-01
This paper is comprehensively concerned with the dynamics of a class of high-dimension fractional ring-structured neural networks with multiple time delays. Based on the associated characteristic equation, the sum of time delays is regarded as the bifurcation parameter, and some explicit conditions for describing delay-dependent stability and emergence of Hopf bifurcation of such networks are derived. It reveals that the stability and bifurcation heavily relies on the sum of time delays for the proposed networks, and the stability performance of such networks can be markedly improved by selecting carefully the sum of time delays. Moreover, it is further displayed that both the order and the number of neurons can extremely influence the stability and bifurcation of such networks. The obtained criteria enormously generalize and improve the existing work. Finally, numerical examples are presented to verify the efficiency of the theoretical results.
On the choice of lens density profile in time delay cosmography
Sonnenfeld, Alessandro
2018-03-01
Time delay lensing is a mature and competitive cosmological probe. However, it is limited in accuracy by the well-known problem of the mass-sheet degeneracy: too rigid assumptions on the density profile of the lens can potentially bias the inference on cosmological parameters. I investigate the degeneracy between the choice of the lens density profile and the inference on the Hubble constant, focusing on double image systems. By expanding lensing observables in terms of the local derivatives of the lens potential around the Einstein radius, and assuming circular symmetry, I show that 3 degrees of freedom in the radial direction are necessary to achieve a few per cent accuracy in the time-delay distance. Additionally, while the time delay is strongly dependent on the second derivative of the potential, observables typically used to constrain lens models in time-delay studies, such as image position and radial magnification information, are mostly sensitive to the first and third derivatives, making it very challenging to accurately determine time-delay distances with lensing data alone. Tests on mock observations show that the assumption of a power-law density profile results in a 5 per cent average bias on H0, with a 6 per cent scatter. Using a more flexible model and adding unbiased velocity dispersion constraints allows me to obtain an inference with 1 per cent accuracy. A power-law model can still provide 3 per cent accuracy if velocity dispersion measurements are used to constrain its slope. Although this study is based on the assumption of axisymmetry, its main findings can be generalized to cases with moderate ellipticity.
Probabilistic Teleportation of an Unknown One-Particle State by a Three-Particle General W State
Xiu Xiaoming; Dong Li; Gao Yajun
2007-01-01
Two schemes for teleporting an unknown one-particle state are proposed when a general W state is utilized as quantum channel. In the first scheme, after the sender (Alice) makes a Bell-state measurement on her particles, the recipient (Bob) performs a Von Neumann measurement and introduces an auxiliary particle, and carries out a unitary transformation on his particle and the auxiliary particle, and performs a Von Neumann measurement on the auxiliary particle to confirm whether the teleportation succeeds or not. In the second scheme, the recipient (Bob) does not need to perform the first Von Neumann measurement or introduce the auxiliary particle, which is necessary in the first scheme. It is shown that the maximal probabilities of successful teleportation of the two schemes are identical if the recipient (Bob) performs an appropriate unitary transformation and adopts a proper particle on which he recovers the quantum information of state to be teleported.
Probabilistic Teleportation of an Unknown One-Particle State by a Three-Particle General W State
XIU Xiao-Ming; DONG Li; GAO Ya-Jun
2007-01-01
Two schemes for teleporting an unknown one-particle state are proposed when a general W state is utilized as quantum channel.In the first scheme,after the sender (Alice) makes a Bell-state measurement on her particles,the recipient (Bob) performs a Von Neumann measurement and introduces an auxiliary particle,and carries out a unitary transformation on his particle and the auxiliary particle,and performs a Von Neumann measurement on the auxiliary particle to confirm whether the teleportation succeeds or not.In the second scheme,the recipient (Bob) does not need to perform the first Von Neumann measurement or introduce the auxiliary particle,which is necessary in the first scheme.It is shown that the maximal probabilities of successful teleportation of the two schemes are identical if the recipient (Bob) performs an appropriate unitary transformation and adopts a proper particle on which he recovers the quantum information of state to be teleported.
Does a deformation of special relativity imply energy dependent photon time delays?
Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Relancio, J. J.
2018-01-01
Theoretical arguments in favor of energy dependent photon time delays from a modification of special relativity (SR) have met with recent gamma ray observations that put severe constraints on the scale of such deviations. We review the case of the generality of this theoretical prediction in the case of a deformation of SR and find that, at least in the simple model based on the analysis of photon worldlines which is commonly considered, there are many scenarios compatible with a relativity principle which do not contain a photon time delay. This will be the situation for any modified dispersion relation which reduces to E=\\vert p\\vert for photons, independently of the quantum structure of spacetime. This fact opens up the possibility of a phenomenologically consistent relativistic generalization of SR with a new mass scale many orders of magnitude below the Planck mass.
Stochastic resonance in a time-delayed asymmetric bistable system with mixed periodic signal
Yong-Feng, Guo; Wei, Xu; Liang, Wang
2010-01-01
This paper studies the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in an asymmetric bistable system with time-delayed feedback and mixed periodic signal by using the theory of signal-to-noise ratio in the adiabatic limit. A general approximate Fokker–Planck equation and the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio are derived through the small time delay approximation at both fundamental harmonics and mixed harmonics. The effects of the additive noise intensity Q, multiplicative noise intensity D, static asymmetry r and delay time τ on the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. It is found that the higher mixed harmonics and the static asymmetry r can restrain stochastic resonance, and the delay time τ can enhance stochastic resonance. Moreover, the longer the delay time τ is, the larger the additive noise intensity Q and the multiplicative noise intensity D are, when the stochastic resonance appears. (general)
Truncated predictor feedback for time-delay systems
Zhou, Bin
2014-01-01
This book provides a systematic approach to the design of predictor based controllers for (time-varying) linear systems with either (time-varying) input or state delays. Differently from those traditional predictor based controllers, which are infinite-dimensional static feedback laws and may cause difficulties in their practical implementation, this book develops a truncated predictor feedback (TPF) which involves only finite dimensional static state feedback. Features and topics: A novel approach referred to as truncated predictor feedback for the stabilization of (time-varying) time-delay systems in both the continuous-time setting and the discrete-time setting is built systematically Semi-global and global stabilization problems of linear time-delay systems subject to either magnitude saturation or energy constraints are solved in a systematic manner Both stabilization of a single system and consensus of a group of systems (multi-agent systems) are treated in a unified manner by applying the truncated pre...
Complex Time-Delay Systems Theory and Applications
Atay, Fatihcan M
2010-01-01
Time delays in dynamical systems arise as an inevitable consequence of finite speeds of information transmission. Realistic models increasingly demand the inclusion of delays in order to properly understand, analyze, design, and control real-life systems. The goal of this book is to present the state-of-the-art in research on time-delay dynamics in the framework of complex systems and networks. While the mathematical theory of delay equations is quite mature, its application to the particular problems of complex systems and complexity is a newly emerging field, and the present volume aims to play a pioneering role in this perspective. The chapters in this volume are authored by renowned experts and cover both theory and applications in a wide range of fields, with examples extending from neuroscience and biology to laser physics and vehicle traffic. Furthermore, all chapters include sufficient introductory material and extensive bibliographies, making the book a self-contained reference for both students and ...
Time delays across saddles as a test of modified gravity
Magueijo, João; Mozaffari, Ali
2013-01-01
Modified gravity theories can produce strong signals in the vicinity of the saddles of the total gravitational potential. In a sub-class of these models, this translates into diverging time delays for echoes crossing the saddles. Such models arise from the possibility that gravity might be infrared divergent or confined, and if suitably designed they are very difficult to rule out. We show that Lunar Laser Ranging during an eclipse could probe the time-delay effect within metres of the saddle, thereby proving or excluding these models. Very Large Baseline Interferometry, instead, could target delays across the Jupiter–Sun saddle. Such experiments would shed light on the infrared behaviour of gravity and examine the puzzling possibility that there might be well-hidden regions of strong gravity and even singularities inside the solar system. (fast track communication)
Two-actor conflict with time delay: A dynamical model
Qubbaj, Murad R.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata
2012-11-01
Recent mathematical dynamical models of the conflict between two different actors, be they nations, groups, or individuals, have been developed that are capable of predicting various outcomes depending on the chosen feedback strategies, initial conditions, and the previous states of the actors. In addition to these factors, this paper examines the effect of time delayed feedback on the conflict dynamics. Our analysis shows that under certain initial and feedback conditions, a stable neutral equilibrium of conflict may destabilize for some critical values of time delay, and the two actors may evolve to new emotional states. We investigate the results by constructing critical delay surfaces for different sets of parameters and analyzing results from numerical simulations. These results provide new insights regarding conflict and conflict resolution and may help planners in adjusting and assessing their strategic decisions.
Time Delay Estimation in Room Acoustic Environments: An Overview
Benesty Jacob
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Time delay estimation has been a research topic of significant practical importance in many fields (radar, sonar, seismology, geophysics, ultrasonics, hands-free communications, etc.. It is a first stage that feeds into subsequent processing blocks for identifying, localizing, and tracking radiating sources. This area has made remarkable advances in the past few decades, and is continuing to progress, with an aim to create processors that are tolerant to both noise and reverberation. This paper presents a systematic overview of the state-of-the-art of time-delay-estimation algorithms ranging from the simple cross-correlation method to the advanced blind channel identification based techniques. We discuss the pros and cons of each individual algorithm, and outline their inherent relationships. We also provide experimental results to illustrate their performance differences in room acoustic environments where reverberation and noise are commonly encountered.
Low-complexity controllers for time-delay systems
Özbay, Hitay; Bonnet, Catherine; Mounier, Hugues
2014-01-01
This volume in the newly established series Advances in Delays and Dynamics (ADD@S) provides a collection of recent results on the design and analysis of Low Complexity Controllers for Time Delay Systems. A widely used indirect method to obtain low order controllers for time delay systems is to design a controller for the reduced order model of the plant. In the dual indirect approach, an infinite dimensional controller is designed first for the original plant model; then, the controller is approximated by keeping track of the degradation in performance and stability robustness measures. The present volume includes new techniques used at different stages of the indirect approach. It also includes new direct design methods for fixed structure and low order controllers. On the other hand, what is meant by low complexity controller is not necessarily low order controller. For example, Smith predictor or similar type of controllers include a copy of the plant internally in the controller, so they are technically ...
Electrically tunable photonic true-time-delay line.
Barmenkov, Yuri O; Cruz, José Luis; Díez, Antonio; Andrés, Miguel V
2010-08-16
We present a new application of the acousto-optic superlattice modulation of a fiber Bragg grating based on the dynamic phase and group delay properties of this fiber-optic component. We demonstrate a tunable photonic true-time-delay line based on the group delay change of the light reflected from the grating sidebands. The delay is electrically tuned by adjusting the voltage applied to a piezoelectric transducer that generates the acoustic wave propagating along the grating. In our experiments, a true-time delay of 400 ps is continuously adjusted (300 ps within the 3 dB amplitude range of the first sideband), using a 12 cm long uniform grating.
Optimal control for parabolic-hyperbolic system with time delay
Kowalewski, A.
1985-07-01
In this paper we consider an optimal control problem for a system described by a linear partial differential equation of the parabolic-hyperbolic type with time delay in the state. The right-hand side of this equation and the initial conditions are not continuous functions usually, but they are measurable functions belonging to L 2 or Lsup(infinity) spaces. Therefore, the solution of this equation is given by a certain Sobolev space. The time delay in the state is constant, but it can be also a function of time. The control time T is fixed in our problem. Making use of the Milutin-Dubovicki theorem, necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality with the quadratic performance functional and constrained control are derived for the Dirichlet problem. The flow chart of the algorithm which can be used in the numerical solving of certain optimization problems for distributed systems is also presented. (author)
Robust L2-L∞ Filtering of Time-Delay Jump Systems with Respect to the Finite-Time Interval
Shuping He
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studied the problem of stochastic finite-time boundedness and disturbance attenuation for a class of linear time-delayed systems with Markov jumping parameters. Sufficient conditions are provided to solve this problem. The L2-L∞ filters are, respectively, designed for time-delayed Markov jump linear systems with/without uncertain parameters such that the resulting filtering error dynamic system is stochastically finite-time bounded and has the finite-time interval disturbance attenuation γ for all admissible uncertainties, time delays, and unknown disturbances. By using stochastic Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach, it is shown that the filter designing problem is in terms of the solutions of a set of coupled linear matrix inequalities. Simulation examples are included to demonstrate the potential of the proposed results.
Global synchronization for time-delay of WINDMI System
Wang Junxa; Lu Dianchen; Tian Lixin
2006-01-01
Considering a time-delay in the receiver as compared with the transmitter, we addresses a practical issue in chaos synchronization of WINDMI system which is based on the Lyapunov stabilization theory and matrix measure, such that the state of the slave system at time t is asymptotically synchronizing with the master at time t - τ. The Mathematical software is used to prove the effectiveness of this method
STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Dobler, Gregory [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Liao, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Marshall, Phil [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Hojjati, Alireza [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Linder, Eric, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2015-02-01
The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ∼10{sup 3} strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a ''Time Delay Challenge'' (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of ''ladders'', each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.
Guaranteed cost control of time-delay chaotic systems
Park, Ju H.; Kwon, O.M.
2006-01-01
This article studies a guaranteed cost control problem for a class of time-delay chaotic systems. Attention is focused on the design of memory state feedback controllers such that the resulting closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and an adequate level of performance is also guaranteed. Using the Lyapunov method and LMI (linear matrix inequality) framework, two criteria for the existence of the controller are derived in terms of LMIs. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed method
Periodic solutions in reaction–diffusion equations with time delay
Li, Li
2015-01-01
Spatial diffusion and time delay are two main factors in biological and chemical systems. However, the combined effects of them on diffusion systems are not well studied. As a result, we investigate a nonlinear diffusion system with delay and obtain the existence of the periodic solutions using coincidence degree theory. Moreover, two numerical examples confirm our theoretical results. The obtained results can also be applied in other related fields
Spectral sum rule for time delay in R2
Osborn, T.A.; Sinha, K.B.; Bolle, D.; Danneels, C.
1985-01-01
A local spectral sum rule for nonrelativistic scattering in two dimensions is derived for the potential class velement ofL 4 /sup // 3 (R 2 ). The sum rule relates the integral over all scattering energies of the trace of the time-delay operator for a finite region Σis contained inR 2 to the contributions in Σ of the pure point and singularly continuous spectra
Global dissipativity of continuous-time recurrent neural networks with time delay
Liao Xiaoxin; Wang Jun
2003-01-01
This paper addresses the global dissipativity of a general class of continuous-time recurrent neural networks. First, the concepts of global dissipation and global exponential dissipation are defined and elaborated. Next, the sets of global dissipativity and global exponentially dissipativity are characterized using the parameters of recurrent neural network models. In particular, it is shown that the Hopfield network and cellular neural networks with or without time delays are dissipative systems
Asymptotic solution for the El Niño time delay sea—air oscillator model
Mo Jia-Qi; Lin Wan-Tao; Lin Yi-Hua
2011-01-01
A sea—air oscillator model is studied using the time delay theory. The aim is to find an asymptotic solving method for the El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) model. Employing the perturbed method, an asymptotic solution of the corresponding problem is obtained. Thus we can obtain the prognoses of the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly and the related physical quantities. (general)
Optical resonators for true-time-delay beam steering
Gesell, Leslie H.; Evanko, Stephen M.
1996-06-01
Conventional true time delay beamforming and steering devices rely on switching between various lengths of delay line. Therefore only discrete delays are possible. Proposed is a new photonics concept for true time delay beamforming which provides a finely controlled continuum of delays with switching speeds on the order of 10's of nanoseconds or faster. The architecture uses an array of waveguide cavities with different resonate frequencies to channelize the signal. Each spectral component of the signal is phase shifted by an amount proportional to the frequency of that component and the desired time delay. These phase shifted spectral components are then summed to obtain the delayed signal. This paper provides an overview of the results of a Phase I SBIR contract where this concept has been refined and analyzed. The parameters for an operational system are determined and indication of the feasibility of this approach is given. Among the issues addressed are the requirements of the resonators and the methods necessary to implement fiber optic Bragg gratings as these resonators.
Acceleration (Deceleration Model Supporting Time Delays to Refresh Data
José Gerardo Carrillo González
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a mathematical model to regulate the acceleration (deceleration applied by self-driving vehicles in car-following situations. A virtual environment is designed to test the model in different circumstances: (1 the followers decelerate in time if the leader decelerates, considering a time delay of up to 5 s to refresh data (vehicles position coordinates required by the model, (2 with the intention of optimizing space, the vehicles are grouped in platoons, where 3 s of time delay (to update data is supported if the vehicles have a centre-to-centre spacing of 20 m and a time delay of 1 s is supported at a spacing of 6 m (considering a maximum speed of 20 m/s in both cases, and (3 an algorithm is presented to manage the vehicles’ priority at a traffic intersection, where the model regulates the vehicles’ acceleration (deceleration and a balance in the number of vehicles passing from each side is achieved.
Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator.
Goharian, M; Khan, R F H
2010-04-01
For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient's breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL) 'X-Ray ON' status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL 'X-Ray ON' indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle) a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 +/- 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for the treatment delivery
Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator
Goharian M
2010-01-01
Full Text Available For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient′s breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore™ (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management™ (RPM system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL ′X-Ray ON′ status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL ′X-Ray ON′ indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 ± 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for
Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator
Goharian, M.; Khan, R.F.H.
2010-01-01
For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient's breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL) 'X-Ray ON' status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL 'X-Ray ON' indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle) a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 ± 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for the treatment delivery
Sauvage, François-Ludovic; Picard, Nicolas; Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Lachâtre, Gérard; Marquet, Pierre
2009-09-01
LC coupled to single (LC-MS) and tandem (LC-MS/MS) mass spectrometry is recognized as the most powerful analytical tools for metabolic studies in drug discovery. In this article, we describe five cases illustrating the utility of screening xenobiotic metabolites in routine analysis of forensic samples using LC-MS/MS. Analyses were performed using a previously published LC-MS/MS general unknown screening (GUS) procedure developed using a hybrid linear IT-tandem mass spectrometer. In each of the cases presented, the presence of metabolites of xenobiotics was suspected after analyzing urine samples. In two cases, the parent drug was also detected and the metabolites were merely useful to confirm drug intake, but in three other cases, metabolite detection was of actual forensic interest. The presented results indicate that: (i) the GUS procedure developed is useful to detect a large variety of drug metabolites, which would have been hardly detected using targeted methods in the context of clinical or forensic toxicology; (ii) metabolite structure can generally be inferred from their "enhanced" product ion scan spectra; and (iii) structure confirmation can be achieved through in vitro metabolic experiments or through the analysis of urine samples from individuals taking the parent drug.
Generation of flat wideband chaos with suppressed time delay signature by using optical time lens.
Jiang, Ning; Wang, Chao; Xue, Chenpeng; Li, Guilan; Lin, Shuqing; Qiu, Kun
2017-06-26
We propose a flat wideband chaos generation scheme that shows excellent time delay signature suppression effect, by injecting the chaotic output of general external cavity semiconductor laser into an optical time lens module composed of a phase modulator and two dispersive units. The numerical results demonstrate that by properly setting the parameters of the driving signal of phase modulator and the accumulated dispersion of dispersive units, the relaxation oscillation in chaos can be eliminated, wideband chaos generation with an efficient bandwidth up to several tens of GHz can be achieved, and the RF spectrum of generated chaotic signal is nearly as flat as uniform distribution. Moreover, the periodicity of chaos induced by the external cavity modes can be simultaneously destructed by the optical time lens module, based on this the time delay signature can be completely suppressed.
Ultra-small time-delay estimation via a weak measurement technique with post-selection
Fang, Chen; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Yu, Yang; Li, Qinzheng; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Weak measurement is a novel technique for parameter estimation with higher precision. In this paper we develop a general theory for the parameter estimation based on a weak measurement technique with arbitrary post-selection. The weak-value amplification model and the joint weak measurement model are two special cases in our theory. Applying the developed theory, time-delay estimation is investigated in both theory and experiments. The experimental results show that when the time delay is ultra-small, the joint weak measurement scheme outperforms the weak-value amplification scheme, and is robust against not only misalignment errors but also the wavelength dependence of the optical components. These results are consistent with theoretical predictions that have not been previously verified by any experiment. (paper)
Xu, Chang-Jin; Li, Pei-Luan; Pang, Yi-Cheng
2017-02-01
This paper is concerned with fractional-order bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time delays. Applying Laplace transform, the generalized Gronwall inequality and estimates of Mittag-Leffler functions, some sufficient conditions which ensure the finite-time stability of fractional-order bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays are obtained. Two examples with their simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical findings. Our results are new and complement previously known results. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos.~61673008, 11261010, 11101126, Project of High-Level Innovative Talents of Guizhou Province ([2016]5651), Natural Science and Technology Foundation of Guizhou Province (J[2015]2025 and J[2015]2026), 125 Special Major Science and Technology of Department of Education of Guizhou Province ([2012]011) and Natural Science Foundation of the Education Department of Guizhou Province (KY[2015]482)
Pyragas, V.; Pyragas, K.
2011-01-01
We propose a simple adaptive delayed feedback control algorithm for stabilization of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. The state dependent time delay is varied continuously towards the period of controlled orbit according to a gradient-descent method realized through three simple ordinary differential equations. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm with the Roessler and Mackey-Glass chaotic systems. The stability of the controlled orbits is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents of linearized equations. -- Highlights: → A simple adaptive modification of the delayed feedback control algorithm is proposed. → It enables the control of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. → The delay time is varied continuously according to a gradient descend method. → The algorithm is embodied by three simple ordinary differential equations. → The validity of the algorithm is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents.
The Hubble constant estimation using 18 gravitational lensing time delays
Jaelani, Anton T.; Premadi, Premana W.
2014-03-01
Gravitational lens time delay method has been used to estimate the rate of cosmological expansion, called the Hubble constant, H0, independently of the standard candle method. This gravitational lensing method requires a good knowledge of the lens mass distribution, reconstructed using the lens image properties. The observed positions of the images, and the redshifts of the lens and the images serve as strong constraints to the lens equations, which are then solved as a set of simultaneous linear equations. Here we made use of a non-parametric technique to reconstruct the lens mass distribution, which is manifested in a linear equations solver named PixeLens. Input for the calculation is chosen based on prior known parameters obtained from analyzed result of the lens case observations, including time-delay, position angles of the images and the lens, and their redshifts. In this project, 18 fairly well studied lens cases are further grouped according to a number of common properties to examine how each property affects the character of the data, and therefore affects the calculation of H0. The considered lens case properties are lens morphology, number of image, completeness of time delays, and symmetry of lens mass distribution. Analysis of simulation shows that paucity of constraints on mass distribution of a lens yields wide range value of H0, which reflects the uniqueness of each lens system. Nonetheless, gravitational lens method still yields H0 within an acceptable range of value when compared to those determined by many other methods. Grouping the cases in the above manner allowed us to assess the robustness of PixeLens and thereby use it selectively. In addition, we use glafic, a parametric mass reconstruction solver, to refine the mass distribution of one lens case, as a comparison.
Complex-Vector Time-Delay Control of Power Converters
Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P. C.; Tang, Y.
2008-01-01
Precise controlling of current produced by power converters is an important topic that has attracted interests over the last few decades. With the recent proliferation of grid-tied converters where the control of power flow is indirectly governed by the accuracy of current tracking, motivation...... since only a small amount of memory space for storing time-delayed values and simple arithmetic computations are needed for its physical realization. In addition to that, other advantages of the scheme include its abilities to compensate for negative-sequence, load and grid harmonic components using...
Comment on ‘Time delays in molecular photoionization’
Baykusheva, Denitsa; Wörner, Hans Jakob
2017-04-01
In a recent article by Hockett et al (2016 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49 095602), time delays arising in the context of molecular single-photon ionization are investigated from a theoretical point of view. We argue that one of the central equations given in this article is incorrect and present a reformulation that is consistent with the established treatment of angle-dependent scattering delays (Eisenbud 1948 PhD Thesis Princeton University; Wigner 1955 Phys. Rev. 98 145-7 Smith 1960 Phys. Rev. 118 349-6 Nussenzveig 1972 Phys. Rev. D 6 1534-42).
Il Young Song
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on estimation of a nonlinear function of state vector (NFS in discrete-time linear systems with time-delays and model uncertainties. The NFS represents a multivariate nonlinear function of state variables, which can indicate useful information of a target system for control. The optimal nonlinear estimator of an NFS (in mean square sense represents a function of the receding horizon estimate and its error covariance. The proposed receding horizon filter represents the standard Kalman filter with time-delays and special initial horizon conditions described by the Lyapunov-like equations. In general case to calculate an optimal estimator of an NFS we propose using the unscented transformation. Important class of polynomial NFS is considered in detail. In the case of polynomial NFS an optimal estimator has a closed-form computational procedure. The subsequent application of the proposed receding horizon filter and nonlinear estimator to a linear stochastic system with time-delays and uncertainties demonstrates their effectiveness.
Impulsive stabilization and impulsive synchronization of discrete-time delayed neural networks.
Chen, Wu-Hua; Lu, Xiaomei; Zheng, Wei Xing
2015-04-01
This paper investigates the problems of impulsive stabilization and impulsive synchronization of discrete-time delayed neural networks (DDNNs). Two types of DDNNs with stabilizing impulses are studied. By introducing the time-varying Lyapunov functional to capture the dynamical characteristics of discrete-time impulsive delayed neural networks (DIDNNs) and by using a convex combination technique, new exponential stability criteria are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The stability criteria for DIDNNs are independent of the size of time delay but rely on the lengths of impulsive intervals. With the newly obtained stability results, sufficient conditions on the existence of linear-state feedback impulsive controllers are derived. Moreover, a novel impulsive synchronization scheme for two identical DDNNs is proposed. The novel impulsive synchronization scheme allows synchronizing two identical DDNNs with unknown delays. Simulation results are given to validate the effectiveness of the proposed criteria of impulsive stabilization and impulsive synchronization of DDNNs. Finally, an application of the obtained impulsive synchronization result for two identical chaotic DDNNs to a secure communication scheme is presented.
Heterogeneity of time delays determines synchronization of coupled oscillators.
Petkoski, Spase; Spiegler, Andreas; Proix, Timothée; Aram, Parham; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Jirsa, Viktor K
2016-07-01
Network couplings of oscillatory large-scale systems, such as the brain, have a space-time structure composed of connection strengths and signal transmission delays. We provide a theoretical framework, which allows treating the spatial distribution of time delays with regard to synchronization, by decomposing it into patterns and therefore reducing the stability analysis into the tractable problem of a finite set of delay-coupled differential equations. We analyze delay-structured networks of phase oscillators and we find that, depending on the heterogeneity of the delays, the oscillators group in phase-shifted, anti-phase, steady, and non-stationary clusters, and analytically compute their stability boundaries. These results find direct application in the study of brain oscillations.
Hopf Bifurcation in a Cobweb Model with Discrete Time Delays
Luca Gori
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We develop a cobweb model with discrete time delays that characterise the length of production cycle. We assume a market comprised of homogeneous producers that operate as adapters by taking the (expected profit-maximising quantity as a target to adjust production and consumers with a marginal willingness to pay captured by an isoelastic demand. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a one-dimensional delay differential equation. In this context, we show that (1 if the elasticity of market demand is sufficiently high, the steady-state equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable and (2 if the elasticity of market demand is sufficiently low, quasiperiodic oscillations emerge when the time lag (that represents the length of production cycle is high enough.
Time Delay Systems Methods, Applications and New Trends
Vyhlídal, Tomáš; Niculescu, Silviu-Iulian; Pepe, Pierdomenico
2012-01-01
This volume is concerned with the control and dynamics of time delay systems; a research field with at least six-decade long history that has been very active especially in the past two decades. In parallel to the new challenges emerging from engineering, physics, mathematics, and economics, the volume covers several new directions including topology induced stability, large-scale interconnected systems, roles of networks in stability, and new trends in predictor-based control and consensus dynamics. The associated applications/problems are described by highly complex models, and require solving inverse problems as well as the development of new theories, mathematical tools, numerically-tractable algorithms for real-time control. The volume, which is targeted to present these developments in this rapidly evolving field, captures a careful selection of the most recent papers contributed by experts and collected under five parts: (i) Methodology: From Retarded to Neutral Continuous Delay Models, (ii) Systems, S...
On avian influenza epidemic models with time delay.
Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan
2015-12-01
After the outbreak of the first avian influenza A virus (H5N1) in Hong Kong in 1997, another avian influenza A virus (H7N9) crossed the species barrier in mainland China in 2013 and 2014 and caused more than 400 human cases with a death rate of nearly 40%. In this paper, we take account of the incubation periods of avian influenza A virus and construct a bird-to-human transmission model with different time delays in the avian and human populations combining the survival probability of the infective avian and human populations at the latent time. By analyzing the dynamical behavior of the model, we obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate local and global asymptotical stability of equilibria of the system.
Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions
Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Haakma, Reinder; Fonseca, Pedro; Rolink, Jérôme
2015-04-01
Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and the cardiac parameters included heart rate, standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, and their low- and high-frequency spectral powers. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we found that the cardiac variations during wake-sleep and NREM sleep transitions preceded the EEG changes by 1-3 min but this was not the case for REM sleep transitions. These important findings can be further used to predict the onset and ending of some sleep stages in an early manner.
Complex systems fractionality, time-delay and synchronization
Sun, Jian-Qiao
2012-01-01
"Complex Systems: Fractionality, Time-delay and Synchronization" covers the most recent developments and advances in the theory and application of complex systems in these areas. Each chapter was written by scientists highly active in the field of complex systems. The book discusses a new treatise on fractional dynamics and control, as well as the new methods for differential delay systems and control. Lastly, a theoretical framework for the complexity and synchronization of complex system is presented. The book is intended for researchers in the field of nonlinear dynamics in mathematics, physics and engineering. It can also serve as a reference book for graduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, USA. Dr. Jian-Qiao Sun is a Professor at the University of California, Merced, USA.
Introduction to Focus Issue: Time-delay dynamics
Erneux, Thomas; Javaloyes, Julien; Wolfrum, Matthias; Yanchuk, Serhiy
2017-11-01
The field of dynamical systems with time delay is an active research area that connects practically all scientific disciplines including mathematics, physics, engineering, biology, neuroscience, physiology, economics, and many others. This Focus Issue brings together contributions from both experimental and theoretical groups and emphasizes a large variety of applications. In particular, lasers and optoelectronic oscillators subject to time-delayed feedbacks have been explored by several authors for their specific dynamical output, but also because they are ideal test-beds for experimental studies of delay induced phenomena. Topics include the control of cavity solitons, as light spots in spatially extended systems, new devices for chaos communication or random number generation, higher order locking phenomena between delay and laser oscillation period, and systematic bifurcation studies of mode-locked laser systems. Moreover, two original theoretical approaches are explored for the so-called Low Frequency Fluctuations, a particular chaotical regime in laser output which has attracted a lot of interest for more than 30 years. Current hot problems such as the synchronization properties of networks of delay-coupled units, novel stabilization techniques, and the large delay limit of a delay differential equation are also addressed in this special issue. In addition, analytical and numerical tools for bifurcation problems with or without noise and two reviews on concrete questions are proposed. The first review deals with the rich dynamics of simple delay climate models for El Nino Southern Oscillations, and the second review concentrates on neuromorphic photonic circuits where optical elements are used to emulate spiking neurons. Finally, two interesting biological problems are considered in this Focus Issue, namely, multi-strain epidemic models and the interaction of glucose and insulin for more effective treatment.
Algebraic approach to time-delay data analysis for LISA
Dhurandhar, S.V.; Nayak, K. Rajesh; Vinet, J.-Y.
2002-01-01
Cancellation of laser frequency noise in interferometers is crucial for attaining the requisite sensitivity of the triangular three-spacecraft LISA configuration. Raw laser noise is several orders of magnitude above the other noises and thus it is essential to bring it down to the level of other noises such as shot, acceleration, etc. Since it is impossible to maintain equal distances between spacecrafts, laser noise cancellation must be achieved by appropriately combining the six beams with appropriate time delays. It has been shown in several recent papers that such combinations are possible. In this paper, we present a rigorous and systematic formalism based on algebraic geometrical methods involving computational commutative algebra, which generates in principle all the data combinations canceling the laser frequency noise. The relevant data combinations form the first module of syzygies, as it is called in the literature of algebraic geometry. The module is over a polynomial ring in three variables, the three variables corresponding to the three time delays around the LISA triangle. Specifically, we list several sets of generators for the module whose linear combinations with polynomial coefficients generate the entire module. We find that this formalism can also be extended in a straightforward way to cancel Doppler shifts due to optical bench motions. The two modules are in fact isomorphic. We use our formalism to obtain the transfer functions for the six beams and for the generators. We specifically investigate monochromatic gravitational wave sources in the LISA band and carry out the maximization over linear combinations of the generators of the signal-to-noise ratios with the frequency and source direction angles as parameters
Implementation of time-delay interferometry for LISA
Tinto, Massimo; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Sylvestre, Julien; Armstrong, J.W.
2003-01-01
We discuss the baseline optical configuration for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, in which the lasers are not free-running, but rather one of them is used as the main frequency reference generator (the master) and the remaining five as slaves, these being phase-locked to the master (the master-slave configuration). Under the condition that the frequency fluctuations due to the optical transponders can be made negligible with respect to the secondary LISA noise sources (mainly proof-mass and shot noises), we show that the entire space of interferometric combinations LISA can generate when operated with six independent lasers (the one-way method) can also be constructed with the master-slave system design. The corresponding hardware trade-off analysis for these two optical designs is presented, which indicates that the two sets of systems needed for implementing the one-way method, and the master-slave configuration, are essentially identical. Either operational mode could therefore be implemented without major implications on the hardware configuration. We then derive the required accuracies of armlength knowledge, time synchronization of the onboard clocks, sampling times and time-shifts needed for effectively implementing time-delay interferometry for LISA. We find that an armlength accuracy of about 16 meters, a synchronization accuracy of about 50 ns, and the time jitter due to a presently existing space qualified clock will allow the suppression of the frequency fluctuations of the lasers below to the level identified by the secondary noise sources. A new procedure for sampling the data in such a way to avoid the problem of having time shifts that are not integer multiples of the sampling time is also introduced, addressing one of the concerns about the implementation of time-delay interferometry
Start time delays in operating room: Different perspectives
Babita Gupta
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Healthcare expenditure is a serious concern, with escalating costs failing to meet the expectations of quality care. The treatment capacities are limited in a hospital setting and the operating rooms (ORs. Their optimal utilization is vital in efficient hospital management. Starting late means considerable wait time for staff, patients and waste of resources. We planned an audit to assess different perspectives of the residents in surgical specialities and anesthesia and OR staff nurses so as to know the causative factors of operative delay. This can help develop a practical model to decrease start time delays in operating room (ORs. Aims: An audit to assess different perspectives of the Operating room (OR staff with respect to the varied causative factors of operative delay in the OR. To aid in the development of a practical model to decrease start time delays in ORs and facilitate on-time starts at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma centre (JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods: We prepared a questionnaire seeking the five main reasons of delay as per their perspective. Results: The available data was analysed. Analysis of the data demonstrated the common causative factors in start time operative delays as: a lack of proper planning, deficiencies in team work, communication gap and limited availability of trained supporting staff. Conclusions: The preparation of the equipment and required material for the OR cases must be done well in advance. Utilization of newer technology enables timely booking and scheduling of cases. Improved inter-departmental coordination and compliance with preanesthetic instructions needs to be ensured. It is essential that the anesthesiologists perform their work promptly, well in time . and supervise the proceedings as the OR manager. This audit is a step forward in defining the need of effective OR planning for continuous quality improvement.
Tunable Optical True-Time Delay Devices Would Exploit EIT
Kulikov, Igor; DiDomenico, Leo; Lee, Hwang
2004-01-01
Tunable optical true-time delay devices that would exploit electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been proposed. Relative to prior true-time delay devices (for example, devices based on ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials) and electronically controlled phase shifters, the proposed devices would offer much greater bandwidths. In a typical envisioned application, an optical pulse would be modulated with an ultra-wideband radio-frequency (RF) signal that would convey the information that one seeks to communicate, and it would be required to couple differently delayed replicas of the RF signal to the radiating elements of a phased-array antenna. One or more of the proposed devices would be used to impose the delays and/or generate the delayed replicas of the RF-modulated optical pulse. The beam radiated or received by the antenna would be steered by use of a microprocessor-based control system that would adjust operational parameters of the devices to tune the delays to the required values. EIT is a nonlinear quantum optical interference effect that enables the propagation of light through an initially opaque medium. A suitable medium must have, among other properties, three quantum states (see Figure 1): an excited state (state 3), an upper ground state (state 2), and a lower ground state (state 1). These three states must form a closed system that exhibits no decays to other states in the presence of either or both of two laser beams: (1) a probe beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 1; and (2) a coupling beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 2. The probe beam is the one that is pulsed and modulated with an RF signal.
Strong-field Breit–Wheeler pair production in two consecutive laser pulses with variable time delay
Martin J.A. Jansen
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Photoproduction of electron–positron pairs by the strong-field Breit–Wheeler process in an intense laser field is studied. The laser field is assumed to consist of two consecutive short pulses, with a variable time delay in between. By numerical calculations within the framework of scalar quantum electrodynamics, we demonstrate that the time delay exerts a strong impact on the pair-creation probability. For the case when both pulses are identical, the effect is traced back to the relative quantum phase of the interfering S-matrix amplitudes and explained within a simplified analytical model. Conversely, when the two laser pulses differ from each other, the pair-creation probability depends not only on the time delay but, in general, also on the temporal order of the pulses.
Adaptive Control for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots Considering Time Delay and Uncertainty
Armah, Stephen Kofi
Autonomous control of mobile robots has attracted considerable attention of researchers in the areas of robotics and autonomous systems during the past decades. One of the goals in the field of mobile robotics is development of platforms that robustly operate in given, partially unknown, or unpredictable environments and offer desired services to humans. Autonomous mobile robots need to be equipped with effective, robust and/or adaptive, navigation control systems. In spite of enormous reported work on autonomous navigation control systems for mobile robots, achieving the goal above is still an open problem. Robustness and reliability of the controlled system can always be improved. The fundamental issues affecting the stability of the control systems include the undesired nonlinear effects introduced by actuator saturation, time delay in the controlled system, and uncertainty in the model. This research work develops robustly stabilizing control systems by investigating and addressing such nonlinear effects through analytical, simulations, and experiments. The control systems are designed to meet specified transient and steady-state specifications. The systems used for this research are ground (Dr Robot X80SV) and aerial (Parrot AR.Drone 2.0) mobile robots. Firstly, an effective autonomous navigation control system is developed for X80SV using logic control by combining 'go-to-goal', 'avoid-obstacle', and 'follow-wall' controllers. A MATLAB robot simulator is developed to implement this control algorithm and experiments are conducted in a typical office environment. The next stage of the research develops an autonomous position (x, y, and z) and attitude (roll, pitch, and yaw) controllers for a quadrotor, and PD-feedback control is used to achieve stabilization. The quadrotor's nonlinear dynamics and kinematics are implemented using MATLAB S-function to generate the state output. Secondly, the white-box and black-box approaches are used to obtain a linearized
Time-delay-induced phase-transition to synchrony in coupled bursting neurons
Adhikari, Bhim Mani; Prasad, Awadhesh; Dhamala, Mukeshwar
2011-06-01
Signal transmission time delays in a network of nonlinear oscillators are known to be responsible for a variety of interesting dynamic behaviors including phase-flip transitions leading to synchrony or out of synchrony. Here, we uncover that phase-flip transitions are general phenomena and can occur in a network of coupled bursting neurons with a variety of coupling types. The transitions are marked by nonlinear changes in both temporal and phase-space characteristics of the coupled system. We demonstrate these phase-transitions with Hindmarsh-Rose and Leech-Heart interneuron models and discuss the implications of these results in understanding collective dynamics of bursting neurons in the brain.
Yajun Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the robust H∞ filter design problem for a class of uncertain neutral stochastic systems with Markovian jumping parameters and time delay. Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii theory and generalized Finsler Lemma, a delay-dependent stability condition is proposed to ensure not only that the filter error system is robustly stochastically stable but also that a prescribed H∞ performance level is satisfied for all admissible uncertainties. All obtained results are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities which can be easily solved by MATLAB LMI toolbox. Numerical examples are given to show that the results obtained are both less conservative and less complicated in computation.
Cluster synchronization of community network with distributed time delays via impulsive control
Leng Hui; Wu Zhao-Yan
2016-01-01
Cluster synchronization is an important dynamical behavior in community networks and deserves further investigations. A community network with distributed time delays is investigated in this paper. For achieving cluster synchronization, an impulsive control scheme is introduced to design proper controllers and an adaptive strategy is adopted to make the impulsive controllers unified for different networks. Through taking advantage of the linear matrix inequality technique and constructing Lyapunov functions, some synchronization criteria with respect to the impulsive gains, instants, and system parameters without adaptive strategy are obtained and generalized to the adaptive case. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (paper)
OSCILLATION OF A SECOND-ORDER HALF-LINEAR NEUTRAL DAMPED DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH TIME-DELAY
无
2012-01-01
In this paper,the oscillation for a class of second-order half-linear neutral damped differential equation with time-delay is studied.By means of Yang-inequality,the generalized Riccati transformation and a certain function,some new sufficient conditions for the oscillation are given for all solutions to the equation.
Frank, T.D.; Friedrich, R.; Beek, P.J.
2005-01-01
A data driven characterization of time-delayed stochastic systems is proposed in terms of linear delay differential equations and two drift parameters. It is shown how these parameters determine the states of such systems with respect to generalized phase diagrams. This approach allows for a comparison of systems with different parameters as exemplified for two motor control tasks: tracking and force production
Bilateral teleoperation control to improve transparency in stiff environment with time delay
M. Azadegan
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new bilateral control scheme to ensure both transparency and robust stability under unknown constant time delay in stiff environment. Furthermore, this method guaranties suitable performance and robust stability when transition occurs between soft and stiff environments. This framework is composed of an adaptive sliding mode controller and an adaptive impedance controller, where online estimation of the environment impedance is performed, and then used as the desired impedance at the master side. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the theoretical results under different conditions, such as constant and time-varying delay, obstructed environment and transitioning between soft and stiff environment. Afterwards, comparison with a recent work is addressed.
Exponentially asymptotical synchronization in uncertain complex dynamical networks with time delay
Luo Qun; Yang Han; Li Lixiang; Yang Yixian [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Han Jiangxue, E-mail: luoqun@bupt.edu.c [National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)
2010-12-10
Over the past decade, complex dynamical network synchronization has attracted more and more attention and important developments have been made. In this paper, we explore the scheme of globally exponentially asymptotical synchronization in complex dynamical networks with time delay. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and through defining the error function between adjacent nodes, four novel adaptive controllers are designed under four situations where the Lipschitz constants of the state function in nodes are known or unknown and the network structure is certain or uncertain, respectively. These controllers could not only globally asymptotically synchronize all nodes in networks, but also ensure that the error functions do not exceed the pre-scheduled exponential function. Finally, simulations of the synchronization among the chaotic system in the small-world and scale-free network structures are presented, which prove the effectiveness and feasibility of our controllers.
Face to phase: pitfalls in time delay estimation from coherency phase
Campfens, S.F.; van der Kooij, Herman; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan
2014-01-01
Coherency phase is often interpreted as a time delay reflecting a transmission delay between spatially separated neural populations. However, time delays estimated from corticomuscular coherency are conflicting and often shorter than expected physiologically. Recent work suggests that
Effectiveness of Closure of Public Places with Time Delay in Disease Control
Wang Zhenggang
2008-06-01
Full Text Available A theoretical basis for the evaluation of the effciency of quarantine measure is developed in a SIR model with time delay. In this model, the effectiveness of the closure of public places such as schools in disease control, modeled as a high degree node in a social network, is evaluated by considering the effect of the time delay in the identification of the infected. In the context of the SIR model, the relation between the number of infectious individuals who are identified with time delay and then quarantined and those who are not identified and continue spreading the virus are investigated numerically. The social network for the simulation is modeled by a scale free network. Closure measures are applied to those infected nodes with high degrees. The effectiveness of the measure can be controlled by the present value of the critical degree KC: only those nodes with degree higher than KC will be quarantined. The cost CQ incurred for the closure measure is assumed to be proportional to the total links rendered inactive as a result of the measure, and generally decreases with KC, while the medical cost CQ incurred for virus spreading increases with KC. The total social cost (CM + CQ will have a minimum at a critical KC, which depends on the ratio of medical cost coeffcient αM and closure cost coeffcient αQ. Our simulation results demonstrate a mathematical procedure to evaluate the effciency of quarantine measure. Although the numerical work is based on a scale free network, the procedure can be readily generalized and applied to a more realistic social network to determine the proper closure measure in future epidemics.
Effectiveness of closure of public places with time delay in disease control.
Wang, Zhenggang; Szeto, Kwok Yip; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching
2008-08-25
A theoretical basis for the evaluation of the effciency of quarantine measure is developed in a SIR model with time delay. In this model, the effectiveness of the closure of public places such as schools in disease control, modeled as a high degree node in a social network, is evaluated by considering the effect of the time delay in the identification of the infected. In the context of the SIR model, the relation between the number of infectious individuals who are identified with time delay and then quarantined and those who are not identified and continue spreading the virus are investigated numerically. The social network for the simulation is modeled by a scale free network. Closure measures are applied to those infected nodes with high degrees. The effectiveness of the measure can be controlled by the present value of the critical degree K(C): only those nodes with degree higher than K(C) will be quarantined. The cost C(Q) incurred for the closure measure is assumed to be proportional to the total links rendered inactive as a result of the measure, and generally decreases with K(C), while the medical cost C(Q) incurred for virus spreading increases with K(C). The total social cost (C(M) + C(Q)) will have a minimum at a critical K(*), which depends on the ratio of medical cost coeffcient alpha(M) and closure cost coeffcient alpha(Q). Our simulation results demonstrate a mathematical procedure to evaluate the effciency of quarantine measure. Although the numerical work is based on a scale free network, the procedure can be readily generalized and applied to a more realistic social network to determine the proper closure measure in future epidemics.
Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements
Meng, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Kai [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875 (China); Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Marshall, Philip J., E-mail: xlmeng919@gmail.com, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: aagnello@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: liaokai@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: dr.phil.marshall@gmail.com [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2015-09-01
Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ''Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ{sub tot}∝ r{sup −γ'} for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation
Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements
Meng, Xiao -Lei [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Agnello, Adriano [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Liao, Kai [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
2015-09-28
Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ_{tot}∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive
Synthetic LISA: Simulating time delay interferometry in a model LISA
Vallisneri, Michele
2005-01-01
We report on three numerical experiments on the implementation of Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI) for LISA, performed with Synthetic LISA, a C++/Python package that we developed to simulate the LISA science process at the level of scientific and technical requirements. Specifically, we study the laser-noise residuals left by first-generation TDI when the LISA armlengths have a realistic time dependence; we characterize the armlength-measurement accuracies that are needed to have effective laser-noise cancellation in both first- and second-generation TDI; and we estimate the quantization and telemetry bitdepth needed for the phase measurements. Synthetic LISA generates synthetic time series of the LISA fundamental noises, as filtered through all the TDI observables; it also provides a streamlined module to compute the TDI responses to gravitational waves according to a full model of TDI, including the motion of the LISA array and the temporal and directional dependence of the armlengths. We discuss the theoretical model that underlies the simulation, its implementation, and its use in future investigations on system-characterization and data-analysis prototyping for LISA
Probing the cosmic distance duality relation using time delay lenses
Rana, Akshay; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jain, Deepak [Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Sector-3, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Holanda, R.F.L., E-mail: montirana1992@gmail.com, E-mail: djain@ddu.du.ac.in, E-mail: shobhit.mahajan@gmail.com, E-mail: amimukh@gmail.com, E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000, Aracaju—SE (Brazil)
2017-07-01
The construction of the cosmic distance-duality relation (CDDR) has been widely studied. However, its consistency with various new observables remains a topic of interest. We present a new way to constrain the CDDR η( z ) using different dynamic and geometric properties of strong gravitational lenses (SGL) along with SNe Ia observations. We use a sample of 102 SGL with the measurement of corresponding velocity dispersion σ{sub 0} and Einstein radius θ {sub E} . In addition, we also use a dataset of 12 two image lensing systems containing the measure of time delay Δ t between source images. Jointly these two datasets give us the angular diameter distance D {sub A} {sub ol} of the lens. Further, for luminosity distance, we use the 740 observations from JLA compilation of SNe Ia. To study the combined behavior of these datasets we use a model independent method, Gaussian Process (GP). We also check the efficiency of GP by applying it on simulated datasets, which are generated in a phenomenological way by using realistic cosmological error bars. Finally, we conclude that the combined bounds from the SGL and SNe Ia observation do not favor any deviation of CDDR and are in concordance with the standard value (η=1) within 2σ confidence region, which further strengthens the theoretical acceptance of CDDR.
Goodwin accelerator model revisited with fixed time delays
Matsumoto, Akio; Merlone, Ugo; Szidarovszky, Ferenc
2018-05-01
Dynamics of Goodwin's accelerator business cycle model is reconsidered. The model is characterized by a nonlinear accelerator and an investment time delay. The role of the nonlinearity for the birth of persistent oscillations is fully discussed in the existing literature. On the other hand, not much of the role of the delay has yet been revealed. The purpose of this paper is to show that the delay really matters. In the original framework of Goodwin [6], it is first demonstrated that there is a threshold value of the delay: limit cycles arise for smaller values than the threshold and so do sawtooth oscillations for larger values. In the extended framework in which a consumption or saving delay, in addition to the investment delay, is introduced, three main results are demonstrated under assumption of the identical length of investment and consumption delays. The dynamics with consumption delay is basically the same as that of the single delay model. Second, in the case of saving delay, the steady state can coexist with the stable and unstable limit cycles in the stable case. Third, in the unstable case, there is an interval of delay in which the limit cycle or the sawtooth oscillation emerges depending on the choice of the constant initial function.
Zhang Jinhui [Department of Automatic Control, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)], E-mail: jinhuizhang82@gmail.com; Shi Peng [Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd CF37 1DL (United Kingdom); ILSCM, School of Science and Engineering, Victoria University, Melbourne, Vic. 8001 (Australia); School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)], E-mail: pshi@glam.ac.uk; Yang Hongjiu [Department of Automatic Control, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)], E-mail: yanghongjiu@gmail.com
2009-12-15
This paper deals with the problem of non-fragile robust stabilization and H{sub {infinity}} control for a class of uncertain stochastic nonlinear time-delay systems. The parametric uncertainties are real time-varying as well as norm bounded. The time-delay factors are unknown and time-varying with known bounds. The aim is to design a memoryless non-fragile state feedback control law such that the closed-loop system is stochastically asymptotically stable in the mean square and the effect of the disturbance input on the controlled output is less than a prescribed level for all admissible parameter uncertainties. New sufficient conditions for the existence of such controllers are presented based on the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) approach. Numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed techniques.
The effects of orbital motion on LISA time delay interferometry
Cornish, Neil J; Hellings, Ronald W
2003-01-01
In an effort to eliminate laser phase noise in laser interferometer spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, several combinations of signals have been found that allow the laser noise to be cancelled out while gravitational wave signals remain. This process is called time delay interferometry (TDI). In the papers that defined the TDI variables, their performance was evaluated in the limit that the gravitational wave detector is fixed in space. However, the performance depends on certain symmetries in the armlengths that are available if the detector is fixed in space, but that will be broken in the actual rotating and flexing configuration produced by the LISA orbits. In this paper we investigate the performance of these TDI variables for the real LISA orbits. First, addressing the effects of rotation, we verify Daniel Shaddock's result that the Sagnac variables α (t), β (t) and γ (t) will not cancel out the laser phase noise, and we also find the same result for the symmetric Sagnac variable ζ (t). The loss of the latter variable would be particularly unfortunate since this variable also cancels out gravitational wave signal, allowing instrument noise in the detector to be isolated and measured. Fortunately, we have found a set of more complicated TDI variables, which we call Δ Sagnac variables, one of which accomplishes the same goal as ζ (t) to good accuracy. Finally, however, as we investigate the effects of the flexing of the detector arms due to non-circular orbital motion, we show that all variables, including the interferometer variables, X(t), Y(t) and Z(t), which survive the rotation-induced loss of direction symmetry, will not completely cancel laser phase noise when the armlengths are changing with time. This unavoidable problem will place a stringent requirement on laser stability of ∼5 Hz Hz -1/2
Hawking fluxes and anomalies in rotating regular black holes with a time-delay
Takeuchi, Shingo
2016-01-01
Based on the anomaly cancellation method we compute the Hawking fluxes (the Hawking thermal flux and the total flux of energy-momentum tensor) from a four-dimensional rotating regular black hole with a time-delay. To this purpose, in the three metrics proposed in [1], we try to perform the dimensional reduction in which the anomaly cancellation method is feasible at the near-horizon region in a general scalar field theory. As a result we can demonstrate that the dimensional reduction is possible in two of those metrics. Hence we perform the anomaly cancellation method and compute the Hawking fluxes in those two metrics. Our Hawking fluxes involve three effects: (1) quantum gravity effect regularizing the core of the black holes, (2) rotation of the black hole, (3) time-delay. Further in this paper toward the metric in which the dimensional could not be performed, we argue that it would be some problematic metric, and mention its cause. The Hawking fluxes we compute in this study could be considered to correspond to more realistic Hawking fluxes. Further what Hawking fluxes can be obtained from the anomaly cancellation method would be interesting in terms of the relation between a consistency of quantum field theories and black hole thermodynamics. (paper)
Linear-control-based synchronization of coexisting attractor networks with time delays
Yun-Zhong, Song
2010-01-01
This paper introduces the concept of linear-control-based synchronization of coexisting attractor networks with time delays. Within the new framework, closed loop control for each dynamic node is realized through linear state feedback around its own arena in a decentralized way, where the feedback matrix is determined through consideration of the coordination of the node dynamics, the inner connected matrix and the outer connected matrix. Unlike previously existing results, the feedback gain matrix here is decoupled from the inner matrix; this not only guarantees the flexible choice of the gain matrix, but also leaves much space for inner matrix configuration. Synchronization of coexisting attractor networks with time delays is made possible in virtue of local interaction, which works in a distributed way between individual neighbours, and the linear feedback control for each node. Provided that the network is connected and balanced, synchronization will come true naturally, where theoretical proof is given via a Lyapunov function. For completeness, several illustrative examples are presented to further elucidate the novelty and efficacy of the proposed scheme. (general)
Firing patterns transition and desynchronization induced by time delay in neural networks
Huang, Shoufang; Zhang, Jiqian; Wang, Maosheng; Hu, Chin-Kun
2018-06-01
We used the Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) model (Hindmarsh and Rose, 1984) to study the effect of time delay on the transition of firing behaviors and desynchronization in neural networks. As time delay is increased, neural networks exhibit diversity of firing behaviors, including regular spiking or bursting and firing patterns transitions (FPTs). Meanwhile, the desynchronization of firing and unstable bursting with decreasing amplitude in neural system, are also increasingly enhanced with the increase of time delay. Furthermore, we also studied the effect of coupling strength and network randomness on these phenomena. Our results imply that time delays can induce transition and desynchronization of firing behaviors in neural networks. These findings provide new insight into the role of time delay in the firing activities of neural networks, and can help to better understand the firing phenomena in complex systems of neural networks. A possible mechanism in brain that can cause the increase of time delay is discussed.
Shaohua Luo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on an adaptive dynamic surface control based on the Radial Basis Function Neural Network for a fourth-order permanent magnet synchronous motor system wherein the unknown parameters, disturbances, chaos, and uncertain time delays are presented. Neural Network systems are used to approximate the nonlinearities and an adaptive law is employed to estimate accurate parameters. Then, a simple and effective controller has been obtained by introducing dynamic surface control technique on the basis of first-order filters. Asymptotically tracking stability in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness is achieved in a short time. Finally, the performance of the proposed control has been illustrated through simulation results.
Relativistic time delays in the Dirac approach to nucleon-nucleus scattering
Suzuki, T.
1993-01-01
In connection with a characteristic feature of the effective optical potential in the Dirac approach two types of time delays are considered in the relativistic eikonal approximation. One is obtained from the scattering amplitude and the other given by the wave packet motion in the interaction region. These time delays turn out to differ in sign at intermediate energies, in contrast to the agreement between corresponding nonrelativistic time delays. (orig.)
Synchronization of Different Fractional Order Time-Delay Chaotic Systems Using Active Control
Jianeng Tang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Chaos synchronization of different fractional order time-delay chaotic systems is considered. Based on the Laplace transform theory, the conditions for achieving synchronization of different fractional order time-delay chaotic systems are analyzed by use of active control technique. Then numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed method. At last, effects of the fraction order and the time delay on synchronization are further researched.
Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.
1996-01-01
One primary concern for design of safety systems for reactors is the time response of external detectors to changes in the core. This paper describes a way to estimate the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response using Monte Carlo calculations and suggests a technique to measure the time delay. The Monte Carlo code KENO-NR was used to determine the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response for a conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The Monte Carlo estimated time delay was determined to be about 10 ms for this conceptual design of the ANS reactor
The effect of visual-motion time delays on pilot performance in a pursuit tracking task
Miller, G. K., Jr.; Riley, D. R.
1976-01-01
A study has been made to determine the effect of visual-motion time delays on pilot performance of a simulated pursuit tracking task. Three interrelated major effects have been identified: task difficulty, motion cues, and time delays. As task difficulty, as determined by airplane handling qualities or target frequency, increases, the amount of acceptable time delay decreases. However, when relatively complete motion cues are included in the simulation, the pilot can maintain his performance for considerably longer time delays. In addition, the number of degrees of freedom of motion employed is a significant factor.
Stability analysis of fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with time delays.
Wang, Hu; Yu, Yongguang; Wen, Guoguang
2014-07-01
This paper investigates the stability for fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with time delays. Firstly, the fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with hub structure and time delays are studied. Some sufficient conditions for stability of the systems are obtained. Next, two fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with different ring structures and time delays are developed. By studying the developed neural networks, the corresponding sufficient conditions for stability of the systems are also derived. It is shown that the stability conditions are independent of time delays. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results obtained in this paper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Noise-induced coherence in bistable systems with multiple time delays
Jiang Yu; Dong, Shi-Hai; Lozada-Cassou, M.
2004-01-01
We study the correlation properties of noise-driven bistable systems with multiple time-delay feedbacks. For small noisy perturbation and feedback magnitude, we derive the autocorrelation function and the power spectrum based on the two-state model with transition rates depending on the earlier states of the system. A comparison between the single and double time delays reveals that the auto correlation functions exhibit exponential decay with small undulation for the double time delays, in contrast with the remarkable oscillatory behavior at small time lags for the single time delay
Isolation of gravitational waves from displacement noise and utility of a time-delay device
Somiya, Kentaro [Max-Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Goda, Keisuke [LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chen, Yanbei [Max-Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Mikhailov, Eugeniy E [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)
2007-05-15
Interferometers with kilometer-scale arms have been built for gravitational-wave detections on the ground; ones with much longer arms are being planned for space-based detection. One fundamental motivation for long baseline interferometry is from displacement noise. In general, the longer the arm length L, the larger the motion the gravitational-wave induces on the test masses, until L becomes comparable to the gravitational wavelength. Recently, schemes have been invented, in which displacement noise can be evaded by employing differences between the influence of test-mass motions and that of gravitational waves on light propagation. However, in these schemes, such differences only becomes significant when Lapproaches the gravitational wavelength. In this paper, we explore a use of artificial time delay in displacement-noise-free interferometers, which will shift the frequency band of the effect being significant and may improve their shot-noise-limited sensitivity at low frequencies.
Isolation of gravitational waves from displacement noise and utility of a time-delay device
Somiya, Kentaro; Goda, Keisuke; Chen, Yanbei; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E
2007-01-01
Interferometers with kilometer-scale arms have been built for gravitational-wave detections on the ground; ones with much longer arms are being planned for space-based detection. One fundamental motivation for long baseline interferometry is from displacement noise. In general, the longer the arm length L, the larger the motion the gravitational-wave induces on the test masses, until L becomes comparable to the gravitational wavelength. Recently, schemes have been invented, in which displacement noise can be evaded by employing differences between the influence of test-mass motions and that of gravitational waves on light propagation. However, in these schemes, such differences only becomes significant when Lapproaches the gravitational wavelength. In this paper, we explore a use of artificial time delay in displacement-noise-free interferometers, which will shift the frequency band of the effect being significant and may improve their shot-noise-limited sensitivity at low frequencies
Zhou Yu-Rong
2011-01-01
This paper considers the stochastic resonance for a time-delayed mono-stable system, driven by correlated multiplicative and additive white noise. It finds that the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) varies non-monotonically with the delayed times. The SNR varies non-monotonically with the increase of the intensities of the multiplicative and additive noise, with the increase of the correlation strength between the two noises, as well as with the system parameter. (general)
CAN LARGE TIME DELAYS OBSERVED IN LIGHT CURVES OF CORONAL LOOPS BE EXPLAINED IN IMPULSIVE HEATING?
Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran; Alexander, Caroline E.; Winebarger, Amy R.
2016-01-01
The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower temperatures. The delay times between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. The time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values. The maximum time delay in each channel pair can be quite large, i.e., >5000 s. These large time delays make-up 3%–26% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a trustworthy, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that these time delays can be explained by simple impulsive heating, i.e., a short burst of energy that heats the plasma to a high temperature, after which the plasma is allowed to cool through radiation and conduction back to its original state. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in two of the channel pairs and that the majority of the large time delays can only be explained by long, expanding loops with photospheric abundances. Additional observations may rule out these simulations as an explanation for the long time delays. We suggest that either the time delays found in this manner may not be representative of real loop evolution, or that the impulsive heating and cooling scenario may be too simple to explain the observations, and other potential heating scenarios must be explored
A New Method for Calibrating the Time Delay of a Piezoelectric Probe
Hansen, Bengt Hurup
1974-01-01
A simple method for calibrating the time delay of a piezoelectric probe of the type often used in plasma physics is described.......A simple method for calibrating the time delay of a piezoelectric probe of the type often used in plasma physics is described....
A dynamic IS-LM business cycle model with two time delays in capital accumulation equation
Zhou, Lujun; Li, Yaqiong
2009-06-01
In this paper, we analyze a augmented IS-LM business cycle model with the capital accumulation equation that two time delays are considered in investment processes according to Kalecki's idea. Applying stability switch criteria and Hopf bifurcation theory, we prove that time delays cause the equilibrium to lose or gain stability and Hopf bifurcation occurs.
Graphical Evaluation of Time-Delay Compensation Techniques for Digitally Controlled Converters
Lu, Minghui; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2018-01-01
A main design constraint of the digitally controlled power electronics converters is the time delay of control systems, which may lead to the reduced control loop bandwidth and even unstable dynamics. Numerous time-delay compensation methods have been developed, of which the model-free schemes...
Radar time delays in the dynamic theory of gravity
Haranas I.I.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available There is a new theory gravity called the dynamic theory, which is derived from thermodynamic principles in a five dimensional space, radar signals traveling times and delays are calculated for the major planets in the solar system, and compared to those of general relativity. This is done by using the usual four dimensional spherically symmetric space-time element of classical general relativistic gravity which has now been slightly modified by a negative inverse radial exponential term due to the dynamic theory of gravity potential.
Zhang Min-Min; Mei Dong-Cheng; Wang Can-Jun
2011-01-01
The effects of the time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy are investigated in a time-delayed dynamical system driven by correlated noise. Using the Markov approximation of the stochastic delay differential equations and the Schwartz inequality principle, we obtain an analytical expression for the upper bound U B (t) of the time derivative of the information entropy. The results show that there is a critical value of τ (delay time), and U B (t) presents opposite behaviours on difference sides of the critical value. For the case of the weak additive noise, τ can induce a reentrance transition. Delay time τ also causes a reversal behaviour in U B (t)-λ plot, where λ denotes the degree of the correlation between the two noises. (general)
Fundamental and Subharmonic Resonances of Harmonically Oscillation with Time Delay State Feedback
A.F. EL-Bassiouny
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Time delays occur in many physical systems. In particular, when automatic control is used with structural or mechanical systems, there exists a delay between measurement of the system state and corrective action. The concept of an equivalent damping related to the delay feedback is proposed and the appropriate choice of the feedback gains and the time delay is discussed from the viewpoint of vibration control. We investigate the fundamental resonance and subharmonic resonance of order one-half of a harmonically oscillation under state feedback control with a time delay. By using the multiple scale perturbation technique, the first order approximation of the resonances are derived and the effect of time delay on the resonances is investigated. The fixed points correspond to a periodic motion for the starting system and we show the external excitation-response and frequency-response curves. We analyze the effect of time delay and the other different parameters on these oscillations.
Electrical Activity in a Time-Delay Four-Variable Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Induction
Keming Tang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available To investigate the effect of electromagnetic induction on the electrical activity of neuron, the variable for magnetic flow is used to improve Hindmarsh–Rose neuron model. Simultaneously, due to the existence of time-delay when signals are propagated between neurons or even in one neuron, it is important to study the role of time-delay in regulating the electrical activity of the neuron. For this end, a four-variable neuron model is proposed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic induction and time-delay. Simulation results suggest that the proposed neuron model can show multiple modes of electrical activity, which is dependent on the time-delay and external forcing current. It means that suitable discharge mode can be obtained by selecting the time-delay or external forcing current, which could be helpful for further investigation of electromagnetic radiation on biological neuronal system.
New distributions of the statistical time delay of electrical breakdown in nitrogen
Markovic, V Lj; Gocic, S R; Stamenkovic, S N
2006-01-01
Two new distributions of the statistical time delay of electrical breakdown in nitrogen are reported in this paper. The Gaussian and Gauss-exponential distributions of statistical time delay have been obtained on the basis of thousands of time delay measurements on a gas tube with a plane-parallel electrode system. Distributions of the statistical time delay are theoretically founded on binomial distribution for the occurrence of initiating electrons and described by using simple analytical and numerical models. The shapes of distributions depend on the electron yields in the interelectrode space originating from residual states. It is shown that a distribution of the statistical time delay changes from exponential and Gauss-exponential to Gaussian distribution due to the influence of residual ionization
Reduced time delay for gravitational waves with dark matter emulators
Desai, S.; Kahya, E. O.; Woodard, R. P.
2008-01-01
We discuss the implications for gravitational wave detectors of a class of modified gravity theories which dispense with the need for dark matter. These models, which are known as dark matter emulators, have the property that weak gravitational waves couple to the metric that would follow from general relativity without dark matter whereas ordinary particles couple to a combination of the metric and other fields which reproduces the result of general relativity with dark matter. We show that there is an appreciable difference in the Shapiro delays of gravitational waves and photons or neutrinos from the same source, with the gravitational waves always arriving first. We compute the expected time lags for GRB 070201, for SN 1987a and for Sco-X1. We estimate the probable error by taking account of the uncertainty in position, and by using three different dark matter profiles
Time delay effects on large-scale MR damper based semi-active control strategies
Cha, Y-J; Agrawal, A K; Dyke, S J
2013-01-01
This paper presents a detailed investigation on the robustness of large-scale 200 kN MR damper based semi-active control strategies in the presence of time delays in the control system. Although the effects of time delay on stability and performance degradation of an actively controlled system have been investigated extensively by many researchers, degradation in the performance of semi-active systems due to time delay has yet to be investigated. Since semi-active systems are inherently stable, instability problems due to time delay are unlikely to arise. This paper investigates the effects of time delay on the performance of a building with a large-scale MR damper, using numerical simulations of near- and far-field earthquakes. The MR damper is considered to be controlled by four different semi-active control algorithms, namely (i) clipped-optimal control (COC), (ii) decentralized output feedback polynomial control (DOFPC), (iii) Lyapunov control, and (iv) simple-passive control (SPC). It is observed that all controllers except for the COC are significantly robust with respect to time delay. On the other hand, the clipped-optimal controller should be integrated with a compensator to improve the performance in the presence of time delay. (paper)
Dynamics of Time Delay-Induced Multiple Synchronous Behaviors in Inhibitory Coupled Neurons
Gu, Huaguang; Zhao, Zhiguo
2015-01-01
The inhibitory synapse can induce synchronous behaviors different from the anti-phase synchronous behaviors, which have been reported in recent studies. In the present paper, synchronous behaviors are investigated in the motif model composed of reciprocal inhibitory coupled neurons with endogenous bursting and time delay. When coupling strength is weak, synchronous behavior appears at a single interval of time delay within a bursting period. When coupling strength is strong, multiple synchronous behaviors appear at different intervals of time delay within a bursting period. The different bursting patterns of synchronous behaviors, and time delays and coupling strengths that can induce the synchronous bursting patterns can be well interpreted by the dynamics of the endogenous bursting pattern of isolated neuron, which is acquired by the fast-slow dissection method, combined with the inhibitory coupling current. For an isolated neuron, when a negative impulsive current with suitable strength is applied at different phases of the bursting, multiple different bursting patterns can be induced. For a neuron in the motif, the inhibitory coupling current, of which the application time and strength is modulated by time delay and coupling strength, can cause single or multiple synchronous firing patterns like the negative impulsive current when time delay and coupling strength is suitable. The difference compared to the previously reported multiple synchronous behaviors that appear at time delays wider than a period of the endogenous firing is discussed. The results present novel examples of synchronous behaviors in the neuronal network with inhibitory synapses and provide a reasonable explanation. PMID:26394224
The rates and time-delay distribution of multiply imaged supernovae behind lensing clusters
Li, Xue; Hjorth, Jens; Richard, Johan
2012-11-01
Time delays of gravitationally lensed sources can be used to constrain the mass model of a deflector and determine cosmological parameters. We here present an analysis of the time-delay distribution of multiply imaged sources behind 17 strong lensing galaxy clusters with well-calibrated mass models. We find that for time delays less than 1000 days, at z = 3.0, their logarithmic probability distribution functions are well represented by P(log Δt) = 5.3 × 10-4Δttilde beta/M2502tilde beta, with tilde beta = 0.77, where M250 is the projected cluster mass inside 250 kpc (in 1014M⊙), and tilde beta is the power-law slope of the distribution. The resultant probability distribution function enables us to estimate the time-delay distribution in a lensing cluster of known mass. For a cluster with M250 = 2 × 1014M⊙, the fraction of time delays less than 1000 days is approximately 3%. Taking Abell 1689 as an example, its dark halo and brightest galaxies, with central velocity dispersions σ>=500kms-1, mainly produce large time delays, while galaxy-scale mass clumps are responsible for generating smaller time delays. We estimate the probability of observing multiple images of a supernova in the known images of Abell 1689. A two-component model of estimating the supernova rate is applied in this work. For a magnitude threshold of mAB = 26.5, the yearly rate of Type Ia (core-collapse) supernovae with time delays less than 1000 days is 0.004±0.002 (0.029±0.001). If the magnitude threshold is lowered to mAB ~ 27.0, the rate of core-collapse supernovae suitable for time delay observation is 0.044±0.015 per year.
Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process
Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md
2015-01-01
This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process
Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process
Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md
2015-02-01
This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.
Duan, Wei-Long
2013-01-01
The revised role of the time delay of active processes with colored noises of transmission of intracellular Ca 2+ in intracellular calcium oscillation (ICO) is investigated by means of a first-order algorithm based on stochastic simulation. The simulation results indicate that time delay induces a double critical phenomenon and a transition between the monostable and bistable states of the ICO system. In addition, as the time delay increases, for a cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration with weak colored noises there appears a calcium burst, and the Ca 2+ concentration of the calcium store shows nonmonotonic variation. (paper)
Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process
Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)
2015-02-03
This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.
Wigner-Eisenbud-Smith photoionization time delay due to autoioinization resonances
Deshmukh, P. C.; Kumar, A.; Varma, H. R.; Banerjee, S.; Manson, Steven T.; Dolmatov, V. K.; Kheifets, A. S.
2018-03-01
An empirical ansatz for the complex photoionization amplitude and Wigner-Eisenbud-Smith time delay in the vicinity of a Fano autoionization resonance are proposed to evaluate and interpret the time delay in the resonant region. The utility of this expression is evaluated in comparison with accurate numerical calculations employing the ab initio relativistic random phase approximation and relativistic multichannel quantum defect theory. The indisputably good qualitative agreement (and semiquantitative agreement) between corresponding results of the proposed model and results produced by the ab initio theories proves the usability of the model. In addition, the phenomenology of the time delay in the vicinity of multichannel autoionizing resonances is detailed.
Relativistic effects in photoionization time delay near the Cooper minimum of noble-gas atoms
Saha, Soumyajit; Mandal, Ankur; Jose, Jobin; Varma, Hari R.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Kheifets, A. S.; Dolmatov, V. K.; Manson, S. T.
2014-11-01
Time delay of photoemission from valence n s , n p3 /2 , and n p1 /2 subshells of noble-gas atoms is theoretically scrutinized within the framework of the dipole relativistic random phase approximation. The focus is on the variation of time delay in the vicinity of the Cooper minima in photoionization of the outer subshells of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, where the corresponding dipole matrix element changes its sign while passing through a node. It is revealed that the presence of the Cooper minimum in one photoionization channel has a strong effect on time delay in other channels. This is shown to be due to interchannel coupling.
Operation Modes and Control Schemes for Internet-Based Teleoperation System with Time Delay
曾庆军; 宋爱国
2003-01-01
Teleoperation system plays an important role in executing task under hazard environment. As the computer networks such as the Internet are being used as the communication channel of teleoperation system, varying time delay causes the overall system unstable and reduces the performance of transparency. This paper proposed twelve operation modes with different control schemes for teleoperation on the Internet with time delay. And an optimal operation mode with control scheme was specified for teleoperation with time delay, based on the tradeoff between passivity and transparency properties. It experimentally confirmed the validity of the proposed optimal mode and control scheme by using a simple one DOF master-slave manipulator system.
Moving source localization with a single hydrophone using multipath time delays in the deep ocean.
Duan, Rui; Yang, Kunde; Ma, Yuanliang; Yang, Qiulong; Li, Hui
2014-08-01
Localizing a source of radial movement at moderate range using a single hydrophone can be achieved in the reliable acoustic path by tracking the time delays between the direct and surface-reflected arrivals (D-SR time delays). The problem is defined as a joint estimation of the depth, initial range, and speed of the source, which are the state parameters for the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The D-SR time delays extracted from the autocorrelation functions are the measurements for the EKF. Experimental results using pseudorandom signals show that accurate localization results are achieved by offline iteration of the EKF.
Ruoyu Luo
Full Text Available Due to the complexity of biological systems, simulation of biological networks is necessary but sometimes complicated. The classic stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA by Gillespie and its modified versions are widely used to simulate the stochastic dynamics of biochemical reaction systems. However, it has remained a challenge to implement accurate and efficient simulation algorithms for general reaction schemes in growing cells. Here, we present a modeling and simulation tool, called 'GeneCircuits', which is specifically developed to simulate gene-regulation in exponentially growing bacterial cells (such as E. coli with overlapping cell cycles. Our tool integrates three specific features of these cells that are not generally included in SSA tools: 1 the time delay between the regulation and synthesis of proteins that is due to transcription and translation processes; 2 cell cycle-dependent periodic changes of gene dosage; and 3 variations in the propensities of chemical reactions that have time-dependent reaction rates as a consequence of volume expansion and cell division. We give three biologically relevant examples to illustrate the use of our simulation tool in quantitative studies of systems biology and synthetic biology.
Attosecond time delays in the photoionization of noble gas atoms studied in TDLDA
Magrakvelidze, Maia; Chakraborty, Himadri; Madjet, Mohamed
2015-01-01
We perform time-dependent local density functional calculations of the quantum phase and time delays of valence photoionization of noble gas atoms. Results may be accessed by XUV-IR interferometric metrology. (paper)
Super-transient scaling in time-delay autonomous Boolean network motifs
D' Huys, Otti, E-mail: otti.dhuys@phy.duke.edu; Haynes, Nicholas D. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lohmann, Johannes [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Gauthier, Daniel J. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
2016-09-15
Autonomous Boolean networks are commonly used to model the dynamics of gene regulatory networks and allow for the prediction of stable dynamical attractors. However, most models do not account for time delays along the network links and noise, which are crucial features of real biological systems. Concentrating on two paradigmatic motifs, the toggle switch and the repressilator, we develop an experimental testbed that explicitly includes both inter-node time delays and noise using digital logic elements on field-programmable gate arrays. We observe transients that last millions to billions of characteristic time scales and scale exponentially with the amount of time delays between nodes, a phenomenon known as super-transient scaling. We develop a hybrid model that includes time delays along network links and allows for stochastic variation in the delays. Using this model, we explain the observed super-transient scaling of both motifs and recreate the experimentally measured transient distributions.
Attosecond time delay in the valence photoionization of C240 versus C60
Shi, Kele; Magrakvelidze, Maia; Anstine, Dylan; Chakraborty, Himadri; Madjet, Mohamed
2015-01-01
We investigate effects of electron correlations on the attosecond time delay of the photoionization from HOMO and HOMO-1 electrons in C 240 . A comparison with earlier C 60 results assesses the molecular size effect. (paper)
Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay
Choi, Young-Pil; Haskovec, Jan
2017-01-01
We study a Cucker-Smale-type system with time delay in which agents interact with each other through normalized communication weights. We construct a Lyapunov functional for the system and provide sufficient conditions for asymptotic flocking, i
Hydrodynamic Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay
Choi, Young-Pil; Haskovec, Jan
2017-01-01
with time delayed non-local alignment forces. We resort to its Lagrangian formulation and prove the existence of its global in time classical solutions. Moreover, we derive a sufficient condition for the asymptotic flocking behavior of the solutions. Finally
Multiple-parameter bifurcation analysis in a Kuramoto model with time delay and distributed shear
Niu, Ben; Zhang, Jiaming; Wei, Junjie
2018-05-01
In this paper, time delay effect and distributed shear are considered in the Kuramoto model. On the Ott-Antonsen's manifold, through analyzing the associated characteristic equation of the reduced functional differential equation, the stability boundary of the incoherent state is derived in multiple-parameter space. Moreover, very rich dynamical behavior such as stability switches inducing synchronization switches can occur in this equation. With the loss of stability, Hopf bifurcating coherent states arise, and the criticality of Hopf bifurcations is determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. On one hand, theoretical analysis indicates that the width of shear distribution and time delay can both eliminate the synchronization then lead the Kuramoto model to incoherence. On the other, time delay can induce several coexisting coherent states. Finally, some numerical simulations are given to support the obtained results where several bifurcation diagrams are drawn, and the effect of time delay and shear is discussed.
Saïda Bedoui
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of simultaneous identification of linear discrete time delay multivariable systems. This problem involves both the estimation of the time delays and the dynamic parameters matrices. In fact, we suggest a new formulation of this problem allowing defining the time delay and the dynamic parameters in the same estimated vector and building the corresponding observation vector. Then, we use this formulation to propose a new method to identify the time delays and the parameters of these systems using the least square approach. Convergence conditions and statistics properties of the proposed method are also developed. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. An application of the developed approach to compact disc player arm is also suggested in order to validate simulation results.
Identification of fractional-order systems with time delays using block pulse functions
Tang, Yinggan; Li, Ning; Liu, Minmin; Lu, Yao; Wang, Weiwei
2017-07-01
In this paper, a novel method based on block pulse functions is proposed to identify continuous-time fractional-order systems with time delays. First, the operational matrices of block pulse functions for fractional integral operator and time delay operator are derived. Then, these operational matrices are applied to convert the continuous-time fractional-order systems with time delays to an algebraic equation. Finally, the system's parameters along with the differentiation orders and the time delays are all simultaneously estimated through minimizing a quadric error function. The proposed method reduces the computation complexity of the identification process, and also it does not require the system's differentiation orders to be commensurate. The effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by several numerical examples.
Time domain passivity controller for 4-channel time-delay bilateral teleoperation.
Rebelo, Joao; Schiele, Andre
2015-01-01
This paper presents an extension of the time-domain passivity control approach to a four-channel bilateral controller under the effects of time delays. Time-domain passivity control has been used successfully to stabilize teleoperation systems with position-force and position-position controllers; however, the performance with such control architectures is sub-optimal both with and without time delays. This work extends the network representation of the time-domain passivity controller to the four-channel architecture, which provides perfect transparency to the user without time delay. The proposed architecture is based on modelling the controllers as dependent voltage sources and using only series passivity controllers. The obtained results are shown on a one degree-of-freedom setup and illustrate the stabilization behaviour of the proposed controller when time delay is present in the communication channel.
Effects of Noise and Time Delay Upon Active Control of Combustion Instabilities
Zinn, Ben
2001-01-01
To improve the performance of practical active control system (ACS) for unstable combustors, the effects of system noise and ACS time delay upon combustion instabilities and the ACS performance were studied...
Time delay induced different synchronization patterns in repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators
Yao, Chenggui; Yi, Ming; Shuai, Jianwei
2013-09-01
Time delayed coupling plays a crucial role in determining the system's dynamics. We here report that the time delay induces transition from the asynchronous state to the complete synchronization (CS) state in the repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, by changing the coupling strength or time delay, various types of synchronous patterns, including CS, antiphase CS, antiphase synchronization (ANS), and phase synchronization, can be generated. In the transition regions between different synchronous patterns, bistable synchronous oscillators can be observed. Furthermore, we show that the time-delay-induced phase flip bifurcation is of key importance for the emergence of CS. All these findings may light on our understanding of neuronal synchronization and information processing in the brain.
A Robust Longitudinal Control Strategy of Platoons under Model Uncertainties and Time Delays
Na Chen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Automated vehicles are designed to free drivers from driving tasks and are expected to improve traffic safety and efficiency when connected via vehicle-to-vehicle communication, that is, connected automated vehicles (CAVs. The time delays and model uncertainties in vehicle control systems pose challenges for automated driving in real world. Ignoring them may render the performance of cooperative driving systems unsatisfactory or even unstable. This paper aims to design a robust and flexible platooning control strategy for CAVs. A centralized control method is presented, where the leader of a CAV platoon collects information from followers, computes the desired accelerations of all controlled vehicles, and broadcasts the desired accelerations to followers. The robust platooning is formulated as a Min-Max Model Predictive Control (MM-MPC problem, where optimal accelerations are generated to minimize the cost function under the worst case, where the worst case is taken over the possible models. The proposed method is flexible in such a way that it can be applied to both homogeneous platoon and heterogeneous platoon with mixed human-driven and automated controlled vehicles. A third-order linear vehicle model with fixed feedback delay and stochastic actuator lag is used to predict the platoon behavior. Actuator lag is assumed to vary randomly with unknown distributions but a known upper bound. The controller regulates platoon accelerations over a time horizon to minimize a cost function representing driving safety, efficiency, and ride comfort, subject to speed limits, plausible acceleration range, and minimal net spacing. The designed strategy is tested by simulating homogeneous and heterogeneous platoons in a number of typical and extreme scenarios to assess the system stability and performance. The test results demonstrate that the designed control strategy for CAV can ensure the robustness of stability and performance against model uncertainties
Lyapunov matrices approach to the parametric optimization of time-delay systems
Duda Józef
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In the paper a Lyapunov matrices approach to the parametric optimization problem of time-delay systems with a P-controller is presented. The value of integral quadratic performance index of quality is equal to the value of Lyapunov functional for the initial function of the time-delay system. The Lyapunov functional is determined by means of the Lyapunov matrix
Hopf bifurcation of a ratio-dependent predator-prey system with time delay
Celik, Canan
2009-01-01
In this paper, we consider a ratio dependent predator-prey system with time delay where the dynamics is logistic with the carrying capacity proportional to prey population. By considering the time delay as bifurcation parameter, we analyze the stability and the Hopf bifurcation of the system based on the normal form approach and the center manifold theory. Finally, we illustrate our theoretical results by numerical simulations.
Synchronization of time-delayed systems with chaotic modulation and cryptography
Banerjee, Santo
2009-01-01
This paper presents a method of synchronization between two time-delayed systems where the delay times are modulated by a common chaotic signal of the driving system. The technique is well applied to two identical autonomous continuous-time-delayed systems with numerical simulations. Finally, a new method of encryption is generated for digital messages. This method is illustrated with two different encryption processes for text as well as picture messages.
Photonic-Enabled RF Canceller with Tunable Time-Delay Taps
2016-12-05
Photonic -Enabled RF Canceller with Tunable Time-Delay Taps Kenneth E. Kolodziej, Sivasubramaniam Yegnanarayanan, Bradley T. Perry MIT Lincoln...canceller design that uses photonics and a vector modulator architecture to provide a high number of canceller taps with tunable time-delays, which allow...microwave photonics , RF cancellation. I. INTRODUCTION In-Band Full-Duplex (IBFD) technologies are being consid- ered for 5th generation (5G) wireless
Yu-Liang, Liu; Jie, Zhu; Xiao-Shu, Luo
2009-01-01
Based on the fluid flow time-delayed model proposed by Misra et al in internet congestion control, one modified time-delayed model is presented, where the influence of the communication delay on the router queue length is investigated in detail. The main advantage of the new model is that its stability domain is larger even without an extra controller. By linear stability analysis and numerical simulation, the effectiveness and feasibility of the novel model in internet congestion control are verified
Liu, Yu-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Luo, Xiao-Shu
2009-09-01
Based on the fluid flow time-delayed model proposed by Misra et al in internet congestion control, one modified time-delayed model is presented, where the influence of the communication delay on the router queue length is investigated in detail. The main advantage of the new model is that its stability domain is larger even without an extra controller. By linear stability analysis and numerical simulation, the effectiveness and feasibility of the novel model in internet congestion control are verified.
Dynamics and control of a financial system with time-delayed feedbacks
Chen, W.-C.
2008-01-01
Complex behaviors in a financial system with time-delayed feedbacks are discussed in this study via numerical modeling. The system shows complex dynamics such as periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic behaviors. Both period doubling and inverse period doubling routes were found in this system. This paper also shows that the attractor merging crisis is a fundamental feature of nonlinear financial systems with time-delayed feedbacks. Control of the deterministic chaos in the financial system can be realized using Pyragas feedbacks
On a new time-delayed feedback control of chaotic systems
Tian Lixin; Xu Jun; Sun Mei; Li Xiuming
2009-01-01
In this paper, using the idea of the successive dislocation feedback method, a new time-delayed feedback control method called the successive dislocation time-delayed feedback control (SDTDFC) is designed. Firstly, the idea of SDTDFC is introduced. Then some analytic sufficient conditions of the chaos control from the SDTDFC approach are derived for stabilization. Finally, some established results are further clarified via a case study of the Lorenz system with the numerical simulations.
Local Stability of AIDS Epidemic Model Through Treatment and Vertical Transmission with Time Delay
Novi W, Cascarilla; Lestari, Dwi
2016-02-01
This study aims to explain stability of the spread of AIDS through treatment and vertical transmission model. Human with HIV need a time to positively suffer AIDS. The existence of a time, human with HIV until positively suffer AIDS can be delayed for a time so that the model acquired is the model with time delay. The model form is a nonlinear differential equation with time delay, SIPTA (susceptible-infected-pre AIDS-treatment-AIDS). Based on SIPTA model analysis results the disease free equilibrium point and the endemic equilibrium point. The disease free equilibrium point with and without time delay are local asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than one. The endemic equilibrium point will be local asymptotically stable if the time delay is less than the critical value of delay, unstable if the time delay is more than the critical value of delay, and bifurcation occurs if the time delay is equal to the critical value of delay.
A Fast Time-Delay Calculation Method in Through-Wall-Radar Detection Scenario
Zhang Qi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In TWR (Through Wall Radar signal processing procedure, time delay estimation is one of the key steps in target localization and high resolution imaging. In time domain imaging procedure such as back projection imaging algorithm, round trip propagation time delay at the path of “transmitter-target-receiver” needs to be calculated for each pixel in imaging region. In typical TWR scenario, transmitter and receiver are at one side and targets at the other side of a wall. Based on two-dimensional searching algorithm or solving two variables equation of four times, traditional time delay calculation algorithms are complex and time consuming, and cannot be used to real-time imaging procedure. In this paper, a new fast time-delay (FTD algorithm is presented. Because of that incident angle at one side equals to refracting angle at the other side, an equation of lateral distance through the wall can be established. By solving this equation, the lateral distance can be obtained and total propagation time delay can be calculated subsequently. Through processing simulation data, the result shows that new algorithm can be applied effectively to real-time time-delay calculation in TWR signal processing.
Identifying The Effective Factors for Cost Overrun and Time Delay in Water Construction Projects
D. Mirzai Matin
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Water construction projects in Iran frequently face problems which cause cost overrun and time delay, the two most common issues in construction projects in general. The objective of this survey is to identify and quantify these problems and thus help in avoiding them. This survey represents a collection of the most significant problems found in the literature, classified into 11 groups according to their source. The questionnaire form used contains 84 questions which were answered by random engineers who work in water construction projects. The Relative Importance Weight (RIW method is used to weight the importance of each one of the 84 problems. The focus of this survey is on overall top ten issues which are: bureaucracy in bidding method, inflation, economical condition of the government, not enough information gathered and surveys done before design, monthly payment difficulties, material cost changes, law changes by the government, financial difficulties, mode of financing and payment for completed work and changes made by the owner. A section for each of these issues provides additional information about them. In the full text of this survey the same weighting method is used to classify the main groups, and the results show that issues related to the groups of government, owner and consultant has the most significant impact. The last part of this survey describes the point of view of the engineers who took part in this survey and the recommendations they made.
Causal inference in nonlinear systems: Granger causality versus time-delayed mutual information
Li, Songting; Xiao, Yanyang; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David
2018-05-01
The Granger causality (GC) analysis has been extensively applied to infer causal interactions in dynamical systems arising from economy and finance, physics, bioinformatics, neuroscience, social science, and many other fields. In the presence of potential nonlinearity in these systems, the validity of the GC analysis in general is questionable. To illustrate this, here we first construct minimal nonlinear systems and show that the GC analysis fails to infer causal relations in these systems—it gives rise to all types of incorrect causal directions. In contrast, we show that the time-delayed mutual information (TDMI) analysis is able to successfully identify the direction of interactions underlying these nonlinear systems. We then apply both methods to neuroscience data collected from experiments and demonstrate that the TDMI analysis but not the GC analysis can identify the direction of interactions among neuronal signals. Our work exemplifies inference hazards in the GC analysis in nonlinear systems and suggests that the TDMI analysis can be an appropriate tool in such a case.
Measurement of time delays in gated radiotherapy for realistic respiratory motions
Chugh, Brige P.; Quirk, Sarah; Conroy, Leigh; Smith, Wendy L.
2014-01-01
Purpose: Gated radiotherapy is used to reduce internal motion margins, escalate target dose, and limit normal tissue dose; however, its temporal accuracy is limited. Beam-on and beam-off time delays can lead to treatment inefficiencies and/or geographic misses; therefore, AAPM Task Group 142 recommends verifying the temporal accuracy of gating systems. Many groups use sinusoidal phantom motion for this, under the tacit assumption that use of sinusoidal motion for determining time delays produces negligible error. The authors test this assumption by measuring gating time delays for several realistic motion shapes with increasing degrees of irregularity. Methods: Time delays were measured on a linear accelerator with a real-time position management system (Varian TrueBeam with RPM system version 1.7.5) for seven motion shapes: regular sinusoidal; regular realistic-shape; large (40%) and small (10%) variations in amplitude; large (40%) variations in period; small (10%) variations in both amplitude and period; and baseline drift (30%). Film streaks of radiation exposure were generated for each motion shape using a programmable motion phantom. Beam-on and beam-off time delays were determined from the difference between the expected and observed streak length. Results: For the system investigated, all sine, regular realistic-shape, and slightly irregular amplitude variation motions had beam-off and beam-on time delays within the AAPM recommended limit of less than 100 ms. In phase-based gating, even small variations in period resulted in some time delays greater than 100 ms. Considerable time delays over 1 s were observed with highly irregular motion. Conclusions: Sinusoidal motion shapes can be considered a reasonable approximation to the more complex and slightly irregular shapes of realistic motion. When using phase-based gating with predictive filters even small variations in period can result in time delays over 100 ms. Clinical use of these systems for patients
Measurement of time delays in gated radiotherapy for realistic respiratory motions
Chugh, Brige P.; Quirk, Sarah; Conroy, Leigh; Smith, Wendy L., E-mail: Wendy.Smith@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)
2014-09-15
Purpose: Gated radiotherapy is used to reduce internal motion margins, escalate target dose, and limit normal tissue dose; however, its temporal accuracy is limited. Beam-on and beam-off time delays can lead to treatment inefficiencies and/or geographic misses; therefore, AAPM Task Group 142 recommends verifying the temporal accuracy of gating systems. Many groups use sinusoidal phantom motion for this, under the tacit assumption that use of sinusoidal motion for determining time delays produces negligible error. The authors test this assumption by measuring gating time delays for several realistic motion shapes with increasing degrees of irregularity. Methods: Time delays were measured on a linear accelerator with a real-time position management system (Varian TrueBeam with RPM system version 1.7.5) for seven motion shapes: regular sinusoidal; regular realistic-shape; large (40%) and small (10%) variations in amplitude; large (40%) variations in period; small (10%) variations in both amplitude and period; and baseline drift (30%). Film streaks of radiation exposure were generated for each motion shape using a programmable motion phantom. Beam-on and beam-off time delays were determined from the difference between the expected and observed streak length. Results: For the system investigated, all sine, regular realistic-shape, and slightly irregular amplitude variation motions had beam-off and beam-on time delays within the AAPM recommended limit of less than 100 ms. In phase-based gating, even small variations in period resulted in some time delays greater than 100 ms. Considerable time delays over 1 s were observed with highly irregular motion. Conclusions: Sinusoidal motion shapes can be considered a reasonable approximation to the more complex and slightly irregular shapes of realistic motion. When using phase-based gating with predictive filters even small variations in period can result in time delays over 100 ms. Clinical use of these systems for patients
Sadalla Talar
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the influence of an open-loop time delay on the stability and tracking performance of a second-order open-loop system and continuoustime fractional-order PI controller. The tuning method of this controller is based on Hermite- Biehler and Pontryagin theorems, and the tracking performance is evaluated on the basis of two integral performance indices, namely IAE and ISE. The paper extends the results and methodology presented in previous work of the authors to analysis of the influence of time delay on the closed-loop system taking its destabilizing properties into account, as well as concerning possible application of the presented results and used models.
Application of Time-Delay Absorber to Suppress Vibration of a Dynamical System to Tuned Excitation.
El-Ganaini, W A A; El-Gohary, H A
2014-08-01
In this work, we present a comprehensive investigation of the time delay absorber effects on the control of a dynamical system represented by a cantilever beam subjected to tuned excitation forces. Cantilever beam is one of the most widely used system in too many engineering applications, such as mechanical and civil engineering. The main aim of this work is to control the vibration of the beam at simultaneous internal and combined resonance condition, as it is the worst resonance case. Control is conducted via time delay absorber to suppress chaotic vibrations. Time delays often appear in many control systems in the state, in the control input, or in the measurements. Time delay commonly exists in various engineering, biological, and economical systems because of the finite speed of the information processing. It is a source of performance degradation and instability. Multiple time scale perturbation method is applied to obtain a first order approximation for the nonlinear differential equations describing the system behavior. The different resonance cases are reported and studied numerically. The stability of the steady-state solution at the selected worst resonance case is investigated applying Runge-Kutta fourth order method and frequency response equations via Matlab 7.0 and Maple11. Time delay absorber is effective, but within a specified range of time delay. It is the critical factor in selecting such absorber. Time delay absorber is better than the ordinary one as from the effectiveness point of view. The effects of the different absorber parameters on the system behavior and stability are studied numerically. A comparison with the available published work showed a close agreement with some previously published work.
Symmetry, Hopf bifurcation, and the emergence of cluster solutions in time delayed neural networks.
Wang, Zhen; Campbell, Sue Ann
2017-11-01
We consider the networks of N identical oscillators with time delayed, global circulant coupling, modeled by a system of delay differential equations with Z N symmetry. We first study the existence of Hopf bifurcations induced by the coupling time delay and then use symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory to determine how these bifurcations lead to different patterns of symmetric cluster oscillations. We apply our results to a case study: a network of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons with diffusive coupling. For this model, we derive the asymptotic stability, global asymptotic stability, absolute instability, and stability switches of the equilibrium point in the plane of coupling time delay (τ) and excitability parameter (a). We investigate the patterns of cluster oscillations induced by the time delay and determine the direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic orbits by employing the multiple timescales method and normal form theory. We find that in the region where stability switching occurs, the dynamics of the system can be switched from the equilibrium point to any symmetric cluster oscillation, and back to equilibrium point as the time delay is increased.
An Epidemic Model of Computer Worms with Time Delay and Variable Infection Rate
Yu Yao
2018-01-01
Full Text Available With rapid development of Internet, network security issues become increasingly serious. Temporary patches have been put on the infectious hosts, which may lose efficacy on occasions. This leads to a time delay when vaccinated hosts change to susceptible hosts. On the other hand, the worm infection is usually a nonlinear process. Considering the actual situation, a variable infection rate is introduced to describe the spread process of worms. According to above aspects, we propose a time-delayed worm propagation model with variable infection rate. Then the existence condition and the stability of the positive equilibrium are derived. Due to the existence of time delay, the worm propagation system may be unstable and out of control. Moreover, the threshold τ0 of Hopf bifurcation is obtained. The worm propagation system is stable if time delay is less than τ0. When time delay is over τ0, the system will be unstable. In addition, numerical experiments have been performed, which can match the conclusions we deduce. The numerical experiments also show that there exists a threshold in the parameter a, which implies that we should choose appropriate infection rate β(t to constrain worm prevalence. Finally, simulation experiments are carried out to prove the validity of our conclusions.
Stability and oscillation of two coupled Duffing equations with time delay state feedback
El-Bassiouny, A F
2006-01-01
This paper presents an analytical study of the simultaneous principal parametric resonances of two coupled Duffing equations with time delay state feedback. The concept of an equivalent damping related to the delay feedback is proposed and the appropriate choice of the feedback gains and the time delay is discussed from the viewpoint of vibration control. The method of multiple scales is used to determine a set of ordinary differential equations governing the modulation of the amplitudes and phases of the two modes. The first order approximation of the resonances are derived and the effect of time delay on the resonances is investigated. The fixed points correspond to a periodic motion for the starting system and we show the frequency-response curves. We analyse the effect of time delay and the other different parameters on these oscillations. The stability of the fixed points is examined by using the variational method. Numerical solutions are carried out and graphical representations of the results are presented and discussed. Increasing in the time delay τ given decreasing and increasing in the regions of definition and stability respectively and the first mode has decreased magnitudes. The multivalued solutions disappear when decreasing the coefficients of cubic nonlinearities of the second mode α 3 and the detuning parameter σ 2 respectively. Both modes shift to the left for increasing linear feedback gain v 1 and the coefficient of parametric excitation f 1 respectively
Symmetry, Hopf bifurcation, and the emergence of cluster solutions in time delayed neural networks
Wang, Zhen; Campbell, Sue Ann
2017-11-01
We consider the networks of N identical oscillators with time delayed, global circulant coupling, modeled by a system of delay differential equations with ZN symmetry. We first study the existence of Hopf bifurcations induced by the coupling time delay and then use symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory to determine how these bifurcations lead to different patterns of symmetric cluster oscillations. We apply our results to a case study: a network of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons with diffusive coupling. For this model, we derive the asymptotic stability, global asymptotic stability, absolute instability, and stability switches of the equilibrium point in the plane of coupling time delay (τ) and excitability parameter (a). We investigate the patterns of cluster oscillations induced by the time delay and determine the direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic orbits by employing the multiple timescales method and normal form theory. We find that in the region where stability switching occurs, the dynamics of the system can be switched from the equilibrium point to any symmetric cluster oscillation, and back to equilibrium point as the time delay is increased.
A Method to Determine Oscillation Emergence Bifurcation in Time-Delayed LTI System with Single Lag
Yu Xiaodan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available One type of bifurcation named oscillation emergence bifurcation (OEB found in time-delayed linear time invariant (abbr. LTI systems is fully studied. The definition of OEB is initially put forward according to the eigenvalue variation. It is revealed that a real eigenvalue splits into a pair of conjugated complex eigenvalues when an OEB occurs, which means the number of the system eigenvalues will increase by one and a new oscillation mode will emerge. Next, a method to determine OEB bifurcation in the time-delayed LTI system with single lag is developed based on Lambert W function. A one-dimensional (1-dim time-delayed system is firstly employed to explain the mechanism of OEB bifurcation. Then, methods to determine the OEB bifurcation in 1-dim, 2-dim, and high-dimension time-delayed LTI systems are derived. Finally, simulation results validate the correctness and effectiveness of the presented method. Since OEB bifurcation occurs with a new oscillation mode emerging, work of this paper is useful to explore the complex phenomena and the stability of time-delayed dynamic systems.
General relativistic modelling of the negative reverberation X-ray time delays in AGN(star)
Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Papadakis, I.E.; Dovčiak, Michal; McHardy, I.M.
2014-01-01
Roč. 439, č. 4 (2014), s. 3931-3950 ISSN 0035-8711 Grant - others:STFC(GB) ST/G003084/1 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion discs * black hole physics * relativistic processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.107, year: 2014
Modelling and tuning for a time-delayed vibration absorber with friction
Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Jian; Ji, Jinchen
2018-06-01
This paper presents an integrated analytical and experimental study to the modelling and tuning of a time-delayed vibration absorber (TDVA) with friction. In system modelling, this paper firstly applies the method of averaging to obtain the frequency response function (FRF), and then uses the derived FRF to evaluate the fitness of different friction models. After the determination of the system model, this paper employs the obtained FRF to evaluate the vibration absorption performance with respect to tunable parameters. A significant feature of the TDVA with friction is that its stability is dependent on the excitation parameters. To ensure the stability of the time-delayed control, this paper defines a sufficient condition for stability estimation. Experimental measurements show that the dynamic response of the TDVA with friction can be accurately predicted and the time-delayed control can be precisely achieved by using the modelling and tuning technique provided in this paper.
Time delay control of power converters: Mixed frame and stationary-frame variants
Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P.C.; Tang, Y.
2008-01-01
In this paper, a mixed-frame and a stationary-frame time delay current controller are proposed for high precision reference tracking and disturbance rejection of power converters. In particular, the controllers use a proportional-resonant regulator in the stationary frame for regulating...... the positive and negative-sequence fundamental currents, which are known to directly influence the flow of active and reactive power in most energy conversion systems. Moreover, for the tracking or compensation of harmonics, the controllers include a time delay control path in either the synchronous...... or stationary frame, whose inherent feedback and feedforward structure can be proven to resemble a bank of resonant filters in either reference frames. Unlike other existing controllers, the proposed time delay controllers function by introducing multiple resonant peaks at only those harmonic frequencies...
Internet Teleoperation of a Robot with Streaming Buffer System under Varying Time Delays
Park, Jahng-Hyon; Shin, Wanjae
It is known that existence of irregular transmission time delay is a major bottleneck for application of advanced robot control schemes to internet telerobotic systems. In the internet teleoperation system, the irregular transmission time delay causes a critical problem, which includes instability and inaccuracy. This paper suggests a practical internet teleoperation system with streaming buffer system, which consists of a buffer, a buffer manager, and a control timer. The proposed system converts the irregular transmission time delay to a constant. So, the system effectively transmits the control input to a remote site to operate a robot stably and accurately. This feature enables short control input intervals. That means the entire system has a large control bandwidth. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by experiments of teleoperation from USC (University of Southern California in U. S.A.) to HYU (Hanyang Univ. in Korea) through the Internet. The proposed method is also demonstrated by experiments of teleoperation through the wireless internet.
Dynamics of the congestion control model in underwater wireless sensor networks with time delay
Dong, Tao; Hu, Wenjie; Liao, Xiaofeng
2016-01-01
In this paper, a congestion control model in underwater wireless sensor network with time delay is considered. First, the boundedness of the positive equilibrium, where the samples density is positive for each node and the different event flows coexist, is investigated, which implies that the samples density of sensor node cannot exceed the Environmental carrying capacity. Then, by considering the time delay can be regarded as a bifurcating parameter, the dynamical behaviors, which include local stability and Hopf bifurcation, are investigated. It is found that when the communication time delay passes a critical value, the system loses its stability and a Hopf bifurcation occurs, which means the underwater wireless sensor network will be congested, even collapsed. Furthermore, the direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are derived by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Finally, some numerical examples are finally performed to verify the theoretical results.
Security-enhanced chaos communication with time-delay signature suppression and phase encryption.
Xue, Chenpeng; Jiang, Ning; Lv, Yunxin; Wang, Chao; Li, Guilan; Lin, Shuqing; Qiu, Kun
2016-08-15
A security-enhanced chaos communication scheme with time delay signature (TDS) suppression and phase-encrypted feedback light is proposed, in virtue of dual-loop feedback with independent high-speed phase modulation. We numerically investigate the property of TDS suppression in the intensity and phase space and quantitatively discuss security of the proposed system by calculating the bit error rate of eavesdroppers who try to crack the system by directly filtering the detected signal or by using a similar semiconductor laser to synchronize the link signal and extract the data. The results show that TDS embedded in the chaotic carrier can be well suppressed by properly setting the modulation frequency, which can keep the time delay a secret from the eavesdropper. Moreover, because the feedback light is encrypted, without the accurate time delay and key, the eavesdropper cannot reconstruct the symmetric operation conditions and decode the correct data.
Hopf bifurcation analysis of Chen circuit with direct time delay feedback
Hai-Peng, Ren; Wen-Chao, Li; Ding, Liu
2010-01-01
Direct time delay feedback can make non-chaotic Chen circuit chaotic. The chaotic Chen circuit with direct time delay feedback possesses rich and complex dynamical behaviours. To reach a deep and clear understanding of the dynamics of such circuits described by delay differential equations, Hopf bifurcation in the circuit is analysed using the Hopf bifurcation theory and the central manifold theorem in this paper. Bifurcation points and bifurcation directions are derived in detail, which prove to be consistent with the previous bifurcation diagram. Numerical simulations and experimental results are given to verify the theoretical analysis. Hopf bifurcation analysis can explain and predict the periodical orbit (oscillation) in Chen circuit with direct time delay feedback. Bifurcation boundaries are derived using the Hopf bifurcation analysis, which will be helpful for determining the parameters in the stabilisation of the originally chaotic circuit
Jin, Maolin; Chang, Pyung Hun
2009-01-01
This work presents two simple and robust techniques based on time delay estimation for the respective control and synchronization of chaos systems. First, one of these techniques is applied to the control of a chaotic Lorenz system with both matched and mismatched uncertainties. The nonlinearities in the Lorenz system is cancelled by time delay estimation and desired error dynamics is inserted. Second, the other technique is applied to the synchronization of the Lue system and the Lorenz system with uncertainties. The synchronization input consists of three elements that have transparent and clear meanings. Since time delay estimation enables a very effective and efficient cancellation of disturbances and nonlinearities, the techniques turn out to be simple and robust. Numerical simulation results show fast, accurate and robust performance of the proposed techniques, thereby demonstrating their effectiveness for the control and synchronization of Lorenz systems.
Li Jianlong; Zeng Lingzao
2010-01-01
We discuss in detail the effects of the multi-time-delayed feedback driven by an aperiodic signal on the output of a stochastic resonance (SR) system. The effective potential function and dynamical probability density function (PDF) are derived. To measure the performance of the SR system in the presence of a binary random signal, the bit error rate (BER) defined by the dynamical PDF is employed, as is commonly used in digital communications. We find that the delay time, strength of the feedback, and number of time-delayed terms can change the effective potential function and the effective amplitude of the signal, and then affect the BER of the SR system. The numerical simulations strongly support the theoretical results. The goal of this investigation is to explore the effects of the multi-time-delayed feedback on SR and give a guidance to nonlinear systems in the application of information processing.
Attosecond Time Delay in Photoionization of Noble-Gas and Halogen Atoms
Liang-Wen Pi
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Ultrafast processes are now accessible on the attosecond time scale due to the availability of ultrashort XUV laser pulses. Noble-gas and halogen atoms remain important targets due to their giant dipole resonance and Cooper minimum. Here, we calculate photoionization cross section, asymmetry parameter and Wigner time delay using the time-dependent local-density approximation (TDLDA, which includes the electron correlation effects. Our results are consistent with experimental data and other theoretical calculations. The asymmetry parameter provides an extra layer of access to the phase information of the photoionization processes. We find that halogen atoms bear a strong resemblance on cross section, asymmetry parameter and time delay to their noble-gas neighbors. Our predicted time delay should provide a guidance for future experiments on those atoms and related molecules.
Time delay for resonant vibrational excitation in electron--molecule collisions
Gauyacq, J.P.
1990-01-01
An analysis of the time delay associated with vibrational excitation in electron--molecule collision is presented. It consists of a direct study of the time dependence of the process for three model systems. An electron wave packet, that is narrow in time, is sent on the target and the amplitudes in the different inelastic channels are studied as functions of time. The time delay is found to correspond to very different time effects: broadenings, shifts in time of the wave packet, but also complex distortions that cannot be represented by a time delay. The direct analysis of the scattered wave also provides new insights into the vibrational excitation process. It should be a useful tool to analyze complex collision processes
Effects of stochastic time-delayed feedback on a dynamical system modeling a chemical oscillator
González Ochoa, Héctor O.; Perales, Gualberto Solís; Epstein, Irving R.; Femat, Ricardo
2018-05-01
We examine how stochastic time-delayed negative feedback affects the dynamical behavior of a model oscillatory reaction. We apply constant and stochastic time-delayed negative feedbacks to a point Field-Körös-Noyes photosensitive oscillator and compare their effects. Negative feedback is applied in the form of simulated inhibitory electromagnetic radiation with an intensity proportional to the concentration of oxidized light-sensitive catalyst in the oscillator. We first characterize the system under nondelayed inhibitory feedback; then we explore and compare the effects of constant (deterministic) versus stochastic time-delayed feedback. We find that the oscillatory amplitude, frequency, and waveform are essentially preserved when low-dispersion stochastic delayed feedback is used, whereas small but measurable changes appear when a large dispersion is applied.
Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay
Choi, Young-Pil
2017-03-06
We study a Cucker-Smale-type system with time delay in which agents interact with each other through normalized communication weights. We construct a Lyapunov functional for the system and provide sufficient conditions for asymptotic flocking, i.e., convergence to a common velocity vector. We also carry out a rigorous limit passage to the mean-field limit of the particle system as the number of particles tends to infinity. For the resulting Vlasov-type equation we prove the existence, stability and large-time behavior of measure-valued solutions. This is, to our best knowledge, the first such result for a Vlasov-type equation with time delay. We also present numerical simulations of the discrete system with few particles that provide further insights into the flocking and oscillatory behaviors of the particle velocities depending on the size of the time delay.
Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo
2014-07-01
Reservoir computing is a recently introduced machine learning paradigm that has already shown excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We study a particular kind of reservoir computers called time-delay reservoirs that are constructed out of the sampling of the solution of a time-delay differential equation and show their good performance in the forecasting of the conditional covariances associated to multivariate discrete-time nonlinear stochastic processes of VEC-GARCH type as well as in the prediction of factual daily market realized volatilities computed with intraday quotes, using as training input daily log-return series of moderate size. We tackle some problems associated to the lack of task-universality for individually operating reservoirs and propose a solution based on the use of parallel arrays of time-delay reservoirs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stability and Hopf Bifurcation of a Reaction-Diffusion Neutral Neuron System with Time Delay
Dong, Tao; Xia, Linmao
2017-12-01
In this paper, a type of reaction-diffusion neutral neuron system with time delay under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions is considered. By constructing a basis of phase space based on the eigenvectors of the corresponding Laplace operator, the characteristic equation of this system is obtained. Then, by selecting time delay and self-feedback strength as the bifurcating parameters respectively, the dynamic behaviors including local stability and Hopf bifurcation near the zero equilibrium point are investigated when the time delay and self-feedback strength vary. Furthermore, the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions are obtained by using the normal form and the center manifold theorem for the corresponding partial differential equation. Finally, two simulation examples are given to verify the theory.
Time-delay effects and simplified control fields in quantum Lyapunov control
Yi, X X; Wu, S L; Wu, Chunfeng; Feng, X L; Oh, C H
2011-01-01
Lyapunov-based quantum control has the advantage that it is free from the measurement-induced decoherence and it includes the instantaneous information of the system in the control. The Lyapunov control is often confronted with time delay in the control fields and difficulty in practical implementations of the control. In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the Lyapunov control and explore the possibility of replacing the control field with a pulse train or a bang-bang signal. The efficiency of the Lyapunov control is also presented through examining the convergence time of the system. These results suggest that the Lyapunov control is robust against time delay, easy to realize and effective for high-dimensional quantum systems.
Robust H∞ Control of Neutral System with Time-Delay for Dynamic Positioning Ships
Dawei Zhao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the input time-delay existing in most thrust systems of the ships, the robust H∞ controller is designed for the ship dynamic positioning (DP system with time-delay. The input delay system is turned to a neutral time-delay system by a state-derivative control law. The less conservative result is derived for the neutral system with state-derivative feedback by the delay-decomposition approach and linear matrix inequality (LMI. Finally, the numerical simulations demonstrate the asymptotic stability and robustness of the controller and verify that the designed DP controller is effective in the varying environment disturbances of wind, waves, and ocean currents.
Effects of computing time delay on real-time control systems
Shin, Kang G.; Cui, Xianzhong
1988-01-01
The reliability of a real-time digital control system depends not only on the reliability of the hardware and software used, but also on the speed in executing control algorithms. The latter is due to the negative effects of computing time delay on control system performance. For a given sampling interval, the effects of computing time delay are classified into the delay problem and the loss problem. Analysis of these two problems is presented as a means of evaluating real-time control systems. As an example, both the self-tuning predicted (STP) control and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control are applied to the problem of tracking robot trajectories, and their respective effects of computing time delay on control performance are comparatively evaluated. For this example, the STP (PID) controller is shown to outperform the PID (STP) controller in coping with the delay (loss) problem.
Omer, Muhammad
2012-07-01
This paper presents a new method of time delay estimation (TDE) using low sample rates of an impulsive acoustic source in a room environment. The proposed method finds the time delay from the room impulse response (RIR) which makes it robust against room reverberations. The RIR is considered a sparse phenomenon and a recently proposed sparse signal reconstruction technique called orthogonal clustering (OC) is utilized for its estimation from the low rate sampled received signal. The arrival time of the direct path signal at a pair of microphones is identified from the estimated RIR and their difference yields the desired time delay. Low sampling rates reduce the hardware and computational complexity and decrease the communication between the microphones and the centralized location. The performance of the proposed technique is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experimental results. © 2012 IEEE.
A note on chaotic synchronization of time-delay secure communication systems
Li Demin; Wang Zidong; Zhou Jie; Fang Jianan; Ni Jinjin
2008-01-01
In a real world, the signals are often transmitted through a hostile environment, and therefore the secure communication system has attracted considerable research interests. In this paper, the observer-based chaotic synchronization problem is studied for a class of time-delay secure communication systems. The system under consideration is subject to delayed state and nonlinear disturbances. The time-delay is allowed to be time-varying, and the nonlinearities are assumed to satisfy global Lipschitz conditions. The problem addressed is the design of a synchronization scheme such that, for the admissible time-delay as well as nonlinear disturbances, the response system can globally synchronize the driving system. An effective algebraic matrix inequality approach is developed to solve the chaotic synchronization problem. A numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed secure communication scheme
Long-time behavior for suspension bridge equations with time delay
Park, Sun-Hye
2018-04-01
In this paper, we consider suspension bridge equations with time delay of the form u_{tt}(x,t) + Δ ^2 u (x,t) + k u^+ (x,t) + a_0 u_t (x,t) + a_1 u_t (x, t- τ ) + f(u(x,t)) = g(x). Many researchers have studied well-posedness, decay rates of energy, and existence of attractors for suspension bridge equations without delay effects. But, as far as we know, there is no work about suspension equations with time delay. In addition, there are not many studies on attractors for other delayed systems. Thus we first provide well-posedness for suspension equations with time delay. And then show the existence of global attractors and the finite dimensionality of the attractors by establishing energy functionals which are related to the norm of the phase space to our problem.
Adaptive logical stochastic resonance in time-delayed synthetic genetic networks
Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Wenbin; Song, Aiguo
2018-04-01
In the paper, the concept of logical stochastic resonance is applied to implement logic operation and latch operation in time-delayed synthetic genetic networks derived from a bacteriophage λ. Clear logic operation and latch operation can be obtained when the network is tuned by modulated periodic force and time-delay. In contrast with the previous synthetic genetic networks based on logical stochastic resonance, the proposed system has two advantages. On one hand, adding modulated periodic force to the background noise can increase the length of the optimal noise plateau of obtaining desired logic response and make the system adapt to varying noise intensity. On the other hand, tuning time-delay can extend the optimal noise plateau to larger range. The result provides possible help for designing new genetic regulatory networks paradigm based on logical stochastic resonance.
Time-delay interferometric ranging for space-borne gravitational-wave detectors
Tinto, Massimo; Vallisneri, Michele; Armstrong, J.W.
2005-01-01
Space-borne interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (mHz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors, the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel times will necessarily be unequal and time varying, and (because of aberration) will have different values on up- and down-links. In such unequal-armlength interferometers, laser-phase noise will be canceled by taking linear combinations of the laser-phase observables measured between pairs of spacecraft, appropriately time shifted by the light propagation times along the corresponding arms. This procedure, known as time-delay interferometry (TDI), requires an accurate knowledge of the light-time delays as functions of time. Here we propose a high-accuracy technique to estimate these time delays, and we study its use in the context of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. We refer to this ranging technique, which relies on the TDI combinations themselves, as time-delay interferometric ranging (TDIR). For every TDI combination, we show that, by minimizing the rms power in that combination (averaged over integration times ∼10 4 s) with respect to the time-delay parameters, we obtain estimates of the time delays accurate enough to cancel laser noise to a level well below the secondary noises. Thus TDIR allows the implementation of TDI without the use of dedicated interspacecraft ranging systems, with a potential simplification of the LISA design. In this paper we define the TDIR procedure formally, and we characterize its expected performance via simulations with the Synthetic LISA software package
Leveraging delay discounting for health: Can time delays influence food choice?
Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Olinger, Tamara; Bogucki, Michael; Janssen, Imke; Avery-Mamer, Elizabeth F; Powell, Lisa M
2018-03-15
Delay discounting, the tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, is theorized to promote consumption of immediately rewarding but unhealthy foods at the expense of long-term weight maintenance and nutritional health. An untested implication of delay discounting models of decision-making is that selectively delaying access to less healthy foods may promote selection of healthier (immediately available) alternatives, even if they may be less desirable. The current study tested this hypothesis by measuring healthy versus regular vending machine snack purchasing before and during the implementation of a 25-s time delay on the delivery of regular snacks. Purchasing was also examined under a $0.25 discount on healthy snacks, a $0.25 tax on regular snacks, and the combination of both pricing interventions with the 25-s time delay. Across 32,019 vending sales from three separate vending locations, the 25-s time delay increased healthy snack purchasing from 40.1% to 42.5%, which was comparable to the impact of a $0.25 discount (43.0%). Combining the delay and the discount had a roughly additive effect (46.0%). However, the strongest effects were seen under the $0.25 tax on regular snacks (53.7%) and the combination of the delay and the tax (50.2%). Intervention effects varied substantially between vending locations. Importantly, time delays did not harm overall vending sales or revenue, which is relevant to the real-world feasibility of this intervention. More investigation is needed to better understand how the impact of time delays on food choice varies across populations, evaluate the effects of time delays on beverage vending choices, and extend this approach to food choices in contexts other than vending machines. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02359916. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Incorporating time-delays in S-System model for reverse engineering genetic networks.
Chowdhury, Ahsan Raja; Chetty, Madhu; Vinh, Nguyen Xuan
2013-06-18
In any gene regulatory network (GRN), the complex interactions occurring amongst transcription factors and target genes can be either instantaneous or time-delayed. However, many existing modeling approaches currently applied for inferring GRNs are unable to represent both these interactions simultaneously. As a result, all these approaches cannot detect important interactions of the other type. S-System model, a differential equation based approach which has been increasingly applied for modeling GRNs, also suffers from this limitation. In fact, all S-System based existing modeling approaches have been designed to capture only instantaneous interactions, and are unable to infer time-delayed interactions. In this paper, we propose a novel Time-Delayed S-System (TDSS) model which uses a set of delay differential equations to represent the system dynamics. The ability to incorporate time-delay parameters in the proposed S-System model enables simultaneous modeling of both instantaneous and time-delayed interactions. Furthermore, the delay parameters are not limited to just positive integer values (corresponding to time stamps in the data), but can also take fractional values. Moreover, we also propose a new criterion for model evaluation exploiting the sparse and scale-free nature of GRNs to effectively narrow down the search space, which not only reduces the computation time significantly but also improves model accuracy. The evaluation criterion systematically adapts the max-min in-degrees and also systematically balances the effect of network accuracy and complexity during optimization. The four well-known performance measures applied to the experimental studies on synthetic networks with various time-delayed regulations clearly demonstrate that the proposed method can capture both instantaneous and delayed interactions correctly with high precision. The experiments carried out on two well-known real-life networks, namely IRMA and SOS DNA repair network in
Wigner time-delay distribution in chaotic cavities and freezing transition.
Texier, Christophe; Majumdar, Satya N
2013-06-21
Using the joint distribution for proper time delays of a chaotic cavity derived by Brouwer, Frahm, and Beenakker [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4737 (1997)], we obtain, in the limit of the large number of channels N, the large deviation function for the distribution of the Wigner time delay (the sum of proper times) by a Coulomb gas method. We show that the existence of a power law tail originates from narrow resonance contributions, related to a (second order) freezing transition in the Coulomb gas.
The Application of Time-Delay Dependent H∞ Control Model in Manufacturing Decision Optimization
Haifeng Guo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper uses a time-delay dependent H∞ control model to analyze the effect of manufacturing decisions on the process of transmission from resources to capability. We establish a theoretical framework of manufacturing management process based on three terms: resource, manufacturing decision, and capability. Then we build a time-delay H∞ robust control model to analyze the robustness of manufacturing management. With the state feedback controller between manufacturing resources and decision, we find that there is an optimal decision to adjust the process of transmission from resources to capability under uncertain environment. Finally, we provide an example to prove the robustness of this model.
Small-Signal Analysis of the Microgrid Secondary Control Considering a Communication Time Delay
Coelho, Ernane Antônio Alves; Wu, Dan; Guerrero, Josep M.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a small-signal analysis of an islanded microgrid composed of two or more voltage-source inverters connected in parallel. The primary control of each inverter is integrated through an internal current and voltage loops using proportional resonant compensators, a virtual impedance......, and an external power controller based on frequency and voltage droops. The frequency restoration function is implemented at the secondary control level, which executes a consensus algorithm that consists of a load-frequency control and a single time delay communication network. The consensus network consists...... the behavior of the system considering control parameters and time delay variation....
On control of Hopf bifurcation in time-delayed neural network system
Zhou Shangbo; Liao Xiaofeng; Yu Juebang; Wong Kwokwo
2005-01-01
The control of Hopf bifurcations in neural network systems is studied in this Letter. The asymptotic stability theorem and the relevant corollary for linearized nonlinear dynamical systems are proven. In particular, a novel method for analyzing the local stability of a dynamical system with time-delay is suggested. For the time-delayed system consisting of one or two neurons, a washout filter based control model is proposed and analyzed. By employing the stability theorems derived, we investigate the stability of a control system and state the relevant theorems for choosing the parameters of the stabilized control system
Hydrodynamic Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay
Choi, Young-Pil
2017-07-17
We study a hydrodynamic Cucker-Smale-type model with time delay in communication and information processing, in which agents interact with each other through normalized communication weights. The model consists of a pressureless Euler system with time delayed non-local alignment forces. We resort to its Lagrangian formulation and prove the existence of its global in time classical solutions. Moreover, we derive a sufficient condition for the asymptotic flocking behavior of the solutions. Finally, we show the presence of a critical phenomenon for the Eulerian system posed in the spatially one-dimensional setting.
Time delay between singly and doubly ionizing wavepackets in laser-driven helium
Parker, J S; Doherty, B J S; Meharg, K J; Taylor, K T
2003-01-01
We present calculations of the time delay between single and double ionization of helium, obtained from full-dimensionality numerical integrations of the helium-laser Schroedinger equation. The notion of a quantum mechanical time delay is defined in terms of the interval between correlated bursts of single and double ionization. Calculations are performed at 390 and 780 nm in laser intensities that range from 2 x 10 14 to 14 x 10 14 Wcm -2 . We find results consistent with the rescattering model of double ionization but supporting its classical interpretation only at 780 nm. (letter to the editor)
Reconstruction of ensembles of coupled time-delay systems from time series.
Sysoev, I V; Prokhorov, M D; Ponomarenko, V I; Bezruchko, B P
2014-06-01
We propose a method to recover from time series the parameters of coupled time-delay systems and the architecture of couplings between them. The method is based on a reconstruction of model delay-differential equations and estimation of statistical significance of couplings. It can be applied to networks composed of nonidentical nodes with an arbitrary number of unidirectional and bidirectional couplings. We test our method on chaotic and periodic time series produced by model equations of ensembles of diffusively coupled time-delay systems in the presence of noise, and apply it to experimental time series obtained from electronic oscillators with delayed feedback coupled by resistors.
Time delays of supernova neutrinos from new long-range interactions
Malaney, R.A.; Starkman, G.D.; Tremaine, S.
1995-01-01
A new long-range interaction between heavy neutrinos may solve some current problems in large-scale structure, if the new interaction mimics gravity. Assuming that the dark matter is dominated by ∼100 eV τ neutrinos, we investigate whether time delay measurements on supernova neutrinos can test this possibility. We find that such experiments can rule out or detect specific forms of the new interaction potential. In addition, we find the exact dispersive nature of the interacting medium to be critical in determining the time delay: even small corrections to the potential can dramatically alter the magnitude of the effect
A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy.
Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei
2016-01-01
A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.
A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy
Shihe Xu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.
Chaotification of Quasi-zero Stiffness System Via Direct Time-delay Feedback
Shuyong Liu
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a chaotification method based on direct time-delay feedback control for a quasi-zero-stiffness isolation system. An analytical function of time-delay feedback control is derived based on differential-geometry control theory. Furthermore, the feasibility and effectiveness of this method was verified by numerical simulations. Numerical simulations show that this method holds the favorable aspects including the advantage of using tiny control gain, the capability of chaotifying across a large range of parametric domain and the high feasibility of the control implement.
An, Zhe; Rey, Daniel; Ye, Jingxin; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.
2017-01-01
The problem of forecasting the behavior of a complex dynamical system through analysis of observational time-series data becomes difficult when the system expresses chaotic behavior and the measurements are sparse, in both space and/or time. Despite the fact that this situation is quite typical across many fields, including numerical weather prediction, the issue of whether the available observations are "sufficient" for generating successful forecasts is still not well understood. An analysis by Whartenby et al. (2013) found that in the context of the nonlinear shallow water equations on a β plane, standard nudging techniques require observing approximately 70 % of the full set of state variables. Here we examine the same system using a method introduced by Rey et al. (2014a), which generalizes standard nudging methods to utilize time delayed measurements. We show that in certain circumstances, it provides a sizable reduction in the number of observations required to construct accurate estimates and high-quality predictions. In particular, we find that this estimate of 70 % can be reduced to about 33 % using time delays, and even further if Lagrangian drifter locations are also used as measurements.
Approximation of itô integrals arising in stochastic time-delayed systems
Bagchi, Arunabha
1984-01-01
Likelihood functional for stochastic linear time-delayed systems involve Itô integrals with respect to the observed data. Since the Wiener process appearing in the standard observation process model for such systems is not realizable and the physically observed process is smooth, one needs to study
Eliminating oscillations in the Internet by time-delayed feedback control
Liu Chenglin; Tian Yuping
2008-01-01
In this paper, a time-delayed feedback control method is applied to congestion control in order to eliminate oscillations in the Internet. The stability of the proposed control method is demonstrated based on frequency-domain analysis. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using simulation
A new criterion for global robust stability of interval neural networks with discrete time delays
Li Chuandong; Chen Jinyu; Huang Tingwen
2007-01-01
This paper further studies global robust stability of a class of interval neural networks with discrete time delays. By introducing an equivalent transformation of interval matrices, a new criterion on global robust stability is established. In comparison with the results reported in the literature, the proposed approach leads to results with less restrictive conditions. Numerical examples are also worked through to illustrate our results
Quantum astrometric observables I: time delay in classical and quantum gravity
Khavkine, I.
2012-01-01
A class of diffeomorphism invariant, physical observables, so-called astrometric observables, is introduced. A particularly simple example, the time delay, which expresses the difference between two initially synchronized proper time clocks in relative inertial motion, is analyzed in detail. It is
The relaxation time of processes in a FitzHugh-Nagumo neural system with time delay
Gong Ailing; Zeng Chunhua; Wang Hua
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study the relaxation time (RT) of the steady-state correlation function in a FitzHugh-Nagumo neural system under the presence of multiplicative and additive white noises and time delay. The noise correlation parameter λ can produce a critical behavior in the RT as functions of the multiplicative noise intensity D, the additive noise intensity Q and the time delay τ. That is, the RT decreases as the noise intensities D and Q increase, and increases as the time delay τ increases below the critical value of λ. However, above the critical value, the RT first increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases as D, Q and τ increase, i.e. a noise intensity D or Q and a time delay τ exist, at which the time scales of the relaxation process are at their largest. In addition, the additive noise intensity Q can also produce a critical behavior in the RT as a function of λ. The noise correlation parameter λ first increases the RT of processes, then decreases it below the critical value of Q. Above the critical value, λ increases it.
Piloted simulator study of allowable time delays in large-airplane response
Grantham, William D.; Bert T.?aetingas, Stephen A.dings with ran; Bert T.?aetingas, Stephen A.dings with ran
1987-01-01
A piloted simulation was performed to determine the permissible time delay and phase shift in the flight control system of a specific large transport-type airplane. The study was conducted with a six degree of freedom ground-based simulator and a math model similar to an advanced wide-body jet transport. Time delays in discrete and lagged form were incorporated into the longitudinal, lateral, and directional control systems of the airplane. Three experienced pilots flew simulated approaches and landings with random localizer and glide slope offsets during instrument tracking as their principal evaluation task. Results of the present study suggest a level 1 (satisfactory) handling qualities limit for the effective time delay of 0.15 sec in both the pitch and roll axes, as opposed to a 0.10-sec limit of the present specification (MIL-F-8785C) for both axes. Also, the present results suggest a level 2 (acceptable but unsatisfactory) handling qualities limit for an effective time delay of 0.82 sec and 0.57 sec for the pitch and roll axes, respectively, as opposed to 0.20 sec of the present specifications for both axes. In the area of phase shift between cockpit input and control surface deflection,the results of this study, flown in turbulent air, suggest less severe phase shift limitations for the approach and landing task-approximately 50 deg. in pitch and 40 deg. in roll - as opposed to 15 deg. of the present specifications for both axes.
A Robust Longitudinal Control Strategy of Platoons under Model Uncertainties and Time Delays
Chen, N.; Wang, M.; Alkim, Tom; van Arem, B.
2018-01-01
Automated vehicles are designed to free drivers from driving tasks and are expected to improve traffic safety and efficiency when connected via vehicle-to-vehicle communication, that is, connected automated vehicles (CAVs). The time delays and model uncertainties in vehicle control systems pose
Communication key using delay times in time-delayed chaos synchronization
Kim, Chil-Min; Kye, Won-Ho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Soo-Young
2004-01-01
We propose an efficient key scheme, which can generate a great number of communication keys, for communication using chaos synchronization. We have attained the keys from delay times of time-delay coupled chaotic systems. We explain the scheme and the efficiency by coupling Henon and logistic maps and illustrate them by coupling Navier-Stokes and Lorenz equations as a continuous system
Gain scheduling for non-linear time-delay systems using approximated model
Pham, H.T.; Lim, J.T
2012-01-01
The authors investigate a regulation problem of non-linear systems driven by an exogenous signal and time-delay in the input. In order to compensate for the input delay, they propose a reduction transformation containing the past information of the control input. Then, by utilising the Euler
The hyperbolic step potential: Anti-bound states, SUSY partners and Wigner time delays
Gadella, M. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Kuru, Ş. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Negro, J., E-mail: jnegro@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2017-04-15
We study the scattering produced by a one dimensional hyperbolic step potential, which is exactly solvable and shows an unusual interest because of its asymmetric character. The analytic continuation of the scattering matrix in the momentum representation has a branch cut and an infinite number of simple poles on the negative imaginary axis which are related with the so called anti-bound states. This model does not show resonances. Using the wave functions of the anti-bound states, we obtain supersymmetric (SUSY) partners which are the series of Rosen–Morse II potentials. We have computed the Wigner reflection and transmission time delays for the hyperbolic step and such SUSY partners. Our results show that the more bound states a partner Hamiltonian has the smaller is the time delay. We also have evaluated time delays for the hyperbolic step potential in the classical case and have obtained striking similitudes with the quantum case. - Highlights: • The scattering matrix of hyperbolic step potential is studied. • The scattering matrix has a branch cut and an infinite number of poles. • The poles are associated to anti-bound states. • Susy partners using antibound states are computed. • Wigner time delays for the hyperbolic step and partner potentials are compared.
Experimental Evidence of the Knowledge Gap: Message Arousal, Motivation, and Time Delay
Grabe, Maria Elizabeth; Yegiyan, Narine; Kamhawi, Rasha
2008-01-01
This study experimentally tested the knowledge gap from an information processing perspective. Specifically, knowledge acquisition was investigated under conditions of medium and low news message arousal, with time delay. Results show the persistence of a knowledge gap, particularly for low arousing messages. In fact, at low levels of message…
无
2006-01-01
The present paper deals with the long-time behavior of a class of nonautonomous retarded semilinear parabolic differential equations. When the time delays are small enough and the spectral gap conditions hold, the inertial manifolds of the nonautonomous retard parabolic equations are constructed by using the Lyapunov-Perron method.
Dynamic analysis of high-order Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time delay
Chen Zhang; Zhao Donghua; Ruan Jiong
2007-01-01
In this paper, a class of high-order Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time delay is studied. Several sufficient conditions are obtained for global asymptotic stability and global exponential stability using Lyapunov and LMI method. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our method
Hopf bifurcation of a free boundary problem modeling tumor growth with two time delays
Xu Shihe
2009-01-01
In this paper, a free boundary problem modeling tumor growth with two discrete delays is studied. The delays respectively represents the time taken for cells to undergo mitosis and the time taken for the cell to modify the rate of cell loss due to apoptosis. We show the influence of time delays on the Hopf bifurcation when one of delays as a bifurcation parameter.
LMI optimization approach to stabilization of time-delay chaotic systems
Park, Ju H.; Kwon, O.M.
2005-01-01
Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, this paper proposes a novel control method for stabilization of a class of time-delay chaotic systems. A stabilization criterion is derived in terms of LMIs which can be easily solved by efficient convex optimization algorithms. A numerical example is included to show the advantage of the result derived
Absolute stability of nonlinear systems with time delays and applications to neural networks
Xinzhi Liu
2001-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, absolute stability of nonlinear systems with time delays is investigated. Sufficient conditions on absolute stability are derived by using the comparison principle and differential inequalities. These conditions are simple and easy to check. In addition, exponential stability conditions for some special cases of nonlinear delay systems are discussed. Applications of those results to cellular neural networks are presented.
Effect of wave-function localization on the time delay in photoemission from surfaces
Zhang, C.-H.; Thumm, U.
2011-01-01
We investigate streaking time delays in the photoemission from a solid model surface as a function of the degree of localization of the initial-state wave functions. We consider a one-dimensional slab with lattice constant a latt of attractive Gaussian-shaped core potentials of width σ. The parameter σ/a latt thus controls the overlap between adjacent core potentials and localization of the electronic eigenfunctions on the lattice points. Small values of σ/a latt latt > or approx 0.4. By numerically solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, we calculate photoemission spectra from which we deduce a characteristic bimodal shape of the band-averaged photoemission time delay: as the slab eigenfunctions become increasingly delocalized, the time delay quickly decreases near σ/a latt =0.3 from relatively large values below σ/a latt ∼0.2 to much smaller delays above σ/a latt ∼0.4. This change in wave-function localization facilitates the interpretation of a recently measured apparent relative time delay between the photoemission from core and conduction-band levels of a tungsten surface.
A unified approach for impulsive lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time delay
Li Chuandong; Liao Xiaofeng; Zhang Rong
2005-01-01
In this paper, we propose a unified approach for impulsive lag-synchronization of a class of chaotic systems with time delay by employing the stability theory of impulsive delayed differential equations. Three well-known delayed chaotic systems are presented to illustrate our results. Also, the estimates of the stable regions for these systems are given, respectively
Inverse chaos synchronization in linearly and nonlinearly coupled systems with multiple time-delays
Shahverdiev, E.M.; Hashimov, R.H.; Nuriev, R.A.; Hashimova, L.H.; Huseynova, E.M.; Shore, K.A.
2005-04-01
We report on inverse chaos synchronization between two unidirectionally linearly and nonlinearly coupled chaotic systems with multiple time-delays and find the existence and stability conditions for different synchronization regimes. We also study the effect of parameter mismatches on synchonization regimes. The method is tested on the famous Ikeda model. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach. (author)
Sun Wen; Chen Shihua; Hong Zhiming; Wang Changping
2007-01-01
A two-species periodic competition Lotka-Volterra system with time delay and diffusion is investigated. Some sufficient conditions of the existence of positive periodic solution are established for the system by using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory
Eliminating oscillations in the Internet by time-delayed feedback control
Liu Chenglin [Department of Automatic Control, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Tian Yuping [Department of Automatic Control, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)], E-mail: yptian@seu.edu.cn
2008-03-15
In this paper, a time-delayed feedback control method is applied to congestion control in order to eliminate oscillations in the Internet. The stability of the proposed control method is demonstrated based on frequency-domain analysis. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using simulation.
Effect of Magnetic Activity on Ionospheric Time Delay at Low Latitude
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of magnetic activity on ionospheric time delay at low latitude Station Bhopal (geom. lat. 23.2°N, geom. long. 77.6°E) using ... Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462 026, India. National Institute of Technical, ...
The Impact of a Time Delay on the Depleted Proportion of the Viral ...
Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... While the impact of the variability of the reproductive rate of the infected cell on the viral load of the virions is an on-going research activity, the inclusion of a time delay which mimics the African culture of diverse health inhibiting belief system is a new numerical ...
The effects of resonances on time delay estimation for water leak detection in plastic pipes
Almeida, Fabrício C. L.; Brennan, Michael J.; Joseph, Phillip F.; Gao, Yan; Paschoalini, Amarildo T.
2018-04-01
In the use of acoustic correlation methods for water leak detection, sensors are placed at pipe access points either side of a suspected leak, and the peak in the cross-correlation function of the measured signals gives the time difference (delay) between the arrival times of the leak noise at the sensors. Combining this information with the speed at which the leak noise propagates along the pipe, gives an estimate for the location of the leak with respect to one of the measurement positions. It is possible for the structural dynamics of the pipe system to corrupt the time delay estimate, which results in the leak being incorrectly located. In this paper, data from test-rigs in the United Kingdom and Canada are used to demonstrate this phenomenon, and analytical models of resonators are coupled with a pipe model to replicate the experimental results. The model is then used to investigate which of the two commonly used correlation algorithms, the Basic Cross-Correlation (BCC) function or the Phase Transform (PHAT), is more robust to the undesirable structural dynamics of the pipe system. It is found that time delay estimation is highly sensitive to the frequency bandwidth over which the analysis is conducted. Moreover, it is found that the PHAT is particularly sensitive to the presence of resonances and can give an incorrect time delay estimate, whereas the BCC function is found to be much more robust, giving a consistently accurate time delay estimate for a range of dynamic conditions.
Using a Constant Time Delay Procedure to Teach Foundational Swimming Skills to Children with Autism
Rogers, Laura; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Wolery, Mark
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a constant time delay procedure to teach foundational swimming skills to three children with autism. The skills included flutter kick, front-crawl arm strokes, and head turns to the side. A multiple-probe design across behaviors and replicated across participants was used.…
Huang, Rui; Jin, Chunhua; Mei, Ming; Yin, Jingxue
2018-01-01
This paper deals with the existence and stability of traveling wave solutions for a degenerate reaction-diffusion equation with time delay. The degeneracy of spatial diffusion together with the effect of time delay causes us the essential difficulty for the existence of the traveling waves and their stabilities. In order to treat this case, we first show the existence of smooth- and sharp-type traveling wave solutions in the case of c≥c^* for the degenerate reaction-diffusion equation without delay, where c^*>0 is the critical wave speed of smooth traveling waves. Then, as a small perturbation, we obtain the existence of the smooth non-critical traveling waves for the degenerate diffusion equation with small time delay τ >0 . Furthermore, we prove the global existence and uniqueness of C^{α ,β } -solution to the time-delayed degenerate reaction-diffusion equation via compactness analysis. Finally, by the weighted energy method, we prove that the smooth non-critical traveling wave is globally stable in the weighted L^1 -space. The exponential convergence rate is also derived.
Introducing time delay in the evolution of new technology: the case study of nanotechnology
Georgalis, Evangelos E.; Aifantis, Elias C.
2013-12-01
Starting with Feynman's "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" prophetic lecture at Caltech in the 1960s, the term "nanotechnology" was first coined in the scientific literature in the 1980s. This was followed by the unprecedented growth in the corresponding scientific field in 2000 due to the financial incentive provided by President Clinton in the US, followed up by similar efforts in Europe, Japan, China and Russia. Today, nanotechnology has become a driving force for economic development, with applications in all fields of engineering, information technology, transport and energy, as well as biology and medicine. Thus, it is important to forecast its future growth and evolution on the basis of two different criteria: (1) the government and private capital invested in related activities, and (2) the number of scientific publications and popular articles dedicated to this field. This article aims to extract forecasts on the evolution of nanotechnology, using the standard logistic equation that result in familiar sigmoid curves, as well as to explore the effect of time delay on its evolution. Time delay is commonly known from previous biological and ecological models, in which time lag is either already known or can be experimentally measured. In contrast, in the case of a new technology, we must first define the method for determining time delay and then interpret its existence and role. Then we describe the implications that time delay may have on the stability of the sigmoidal behavior of nanotechnology evolution and on the related oscillations that may appear.
Robust stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays
Park, Ju H.
2006-01-01
Based on the Lyapunov Krasovskii functionals combined with linear matrix inequality approach, a novel stability criterion is proposed for asymptotic stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays. A novel delay-dependent stability criterion is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which can be solved easily by various optimization algorithms.
Robust stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays
Park, Ju H.
2006-01-01
Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals combined with linear matrix inequality approach, a novel stability criterion is proposed for asymptotic stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays. A novel delay-dependent stability criterion is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which can be solved easily by various optimization algorithms
An improved condition for master-slave synchronization of Lur'e systems with time delay
Xiang, Ji; Li, Yanjun; Wei, Wei
2007-01-01
In this Letter, a new sufficient condition is proposed for master-slave synchronization of Lur'e system with time delay. This condition is constructed on the new integral inequality method such that the obtained result is much sharper than that in [M.E.Y. Yalcin, J.A.K. Suykens, J. Vandewalle, Int. J. Bifur. Chaos 11 (2001) 1707
Using convolutional decoding to improve time delay and phase estimation in digital communications
Ormesher, Richard C [Albuquerque, NM; Mason, John J [Albuquerque, NM
2010-01-26
The time delay and/or phase of a communication signal received by a digital communication receiver can be estimated based on a convolutional decoding operation that the communication receiver performs on the received communication signal. If the original transmitted communication signal has been spread according to a spreading operation, a corresponding despreading operation can be integrated into the convolutional decoding operation.
Chaotification of vibration isolation floating raft system via nonlinear time-delay feedback control
Zhang Jing; Xu Daolin; Zhou Jiaxi; Li Yingli
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A chaotification method based on nonlinear time-delay feedback control is present. ► An analytical function of nonlinear time-delay feedback control is derived. ► A large range of parametric domain for chaotification is obtained. ► The approach allows using small control gain. ► Design of chaotification becomes a standard process without uncertainty. - Abstract: This paper presents a chaotification method based on nonlinear time-delay feedback control for a two-dimensional vibration isolation floating raft system (VIFRS). An analytical function of nonlinear time-delay feedback control is derived. This approach can theoretically provide a systematic design of chaotification for nonlinear VIFRS and completely avoid blind and inefficient numerical search on the basis of trials and errors. Numerical simulations show that with a proper setting of control parameters the method holds the favorable aspects including the capability of chaotifying across a large range of parametric domain, the advantage of using small control and the flexibility of designing control feedback forms. The effects on chaotification performance are discussed in association with the configuration of the control parameters.
Huang, Rui; Jin, Chunhua; Mei, Ming; Yin, Jingxue
2018-06-01
This paper deals with the existence and stability of traveling wave solutions for a degenerate reaction-diffusion equation with time delay. The degeneracy of spatial diffusion together with the effect of time delay causes us the essential difficulty for the existence of the traveling waves and their stabilities. In order to treat this case, we first show the existence of smooth- and sharp-type traveling wave solutions in the case of c≥c^* for the degenerate reaction-diffusion equation without delay, where c^*>0 is the critical wave speed of smooth traveling waves. Then, as a small perturbation, we obtain the existence of the smooth non-critical traveling waves for the degenerate diffusion equation with small time delay τ >0. Furthermore, we prove the global existence and uniqueness of C^{α ,β }-solution to the time-delayed degenerate reaction-diffusion equation via compactness analysis. Finally, by the weighted energy method, we prove that the smooth non-critical traveling wave is globally stable in the weighted L^1-space. The exponential convergence rate is also derived.
The time delay of patients presenting with symptoms of TB at TC ...
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in South Africa. The early detection and treatment of TB cases are essential. The impression of senior staff working at the TC Newman Community Health Centre (TCN), Paarl was that there often is an unnecessary time delay between the presentation of TB symptoms and the ...
Pandey, Saurabh; Majhi, Somanath; Ghorai, Prasenjit
2017-07-01
In this paper, the conventional relay feedback test has been modified for modelling and identification of a class of real-time dynamical systems in terms of linear transfer function models with time-delay. An ideal relay and unknown systems are connected through a negative feedback loop to bring the sustained oscillatory output around the non-zero setpoint. Thereafter, the obtained limit cycle information is substituted in the derived mathematical equations for accurate identification of unknown plants in terms of overdamped, underdamped, critically damped second-order plus dead time and stable first-order plus dead time transfer function models. Typical examples from the literature are included for the validation of the proposed identification scheme through computer simulations. Subsequently, the comparisons between estimated model and true system are drawn through integral absolute error criterion and frequency response plots. Finally, the obtained output responses through simulations are verified experimentally on real-time liquid level control system using Yokogawa Distributed Control System CENTUM CS3000 set up.
Two time-delay dynamic model on the transmission of malicious signals in wireless sensor network
Keshri, Neha; Mishra, Bimal Kumar
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Role of time delay to reduce the adversary effect in WSN is explored. • Model with two time delays is proposed to analyse spread of malicious signal in WSN. • Dynamical behaviour of worm-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is shown. • Threshold condition for switch of stability are obtained analytically. • Relation between stability and the two time delays is also explored. - Abstract: Deployed in a hostile environment, motes of a Wireless sensor network (WSN) could be easily compromised by the attackers because of several constraints such as limited processing capabilities, memory space, and limited battery life time etc. While transmitting the data to their neighbour motes within the network, motes are easily compromised due to resource constraints. Here time delay can play an efficient role to reduce the adversary effect on motes. In this paper, we propose an epidemic model SEIR (Susceptible–Exposed–Infectious–Recovered) with two time delays to describe the transmission dynamics of malicious signals in wireless sensor network. The first delay accounts for an exposed (latent) period while the second delay is for the temporary immunity period due to multiple worm outbreaks. The dynamical behaviour of worm-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is shown from the point of stability which switches under some threshold condition specified by the basic reproduction number. Our results show that the global properties of equilibria also depends on the threshold condition and that latent and temporary immunity period in a mote does not affect the stability, but they play a positive role to control malicious attack. Moreover, numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical analysis
Lens Model and Time Delay Predictions for the Sextuply Lensed Quasar SDSS J2222+2745*
Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Dahle, Hakon; Florian, Michael K.; Gladders, Michael D.; Johnson, Traci L.; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Rigby, Jane R.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Wuyts, Eva
2017-01-01
SDSS J2222+2745 is a galaxy cluster at z = 0.49, strongly lensing a quasar at z = 2.805 into six widely separated images. In recent Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the field, we identify additional multiply lensed galaxies and confirm the sixth quasar image that was identified by Dahle et al. We used the Gemini-North telescope to measure a spectroscopic redshift of z = 4.56 of one of the lensed galaxies. These data are used to refine the lens model of SDSS J2222+2745, compute the time delay and magnifications of the lensed quasar images, and reconstruct the source image of the quasar host and a lensed galaxy at z = 2.3. This galaxy also appears in absorption in our Gemini spectra of the lensed quasar, at a projected distance of 34 kpc. Our model is in agreement with the recent time delay measurements of Dahle et al., who found T(sub AB) = 47.7 +/- 6.0 days and T(sub AC) = 722 +/- 24 days. We use the observed time delays to further constrain the model, and find that the model-predicted time delays of the three faint images of the quasar are T(sub AD) = 502+/- 68 days, T( sub AE) = 611 +/- 75 days, and T(sub AF) = 415 +/- 72 days. We have initiated a follow-up campaign to measure these time delays with Gemini North. Finally, we present initial results from an X-ray monitoring program with Swift, indicating the presence of hard X-ray emission from the lensed quasar, as well as extended X-ray emission from the cluster itself, which is consistent with the lensing mass measurement and the cluster velocity dispersion.
LENS MODEL AND TIME DELAY PREDICTIONS FOR THE SEXTUPLY LENSED QUASAR SDSS J2222+2745
Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Traci L.; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bayliss, Matthew B. [Colby College, 5800 Mayflower Hill, Waterville, 04901, Maine (United States); Dahle, Håkon [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Florian, Michael K.; Gladders, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Whitaker, Katherine E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Wuyts, Eva, E-mail: kerens@umich.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)
2017-01-20
SDSS J2222+2745 is a galaxy cluster at z = 0.49, strongly lensing a quasar at z = 2.805 into six widely separated images. In recent Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the field, we identify additional multiply lensed galaxies and confirm the sixth quasar image that was identified by Dahle et al. We used the Gemini-North telescope to measure a spectroscopic redshift of z = 4.56 of one of the lensed galaxies. These data are used to refine the lens model of SDSS J2222+2745, compute the time delay and magnifications of the lensed quasar images, and reconstruct the source image of the quasar host and a lensed galaxy at z = 2.3. This galaxy also appears in absorption in our Gemini spectra of the lensed quasar, at a projected distance of 34 kpc. Our model is in agreement with the recent time delay measurements of Dahle et al., who found τ {sub AB} = 47.7 ± 6.0 days and τ {sub AC} = −722 ± 24 days. We use the observed time delays to further constrain the model, and find that the model-predicted time delays of the three faint images of the quasar are τ {sub AD} = 502 ± 68 days, τ {sub AE} = 611 ± 75 days, and τ {sub AF} = 415 ± 72 days. We have initiated a follow-up campaign to measure these time delays with Gemini North. Finally, we present initial results from an X-ray monitoring program with Swift , indicating the presence of hard X-ray emission from the lensed quasar, as well as extended X-ray emission from the cluster itself, which is consistent with the lensing mass measurement and the cluster velocity dispersion.
Microcontroller based system for electrical breakdown time delay measurement in gas-filled devices.
Pejović, Milić M; Denić, Dragan B; Pejović, Momčilo M; Nešić, Nikola T; Vasović, Nikola
2010-10-01
This paper presents realization of a digital embedded system for measuring electrical breakdown time delay. The proposed system consists of three major parts: dc voltage supply, analog subsystem, and a digital subsystem. Any dc power source with the range from 100 to 1000 V can be used in this application. The analog subsystem should provide fast and accurate voltage switching on the testing device as well as transform the signals that represent the voltage pulse on the device and the device breakdown into the form suitable for detection by a digital subsystem. The insulated gate bipolar transistor IRG4PH40KD driven by TC429 MOSFET driver is used for high voltage switching on the device. The aim of a digital subsystem is to detect the signals from the analog subsystem and to measure the elapsed time between their occurrences. Moreover, the digital subsystem controls various parameters that influence time delay and provides fast data storage for a large number of measured data. For this propose, we used the PIC18F4550 microcontroller with a full-speed compatible universal serial bus (USB) engine. Operation of this system is verified on different commercial and custom made gas devices with different structure and breakdown mechanisms. The electrical breakdown time delay measurements have been carried out as a function of several parameters, which dominantly influence electrical breakdown time delay. The obtained results have been verified using statistical methods, and they show good agreement with the theory. The proposed system shows good repeatability, sensitivity, and stability for measuring the electrical breakdown time delay.
Microcontroller based system for electrical breakdown time delay measurement in gas-filled devices
Pejovic, Milic M.; Denic, Dragan B.; Pejovic, Momcilo M.; Nesic, Nikola T.; Vasovic, Nikola [Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Nis, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Nis (Serbia)
2010-10-15
This paper presents realization of a digital embedded system for measuring electrical breakdown time delay. The proposed system consists of three major parts: dc voltage supply, analog subsystem, and a digital subsystem. Any dc power source with the range from 100 to 1000 V can be used in this application. The analog subsystem should provide fast and accurate voltage switching on the testing device as well as transform the signals that represent the voltage pulse on the device and the device breakdown into the form suitable for detection by a digital subsystem. The insulated gate bipolar transistor IRG4PH40KD driven by TC429 MOSFET driver is used for high voltage switching on the device. The aim of a digital subsystem is to detect the signals from the analog subsystem and to measure the elapsed time between their occurrences. Moreover, the digital subsystem controls various parameters that influence time delay and provides fast data storage for a large number of measured data. For this propose, we used the PIC18F4550 microcontroller with a full-speed compatible universal serial bus (USB) engine. Operation of this system is verified on different commercial and custom made gas devices with different structure and breakdown mechanisms. The electrical breakdown time delay measurements have been carried out as a function of several parameters, which dominantly influence electrical breakdown time delay. The obtained results have been verified using statistical methods, and they show good agreement with the theory. The proposed system shows good repeatability, sensitivity, and stability for measuring the electrical breakdown time delay.
Microcontroller based system for electrical breakdown time delay measurement in gas-filled devices
Pejovic, Milic M.; Denic, Dragan B.; Pejovic, Momcilo M.; Nesic, Nikola T.; Vasovic, Nikola
2010-01-01
This paper presents realization of a digital embedded system for measuring electrical breakdown time delay. The proposed system consists of three major parts: dc voltage supply, analog subsystem, and a digital subsystem. Any dc power source with the range from 100 to 1000 V can be used in this application. The analog subsystem should provide fast and accurate voltage switching on the testing device as well as transform the signals that represent the voltage pulse on the device and the device breakdown into the form suitable for detection by a digital subsystem. The insulated gate bipolar transistor IRG4PH40KD driven by TC429 MOSFET driver is used for high voltage switching on the device. The aim of a digital subsystem is to detect the signals from the analog subsystem and to measure the elapsed time between their occurrences. Moreover, the digital subsystem controls various parameters that influence time delay and provides fast data storage for a large number of measured data. For this propose, we used the PIC18F4550 microcontroller with a full-speed compatible universal serial bus (USB) engine. Operation of this system is verified on different commercial and custom made gas devices with different structure and breakdown mechanisms. The electrical breakdown time delay measurements have been carried out as a function of several parameters, which dominantly influence electrical breakdown time delay. The obtained results have been verified using statistical methods, and they show good agreement with the theory. The proposed system shows good repeatability, sensitivity, and stability for measuring the electrical breakdown time delay.
Sun, Xiaojuan; Perc, Matjaž; Kurths, Jürgen
2017-05-01
In this paper, we study effects of partial time delays on phase synchronization in Watts-Strogatz small-world neuronal networks. Our focus is on the impact of two parameters, namely the time delay τ and the probability of partial time delay pdelay, whereby the latter determines the probability with which a connection between two neurons is delayed. Our research reveals that partial time delays significantly affect phase synchronization in this system. In particular, partial time delays can either enhance or decrease phase synchronization and induce synchronization transitions with changes in the mean firing rate of neurons, as well as induce switching between synchronized neurons with period-1 firing to synchronized neurons with period-2 firing. Moreover, in comparison to a neuronal network where all connections are delayed, we show that small partial time delay probabilities have especially different influences on phase synchronization of neuronal networks.
Effect of processing time delay on the dose response of Kodak EDR2 film.
Childress, Nathan L; Rosen, Isaac I
2004-08-01
Kodak EDR2 film is a widely used two-dimensional dosimeter for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) measurements. Our clinical use of EDR2 film for IMRT verifications revealed variations and uncertainties in dose response that were larger than expected, given that we perform film calibrations for every experimental measurement. We found that the length of time between film exposure and processing can affect the absolute dose response of EDR2 film by as much as 4%-6%. EDR2 films were exposed to 300 cGy using 6 and 18 MV 10 x 10 cm2 fields and then processed after time delays ranging from 2 min to 24 h. An ion chamber measured the relative dose for these film exposures. The ratio of optical density (OD) to dose stabilized after 3 h. Compared to its stable value, the film response was 4%-6% lower at 2 min and 1% lower at 1 h. The results of the 4 min and 1 h processing time delays were verified with a total of four different EDR2 film batches. The OD/dose response for XV2 films was consistent for time periods of 4 min and 1 h between exposure and processing. To investigate possible interactions of the processing time delay effect with dose, single EDR2 films were irradiated to eight different dose levels between 45 and 330 cGy using smaller 3 x 3 cm2 areas. These films were processed after time delays of 1, 3, and 6 h, using 6 and 18 MV photon qualities. The results at all dose levels were consistent, indicating that there is no change in the processing time delay effect for different doses. The difference in the time delay effect between the 6 and 18 MV measurements was negligible for all experiments. To rule out bias in selecting film regions for OD measurement, we compared the use of a specialized algorithm that systematically determines regions of interest inside the 10 x 10 cm2 exposure areas to manually selected regions of interest. There was a maximum difference of only 0.07% between the manually and automatically selected regions, indicating that the use of
Kordmahalleh, Mina Moradi; Sefidmazgi, Mohammad Gorji; Harrison, Scott H; Homaifar, Abdollah
2017-01-01
The modeling of genetic interactions within a cell is crucial for a basic understanding of physiology and for applied areas such as drug design. Interactions in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) include effects of transcription factors, repressors, small metabolites, and microRNA species. In addition, the effects of regulatory interactions are not always simultaneous, but can occur after a finite time delay, or as a combined outcome of simultaneous and time delayed interactions. Powerful biotechnologies have been rapidly and successfully measuring levels of genetic expression to illuminate different states of biological systems. This has led to an ensuing challenge to improve the identification of specific regulatory mechanisms through regulatory network reconstructions. Solutions to this challenge will ultimately help to spur forward efforts based on the usage of regulatory network reconstructions in systems biology applications. We have developed a hierarchical recurrent neural network (HRNN) that identifies time-delayed gene interactions using time-course data. A customized genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize hierarchical connectivity of regulatory genes and a target gene. The proposed design provides a non-fully connected network with the flexibility of using recurrent connections inside the network. These features and the non-linearity of the HRNN facilitate the process of identifying temporal patterns of a GRN. Our HRNN method was implemented with the Python language. It was first evaluated on simulated data representing linear and nonlinear time-delayed gene-gene interaction models across a range of network sizes and variances of noise. We then further demonstrated the capability of our method in reconstructing GRNs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthetic network for in vivo benchmarking of reverse-engineering and modeling approaches (IRMA). We compared the performance of our method to TD-ARACNE, HCC-CLINDE, TSNI and ebdbNet across different network
Impact of Partial Time Delay on Temporal Dynamics of Watts-Strogatz Small-World Neuronal Networks
Yan, Hao; Sun, Xiaojuan
2017-06-01
In this paper, we mainly discuss effects of partial time delay on temporal dynamics of Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world neuronal networks by controlling two parameters. One is the time delay τ and the other is the probability of partial time delay pdelay. Temporal dynamics of WS small-world neuronal networks are discussed with the aid of temporal coherence and mean firing rate. With the obtained simulation results, it is revealed that for small time delay τ, the probability pdelay could weaken temporal coherence and increase mean firing rate of neuronal networks, which indicates that it could improve neuronal firings of the neuronal networks while destroying firing regularity. For large time delay τ, temporal coherence and mean firing rate do not have great changes with respect to pdelay. Time delay τ always has great influence on both temporal coherence and mean firing rate no matter what is the value of pdelay. Moreover, with the analysis of spike trains and histograms of interspike intervals of neurons inside neuronal networks, it is found that the effects of partial time delays on temporal coherence and mean firing rate could be the result of locking between the period of neuronal firing activities and the value of time delay τ. In brief, partial time delay could have great influence on temporal dynamics of the neuronal networks.
A frequency-domain method for solving linear time delay systems with constant coefficients
Jin, Mengshi; Chen, Wei; Song, Hanwen; Xu, Jian
2018-03-01
In an active control system, time delay will occur due to processes such as signal acquisition and transmission, calculation, and actuation. Time delay systems are usually described by delay differential equations (DDEs). Since it is hard to obtain an analytical solution to a DDE, numerical solution is of necessity. This paper presents a frequency-domain method that uses a truncated transfer function to solve a class of DDEs. The theoretical transfer function is the sum of infinite items expressed in terms of poles and residues. The basic idea is to select the dominant poles and residues to truncate the transfer function, thus ensuring the validity of the solution while improving the efficiency of calculation. Meanwhile, the guideline of selecting these poles and residues is provided. Numerical simulations of both stable and unstable delayed systems are given to verify the proposed method, and the results are presented and analysed in detail.
Bifurcation and synchronization of synaptically coupled FHN models with time delay
Wang Qingyun; Lu Qishao; Chen Guanrong; Feng Zhaosheng; Duan Lixia
2009-01-01
This paper presents an investigation of dynamics of the coupled nonidentical FHN models with synaptic connection, which can exhibit rich bifurcation behavior with variation of the coupling strength. With the time delay being introduced, the coupled neurons may display a transition from the original chaotic motions to periodic ones, which is accompanied by complex bifurcation scenario. At the same time, synchronization of the coupled neurons is studied in terms of their mean frequencies. We also find that the small time delay can induce new period windows with the coupling strength increasing. Moreover, it is found that synchronization of the coupled neurons can be achieved in some parameter ranges and related to their bifurcation transition. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained numerically or analytically from the mathematical model and the parameter regions of different behavior are clarified.
Anticontrol of chaos in continuous-time systems via time-delay feedback.
Wang, Xiao Fan; Chen, Guanrong; Yu, Xinghuo
2000-12-01
In this paper, a systematic design approach based on time-delay feedback is developed for anticontrol of chaos in a continuous-time system. This anticontrol method can drive a finite-dimensional, continuous-time, autonomous system from nonchaotic to chaotic, and can also enhance the existing chaos of an originally chaotic system. Asymptotic analysis is used to establish an approximate relationship between a time-delay differential equation and a discrete map. Anticontrol of chaos is then accomplished based on this relationship and the differential-geometry control theory. Several examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the methodology and to illustrate the systematic design procedure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Xue-Lian Jin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The exponential stability of the monotubular heat exchanger equation with boundary observation possessing a time delay and inner control was investigated. Firstly, the close-loop system was translated into an abstract Cauchy problem in the suitable state space. A uniformly bounded C0-semigroup generated by the close-loop system, which implies that the unique solution of the system exists, was shown. Secondly, the spectrum configuration of the closed-loop system was analyzed and the eventual differentiability and the eventual compactness of the semigroup were shown by the resolvent estimates on some resolvent sets. This implies that the spectrum-determined growth assumption holds. Finally, a sufficient condition, which is related to the physical parameters in the system and is independent of the time delay, of the exponential stability of the closed-loop system was given.
Exponential synchronization of complex networks with nonidentical time-delayed dynamical nodes
Cai Shuiming; He Qinbin; Hao Junjun; Liu Zengrong
2010-01-01
In this Letter, exponential synchronization of a complex network with nonidentical time-delayed dynamical nodes is considered. Two effective control schemes are proposed to drive the network to synchronize globally exponentially onto any smooth goal dynamics. By applying open-loop control to all nodes and adding some intermittent controllers to partial nodes, some simple criteria for exponential synchronization of such network are established. Meanwhile, a pinning scheme deciding which nodes need to be pinned and a simply approximate formula for estimating the least number of pinned nodes are also provided. By introducing impulsive effects to the open-loop controlled network, another synchronization scheme is developed for the network with nonidentical time-delayed dynamical nodes, and an estimate of the upper bound of impulsive intervals ensuring global exponential stability of the synchronization process is also given. Numerical simulations are presented finally to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
An optimal PID controller via LQR for standard second order plus time delay systems.
Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Anuraag; Thakur, S K; Pandit, V S
2016-01-01
An improved tuning methodology of PID controller for standard second order plus time delay systems (SOPTD) is developed using the approach of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and pole placement technique to obtain the desired performance measures. The pole placement method together with LQR is ingeniously used for SOPTD systems where the time delay part is handled in the controller output equation instead of characteristic equation. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been demonstrated via simulation of stable open loop oscillatory, over damped, critical damped and unstable open loop systems. Results show improved closed loop time response over the existing LQR based PI/PID tuning methods with less control effort. The effect of non-dominant pole on the stability and robustness of the controller has also been discussed. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Exponential stability of uncertain stochastic neural networks with mixed time-delays
Wang Zidong; Lauria, Stanislao; Fang Jian'an; Liu Xiaohui
2007-01-01
This paper is concerned with the global exponential stability analysis problem for a class of stochastic neural networks with mixed time-delays and parameter uncertainties. The mixed delays comprise discrete and distributed time-delays, the parameter uncertainties are norm-bounded, and the neural networks are subjected to stochastic disturbances described in terms of a Brownian motion. The purpose of the stability analysis problem is to derive easy-to-test criteria under which the delayed stochastic neural network is globally, robustly, exponentially stable in the mean square for all admissible parameter uncertainties. By resorting to the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory and the stochastic analysis tools, sufficient stability conditions are established by using an efficient linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. The proposed criteria can be checked readily by using recently developed numerical packages, where no tuning of parameters is required. An example is provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed criteria
Direct determination of scattering time delays using the R-matrix propagation method
Walker, R.B.; Hayes, E.F.
1989-01-01
A direct method for determining time delays for scattering processes is developed using the R-matrix propagation method. The procedure involves the simultaneous generation of the global R matrix and its energy derivative. The necessary expressions to obtain the energy derivative of the S matrix are relatively simple and involve many of the same matrix elements required for the R-matrix propagation method. This method is applied to a simple model for a chemical reaction that displays sharp resonance features. The test results of the direct method are shown to be in excellent agreement with the traditional numerical differentiation method for scattering energies near the resonance energy. However, for sharp resonances the numerical differentiation method requires calculation of the S-matrix elements at many closely spaced energies. Since the direct method presented here involves calculations at only a single energy, one is able to generate accurate energy derivatives and time delays much more efficiently and reliably
Reibel, R.R.; Barber, Z.W.; Fischer, J.A.; Tian, M.; Babbitt, W.R.
2004-01-01
Linear sideband chirped (LSC) programming is introduced as a means of configuring spatial-spectral holographic gratings for optical coherent transient processors. Similar to linear frequency chirped programming, LSC programming allows the use of broadband integrated electro-optic phase modulators to produce chirps instead of using elaborate broadband chirped lasers. This approach has several advantages including the ability to use a stabilized laser for the optical carrier as well as stable, reproducible chirped optical signals when the modulator is driven digitally. Using LSC programming, we experimentally demonstrate broadband true-time delay as a proof of principle for the optical control of phased array radars. Here both cw phase modulated and binary phase shift keyed probe signals are true-time delayed with bandwidths of 1 GHz and delay resolutions better than 60 ps
Distance Constrained Based Adaptive Flocking Control for Multiagent Networks with Time Delay
Qing Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The flocking control of multiagent system is a new type of decentralized control method, which has aroused great attention. The paper includes a detailed research in terms of distance constrained based adaptive flocking control for multiagent system with time delay. Firstly, the program on the adaptive flocking with time delay of multiagent is proposed. Secondly, a kind of adaptive controllers and updating laws are presented. According to the Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved that the distance between agents can be larger than a constant during the motion evolution. What is more, velocities of each agent come to the same asymptotically. Finally, the analytical results can be verified by a numerical example.
Wei Jiang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the problem of asymptotic stabilization for a class of discrete-time linear uncertain time-delayed systems with input constraints. Parametric uncertainty is assumed to be structured, and delay is assumed to be known. In Lyapunov stability theory framework, two synthesis schemes of designing nonfragile robust model predictive control (RMPC with time-delay compensation are put forward, where the additive and the multiplicative gain perturbations are, respectively, considered. First, by designing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii (L-K functions, the robust performance index is defined as optimization problems that minimize upper bounds of infinite horizon cost function. Then, to guarantee closed-loop stability, the sufficient conditions for the existence of desired nonfragile RMPC are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
Liu, Hongjian; Wang, Zidong; Shen, Bo; Alsaadi, Fuad E.
2016-07-01
This paper deals with the robust H∞ state estimation problem for a class of memristive recurrent neural networks with stochastic time-delays. The stochastic time-delays under consideration are governed by a Bernoulli-distributed stochastic sequence. The purpose of the addressed problem is to design the robust state estimator such that the dynamics of the estimation error is exponentially stable in the mean square, and the prescribed ? performance constraint is met. By utilizing the difference inclusion theory and choosing a proper Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, the existence condition of the desired estimator is derived. Based on it, the explicit expression of the estimator gain is given in terms of the solution to a linear matrix inequality. Finally, a numerical example is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed estimation approach.
Robustness analysis of uncertain dynamical neural networks with multiple time delays.
Senan, Sibel
2015-10-01
This paper studies the problem of global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for the class of dynamical neural networks with multiple time delays with respect to the class of slope-bounded activation functions and in the presence of the uncertainties of system parameters of the considered neural network model. By using an appropriate Lyapunov functional and exploiting the properties of the homeomorphism mapping theorem, we derive a new sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness and global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for the class of neural networks with multiple time delays. The obtained stability condition basically relies on testing some relationships imposed on the interconnection matrices of the neural system, which can be easily verified by using some certain properties of matrices. An instructive numerical example is also given to illustrate the applicability of our result and show the advantages of this new condition over the previously reported corresponding results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Path Tracking Control of Automatic Parking Cloud Model considering the Influence of Time Delay
Yiding Hua
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper establishes the kinematic model of the automatic parking system and analyzes the kinematic constraints of the vehicle. Furthermore, it solves the problem where the traditional automatic parking system model fails to take into account the time delay. Firstly, based on simulating calculation, the influence of time delay on the dynamic trajectory of a vehicle in the automatic parking system is analyzed under the transverse distance Dlateral between different target spaces. Secondly, on the basis of cloud model, this paper utilizes the tracking control of an intelligent path closer to human intelligent behavior to further study the Cloud Generator-based parking path tracking control method and construct a vehicle path tracking control model. Moreover, tracking and steering control effects of the model are verified through simulation analysis. Finally, the effectiveness and timeliness of automatic parking controller in the aspect of path tracking are tested through a real vehicle experiment.
Recent Progress in Stability and Stabilization of Systems with Time-Delays
Magdi S. Mahmoud
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper overviews the research investigations pertaining to stability and stabilization of control systems with time-delays. The prime focus is the fundamental results and recent progress in theory and applications. The overview sheds light on the contemporary development on the linear matrix inequality (LMI techniques in deriving both delay-independent and delay-dependent stability results for time-delay systems. Particular emphases will be placed on issues concerned with the conservatism and the computational complexity of the results. Key technical bounding lemmas and slack variable introduction approaches will be presented. The results will be compared and connections of certain delay-dependent stability results are also discussed.
Subwavelength grating enabled on-chip ultra-compact optical true time delay line.
Wang, Junjia; Ashrafi, Reza; Adams, Rhys; Glesk, Ivan; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Chen, Lawrence R
2016-07-26
An optical true time delay line (OTTDL) is a basic photonic building block that enables many microwave photonic and optical processing operations. The conventional design for an integrated OTTDL that is based on spatial diversity uses a length-variable waveguide array to create the optical time delays, which can introduce complexities in the integrated circuit design. Here we report the first ever demonstration of an integrated index-variable OTTDL that exploits spatial diversity in an equal length waveguide array. The approach uses subwavelength grating waveguides in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), which enables the realization of OTTDLs having a simple geometry and that occupy a compact chip area. Moreover, compared to conventional wavelength-variable delay lines with a few THz operation bandwidth, our index-variable OTTDL has an extremely broad operation bandwidth practically exceeding several tens of THz, which supports operation for various input optical signals with broad ranges of central wavelength and bandwidth.
Spectrum optimization-based chaotification using time-delay feedback control
Zhou Jiaxi; Xu Daolin; Zhang Jing; Liu Chunrong
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A time-delay feedback controller is designed for chaotification. ► A spectrum optimization method is proposed to determine chaotification parameters. ► Numerical examples verify the spectrum optimization- based chaotification method. ► Engineering application in line spectrum reconfiguration is demonstrated. - Abstract: In this paper, a spectrum optimization method is developed for chaotification in conjunction with an application in line spectrum reconfiguration. A key performance index (the objective function) based on Fourier spectrum is specially devised with the idea of suppressing spectrum spikes and broadening frequency band. Minimization of the index empowered by a genetic algorithm enables to locate favorable parameters of the time-delay feedback controller, by which a line spectrum of harmonic vibration can be transformed into a broad-band continuous spectrum of chaotic motion. Numerical simulations are carried out to verify the feasibility of the method and to demonstrate its effectiveness of chaotifying a 2-DOFs linear mechanical system.
Effects of the time delays in a non linear pendular Fabry-Perot
Tourrenc, P.; Deruelle, N.
1985-01-01
We study a one arm pendular Fabry-Perot interferometer with specifications corresponding to the two arms interferometers designed to detect gravitational radiation. We consider the non linearities originating from the radiation force and the effects of time delays due to the finite length of the arm. We derive the exact and the associated ''predictivised'' equations for the motion of the suspended mirror. We show that effects of time delays increase considerably the stability of the device when the optical relaxation time is of the order of the period of the pendulum, a case of relevance when light is recycled. However the thermal noise does not seem to be much modified when calculated within a simple approximation scheme
Chaos synchronization in time-delayed systems with parameter mismatches and variable delay times
Shahverdiev, E.M.; Nuriev, R.A.; Hashimov, R.H.; Shore, K.A.
2004-06-01
We investigate synchronization between two undirectionally linearly coupled chaotic nonidentical time-delayed systems and show that parameter mismatches are of crucial importance to achieve synchronization. We establish that independent of the relation between the delay time in the coupled systems and the coupling delay time, only retarded synchronization with the coupling delay time is obtained. We show that with parameter mismatch or without it neither complete nor anticipating synchronization occurs. We derive existence and stability conditions for the retarded synchronization manifold. We demonstrate our approach using examples of the Ikeda and Mackey Glass models. Also for the first time we investigate chaos synchronization in time-delayed systems with variable delay time and find both existence and sufficient stability conditions for the retarded synchronization manifold with the coupling-delay lag time. (author)
Shu Chang-Zheng; Nie Lin-Ru; Zhou Zhong-Rao
2012-01-01
Stochastic resonance (SR)-like and resonance suppression (RS)-like phenomena in a time-delayed bistable system driven by additive white noise are investigated by means of stochastic simulations of the power spectrum, the quality factor of the power spectrum, and the mean first-passage time (MFPT) of the system. The calculative results indicate that: (i) as the system is driven by a small periodic signal, the quality factor as a function delay time exhibits a maximal value at smaller noise intensities, i.e., an SR-like phenomenon. With the increment in additive noise intensity, the extremum gradually disappears and the quality factor decreases monotonously with delay time. (ii) As the additive noise intensity is smaller, the curve of the MFPT with respect to delay time displays a peak, i.e., an RS-like phenomenon. At higher levels of noise, however, the non-monotonic behavior is lost. (general)
Hu, Wuhua; Xiao, Gaoxi; Li, Xiumin
2011-04-01
In this paper, an analytical method is proposed for proportional-integral/proportional-derivative/proportional-integral-derivative (PI/PD/PID) controller tuning with specified gain and phase margins (GPMs) for integral plus time delay (IPTD) processes. Explicit formulas are also obtained for estimating the GPMs resulting from given PI/PD/PID controllers. The proposed method indicates a general form of the PID parameters and unifies a large number of existing rules as PI/PD/PID controller tuning with various GPM specifications. The GPMs realized by existing PID tuning rules are computed and documented as a reference for control engineers to tune the PID controllers. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saito, Ryo; Naruko, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Sasaki, Misao
2014-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new approach to a treatment of the gravitational effects (redshift, time delay and lensing) on the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies based on the Boltzmann equation. From the Liouville's theorem in curved spacetime, the intensity of photons is conserved along a photon geodesic when non-gravitational scatterings are absent. Motivated by this fact, we derive a second-order line-of-sight formula by integrating the Boltzmann equation along a perturbed geodesic (curve) instead of a background geodesic (line). In this approach, the separation of the gravitational and intrinsic effects are manifest. This approach can be considered as a generalization of the remapping approach of CMB lensing, where all the gravitational effects can be treated on the same footing
Pulse Compression of Phase-matched High Harmonic Pulses from a Time-Delay Compensated Monochromator
Ito Motohiko
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Pulse compression of single 32.6-eV high harmonic pulses from a time-delay compensated monochromator was demonstrated down to 11±3 fs by compensating the pulse front tilt. The photon flux was intensified up to 5.7×109 photons/s on target by implementing high harmonic generation under a phase matching condition in a hollow fiber used for increasing the interaction length.
Delay-dependent asymptotic stability of a two-neuron system with different time delays
Tu Fenghua; Liao Xiaofeng; Zhang Wei
2006-01-01
In this paper, we consider a two-neuron system with time-delayed connections between neurons. Based on the construction of Lyapunov functionals, we obtain sufficient criteria to ensure local and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium of the neural network. The obtained conditions are shown to be less conservative and restrictive than those reported in the literature. Some examples are included to illustrate our results
Time Delay Measurements for the Cluster-lensed Sextuple Quasar SDSS J2222+2745
Dahle, H.; Gladders, M. D.; Sharon, K.; Bayliss, M. B.; Rigby, J. R.
2015-11-01
We report first results from an ongoing monitoring campaign to measure time delays between the six images of the quasar SDSS J2222+2745, gravitationally lensed by a galaxy cluster. The time delay between A and B, the two most highly magnified images, is measured to be {τ }{{AB}}=47.7+/- 6.0 days (95% confidence interval), consistent with previous model predictions for this lens system. The strong intrinsic variability of the quasar also allows us to derive a time delay value of {τ }{{CA}}=722+/- 24 days between image C and A, in spite of modest overlap between their light curves in the current data set. Image C, which is predicted to lead all the other lensed quasar images, has undergone a sharp, monotonic flux increase of 60%-75% during 2014. A corresponding brightening is firmly predicted to occur in images A and B during 2016. The amplitude of this rise indicates that time delays involving all six known images in this system, including those of the demagnified central images D-F, will be obtainable from further ground-based monitoring of this system during the next few years. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and including observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologi´a e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).
Well-posedness and exponential stability for a wave equation with nonlocal time-delay condition
Carlos Alberto Raposo
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Well-posedness and exponential stability of nonlocal time-delayed of a wave equation with a integral conditions of the 1st kind forms the center of this work. Through semigroup theory we prove the well-posedness by the Hille-Yosida theorem and the exponential stability exploring the dissipative properties of the linear operator associated to damped model using the Gearhart-Huang-Pruss theorem.
Jing Wang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The stabilization problem of a wireless networked control system is considered in this paper. Both time delay and packet loss exist simultaneously in the wireless network. The system is modeled as an asynchronous dynamic system (ADS with unstable subsystems. A sufficient condition for the system to be stable is presented. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Sluse, D.; Tewes, M.
2014-11-01
The advent of large area photometric surveys has raised a great deal of interest in the possibility of using broadband photometric data, instead of spectra, to measure the size of the broad line region of active galactic nuclei. We describe here a new method that uses time-delay lensed quasars where one or several images are affected by microlensing due to stars in the lensing galaxy. Because microlensing decreases (or increases) the flux of the continuum compared to the broad line region, it changes the contrast between these two emission components. We show that this effect can be used to effectively disentangle the intrinsic variability of those two regions, offering the opportunity to perform reverberation mapping based on single-band photometric data. Based on simulated light curves generated using a damped random walk model of quasar variability, we show that measurement of the size of the broad line region can be achieved using this method, provided one spectrum has been obtained independently during the monitoring. This method is complementary to photometric reverberation mapping and could also be extended to multi-band data. Because the effect described above produces a variability pattern in difference light curves between pairs of lensed images that is correlated with the time-lagged continuum variability, it can potentially produce systematic errors in measurement of time delays between pairs of lensed images. Simple simulations indicate that time-delay measurement techniques that use a sufficiently flexible model for the extrinsic variability are not affected by this effect and produce accurate time delays.
Basins of attraction of the bistable region of time-delayed cutting dynamics
Yan, Yao; Xu, Jian; Wiercigroch, Marian
2017-09-01
This paper investigates the effects of bistability in a nonsmooth time-delayed dynamical system, which is often manifested in science and engineering. Previous studies on cutting dynamics have demonstrated persistent coexistence of chatter and chatter-free responses in a bistable region located in the linearly stable zone. As there is no widely accepted definition of basins of attraction for time-delayed systems, bistable regions are coined as unsafe zones (UZs). Hence, we have attempted to define the basins of attraction and stability basins for a typical delayed system to get insight into the bistability in systems with time delays. Special attention was paid to the influences of delayed initial conditions, starting points, and states at time zero on the long-term dynamics of time-delayed systems. By using this concept, it has been confirmed that the chatter is prone to occur when the waviness frequency in the workpiece surface coincides with the effective natural frequency of the cutting process. Further investigations unveil a thin "boundary layer" inside the UZ in the immediate vicinity of the stability boundary, in which we observe an extremely fast growth of the chatter basin stability. The results reveal that the system is more stable when the initial cutting depth is smaller. The physics of the tool deflection at the instant of the tool-workpiece engagement is used to evaluate the cutting safety, and the safe level could be zero when the geometry of tool engagement is unfavorable. Finally, the basins of attraction are used to quench the chatter by a single strike, where the resultant "islands" offer an opportunity to suppress the chatter even when the cutting is very close to the stability boundary.
Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide for true-time delay applications in microwave photonics
Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper
2007-01-01
We have investigated the slowand fast light properties of a semiconductor waveguide device employing concatenated gain and absorber sections. This letter presents the experimental results as well as theoretical modeling. A large phase shift of 110 and a true-time delay of more than 150 ps are dem...... are demonstrated. The combination of amplitude and phase control of the modulated signal shows great promise for applications within microwave photonics....
Improved result on stability analysis of discrete stochastic neural networks with time delay
Wu Zhengguang; Su Hongye; Chu Jian; Zhou Wuneng
2009-01-01
This Letter investigates the problem of exponential stability for discrete stochastic time-delay neural networks. By defining a novel Lyapunov functional, an improved delay-dependent exponential stability criterion is established in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Meanwhile, the computational complexity of the newly established stability condition is reduced because less variables are involved. Numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed method.
A note on Burgers' equation with time delay: Instability via finite-time blow-up
Jordan, P.M.
2008-01-01
Burgers' equation with time delay is considered. Using the Cole-Hopf transformation, the exact solution of this nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) is determined in the context of a (seemingly) well-posed initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) involving homogeneous Dirichlet data. The solution obtained, however, is shown to exhibit a delay-induced instability, suffering blow-up in finite-time
Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations
Udaltsov, Vladimir S.; Goedgebuer, Jean-Pierre; Larger, Laurent; Cuenot, Jean-Baptiste; Levy, Pascal; Rhodes, William T.
2003-01-01
We report that signal encoding with high-dimensional chaos produced by delayed feedback systems with a strong nonlinearity can be broken. We describe the procedure and illustrate the method with chaotic waveforms obtained from a strongly nonlinear optical system that we used previously to demonstrate signal encryption/decryption with chaos in wavelength. The method can be extended to any systems ruled by nonlinear time-delayed differential equations
Observer Design for a Time Delay System via the Razumikhin Approach
Rehák, Branislav
2017-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 6 (2017), s. 2226-2231 ISSN 1561-8625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : observer * time-delay system * input-to-state stability * quantization Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory OBOR OECD: Automation and control systems Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asjc.1507/full
Robust passive control for Internet-based switching systems with time-delay
Guan Zhihong [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhang Hao [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)], E-mail: ehao79@163.com; Yang Shuanghua [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)
2008-04-15
In this paper, based on remote control and local control strategy, a class of hybrid multi-rate control models with time-delay and switching controllers are formulated and the problem of robust passive control for this discrete system is investigated. By Lyapunov-Krasovskii function and applying it to a descriptor model transformation some new sufficient conditions in form of LMIs are derived. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical result.
Basins of attraction of the bistable region of time-delayed cutting dynamics.
Yan, Yao; Xu, Jian; Wiercigroch, Marian
2017-09-01
This paper investigates the effects of bistability in a nonsmooth time-delayed dynamical system, which is often manifested in science and engineering. Previous studies on cutting dynamics have demonstrated persistent coexistence of chatter and chatter-free responses in a bistable region located in the linearly stable zone. As there is no widely accepted definition of basins of attraction for time-delayed systems, bistable regions are coined as unsafe zones (UZs). Hence, we have attempted to define the basins of attraction and stability basins for a typical delayed system to get insight into the bistability in systems with time delays. Special attention was paid to the influences of delayed initial conditions, starting points, and states at time zero on the long-term dynamics of time-delayed systems. By using this concept, it has been confirmed that the chatter is prone to occur when the waviness frequency in the workpiece surface coincides with the effective natural frequency of the cutting process. Further investigations unveil a thin "boundary layer" inside the UZ in the immediate vicinity of the stability boundary, in which we observe an extremely fast growth of the chatter basin stability. The results reveal that the system is more stable when the initial cutting depth is smaller. The physics of the tool deflection at the instant of the tool-workpiece engagement is used to evaluate the cutting safety, and the safe level could be zero when the geometry of tool engagement is unfavorable. Finally, the basins of attraction are used to quench the chatter by a single strike, where the resultant "islands" offer an opportunity to suppress the chatter even when the cutting is very close to the stability boundary.
Arik, Sabri
2006-01-01
This Letter presents a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with distributed time delays. The results impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous non-monotonic neuron activation functions. The results are also compared with the previous results derived in the literature
Senan, Sibel; Arik, Sabri
2007-10-01
This correspondence presents a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness, and global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discrete time delays. The results impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of the neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous nonmonotonic neuron activation functions. Some numerical examples are given to compare our results with the previous robust stability results derived in the literature.
Arik, Sabri
2006-02-01
This Letter presents a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with distributed time delays. The results impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous non-monotonic neuron activation functions. The results are also compared with the previous results derived in the literature.
Xueling Jiang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of adaptive asymptotical synchronization is discussed for the stochastic complex dynamical networks with time-delay and Markovian switching. By applying the stochastic analysis approach and the M-matrix method for stochastic complex networks, several sufficient conditions to ensure adaptive asymptotical synchronization for stochastic complex networks are derived. Through the adaptive feedback control techniques, some suitable parameters update laws are obtained. Simulation result is provided to substantiate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach.
Effect of Time Delay on Recognition Memory for Pictures: The Modulatory Role of Emotion
Wang, Bo
2014-01-01
This study investigated the modulatory role of emotion in the effect of time delay on recognition memory for pictures. Participants viewed neutral, positive and negative pictures, and took a recognition memory test 5 minutes, 24 hours, or 1 week after learning. The findings are: 1) For neutral, positive and negative pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h delay. For neutral and positive pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 1-week delay was lower than in the 24-h delay; for negative pictures, overall recognition in the 24-h and 1-week delay did not significantly differ. Therefore negative emotion modulates the effect of time delay on recognition memory, maintaining retention of overall recognition accuracy only within a certain frame of time. 2) For the three types of pictures, recollection and familiarity in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h and the 1-week delay. Thus emotion does not appear to modulate the effect of time delay on recollection and familiarity. However, recollection in the 24-h delay was higher than in the 1-week delay, whereas familiarity in the 24-h delay was lower than in the 1-week delay. PMID:24971457
Time Delay for the Initiation of an Emergency Shutdown at the Peruvian Nuclear Reactor RP-10
Ramon, A.; Ovalle, E.; Canaza, D.; Salazar, A.; Zapata, A.; Felix, J.; Arrieta, R.; Vela, M.
2008-01-01
In this paper we show the measurement of the time delay for the initiation of an emergency shutdown state at the RP-10 Reactor. This time delay is the one corresponding to the delay between the detection of a signal of any fixed limit and the start of a protective action to get the reactor in a safety state. The experimental method used is based on monitoring two signals in an oscilloscope, one signal is the elected initiate event and the other is the de-energizing of electromagnets of the security bars. The time delay for each safety and control rods, was measured for seven energizing current values in a range of 36 - 52 mA. The results showed that the minimum value is (84 ± 1.26) ms and the maximum is (108 ± 1.60) ms. In all cases it is noted that, the delay time is less than the limit values prefixed down in the reactor safety report. (authors)
Adaptive control of bifurcation and chaos in a time-delayed system
Li Ning; Zhang Qing-Ling; Yuan Hui-Qun; Sun Hai-Yi
2013-01-01
In this paper, the stabilization of a continuous time-delayed system is considered. To control the bifurcation and chaos in a time-delayed system, a parameter perturbation control and a hybrid control are proposed. Then, to ensure the asymptotic stability of the system in the presence of unexpected system parameter changes, the adaptive control idea is introduced, i.e., the perturbation control parameter and the hybrid control parameter are automatically tuned according to the adaptation laws, respectively. The adaptation algorithms are constructed based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theorem. The adaptive parameter perturbation control and the adaptive hybrid control methods improve the corresponding constant control methods. They have the advantages of increased stability, adaptability to the changes of the system parameters, control cost saving, and simplicity. Numerical simulations for a well-known chaotic time-delayed system are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed control methods. A comparison of the two adaptive control methods is also made in an experimental study
Bifurcation Control of an Electrostatically-Actuated MEMS Actuator with Time-Delay Feedback
Lei Li
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The parametric excitation system consisting of a flexible beam and shuttle mass widely exists in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, which can exhibit rich nonlinear dynamic behaviors. This article aims to theoretically investigate the nonlinear jumping phenomena and bifurcation conditions of a class of electrostatically-driven MEMS actuators with a time-delay feedback controller. Considering the comb structure consisting of a flexible beam and shuttle mass, the partial differential governing equation is obtained with both the linear and cubic nonlinear parametric excitation. Then, the method of multiple scales is introduced to obtain a slow flow that is analyzed for stability and bifurcation. Results show that time-delay feedback can improve resonance frequency and stability of the system. What is more, through a detailed mathematical analysis, the discriminant of Hopf bifurcation is theoretically derived, and appropriate time-delay feedback force can make the branch from the Hopf bifurcation point stable under any driving voltage value. Meanwhile, through global bifurcation analysis and saddle node bifurcation analysis, theoretical expressions about the system parameter space and maximum amplitude of monostable vibration are deduced. It is found that the disappearance of the global bifurcation point means the emergence of monostable vibration. Finally, detailed numerical results confirm the analytical prediction.
Stochastic Dynamics of a Time-Delayed Ecosystem Driven by Poisson White Noise Excitation
Wantao Jia
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We investigate the stochastic dynamics of a prey-predator type ecosystem with time delay and the discrete random environmental fluctuations. In this model, the delay effect is represented by a time delay parameter and the effect of the environmental randomness is modeled as Poisson white noise. The stochastic averaging method and the perturbation method are applied to calculate the approximate stationary probability density functions for both predator and prey populations. The influences of system parameters and the Poisson white noises are investigated in detail based on the approximate stationary probability density functions. It is found that, increasing time delay parameter as well as the mean arrival rate and the variance of the amplitude of the Poisson white noise will enhance the fluctuations of the prey and predator population. While the larger value of self-competition parameter will reduce the fluctuation of the system. Furthermore, the results from Monte Carlo simulation are also obtained to show the effectiveness of the results from averaging method.
Franklin, Timothy C; Granata, Kevin P; Madigan, Michael L; Hendricks, Scott L
2008-08-01
Linear stability methods were applied to a biomechanical model of the human musculoskeletal spine to investigate effects of reflex gain and reflex delay on stability. Equations of motion represented a dynamic 18 degrees-of-freedom rigid-body model with time-delayed reflexes. Optimal muscle activation levels were identified by minimizing metabolic power with the constraints of equilibrium and stability with zero reflex time delay. Muscle activation levels and associated muscle forces were used to find the delay margin, i.e., the maximum reflex delay for which the system was stable. Results demonstrated that stiffness due to antagonistic co-contraction necessary for stability declined with increased proportional reflex gain. Reflex delay limited the maximum acceptable proportional reflex gain, i.e., long reflex delay required smaller maximum reflex gain to avoid instability. As differential reflex gain increased, there was a small increase in acceptable reflex delay. However, differential reflex gain with values near intrinsic damping caused the delay margin to approach zero. Forward-dynamic simulations of the fully nonlinear time-delayed system verified the linear results. The linear methods accurately found the delay margin below which the nonlinear system was asymptotically stable. These methods may aid future investigations in the role of reflexes in musculoskeletal stability.
Shared control on lunar spacecraft teleoperation rendezvous operations with large time delay
Ya-kun, Zhang; Hai-yang, Li; Rui-xue, Huang; Jiang-hui, Liu
2017-08-01
Teleoperation could be used in space on-orbit serving missions, such as object deorbits, spacecraft approaches, and automatic rendezvous and docking back-up systems. Teleoperation rendezvous and docking in lunar orbit may encounter bottlenecks for the inherent time delay in the communication link and the limited measurement accuracy of sensors. Moreover, human intervention is unsuitable in view of the partial communication coverage problem. To solve these problems, a shared control strategy for teleoperation rendezvous and docking is detailed. The control authority in lunar orbital maneuvers that involves two spacecraft as rendezvous and docking in the final phase was discussed in this paper. The predictive display model based on the relative dynamic equations is established to overcome the influence of the large time delay in communication link. We discuss and attempt to prove via consistent, ground-based simulations the relative merits of fully autonomous control mode (i.e., onboard computer-based), fully manual control (i.e., human-driven at the ground station) and shared control mode. The simulation experiments were conducted on the nine-degrees-of-freedom teleoperation rendezvous and docking simulation platform. Simulation results indicated that the shared control methods can overcome the influence of time delay effects. In addition, the docking success probability of shared control method was enhanced compared with automatic and manual modes.
Critical time delay of the pineal melatonin rhythm in humans due to weak electromagnetic exposure.
Halgamuge, Malka N
2013-08-01
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can increase free radicals, activate the stress response and alter enzyme reactions. Intracellular signalling is mediated by free radicals and enzyme kinetics is affected by radical pair recombination rates. The magnetic field component of an external EMF can delay the "recombination rate" of free radical pairs. Magnetic fields thus increase radical life-times in biological systems. Although measured in nanoseconds, this extra time increases the potential to do more damage. Melatonin regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle or circadian rhythm. The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed that prolonged alterations in sleep patterns suppress the body's ability to make melatonin. Considerable cancer rates have been attributed to the reduction of melatonin production as a result of jet lag and night shift work. In this study, changes in circadian rhythm and melatonin concentration are observed due to the external perturbation of chemical reaction rates. We further analyze the pineal melatonin rhythm and investigate the critical time delay or maturation time of radical pair recombination rates, exploring the impact of the mRNA degradation rate on the critical time delay. The results show that significant melatonin interruption and changes to the circadian rhythm occur due to the perturbation of chemical reaction rates, as also reported in previous studies. The results also show the influence of the mRNA degradation rate on the circadian rhythm's critical time delay or maturation time. The results support the hypothesis that exposure to weak EMFs via melatonin disruption can adversely affect human health.
Dynamical Behaviors in Complex-Valued Love Model With or Without Time Delays
Deng, Wei; Liao, Xiaofeng; Dong, Tao
2017-12-01
In this paper, a novel version of nonlinear model, i.e. a complex-valued love model with two time delays between two individuals in a love affair, has been proposed. A notable feature in this model is that we separate the emotion of one individual into real and imaginary parts to represent the variation and complexity of psychophysiological emotion in romantic relationship instead of just real domain, and make our model much closer to reality. This is because love is a complicated cognitive and social phenomenon, full of complexity, diversity and unpredictability, which refers to the coexistence of different aspects of feelings, states and attitudes ranging from joy and trust to sadness and disgust. By analyzing associated characteristic equation of linearized equations for our model, it is found that the Hopf bifurcation occurs when the sum of time delays passes through a sequence of critical value. Stability of bifurcating cyclic love dynamics is also derived by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. In addition, it is also shown that, for some appropriate chosen parameters, chaotic behaviors can appear even without time delay.
11th International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) Workshop on Time-Delay Systems
Fridman, Emilia; Sename, Olivier; Dugard, Luc
2016-01-01
This book mostly results from a selection of papers presented during the 11th IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Workshop on Time-Delay Systems, which took place in Grenoble, France, February 4 - 6, 2013. During this event, 37 papers were presented. Taking into account the reviewers' evaluation and the papers' presentation the best papers have been selected and collected into the present volume. The authors of 13 selected papers were invited to participate to this book and provided a more detailed and improved version of the conference paper. To enrich the book, three more chapters have been included from specialists on time-delay systems who presented their work during the 52nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, which held in December 10 - 13, 2013, at Florence, Italy. The content of the book is divided into four main parts as follows: Modeling, Stability analysis, Stabilization and control, and Input-delay systems. Focusing on various topics of time-delay systems, this book will be...
Miri, Raz; Graf, Iulia M; Dössel, Olaf
2009-11-01
Electrode positions and timing delays influence the efficacy of biventricular pacing (BVP). Accordingly, this study focuses on BVP optimization, using a detailed 3-D electrophysiological model of the human heart, which is adapted to patient-specific anatomy and pathophysiology. The research is effectuated on ten heart models with left bundle branch block and myocardial infarction derived from magnetic resonance and computed tomography data. Cardiac electrical activity is simulated with the ten Tusscher cell model and adaptive cellular automaton at physiological and pathological conduction levels. The optimization methods are based on a comparison between the electrical response of the healthy and diseased heart models, measured in terms of root mean square error (E(RMS)) of the excitation front and the QRS duration error (E(QRS)). Intra- and intermethod associations of the pacing electrodes and timing delays variables were analyzed with statistical methods, i.e., t -test for dependent data, one-way analysis of variance for electrode pairs, and Pearson model for equivalent parameters from the two optimization methods. The results indicate that lateral the left ventricle and the upper or middle septal area are frequently (60% of cases) the optimal positions of the left and right electrodes, respectively. Statistical analysis proves that the two optimization methods are in good agreement. In conclusion, a noninvasive preoperative BVP optimization strategy based on computer simulations can be used to identify the most beneficial patient-specific electrode configuration and timing delays.
Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances
J. Liu
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.
Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at
Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances
J. Liu
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle
Misaki, Takashi; Matsui, Akira; Tanaka, Fumiko; Okuno, Yoshishige; Mitsumori, Michihide; Torizuka, Tatsurou; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Shimbo, Shin-ichirou
1990-01-01
Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a commonly performed imaging modality in deteting pyrogenic lesions in cases of long-standing inexplainable fever. To re-evaluate the significance of gallium imaging in such cases, a retrospective review was made of 56 scans performed in febrile patients in whom sufficient clinical and laboratory findings were obtained. Gallium scans were true positive in 30 patients, false positive in 3, true negative in 19, and false negative in 4. In the group of true positive, local inflammatory lesions were detected in 23 patients with a final diagnosis of lung tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and inflammatory joint disease. Abnormal gallium accumulation, as shown in the other 7 patients, provided clues to the diagnosis of generalized disorders, such as hematological malignancies (n=3), systemic autoimmune diseases (n=3), and severe infectious mononucleosis (n=one). In the group of false positive, gallium imaging revealed intestinal excretion of gallium in 2 patients and physiological pulmonary hilar accumulation in one. In the true negative group of 19 patients, fever of unknown origin was resolved spontaneously in 12 patients, and with antibiotics and corticosteroids in 2 and 5 patients, respectively. Four patients having false negative scans were finally diagnosed as having urinary tract infection (n=2), bacterial meningitis (n=one), and polyarteritis (n=one). Gallium imaging would remain the technique of choice in searching for origin of unknown fever. It may also be useful for early diagnosis of systemic disease, as well as focal inflammation. (N.K.)
Ivy, Sarah E.; Guerra, Jennifer A.; Hatton, Deborah D.
2017-01-01
Introduction: Constant time delay is an evidence-based practice to teach sight word recognition to students with a variety of disabilities. To date, two studies have documented its effectiveness for teaching braille. Methods: Using a multiple-baseline design, we evaluated the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach highly motivating words to…
Analysis of the effects of time delay in clock recovery circuits based on Phase-locked loops
Zibar, Darko; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders
2004-01-01
Influence of time delay in a balanced optical phase-locked loops (OPLL) with a proportional integrator (Pl) filter is investigated using a delayed differential equation (DDE) is investigated. The limitations, which a time delay imposes on the Pl filter bandwidth, at increasing values of loop gain...
Back-Song; Lee; Jong-Dug; Shin; Boo-Gyoun; Kim
2003-01-01
We proposed an optical true time delay (TTD) for phased array antennas (PAAs) composed of 2×2 optical MEMS switches, single-mode fiber delay lines, and a fixed wavelength laser diode. A 3-bit TTD for 10 GHz PAAs was implemented with a time delay error less than ± 0.2 ps.
Qiu-Ye, Sun; Hua-Guang, Zhang; Yan, Zhao
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the chaotification problem of a stable continuous-time T–S fuzzy system. A simple nonlinear state time-delay feedback controller is designed by parallel distributed compensation technique. Then, the asymptotically approximate relationship between the controlled continuous-time T–S fuzzy system with time-delay and a discrete-time T–S fuzzy system is established. Based on the discrete-time T–S fuzzy system, it proves that the chaos in the discrete-time T–S fuzzy system satisfies the Li–Yorke definition by choosing appropriate controller parameters via the revised Marotto theorem. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed chaotic anticontrol method is verified by a practical example. (general)
Boubendir, Yassine; Mendez, Vicenc; Rotstein, Horacio G.
2010-01-01
We study the evolution of fronts in a bistable equation with time-delayed global feedback in the fast reaction and slow diffusion regime. This equation generalizes the Hodgkin-Grafstein and Allen-Cahn equations. We derive a nonlinear equation governing the motion of fronts, which includes a term with delay. In the one-dimensional case this equation is linear. We study the motion of one- and two-dimensional fronts, finding a much richer dynamics than for the previously studied cases (without time-delayed global feedback). We explain the mechanism by which localized fronts created by inhibitory global coupling loose stability in a Hopf bifurcation as the delay time increases. We show that for certain delay times, the prevailing phase is different from that corresponding to the system in the absence of global coupling. Numerical simulations of the partial differential equation are in agreement with the analytical predictions.
Chin, Sanghoon; Thévenaz, Luc; Sancho, Juan; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José; Berger, Perrine; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Dolfi, Daniel
2010-10-11
We experimentally demonstrate a novel technique to process broadband microwave signals, using all-optically tunable true time delay in optical fibers. The configuration to achieve true time delay basically consists of two main stages: photonic RF phase shifter and slow light, based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibers. Dispersion properties of fibers are controlled, separately at optical carrier frequency and in the vicinity of microwave signal bandwidth. This way time delay induced within the signal bandwidth can be manipulated to correctly act as true time delay with a proper phase compensation introduced to the optical carrier. We completely analyzed the generated true time delay as a promising solution to feed phased array antenna for radar systems and to develop dynamically reconfigurable microwave photonic filters.
EMBEDDED LENSING TIME DELAYS, THE FERMAT POTENTIAL, AND THE INTEGRATED SACHS–WOLFE EFFECT
Chen, Bin; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu, E-mail: bchen3@fsu.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)
2015-05-01
We derive the Fermat potential for a spherically symmetric lens embedded in a Friedman–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker cosmology and use it to investigate the late-time integrated Sachs–Wolfe (ISW) effect, i.e., secondary temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) caused by individual large-scale clusters and voids. We present a simple analytical expression for the temperature fluctuation in the CMB across such a lens as a derivative of the lens’ Fermat potential. This formalism is applicable to both linear and nonlinear density evolution scenarios, to arbitrarily large density contrasts, and to all open and closed background cosmologies. It is much simpler to use and makes the same predictions as conventional approaches. In this approach the total temperature fluctuation can be split into a time-delay part and an evolutionary part. Both parts must be included for cosmic structures that evolve and both can be equally important. We present very simple ISW models for cosmic voids and galaxy clusters to illustrate the ease of use of our formalism. We use the Fermat potentials of simple cosmic void models to compare predicted ISW effects with those recently extracted from WMAP and Planck data by stacking large cosmic voids using the aperture photometry method. If voids in the local universe with large density contrasts are no longer evolving we find that the time delay contribution alone predicts values consistent with the measurements. However, we find that for voids still evolving linearly, the evolutionary contribution cancels a significant part of the time delay contribution and results in predicted signals that are much smaller than recently observed.
EMBEDDED LENSING TIME DELAYS, THE FERMAT POTENTIAL, AND THE INTEGRATED SACHS–WOLFE EFFECT
Chen, Bin; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu
2015-01-01
We derive the Fermat potential for a spherically symmetric lens embedded in a Friedman–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker cosmology and use it to investigate the late-time integrated Sachs–Wolfe (ISW) effect, i.e., secondary temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) caused by individual large-scale clusters and voids. We present a simple analytical expression for the temperature fluctuation in the CMB across such a lens as a derivative of the lens’ Fermat potential. This formalism is applicable to both linear and nonlinear density evolution scenarios, to arbitrarily large density contrasts, and to all open and closed background cosmologies. It is much simpler to use and makes the same predictions as conventional approaches. In this approach the total temperature fluctuation can be split into a time-delay part and an evolutionary part. Both parts must be included for cosmic structures that evolve and both can be equally important. We present very simple ISW models for cosmic voids and galaxy clusters to illustrate the ease of use of our formalism. We use the Fermat potentials of simple cosmic void models to compare predicted ISW effects with those recently extracted from WMAP and Planck data by stacking large cosmic voids using the aperture photometry method. If voids in the local universe with large density contrasts are no longer evolving we find that the time delay contribution alone predicts values consistent with the measurements. However, we find that for voids still evolving linearly, the evolutionary contribution cancels a significant part of the time delay contribution and results in predicted signals that are much smaller than recently observed
Embedded Lensing Time Delays, the Fermat Potential, and the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect
Chen, Bin; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu
2015-05-01
We derive the Fermat potential for a spherically symmetric lens embedded in a Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology and use it to investigate the late-time integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, i.e., secondary temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) caused by individual large-scale clusters and voids. We present a simple analytical expression for the temperature fluctuation in the CMB across such a lens as a derivative of the lens’ Fermat potential. This formalism is applicable to both linear and nonlinear density evolution scenarios, to arbitrarily large density contrasts, and to all open and closed background cosmologies. It is much simpler to use and makes the same predictions as conventional approaches. In this approach the total temperature fluctuation can be split into a time-delay part and an evolutionary part. Both parts must be included for cosmic structures that evolve and both can be equally important. We present very simple ISW models for cosmic voids and galaxy clusters to illustrate the ease of use of our formalism. We use the Fermat potentials of simple cosmic void models to compare predicted ISW effects with those recently extracted from WMAP and Planck data by stacking large cosmic voids using the aperture photometry method. If voids in the local universe with large density contrasts are no longer evolving we find that the time delay contribution alone predicts values consistent with the measurements. However, we find that for voids still evolving linearly, the evolutionary contribution cancels a significant part of the time delay contribution and results in predicted signals that are much smaller than recently observed.
Discovery of time-delayed gene regulatory networks based on temporal gene expression profiling
Guo Zheng
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is one of the ultimate goals for modern biological research to fully elucidate the intricate interplays and the regulations of the molecular determinants that propel and characterize the progression of versatile life phenomena, to name a few, cell cycling, developmental biology, aging, and the progressive and recurrent pathogenesis of complex diseases. The vast amount of large-scale and genome-wide time-resolved data is becoming increasing available, which provides the golden opportunity to unravel the challenging reverse-engineering problem of time-delayed gene regulatory networks. Results In particular, this methodological paper aims to reconstruct regulatory networks from temporal gene expression data by using delayed correlations between genes, i.e., pairwise overlaps of expression levels shifted in time relative each other. We have thus developed a novel model-free computational toolbox termed TdGRN (Time-delayed Gene Regulatory Network to address the underlying regulations of genes that can span any unit(s of time intervals. This bioinformatics toolbox has provided a unified approach to uncovering time trends of gene regulations through decision analysis of the newly designed time-delayed gene expression matrix. We have applied the proposed method to yeast cell cycling and human HeLa cell cycling and have discovered most of the underlying time-delayed regulations that are supported by multiple lines of experimental evidence and that are remarkably consistent with the current knowledge on phase characteristics for the cell cyclings. Conclusion We established a usable and powerful model-free approach to dissecting high-order dynamic trends of gene-gene interactions. We have carefully validated the proposed algorithm by applying it to two publicly available cell cycling datasets. In addition to uncovering the time trends of gene regulations for cell cycling, this unified approach can also be used to study the complex
Rank One Strange Attractors in Periodically Kicked Predator-Prey System with Time-Delay
Yang, Wenjie; Lin, Yiping; Dai, Yunxian; Zhao, Huitao
2016-06-01
This paper is devoted to the study of the problem of rank one strange attractor in a periodically kicked predator-prey system with time-delay. Our discussion is based on the theory of rank one maps formulated by Wang and Young. Firstly, we develop the rank one chaotic theory to delayed systems. It is shown that strange attractors occur when the delayed system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and encounters an external periodic force. Then we use the theory to the periodically kicked predator-prey system with delay, deriving the conditions for Hopf bifurcation and rank one chaos along with the results of numerical simulations.
Generation of wideband chaos with suppressed time-delay signature by delayed self-interference.
Wang, Anbang; Yang, Yibiao; Wang, Bingjie; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Lei; Wang, Yuncai
2013-04-08
We demonstrate experimentally and numerically a method using the incoherent delayed self-interference (DSI) of chaotic light from a semiconductor laser with optical feedback to generate wideband chaotic signal. The results show that, the DSI can eliminate the domination of laser relaxation oscillation existing in the chaotic laser light and therefore flatten and widen the power spectrum. Furthermore, the DSI depresses the time-delay signature induced by external cavity modes and improves the symmetry of probability distribution by more than one magnitude. We also experimentally show that this DSI signal is beneficial to the random number generation.
Guo, Feng; Wang, Xue-Yuan; Zhu, Cheng-Yin; Cheng, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Huang, Xu-Hui
2017-12-01
The stochastic resonance for a fractional oscillator with time-delayed kernel and quadratic trichotomous noise is investigated. Applying linear system theory and Laplace transform, the system output amplitude (SPA) for the fractional oscillator is obtained. It is found that the SPA is a periodical function of the kernel delayed-time. Stochastic multiplicative phenomenon appears on the SPA versus the driving frequency, versus the noise amplitude, and versus the fractional exponent. The non-monotonous dependence of the SPA on the system parameters is also discussed.
Park, Joon-Young; Cho, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae-Kyung
2009-01-01
This paper addresses the trajectory control problem of an underwater inspection robot for nuclear reactor internals. From the viewpoint of control engineering, the trajectory control of the underwater robot is a difficult task due to its nonlinear dynamics, which includes various hydraulic forces such as buoyancy and hydrodynamic damping, the difference between the centres of gravity and buoyancy, and disturbances from a tether cable. To solve such problems, we applied Time Delay Control to the underwater robot. This control law has a very simple structure not requiring nonlinear plant dynamics, and was proven to be highly robust against nonlinearities, uncertainties and disturbances. We confirmed its effectiveness through experiments.
Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.
2017-01-01
This paper focuses on a multi-agent based distributed coordinated control for radial DC microgrid considering trans-mission time delays. Firstly, a two-level multi-agent system is constructed, where local control is formulated based on local states and executed by means of the first-level agent......, and dis-tributed coordinated control law is formulated based on wide-area information and executed by means of the secondary- level agent in order to improve the voltage control performances. Afterwards, the research mainly focuses on designing the local controller and the distributed coordinated...
Systematic identification and robust control design for uncertain time delay processes
Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
2011-01-01
A systematic procedure is proposed to handle the standard process control problem. The considered standard problem involves infrequent step disturbances to processes with large delays and measurement noise. The process is modeled as an ARX model and extended with a suitable noise model in order...... to reject unmeasured step disturbances and unavoidable model errors. This controller is illustrated to perform well for both set point tracking and a disturbance rejection for a SISO process example of a furnace which has a time delay which is significantly longer than the dominating time constant....
Quasipolynomial Approach to Simultaneous Robust Control of Time-Delay Systems
Nikolaj Semenič
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A control law for retarded time-delay systems is considered, concerning infinite closed-loop spectrum assignment. An algebraic method for spectrum assignment is presented with a unique optimization algorithm for minimization of spectral abscissa and effective shaping of the chains of infinitely many closed-loop poles. Uncertainty of plant delays of a certain structure is considered in a sense of a robust simultaneous stabilization. Robust performance is achieved using mixed sensitivity design, which is incorporated into the addressed control law.
Predictive display design for the vehicles with time delay in dynamic response
Efremov, A. V.; Tiaglik, M. S.; Irgaleev, I. H.; Efremov, E. V.
2018-02-01
The two ways for the improvement of flying qualities are considered: the predictive display (PD) and the predictive display integrated with the flight control system (FCS). The both ways allow to transforming the controlled element dynamics in the crossover frequency range, to improve the accuracy of tracking and to suppress the effect of time delay in the vehicle response too. The technique for optimization of the predictive law is applied to the landing task. The results of the mathematical modeling and experimental investigations carried out for this task are considered in the paper.
Ponomarenko, V I; Kulminskiy, D D; Prokhorov, M D
2017-08-01
We study the collective dynamics of oscillators in a network of identical bistable time-delayed feedback systems globally coupled via the mean field. The influence of delay and inertial properties of the mean field on the collective behavior of globally coupled oscillators is investigated. A variety of oscillation regimes in the network results from the presence of bistable states with substantially different frequencies in coupled oscillators. In the physical experiment and numerical simulation we demonstrate the existence of chimeralike states, in which some of the oscillators in the network exhibit synchronous oscillations, while all other oscillators remain asynchronous.
Arik, Sabri
2005-05-01
This paper presents a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with distributed time delays. The results impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all continuous nonmonotonic neuron activation functions. It is shown that in some special cases of the results, the stability criteria can be easily checked. Some examples are also given to compare the results with the previous results derived in the literature.
Senan, Sibel; Arik, Sabri
2009-01-01
This paper presents some new sufficient conditions for the global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with multiple time delays. The results we obtain impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous non-monotonic neuron activation functions. We also give some numerical examples to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of our results, and compare the results with the previous robust stability results derived in the literature.
Performance evaluation of time-delay control schemes for uninterruptible power supplies
Loh, P.C; Tang, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2008-01-01
a more powerful processor. Avoiding these added complexities, this paper presents and compares a number of time-delay control schemes for UPS control, where the main building blocks needed are readily available memory storages and simple transfer functions formulated with either no or at least one......-matching characteristic, the presented control schemes are expected to be more robust and less sensitive to implementation noises. In addition, the presented control schemes are deduced to have fast dynamic response, implying that the supplypsilas output voltage is virtually not influenced by any transient load...
Known knowns, known unknowns and unknown unknowns in prokaryotic transposition.
Siguier, Patricia; Gourbeyre, Edith; Chandler, Michael
2017-08-01
Although the phenomenon of transposition has been known for over 60 years, its overarching importance in modifying and streamlining genomes took some time to recognize. In spite of a robust understanding of transposition of some TE, there remain a number of important TE groups with potential high genome impact and unknown transposition mechanisms and yet others, only recently identified by bioinformatics, yet to be formally confirmed as mobile. Here, we point to some areas of limited understanding concerning well established important TE groups with DDE Tpases, to address central gaps in our knowledge of characterised Tn with other types of Tpases and finally, to highlight new potentially mobile DNA species. It is not exhaustive. Examples have been chosen to provide encouragement in the continued exploration of the considerable prokaryotic mobilome especially in light of the current threat to public health posed by the spread of multiple Ab R . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in financial system
Li, Jiang-Cheng; Li, Chun; Mei, Dong-Cheng
2014-01-01
The effect of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in finance system was investigated. The time delay is introduced into the Heston model driven by the extrinsic and intrinsic periodic information for stock price. The signal power amplification (SPA) was calculated by numerical simulation. The results indicate that an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance in the behaviors of SPA as a function of long-run variance of volatility or cross correlation coefficient between noises for both cases of intrinsic and extrinsic periodic information. Moreover, in both cases, being a critical value in the delay time, when the delay time takes value below the critical value, reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing, however, when the delay time takes value above the critical value, the reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing. - Highlights: • The effects of delay time on stochastic resonance of the stock prices was investigated. • There is an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance • The reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value below the critical value • The reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value above the critical value
Noise and time delay induce critical point in a bistable system
Zhang, Jianqiang; Nie, Linru; Yu, Lilong; Zhang, Xinyu
2014-07-01
We study relaxation time Tc of time-delayed bistable system driven by two cross-correlated Gaussian white noises that one is multiplicative and the other is additive. By means of numerical calculations, the results indicate that: (i) Combination of noise and time delay can induce two critical points about the relaxation time at some certain noise cross-correlation strength λ under the condition that the multiplicative intensity D equals to the additive noise intensity α. (ii) For each fixed D or α, there are two symmetrical critical points which locates in the regions of positive and negative correlations, respectively. Namely, as λ equals to the critical value λc, Tc is independent of the delay time and the result of Tc versus τ is a horizontal line, but as |λ|>|λc| (or |λ|decreases) with the delay time increasing. (iii) In the presence of D = α, the change of λc with D is two symmetrical curves about the axis of λc = 0, and the critical value λc is close to zero for a smaller D, which approaches to +1 or -1 for a greater D.
Test of the FLRW Metric and Curvature with Strong Lens Time Delays
Liao, Kai [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Li, Zhengxiang; Wang, Guo-Jian [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Fan, Xi-Long, E-mail: liaokai@whut.edu.cn, E-mail: xilong.fan@glasgow.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan 430205 (China)
2017-04-20
We present a new model-independent strategy for testing the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric and constraining cosmic curvature, based on future time-delay measurements of strongly lensed quasar-elliptical galaxy systems from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and supernova observations from the Dark Energy Survey. The test only relies on geometric optics. It is independent of the energy contents of the universe and the validity of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. The study comprises two levels: testing the FLRW metric through the distance sum rule (DSR) and determining/constraining cosmic curvature. We propose an effective and efficient (redshift) evolution model for performing the former test, which allows us to concretely specify the violation criterion for the FLRW DSR. If the FLRW metric is consistent with the observations, then on the second level the cosmic curvature parameter will be constrained to ∼0.057 or ∼0.041 (1 σ ), depending on the availability of high-redshift supernovae, which is much more stringent than current model-independent techniques. We also show that the bias in the time-delay method might be well controlled, leading to robust results. The proposed method is a new independent tool for both testing the fundamental assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy in cosmology and for determining cosmic curvature. It is complementary to cosmic microwave background plus baryon acoustic oscillation analyses, which normally assume a cosmological model with dark energy domination in the late-time universe.
Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in financial system
Li, Jiang-Cheng [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China); Li, Chun [Department of Computer Science, Puer Teachers' College, Puer 665000 (China); Mei, Dong-Cheng, E-mail: meidch@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)
2014-06-13
The effect of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in finance system was investigated. The time delay is introduced into the Heston model driven by the extrinsic and intrinsic periodic information for stock price. The signal power amplification (SPA) was calculated by numerical simulation. The results indicate that an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance in the behaviors of SPA as a function of long-run variance of volatility or cross correlation coefficient between noises for both cases of intrinsic and extrinsic periodic information. Moreover, in both cases, being a critical value in the delay time, when the delay time takes value below the critical value, reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing, however, when the delay time takes value above the critical value, the reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing. - Highlights: • The effects of delay time on stochastic resonance of the stock prices was investigated. • There is an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance • The reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value below the critical value • The reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value above the critical value.
Energy cascading by triple-bubble interactions via time-delayed control
Lin, Yen-Liang; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yang, I-Da; Chieng, Ching-Chang
2012-01-01
The triple-bubble interaction controlled by a precise time-delayed technique was investigated in detail with respect to different ignition times, heater spaces and sequential firing modes to promote efficient energy cascading and concentration. The target bubble, which was generated under a specific delay time with two auxiliary bubbles, can have a volume that is two or almost three times larger than that of a single bubble. This result overcomes the limitation of energy usage on an explosive microbubble under a constant heat flux. As the heater space decreases, stronger bubble–bubble interactions were obtained due to the hydrodynamic effect and the intensive pressure wave emission, resulting in highly enhancing and depressing bubble dynamics. Other interesting phenomena, such as bubble shifting, mushroom-shape bubble, rod-shape bubble and bubble extension among heaters, were also recorded by a high-speed phase-averaged stroboscopic technique, displaying special non-spherical bubble dynamics. Artificial manipulation of bubble behavior was further conducted in a two-level sequential firing process. Using various volumetric combinations, the adjustable multi-level fluid transportation can be realized by a digital time-delayed control. The above-mentioned information can be applied to not only the design and operation of inkjet printheads but also cavitation research and fluid pumping in microdevices. (paper)
Angular dependence of the attosecond time delay in the H 2 + ion
Kheifets, Anatoli; Serov, Vladislav
2016-05-01
Angular dependence of attosecond time delay relative to polarization of light can now be measured using combination of RABBITT and COLTRIMS techniques. This dependence brings particularly useful information in molecules where it is sensitive to the orientation of the molecular axis. Here we extend the theoretical studies of and consider a molecular ion H2+in combination of an attosecond pulse train and a dressing IR field which is a characteristic set up of a RABBIT measurement. We solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using a fast spherical Bessel transformation (SBT) for the radial variable, a discrete variable representation for the angular variables and a split-step technique for the time evolution. The use of SBT ensures correct phase of the wave function for a long time evolution which is especially important in time delay calculations. To speed up computations, we implement an expanding coordinate (EC) system which allows us to reach space sizes and time periods unavailable by other techniques. Australian Research Council DP120101805.
Controlling chaos in a nonlinear pendulum using an extended time-delayed feedback control method
Souza de Paula, Aline; Savi, Marcelo Amorim
2009-01-01
Chaos control is employed for the stabilization of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in chaotic attractors. The extended time-delayed feedback control uses a continuous feedback loop incorporating information from previous states of the system in order to stabilize unstable orbits. This article deals with the chaos control of a nonlinear pendulum employing the extended time-delayed feedback control method. The control law leads to delay-differential equations (DDEs) that contain derivatives that depend on the solution of previous time instants. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with linear interpolation on the delayed variables is employed for numerical simulations of the DDEs and its initial function is estimated by a Taylor series expansion. During the learning stage, the UPOs are identified by the close-return method and control parameters are chosen for each desired UPO by defining situations where the largest Lyapunov exponent becomes negative. Analyses of a nonlinear pendulum are carried out by considering signals that are generated by numerical integration of the mathematical model using experimentally identified parameters. Results show the capability of the control procedure to stabilize UPOs of the dynamical system, highlighting some difficulties to achieve the stabilization of the desired orbit.
Optimal design of PID controller for second order plus time delay systems
Srivastava, S.; Misra, A.; Kumar, Y.; Thakur, S.K.
2015-01-01
It is well known that the effect of time delay in the forward path of control loop deteriorates the system performance and at the same time makes it difficult to compute the optimum PID controller parameters of the feedback control systems. PI/PID controller is most popular and used more than 80% in industries as well as in accelerators lab due to its simple structure and appropriate robustness. At VECC we have planned to use a PID controller for the speed control of DC motor which will be used to adjust the solenoid coil position of the 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for optimum performance during the online operation. In this paper we present a comparison of the two methods which have been used to design the optimum PID controller parameters: one by optimizing different time domain performance indices such as lAE, ITSE etc. and other using analytical formulation based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). We have performed numerical simulations using MATLAB and compare the closed loop time response performance measures using the PID parameters obtained from above mentioned two methods on a second order transfer function of a DC motor with time delay. (author)
Forced phase-locked response of a nonlinear system with time delay after Hopf bifurcation
Ji, J.C.; Hansen, Colin H.
2005-01-01
The trivial equilibrium of a nonlinear autonomous system with time delay may become unstable via a Hopf bifurcation of multiplicity two, as the time delay reaches a critical value. This loss of stability of the equilibrium is associated with two coincident pairs of complex conjugate eigenvalues crossing the imaginary axis. The resultant dynamic behaviour of the corresponding nonlinear non-autonomous system in the neighbourhood of the Hopf bifurcation is investigated based on the reduction of the infinite-dimensional problem to a four-dimensional centre manifold. As a result of the interaction between the Hopf bifurcating periodic solutions and the external periodic excitation, a primary resonance can occur in the forced response of the system when the forcing frequency is close to the Hopf bifurcating periodic frequency. The method of multiple scales is used to obtain four first-order ordinary differential equations that determine the amplitudes and phases of the phase-locked periodic solutions. The first-order approximations of the periodic solutions are found to be in excellent agreement with those obtained by direct numerical integration of the delay-differential equation. It is also found that the steady state solutions of the nonlinear non-autonomous system may lose their stability via either a pitchfork or Hopf bifurcation. It is shown that the primary resonance response may exhibit symmetric and asymmetric phase-locked periodic motions, quasi-periodic motions, chaotic motions, and coexistence of two stable motions
Constructing Hopf bifurcation lines for the stability of nonlinear systems with two time delays
Nguimdo, Romain Modeste
2018-03-01
Although the plethora real-life systems modeled by nonlinear systems with two independent time delays, the algebraic expressions for determining the stability of their fixed points remain the Achilles' heel. Typically, the approach for studying the stability of delay systems consists in finding the bifurcation lines separating the stable and unstable parameter regions. This work deals with the parametric construction of algebraic expressions and their use for the determination of the stability boundaries of fixed points in nonlinear systems with two independent time delays. In particular, we concentrate on the cases for which the stability of the fixed points can be ascertained from a characteristic equation corresponding to that of scalar two-delay differential equations, one-component dual-delay feedback, or nonscalar differential equations with two delays for which the characteristic equation for the stability analysis can be reduced to that of a scalar case. Then, we apply our obtained algebraic expressions to identify either the parameter regions of stable microwaves generated by dual-delay optoelectronic oscillators or the regions of amplitude death in identical coupled oscillators.
Test of the FLRW Metric and Curvature with Strong Lens Time Delays
Liao, Kai; Li, Zhengxiang; Wang, Guo-Jian; Fan, Xi-Long
2017-01-01
We present a new model-independent strategy for testing the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric and constraining cosmic curvature, based on future time-delay measurements of strongly lensed quasar-elliptical galaxy systems from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and supernova observations from the Dark Energy Survey. The test only relies on geometric optics. It is independent of the energy contents of the universe and the validity of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. The study comprises two levels: testing the FLRW metric through the distance sum rule (DSR) and determining/constraining cosmic curvature. We propose an effective and efficient (redshift) evolution model for performing the former test, which allows us to concretely specify the violation criterion for the FLRW DSR. If the FLRW metric is consistent with the observations, then on the second level the cosmic curvature parameter will be constrained to ∼0.057 or ∼0.041 (1 σ ), depending on the availability of high-redshift supernovae, which is much more stringent than current model-independent techniques. We also show that the bias in the time-delay method might be well controlled, leading to robust results. The proposed method is a new independent tool for both testing the fundamental assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy in cosmology and for determining cosmic curvature. It is complementary to cosmic microwave background plus baryon acoustic oscillation analyses, which normally assume a cosmological model with dark energy domination in the late-time universe.
Debeljković Dragutin Lj.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The heat exchangers are frequently used as constructive elements in various plants and their dynamics is very important. Their operation is usually controlled by manipulating inlet fluid temperatures or mass flow rates. On the basis of the accepted and critically clarified assumptions, a linearized mathematical model of the cross-flow heat exchanger has been derived, taking into account the wall dynamics. The model is based on the fundamental law of energy conservation, covers all heat accumulation storages in the process, and leads to the set of partial differential equations (PDE, which solution is not possible in closed form. In order to overcome this problem the approach based on physical discretization was applied with associated time delay on the positions where it was necessary and unavoidable. This is quite new approach, which represent the further extension of previous results which did not include significant time delay existing in the working media. Simulation results, were derived, showing progress in building such a model suitable for further treatment from the position of analysis as well as the needs for control synthesis problem.
Xue, Xiaoxiao; Xuan, Yi; Bao, Chengying; Li, Shangyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhou, Bingkun; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M.
2018-06-01
Microwave phased array antennas (PAAs) are very attractive to defense applications and high-speed wireless communications for their abilities of fast beam scanning and complex beam pattern control. However, traditional PAAs based on phase shifters suffer from the beam-squint problem and have limited bandwidths. True-time-delay (TTD) beamforming based on low-loss photonic delay lines can solve this problem. But it is still quite challenging to build large-scale photonic TTD beamformers due to their high hardware complexity. In this paper, we demonstrate a photonic TTD beamforming network based on a miniature microresonator frequency comb (microcomb) source and dispersive time delay. A method incorporating optical phase modulation and programmable spectral shaping is proposed for positive and negative apodization weighting to achieve arbitrary microwave beam pattern control. The experimentally demonstrated TTD beamforming network can support a PAA with 21 elements. The microwave frequency range is $\\mathbf{8\\sim20\\ {GHz}}$, and the beam scanning range is $\\mathbf{\\pm 60.2^\\circ}$. Detailed measurements of the microwave amplitudes and phases are performed. The beamforming performances of Gaussian, rectangular beams and beam notch steering are evaluated through simulations by assuming a uniform radiating antenna array. The scheme can potentially support larger PAAs with hundreds of elements by increasing the number of comb lines with broadband microcomb generation.
A discrete event simulation model for evaluating time delays in a pipeline network
Spricigo, Deisi; Muggiati, Filipe V.; Lueders, Ricardo; Neves Junior, Flavio [Federal University of Technology of Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)
2009-07-01
Currently in the oil industry the logistic chain stands out as a strong candidate to obtain highest profit, since recent studies have pointed out to a cost reduction by adoption of better policies for distribution of oil derivatives, particularly those where pipelines are used to transport products. Although there are models to represent transfers of oil derivatives in pipelines, they are quite complex and computationally burden. In this paper, we are interested on models that are less detailed in terms of fluid dynamics but provide more information about operational decisions in a pipeline network. We propose a discrete event simulation model in ARENA that allows simulating a pipeline network based on average historical data. Time delays for transferring different products can be evaluated through different routes. It is considered that transport operations follow a historical behavior and average time delays can thus be estimated within certain bounds. Due to its stochastic nature, time quantities are characterized by average and dispersion measures. This allows comparing different operational scenarios for product transportation. Simulation results are compared to data obtained from a real world pipeline network and different scenarios of production and demand are analyzed. (author)
Predicting geomagnetic storms from solar-wind data using time-delay neural networks
H. Gleisner
1996-07-01
Full Text Available We have used time-delay feed-forward neural networks to compute the geomagnetic-activity index Dst one hour ahead from a temporal sequence of solar-wind data. The input data include solar-wind density n, velocity V and the southward component Bz of the interplanetary magnetic field. Dst is not included in the input data. The networks implement an explicit functional relationship between the solar wind and the geomagnetic disturbance, including both direct and time-delayed non-linear relations. In this study we especially consider the influence of varying the temporal size of the input-data sequence. The networks are trained on data covering 6600 h, and tested on data covering 2100 h. It is found that the initial and main phases of geomagnetic storms are well predicted, almost independent of the length of the input-data sequence. However, to predict the recovery phase, we have to use up to 20 h of solar-wind input data. The recovery phase is mainly governed by the ring-current loss processes, and is very much dependent on the ring-current history, and thus also the solar-wind history. With due consideration of the time history when optimizing the networks, we can reproduce 84% of the Dst variance.
Lutz, Barry; Liang, Tinny; Fu, Elain; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Kauffman, Peter; Yager, Paul
2013-07-21
Lateral flow tests (LFTs) are an ingenious format for rapid and easy-to-use diagnostics, but they are fundamentally limited to assay chemistries that can be reduced to a single chemical step. In contrast, most laboratory diagnostic assays rely on multiple timed steps carried out by a human or a machine. Here, we use dissolvable sugar applied to paper to create programmable flow delays and present a paper network topology that uses these time delays to program automated multi-step fluidic protocols. Solutions of sucrose at different concentrations (10-70% of saturation) were added to paper strips and dried to create fluidic time delays spanning minutes to nearly an hour. A simple folding card format employing sugar delays was shown to automate a four-step fluidic process initiated by a single user activation step (folding the card); this device was used to perform a signal-amplified sandwich immunoassay for a diagnostic biomarker for malaria. The cards are capable of automating multi-step assay protocols normally used in laboratories, but in a rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-use format.
Cho, Seung Hyun; Kwon, Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2008-12-15
Guided wave technology is advantageous for fast inspection of pipe wall thinning since the guided wave propagates long distance. In this investigation, the method to evaluate gradual wall thinning in a pipe based on the arrival time delay with magnetostrictive patch transducers is presented. Low frequency A0 Lamb waves were generated and measured by the present transducer and it was applied to arrival time delay measurement experiments on a test pipe having gradual wall thinnings artificially manufactured. From experiments, consistent results that wall thinning increases the arrival time delay of A0 waves were obtained. Consequently, the feasibility of the magnetostrictive patch transducers to evaluate wall thinning was verified
Cho, Seung Hyun; Kwon, Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok
2008-01-01
Guided wave technology is advantageous for fast inspection of pipe wall thinning since the guided wave propagates long distance. In this investigation, the method to evaluate gradual wall thinning in a pipe based on the arrival time delay with magnetostrictive patch transducers is presented. Low frequency A0 Lamb waves were generated and measured by the present transducer and it was applied to arrival time delay measurement experiments on a test pipe having gradual wall thinnings artificially manufactured. From experiments, consistent results that wall thinning increases the arrival time delay of A0 waves were obtained. Consequently, the feasibility of the magnetostrictive patch transducers to evaluate wall thinning was verified
Wang Huijuan; Ren Zhi
2011-01-01
Competition of spatial and temporal instabilities under time delay near the codimension-two Turing-Hopf bifurcations is studied in a reaction-diffusion equation. The time delay changes remarkably the oscillation frequency, the intrinsic wave vector, and the intensities of both Turing and Hopf modes. The application of appropriate time delay can control the competition between the Turing and Hopf modes. Analysis shows that individual or both feedbacks can realize the control of the transformation between the Turing and Hopf patterns. Two-dimensional numerical simulations validate the analytical results. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Yuxia; Huang, Xia
2017-12-01
In this paper, the problems of stability and Hopf bifurcation in a class of fractional-order complex-valued single neuron model with time delay are addressed. With the help of the stability theory of fractional-order differential equations and Laplace transforms, several new sufficient conditions, which ensure the stability of the system are derived. Taking the time delay as the bifurcation parameter, Hopf bifurcation is investigated and the critical value of the time delay for the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation is determined. Finally, two representative numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
Riley, D. R.; Miller, G. K., Jr.
1978-01-01
The effect of time delay was determined in the visual and motion cues in a flight simulator on pilot performance in tracking a target aircraft that was oscillating sinusoidally in altitude only. An audio side task was used to assure the subject was fully occupied at all times. The results indicate that, within the test grid employed, about the same acceptable time delay (250 msec) was obtained for a single aircraft (fighter type) by each of two subjects for both fixed-base and motion-base conditions. Acceptable time delay is defined as the largest amount of delay that can be inserted simultaneously into the visual and motion cues before performance degradation occurs. A statistical analysis of the data was made to establish this value of time delay. Audio side task provided quantitative data that documented the subject's work level.
Integrated High-Speed Digital Optical True-Time-Delay Modules for Synthetic Aperture Radars, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated high-speed digital optical true-time-delay module for advanced synthetic aperture radars. The unique feature of this...
Shibata, Junji; Kaneko, Kazuhide; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Ando, Itaru; Ogawa, Mina; Takano, Hiroshi
This paper proposes a new output voltage control for an inverter system, which has time-delay and nonlinear load. In the next generation X-ray computed tomography of a medical device (X-ray CT) that uses the contactless power transfer method, the feedback signal often contains time-delay due to AD/DA conversion and error detection/correction time. When the PID controller of the inverter system is received the adverse effects of the time-delay, the controller often has an overshoot and a oscillated response. In order to overcome this problem, this paper proposes a compensation method based on the Smith predictor for an inverter system having a time-delay and the nonlinear loads which are the diode bridge rectifier and X-ray tube. The proposed compensation method consists of the hybrid Smith predictor system based on an equivalent analog circuit and DSP. The experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed system.
Maluckov, Cedomir A.; Karamarkovic, Jugoslav P.; Radovic, Miodrag K.; Pejovic, Momcilo M.
2004-01-01
The convolution-based model of the electrical breakdown time delay distribution is applied for statistical analysis of experimental results obtained in neon-filled diode tube at 6.5 mbar. At first, the numerical breakdown time delay density distributions are obtained by stochastic modeling as the sum of two independent random variables, the electrical breakdown statistical time delay with exponential, and discharge formative time with Gaussian distribution. Then, the single characteristic breakdown time delay distribution is obtained as the convolution of these two random variables with previously determined parameters. These distributions show good correspondence with the experimental distributions, obtained on the basis of 1000 successive and independent measurements. The shape of distributions is investigated, and corresponding skewness and kurtosis are plotted, in order to follow the transition from Gaussian to exponential distribution
Ishak, Mustapha
2008-01-01
The contributions of the cosmological constant to the deflection angle and the time delays are derived from the integration of the gravitational potential as well as from Fermat's principle. The findings are in agreement with recent results using exact solutions to Einstein's equations and reproduce precisely the new Λ term in the bending angle and the lens equation. The consequences on time-delay expressions are explored. While it is known that Λ contributes to the gravitational time delay, it is shown here that a new Λ term appears in the geometrical time delay as well. Although these newly derived terms are perhaps small for current observations, they do not cancel out as previously claimed. Moreover, as shown before, at galaxy cluster scale, the Λ contribution can be larger than the second-order term in the Einstein deflection angle for several cluster lens systems.
Sivavaraprasad, G.; Venkata Ratnam, D.
2017-07-01
Ionospheric delay is one of the major atmospheric effects on the performance of satellite-based radio navigation systems. It limits the accuracy and availability of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, related to critical societal and safety applications. The temporal and spatial gradients of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) are driven by several unknown priori geophysical conditions and solar-terrestrial phenomena. Thereby, the prediction of ionospheric delay is challenging especially over Indian sub-continent. Therefore, an appropriate short/long-term ionospheric delay forecasting model is necessary. Hence, the intent of this paper is to forecast ionospheric delays by considering day to day, monthly and seasonal ionospheric TEC variations. GPS-TEC data (January 2013-December 2013) is extracted from a multi frequency GPS receiver established at K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur station (geographic: 16.37°N, 80.37°E; geomagnetic: 7.44°N, 153.75°E), India. An evaluation, in terms of forecasting capabilities, of three ionospheric time delay models - an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model, Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model, and a Holt-Winter's model is presented. The performances of these models are evaluated through error measurement analysis during both geomagnetic quiet and disturbed days. It is found that, ARMA model is effectively forecasting the ionospheric delay with an accuracy of 82-94%, which is 10% more superior to ARIMA and Holt-Winter's models. Moreover, the modeled VTEC derived from International Reference Ionosphere, IRI (IRI-2012) model and new global TEC model, Neustrelitz TEC Model (NTCM-GL) have compared with forecasted VTEC values of ARMA, ARIMA and Holt-Winter's models during geomagnetic quiet days. The forecast results are indicating that ARMA model would be useful to set up an early warning system for ionospheric disturbances at low latitude regions.
Sun Jitao; Han Qinglong; Jiang Xiefu
2008-01-01
This Letter is concerned with impulsive control of a class of nonlinear time-delay systems. Some uniform stability criteria for the closed-loop time-delay system under delayed impulsive control are derived by using piecewise Lyapunov functions. Then the criteria are applied to impulsive master-slave synchronization of some secure communication systems with transmission delays and sample delays under delayed impulsive control. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the derived results
Taghva, Alexander; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W
2012-12-01
Identification of functional dependence among neurons is a necessary component in both the rational design of neural prostheses as well as in the characterization of network physiology. The objective of this article is to provide a tutorial for neurosurgeons regarding information theory, specifically time-delayed mutual information, and to compare time-delayed mutual information, an information theoretic quantity based on statistical dependence, with cross-correlation, a commonly used metric for this task in a preliminary analysis of rat hippocampal neurons. Spike trains were recorded from rats performing delayed nonmatch-to-sample task using an array of electrodes surgically implanted into the hippocampus of each hemisphere of the brain. In addition, spike train simulations of positively correlated neurons, negatively correlated neurons, and neurons correlated by nonlinear functions were generated. These were evaluated by time-delayed mutual information (MI) and cross-correlation. Application of time-delayed MI to experimental data indicated the optimal bin size for information capture in the CA3-CA1 system was 40 ms, which may provide some insight into the spatiotemporal nature of encoding in the rat hippocampus. On simulated data, time-delayed MI showed peak values at appropriate time lags in positively correlated, negatively correlated, and complexly correlated data. Cross-correlation showed peak and troughs with positively correlated and negatively correlated data, but failed to capture some higher order correlations. Comparison of time-delayed MI to cross-correlation in identification of functionally dependent neurons indicates that the methods are not equivalent. Time-delayed MI appeared to capture some interactions between CA3-CA1 neurons at physiologically plausible time delays missed by cross-correlation. It should be considered as a method for identification of functional dependence between neurons and may be useful in the development of neural
Patanarapeelert, K. [Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Frank, T.D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany)]. E-mail: tdfrank@uni-muenster.de; Friedrich, R. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Beek, P.J. [Faculty of Human Movement Sciences and Institute for Fundamental and Clinical Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 9, 1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tang, I.M. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)
2006-12-18
A method is proposed to identify deterministic components of stable and unstable time-delayed systems subjected to noise sources with finite correlation times (colored noise). Both neutral and retarded delay systems are considered. For vanishing correlation times it is shown how to determine their noise amplitudes by minimizing appropriately defined Kullback measures. The method is illustrated by applying it to simulated data from stochastic time-delayed systems representing delay-induced bifurcations, postural sway and ship rolling.
Pengfei Guo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the fault detection problem for a class of discrete-time wireless networked control systems described by switching topology with uncertainties and disturbances. System states of each individual node are affected not only by its own measurements, but also by other nodes’ measurements according to a certain network topology. As the topology of system can be switched in a stochastic way, we aim to design H∞ fault detection observers for nodes in the dynamic time-delay systems. By using the Lyapunov method and stochastic analysis techniques, sufficient conditions are acquired to guarantee the existence of the filters satisfying the H∞ performance constraint, and observer gains are derived by solving linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an illustrated example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
Robust decentralised PI based LFC design for time delay power systems
Bevrani, Hassan; Hiyama, Takashi
2008-01-01
In this paper, two robust decentralised proportional integral (PI) control designs are proposed for load frequency control (LFC) with communication delays. In both methodologies, the PI based LFC problem is reduced to a static output feedback (SOF) control synthesis for a multiple delay system. The first one is based on the optimal H ∞ control design using a linear matrix inequalities (LMI) technique. The second control design gives a suboptimal solution using a developed iterative linear matrix inequalities (ILMI) algorithm via the mixed H 2 /H ∞ control technique. The control strategies are suitable for LFC applications that usually employ PI control. The proposed control strategies are applied to a three control area power system with time delays and load disturbance to demonstrate their robustness
Controllability of multi-agent systems with time-delay in state and switching topology
Ji, Zhijian; Wang, Zidong; Lin, Hai; Wang, Zhen
2010-02-01
In this article, the controllability issue is addressed for an interconnected system of multiple agents. The network associated with the system is of the leader-follower structure with some agents taking leader role and others being followers interconnected via the neighbour-based rule. Sufficient conditions are derived for the controllability of multi-agent systems with time-delay in state, as well as a graph-based uncontrollability topology structure is revealed. Both single and double integrator dynamics are considered. For switching topology, two algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the controllability of multi-agent systems. Several examples are also presented to illustrate how to control the system to shape into the desired configurations.
Act-and-wait time-delayed feedback control of nonautonomous systems
Pyragas, Viktoras; Pyragas, Kestutis
2016-07-01
Act-and-wait modification of a time-delayed feedback control (TDFC) algorithm is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits in nonautonomous dynamical systems. Due to periodical switching on and off the control perturbation, an infinite-dimensional function space of the TDFC system is reduced to the finite-dimensional state space. As a result the number of Floquet exponents defining the stability of the controlled orbit remains the same as for the control-free system. The values of these exponents can be effectively manipulated by the variation of control parameters. We demonstrate the advantages of the modification for the chaotic nonautonomous Duffing oscillator with diagonal and nondiagonal control matrices. In both cases very deep minima of the spectral abscissa of Floquet exponents have been attained. The advantage of the modification is particularly remarkable for the nondiagonal coupling; in this case the conventional TDFC fails, whereas the modified version works.
Synchronization stability of memristor-based complex-valued neural networks with time delays.
Liu, Dan; Zhu, Song; Ye, Er
2017-12-01
This paper focuses on the dynamical property of a class of memristor-based complex-valued neural networks (MCVNNs) with time delays. By constructing the appropriate Lyapunov functional and utilizing the inequality technique, sufficient conditions are proposed to guarantee exponential synchronization of the coupled systems based on drive-response concept. The proposed results are very easy to verify, and they also extend some previous related works on memristor-based real-valued neural networks. Meanwhile, the obtained sufficient conditions of this paper may be conducive to qualitative analysis of some complex-valued nonlinear delayed systems. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Convergence and attractivity of memristor-based cellular neural networks with time delays.
Qin, Sitian; Wang, Jun; Xue, Xiaoping
2015-03-01
This paper presents theoretical results on the convergence and attractivity of memristor-based cellular neural networks (MCNNs) with time delays. Based on a realistic memristor model, an MCNN is modeled using a differential inclusion. The essential boundedness of its global solutions is proven. The state of MCNNs is further proven to be convergent to a critical-point set located in saturated region of the activation function, when the initial state locates in a saturated region. It is shown that the state convergence time period is finite and can be quantitatively estimated using given parameters. Furthermore, the positive invariance and attractivity of state in non-saturated regions are also proven. The simulation results of several numerical examples are provided to substantiate the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Event-Triggered Faults Tolerant Control for Stochastic Systems with Time Delays
Ling Huang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the state-feedback controller design for stochastic networked control systems (NCSs with random actuator failures and transmission delays. Firstly, an event-triggered scheme is introduced to optimize the performance of the stochastic NCSs. Secondly, stochastic NCSs under event-triggered scheme are modeled as stochastic time-delay systems. Thirdly, some less conservative delay-dependent stability criteria in terms of linear matrix inequalities for the codesign of both the controller gain and the trigger parameters are obtained by using delay-decomposition technique and convex combination approach. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the less sampled data transmission and less conservatism of the proposed theory.
Transition among synchronous schemes in coupled nonidentical multiple time delay systems
Thang Manh Hoang
2009-01-01
We present the transition among possible synchronous schemes in coupled nonidentical multiple time delay systems, i.e., lag, projective-lag, complete, anticipating and projective-anticipating synchronization. The number of nonlinear transforms in the master's equation can be different from that in slave's, and nonlinear transforms can be in various forms. The driving signal is the sum of nonlinearly transformed components of delayed state variable. Moreover, the equation representing for driving signal is constructed exactly so that the difference between the master's and slave's structures is complemented. The sufficient condition for synchronization is considered by the Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory. The specific examples will demonstrate and verify the effectiveness of the proposed models.
Two-Channel Transparency-Optimized Control Architectures in Bilateral Teleoperation With Time Delay.
Kim, Jonghyun; Chang, Pyung Hun; Park, Hyung-Soon
2013-01-01
This paper introduces transparency-optimized control architectures (TOCAs) using two communication channels. Two classes of two-channel TOCAs are found, thereby showing that two channels are sufficient to achieve transparency. These TOCAs achieve a greater level of transparency but poorer stability than three-channel TOCAs and four-channel TOCAs. Stability of the two-channel TOCAs has been enhanced while minimizing transparency degradation by adding a filter; and a combined use of the two classes of two-channel TOCAs is proposed for both free space and constrained motion, which involve switching between two TOCAs for transition between free space and constrained motions. The stability condition of the switched teleoperation system is derived for practical applications. Through the one degree-of-freedom (DOF) experiment, the proposed two-channel TOCAs were shown to operate stably, while achieving better transparency under time delay than the other TOCAs.
Two-Channel Transparency-Optimized Control Architectures in Bilateral Teleoperation With Time Delay
Kim, Jonghyun; Chang, Pyung Hun; Park, Hyung-Soon
2013-01-01
This paper introduces transparency-optimized control architectures (TOCAs) using two communication channels. Two classes of two-channel TOCAs are found, thereby showing that two channels are sufficient to achieve transparency. These TOCAs achieve a greater level of transparency but poorer stability than three-channel TOCAs and four-channel TOCAs. Stability of the two-channel TOCAs has been enhanced while minimizing transparency degradation by adding a filter; and a combined use of the two classes of two-channel TOCAs is proposed for both free space and constrained motion, which involve switching between two TOCAs for transition between free space and constrained motions. The stability condition of the switched teleoperation system is derived for practical applications. Through the one degree-of-freedom (DOF) experiment, the proposed two-channel TOCAs were shown to operate stably, while achieving better transparency under time delay than the other TOCAs. PMID:23833548
An Incremental Time-delay Neural Network for Dynamical Recurrent Associative Memory
无
2002-01-01
An incremental time-delay neural network based on synapse growth, which is suitable for dynamic control and learning of autonomous robots, is proposed to improve the learning and retrieving performance of dynamical recurrent associative memory architecture. The model allows steady and continuous establishment of associative memory for spatio-temporal regularities and time series in discrete sequence of inputs. The inserted hidden units can be taken as the long-term memories that expand the capacity of network and sometimes may fade away under certain condition. Preliminary experiment has shown that this incremental network may be a promising approach to endow autonomous robots with the ability of adapting to new data without destroying the learned patterns. The system also benefits from its potential chaos character for emergence.
Application of Time Delay Consideration on Bridge Vibration Control Method with Active Tendons
Lezin Seba MINSILI
2010-12-01
Full Text Available For many years bridge structures have been designed or constructed as passive structures that rely on their mass and solidity to resist external forces, while being incapable of adapting to the dynamics of an ever-changing environment. When the rigidity assumption is not met in particular for high-rise structures like bridge towers, a proper dynamic model should be established and conclusions made on the differential vibration of the tower when it is investigated out of the bridge system. The present work outlines a vibration control method by tendons on the tower of cable supported structures considering time delay effects, based on the discrete-time Linearization of the Feedback Gain Matrix. The efficiency of this vibration control method first proposed on the design process of a local bridge in Cameroon, is more compatible to the control of civil structures and is of great interest in accordance with simulation results.
JNDS of interaural time delay (ITD) of selected frequency bands in speech and music signals
Aliphas, Avner; Colburn, H. Steven; Ghitza, Oded
2002-05-01
JNDS of interaural time delay (ITD) of selected frequency bands in the presence of other frequency bands have been reported for noiseband stimuli [Zurek (1985); Trahiotis and Bernstein (1990)]. Similar measurements will be reported for speech and music signals. When stimuli are synthesized with bandpass/band-stop operations, performance with complex stimuli are similar to noisebands (JNDS in tens or hundreds of microseconds); however, the resulting waveforms, when viewed through a model of the auditory periphery, show distortions (irregularities in phase and level) at the boundaries of the target band of frequencies. An alternate synthesis method based upon group-delay filtering operations does not show these distortions and is being used for the current measurements. Preliminary measurements indicate that when music stimuli are created using the new techniques, JNDS of ITDs are increased significantly compared to previous studies, with values on the order of milliseconds.
Koofigar Hamid Reza
2017-09-01
Full Text Available A robust auxiliary wide area damping controller is proposed for a unified power flow controller (UPFC. The mixed H2 / H∞ problem with regional pole placement, resolved by linear matrix inequality (LMI, is applied for controller design. Based on modal analysis, the optimal wide area input signals for the controller are selected. The time delay of input signals, due to electrical distance from the UPFC location is taken into account in the design procedure. The proposed controller is applied to a multi-machine interconnected power system from the IRAN power grid. It is shown that the both transient and dynamic stability are significantly improved despite different disturbances and loading conditions.
A Dynamic Analysis of the Business Cycle Model with a Fixed-time Delay
Yuhang Zheng
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In business activities, there is a certain time lag effect in investment and capital stock, which would affect the dynamic behavior of the business cycle model and then complicate the economic stability adjustment made through investment policies. Considering the influence on investment activities caused by the expectation time about capital stock, this paper, employing the Hopf bifurcation theory, with the delay in investment as the bifurcation parameter, not only studies the equilibrium stability of the business cycle model with a fixed-time delay, but also discusses the formation conditions of the business cycle. The research discovers that the investment lag during the investing process and the expectation time about the capital stock are two crucial incentives of the business cycle; meanwhile, the expecting equilibrium target can be met through the adjustment of the government investment policies. These findings may serve as guidelines in stabilizing the business cycle and making relative economic policies. The conclusion is verified through numerical simulation.
Robust Fault Tolerant Control for a Class of Time-Delay Systems with Multiple Disturbances
Songyin Cao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A robust fault tolerant control (FTC approach is addressed for a class of nonlinear systems with time delay, actuator faults, and multiple disturbances. The first part of the multiple disturbances is supposed to be an uncertain modeled disturbance and the second one represents a norm-bounded variable. First, a composite observer is designed to estimate the uncertain modeled disturbance and actuator fault simultaneously. Then, an FTC strategy consisting of disturbance observer based control (DOBC, fault accommodation, and a mixed H2/H∞ controller is constructed to reconfigure the considered systems with disturbance rejection and attenuation performance. Finally, simulations for a flight control system are given to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.
A new delay-independent condition for global robust stability of neural networks with time delays.
Samli, Ruya
2015-06-01
This paper studies the problem of robust stability of dynamical neural networks with discrete time delays under the assumptions that the network parameters of the neural system are uncertain and norm-bounded, and the activation functions are slope-bounded. By employing the results of Lyapunov stability theory and matrix theory, new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for delayed neural networks are presented. The results reported in this paper can be easily tested by checking some special properties of symmetric matrices associated with the parameter uncertainties of neural networks. We also present a numerical example to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Information transfer via implicit encoding with delay time modulation in a time-delay system
Kye, Won-Ho, E-mail: whkye@kipo.go.kr [Korean Intellectual Property Office, Government Complex Daejeon Building 4, 189, Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2012-08-20
A new encoding scheme for information transfer with modulated delay time in a time-delay system is proposed. In the scheme, the message is implicitly encoded into the modulated delay time. The information transfer rate as a function of encoding redundancy in various noise scales is presented and it is analyzed that the implicit encoding scheme (IES) has stronger resistance against channel noise than the explicit encoding scheme (EES). In addition, its advantages in terms of secure communication and feasible applications are discussed. -- Highlights: ► We propose new encoding scheme with delay time modulation. ► The message is implicitly encoded with modulated delay time. ► The proposed scheme shows stronger resistance against channel noise.
Optimal Exponential Synchronization of Chaotic Systems with Multiple Time Delays via Fuzzy Control
Feng-Hsiag Hsiao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents an effective approach to realize the optimal exponential synchronization of multiple time-delay chaotic (MTDC systems. First, a neural network (NN model is employed to approximate the MTDC system. Then, a linear differential inclusion (LDI state-space representation is established for the dynamics of the NN model. Based on this LDI state-space representation, this study proposes a delay-dependent exponential stability criterion of the error system derived in terms of Lyapunov’s direct method to ensure that the trajectories of the slave system can approach those of the master system. Subsequently, the stability condition of this criterion is reformulated into a linear matrix inequality (LMI. Based on the LMI, a fuzzy controller is synthesized not only to realize the exponential synchronization but also to achieve the optimal performance by minimizing the disturbance attenuation level. Finally, a numerical example with simulations is provided to illustrate the concepts discussed throughout this work.
Predictor-based stabilization for chained form systems with input time delay
Mnif Faïçal
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This note addresses the stabilization problem of nonlinear chained-form systems with input time delay. We first employ the so-called σ-process transformation that renders the feedback system under a linear form. We introduce a particular transformation to convert the original system into a delay-free system. Finally, we apply a state feedback control, which guarantees a quasi-exponential stabilization to all the system states, which in turn converge exponentially to zero. Then we employ the so-called -type control to achieve a quasi-exponential stabilization of the subsequent system. A simulation example illustrated on the model of a wheeled mobile robot is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
A Heterogeneous Agent Model of Asspet Price with Three Time Delays
Akio Matsumoto
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper considers a continuous-time heterogeneous agent model ofa ...nancial market with one risky asset, two types of agents (i.e., thefundamentalists and the chartists, and three time delays. The chartistdemand is determined through a nonlinear function of the di¤erence be-tween the current price and a weighted moving average of the delayedprices whereas the fundamentalist demand is governed by the di¤erencebetween the current price and the fundamental value. The asset price dy-namics is described by a nonlinear delay di¤erential equation. Two mainresults are analytically and numerically shown:(i the delay destabilizes the market price and generates cyclic oscillationsaround the equilibrium;(ii under multiple delays, stability loss and gain repeatedly occurs as alength of the delay increases.
Robust stability for stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays
Shu, H. S.; Lv, Z. W.; Wei, G. L.
2008-02-01
In this paper, the asymptotic stability is considered for a class of uncertain stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays and parameter uncertainties. The delays are time-invariant and the uncertainties are norm-bounded that enter into all network parameters. The aim of this paper is to establish easily verifiable conditions under which the delayed neural network is robustly asymptotically stable in the mean square for all admissible parameter uncertainties. By employing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and conducting the stochastic analysis, a linear matrix inequality matrix inequality (LMI) approach is developed to derive the stability criteria. The proposed criteria can be easily checked by the Matlab LMI toolbox. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed criteria.
Time Delayed Stage-Structured Predator-Prey Model with Birth Pulse and Pest Control Tactics
Mei Yan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Normally, chemical pesticides kill not only pests but also their natural enemies. In order to better control the pests, two-time delayed stage-structured predator-prey models with birth pulse and pest control tactics are proposed and analyzed by using impulsive differential equations in present work. The stability threshold conditions for the mature prey-eradication periodic solutions of two models are derived, respectively. The effects of key parameters including killing efficiency rate, pulse period, the maximum birth effort per unit of time of natural enemy, and maturation time of prey on the threshold values are discussed in more detail. By comparing the two threshold values of mature prey-extinction, we provide the fact that the second control tactic is more effective than the first control method.
Memory State Feedback RMPC for Multiple Time-Delayed Uncertain Linear Systems with Input Constraints
Wei-Wei Qin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of asymptotic stabilization for a class of discrete-time multiple time-delayed uncertain linear systems with input constraints. Then, based on the predictive control principle of receding horizon optimization, a delayed state dependent quadratic function is considered for incorporating MPC problem formulation. By developing a memory state feedback controller, the information of the delayed plant states can be taken into full consideration. The MPC problem is formulated to minimize the upper bound of infinite horizon cost that satisfies the sufficient conditions. Then, based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii function, a delay-dependent sufficient condition in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI can be derived to design a robust MPC algorithm. Finally, the digital simulation results prove availability of the proposed method.
Wavepacket dynamics of a Rydberg atom monitored by a pair of time-delayed laser pulses
Xin, PeiPei; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, ShanShan; Wang, HanMu; Liu, HongPing
2018-02-01
We have investigated the Rydberg state population of an argon atom by an intense laser pulse and its wavepacket dynamics monitored by another successive laser pulse in the tunneling regime. A wavepacket comprising a superposition of close high-lying Rydberg states is irradiated by a multicycle laser pulse, where the sub-wave components in the wavepacket have fixed relative phases. A time-delayed second laser pulse is employed to apply on the excited Rydberg atom. If the time is properly chosen, one of the sub-wave components will be guided towards the ionization area while the rest remains intact. By means of this pump-probe technique, we could control and monitor the Rydberg wavepacket dynamics and reveal some interesting phenomenon such as the survival rate of individual Rydberg states related to the classical orbital period of electron.
Market-based control strategy for long-span structures considering the multi-time delay issue
Li, Hongnan; Song, Jianzhu; Li, Gang
2017-01-01
To solve the different time delays that exist in the control device installed on spatial structures, in this study, discrete analysis using a 2 N precise algorithm was selected to solve the multi-time-delay issue for long-span structures based on the market-based control (MBC) method. The concept of interval mixed energy was introduced from computational structural mechanics and optimal control research areas, and it translates the design of the MBC multi-time-delay controller into a solution for the segment matrix. This approach transforms the serial algorithm in time to parallel computing in space, greatly improving the solving efficiency and numerical stability. The designed controller is able to consider the issue of time delay with a linear controlling force combination and is especially effective for large time-delay conditions. A numerical example of a long-span structure was selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented controller, and the time delay was found to have a significant impact on the results.
Albers, D.J.; Hripcsak, George
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Time-delayed mutual information for irregularly sampled time-series. ► Estimation bias for the time-delayed mutual information calculation. ► Fast, simple, PDF estimator independent, time-delayed mutual information bias estimate. ► Quantification of data-set-size limits of the time-delayed mutual calculation. - Abstract: A method to estimate the time-dependent correlation via an empirical bias estimate of the time-delayed mutual information for a time-series is proposed. In particular, the bias of the time-delayed mutual information is shown to often be equivalent to the mutual information between two distributions of points from the same system separated by infinite time. Thus intuitively, estimation of the bias is reduced to estimation of the mutual information between distributions of data points separated by large time intervals. The proposed bias estimation techniques are shown to work for Lorenz equations data and glucose time series data of three patients from the Columbia University Medical Center database.
Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School
Thacher, Pamela V.; Onyper, Serge V.
2016-01-01
Study Objectives: To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. Methods: We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the “Owl-Lark” Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010–2011 through 2013–2014. Results: Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Conclusions: Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. Citation: Thacher PV, Onyper SV. Longitudinal outcomes of start time delay on sleep, behavior, and achievement in high school. SLEEP 2016;39(2):271–281. PMID
A unified approach for proportional-integral-derivative controller design for time delay processes
Shamsuzzoha, Mohammad
2015-01-01
An analytical design method for PI/PID controller tuning is proposed for several types of processes with time delay. A single tuning formula gives enhanced disturbance rejection performance. The design method is based on the IMC approach, which has a single tuning parameter to adjust the performance and robustness of the controller. A simple tuning formula gives consistently better performance as compared to several well-known methods at the same degree of robustness for stable and integrating process. The performance of the unstable process has been compared with other recently published methods which also show significant improvement in the proposed method. Furthermore, the robustness of the controller is investigated by inserting a perturbation uncertainty in all parameters simultaneously, again showing comparable results with other methods. An analysis has been performed for the uncertainty margin in the different process parameters for the robust controller design. It gives the guidelines of the M s setting for the PI controller design based on the process parameters uncertainty. For the selection of the closed-loop time constant, (τ c ), a guideline is provided over a broad range of θ/τ ratios on the basis of the peak of maximum uncertainty (M s ). A comparison of the IAE has been conducted for the wide range of θ/τ ratio for the first order time delay process. The proposed method shows minimum IAE in compared to SIMC, while Lee et al. shows poor disturbance rejection in the lag dominant process. In the simulation study, the controllers were tuned to have the same degree of robustness by measuring the M s , to obtain a reasonable comparison
Mansor Nuratiqa Natrah
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Bilateral master-slave industrial robotic arm manipulator system is an advanced technology used to help human to interact with environments that are unreachable to human, due to its remoteness or perilous. The system has been used in different areas such as tele-surgery, autonomous tele-operation for sea and space operation and handling explosive or high radiation operation fields. It is beneficial both for science and society. Remarkably, the system is not common and generally used in Malaysia. Likewise, the number of research conducted that focused about this technology in our country manufacturing industry are not yet discovered and existent. The implementation of this bilateral manipulator system in an industrial robot could be useful for industrial imminent and development over our country and people, specifically for production yield size and human operative. Hence, the study of bilateral robotic arm manipulator system in an industrial robot and analyzation of its performance and time delay in 3 differ controllers will be discussed to attest the efficiency and its effectiveness on the said design system. The experiment conducted was on KUKA youBot arm in V-Rep simulation with three different controllers (P, PD, PID.
Kushnirsky, Marina; Nguyen, Vinh; Katz, Joel S; Steinklein, Jared; Rosen, Lisa; Warshall, Craig; Schulder, Michael; Knisely, Jonathan P S
2016-02-01
Contrast-enhanced MRI is the preeminent diagnostic test for brain metastasis (BM). Detection of BMs for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) planning may improve with a time delay following administration of a high-relaxivity agent for 1.5-T and 3-T imaging systems. Metastasis detection with time-delayed MRI was evaluated in this study. Fifty-three volumetric MRI studies from 38 patients undergoing SRS for BMs were evaluated. All studies used 0.1-mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance; Bracco Diagnostics) immediately after injection, followed by 2 more axial T1-weighted sequences after 5-minute intervals (final image acquisition commenced 15 minutes after contrast injection). Two studies were motion limited and excluded. Two hundred eighty-seven BMs were identified. The studies were randomized and examined separately by 3 radiologists, who were blinded to the temporal sequence. Each radiologist recorded the number of BMs detected per scan. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test compared BM numbers between scans. One radiologist determined the scan on which BMs were best defined. All confirmed, visible tumors were contoured using iPlan RT treatment planning software on each of the 3 MRI data sets. A linear mixed model was used to analyze volume changes. The interclass correlations for Scans 1, 2, and 3 were 0.7392, 0.7951, and 0.7290, respectively, demonstrating excellent interrater reliability. At least 1 new lesion was detected in the second scan as compared with the first in 35.3% of subjects (95% CI 22.4%-49.9%). The increase in BM numbers between Scans 1 and 2 ranged from 1 to 10. At least 1 new lesion was detected in the third scan as compared with the second in 21.6% of subjects (95% CI 11.3%-35.3%). The increase in BM numbers between Scans 2 and 3 ranged from 1 to 9. Between Scans 1 and 3, additional tumors were seen on 43.1% of scans (increase ranged from 1 to 14). The median increase in tumor number for all comparisons was 1. There was a significant increase in number
Time delay and profit accumulation effect on a mine-based uranium market clearing model
Auzans, Aris; Teder, Allan; Tkaczyk, Alan H.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Improved version of a mine-based uranium market clearing model for the front-end uranium market and enrichment industries is proposed. • A profit accumulation algorithm and time delay function provides more realistic uranium mine decision making process. • Operational decision delay increased uranium market price volatility. - Abstract: The mining industry faces a number of challenges such as market volatility, investment safety, issues surrounding employment and productivity. Therefore, computer simulations are highly relevant in order to reduce financial risks associated with these challenges. In the mining industry, each firm must compete with other mines and the basic target is profit maximization. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the world uranium (U) supply by simulating financial management challenges faced by an individual U mine that are caused by a variety of regulation issues. In this paper front-end nuclear fuel cycle tool is used to simulate market conditions and the effects they have on the stability of U supply. An individual U mine’s exit or entry in the market might cause changes in the U supply side which can increase or decrease the market price. In this paper we offer a more advanced version of a mine-based U market clearing model. The existing U market model incorporates the market of primary U from uranium mines with secondary uranium (depleted uranium DU), enriched uranium (HEU) and enrichment services. In the model each uranium mine acts as an independent agent that is able to make operational decisions based on the market price. This paper introduces a more realistic decision making algorithm of individual U mine that adds constraints to production decisions. The authors added an accumulated profit model, which allows for the profits accumulated to cover any possible future economic losses and the time-delay algorithm to simulate delayed process of reopening a U mine. The U market simulation covers time period 2010
Time delay and profit accumulation effect on a mine-based uranium market clearing model
Auzans, Aris [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Teder, Allan [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu, Narva mnt 4, EE-51009 Tartu (Estonia); Tkaczyk, Alan H., E-mail: alan@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia)
2016-12-15
Highlights: • Improved version of a mine-based uranium market clearing model for the front-end uranium market and enrichment industries is proposed. • A profit accumulation algorithm and time delay function provides more realistic uranium mine decision making process. • Operational decision delay increased uranium market price volatility. - Abstract: The mining industry faces a number of challenges such as market volatility, investment safety, issues surrounding employment and productivity. Therefore, computer simulations are highly relevant in order to reduce financial risks associated with these challenges. In the mining industry, each firm must compete with other mines and the basic target is profit maximization. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the world uranium (U) supply by simulating financial management challenges faced by an individual U mine that are caused by a variety of regulation issues. In this paper front-end nuclear fuel cycle tool is used to simulate market conditions and the effects they have on the stability of U supply. An individual U mine’s exit or entry in the market might cause changes in the U supply side which can increase or decrease the market price. In this paper we offer a more advanced version of a mine-based U market clearing model. The existing U market model incorporates the market of primary U from uranium mines with secondary uranium (depleted uranium DU), enriched uranium (HEU) and enrichment services. In the model each uranium mine acts as an independent agent that is able to make operational decisions based on the market price. This paper introduces a more realistic decision making algorithm of individual U mine that adds constraints to production decisions. The authors added an accumulated profit model, which allows for the profits accumulated to cover any possible future economic losses and the time-delay algorithm to simulate delayed process of reopening a U mine. The U market simulation covers time period 2010
Wilde, Danielle; Underwood, Jenny
2018-01-01
the research potential to far-ranging possibilities. In this article we unpack the motivations driving the PKI project. We present our mixed-methodology, which entangles textile crafts, design interactions and materiality to shape an embodied enquiry. Our research outcomes are procedural and methodological......New materials with new capabilities demand new ways of approaching design. Destabilising existing methods is crucial to develop new methods. Yet, radical destabilisation—where outcomes remain unknown long enough that new discoveries become possible—is not easy in technology design where complex......, to design towards unknown outcomes, using unknown materials. The impossibility of this task is proving as useful as it is disruptive. At its most potent, it is destabilising expectations, aesthetics and processes. Keeping the researchers, collaborators and participants in a state of unknowing, is opening...
Mitryk, Shawn J; Wand, Vinzenz; Mueller, Guido, E-mail: smitryk@phys.ufl.ed, E-mail: mueller@phys.ufl.ed [Department of Physics, University of Florida, PO Box 118440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States)
2010-04-21
Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a cooperative NASA/ESA mission proposed to directly measure gravitational waves (GW) in the frequency range from 30 muHz to 1 Hz with an optimal strain sensitivity of 10{sup -21}/sq root(Hz) at 3 mHz. LISA will utilize a modified Michelson interferometer to measure length changes of 40 pm/sq root(Hz) between drag-free proof masses located on three separate spacecraft (SC) separated by a distance of 5 Gm. The University of Florida has developed a hardware-in-the-loop simulator of the LISA constellation to verify the laser noise cancellation technique known as time-delay interferometry (TDI). We replicate the frequency stabilization of the laser on the local SC and the phase-locking of the lasers on the far SC. The laser photodetector beatnotes are electronically delayed, Doppler shifted and applied with a mock GW signal to simulate the laser link between the SC. The beatnotes are also measured with a LISA-like phasemeter and the data are used to extract the laser phase and residual phase-lock loop noise in post-processing through TDI. This uncovers the GW modulation signal buried under the laser noise. The results are then compared to the requirements defined by the LISA science collaboration.
Supernovae Ia in 2017: a long time delay from merger/accretion to explosion
Soker, Noam
2018-04-01
I use recent observational and theoretical studies of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to further constrain the viable SN Ia scenarios and to argue that there must be a substantial time delay between the end of the merger of the white dwarf (WD) with a companion or the end of mass accretion on to the WD and its terminal explosion. This merger/accretion to explosion delay (MED) is required to allow the binary system to lead to a more or less spherical explosion and to prevent a pre-explosion ionizing radiation. Considering these recent results and the required MED, I conclude that the core degenerate scenario is somewhat more favorable over the other scenarios, followed by the double degenerate scenario. Although the single degenerate scenario is viable as well, it is less likely to account for common (normal) SN Ia. As all scenarios require substantial MED, the MED has turned from a disadvantage of the core degenerate scenario to a challenge that theory should overcome. I hope that the requirement for a MED will stimulate the discussion of the different SN Ia scenarios and the comparison of the scenarios to each other.
The Influence of Gene Expression Time Delays on Gierer–Meinhardt Pattern Formation Systems
Seirin Lee, S.
2010-03-23
There are numerous examples of morphogen gradients controlling long range signalling in developmental and cellular systems. The prospect of two such interacting morphogens instigating long range self-organisation in biological systems via a Turing bifurcation has been explored, postulated, or implicated in the context of numerous developmental processes. However, modelling investigations of cellular systems typically neglect the influence of gene expression on such dynamics, even though transcription and translation are observed to be important in morphogenetic systems. In particular, the influence of gene expression on a large class of Turing bifurcation models, namely those with pure kinetics such as the Gierer-Meinhardt system, is unexplored. Our investigations demonstrate that the behaviour of the Gierer-Meinhardt model profoundly changes on the inclusion of gene expression dynamics and is sensitive to the sub-cellular details of gene expression. Features such as concentration blow up, morphogen oscillations and radical sensitivities to the duration of gene expression are observed and, at best, severely restrict the possible parameter spaces for feasible biological behaviour. These results also indicate that the behaviour of Turing pattern formation systems on the inclusion of gene expression time delays may provide a means of distinguishing between possible forms of interaction kinetics. Finally, this study also emphasises that sub-cellular and gene expression dynamics should not be simply neglected in models of long range biological pattern formation via morphogens. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.
Yeun-Sub Byun
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The real-time recognition of absolute (or relative position and orientation on a network of roads is a core technology for fully automated or driving-assisted vehicles. This paper presents an empirical investigation of the design, implementation, and evaluation of a self-positioning system based on a magnetic marker reference sensing method for an autonomous vehicle. Specifically, the estimation accuracy of the magnetic sensing ruler (MSR in the up-to-date estimation of the actual position was successfully enhanced by compensating for time delays in signal processing when detecting the vertical magnetic field (VMF in an array of signals. In this study, the signal processing scheme was developed to minimize the effects of the distortion of measured signals when estimating the relative positional information based on magnetic signals obtained using the MSR. In other words, the center point in a 2D magnetic field contour plot corresponding to the actual position of magnetic markers was estimated by tracking the errors between pre-defined reference models and measured magnetic signals. The algorithm proposed in this study was validated by experimental measurements using a test vehicle on a pilot network of roads. From the results, the positioning error was found to be less than 0.04 m on average in an operational test.
Yu, Bin; Xu, Jia-Meng; Li, Shan; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Rui-Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ming-Hui
2017-10-06
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) research reveals complex life phenomena from the perspective of gene interaction, which is an important research field in systems biology. Traditional Bayesian networks have a high computational complexity, and the network structure scoring model has a single feature. Information-based approaches cannot identify the direction of regulation. In order to make up for the shortcomings of the above methods, this paper presents a novel hybrid learning method (DBNCS) based on dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) to construct the multiple time-delayed GRNs for the first time, combining the comprehensive score (CS) with the DBN model. DBNCS algorithm first uses CMI2NI (conditional mutual inclusive information-based network inference) algorithm for network structure profiles learning, namely the construction of search space. Then the redundant regulations are removed by using the recursive optimization algorithm (RO), thereby reduce the false positive rate. Secondly, the network structure profiles are decomposed into a set of cliques without loss, which can significantly reduce the computational complexity. Finally, DBN model is used to identify the direction of gene regulation within the cliques and search for the optimal network structure. The performance of DBNCS algorithm is evaluated by the benchmark GRN datasets from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in Escherichia coli , and compared with other state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the rationality of the algorithm design and the outstanding performance of the GRNs.
LISA time-delay interferometry zero-signal solution: Geometrical properties
Tinto, Massimo; Larson, Shane L.
2004-01-01
Time-delay interferometry (TDI) is the data processing technique needed for generating interferometric combinations of data measured by the multiple Doppler readouts available onboard the three Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) spacecraft. Within the space of all possible interferometric combinations TDI can generate, we have derived a specific combination that has zero response to the gravitational wave signal, and called it the zero-signal solution (ZSS). This is a two-parameter family of linear combinations of the generators of the TDI space, and its response to a gravitational wave becomes null when these two parameters coincide with the values of the angles of the source location in the sky. Remarkably, the ZSS does not rely on any assumptions about the gravitational waveform, and in fact it works for waveforms of any kind. Our approach is analogous to the data analysis method introduced by Guersel and Tinto in the context of networks of Earth-based, wideband, interferometric gravitational wave detectors observing in coincidence a gravitational wave burst. The ZSS should be regarded as an application of the Guersel and Tinto method to the LISA data
Self-excited vibration control for axially fast excited beam by a time delay state feedback
Hamdi, Mustapha; Belhaq, Mohamed
2009-01-01
This work examines the control of self-excited vibration of a simply-supported beam subjected to an axially high-frequency excitation. The investigation of the resonant cases are not considered in this paper. The control is implemented via a corrective position feedback with time delay. The objective of this control is to eliminate the undesirable self-excited vibrations with an appropriate choice of parameters. The issue of stability is also addressed in this paper. Using the technique of direct partition of motion, the dynamic of discretized equations is separated into slow and fast components. The multiple scales method is then performed on the slow dynamic to obtain a slow flow for the amplitude and phase. Analysis of this slow flow provides analytical approximations locating regions in parameters space where undesirable self-excited vibration can be eliminated. A numerical study of these regions is performed on the original discretized system and compared to the analytical prediction showing a good agreement.
Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems
Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang
2014-07-01
We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.
A system for gas electrical breakdown time delay measurements based on a microcontroller
Todorović, Miomir; Vasović, Nikola D; Ristić, Goran S
2012-01-01
A new system, called gasmem v1.0, for the measurements of gas electrical breakdown time delay (t d ), with significantly better characteristics than older systems, has been developed and realized. It is based on the PIC 18F4550 microcontroller and could measure the minimal t d of about 1.5 μs with the resolution of 83.33 ns. The relaxation (afterglow) period (τ) could vary from 1 to 2 32 ms (≈50 days). The successive series of t d measurements with various τ could be performed, giving very reliable t d data that are stored on the personal computer (PC) hard drive via the USB interface. The t d and τ values enable the drawing of memory curves ((t d ) = f(τ)) and the analysis of memory effects in the gases. The randomness of t d values measured by the gasmem system for more τ values was tested using the nonparametric Wald–Wolfowitz test showing the stochastic nature of obtained results. The memory curves obtained by this system have shown very high reproducibility. In addition, the system has a capability of operating as a stand-alone system (independently of a PC), with the possibility for the implementation of a touch screen for controlling the system and additional memory (e.g. memory card) for data storage
Synchronization of Coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo Neurons Using Self-Feedback Time Delay
Fan, Denggui; Song, Xinle; Liao, Fucheng
Many neurological diseases are characterized by abnormally synchronous oscillations of neuronal populations. However, how the neurons can synchronize with each other is still not fully understood, which may have potentially hampered the understanding and diagnosis for these dynamical diseases. In this paper, the self-feedback time delay (SFTD) and adaptive control theory are employed to control the onset of synchronization in the coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neurons. It is found that the larger SFTD can induce the complete synchronization of coupled neuronal system. Further investigation reveals that the reinforcing SFTD can significantly postpone the synchronization onsets. In addition, for the case that synchronization cannot be achieved by adjusting SFTD, the parameter estimation update laws and adaptive controller with respect to SFTD of coupled system are investigated to deduce the sufficient condition for complete synchronization. Simulations are also provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. In particular, we observed the fascinating dynamical synchronization transitions, such as chaotic synchronization and bursting synchronization transitions, as well as the transition from anti-synchronization to complete synchronization.
Li Jin; Jin Long-Xu; Zhang Ran-Feng
2013-01-01
Multispectral time delay and integration charge coupled device (TDICCD) image compression requires a low-complexity encoder because it is usually completed on board where the energy and memory are limited. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) has proposed an image data compression (CCSDS-IDC) algorithm which is so far most widely implemented in hardware. However, it cannot reduce spectral redundancy in multispectral images. In this paper, we propose a low-complexity improved CCSDS-IDC (ICCSDS-IDC)-based distributed source coding (DSC) scheme for multispectral TDICCD image consisting of a few bands. Our scheme is based on an ICCSDS-IDC approach that uses a bit plane extractor to parse the differences in the original image and its wavelet transformed coefficient. The output of bit plane extractor will be encoded by a first order entropy coder. Low-density parity-check-based Slepian—Wolf (SW) coder is adopted to implement the DSC strategy. Experimental results on space multispectral TDICCD images show that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the CCSDS-IDC-based coder in each band
Bilateral control of master-slave manipulators with constant time delay.
Forouzantabar, A; Talebi, H A; Sedigh, A K
2012-01-01
This paper presents a novel teleoperation controller for a nonlinear master-slave robotic system with constant time delay in communication channel. The proposed controller enables the teleoperation system to compensate human and environmental disturbances, while achieving master and slave position coordination in both free motion and contact situation. The current work basically extends the passivity based architecture upon the earlier work of Lee and Spong (2006) [14] to improve position tracking and consequently transparency in the face of disturbances and environmental contacts. The proposed controller employs a PID controller in each side to overcome some limitations of a PD controller and guarantee an improved performance. Moreover, by using Fourier transform and Parseval's identity in the frequency domain, we demonstrate that this new PID controller preserves the passivity of the system. Simulation and semi-experimental results show that the PID controller tracking performance is superior to that of the PD controller tracking performance in slave/environmental contacts. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analysis of a Dynamical Cournot Duopoly Game with Distributed Time Delay
SÎrghi Nicoleta
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the dynamic model of the Cournot duopoly game with bounded rationality associated to two firms. We consider the cost function of the first firm as nonlinear and for the second firm as linear. The players do not have a complete knowledge of the market and they follow a bounded rationality adjustment process based on the estimation of the marginal profit. Also, the distributed time delay is introduced, because the decisions at the current time depend on the average past decisions. The mathematical model is described by a distributed delay differential system with two nonlinear equations. The study for the local stability of the Nash equilibrium point is carried out in the case of two types of kernels: weak (exponential and Dirac. A change in local stability of the equilibrium point, from stable to unstable, implies a Hopf bifurcation. The delays are considered as bifurcation parameters. In some conditions of the parameters of the model, we have proved that a family of periodic solutions bifurcates from the equilibrium point when the bifurcation parameter passes through a critical value. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of our results. Finally, conclusions and future researches are provided.
Robust control for a biaxial servo with time delay system based on adaptive tuning technique.
Chen, Tien-Chi; Yu, Chih-Hsien
2009-07-01
A robust control method for synchronizing a biaxial servo system motion is proposed in this paper. A new network based cross-coupled control and adaptive tuning techniques are used together to cancel out the skew error. The conventional fixed gain PID cross-coupled controller (CCC) is replaced with the adaptive cross-coupled controller (ACCC) in the proposed control scheme to maintain biaxial servo system synchronization motion. Adaptive-tuning PID (APID) position and velocity controllers provide the necessary control actions to maintain synchronization while following a variable command trajectory. A delay-time compensator (DTC) with an adaptive controller was augmented to set the time delay element, effectively moving it outside the closed loop, enhancing the stability of the robust controlled system. This scheme provides strong robustness with respect to uncertain dynamics and disturbances. The simulation and experimental results reveal that the proposed control structure adapts to a wide range of operating conditions and provides promising results under parameter variations and load changes.
Bravo-Zanoguera, Miguel E; Laris, Casey A; Nguyen, Lam K; Oliva, Mike; Price, Jeffrey H
2007-01-01
Efficient image cytometry of a conventional microscope slide means rapid acquisition and analysis of 20 gigapixels of image data (at 0.3-microm sampling). The voluminous data motivate increased acquisition speed to enable many biomedical applications. Continuous-motion time-delay-and-integrate (TDI) scanning has the potential to speed image acquisition while retaining sensitivity, but the challenge of implementing high-resolution autofocus operating simultaneously with acquisition has limited its adoption. We develop a dynamic autofocus system for this need using: 1. a "volume camera," consisting of nine fiber optic imaging conduits to charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors, that acquires images in parallel from different focal planes, 2. an array of mixed analog-digital processing circuits that measure the high spatial frequencies of the multiple image streams to create focus indices, and 3. a software system that reads and analyzes the focus data streams and calculates best focus for closed feedback loop control. Our system updates autofocus at 56 Hz (or once every 21 microm of stage travel) to collect sharply focused images sampled at 0.3x0.3 microm(2)/pixel at a stage speed of 2.3 mms. The system, tested by focusing in phase contrast and imaging long fluorescence strips, achieves high-performance closed-loop image-content-based autofocus in continuous scanning for the first time.
A fortran programme for determining frequency responses for linear systems with time delays
Milsom, P.R.
1966-11-01
In this report a digital computer programme for evaluating frequency responses is described. In its standard form the programme is capable of determining the gain and phase of up to 35 variables over a range of up to 30 frequencies for a system described by up to 65 equations. The equations must be either first order differential or algebraic and either type may include time delayed terms. Up to 50 such terms are permissible throughout the equation set. Provision is made for up to 10 inputs and up to 50 differentiated input terms are permitted throughout the equation set. However, it is possible for the user to increase a maximum dimension, albeit at the expense of another array dimension. In punching the data from the equations the user has no sorting or arranging of coefficients to do, and the equations may be in any order. The specifying of other input information, such as frequency range, the inputs to be perturbed and the variables for which frequency responses are required, is also very straightforward. (author)
Mortality in patients with TIMI 3 flow after PCI in relation to time delay to reperfusion.
Vichova, Teodora; Maly, Marek; Ulman, Jaroslav; Motovska, Zuzana
2016-03-01
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed within 12 h from symptom onset enables complete blood flow restoration in infarct-related artery in 90% of patients. Nevertheless, even with complete restoration of epicardial blood flow in culprit vessel (postprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 3), myocardial perfusion at tissue level may be insufficient. We hypothesized that the outcome of patients with STEMI/bundle branch block (BBB)-myocardial infarction and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow is related to the time to reperfusion. Observational study based on a retrospective analysis of population of 635 consecutive patients with STEMI/BBB-MI and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow from January 2009 to December 2011 (mean age 63 years, 69.6% males). Mortality of patients was evaluated in relation to the time from symptom onset to reperfusion. A total of 83 patients (13.07%) with postprocedural TIMI 3 flow after PCI had died at 1-year follow-up. Median TD in patients who survived was 3.92 h (iqr 5.43), in patients who died 6.0 h (iqr 11.42), P = 0.004. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified time delay ≥ 9 h as significantly related to 1-year mortality of patients with STEMI/BBB-MI and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow (OR 1.958, P = 0.026). Other significant variables associated with mortality in multivariate regression analysis were: left ventricle ejection fraction 65 years (P 2 (P PCI.
A TWO-YEAR TIME DELAY FOR THE LENSED QUASAR SDSS J1029+2623
Fohlmeister, Janine; Wambsganss, Joachim [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Falco, Emilio E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Oguri, Masamune [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Dai, Xinyu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)
2013-02-20
We present 279 epochs of optical monitoring data spanning 5.4 years from 2007 January to 2012 June for the largest image separation (22.''6) gravitationally lensed quasar, SDSS J1029+2623. We find that image A leads the images B and C by {Delta} t {sub AB} = (744 {+-} 10) days (90% confidence); the uncertainty includes both statistical uncertainties and systematic differences due to the choice of models. With only a {approx}1% fractional error, the interpretation of the delay is limited primarily by cosmic variance due to fluctuations in the mean line-of-sight density. We cannot separate the fainter image C from image B, but since image C trails image B by only 2-3 days in all models, the estimate of the time delay between images A and B is little affected by combining the fluxes of images B and C. There is weak evidence for a low level of microlensing, perhaps created by the small galaxy responsible for the flux ratio anomaly in this system. Interpreting the delay depends on better constraining the shape of the gravitational potential using the lensed host galaxy, other lensed arcs, and the structure of the X-ray emission.
Rajagopal, Karthikeyan; Jafari, Sajad; Akgul, Akif; Karthikeyan, Anitha; Çiçek, Serdar; Shekofteh, Yasser
2018-05-01
In this paper, we report a novel chaotic snap oscillator with one nonlinear function. Dynamic analysis of the system shows the existence of bistability. To study the time delay effects on the proposed snap oscillator, we introduce multiple time delay in the fourth state equation. Investigation of dynamical properties of the time-delayed system shows that the snap oscillator exhibits the same multistable properties as the nondelayed system. The new multistable hyperjerk chaotic system has been tested in chaos shift keying and symmetric choc shift keying modulated communication designs for engineering applications. It has been determined that the symmetric chaos shift keying modulated communication system implemented with the new chaotic system is more successful than the chaos shift keying modulation for secure communication. Also, circuit implementation of the chaotic snap oscillator with tangent function is carried out showing its feasibility.
Dynamic Analysis for a Kaldor–Kalecki Model of Business Cycle with Time Delay and Diffusion Effect
Wenjie Hu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamics behaviors of Kaldor–Kalecki business cycle model with diffusion effect and time delay under the Neumann boundary conditions are investigated. First the conditions of time-independent and time-dependent stability are investigated. Then, we find that the time delay can give rise to the Hopf bifurcation when the time delay passes a critical value. Moreover, the normal form of Hopf bifurcations is obtained by using the center manifold theorem and normal form theory of the partial differential equation, which can determine the bifurcation direction and the stability of the periodic solutions. Finally, numerical results not only validate the obtained theorems, but also show that the diffusion coefficients play a key role in the spatial pattern. With the diffusion coefficients increasing, different patterns appear.
Violon, D
2012-12-01
To develop a multicompartment model of only essential human body components that predicts the contrast medium concentration vs time curve in a chosen compartment after an intravenous injection. Also to show that the model can be used to time adequately contrast-enhanced CT series. A system of linked time delay instead of ordinary differential equations described the model and was solved with a Matlab program (Matlab v. 6.5; The Mathworks, Inc., Natick, MA). All the injection and physiological parameters were modified to cope with normal or pathological situations. In vivo time-concentration curves from the literature were recalculated to validate the model. The recalculated contrast medium time-concentration curves and parameters are given. The results of the statistical analysis of the study findings are expressed as the median prediction error and the median absolute prediction error values for both the time delay and ordinary differential equation systems; these are situated well below the generally accepted maximum 20% limit. The presented program correctly predicts the time-concentration curve of an intravenous contrast medium injection and, consequently, allows an individually tailored approach of CT examinations with optimised use of the injected contrast medium volume, as long as time delay instead of ordinary differential equations are used. The presented program offers good preliminary knowledge of the time-contrast medium concentration curve after any intravenous injection, allowing adequate timing of a CT examination, required by the short scan time of present-day scanners. The injected volume of contrast medium can be tailored to the individual patient with no more contrast medium than is strictly needed.
Chu, Y X; Liang, X Y; Yu, L H; Xu, L; Lu, X M; Liu, Y Q; Leng, Y X; Li, R X; Xu, Z Z
2013-01-01
Theoretical and experimental investigations are carried out to determine the influence of the time delay between the input seed pulse and pump pulses on transverse parasitic lasing in a Ti:sapphire amplifier with a diameter of 80 mm, which is clad by a refractive index-matched liquid doped with an absorber. When the time delay is optimized, a maximum output energy of 50.8 J is achieved at a pump energy of 105 J, which corresponds to a conversion efficiency of 47.5%. Based on the existing compressor, the laser system achieves a peak power of 1.26 PW with a 29.0 fs pulse duration. (letter)
Xuepeng Li
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Sufficient conditions for permanence of a semi-ratio-dependent predator-prey system with nonmonotonic functional response and time delay ̇1(=1([1(−11(1(−(−12(2(/(2+21(], ̇2(=2([2(−21(2(/1(], are obtained, where 1( and 2( stand for the density of the prey and the predator, respectively, and ≠0 is a constant. (≥0 stands for the time delays due to negative feedback of the prey population.
应阳君; 黄祖洽
2001-01-01
Frequency catastrophe is found in a cell Ca2+ nonlinear oscillation model with time delay. The relation of the frequency transition to the time delay is studied by numerical simulations and theoretical analysis. There is a range of parameters in which two kinds of attractors with great frequency differences co-exist in the system. Along with parameter changes, a critical phenomenon occurs and the oscillation frequency changes greatly. This mechanism helps us to deepen the understanding of the complex dynamics of delay systems, and might be of some meaning in cell signalling.
Fuzzy model-based adaptive synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems
Vasegh, Nastaran; Majd, Vahid Johari
2009-01-01
In this paper, fuzzy model-based synchronization of a class of first order chaotic systems described by delayed-differential equations is addressed. To design the fuzzy controller, the chaotic system is modeled by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system considering the properties of the nonlinear part of the system. Assuming that the parameters of the chaotic system are unknown, an adaptive law is derived to estimate these unknown parameters, and the stability of error dynamics is guaranteed by Lyapunov theory. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed adaptive synchronization approach.
Modulator noise suppression in the LISA time-delay interferometric combinations
Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J W; Estabrook, Frank B
2008-01-01
Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a mission to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation through its influence on the phases of six modulated laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft. We previously showed how the measurements of some 18 time series of relative frequency or phase shifts could be combined (1) to cancel the phase noise of the lasers, (2) to cancel the Doppler fluctuations due to non-inertial motions of the six optical benches and (3) to remove the phase noise of the onboard reference oscillators required to track the photodetector fringes, all the while preserving signals from passing gravitational waves. Here we analyze the effect of the additional noise due to the optical modulators used for removing the phase fluctuations of the onboard reference oscillators. We use the recently measured noise spectrum of an individual modulator (Klipstein et al 2006 Proc. 6th Int. LISA Symp. (Greenbelt, MA) (AIP Conf. Proc. vol 873) ed S M Merkowitz and J C Livas pp 19-23) to quantify the contribution of modulator noise to the first and second-generation time-delay interferometric (TDI) combinations as a function of the modulation frequency. We show that modulator noise can be made smaller than the expected proof-mass acceleration and optical-path noises if the modulation frequencies are larger than ∼682 MHz in the case of the unequal-arm Michelson TDI combination X 1 , ∼ 1.08 GHz for the Sagnac TDI combination α 1 , and ∼706 MHz for the symmetrical Sagnac TDI combination ζ 1 . These modulation frequencies are substantially smaller than previously estimated and may lead to less stringent requirements on the LISA's oscillator noise calibration subsystem. The measurements in Klipstein et al were performed in a laboratory experiment for a range of modulation frequencies, but we emphasize that, for the reference oscillator noise calibration algorithm to work, the modulation frequencies must be equal to the
Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School.
Thacher, Pamela V; Onyper, Serge V
2016-02-01
To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the "Owl-Lark" Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010-2011 through 2013-2014. Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
A novel control framework for nonlinear time-delayed dual-master/single-slave teleoperation.
Ghorbanian, A; Rezaei, S M; Khoogar, A R; Zareinejad, M; Baghestan, K
2013-03-01
A novel trilateral control architecture for the Dual-master/Single-slave teleoperation is proposed in this paper. This framework has been used in surgical training and rehabilitation applications. In this structure, the slave motion has been controlled by weighted summation of signals transmitted by the operator referring to task control authority through the dominance factors. The nonlinear dynamics for telemanipulators are considered which were considered as disregarded issues in previous studies of this field. Bounded variable time-delay has been considered which affects the transmitted signals in the communication channels. Two types of controllers have been offered and an appropriate stability analysis for each controller has been demonstrated. The first controller includes Proportional with dissipative gains (P+d). The second one contains Proportional and Derivative with dissipative gains (PD+d). In both cases, the stability of the trilateral control framework is preserved by choosing appropriate controller's gains. It is shown that these controllers attempt to coordinate the positions of telemanipulators in the free motion condition. The stability of the Dual-master/Single-slave teleoperation has been proved by an appropriate Lyapunov like function and the stability conditions have been studied. In addition the proposed PD+d control architecture is modified for trilateral teleoperation with internet communication between telemanipulators that caused such communication complications as packet loss, data duplication and swapping. A number of experiments have been conducted with various levels of dominance factor to validate the effectiveness of the new control architecture. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Generation of chaotic radiation in a driven traveling wave tube amplifier with time-delayed feedback
Marchewka, Chad; Larsen, Paul; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Booske, John; Sengele, Sean; Ryskin, Nikita; Titov, Vladimir
2006-01-01
The application of chaos in communications and radar offers new and interesting possibilities. This article describes investigations on the generation of chaos in a traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and the experimental parameters responsible for sustaining stable chaos. Chaos is generated in a TWT amplifier when it is made to operate in a highly nonlinear regime by recirculating a fraction of the TWT output power back to the input in a delayed feedback configuration. A driver wave provides a constant external force to the system making it behave like a forced nonlinear oscillator. The effects of the feedback bandwidth, intensity, and phase are described. The study illuminates the different transitions to chaos and the effect of parameters such as the frequency and intensity of the driver wave. The detuning frequency, i.e., difference frequency between the driver wave and the natural oscillation of the system, has been identified as being an important physical parameter for controlling evolution to chaos. Among the observed routes to chaos, besides the more common period doubling, a new route called loss of frequency locking occurs when the driving frequency is adjacent to a natural oscillation mode. The feedback bandwidth controls the nonlinear dynamics of the system, particularly the number of natural oscillation modes. A computational model has been developed to simulate the experiments and reasonably good agreement is obtained between them. Experiments are described that demonstrate the feasibility of chaotic communications using two TWTs, where one is operated as a driven chaotic oscillator and the other as a time-delayed, open-loop amplifier
Generation of chaotic radiation in a driven traveling wave tube amplifier with time-delayed feedback
Marchewka, Chad; Larsen, Paul; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Booske, John; Sengele, Sean; Ryskin, Nikita; Titov, Vladimir
2006-01-01
The application of chaos in communications and radar offers new and interesting possibilities. This article describes investigations on the generation of chaos in a traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and the experimental parameters responsible for sustaining stable chaos. Chaos is generated in a TWT amplifier when it is made to operate in a highly nonlinear regime by recirculating a fraction of the TWT output power back to the input in a delayed feedback configuration. A driver wave provides a constant external force to the system making it behave like a forced nonlinear oscillator. The effects of the feedback bandwidth, intensity, and phase are described. The study illuminates the different transitions to chaos and the effect of parameters such as the frequency and intensity of the driver wave. The detuning frequency, i.e., difference frequency between the driver wave and the natural oscillation of the system, has been identified as being an important physical parameter for controlling evolution to chaos. Among the observed routes to chaos, besides the more common period doubling, a new route called loss of frequency locking occurs when the driving frequency is adjacent to a natural oscillation mode. The feedback bandwidth controls the nonlinear dynamics of the system, particularly the number of natural oscillation modes. A computational model has been developed to simulate the experiments and reasonably good agreement is obtained between them. Experiments are described that demonstrate the feasibility of chaotic communications using two TWTs, where one is operated as a driven chaotic oscillator and the other as a time-delayed, open-loop amplifier.
Robust and Transparent Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Bilateral Teleoperation with Time-Delay
Pinto Rebelo, J.L.
2015-01-01
Robots are particularly well suited for executing tasks that take place in locations which are too dangerous or inaccessible to human operators. For robot manipulators to execute complex activities in unknown, unstructured environments, despite the recent increases in computation power, human input
Mi, Yang; Hao, Xuezhi; Liu, Yongjuan
2017-01-01
The interconnected time-delay power system has become an important issue for the open communication network. Meanwhile, due to the output power fluctuation of integrated wind energy, load frequency control (LFC) for power system with variable sources and loads has become more complicated. The novel...
More, Anupreeta; Oguri, Masamune; More, Surhud [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Suyu, Sherry H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lee, Chien-Hsiu, E-mail: anupreeta.more@ipmu.jp [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
2017-02-01
We present predictions for time delays between multiple images of the gravitationally lensed supernova, iPTF16geu, which was recently discovered from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). As the supernova is of Type Ia where the intrinsic luminosity is usually well known, accurately measured time delays of the multiple images could provide tight constraints on the Hubble constant. According to our lens mass models constrained by the Hubble Space Telescope F814W image, we expect the maximum relative time delay to be less than a day, which is consistent with the maximum of 100 hr reported by Goobar et al. but places a stringent upper limit. Furthermore, the fluxes of most of the supernova images depart from expected values suggesting that they are affected by microlensing. The microlensing timescales are small enough that they may pose significant problems to measure the time delays reliably. Our lensing rate calculation indicates that the occurrence of a lensed SN in iPTF is likely. However, the observed total magnification of iPTF16geu is larger than expected, given its redshift. This may be a further indication of ongoing microlensing in this system.
Chen, Geoff C. -F; Suyu, Sherry H.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Chiueh, Tzihong; Halkola, Aleksi; Hu, I. Shing; Auger, Matthew W.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Lagattuta, David J.; McKean, John P.; Vegetti, Simona
2016-01-01
Accurate and precise measurements of the Hubble constant are critical for testing our current standard cosmological model and revealing possibly new physics. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, each strong gravitational lens system with measured time delays can allow one to determine the
Chatterjee, Roshmi; Basu, Mousumi
2018-02-01
The well known time transformation method is used here to derive the temporal and spectral electric field distribution at the output end of a multilayer waveguide which consists of different layers of Kerr nonlinear media. A highly nonlinear CS 3-68 glass is considered as one of the materials of the waveguide which mainly comprises of different chalcogenide glass layers. The results indicate that there is sufficient time delay as well as frequency shift between the input and output pulses which is associated with the phenomenon of adiabatic wavelength conversion (AWC). Depending on different arrangements of materials, the time delay and frequency shift can be changed. As a result an input pulse in visible green region can be blue-shifted or red-shifted according to the choices of refractive index of the non-dispersive Kerr nonlinear media. The results show that under certain conditions the input pulse is broadened or compressed for different combinations of materials. This process of AWC also includes the variation of temporal and spectral phase, time delay, temporal peak power etc. For different input pulse shapes the change in time delay is also presented. The study may be useful to find applications of AWC in optical resonators or optical signal processing to be applicable to different photonic devices.
Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the results of a study, which simulates the effects of travel time delay on adaptations of planned activity-travel schedules. The activity generation and scheduling engine of the Albatross model system is applied to a fraction of the synthetic population of the Rotterdam region,
Liu, Jian; Wang, Youguo
2018-03-01
The simultaneous influence of potential asymmetries and time-delayed feedback on stochastic resonance (SR) subject to both periodic force and additive Gaussian white noise is investigated by using two-state theory and small-delay approximation, where three types of asymmetries include well-depth, well-width, and both well-depth and well-width asymmetries, respectively. The asymmetric types and time-delayed feedback determine the behaviors of SR, especially output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) peaks, optimal additive noise intensity and feedback intensity. Moreover, the largest SNR in asymmetric SR is found to be relatively larger than symmetric one in some cases, whereas in other cases the symmetric SR is superior to asymmetric one, which is of dependence on time delay and feedback intensity. In addition, the SR with well-width asymmetry can suppress stronger noise than that with well-depth asymmetry under the action of same time delay, which is beneficial to weak signal detection.
Qian, Yu
2014-01-01
The synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks (SWNNs) induced by time delay and long-range connection (LRC) probability have been investigated by synchronization parameter and space-time plots. Four distinct parameter regions, that is, asynchronous region, transition region, synchronous region, and oscillatory region have been discovered at certain LRC probability as time delay is increased. Interestingly, desynchronization is observed in oscillatory region. More importantly, we consider the spatiotemporal patterns obtained in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs are the competition results between long-range drivings (LRDs) and neighboring interactions. In addition, for moderate time delay, the synchronization of neuronal network can be enhanced remarkably by increasing LRC probability. Furthermore, lag synchronization has been found between weak synchronization and complete synchronization as LRC probability is a little less than 1.0. Finally, the two necessary conditions, moderate time delay and large numbers of LRCs, are exposed explicitly for synchronization in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs. PMID:24810595
Elmiger, Marco P; Poetzsch, Michael; Steuer, Andrea E; Kraemer, Thomas
2018-03-06
High resolution mass spectrometry and modern data independent acquisition (DIA) methods enable the creation of general unknown screening (GUS) procedures. However, even when DIA is used, its potential is far from being exploited, because often, the untargeted acquisition is followed by a targeted search. Applying an actual GUS (including untargeted screening) produces an immense amount of data that must be dealt with. An optimization of the parameters regulating the feature detection and hit generation algorithms of the data processing software could significantly reduce the amount of unnecessary data and thereby the workload. Design of experiment (DoE) approaches allow a simultaneous optimization of multiple parameters. In a first step, parameters are evaluated (crucial or noncrucial). Second, crucial parameters are optimized. The aim in this study was to reduce the number of hits, without missing analytes. The obtained parameter settings from the optimization were compared to the standard settings by analyzing a test set of blood samples spiked with 22 relevant analytes as well as 62 authentic forensic cases. The optimization lead to a marked reduction of workload (12.3 to 1.1% and 3.8 to 1.1% hits for the test set and the authentic cases, respectively) while simultaneously increasing the identification rate (68.2 to 86.4% and 68.8 to 88.1%, respectively). This proof of concept study emphasizes the great potential of DoE approaches to master the data overload resulting from modern data independent acquisition methods used for general unknown screening procedures by optimizing software parameters.
Du Luchun; Mei Dongcheng
2011-01-01
The non-adiabatic regime of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable system with time delay, an additive white noise and a periodic signal was investigated. The signal power amplification η was employed to characterize the SR of the system. The simulation results indicate that (i) in the case of intermediate frequency Ω of the periodic signal, the typical behavior of SR is lowered monotonically by increasing the delay time τ; in the case of large Ω, τ weakens the SR behavior and then enhances it, with a non-monotonic behavior as a function of time delay; (ii) time delay induces SR when A is above the threshold, whereas no such resonance exists in the absence of time delay; (iii) time delay induces a transition from bimodal to unimodal configuration of η; (iv) varying the particular form of time delay results in different phenomena.
Zekan-Petrinović, Lidija
2007-01-01
For a long time, badminton was considered to be only a slow and light game for children, a game that is played outdoors and is structurally undemanding.Today, it is not an unknown and unrecognised sport, especially after it was included into the Olympics Games in 1992. Badminton is one of the oldest sports in the world. It is suitable for all ages (for children and elderly equally), women and men and even handicapped persons. Beginners can start playing badminton matches early because the basics are learned quickly. As a recreational activity, badminton is very popular in Zagreb. In the last 10 years, a number of halls specialized for badminton or offering badminton as one of available sports activities have been opened in Zagreb. At present, there are over 70 professional playgrounds for training of top contestants but also for the citizens who can play recreational badminton.
Tsai, Shun Hung; Chen, Yu-An; Chen, Yu-Wen; Lo, Ji-Chang; Lam, Hak-Keung
2017-01-01
A novel stabilization problem for T-S polynomial fuzzy system with time-delay is investigated in this paper. Firstly, a polynomial fuzzy controller for T-S polynomial fuzzy system with time-delay is proposed. In addition, based on polynomial Lyapunov-Krasovskii function and the developed polynomial slack variable matrices, a novel stabilization condition for T-S polynomial fuzzy system with time-delay is presented in terms of sum-of-square (SOS) form. Lastly, nonlinear system with time-delay ...