#### Sample records for unknown boundary values

1. Boundary value problems and partial differential equations

Powers, David L

2005-01-01

Boundary Value Problems is the leading text on boundary value problems and Fourier series. The author, David Powers, (Clarkson) has written a thorough, theoretical overview of solving boundary value problems involving partial differential equations by the methods of separation of variables. Professors and students agree that the author is a master at creating linear problems that adroitly illustrate the techniques of separation of variables used to solve science and engineering.* CD with animations and graphics of solutions, additional exercises and chapter review questions* Nearly 900 exercises ranging in difficulty* Many fully worked examples

2. Boundary Value Problems Arising in Kalman Filtering

Sinem Ertürk

2009-01-01

Full Text Available The classic Kalman filtering equations for independent and correlated white noises are ordinary differential equations (deterministic or stochastic with the respective initial conditions. Changing the noise processes by taking them to be more realistic wide band noises or delayed white noises creates challenging partial differential equations with initial and boundary conditions. In this paper, we are aimed to give a survey of this connection between Kalman filtering and boundary value problems, bringing them into the attention of mathematicians as well as engineers dealing with Kalman filtering and boundary value problems.

3. Boundary Value Problems Arising in Kalman Filtering

Bashirov Agamirza

2008-01-01

Full Text Available The classic Kalman filtering equations for independent and correlated white noises are ordinary differential equations (deterministic or stochastic with the respective initial conditions. Changing the noise processes by taking them to be more realistic wide band noises or delayed white noises creates challenging partial differential equations with initial and boundary conditions. In this paper, we are aimed to give a survey of this connection between Kalman filtering and boundary value problems, bringing them into the attention of mathematicians as well as engineers dealing with Kalman filtering and boundary value problems.

4. Fourier analysis and boundary value problems

Gonzalez-Velasco, Enrique A

1996-01-01

Fourier Analysis and Boundary Value Problems provides a thorough examination of both the theory and applications of partial differential equations and the Fourier and Laplace methods for their solutions. Boundary value problems, including the heat and wave equations, are integrated throughout the book. Written from a historical perspective with extensive biographical coverage of pioneers in the field, the book emphasizes the important role played by partial differential equations in engineering and physics. In addition, the author demonstrates how efforts to deal with these problems have lead to wonderfully significant developments in mathematics.A clear and complete text with more than 500 exercises, Fourier Analysis and Boundary Value Problems is a good introduction and a valuable resource for those in the field.Key Features* Topics are covered from a historical perspective with biographical information on key contributors to the field* The text contains more than 500 exercises* Includes practical applicati...

5. Value of Bone marrow Examination in Pyrexia of unknown origin

A Jha

2013-10-01

Full Text Available Background: Pyrexia of unknown origin is a common diagnostic dilemma. Series of diagnostic modalities are required to arrive at diagnosis. Bone marrow examination is one of the common tests implicated in the diagnosis in combination with other diagnostic modalities. Present study has attempted to explore the causes of pyrexia of unknown origin based on bone marrow morphological study. Materials and Methods: In a one year prospective study conducted at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal; bone marrow aspiration and biopsy was performed and evaluated morphologically, in 57 patients fulfilling the criteria of classic pyrexia of unknown origin. Results: In 42% cases; specific diagnosis could be made and hematological neoplasm was the most common finding followed by megaloblastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia and one case each of hemophagocytosis, malaria and tuberculosis. Acute leukemia was the most frequently encountered hematological malignancy followed by multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, essential thrombocythemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Conclusion: Morphological examination of bone marrow has important role in diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin. However, yield of diagnosis can be increased if it is combined with other diagnostic modalities including radiological, microbiological and serological tests. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.8991 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, 447-451

6. The determination of an unknown boundary condition in a fractional diffusion equation

Rundell, William

2013-07-01

In this article we consider an inverse boundary problem, in which the unknown boundary function ∂u/∂v = f(u) is to be determined from overposed data in a time-fractional diffusion equation. Based upon the free space fundamental solution, we derive a representation for the solution f as a nonlinear Volterra integral equation of second kind with a weakly singular kernel. Uniqueness and reconstructibility by iteration is an immediate result of a priori assumption on f and applying the fixed point theorem. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

7. Boundary value problems and dichotomic stability

England, R.; Mattheij, R.M.M.

1988-01-01

Since the conditioning of a boundary value problem (BVP) is closely related to the existence of a dichotomic fundamental solution (i.e., where one set of modes is increasing and a complementary set is decreasing), it is important to have discretization methods that conserve this dichotomy property.

8. A Boundary Value Problem for Introductory Physics?

Grundberg, Johan

2008-01-01

The Laplace equation has applications in several fields of physics, and problems involving this equation serve as paradigms for boundary value problems. In the case of the Laplace equation in a disc there is a well-known explicit formula for the solution: Poisson's integral. We show how one can derive this formula, and in addition two equivalent…

9. Mixed Boundary Value Problem on Hypersurfaces

R. DuDuchava

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary value problems for the anisotropic Laplace-Beltrami equation divC(A∇Cφ=f on a smooth hypersurface C with the boundary Γ=∂C in Rn. A(x is an n×n bounded measurable positive definite matrix function. The boundary is decomposed into two nonintersecting connected parts Γ=ΓD∪ΓN and on ΓD the Dirichlet boundary conditions are prescribed, while on ΓN the Neumann conditions. The unique solvability of the mixed BVP is proved, based upon the Green formulae and Lax-Milgram Lemma. Further, the existence of the fundamental solution to divS(A∇S is proved, which is interpreted as the invertibility of this operator in the setting Hp,#s(S→Hp,#s-2(S, where Hp,#s(S is a subspace of the Bessel potential space and consists of functions with mean value zero.

10. Group invariance in engineering boundary value problems

1985-01-01

REFEREN CES . 156 9 Transforma.tion of a Boundary Value Problem to an Initial Value Problem . 157 9.0 Introduction . 157 9.1 Blasius Equation in Boundary Layer Flow . 157 9.2 Longitudinal Impact of Nonlinear Viscoplastic Rods . 163 9.3 Summary . 168 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 . 10 From Nonlinear to Linear Differential Equa.tions Using Transformation Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 . 10.1 From Nonlinear to Linear Differential Equations . 170 10.2 Application to Ordinary Differential Equations -Bernoulli's Equation . . . . . . . . . . . 173 10.3 Application to Partial Differential Equations -A Nonlinear Chemical Exchange Process . 178 10.4 Limitations of the Inspectional Group Method . 187 10.5 Summary . 188 REFERENCES . . . . 188 11 Miscellaneous Topics . 190 11.1 Reduction of Differential Equations to Algebraic Equations 190 11.2 Reduction of Order of an Ordinary Differential Equation . 191 11.3 Transformat.ion From Ordinary to Partial Differential Equations-Search for First Inte...

11. Separable boundary-value problems in physics

Willatzen, Morten

2011-01-01

Innovative developments in science and technology require a thorough knowledge of applied mathematics, particularly in the field of differential equations and special functions. These are relevant in modeling and computing applications of electromagnetic theory and quantum theory, e.g. in photonics and nanotechnology. The problem of solving partial differential equations remains an important topic that is taught at both the undergraduate and graduate level. Separable Boundary-Value Problems in Physics is an accessible and comprehensive treatment of partial differential equations i

12. Homology in Electromagnetic Boundary Value Problems

Pellikka Matti

2010-01-01

Full Text Available We discuss how homology computation can be exploited in computational electromagnetism. We represent various cellular mesh reduction techniques, which enable the computation of generators of homology spaces in an acceptable time. Furthermore, we show how the generators can be used for setting up and analysis of an electromagnetic boundary value problem. The aim is to provide a rationale for homology computation in electromagnetic modeling software.

13. Asymptotic boundary value problems for evolution inclusions

Fürst Tomáš

2006-01-01

Full Text Available When solving boundary value problems on infinite intervals, it is possible to use continuation principles. Some of these principles take advantage of equipping the considered function spaces with topologies of uniform convergence on compact subintervals. This makes the representing solution operators compact (or condensing, but, on the other hand, spaces equipped with such topologies become more complicated. This paper shows interesting applications that use the strength of continuation principles and also presents a possible extension of such continuation principles to partial differential inclusions.

14. Asymptotic boundary value problems for evolution inclusions

Tomáš Fürst

2006-02-01

Full Text Available When solving boundary value problems on infinite intervals, it is possible to use continuation principles. Some of these principles take advantage of equipping the considered function spaces with topologies of uniform convergence on compact subintervals. This makes the representing solution operators compact (or condensing, but, on the other hand, spaces equipped with such topologies become more complicated. This paper shows interesting applications that use the strength of continuation principles and also presents a possible extension of such continuation principles to partial differential inclusions.

15. On the solvability of initial boundary value problems for nonlinear ...

In this paper, we study the initial boundary value problems for a non-linear time dependent Schrödinger equation with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, respectively. We prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the initial boundary value problems by using Galerkin's method. Keywords: Initial boundary ...

16. Parallel algorithms for boundary value problems

Lin, Avi

1991-01-01

A general approach to solve boundary value problems numerically in a parallel environment is discussed. The basic algorithm consists of two steps: the local step where all the P available processors work in parallel, and the global step where one processor solves a tridiagonal linear system of the order P. The main advantages of this approach are twofold. First, this suggested approach is very flexible, especially in the local step and thus the algorithm can be used with any number of processors and with any of the SIMD or MIMD machines. Secondly, the communication complexity is very small and thus can be used as easily with shared memory machines. Several examples for using this strategy are discussed.

17. Positive solutions for a fourth order boundary value problem

Bo Yang

2005-02-01

Full Text Available We consider a boundary value problem for the beam equation, in which the boundary conditions mean that the beam is embedded at one end and free at the other end. Some new estimates to the positive solutions to the boundary value problem are obtained. Some sufficient conditions for the existence of at least one positive solution for the boundary value problem are established. An example is given at the end of the paper to illustrate the main results.

18. The use of MACSYMA for solving elliptic boundary value problems

Thejll, Peter; Gilbert, Robert P.

1990-01-01

A boundary method is presented for the solution of elliptic boundary value problems. An approach based on the use of complete systems of solutions is emphasized. The discussion is limited to the Dirichlet problem, even though the present method can possibly be adapted to treat other boundary value problems.

19. Heat Kernel Asymptotics of Zaremba Boundary Value Problem

Avramidi, Ivan G. [Department of Mathematics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (United States)], E-mail: iavramid@nmt.edu

2004-03-15

The Zaremba boundary-value problem is a boundary value problem for Laplace-type second-order partial differential operators acting on smooth sections of a vector bundle over a smooth compact Riemannian manifold with smooth boundary but with discontinuous boundary conditions, which include Dirichlet boundary conditions on one part of the boundary and Neumann boundary conditions on another part of the boundary. We study the heat kernel asymptotics of Zaremba boundary value problem. The construction of the asymptotic solution of the heat equation is described in detail and the heat kernel is computed explicitly in the leading approximation. Some of the first nontrivial coefficients of the heat kernel asymptotic expansion are computed explicitly.

20. State-dependent impulses boundary value problems on compact interval

Rachůnková, Irena

2015-01-01

This book offers the reader a new approach to the solvability of boundary value problems with state-dependent impulses and provides recently obtained existence results for state dependent impulsive problems with general linear boundary conditions. It covers fixed-time impulsive boundary value problems both regular and singular and deals with higher order differential equations or with systems that are subject to general linear boundary conditions. We treat state-dependent impulsive boundary value problems, including a new approach giving effective conditions for the solvability of the Dirichlet problem with one state-dependent impulse condition and we show that the depicted approach can be extended to problems with a finite number of state-dependent impulses. We investigate the Sturm–Liouville boundary value problem for a more general right-hand side of a differential equation. Finally, we offer generalizations to higher order differential equations or differential systems subject to general linear boundary...

1. Nonlinear second-order multivalued boundary value problems

R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

Department of Mathematics, National Technical University, Zografou Campus,. Athens 15780 ... incorporates gradient systems, evolutionary variational inequalities and the classical boundary value ... We are led to an eventual application.

2. An Adaptive Pseudospectral Method for Fractional Order Boundary Value Problems

2012-01-01

Full Text Available An adaptive pseudospectral method is presented for solving a class of multiterm fractional boundary value problems (FBVP which involve Caputo-type fractional derivatives. The multiterm FBVP is first converted into a singular Volterra integrodifferential equation (SVIDE. By dividing the interval of the problem to subintervals, the unknown function is approximated using a piecewise interpolation polynomial with unknown coefficients which is based on shifted Legendre-Gauss (ShLG collocation points. Then the problem is reduced to a system of algebraic equations, thus greatly simplifying the problem. Further, some additional conditions are considered to maintain the continuity of the approximate solution and its derivatives at the interface of subintervals. In order to convert the singular integrals of SVIDE into nonsingular ones, integration by parts is utilized. In the method developed in this paper, the accuracy can be improved either by increasing the number of subintervals or by increasing the degree of the polynomial on each subinterval. Using several examples including Bagley-Torvik equation the proposed method is shown to be efficient and accurate.

3. The boundary value problems of magnetotail equilibrium

Birn, J.

1991-01-01

The equilibrium problem for the Earth's magnetotail is discussed under the assumption that the boundary of the tail can be prescribed or derived from the force balance with the solar wind. A general solution of this problem is presented for the two-dimensional case, where the dependence on the γ coordinate and the presence of Β gamma are neglected. These solutions are further generalized to include the γ dependence (but no Β gamma ) and an open magnetopause. In this formulation, a solution can be obtained by integration when the magnetopause boundary α(x,y), the total pressure function p(x), and the magnetic flux distribution A b (x,y) at the magnetopause are prescribed. Certain restrictions, however, may limit the free choice of these functions to yield physically reasonable, real solutions. When the interaction with the solar wind is included, the boundary location can no longer be chosen freely but follows from the force balance of the magnetotail with the solar wind. For a simplified description of this force balance a differential equation for the boundary location is derived, which generalizes an earlier result by Coroniti and Kennel (1972). It is shown that solutions of this differential equation are bounded by a maximum tail width if the plasma sheet thickness is limited. Several explicit solutions are presented, illustrating cases with and without tail flaring in the z direction, and including the restrictions of the force balance with the solar wind and of the conservation laws of adiabatic convection in a steady configuration

4. Boundary-value problems with free boundaries for elliptic systems of equations

Monakhov, V N

1983-01-01

This book is concerned with certain classes of nonlinear problems for elliptic systems of partial differential equations: boundary-value problems with free boundaries. The first part has to do with the general theory of boundary-value problems for analytic functions and its applications to hydrodynamics. The second presents the theory of quasiconformal mappings, along with the theory of boundary-value problems for elliptic systems of equations and applications of it to problems in the mechanics of continuous media with free boundaries: problems in subsonic gas dynamics, filtration theory, and problems in elastico-plasticity.

5. A numerical solution of a singular boundary value problem arising in boundary layer theory.

Hu, Jiancheng

2016-01-01

In this paper, a second-order nonlinear singular boundary value problem is presented, which is equivalent to the well-known Falkner-Skan equation. And the one-dimensional third-order boundary value problem on interval [Formula: see text] is equivalently transformed into a second-order boundary value problem on finite interval [Formula: see text]. The finite difference method is utilized to solve the singular boundary value problem, in which the amount of computational effort is significantly less than the other numerical methods. The numerical solutions obtained by the finite difference method are in agreement with those obtained by previous authors.

6. On a non-linear pseudodifferential boundary value problem

Nguyen Minh Chuong.

1989-12-01

A pseudodifferential boundary value problem for operators with symbols taking values in Sobolev spaces and with non-linear right-hand side was studied. Existence and uniqueness theorems were proved. (author). 11 refs

7. Initial boundary value problems of nonlinear wave equations in an exterior domain

Chen Yunmei.

1987-06-01

In this paper, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of the global solutions to the initial boundary value problems of nonlinear wave equations in an exterior domain. When the space dimension n >= 3, the unique global solution of the above problem is obtained for small initial data, even if the nonlinear term is fully nonlinear and contains the unknown function itself. (author). 10 refs

8. Boundary-value problems in ODE

Tanriverdi, Tanfer

In this thesis we discuss two problems. The first problem is that of Fanno flow in a tube. In [10] the authors have discussed the mathematics of the Fanno model in much more detail than had been previously been done. The analysis in [10] indicates that the Fanno model becomes relevant, if t indicates the unscaled time and t=et , only when t is at least of order O(e- 1) . Indeed, two most important time scales are when t=O(e-1) and t=O(e- 2) . The authors, in the former case, set t=e- 1t1 (t1=t),x=e -11, and obtain the equation math> 62u6t 21- 62u 6x21=- 2u6 2u6t21 , ( 0.0.1) where u is the velocity of the gas, with p=1,6x1=0 (x1=0). One can follow the solution along the characteristic x1=t1 , and to match with the inviscid behaviour when t1-->0 , u=2+t1 (x1=t1). (0.0.2) In the region t=O(e2) , the authors set t=e2t2, x=e2x2,h= x2t2. For small e , the BC (0.0.02) now becomes u=t2 (x2=t 2), (0.0.3) so that (0.0.1) now has a similarity solution of the form u=t2g( h), u2=e- 1u, and (h2- 1)g'' +4hg'+2g=2g(g+hg' ),' =/ (0.0.4) with g(h)-->2 ash-->1- ,from(0.0.3) (0.0.5) g(h)-->∞ ash-->0- ,(fromthe pressure). ( 0.0.6) In a recent paper [11] the authors discuss the existence of a solution of (0.0.4)-(0.0.6) by using a two dimensional topological shooting method. We also discuss the existence of a solution of (0.0.4)-(0.0.6) by using a shooting method. We first turn the nonlinear ode (0.0.4) into an integral equation and then shoot from the singularity at ∞. The second problem arises when one considers eigenfunction expansions associated with second order ordinary differential equations, as Titchmarsh does in his book. One is concerned with the solutions of the equation - d2ydx2+ q(x)y=ly, (0.0.7) along with certain boundary conditions, where q(x)=-( n2- /)sech 2(x), n=n+/. The problem (0.0.7) has an application in the study of discrete reaction-diffusion equations. Our purpose in this problem is to look in some detail at the equation (0.0.7). We first use contour

9. Identification of fractional-order systems with unknown initial values and structure

Du, Wei, E-mail: duwei0203@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes, Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Miao, Qingying, E-mail: qymiao@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Continuing Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Tong, Le, E-mail: tongle0328@gmail.com [Faculty of Applied Science and Textiles, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Tang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes, Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

2017-06-21

In this paper, the identification problem of fractional-order chaotic systems is proposed and investigated via an evolutionary optimization approach. Different with other studies to date, this research focuses on the identification of fractional-order chaotic systems with not only unknown orders and parameters, but also unknown initial values and structure. A group of fractional-order chaotic systems, i.e., Lorenz, Lü, Chen, Rössler, Arneodo and Volta chaotic systems, are set as the system candidate pool. The identification problem of fractional-order chaotic systems in this research belongs to mixed integer nonlinear optimization in essence. A powerful evolutionary algorithm called composite differential evolution (CoDE) is introduced for the identification problem presented in this paper. Extensive experiments are carried out to show that the fractional-order chaotic systems with unknown initial values and structure can be successfully identified by means of CoDE. - Highlights: • Unknown initial values and structure are introduced in the identification of fractional-order chaotic systems; • Only a series of output is utilized in the identification of fractional-order chaotic systems; • CoDE is used for the identification problem and the results are satisfactory when compared with other DE variants.

10. Existence results for anisotropic discrete boundary value problems

Avci Avci

2016-06-01

Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of nontrivial weak solutions for a class of discrete boundary value problems. The main tools used here are the variational principle and critical point theory.

11. Numerical solution of fuzzy boundary value problems using Galerkin ...

1 College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China. 2 Department of ... exact solution of fuzzy first-order boundary value problems. (BVPs). ...... edge partial financial support by the Ministerio de Economıa.

12. Modified Differential Transform Method for Two Singular Boundary Values Problems

Yinwei Lin

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper deals with the two singular boundary values problems of second order. Two singular points are both boundary values points of the differential equation. The numerical solutions are developed by modified differential transform method (DTM for expanded point. Linear and nonlinear models are solved by this method to get more reliable and efficient numerical results. It can also solve ordinary differential equations where the traditional one fails. Besides, we give the convergence of this new method.

13. Positive solutions and eigenvalues of nonlocal boundary-value problems

Jifeng Chu

2005-07-01

Full Text Available We study the ordinary differential equation $x''+lambda a(tf(x=0$ with the boundary conditions $x(0=0$ and $x'(1=int_{eta}^{1}x'(sdg(s$. We characterize values of $lambda$ for which boundary-value problem has a positive solution. Also we find appropriate intervals for $lambda$ so that there are two positive solutions.

14. Initial-boundary value problems associated with the Ablowitz-Ladik system

Xia, Baoqiang; Fokas, A. S.

2018-02-01

We employ the Ablowitz-Ladik system as an illustrative example in order to demonstrate how to analyze initial-boundary value problems for integrable nonlinear differential-difference equations via the unified transform (Fokas method). In particular, we express the solutions of the integrable discrete nonlinear Schrödinger and integrable discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries equations in terms of the solutions of appropriate matrix Riemann-Hilbert problems. We also discuss in detail, for both the above discrete integrable equations, the associated global relations and the process of eliminating of the unknown boundary values.

15. Boundary value problemfor multidimensional fractional advection-dispersion equation

2015-05-01

Full Text Available In recent time there is a very great interest in the study of differential equations of fractional order, in which the unknown function is under the symbol of fractional derivative. It is due to the development of the theory of fractional integro-differential theory and application of it in different fields.The fractional integrals and derivatives of fractional integro-differential equations are widely used in modern investigations of theoretical physics, mechanics, and applied mathematics. The fractional calculus is a very powerful tool for describing physical systems, which have a memory and are non-local. Many processes in complex systems have nonlocality and long-time memory. Fractional integral operators and fractional differential operators allow describing some of these properties. The use of the fractional calculus will be helpful for obtaining the dynamical models, in which integro-differential operators describe power long-time memory by time and coordinates, and three-dimensional nonlocality for complex medium and processes.Differential equations of fractional order appear when we use fractal conception in physics of the condensed medium. The transfer, described by the operator with fractional derivatives at a long distance from the sources, leads to other behavior of relatively small concentrations as compared with classic diffusion. This fact redefines the existing ideas about safety, based on the ideas on exponential velocity of damping. Fractional calculus in the fractal theory and the systems with memory have the same importance as the classic analysis in mechanics of continuous medium.In recent years, the application of fractional derivatives for describing and studying the physical processes of stochastic transfer is very popular too. Many problems of filtration of liquids in fractal (high porous medium lead to the need to study boundary value problems for partial differential equations in fractional order.In this paper the

16. The value of digital subtraction angiography in diagnosing small intestinal hemorrhage with unknown reasons

Luo Guanghua; Xiao Wenlian; Tang Deqiu; Chan Hong

2006-01-01

Objective: To discuss the diagnostic value of DSA for unknown reason hemorrhage of small intestine. Methods: 25 patients with hemorrhage of small intestine were performed angiography with Seldinger's technique through superior mesenteric artery. Results: Eleven cases demonstrated direct signs of hemorrhage, 12 cases of indirect signs of hemorrhage and 5 with both of the signs. The positive rate of hemorrhage was 72% including 10 cases of tumor (6 leiomyomas, 2 leiomyosarcomas, 1 interstitial tumor, 1 small intestinal cancer), 4 cases of Meckel's diverticulum, 3 cases of vascular malformation and 1 case of inflammation. The coincidence rate of positive cases with pathology was 75% and the diagnostic accuracy of localization was 100%. Conclusions: DSA angiography is very helpful for determining the location and character of unknown reason hemorrhage of small intestine. (authors)

17. Numerical solution of system of boundary value problems using B-spline with free parameter

Gupta, Yogesh

2017-01-01

This paper deals with method of B-spline solution for a system of boundary value problems. The differential equations are useful in various fields of science and engineering. Some interesting real life problems involve more than one unknown function. These result in system of simultaneous differential equations. Such systems have been applied to many problems in mathematics, physics, engineering etc. In present paper, B-spline and B-spline with free parameter methods for the solution of a linear system of second-order boundary value problems are presented. The methods utilize the values of cubic B-spline and its derivatives at nodal points together with the equations of the given system and boundary conditions, ensuing into the linear matrix equation.

18. Diagnostic value of (111)In-granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with fever of unknown origin

Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette

2002-01-01

111In-granulocyte scintigraphy is often used as a diagnostic tool in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). However, its diagnostic performance has been studied in only a limited number of investigations, with most having been published more than 10 y ago; in addition, a broad range...... and specificity in cases of FUO, when one takes into account that (111)In-granulocyte scintigraphy is not a first-line test. The high predictive value of a scintigram showing negative findings may be especially valuable for ruling out an infectious cause of FUO. Neither peripheral leukocyte count nor CRP levels...

19. A highly precise frequency-based method for estimating the tension of an inclined cable with unknown boundary conditions

Ma, Lin

2017-11-01

This paper develops a method for precisely determining the tension of an inclined cable with unknown boundary conditions. First, the nonlinear motion equation of an inclined cable is derived, and a numerical model of the motion of the cable is proposed using the finite difference method. The proposed numerical model includes the sag-extensibility, flexural stiffness, inclination angle and rotational stiffness at two ends of the cable. Second, the influence of the dynamic parameters of the cable on its frequencies is discussed in detail, and a method for precisely determining the tension of an inclined cable is proposed based on the derivatives of the eigenvalues of the matrices. Finally, a multiparameter identification method is developed that can simultaneously identify multiple parameters, including the rotational stiffness at two ends. This scheme is applicable to inclined cables with varying sag, varying flexural stiffness and unknown boundary conditions. Numerical examples indicate that the method provides good precision. Because the parameters of cables other than tension (e.g., the flexural stiffness and rotational stiffness at the ends) are not accurately known in practical engineering, the multiparameter identification method could further improve the accuracy of cable tension measurements.

20. State space approach to mixed boundary value problems.

Chen, C. F.; Chen, M. M.

1973-01-01

A state-space procedure for the formulation and solution of mixed boundary value problems is established. This procedure is a natural extension of the method used in initial value problems; however, certain special theorems and rules must be developed. The scope of the applications of the approach includes beam, arch, and axisymmetric shell problems in structural analysis, boundary layer problems in fluid mechanics, and eigenvalue problems for deformable bodies. Many classical methods in these fields developed by Holzer, Prohl, Myklestad, Thomson, Love-Meissner, and others can be either simplified or unified under new light shed by the state-variable approach. A beam problem is included as an illustration.

1. Positive solutions of nonlinear fractional boundary value problems with Dirichlet boundary conditions

Qingkai Kong

2012-02-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions of a class of nonlinear fractional boundary value problems with  Dirichlet boundary conditions. By applying the fixed point theory on cones we establish a series of criteria for the existence of one, two, any arbitrary finite number, and an infinite number of positive solutions. A criterion for the nonexistence of positive solutions is also derived. Several examples are given for demonstration.

2. Diagnostic value of (111)In-granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with fever of unknown origin

Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette

2002-01-01

111In-granulocyte scintigraphy is often used as a diagnostic tool in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). However, its diagnostic performance has been studied in only a limited number of investigations, with most having been published more than 10 y ago; in addition, a broad range...... of sensitivities and specificities has been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of granulocyte scintigraphy in patients fulfilling the criteria of FUO. Also studied was whether increased peripheral leukocyte count or C-reactive protein (CRP) level could be used...... to select patients for scintigraphy to raise the diagnostic value. METHODS: For 31 patients with true FUO who underwent granulocyte scintigraphy at a third-line referral hospital between 1995 and 2000, the files and scintigraphy findings were reviewed retrospectively to test the ability of scintigraphy...

3. Boundary value problem for Caputo-Hadamard fractional differential equations

Yacine Arioua

2017-09-01

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the existence and uniqueness solutions for boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional differential equations with Caputo-Hadamard derivative in bounded domain. We used the standard and Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorems. Some new results of existence and uniqueness solutions for Caputo-Hadamard fractional equations are obtained.

4. Fourth-order discrete anisotropic boundary-value problems

Maciej Leszczynski

2015-09-01

Full Text Available In this article we consider the fourth-order discrete anisotropic boundary value problem with both advance and retardation. We apply the direct method of the calculus of variations and the mountain pass technique to prove the existence of at least one and at least two solutions. Non-existence of non-trivial solutions is also undertaken.

5. three solutions for a semilinear elliptic boundary value problem

69

Keywords: The Laplacian operator, elliptic problem, Nehari man- ifold, three critical points, weak solution. 1. Introduction. Let Ω be a smooth bounded domain in RN , N ≥ 3 . In this work, we show the existence of at least three solutions for the semilinear elliptic boundary- value problem: (Pλ).. −∆u = f(x)|u(x)|p−2u(x) + ...

6. Analytic Solution to Shell BoundaryValue Problems

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Object of research is to find analytical solution to the shell boundaryvalue problems, i.e. to consider the solution for a class of problems concerning the mechanics of hoop closed shells strain.The objective of work is to create an analytical method to define a stress – strain state of shells under non-axisymmetric loading. Thus, a main goal is to derive the formulas – solutions of the linear ordinary differential equations with variable continuous coefficients.The partial derivative differential equations of mechanics of shells strain by Fourier's method of variables division are reduced to the system of the differential equations with ordinary derivatives. The paper presents the obtained formulas to define solutions of the uniform differential equations and received on their basis formulas to define a particular solution depending on a type of the right parts of the differential equations.The analytical algorithm of the solution of a boundary task uses an approach to transfer the boundary conditions to the randomly chosen point of an interval of changing independent variable through the solution of the canonical matrix ordinary differential equation with the subsequent solution of system of algebraic equations for compatibility of boundary conditions at this point. Efficiency of algorithm is based on the fact that the solution of the ordinary differential equations is defined as the values of Cauchy – Krylova functions, which meet initial arbitrary conditions.The results of researches presented in work are useful to experts in the field of calculus mathematics, dealing with solution of systems of linear ordinary differential equations and creation of effective analytical computing methods to solve shell boundaryvalue problems.

7. The homogeneous boundary value problem of the thick spherical shell

Linder, F.

1975-01-01

With the aim to solve boundary value problems in the same manner as it is attained at thin shell theory (Superposition of Membrane solution to solution of boundary values), one has to search solutions of the equations of equilibrium of the three dimensional thick shell which produce tensions at the cut edge and are zero on the whole shell surface inside and outside. This problem was solved with the premissions of the linear theory of Elasticity. The gained solution is exact and contains the symmetric and non-symmetric behaviour and is described in relatively short analytical expressions for the deformations and tensions, after the problem of the coupled system had been solved. The static condition of the two surfaces (zero tension) leads to a homogeneous system of complex equations with the index of the Legendre spherical function as Eigenvalue. One symmetrical case is calculated numerically and is compared with the method of finite elements. This comparison results in good accordance. (Auth.)

8. Recursive recovery of Markov transition probabilities from boundary value data

Patch, Sarah Kathyrn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1994-04-01

In an effort to mathematically describe the anisotropic diffusion of infrared radiation in biological tissue Gruenbaum posed an anisotropic diffusion boundary value problem in 1989. In order to accommodate anisotropy, he discretized the temporal as well as the spatial domain. The probabilistic interpretation of the diffusion equation is retained; radiation is assumed to travel according to a random walk (of sorts). In this random walk the probabilities with which photons change direction depend upon their previous as well as present location. The forward problem gives boundary value data as a function of the Markov transition probabilities. The inverse problem requires finding the transition probabilities from boundary value data. Problems in the plane are studied carefully in this thesis. Consistency conditions amongst the data are derived. These conditions have two effects: they prohibit inversion of the forward map but permit smoothing of noisy data. Next, a recursive algorithm which yields a family of solutions to the inverse problem is detailed. This algorithm takes advantage of all independent data and generates a system of highly nonlinear algebraic equations. Pluecker-Grassmann relations are instrumental in simplifying the equations. The algorithm is used to solve the 4 x 4 problem. Finally, the smallest nontrivial problem in three dimensions, the 2 x 2 x 2 problem, is solved.

9. Nonlinear Elliptic Boundary Value Problems at Resonance with Nonlinear Wentzell Boundary Conditions

Ciprian G. Gal

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Given a bounded domain Ω⊂RN with a Lipschitz boundary ∂Ω and p,q∈(1,+∞, we consider the quasilinear elliptic equation -Δpu+α1u=f in Ω complemented with the generalized Wentzell-Robin type boundary conditions of the form bx∇up-2∂nu-ρbxΔq,Γu+α2u=g on ∂Ω. In the first part of the article, we give necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of the given functions f, g and the nonlinearities α1, α2, for the solvability of the above nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with the nonlinear boundary conditions. In other words, we establish a sort of “nonlinear Fredholm alternative” for our problem which extends the corresponding Landesman and Lazer result for elliptic problems with linear homogeneous boundary conditions. In the second part, we give some additional results on existence and uniqueness and we study the regularity of the weak solutions for these classes of nonlinear problems. More precisely, we show some global a priori estimates for these weak solutions in an L∞-setting.

10. Positive solutions for a nonlocal boundary-value problem with vector-valued response

Andrzej Nowakowski

2002-05-01

Full Text Available Using variational methods, we study the existence of positive solutions for a nonlocal boundary-value problem with vector-valued response. We develop duality and variational principles for this problem and present a numerical version which enables the approximation of solutions and gives a measure of a duality gap between primal and dual functional for approximate solutions for this problem.

11. Bifurcation of solutions to Hamiltonian boundary value problems

McLachlan, R. I.; Offen, C.

2018-06-01

A bifurcation is a qualitative change in a family of solutions to an equation produced by varying parameters. In contrast to the local bifurcations of dynamical systems that are often related to a change in the number or stability of equilibria, bifurcations of boundary value problems are global in nature and may not be related to any obvious change in dynamical behaviour. Catastrophe theory is a well-developed framework which studies the bifurcations of critical points of functions. In this paper we study the bifurcations of solutions of boundary-value problems for symplectic maps, using the language of (finite-dimensional) singularity theory. We associate certain such problems with a geometric picture involving the intersection of Lagrangian submanifolds, and hence with the critical points of a suitable generating function. Within this framework, we then study the effect of three special cases: (i) some common boundary conditions, such as Dirichlet boundary conditions for second-order systems, restrict the possible types of bifurcations (for example, in generic planar systems only the A-series beginning with folds and cusps can occur); (ii) integrable systems, such as planar Hamiltonian systems, can exhibit a novel periodic pitchfork bifurcation; and (iii) systems with Hamiltonian symmetries or reversing symmetries can exhibit restricted bifurcations associated with the symmetry. This approach offers an alternative to the analysis of critical points in function spaces, typically used in the study of bifurcation of variational problems, and opens the way to the detection of more exotic bifurcations than the simple folds and cusps that are often found in examples.

12. Partial differential equations and boundary-value problems with applications

Pinsky, Mark A

2011-01-01

Building on the basic techniques of separation of variables and Fourier series, the book presents the solution of boundary-value problems for basic partial differential equations: the heat equation, wave equation, and Laplace equation, considered in various standard coordinate systems-rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical. Each of the equations is derived in the three-dimensional context; the solutions are organized according to the geometry of the coordinate system, which makes the mathematics especially transparent. Bessel and Legendre functions are studied and used whenever appropriate th

13. Laplace boundary-value problem in paraboloidal coordinates

Duggen, L; Willatzen, M; Voon, L C Lew Yan

2012-01-01

This paper illustrates both a problem in mathematical physics, whereby the method of separation of variables, while applicable, leads to three ordinary differential equations that remain fully coupled via two separation constants and a five-term recurrence relation for series solutions, and an exactly solvable problem in electrostatics, as a boundary-value problem on a paraboloidal surface. In spite of the complex nature of the former, it is shown that the latter solution can be quite simple. Results are provided for the equipotential surfaces and electric field lines are given near a paraboloidal conductor. (paper)

14. On Perturbation Solutions for Axisymmetric Bending Boundary Values of a Deep Thin Spherical Shell

Rong Xiao

2014-01-01

Full Text Available On the basis of the general theory of elastic thin shells and the Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis, a fundamental equation for a thin shell under the moment theory is established. In this study, the author derives Reissner’s equation with a transverse shear force Q1 and the displacement component w. These basic unknown quantities are derived considering the axisymmetry of the deep, thin spherical shell and manage to constitute a boundary value question of axisymmetric bending of the deep thin spherical shell under boundary conditions. The asymptotic solution is obtained by the composite expansion method. At the end of this paper, to prove the correctness and accuracy of the derivation, an example is given to compare the numerical solution by ANSYS and the perturbation solution. Meanwhile, the effects of material and geometric parameters on the nonlinear response of axisymmetric deep thin spherical shell under uniform external pressure are also analyzed in this paper.

15. Chebyshev Finite Difference Method for Fractional Boundary Value Problems

Boundary

2015-09-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical method for fractional differential equations using Chebyshev finite difference method. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. Numerical results show that this method is of high accuracy and is more convenient and efficient for solving boundary value problems involving fractional ordinary differential equations. AMS Subject Classification: 34A08 Keywords and Phrases: Chebyshev polynomials, Gauss-Lobatto points, fractional differential equation, finite difference 1. Introduction The idea of a derivative which interpolates between the familiar integer order derivatives was introduced many years ago and has gained increasing importance only in recent years due to the development of mathematical models of a certain situations in engineering, materials science, control theory, polymer modelling etc. For example see [20, 22, 25, 26]. Most fractional order differential equations describing real life situations, in general do not have exact analytical solutions. Several numerical and approximate analytical methods for ordinary differential equation Received: December 2014; Accepted: March 2015 57 Journal of Mathematical Extension Vol. 9, No. 3, (2015, 57-71 ISSN: 1735-8299 URL: http://www.ijmex.com Chebyshev Finite Difference Method for Fractional Boundary Value Problems H. Azizi Taft Branch, Islamic Azad University Abstract. This paper presents a numerical method for fractional differential equations using Chebyshev finite difference method. The fractional derivative

16. Fever of Unknown Origin: the Value of FDG-PET/CT

Kouijzer, I.J.E.; Mulders-Manders, C.M.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Oyen, W.J.G.

2018-01-01

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is commonly defined as fever higher than 38.3 degrees C on several occasions during at least 3 weeks with uncertain diagnosis after a number of obligatory investigations. The differential diagnosis of FUO can be subdivided in four categories: infections, malignancies,

17. Partial differential equations & boundary value problems with Maple

Articolo, George A

2009-01-01

Partial Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems with Maple presents all of the material normally covered in a standard course on partial differential equations, while focusing on the natural union between this material and the powerful computational software, Maple. The Maple commands are so intuitive and easy to learn, students can learn what they need to know about the software in a matter of hours- an investment that provides substantial returns. Maple''s animation capabilities allow students and practitioners to see real-time displays of the solutions of partial differential equations.  Maple files can be found on the books website. Ancillary list: Maple files- http://www.elsevierdirect.com/companion.jsp?ISBN=9780123747327  Provides a quick overview of the software w/simple commands needed to get startedIncludes review material on linear algebra and Ordinary Differential equations, and their contribution in solving partial differential equationsIncorporates an early introduction to Sturm-L...

18. Solving fuzzy two-point boundary value problem using fuzzy Laplace transform

2014-01-01

A natural way to model dynamic systems under uncertainty is to use fuzzy boundary value problems (FBVPs) and related uncertain systems. In this paper we use fuzzy Laplace transform to find the solution of two-point boundary value under generalized Hukuhara differentiability. We illustrate the method for the solution of the well known two-point boundary value problem Schrodinger equation, and homogeneous boundary value problem. Consequently, we investigate the solutions of FBVPs under as a ne...

19. Existence of solutions to boundary value problem of fractional differential equations with impulsive

Weihua JIANG

2016-12-01

Full Text Available In order to solve the boundary value problem of fractional impulsive differential equations with countable impulses and integral boundary conditions on the half line, the existence of solutions to the boundary problem is specifically studied. By defining suitable Banach spaces, norms and operators, using the properties of fractional calculus and applying the contraction mapping principle and Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem, the existence of solutions for the boundary value problem of fractional impulsive differential equations with countable impulses and integral boundary conditions on the half line is proved, and examples are given to illustrate the existence of solutions to this kind of equation boundary value problems.

20. Asymptotics of linear initial boundary value problems with periodic boundary data on the half-line and finite intervals

Dujardin, G. M.

2009-01-01

This paper deals with the asymptotic behaviour of the solutions of linear initial boundary value problems with constant coefficients on the half-line and on finite intervals. We assume that the boundary data are periodic in time and we investigate

1. The boundary value problem for discrete analytic functions

Skopenkov, Mikhail

2013-06-01

This paper is on further development of discrete complex analysis introduced by R.Isaacs, J.Ferrand, R.Duffin, and C.Mercat. We consider a graph lying in the complex plane and having quadrilateral faces. A function on the vertices is called discrete analytic, if for each face the difference quotients along the two diagonals are equal.We prove that the Dirichlet boundary value problem for the real part of a discrete analytic function has a unique solution. In the case when each face has orthogonal diagonals we prove that this solution uniformly converges to a harmonic function in the scaling limit. This solves a problem of S.Smirnov from 2010. This was proved earlier by R.Courant-K.Friedrichs-H.Lewy and L.Lusternik for square lattices, by D.Chelkak-S.Smirnov and implicitly by P.G.Ciarlet-P.-A.Raviart for rhombic lattices.In particular, our result implies uniform convergence of the finite element method on Delaunay triangulations. This solves a problem of A.Bobenko from 2011. The methodology is based on energy estimates inspired by alternating-current network theory. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

2. Children with hypercholesterolemia of unknown cause: Value of genetic risk scores.

Sjouke, Barbara; Tanck, Michael W T; Fouchier, Sigrid W; Defesche, Joep C; Hutten, Barbara A; Wiegman, Albert; Kastelein, John J P; Hovingh, G Kees

2016-01-01

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is caused by mutations in LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9, and in a previous study, we identified a causative mutation in these FH genes in 95% (255 of 269) of children with the FH phenotype. It has been hypothesized that a polygenic form of hypercholesterolemia is present in FH patients in whom no mutation is identified in the 3 FH genes. To address whether a polygenic form of hypercholesterolemia, defined as high-weighted effect of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) raising SNPs expressed as the genetic risk score (GRS), is present in the remaining 14 children. On reassessment of the molecular diagnosis and clinical phenotype, 8 FH kindreds met the criteria for hypercholesterolemia of unknown cause and were included in this study. We calculated a weighted GRS comprising 10 established LDL-C-associated SNPs and the APOE genotype in these index cases and evaluated whether the index cases were characterized by an increased GRS compared to 26 first-degree relatives. Phenotypically affected and unaffected individuals could not be distinguished based on any of the risk scores. In this and our previous study, we show that a causal mutation in LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 can be identified in almost all children with a definite clinical diagnosis of FH. In the small group of patients without a mutation, we did not observe a higher GRS compared with unaffected relatives, which suggests that the FH phenotype is not caused by the aggregate of LDL-C increasing SNPs. Our data imply that application of the GRS is not instrumental as a diagnostic tool to individually define clinically diagnosed FH patients with polygenic hypercholesterolemia in our study population. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

3. Spectral combination of spherical gravitational curvature boundary-value problems

PitoÅák, Martin; Eshagh, Mehdi; Šprlák, Michal; Tenzer, Robert; Novák, Pavel

2018-04-01

Four solutions of the spherical gravitational curvature boundary-value problems can be exploited for the determination of the Earth's gravitational potential. In this article we discuss the combination of simulated satellite gravitational curvatures, i.e., components of the third-order gravitational tensor, by merging these solutions using the spectral combination method. For this purpose, integral estimators of biased- and unbiased-types are derived. In numerical studies, we investigate the performance of the developed mathematical models for the gravitational field modelling in the area of Central Europe based on simulated satellite measurements. Firstly, we verify the correctness of the integral estimators for the spectral downward continuation by a closed-loop test. Estimated errors of the combined solution are about eight orders smaller than those from the individual solutions. Secondly, we perform a numerical experiment by considering the Gaussian noise with the standard deviation of 6.5× 10-17 m-1s-2 in the input data at the satellite altitude of 250 km above the mean Earth sphere. This value of standard deviation is equivalent to a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. Superior results with respect to the global geopotential model TIM-r5 are obtained by the spectral downward continuation of the vertical-vertical-vertical component with the standard deviation of 2.104 m2s-2, but the root mean square error is the largest and reaches 9.734 m2s-2. Using the spectral combination of all gravitational curvatures the root mean square error is more than 400 times smaller but the standard deviation reaches 17.234 m2s-2. The combination of more components decreases the root mean square error of the corresponding solutions while the standard deviations of the combined solutions do not improve as compared to the solution from the vertical-vertical-vertical component. The presented method represents a weight mean in the spectral domain that minimizes the root mean square error

4. Positive Solutions of Two-Point Boundary Value Problems for Monge-Ampère Equations

Baoqiang Yan

2015-01-01

Full Text Available This paper considers the following boundary value problem: ((-u'(tn'=ntn-1f(u(t,  01 is odd. We establish the method of lower and upper solutions for some boundary value problems which generalizes the above equations and using this method we present a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions to the above boundary value problem and some sufficient conditions for the existence of positive solutions.

5. On Impulsive Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Differential Equations with Irregular Boundary Conditions

Guotao Wang

2012-01-01

Full Text Available We study nonlinear impulsive differential equations of fractional order with irregular boundary conditions. Some existence and uniqueness results are obtained by applying standard fixed-point theorems. For illustration of the results, some examples are discussed.

6. Boundary value problems for multi-term fractional differential equations

Daftardar-Gejji, Varsha; Bhalekar, Sachin

2008-09-01

Multi-term fractional diffusion-wave equation along with the homogeneous/non-homogeneous boundary conditions has been solved using the method of separation of variables. It is observed that, unlike in the one term case, solution of multi-term fractional diffusion-wave equation is not necessarily non-negative, and hence does not represent anomalous diffusion of any kind.

7. On some boundary value problems in quantum statistical mechanics

Angelescu, N.

1978-01-01

The following two topics of equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics are discussed in this thesis: (i) the independence of the thermodynamic limit of grand-canonical pressure on the boundary conditions; (ii) the magnetic properties of free quantum gases. Problem (i) is handled with a functional integration technique. Wiener-type conditional measures are constructed for a given domain and a general class of mixed conditions on its boundary, these measures are used to write down Feynman-Kac formulae for the kernels of exp(-βH), where H is the Hamiltonian of N interacting particles in the given domain. These measures share the property that they assign the same mass as the usual Wiener measure to any set of trajectories not intersecting the boundary. Local estimates on the kernels of exp(-βH) are derived, which imply independence of the pressure on the boundary conditions in the thermodynamic limit. Problem (ii) has a historical development: since Landau's work (1930), much discussion has been devoted to the influence of the finite size on the susceptibility. In finite volume, Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed, on the ground that they ensure gauge invariance. The thermodynamic limit of the pressure is proved, using again functional integration. The functional measure is now complex but absolutely continuous with respect to Wiener measure, so the usual local estimates hold true. The controversy in the literature was concentrated on the commutativity of the operations of H-derivation and thermodynamic limit, so the existence of this limit for the zero-field susceptibility and its surface term are proved separately, demonstrating this commutativity. The proof relies on the following result of independent interest: the perturbation theory of self-adjoint trace-class semigroups is trace-class convergent and analytic. (author)

8. Order Reduction in High-Order Runge-Kutta Methods for Initial Boundary Value Problems

Rosales, Rodolfo Ruben; Seibold, Benjamin; Shirokoff, David; Zhou, Dong

2017-01-01

This paper studies the order reduction phenomenon for initial-boundary-value problems that occurs with many Runge-Kutta time-stepping schemes. First, a geometric explanation of the mechanics of the phenomenon is provided: the approximation error develops boundary layers, induced by a mismatch between the approximation error in the interior and at the boundaries. Second, an analysis of the modes of the numerical scheme is conducted, which explains under which circumstances boundary layers pers...

9. m-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR SECOND ORDER IMPULSIVE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION AT RESONANCE

2012-01-01

In his paper,we obtain a general theorem concerning the existence of solutions to an m-point boundary value problem for the second-order differential equation with impulses.Moreover,the result can also be applied to study the usual m-point boundary value problem at resonance without impulses.

10. Application of He's variational iteration method to the fifth-order boundary value problems

Shen, S

2008-01-01

Variational iteration method is introduced to solve the fifth-order boundary value problems. This method provides an efficient approach to solve this type of problems without discretization and the computation of the Adomian polynomials. Numerical results demonstrate that this method is a promising and powerful tool for solving the fifth-order boundary value problems

11. Fever of unknown origin: A value of 18F-FDG-PET/CT with integrated full diagnostic isotropic CT imaging

Ferda, Jiri; Ferdova, Eva; Zahlava, Jan; Matejovic, Martin; Kreuzberg, Boris

2010-01-01

Aim: The aim of presented work is to evaluate the clinical value of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) and to compare PET/CT finding with the results of the following investigation. Material and method: 48 patients (24 men, 24 women, mean age 57.6 years with range 15-89 years) underwent 18 F-FDG-PET/CT due to the fever of unknown origin. All examinations were performed using complex PET/CT protocol combined PET and whole diagnostic contrast enhanced CT with sub-millimeter spatial resolution (except patient with history of iodine hypersensitivity or sever renal impairment). CT data contained diagnostic images reconstructed with soft tissue and high-resolution algorithm. PET/CT finding were compared with results of biopsies, immunology, microbiology or autopsy. Results: The cause of FUO was explained according to the PET/CT findings and followed investigations in 44 of 48 cases-18 cases of microbial infections, nine cases of autoimmune inflammations, four cases of non-infectious granulomatous diseases, eight cases of malignancies and five cases of proved immunity disorders were found. In 46 cases, the PET/CT interpretation was correct. Only in one case, the cause was overlooked and the uptake in atherosclerotic changes of arteries was misinterpreted as vasculitis in the other. The reached sensitivity was 97% (43/44), and specificity 75% (3/4) respectively. Conclusion: In patients with fever of unknown origin, 18 F-FDG-PET/CT might enable the detection of its cause.

12. Performance improvement of extended boundary node method for solving elliptic boundary-value problems

Saitoh, Ayumu; Kamitani, Atsushi; Takayama, Teruou; Nakamura, Hiroaki

2016-01-01

The extended boundary-node method (X-BNM) with the hierarchical-matrix (H-matrix) method has been developed and its performance has been investigated numerically. The results of computations show that the solver speed of the X-BNM with the H-matrix method is much faster than that of the standard X-BNM for the case where the number of boundary nodes exceeds a certain limit. Furthermore, the accuracy of the X-BNM with the H-matrix method is almost equal to that of the standard X-BNM. From these results, it is found that the H-matrix method is useful as the acceleration technique of the X-BNM. (author)

13. Boundary values as Hamiltonian variables. II. Graded structures

2002-01-01

It is shown that the new formula for the field theory Poisson brackets arises naturally in the proposed extension of the formal variational calculus incorporating divergences. The linear spaces of local functionals, evolutionary vector fields, functional forms, multi-vectors and differential operators become graded with respect to divergences. The bilinear operations, such as the action of vector fields onto functionals, the commutator of vector fields, the interior product of forms and vectors and the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket are compatible with the grading. A definition of the adjoint graded operator is proposed and antisymmetric operators are constructed with the help of boundary terms. The fulfilment of the Jacobi identity for the new Poisson brackets is shown to be equivalent to vanishing of the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of the Poisson bivector with itself

14. Caring across Boundaries versus Keeping Boundaries Intact: Links between Moral Values and Interpersonal Orientations

Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane

2013-01-01

Prior work has established robust diversity in the extent to which different moral values are endorsed. Some people focus on values related to caring and fairness, whereas others assign additional moral weight to ingroup loyalty, respect for authority and established hierarchies, and purity concerns. Five studies explore associations between endorsement of distinct moral values and a suite of interpersonal orientations: Machiavellianism, prosocial resource distribution, Social Dominance Orientation, and reported likelihood of helping and not helping kin and close friends versus acquaintances and neighbors. We found that Machiavellianism (Studies 1, 3, 4, 5) (e.g., amorality, controlling and status-seeking behaviors) and Social Dominance Orientation (Study 4) were negatively associated with caring values, and positively associated with valuation of authority. Those higher in caring values were more likely to choose prosocial resource distributions (Studies 2, 3, 4) and to report reduced likelihood of failing to help kin/close friends or acquaintances (Study 4). Finally, greater likelihood of helping acquaintances was positively associated with all moral values tested except authority values (Study 4). The current work offers a novel approach to characterizing moral values and reveals a striking divergence between two kinds of moral values in particular: caring values and authority values. Caring values were positively linked with prosociality and negatively associated with Machiavellianism, whereas authority values were positively associated with Machiavellianism and Social Dominance Orientation. PMID:24349095

15. Application of Monte Carlo method to solving boundary value problem of differential equations

Zuo Yinghong; Wang Jianguo

2012-01-01

This paper introduces the foundation of the Monte Carlo method and the way how to generate the random numbers. Based on the basic thought of the Monte Carlo method and finite differential method, the stochastic model for solving the boundary value problem of differential equations is built. To investigate the application of the Monte Carlo method to solving the boundary value problem of differential equations, the model is used to solve Laplace's equations with the first boundary condition and the unsteady heat transfer equation with initial values and boundary conditions. The results show that the boundary value problem of differential equations can be effectively solved with the Monte Carlo method, and the differential equations with initial condition can also be calculated by using a stochastic probability model which is based on the time-domain finite differential equations. Both the simulation results and theoretical analyses show that the errors of numerical results are lowered as the number of simulation particles is increased. (authors)

16. [On the value of tattoos for identifying unknown bodies - a retrospective study of forensic autopsy cases from Giessen, Germany].

Birngruber, Christoph G; Görner, Nicole; Ramsthaler, H Frank

2016-01-01

The number of tattooed people in Germany has constantly grown over the past few years. The present study deals with the question if this social trend can be seen in foren- sic autopsy cases as well. In a retrospective study, forensic autopsy cases of two periods (1990-1994 and 2010-2014) have been reviewed and statistically analyzed. Comparison of the two periods revealed a significant increase in tattooed individuals, especially in the female subgroup. Between 2010 and 2014, 14.2 % of the deceased showed tattoos. There are significant differences in the frequency and localization of tattoos dependent on age and sex. About 50 % of the tattooed deceased showed tattoos on body sites that are visible for other persons in everyday life. The resulting value of tattoos for the purpose of identifying unknown bodies is discussed and illustrated.

17. Diagnostic value of F18-FDG PET/CT in patients with the revised definition of fever of unknown origin

Prakash, Vineet; Ketharanathan, Nagulabaskaran; Lorenz, Eleanor

2009-01-01

Objectives: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is an increasingly accepted indication for PET/CT where it has a relatively high diagnostic yield. This study assesses its diagnostic value for the revised definition of FUO. Methods: The revised definition of FUO is fever of greater than 38.3C for more...... than 3 weeks duration and an uncertain diagnosis after comprehensive evaluation as an inpatient or outpatient for a minimum of 3 days or 3 outpatient visits, having excluded immunocompromised states. 59 patients (pts) (F=35, age 18-92) with this definition underwent PET with full diagnostic contrast......), neoplasm (6 pts) and drug fever (1 pt). Before ordering a PET/CT, conventional CT or MRI was performed in 43 pts. We considered that a PET/CT was essential to establish the final diagnosis in 15/43 pts (35%) with inconclusive CT or MRI. Conclusions: 18F-FDG PET/CT contributed to establishing a final...

18. Numerical Solutions of Fifth Order Boundary Value Problems Using

Dr A.B.Ahmed

1Department of Mathematics Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. 2Department of ..... International Journal of Computational. Mathematics and ... Value Problems using Power Series Approximation Method.Applied. Mathematics,. 7,. 1215-.

19. Asymptotics of linear initial boundary value problems with periodic boundary data on the half-line and finite intervals

Dujardin, G. M.

2009-08-12

This paper deals with the asymptotic behaviour of the solutions of linear initial boundary value problems with constant coefficients on the half-line and on finite intervals. We assume that the boundary data are periodic in time and we investigate whether the solution becomes time-periodic after sufficiently long time. Using Fokas\\' transformation method, we show that, for the linear Schrödinger equation, the linear heat equation and the linearized KdV equation on the half-line, the solutions indeed become periodic for large time. However, for the same linear Schrödinger equation on a finite interval, we show that the solution, in general, is not asymptotically periodic; actually, the asymptotic behaviour of the solution depends on the commensurability of the time period T of the boundary data with the square of the length of the interval over. © 2009 The Royal Society.

20. Electromagnetic wave theory for boundary-value problems an advanced course on analytical methods

Eom, Hyo J

2004-01-01

Electromagnetic wave theory is based on Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic boundary-value problems must be solved to understand electromagnetic scattering, propagation, and radiation. Electromagnetic theory finds practical applications in wireless telecommunications and microwave engineering. This book is written as a text for a two-semester graduate course on electromagnetic wave theory. As such, Electromagnetic Wave Theory for Boundary-Value Problems is intended to help students enhance analytic skills by solving pertinent boundary-value problems. In particular, the techniques of Fourier transform, mode matching, and residue calculus are utilized to solve some canonical scattering and radiation problems.

1. Analytic approximations to nonlinear boundary value problems modeling beam-type nano-electromechanical systems

Zou, Li [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian City (China). State Key Lab. of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment; Liang, Songxin; Li, Yawei [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian City (China). School of Mathematical Sciences; Jeffrey, David J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada). Dept. of Applied Mathematics

2017-06-01

Nonlinear boundary value problems arise frequently in physical and mechanical sciences. An effective analytic approach with two parameters is first proposed for solving nonlinear boundary value problems. It is demonstrated that solutions given by the two-parameter method are more accurate than solutions given by the Adomian decomposition method (ADM). It is further demonstrated that solutions given by the ADM can also be recovered from the solutions given by the two-parameter method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by solving some nonlinear boundary value problems modeling beam-type nano-electromechanical systems.

2. Vragov’s boundary value problem for an implicit equation of mixed type

Egorov, I. E.

2017-10-01

We study a Vragov boundary value problem for a third-order implicit equation of mixed type with an arbitrary manifold of type switch. These Sobolev-type equations arise in many important applied problems. Given certain constraints on the coefficients and the right-hand side of the equation, we demonstrate, using nonstationary Galerkin method and regularization method, the unique regular solvability of the boundary value problem. We also obtain an error estimate for approximate solutions of the boundary value problem in terms of the regularization parameter and the eigenvalues of the Dirichlet spectral problem for the Laplace operator.

3. Nature Inspired Computational Technique for the Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Singular Boundary Value Problems Arising in Physiology

Suheel Abdullah Malik

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We present a hybrid heuristic computing method for the numerical solution of nonlinear singular boundary value problems arising in physiology. The approximate solution is deduced as a linear combination of some log sigmoid basis functions. A fitness function representing the sum of the mean square error of the given nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE and its boundary conditions is formulated. The optimization of the unknown adjustable parameters contained in the fitness function is performed by the hybrid heuristic computation algorithm based on genetic algorithm (GA, interior point algorithm (IPA, and active set algorithm (ASA. The efficiency and the viability of the proposed method are confirmed by solving three examples from physiology. The obtained approximate solutions are found in excellent agreement with the exact solutions as well as some conventional numerical solutions.

4. Multiple positive solutions for second order impulsive boundary value problems in Banach spaces

Zhi-Wei Lv

2010-06-01

Full Text Available By means of the fixed point index theory of strict set contraction operators, we establish new existence theorems on multiple positive solutions to a boundary value problem for second-order impulsive integro-differential equations with integral boundary conditions in a Banach space. Moreover, an application is given to illustrate the main result.

5. On nonseparated three-point boundary value problems for linear functional differential equations

Rontó, András; Rontó, M.

2011-01-01

Roč. 2011, - (2011), s. 326052 ISSN 1085-3375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : functional-differential equation * three-point boundary value problem * nonseparated boundary condition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.318, year: 2011 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ aaa /2011/326052/

6. A combined analytic-numeric approach for some boundary-value problems

Mustafa Turkyilmazoglu

2016-02-01

Full Text Available A combined analytic-numeric approach is undertaken in the present work for the solution of boundary-value problems in the finite or semi-infinite domains. Equations to be treated arise specifically from the boundary layer analysis of some two and three-dimensional flows in fluid mechanics. The purpose is to find quick but accurate enough solutions. Taylor expansions at either boundary conditions are computed which are next matched to the other asymptotic or exact boundary conditions. The technique is applied to the well-known Blasius as well as Karman flows. Solutions obtained in terms of series compare favorably with the existing ones in the literature.

7. Closed form solution to a second order boundary value problem and its application in fluid mechanics

Eldabe, N.T.; Elghazy, E.M.; Ebaid, A.

2007-01-01

The Adomian decomposition method is used by many researchers to investigate several scientific models. In this Letter, the modified Adomian decomposition method is applied to construct a closed form solution for a second order boundary value problem with singularity

8. Existence of Three Positive Solutions to Some p-Laplacian Boundary Value Problems

Moulay Rchid Sidi Ammi

2013-01-01

Full Text Available We obtain, by using the Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem, sufficient conditions that ensure the existence of at least three positive solutions to some p-Laplacian boundary value problems on time scales.

9. Boundary value problems on the half line in the theory of colloids

Ravi P. Agarwal

2002-01-01

Full Text Available We present existence results for some boundary value problems defined on infinite intervals. In particular our discussion includes a problem which arises in the theory of colloids.

10. On Existence of Solutions to the Caputo Type Fractional Order Three-Point Boundary Value Problems

B.M.B. Krushna

2016-10-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we establish the existence of solutions to the fractional order three-point boundary value problems by utilizing Banach contraction principle and Schaefer's fixed point theorem.

11. The numerical solution of boundary value problems over an infinite domain

Shepherd, M.; Skinner, R.

1976-01-01

A method is presented for the numerical solution of boundary value problems over infinite domains. An example that illustrates also the strength and accuracy of a numerical procedure for calculating Green's functions is described in detail

12. Variational methods for boundary value problems for systems of elliptic equations

Lavrent'ev, M A

2012-01-01

Famous monograph by a distinguished mathematician presents an innovative approach to classical boundary value problems. The treatment employs the basic scheme first suggested by Hilbert and developed by Tonnelli. 1963 edition.

13. On the Approximate Controllability of Some Semilinear Parabolic Boundary-Value Problems

Diaz, J. I.; Henry, J.; Ramos, A. M.

1998-01-01

We prove the approximate controllability of several nonlinear parabolic boundary-value problems by means of two different methods: the first one can be called a Cancellation method and the second one uses the Kakutani fixed-point theorem

14. The extended-domain-eigenfunction method for solving elliptic boundary value problems with annular domains

Aarao, J; Bradshaw-Hajek, B H; Miklavcic, S J; Ward, D A, E-mail: Stan.Miklavcic@unisa.edu.a [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

2010-05-07

Standard analytical solutions to elliptic boundary value problems on asymmetric domains are rarely, if ever, obtainable. In this paper, we propose a solution technique wherein we embed the original domain into one with simple boundaries where the classical eigenfunction solution approach can be used. The solution in the larger domain, when restricted to the original domain, is then the solution of the original boundary value problem. We call this the extended-domain-eigenfunction method. To illustrate the method's strength and scope, we apply it to Laplace's equation on an annular-like domain.

15. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

Blokhuis, Gijsbert J.; Diender, Marije G.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P. [Radboud University Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Draaisma, Jos M.T. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Paediatrics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University of Twente, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

2014-10-15

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in children with FUO and in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. All FDG-PET/(CT) scans performed in the Radboud university medical center for the evaluation of FUO or unexplained fever during immune suppression in the last 10 years were reviewed. Results were compared with the final clinical diagnosis. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 31 children with FUO. A final diagnosis was established in 16 cases (52 %). Of the total number of scans, 32 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in these patients was 80 % and 78 %, respectively. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 12 children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. A final diagnosis was established in nine patients (75 %). Of the total number of these scans, 58 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression was 78 % and 67 %, respectively. FDG-PET/CT appears a valuable imaging technique in the evaluation of children with FUO and in the diagnostic process of children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. Prospective studies of FDG-PET/CT as part of a structured diagnostic protocol are warranted to assess the additional diagnostic value. (orig.)

16. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

Blokhuis, Gijsbert J.; Diender, Marije G.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; Draaisma, Jos M.T.; Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de

2014-01-01

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in children with FUO and in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. All FDG-PET/(CT) scans performed in the Radboud university medical center for the evaluation of FUO or unexplained fever during immune suppression in the last 10 years were reviewed. Results were compared with the final clinical diagnosis. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 31 children with FUO. A final diagnosis was established in 16 cases (52 %). Of the total number of scans, 32 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in these patients was 80 % and 78 %, respectively. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 12 children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. A final diagnosis was established in nine patients (75 %). Of the total number of these scans, 58 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression was 78 % and 67 %, respectively. FDG-PET/CT appears a valuable imaging technique in the evaluation of children with FUO and in the diagnostic process of children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. Prospective studies of FDG-PET/CT as part of a structured diagnostic protocol are warranted to assess the additional diagnostic value. (orig.)

17. Three-Field Modelling of Nonlinear Nonsmooth Boundary Value Problems and Stability of Differential Mixed Variational Inequalities

J. Gwinner

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly we consider nonlinear nonsmooth elliptic boundary value problems, and also related parabolic initial boundary value problems that model in a simplified way steady-state unilateral contact with Tresca friction in solid mechanics, respectively, stem from nonlinear transient heat conduction with unilateral boundary conditions. Here a recent duality approach, that augments the classical Babuška-Brezzi saddle point formulation for mixed variational problems to twofold saddle point formulations, is extended to the nonsmooth problems under consideration. This approach leads to variational inequalities of mixed form for three coupled fields as unknowns and to related differential mixed variational inequalities in the time-dependent case. Secondly we are concerned with the stability of the solution set of a general class of differential mixed variational inequalities. Here we present a novel upper set convergence result with respect to perturbations in the data, including perturbations of the associated nonlinear maps, the nonsmooth convex functionals, and the convex constraint set. We employ epiconvergence for the convergence of the functionals and Mosco convergence for set convergence. We impose weak convergence assumptions on the perturbed maps using the monotonicity method of Browder and Minty.

18. A fast direct solver for boundary value problems on locally perturbed geometries

2018-03-01

Many applications including optimal design and adaptive discretization techniques involve solving several boundary value problems on geometries that are local perturbations of an original geometry. This manuscript presents a fast direct solver for boundary value problems that are recast as boundary integral equations. The idea is to write the discretized boundary integral equation on a new geometry as a low rank update to the discretized problem on the original geometry. Using the Sherman-Morrison formula, the inverse can be expressed in terms of the inverse of the original system applied to the low rank factors and the right hand side. Numerical results illustrate for problems where perturbation is localized the fast direct solver is three times faster than building a new solver from scratch.

19. Boundary-value problems for first and second order functional differential inclusions

Shihuang Hong

2003-03-01

Full Text Available This paper presents sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions to boundary-value problems of first and second order multi-valued differential equations in Banach spaces. Our results obtained using fixed point theorems, and lead to new existence principles.

20. Efficient algorithms for analyzing the singularly perturbed boundary value problems of fractional order

Sayevand, K.; Pichaghchi, K.

2018-04-01

In this paper, we were concerned with the description of the singularly perturbed boundary value problems in the scope of fractional calculus. We should mention that, one of the main methods used to solve these problems in classical calculus is the so-called matched asymptotic expansion method. However we shall note that, this was not achievable via the existing classical definitions of fractional derivative, because they do not obey the chain rule which one of the key elements of the matched asymptotic expansion method. In order to accommodate this method to fractional derivative, we employ a relatively new derivative so-called the local fractional derivative. Using the properties of local fractional derivative, we extend the matched asymptotic expansion method to the scope of fractional calculus and introduce a reliable new algorithm to develop approximate solutions of the singularly perturbed boundary value problems of fractional order. In the new method, the original problem is partitioned into inner and outer solution equations. The reduced equation is solved with suitable boundary conditions which provide the terminal boundary conditions for the boundary layer correction. The inner solution problem is next solved as a solvable boundary value problem. The width of the boundary layer is approximated using appropriate resemblance function. Some theoretical results are established and proved. Some illustrating examples are solved and the results are compared with those of matched asymptotic expansion method and homotopy analysis method to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method. It can be observed that, the proposed method approximates the exact solution very well not only in the boundary layer, but also away from the layer.

1. Existence and uniqueness of entropy solution to initial boundary value problem for the inviscid Burgers equation

Zhu, C

2003-01-01

This paper is concerned with the existence and uniqueness of the entropy solution to the initial boundary value problem for the inviscid Burgers equation. To apply the method of vanishing viscosity to study the existence of the entropy solution, we first introduce the initial boundary value problem for the viscous Burgers equation, and as in Evans (1998 Partial Differential Equations (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) and Hopf (1950 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 3 201-30), give the formula of the corresponding viscosity solutions by Hopf-Cole transformation. Secondly, we prove the convergence of the viscosity solution sequences and verify that the limiting function is an entropy solution. Finally, we give an example to show how our main result can be applied to solve the initial boundary value problem for the Burgers equation.

2. Existence and uniqueness of entropy solution to initial boundary value problem for the inviscid Burgers equation

Zhu, Changjiang; Duan, Renjun

2003-01-01

This paper is concerned with the existence and uniqueness of the entropy solution to the initial boundary value problem for the inviscid Burgers equation. To apply the method of vanishing viscosity to study the existence of the entropy solution, we first introduce the initial boundary value problem for the viscous Burgers equation, and as in Evans (1998 Partial Differential Equations (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) and Hopf (1950 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 3 201-30), give the formula of the corresponding viscosity solutions by Hopf-Cole transformation. Secondly, we prove the convergence of the viscosity solution sequences and verify that the limiting function is an entropy solution. Finally, we give an example to show how our main result can be applied to solve the initial boundary value problem for the Burgers equation

3. A priori bounds for solutions of two-point boundary value problems using differential inequalities

Vidossich, G.

1979-01-01

Two point boundary value problems for systems of differential equations are studied with a new approach based on differential inequalities of first order. This leads to the following results: (i) one-sided conditions are enough, in the sense that the inner product is substituted to the norm; (ii) the upper bound exists for practically any kind of equations and boundary value problem if the interval is sufficiently small since it depends on the Peano existence theorem; (iii) the bound seems convenient when the equation has some singularity in t as well as when sigular problems are considered. (author)

4. Algebraic structures in generalized Clifford analysis and applications to boundary value problems

José Játem

2015-12-01

Full Text Available The present article has a threefold purpose: First it is a survey of the algebraic structures of generalized Clifford-type algebras and shows the main results of the corresponding Clifford-type analysis and its application to boundary value problems known so far. Second it is aimed to implement algorithms to provide the fast and accurate computation of boundary value problems for inhomogeneous equations in the framework of the generalized Clifford analysis. Finally it is also aimed to encourage the development of a generalized discrete Clifford analysis.

5. The nonlocal boundary value problems for strongly singular higher-order nonlinear functional-differential equations

Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan

-, č. 35 (2015), s. 23-50 ISSN 1126-8042 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : higher order functional differential equations * Dirichlet boundary value problem * strong singularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://ijpam.uniud.it/online_issue/201535/03-Mukhigulashvili.pdf

6. Existence of positive solutions for a multi-point four-order boundary-value problem

Le Xuan Truong

2011-10-01

Full Text Available The article shows sufficient conditions for the existence of positive solutions to a multi-point boundary-value problem for a fourth-order differential equation. Our main tools are the Guo-Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem and the monotone iterative technique. We also show that the set of positive solutions is compact.

7. B-spline solution of a singularly perturbed boundary value problem arising in biology

Lin Bin; Li Kaitai; Cheng Zhengxing

2009-01-01

We use B-spline functions to develop a numerical method for solving a singularly perturbed boundary value problem associated with biology science. We use B-spline collocation method, which leads to a tridiagonal linear system. The accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by test problems. The numerical result is found in good agreement with exact solution.

8. Numerical solutions of a three-point boundary value problem with an ...

Numerical solutions of a three-point boundary value problem with an integral condition for a third-order partial differential equation by using Laplace transform method Solutions numeriques d'un probleme pour une classe d'equations differentielles d'ordr.

9. A New Numerical Algorithm for Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

Guo, Lihua; Wu, Boying; Zhang, Dazhi

2014-01-01

We present a new numerical algorithm for two-point boundary value problems. We first present the exact solution in the form of series and then prove that the n-term numerical solution converges uniformly to the exact solution. Furthermore, we establish the numerical stability and error analysis. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

10. Integral boundary-value problem for impulsive fractional functional differential equations with infinite delay

Archana Chauhan

2012-12-01

Full Text Available In this article, we establish a general framework for finding solutions for impulsive fractional integral boundary-value problems. Then, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions by applying well known fixed point theorems. The obtained results are illustrated with an example for their feasibility.

11. Appling Laplace Adomian decomposition method for delay differential equations with boundary value problems

Yousef, Hamood Mohammed; Ismail, Ahmad Izani

2017-11-01

In this paper, Laplace Adomian decomposition method (LADM) was applied to solve Delay differential equations with Boundary Value Problems. The solution is in the form of a convergent series which is easy to compute. This approach is tested on two test problem. The findings obtained exhibit the reliability and efficiency of the proposed method.

12. Geopotential coefficient determination and the gravimetric boundary value problem: A new approach

Sjoeberg, Lars E.

1989-01-01

New integral formulas to determine geopotential coefficients from terrestrial gravity and satellite altimetry data are given. The formulas are based on the integration of data over the non-spherical surface of the Earth. The effect of the topography to low degrees and orders of coefficients is estimated numerically. Formulas for the solution of the gravimetric boundary value problem are derived.

13. Existence of Positive Solutions to a Singular Semipositone Boundary Value Problem of Nonlinear Fractional Differential Systems

Xiaofeng Zhang

2017-12-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the existence of positive solutions to a singular semipositone boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional differential equations. By applying the fixed point index theorem, some new results for the existence of positive solutions are obtained. In addition, an example is presented to demonstrate the application of our main results.

14. Three symmetric positive solutions of fourth-order singular nonlocal boundary value problems

Fuyi Xu

2011-12-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence of three positive solutions of fourth-order singular nonlocal boundary value problems. We show that there exist triple symmetric positive solutions by using Leggett-Williams fixed-point theorem. The conclusions in this paper essentially extend and improve some known results.

15. Triple solutions for multi-point boundary-value problem with p-Laplace operator

Yansheng Liu

2009-11-01

Full Text Available Using a fixed point theorem due to Avery and Peterson, this article shows the existence of solutions for multi-point boundary-value problem with p-Laplace operator and parameters. Also, we present an example to illustrate the results obtained.

16. BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR A LOADED EQUATION ELLIPTIC-HYPERBOLIC TYPE IN A DOUBLY CONNECTED DOMAIN

O.Kh. Abdullaev

2014-06-01

Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of the solution of one boundary value problem for the loaded elliptic-hyperbolic equation of the second order with two lines of change of type in double-connected domain. Similar results have been received by D.M.Kuryhazov, when investigated domain is one-connected.

17. On sign constant solutions of certain boundary value problems for second-order functional differential equations

Lomtatidze, Alexander; Vodstrčil, Petr

2005-01-01

Roč. 84, č. 2 (2005), s. 197-209 ISSN 0003-6811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : second order linear functional differential equations * nonnegative solution * two-point boundary value problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00036810410001724427

18. The Method of Subsuper Solutions for Weighted p(r-Laplacian Equation Boundary Value Problems

Zhimei Qiu

2008-10-01

Full Text Available This paper investigates the existence of solutions for weighted p(r-Laplacian ordinary boundary value problems. Our method is based on Leray-Schauder degree. As an application, we give the existence of weak solutions for p(x-Laplacian partial differential equations.

19. A free-boundary value problem related to auto ignition of ...

We examine a free boundary value problem related to auto ignition of combustible fluid in insulation materials. The criteria for the existence of similarity solution of the model equations are established. The conditions for the existence of unique solution are also stated. The numerical results which show the influence of ...

20. Existence of global solutions to free boundary value problems for bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion systems

Jian Liu

2013-09-01

Full Text Available In this article, we consider the free boundary value problem for one-dimensional compressible bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion (BNSP equations with density-dependent viscosities. For general initial data with finite energy and the density connecting with vacuum continuously, we prove the global existence of the weak solution. This extends the previous results for compressible NS [27] to NSP.

1. Theorems on differential inequalities and periodic boundary value problem for second-order ordinary differential equations

Lomtatidze, Alexander

2016-01-01

Roč. 67, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-129 ISSN 1512-0015 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : periodic boundary value problem * positive solution * singular equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://rmi.tsu.ge/jeomj/memoirs/vol67/abs67-1.htm

2. Numerical Analysis of Forth-Order Boundary Value Problems in Fluid Mechanics and Mathematics

2011-01-01

In this paper He's variational iteration method is used to solve some examples of linear and non-linear forth-order boundary value problems. The first problem compared with homotopy analysis method solution and the other ones with the exact solution. The results show the high accuracy and speed o...

3. Numerical analysis of fourth-order boundary value problems in fluid mechanics and mathematics

2010-01-01

In this paper He's variational iteration method is used to solve some examples of linear and non-linear forth-order boundary value problems. The first problem compared with homotopy analysis method solution and the other ones with the exact solution. The results show the high accuracy and speed o...

4. The focal boundary value problem for strongly singular higher-order nonlinear functional-differential equations

Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan; Půža, B.

2015-01-01

Roč. 2015, January (2015), s. 17 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : higher order nonlinear functional-differential equations * two-point right-focal boundary value problem * strong singularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.642, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13661-014-0277-1

5. An inverse boundary value problem for the Schroedinger operator with vector potentials in two dimensions

Ziqi Sun

1993-01-01

During the past few years a considerable interest has been focused on the inverse boundary value problem for the Schroedinger operator with a scalar (electric) potential. The popularity gained by this subject seems to be due to its connection with the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy, the inverse conductivity problem and other important inverse problems. This paper deals with an inverse boundary value problem for the Schroedinger operator with vector (electric and magnetic) potentials. As in the case of the scalar potential, results of this study would have immediate consequences in the inverse scattering problem for magnetic field at fixed energy. On the other hand, inverse boundary value problems for elliptic operators are of independent interest. The study is partly devoted to the understanding of the inverse boundary value problem for a class of general elliptic operator of second order. Note that a self-adjoint elliptic operator of second order with Δ as its principal symbol can always be written as a Schroedinger operator with vector potentials

6. Remark on periodic boundary-value problem for second-order linear ordinary differential equations

Dosoudilová, M.; Lomtatidze, Alexander

2018-01-01

Roč. 2018, č. 13 (2018), s. 1-7 ISSN 1072-6691 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : second-order linear equation * periodic boundary value problem * unique solvability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2016 https://ejde.math.txstate.edu/Volumes/2018/13/abstr.html

7. Uniqueness in some higher order elliptic boundary value problems in n dimensional domains

C.-P. Danet

2011-07-01

Full Text Available We develop maximum principles for several P functions which are defined on solutions to equations of fourth and sixth order (including a equation which arises in plate theory and bending of cylindrical shells. As a consequence, we obtain uniqueness results for fourth and sixth order boundary value problems in arbitrary n dimensional domains.

8. Discrete quintic spline for boundary value problem in plate deflation theory

Wong, Patricia J. Y.

2017-07-01

We propose a numerical scheme for a fourth-order boundary value problem arising from plate deflation theory. The scheme involves a discrete quintic spline, and it is of order 4 if a parameter takes a specific value, else it is of order 2. We also present a well known numerical example to illustrate the efficiency of our method as well as to compare with other numerical methods proposed in the literature.

9. The vanishing discount problem and viscosity Mather measures. Part 2: boundary value problems

Ishii, Hitoshi; Mitake, Hiroyoshi; Tran, Hung V.

2016-01-01

In arXiv:1603.01051 (Part 1 of this series), we have introduced a variational approach to studying the vanishing discount problem for fully nonlinear, degenerate elliptic, partial differential equations in a torus. We develop this approach further here to handle boundary value problems. In particular, we establish new representation formulas for solutions of discount problems, critical values, and use them to prove convergence results for the vanishing discount problems.

10. About potential of double layer and boundary value problems for Laplace equation

Aleshin, M.V.

1991-01-01

An integral operator raisen by a kernel of the double layer's potential is investigated. The kernel is defined on S (S - two-digit variety of C 2 class presented by a boundary of the finite domain in R 3 ). The operator is considered on C(S). Following results are received: the operator's spectrum belongs to [-1,1]; it's eigenvalues and eigenfunctions may be found by Kellog's method; knowledge of the operator's spectrum is enough to construct it's resolvent. These properties permit to point out the determined interation processes, solving boundary value problems for Laplace equation. One of such processes - solving of Roben problem - is generalized on electrostatic problems. 6 refs

11. Use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of two-point boundary value problems

Gallaher, L. J.; Perlin, I. E.

1974-01-01

This study investigates the use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of the two-point boundary value problem. The first part deals with the role of the Green's function in solving both linear and nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations with boundary conditions and systems of such equations. The second part describes procedures for numerical construction of Green's functions and considers briefly the conditions for their existence. Finally, there is a description of some numerical experiments using nonlinear problems for which the known existence, uniqueness or convergence theorems do not apply. Examples here include some problems in finding rendezvous orbits of the restricted three body system.

12. A boundary-value problem in weighted Hölder spaces for elliptic equations which degenerate at the boundary of the domain

Bazalii, B V; Degtyarev, S P [Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)

2013-07-31

An elliptic boundary-value problem for second-order equations with nonnegative characteristic form is investigated in the situation when there is a weak degeneracy on the boundary of the domain. A priori estimates are obtained for solutions and the problem is proved to be solvable in some weighted Hölder spaces. Bibliography: 18 titles.

13. Existence of 2m-1 Positive Solutions for Sturm-Liouville Boundary Value Problems with Linear Functional Boundary Conditions on the Half-Line

Yanmei Sun

2012-01-01

Full Text Available By using the Leggett-Williams fixed theorem, we establish the existence of multiple positive solutions for second-order nonhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems with linear functional boundary conditions. One explicit example with singularity is presented to demonstrate the application of our main results.

14. Solution matching for a three-point boundary-value problem on atime scale

Martin Eggensperger

2004-07-01

Full Text Available Let $mathbb{T}$ be a time scale such that $t_1, t_2, t_3 in mathbb{T}$. We show the existence of a unique solution for the three-point boundary value problem $$displaylines{ y^{DeltaDeltaDelta}(t = f(t, y(t, y^Delta(t, y^{DeltaDelta}(t, quad t in [t_1, t_3] cap mathbb{T},cr y(t_1 = y_1, quad y(t_2 = y_2, quad y(t_3 = y_3,. }$$ We do this by matching a solution to the first equation satisfying a two-point boundary conditions on $[t_1, t_2] cap mathbb{T}$ with a solution satisfying a two-point boundary conditions on $[t_2, t_3] cap mathbb{T}$.

15. Analytic solutions to a family of boundary-value problems for Ginsburg-Landau type equations

Vassilev, V. M.; Dantchev, D. M.; Djondjorov, P. A.

2017-10-01

We consider a two-parameter family of nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing the behavior of a critical thermodynamic system, e.g., a binary liquid mixture, of film geometry within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory by means of the order-parameter. We focus on the case in which the confining surfaces are strongly adsorbing but prefer different components of the mixture, i.e., the order-parameter tends to infinity at one of the boundaries and to minus infinity at the other one. We assume that the boundaries of the system are positioned at a finite distance from each other and give analytic solutions to the corresponding boundary-value problems in terms of Weierstrass and Jacobi elliptic functions.

16. An analytical approximation scheme to two-point boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations

Boisseau, Bruno; Forgacs, Peter; Giacomini, Hector

2007-01-01

A new (algebraic) approximation scheme to find global solutions of two-point boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is presented. The method is applicable for both linear and nonlinear (coupled) ODEs whose solutions are analytic near one of the boundary points. It is based on replacing the original ODEs by a sequence of auxiliary first-order polynomial ODEs with constant coefficients. The coefficients in the auxiliary ODEs are uniquely determined from the local behaviour of the solution in the neighbourhood of one of the boundary points. The problem of obtaining the parameters of the global (connecting) solutions, analytic at one of the boundary points, reduces to find the appropriate zeros of algebraic equations. The power of the method is illustrated by computing the approximate values of the 'connecting parameters' for a number of nonlinear ODEs arising in various problems in field theory. We treat in particular the static and rotationally symmetric global vortex, the skyrmion, the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortex, as well as the 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopole. The total energy of the skyrmion and of the monopole is also computed by the new method. We also consider some ODEs coming from the exact renormalization group. The ground-state energy level of the anharmonic oscillator is also computed for arbitrary coupling strengths with good precision. (fast track communication)

17. On the asymptotic of solutions of elliptic boundary value problems in domains with edges

Nkemzi, B.

2005-10-01

Solutions of elliptic boundary value problems in three-dimensional domains with edges may exhibit singularities. The usual procedure to study these singularities is by the application of the classical Mellin transformation or continuous Fourier transformation. In this paper, we show how the asymptotic behavior of solutions of elliptic boundary value problems in general three-dimensional domains with straight edges can be investigated by means of discrete Fourier transformation. We apply this approach to time-harmonic Maxwell's equations and prove that the singular solutions can fully be described in terms of Fourier series. The representation here can easily be used to approximate three-dimensional stress intensity factors associated with edge singularities. (author)

18. Existence of Positive Solutions to a Boundary Value Problem for a Delayed Nonlinear Fractional Differential System

Chen Yuming

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Though boundary value problems for fractional differential equations have been extensively studied, most of the studies focus on scalar equations and the fractional order between 1 and 2. On the other hand, delay is natural in practical systems. However, not much has been done for fractional differential equations with delays. Therefore, in this paper, we consider a boundary value problem of a general delayed nonlinear fractional system. With the help of some fixed point theorems and the properties of the Green function, we establish several sets of sufficient conditions on the existence of positive solutions. The obtained results extend and include some existing ones and are illustrated with some examples for their feasibility.

19. On Riemann boundary value problems for null solutions of the two dimensional Helmholtz equation

Bory Reyes, Juan; Abreu Blaya, Ricardo; Rodríguez Dagnino, Ramón Martin; Kats, Boris Aleksandrovich

2018-01-01

The Riemann boundary value problem (RBVP to shorten notation) in the complex plane, for different classes of functions and curves, is still widely used in mathematical physics and engineering. For instance, in elasticity theory, hydro and aerodynamics, shell theory, quantum mechanics, theory of orthogonal polynomials, and so on. In this paper, we present an appropriate hyperholomorphic approach to the RBVP associated to the two dimensional Helmholtz equation in R^2 . Our analysis is based on a suitable operator calculus.

20. Monotone methods for solving a boundary value problem of second order discrete system

Wang Yuan-Ming

1999-01-01

Full Text Available A new concept of a pair of upper and lower solutions is introduced for a boundary value problem of second order discrete system. A comparison result is given. An existence theorem for a solution is established in terms of upper and lower solutions. A monotone iterative scheme is proposed, and the monotone convergence rate of the iteration is compared and analyzed. The numerical results are given.

1. Uniqueness in the inverse boundary value problem for piecewise homogeneous anisotropic elasticity

Cârstea, Cătălin I.; Honda, Naofumi; Nakamura, Gen

2016-01-01

Consider a three dimensional piecewise homogeneous anisotropic elastic medium $\\Omega$ which is a bounded domain consisting of a finite number of bounded subdomains $D_\\alpha$, with each $D_\\alpha$ a homogeneous elastic medium. One typical example is a finite element model with elements with curvilinear interfaces for an ansiotropic elastic medium. Assuming the $D_\\alpha$ are known and Lipschitz, we are concerned with the uniqueness in the inverse boundary value problem of identifying the ani...

2. Existence and uniqueness for a two-point interface boundary value problem

Rakhim Aitbayev

2013-10-01

Full Text Available We obtain sufficient conditions, easily verifiable, for the existence and uniqueness of piecewise smooth solutions of a linear two-point boundary-value problem with general interface conditions. The coefficients of the differential equation may have jump discontinuities at the interface point. As an example, the conditions obtained are applied to a problem with typical interface such as perfect contact, non-perfect contact, and flux jump conditions.

3. Boundary Value Problems for a Super-Sublinear Asymmetric Oscillator: The Exact Number of Solutions

Armands Gritsans

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Properties of asymmetric oscillator described by the equation (i, where and , are studied. A set of such that the problem (i, (ii, and (iii have a nontrivial solution, is called α-spectrum. We give full description of α-spectra in terms of solution sets and solution surfaces. The exact number of nontrivial solutions of the two-parameter Dirichlet boundary value problem (i, and (ii is given.

4. Multi-point boundary value problems for linear functional-differential equations

Domoshnitsky, A.; Hakl, Robert; Půža, Bedřich

2017-01-01

Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 193-206 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boundary value problems * linear functional- differential equations * functional- differential inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0076/gmj-2016-0076.xml

5. Maximum Principles and Boundary Value Problems for First-Order Neutral Functional Differential Equations

Domoshnitsky Alexander

2009-01-01

Full Text Available We obtain the maximum principles for the first-order neutral functional differential equation where , and are linear continuous operators, and are positive operators, is the space of continuous functions, and is the space of essentially bounded functions defined on . New tests on positivity of the Cauchy function and its derivative are proposed. Results on existence and uniqueness of solutions for various boundary value problems are obtained on the basis of the maximum principles.

6. Modified quasi-boundary value method for Cauchy problems of elliptic equations with variable coefficients

Hongwu Zhang

2011-08-01

Full Text Available In this article, we study a Cauchy problem for an elliptic equation with variable coefficients. It is well-known that such a problem is severely ill-posed; i.e., the solution does not depend continuously on the Cauchy data. We propose a modified quasi-boundary value regularization method to solve it. Convergence estimates are established under two a priori assumptions on the exact solution. A numerical example is given to illustrate our proposed method.

7. An efficient computer based wavelets approximation method to solve Fuzzy boundary value differential equations

Alam Khan, Najeeb; Razzaq, Oyoon Abdul

2016-03-01

In the present work a wavelets approximation method is employed to solve fuzzy boundary value differential equations (FBVDEs). Essentially, a truncated Legendre wavelets series together with the Legendre wavelets operational matrix of derivative are utilized to convert FB- VDE into a simple computational problem by reducing it into a system of fuzzy algebraic linear equations. The capability of scheme is investigated on second order FB- VDE considered under generalized H-differentiability. Solutions are represented graphically showing competency and accuracy of this method.

8. Multiple and sign-changing solutions for discrete Robin boundary value problem with parameter dependence

Long Yuhua

2017-12-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we study second-order nonlinear discrete Robin boundary value problem with parameter dependence. Applying invariant sets of descending flow and variational methods, we establish some new sufficient conditions on the existence of sign-changing solutions, positive solutions and negative solutions of the system when the parameter belongs to appropriate intervals. In addition, an example is given to illustrate our results.

9. Multi-point boundary value problems for linear functional-differential equations

Domoshnitsky, A.; Hakl, Robert; Půža, Bedřich

2017-01-01

Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 193-206 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boundary value problems * linear functional-differential equations * functional-differential inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0076/gmj-2016-0076. xml

10. Existence and Estimates of Positive Solutions for Some Singular Fractional Boundary Value Problems

Habib Mâagli

2014-01-01

fractional boundary value problem:Dαu(x=−a(xuσ(x, x∈(0,1 with the conditions limx→0+⁡x2−αu(x=0, u(1=0, where 1<α≤2, σ∈(−1,1, and a is a nonnegative continuous function on (0,1 that may be singular at x=0 or x=1. We also give the global behavior of such a solution.

11. Positive solutions for a nonlinear periodic boundary-value problem with a parameter

Jingliang Qiu

2012-08-01

Full Text Available Using topological degree theory with a partially ordered structure of space, sufficient conditions for the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for a second-order nonlinear periodic boundary-value problem are established. Inspired by ideas in Guo and Lakshmikantham [6], we study the dependence of positive periodic solutions as a parameter approaches infinity, $$lim_{lambdao +infty}|x_{lambda}|=+infty,quadhbox{or}quad lim_{lambdao+infty}|x_{lambda}|=0.$$

12. Infinitely many solutions for a fourth-order boundary-value problem

Seyyed Mohsen Khalkhali

2012-09-01

Full Text Available In this article we consider the existence of infinitely many solutions to the fourth-order boundary-value problem $$displaylines{ u^{iv}+alpha u''+eta(x u=lambda f(x,u+h(u,quad xin]0,1[cr u(0=u(1=0,cr u''(0=u''(1=0,. }$$ Our approach is based on variational methods and critical point theory.

13. Fermat collocation method for the solutions of nonlinear system of second order boundary value problems

Salih Yalcinbas

2016-01-01

Full Text Available In this study, a numerical approach is proposed to obtain approximate solutions of nonlinear system of second order boundary value problem. This technique is essentially based on the truncated Fermat series and its matrix representations with collocation points. Using the matrix method, we reduce the problem system of nonlinear algebraic equations. Numerical examples are also given to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the presented technique. The method is easy to implement and produces accurate results.

14. Boundary value problems of holomorphic vector functions in 1D QCs

Gao Yang; Zhao Yingtao; Zhao Baosheng

2007-01-01

By means of the generalized Stroh formalism, two-dimensional (2D) problems of one-dimensional (1D) quasicrystals (QCs) elasticity are turned into the boundary value problems of holomorphic vector functions in a given region. If the conformal mapping from an ellipse to a circle is known, a general method for solving the boundary value problems of holomorphic vector functions can be presented. To illustrate its utility, by using the necessary and sufficient condition of boundary value problems of holomorphic vector functions, we consider two basic 2D problems in 1D QCs, that is, an elliptic hole and a rigid line inclusion subjected to uniform loading at infinity. For the crack problem, the intensity factors of phonon and phason fields are determined, and the physical sense of the results relative to phason and the difference between mechanical behaviors of the crack problem in crystals and QCs are figured out. Moreover, the same procedure can be used to deal with the elastic problems for 2D and three-dimensional (3D) QCs

15. METHOD OF GREEN FUNCTIONS IN MATHEMATICAL MODELLING FOR TWO-POINT BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS

E. V. Dikareva

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Summary. In many applied problems of control, optimization, system theory, theoretical and construction mechanics, for problems with strings and nods structures, oscillation theory, theory of elasticity and plasticity, mechanical problems connected with fracture dynamics and shock waves, the main instrument for study these problems is a theory of high order ordinary differential equations. This methodology is also applied for studying mathematical models in graph theory with different partitioning based on differential equations. Such equations are used for theoretical foundation of mathematical models but also for constructing numerical methods and computer algorithms. These models are studied with use of Green function method. In the paper first necessary theoretical information is included on Green function method for multi point boundary-value problems. The main equation is discussed, notions of multi-point boundary conditions, boundary functionals, degenerate and non-degenerate problems, fundamental matrix of solutions are introduced. In the main part the problem to study is formulated in terms of shocks and deformations in boundary conditions. After that the main results are formulated. In theorem 1 conditions for existence and uniqueness of solutions are proved. In theorem 2 conditions are proved for strict positivity and equal measureness for a pair of solutions. In theorem 3 existence and estimates are proved for the least eigenvalue, spectral properties and positivity of eigenfunctions. In theorem 4 the weighted positivity is proved for the Green function. Some possible applications are considered for a signal theory and transmutation operators.

16. Asymptotics for inhomogeneous Dirichlet initial-boundary value problem for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

Kaikina, Elena I., E-mail: ekaikina@matmor.unam.mx [Centro de Ciencias Matemáticas, UNAM Campus Morelia, AP 61-3 (Xangari), Morelia CP 58089, Michoacán (Mexico)

2013-11-15

We consider the inhomogeneous Dirichlet initial-boundary value problem for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, formulated on a half-line. We study traditionally important problems of the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations, such as global in time existence of solutions to the initial-boundary value problem and the asymptotic behavior of solutions for large time.

17. Asymptotics for inhomogeneous Dirichlet initial-boundary value problem for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

Kaikina, Elena I.

2013-01-01

We consider the inhomogeneous Dirichlet initial-boundary value problem for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, formulated on a half-line. We study traditionally important problems of the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations, such as global in time existence of solutions to the initial-boundary value problem and the asymptotic behavior of solutions for large time

18. Continuum and Discrete Initial-Boundary Value Problems and Einstein's Field Equations

Olivier Sarbach

2012-08-01

Full Text Available Many evolution problems in physics are described by partial differential equations on an infinite domain; therefore, one is interested in the solutions to such problems for a given initial dataset. A prominent example is the binary black-hole problem within Einstein's theory of gravitation, in which one computes the gravitational radiation emitted from the inspiral of the two black holes, merger and ringdown. Powerful mathematical tools can be used to establish qualitative statements about the solutions, such as their existence, uniqueness, continuous dependence on the initial data, or their asymptotic behavior over large time scales. However, one is often interested in computing the solution itself, and unless the partial differential equation is very simple, or the initial data possesses a high degree of symmetry, this computation requires approximation by numerical discretization. When solving such discrete problems on a machine, one is faced with a finite limit to computational resources, which leads to the replacement of the infinite continuum domain with a finite computer grid. This, in turn, leads to a discrete initial-boundary value problem. The hope is to recover, with high accuracy, the exact solution in the limit where the grid spacing converges to zero with the boundary being pushed to infinity. The goal of this article is to review some of the theory necessary to understand the continuum and discrete initial boundary-value problems arising from hyperbolic partial differential equations and to discuss its applications to numerical relativity; in particular, we present well-posed initial and initial-boundary value formulations of Einstein's equations, and we discuss multi-domain high-order finite difference and spectral methods to solve them.

19. Continuum and Discrete Initial-Boundary Value Problems and Einstein's Field Equations.

Sarbach, Olivier; Tiglio, Manuel

2012-01-01

Many evolution problems in physics are described by partial differential equations on an infinite domain; therefore, one is interested in the solutions to such problems for a given initial dataset. A prominent example is the binary black-hole problem within Einstein's theory of gravitation, in which one computes the gravitational radiation emitted from the inspiral of the two black holes, merger and ringdown. Powerful mathematical tools can be used to establish qualitative statements about the solutions, such as their existence, uniqueness, continuous dependence on the initial data, or their asymptotic behavior over large time scales. However, one is often interested in computing the solution itself, and unless the partial differential equation is very simple, or the initial data possesses a high degree of symmetry, this computation requires approximation by numerical discretization. When solving such discrete problems on a machine, one is faced with a finite limit to computational resources, which leads to the replacement of the infinite continuum domain with a finite computer grid. This, in turn, leads to a discrete initial-boundary value problem. The hope is to recover, with high accuracy, the exact solution in the limit where the grid spacing converges to zero with the boundary being pushed to infinity. The goal of this article is to review some of the theory necessary to understand the continuum and discrete initial boundary-value problems arising from hyperbolic partial differential equations and to discuss its applications to numerical relativity; in particular, we present well-posed initial and initial-boundary value formulations of Einstein's equations, and we discuss multi-domain high-order finite difference and spectral methods to solve them.

20. Homotopy Analysis Method for Boundary-Value Problem of Turbo Warrant Pricing under Stochastic Volatility

Hoi Ying Wong

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Turbo warrants are liquidly traded financial derivative securities in over-the-counter and exchange markets in Asia and Europe. The structure of turbo warrants is similar to barrier options, but a lookback rebate will be paid if the barrier is crossed by the underlying asset price. Therefore, the turbo warrant price satisfies a partial differential equation (PDE with a boundary condition that depends on another boundary-value problem (BVP of PDE. Due to the highly complicated structure of turbo warrants, their valuation presents a challenging problem in the field of financial mathematics. This paper applies the homotopy analysis method to construct an analytic pricing formula for turbo warrants under stochastic volatility in a PDE framework.

1. Generalised functions method in the boundary value problems of elastodynamics by stationary running loads

Alexeyeva, L.A.

2001-01-01

Investigation of diffraction processes of seismic waves on underground tunnels and pipelines with use of mathematical methods is related to solving boundary value problems (BVP) for hyperbolic system of differential equations in domains with cylindrical cavities when seismic disturbances propagate along boundaries with subsonic or transonic speeds. Also such classes of problems appear when it's necessary to study the behavior of underground constructions and Stress-strain State of environment. But in this case the velocities of running loads are less than velocities of wave propagation in surrounding medium. At present similar problems were solved only for constructions of circular cylindrical form with use of methods of full and not full dividing of variables. For cylindrical constructions of complex cross section strong mathematical theories for solving these problems were absent.(author)

2. Elliptic boundary value problems with fractional regularity data the first order approach

Amenta, Alex

2018-01-01

In this monograph the authors study the well-posedness of boundary value problems of Dirichlet and Neumann type for elliptic systems on the upper half-space with coefficients independent of the transversal variable and with boundary data in fractional Hardy-Sobolev and Besov spaces. The authors use the so-called "first order approach" which uses minimal assumptions on the coefficients and thus allows for complex coefficients and for systems of equations. This self-contained exposition of the first order approach offers new results with detailed proofs in a clear and accessible way and will become a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers working in partial differential equations and harmonic analysis.

3. Einstein boundary conditions in relation to constraint propagation for the initial-boundary value problem of the Einstein equations

Frittelli, Simonetta; Gomez, Roberto

2004-01-01

We show how the use of the normal projection of the Einstein tensor as a set of boundary conditions relates to the propagation of the constraints, for two representations of the Einstein equations with vanishing shift vector: the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation, which is ill posed, and the Einstein-Christoffel formulation, which is symmetric hyperbolic. Essentially, the components of the normal projection of the Einstein tensor that act as nontrivial boundary conditions are linear combinations of the evolution equations with the constraints that are not preserved at the boundary, in both cases. In the process, the relationship of the normal projection of the Einstein tensor to the recently introduced 'constraint-preserving' boundary conditions becomes apparent

4. Asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the first boundary-value problem for strongly hyperbolic systems near a conical point at the boundary of the domain

Hung, Nguyen M

1999-01-01

An existence and uniqueness theorem for generalized solutions of the first initial-boundary-value problem for strongly hyperbolic systems in bounded domains is established. The question of estimates in Sobolev spaces of the derivatives with respect to time of the generalized solution is discussed. It is shown that the smoothness of generalized solutions with respect to time is independent of the structure of the boundary of the domain but depends on the coefficients of the right-hand side. Results on the smoothness of the generalized solution and its asymptotic behaviour in a neighbourhood of a conical boundary point are also obtained

5. Ground State Solutions for a Class of Fractional Differential Equations with Dirichlet Boundary Value Condition

Zhigang Hu

2014-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we apply the method of the Nehari manifold to study the fractional differential equation (d/dt((1/2 0Dt-β(u′(t+(1/2 tDT-β(u′(t=  f(t,u(t, a.e. t∈[0,T], and u0=uT=0, where  0Dt-β, tDT-β are the left and right Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals of order 0≤β<1, respectively. We prove the existence of a ground state solution of the boundary value problem.

6. Boundary value problems of the circular cylinders in the strain-gradient theory of linear elasticity

Kao, B.G.

1979-11-01

Three boundary value problems in the strain-gradient theory of linear elasticity are solved for circular cylinders. They are the twisting of circular cylinder, uniformly pressuring of concentric circular cylinder, and pure-bending of simply connected cylinder. The comparisons of these solutions with the solutions in classical elasticity and in couple-stress theory reveal the differences in the stress fields as well as the apparent stress fields due to the influences of the strain-gradient. These aspects of the strain-gradient theory could be important in modeling the failure behavior of structural materials

7. Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method for Solving Higher Dimensional Initial Boundary Value Problems

2008-01-01

Full Text Available We suggest and analyze a technique by combining the variational iteration method and the homotopy perturbation method. This method is called the variational homotopy perturbation method (VHPM. We use this method for solving higher dimensional initial boundary value problems with variable coefficients. The developed algorithm is quite efficient and is practically well suited for use in these problems. The proposed scheme finds the solution without any discritization, transformation, or restrictive assumptions and avoids the round-off errors. Several examples are given to check the reliability and efficiency of the proposed technique.

8. Existence of positive solutions for boundary value problems of fractional functional differential equations

Chuanzhi Bai

2010-06-01

Full Text Available This paper deals with the existence of positive solutions for a boundary value problem involving a nonlinear functional differential equation of fractional order $\\alpha$ given by $D^{\\alpha} u(t + f(t, u_t = 0$, $t \\in (0, 1$, $2 < \\alpha \\le 3$, $u^{\\prime}(0 = 0$, $u^{\\prime}(1 = b u^{\\prime}(\\eta$, $u_0 = \\phi$. Our results are based on the nonlinear alternative of Leray-Schauder type and Krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem.

9. Adaptive wavelet collocation methods for initial value boundary problems of nonlinear PDE's

Cai, Wei; Wang, Jian-Zhong

1993-01-01

We have designed a cubic spline wavelet decomposition for the Sobolev space H(sup 2)(sub 0)(I) where I is a bounded interval. Based on a special 'point-wise orthogonality' of the wavelet basis functions, a fast Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is constructed. This DWT transform will map discrete samples of a function to its wavelet expansion coefficients in O(N log N) operations. Using this transform, we propose a collocation method for the initial value boundary problem of nonlinear PDE's. Then, we test the efficiency of the DWT transform and apply the collocation method to solve linear and nonlinear PDE's.

10. Investigation of solutions of state-dependent multi-impulsive boundary value problems

Rontó, András; Rachůnková, I.; Rontó, M.; Rachůnek, L.

2017-01-01

Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 287-312 ISSN 1072-947X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06958S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : state-dependent multi-impulsive systems * non-linear boundary value problem * parametrization technique Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0084/gmj-2016-0084.xml

11. A boundary value approach for solving three-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations.

Biala, T A; Jator, S N

2015-01-01

In this article, the boundary value method is applied to solve three dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations. The partial derivatives with respect to two of the spatial variables (y, z) are discretized using finite difference approximations to obtain a large system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in the third spatial variable (x). Using interpolation and collocation techniques, a continuous scheme is developed and used to obtain discrete methods which are applied via the Block unification approach to obtain approximations to the resulting large system of ODEs. Several test problems are investigated to elucidate the solution process.

12. Analytic solution of boundary-value problems for nonstationary model kinetic equations

Latyshev, A.V.; Yushkanov, A.A.

1993-01-01

A theory for constructing the solutions of boundary-value problems for non-stationary model kinetic equations is constructed. This theory was incorrectly presented equation, separation of the variables is used, this leading to a characteristic equation. Eigenfunctions are found in the space of generalized functions, and the eigenvalue spectrum is investigated. An existence and uniqueness theorem for the expansion of the Laplace transform of the solution with respect to the eigenfunctions is proved. The proof is constructive and gives explicit expressions for the expansion coefficients. An application to the Rayleigh problem is obtained, and the corresponding result of Cercignani is corrected

13. Tangential boundary values of Laplace transforms. Applications to Muntz-Szasz type approximation

Sedletskii, A. M.

2003-02-01

We consider the Laplace transforms (LT) of functions in L^q(\\mathbb R_+), 1, with a slowly varying weight. We prove that if the weight satisfies certain conditions, then each LT of this class has tangential boundary values almost everywhere on the imaginary axis, and the structure of the corresponding neighbourhoods depends on the weight only. This result is applied to distinguish a wide class of weighted L^p spaces on the half-line such that the Szasz condition is not necessary for the completeness of the system \\exp(-\\lambda_n t) in these spaces.

14. Tangential boundary values of Laplace transforms. Applications to Muntz-Szasz type approximation

Sedletskii, A M [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2003-02-28

We consider the Laplace transforms (LT) of functions in L{sup q}(R{sub +}), 1boundary values almost everywhere on the imaginary axis, and the structure of the corresponding neighbourhoods depends on the weight only. This result is applied to distinguish a wide class of weighted L{sup p} spaces on the half-line such that the Szasz condition is not necessary for the completeness of the system exp(-{lambda}{sub n}t) in these spaces.

15. Numerical solution of sixth-order boundary-value problems using Legendre wavelet collocation method

2018-03-01

An efficient method is proposed to approximate sixth order boundary value problems. The proposed method is based on Legendre wavelet in which Legendre polynomial is used. The mechanism of the method is to use collocation points that converts the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. For validation two test problems are discussed. The results obtained from proposed method are quite accurate, also close to exact solution, and other different methods. The proposed method is computationally more effective and leads to more accurate results as compared to other methods from literature.

16. Investigation of solutions of state-dependent multi-impulsive boundary value problems

Rontó, András; Rachůnková, I.; Rontó, M.; Rachůnek, L.

2017-01-01

Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 287-312 ISSN 1072-947X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06958S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : state-dependent multi-impulsive systems * non-linear boundary value problem * parametrization technique Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0084/gmj-2016-0084. xml

17. Extension Theory and Krein-type Resolvent Formulas for Nonsmooth Boundary Value Problems

Abels, Helmut; Grubb, Gerd; Wood, Ian Geoffrey

2014-01-01

The theory of selfadjoint extensions of symmetric operators, and more generally the theory of extensions of dual pairs, was implemented some years ago for boundary value problems for elliptic operators on smooth bounded domains. Recently, the questions have been taken up again for nonsmooth domains....... In the present work we show that pseudodifferential methods can be used to obtain a full characterization, including Kreĭn resolvent formulas, of the realizations of nonselfadjoint second-order operators on

18. An initial boundary value problem for modeling a piezoelectric dipolar body

Marin, Marin; Öchsner, Andreas

2018-03-01

This study deals with the first initial boundary value problem in elasticity of piezoelectric dipolar bodies. We consider the most general case of an anisotropic and inhomogeneous elastic body having a dipolar structure. For two different types of restrictions imposed on the problem data, we prove two results regarding the uniqueness of solution, by using a different but accessible method. Then, the mixed problem is transformed in a temporally evolutionary equation on a Hilbert space, conveniently constructed based on the problem data. With the help of a known result from the theory of semigroups of operators, the existence and uniqueness of the weak solution for this equation are proved.

19. Student Solutions Manual to Boundary Value Problems and Partial Differential Equations

Powers, David L

2005-01-01

This student solutions manual accompanies the text, Boundary Value Problems and Partial Differential Equations, 5e. The SSM is available in print via PDF or electronically, and provides the student with the detailed solutions of the odd-numbered problems contained throughout the book.Provides students with exercises that skillfully illustrate the techniques used in the text to solve science and engineering problemsNearly 900 exercises ranging in difficulty from basic drills to advanced problem-solving exercisesMany exercises based on current engineering applications

20. Inverse Boundary Value Problem for Non-linear Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations

Nakamura, Gen; Vashisth, Manmohan

2017-01-01

In this article we are concerned with an inverse boundary value problem for a non-linear wave equation of divergence form with space dimension $n\\geq 3$. This non-linear wave equation has a trivial solution, i.e. zero solution. By linearizing this equation at the trivial solution, we have the usual linear isotropic wave equation with the speed $\\sqrt{\\gamma(x)}$ at each point $x$ in a given spacial domain. For any small solution $u=u(t,x)$ of this non-linear equation, we have the linear isotr...

1. Two-point boundary value and Cauchy formulations in an axisymmetrical MHD equilibrium problem

Atanasiu, C.V.; Subbotin, A.A.

1999-01-01

In this paper we present two equilibrium solvers for axisymmetrical toroidal configurations, both based on the expansion in poloidal angle method. The first one has been conceived as a two-point boundary value solver in a system of coordinates with straight field lines, while the second one uses a well-conditioned Cauchy formulation of the problem in a general curvilinear coordinate system. In order to check the capability of our moment methods to describe equilibrium accurately, a comparison of the moment solutions with analytical solutions obtained for a Solov'ev equilibrium has been performed. (author)

2. On Solutions of the Integrable Boundary Value Problem for KdV Equation on the Semi-Axis

Ignatyev, M. Yu.

2013-01-01

This paper is concerned with the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation on the semi-axis. The boundary value problem with inhomogeneous integrable boundary conditions is studied. We establish some characteristic properties of solutions of the problem. Also we construct a wide class of solutions of the problem using the inverse spectral method.

3. New formulations on the finite element method for boundary value problems with internal/external boundary layers

Pereira, Luis Carlos Martins

1998-06-01

New Petrov-Galerkin formulations on the finite element methods for convection-diffusion problems with boundary layers are presented. Such formulations are based on a consistent new theory on discontinuous finite element methods. Existence and uniqueness of solutions for these problems in the new finite element spaces are demonstrated. Some numerical experiments shows how the new formulation operate and also their efficacy. (author)

4. A simple finite element method for boundary value problems with a Riemann–Liouville derivative

Jin, Bangti; Lazarov, Raytcho; Lu, Xiliang; Zhou, Zhi

2016-01-01

© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We consider a boundary value problem involving a Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order α∈(3/2,2) on the unit interval (0,1). The standard Galerkin finite element approximation converges slowly due to the presence of singularity term xα-1 in the solution representation. In this work, we develop a simple technique, by transforming it into a second-order two-point boundary value problem with nonlocal low order terms, whose solution can reconstruct directly the solution to the original problem. The stability of the variational formulation, and the optimal regularity pickup of the solution are analyzed. A novel Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear or quadratic finite elements is developed, and L2(D) error estimates are provided. The approach is then applied to the corresponding fractional Sturm-Liouville problem, and error estimates of the eigenvalue approximations are given. Extensive numerical results fully confirm our theoretical study.

5. Numerical solution of large nonlinear boundary value problems by quadratic minimization techniques

Glowinski, R.; Le Tallec, P.

1984-01-01

The objective of this paper is to describe the numerical treatment of large highly nonlinear two or three dimensional boundary value problems by quadratic minimization techniques. In all the different situations where these techniques were applied, the methodology remains the same and is organized as follows: 1) derive a variational formulation of the original boundary value problem, and approximate it by Galerkin methods; 2) transform this variational formulation into a quadratic minimization problem (least squares methods) or into a sequence of quadratic minimization problems (augmented lagrangian decomposition); 3) solve each quadratic minimization problem by a conjugate gradient method with preconditioning, the preconditioning matrix being sparse, positive definite, and fixed once for all in the iterative process. This paper will illustrate the methodology above on two different examples: the description of least squares solution methods and their application to the solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluids; the description of augmented lagrangian decomposition techniques and their application to the solution of equilibrium problems in finite elasticity

6. A simple finite element method for boundary value problems with a Riemann–Liouville derivative

Jin, Bangti

2016-02-01

© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We consider a boundary value problem involving a Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order α∈(3/2,2) on the unit interval (0,1). The standard Galerkin finite element approximation converges slowly due to the presence of singularity term xα-1 in the solution representation. In this work, we develop a simple technique, by transforming it into a second-order two-point boundary value problem with nonlocal low order terms, whose solution can reconstruct directly the solution to the original problem. The stability of the variational formulation, and the optimal regularity pickup of the solution are analyzed. A novel Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear or quadratic finite elements is developed, and L2(D) error estimates are provided. The approach is then applied to the corresponding fractional Sturm-Liouville problem, and error estimates of the eigenvalue approximations are given. Extensive numerical results fully confirm our theoretical study.

7. Solving inverse two-point boundary value problems using collage coding

Kunze, H.; Murdock, S.

2006-08-01

The method of collage coding, with its roots in fractal imaging, is the central tool in a recently established rigorous framework for solving inverse initial value problems for ordinary differential equations (Kunze and Vrscay 1999 Inverse Problems 15 745-70). We extend these ideas to solve the following inverse problem: given a function u(x) on [A, B] (which may be the interpolation of data points), determine a two-point boundary value problem on [A, B] which admits u(x) as a solution as closely as desired. The solution of such inverse problems may be useful in parameter estimation or determination of potential functional forms of the underlying differential equation. We discuss ways to improve results, including the development of a partitioning scheme. Several examples are considered.

8. Solving Singular Two-Point Boundary Value Problems Using Continuous Genetic Algorithm

Omar Abu Arqub

2012-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, the continuous genetic algorithm is applied for the solution of singular two-point boundary value problems, where smooth solution curves are used throughout the evolution of the algorithm to obtain the required nodal values. The proposed technique might be considered as a variation of the finite difference method in the sense that each of the derivatives is replaced by an appropriate difference quotient approximation. This novel approach possesses main advantages; it can be applied without any limitation on the nature of the problem, the type of singularity, and the number of mesh points. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the accuracy, applicability, and generality of the presented technique. The results reveal that the algorithm is very effective, straightforward, and simple.

9. Application of power series to the solution of the boundary value problem for a second order nonlinear differential equation

Semenova, V.N.

2016-01-01

A boundary value problem for a nonlinear second order differential equation has been considered. A numerical method has been proposed to solve this problem using power series. Results of numerical experiments have been presented in the paper [ru

10. Existence of solutions for a fourth-order boundary value problem on the half-line via critical point theory

Mabrouk Briki

2016-05-01

Full Text Available In this paper, a fourth-order boundary value problem on the half-line is considered and existence of solutions is proved using a minimization principle and the mountain pass theorem.

11. A Hartman–Nagumo inequality for the vector ordinary -Laplacian and applications to nonlinear boundary value problems

Ureña Antonio J

2002-01-01

Full Text Available A generalization of the well-known Hartman–Nagumo inequality to the case of the vector ordinary -Laplacian and classical degree theory provide existence results for some associated nonlinear boundary value problems.

12. Fever of unknown origin: prospective comparison of diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET and 111In-granulocyte scintigraphy

Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Eigtved, Annika

2004-01-01

The diagnostic work-up in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) is often challenging and frequently includes nuclear medicine procedures. Whereas a role for leucocyte or granulocyte scintigraphy in FUO is generally accepted, a possible role of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron...... emission tomography (PET) in these patients remains to be established. To study this, we compared prospectively, on a head-to-head basis, the diagnostic value of FDG-PET and indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with FUO. Nineteen patients with FUO underwent both FDG-PET and (111)In......-granulocyte scintigraphy within 1 week. FDG-PET scans and granulocyte scintigrams were reviewed by different doctors who were blinded to the result of the other investigation. The diagnostic values of FDG-PET and granulocyte scintigraphy were evaluated with regard to identification of a focal infectious...

13. Quasisolutions of Inverse Boundary-Value Problem of Aerodynamics for Dense Airfoil Grids

A.M. Elizarov

2016-12-01

Full Text Available In the process of turbomachinery development, it is of great importance to accurately design impellers and select their blade shape. One of the promising approaches to solving this problem is based on the theory of inverse boundary-value problems in aerodynamics. It helps to develop methods for profiling airfoil grids with predetermined properties in the same way as it is done for isolated airfoils. In this paper, methods have been worked out to find quasisolutions of the inverse boundary-value problem in aerodynamics for a plane airfoil grid. Two methods of quasisolution have been described. The first “formal” method is similar, in its essence, to the method used for construction of quasisolution for an isolated airfoil. It has been shown that such quasisolutions provide satisfactory results for grids having a sufficiently large relative airfoil pitch. If pitch values are low, this method is unacceptable, because “modified” velocity distribution in some areas is significantly different from the original one in this case. For this reason, areas with significant changes in the angle of the tangent line appear in the airfoil contour and the flow region becomes multivalent. To satisfy the conditions of solvability in the case of grids having a small airfoil pitch, a new quasisolution construction method taking into account the specifics of the problem has been suggested. The desired effect has been achieved due to changes in the weighting function of the minimized functional. The comparison of the results of construction of the new quasisolution with the results obtained by the “formal” method has demonstrated that the constructed airfoils are very similar when the pitch is large. In the case of dense grids, it is clear that preference should be given to the second method, as it brings less distortion to the initial velocity distribution and, thus, allows to physically find an actual airfoil contour.

14. Thin-film superconducting rings in the critical state: the mixed boundary value approach

Brambilla, Roberto; Grilli, Francesco

2015-02-01

In this paper, we describe the critical state of a thin superconducting ring (and of a perfectly conducting ring as a limiting case) as a mixed boundary value problem. The disc is characterized by a three-part boundary division of the positive real axis, so this work is an extension of the procedure used in a previous work of ours for describing superconducting discs and strips, which are characterized by a two-part boundary division of the real axis. Here, we present the mathematical tools to solve this kind of problems—the Erdélyi-Kober operators—in a frame that can be immediately used. Contrary to the two-part problems considered in our previous work, three-part problems do not generally have analytical solutions and the numerical work takes on a significant heaviness. Nevertheless, this work is remunerated by three clear advantages: firstly, all the cases are afforded in the same way, without the necessity of any brilliant invention or ability; secondly, in the case of superconducting rings, the penetration of the magnetic field in the internal/external rims is a result of the method itself and does not have to be imposed, as it is commonly done with other methods presented in the literature; thirdly, the method can be extended to investigate even more complex cases (four-part problems). In this paper, we consider the cases of rings in uniform field and with transport current, with or without flux trapping in the hole and the case without net current, corresponding to a cut ring (washer), as used in some SQUID applications.

15. Collisional plasma transport: two-dimensional scalar formulation of the initial boundary value problem and quasi one-dimensional models

Mugge, J.W.

1979-10-01

The collisional plasma transport problem is formulated as an initial boundary value problem for general characteristic boundary conditions. Starting from the full set of hydrodynamic and electrodynamic equations an expansion in the electron-ion mass ratio together with a multiple timescale method yields simplified equations on each timescale. On timescales where many collisions have taken place for the simplified equations the initial boundary value problem is formulated. Through the introduction of potentials a two-dimensional scalar formulation in terms of quasi-linear integro-differential equations of second order for a domain consisting of plasma and vacuum sub-domains is obtained. (Auth.)

16. Boundary layer and fundamental problems of hydrodynamics (compatibility of a logarithmic velocity profile in a turbulent boundary layer with the experience values)

Zaryankin, A. E.

2017-11-01

The compatibility of the semiempirical turbulence theory of L. Prandtl with the actual flow pattern in a turbulent boundary layer is considered in this article, and the final calculation results of the boundary layer is analyzed based on the mentioned theory. It shows that accepted additional conditions and relationships, which integrate the differential equation of L. Prandtl, associating the turbulent stresses in the boundary layer with the transverse velocity gradient, are fulfilled only in the near-wall region where the mentioned equation loses meaning and are inconsistent with the physical meaning on the main part of integration. It is noted that an introduced concept about the presence of a laminar sublayer between the wall and the turbulent boundary layer is the way of making of a physical meaning to the logarithmic velocity profile, and can be defined as adjustment of the actual flow to the formula that is inconsistent with the actual boundary conditions. It shows that coincidence of the experimental data with the actual logarithmic profile is obtained as a result of the use of not particular physical value, as an argument, but function of this value.

17. Polyharmonic boundary value problems positivity preserving and nonlinear higher order elliptic equations in bounded domains

Gazzola, Filippo; Sweers, Guido

2010-01-01

This monograph covers higher order linear and nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems in bounded domains, mainly with the biharmonic or poly-harmonic operator as leading principal part. Underlying models and, in particular, the role of different boundary conditions are explained in detail. As for linear problems, after a brief summary of the existence theory and Lp and Schauder estimates, the focus is on positivity or - since, in contrast to second order equations, a general form of a comparison principle does not exist - on “near positivity.” The required kernel estimates are also presented in detail. As for nonlinear problems, several techniques well-known from second order equations cannot be utilized and have to be replaced by new and different methods. Subcritical, critical and supercritical nonlinearities are discussed and various existence and nonexistence results are proved. The interplay with the positivity topic from the ﬁrst part is emphasized and, moreover, a far-reaching Gidas-Ni-Nirenbe...

18. Multiple positive solutions to nonlinear boundary value problems of a system for fractional differential equations.

Zhai, Chengbo; Hao, Mengru

2014-01-01

By using Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem, we study the existence of at least one or two positive solutions to a system of fractional boundary value problems given by -D(0+)(ν1)y1(t) = λ1a1(t)f(y1(t), y2(t)), - D(0+)(ν2)y2(t) = λ2a2(t)g(y1(t), y2(t)), where D(0+)(ν) is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, ν1, ν2 ∈ (n - 1, n] for n > 3 and n ∈ N, subject to the boundary conditions y1((i))(0) = 0 = y ((i))(0), for 0 ≤ i ≤ n - 2, and [D(0+)(α)y1(t)] t=1 = 0 = [D(0+ (α)y2(t)] t=1, for 1 ≤ α ≤ n - 2, or y1((i))(0) = 0 = y ((i))(0), for 0 ≤ i ≤ n - 2, and [D(0+)(α)y1(t)] t=1 = ϕ1(y1), [D(0+)(α)y2(t)] t=1 = ϕ2(y2), for 1 ≤ α ≤ n - 2, ϕ1, ϕ2 ∈ C([0,1], R). Our results are new and complement previously known results. As an application, we also give an example to demonstrate our result.

19. Fever of unknown origin: A value of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT with integrated full diagnostic isotropic CT imaging

Ferda, Jiri [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Charles University Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Plzen (Czech Republic); Radiodiagnostic Clinic, Charles University Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Plzen (Czech Republic)], E-mail: ferda@fnplzen.cz; Ferdova, Eva [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Charles University Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Plzen (Czech Republic); Radiodiagnostic Clinic, Charles University Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Plzen (Czech Republic); Zahlava, Jan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Charles University Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Plzen (Czech Republic); Matejovic, Martin [Ist Internal Department, Charles University Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Plzen (Czech Republic); Kreuzberg, Boris [Radiodiagnostic Clinic, Charles University Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Plzen (Czech Republic)

2010-03-15

Aim: The aim of presented work is to evaluate the clinical value of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) and to compare PET/CT finding with the results of the following investigation. Material and method: 48 patients (24 men, 24 women, mean age 57.6 years with range 15-89 years) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT due to the fever of unknown origin. All examinations were performed using complex PET/CT protocol combined PET and whole diagnostic contrast enhanced CT with sub-millimeter spatial resolution (except patient with history of iodine hypersensitivity or sever renal impairment). CT data contained diagnostic images reconstructed with soft tissue and high-resolution algorithm. PET/CT finding were compared with results of biopsies, immunology, microbiology or autopsy. Results: The cause of FUO was explained according to the PET/CT findings and followed investigations in 44 of 48 cases-18 cases of microbial infections, nine cases of autoimmune inflammations, four cases of non-infectious granulomatous diseases, eight cases of malignancies and five cases of proved immunity disorders were found. In 46 cases, the PET/CT interpretation was correct. Only in one case, the cause was overlooked and the uptake in atherosclerotic changes of arteries was misinterpreted as vasculitis in the other. The reached sensitivity was 97% (43/44), and specificity 75% (3/4) respectively. Conclusion: In patients with fever of unknown origin, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT might enable the detection of its cause.

20. Comments on the comparison of global methods for linear two-point boundary value problems

de Boor, C.; Swartz, B.

1977-01-01

A more careful count of the operations involved in solving the linear system associated with collocation of a two-point boundary value problem using a rough splines reverses results recently reported by others in this journal. In addition, it is observed that the use of the technique of ''condensation of parameters'' can decrease the computer storage required. Furthermore, the use of a particular highly localized basis can also reduce the setup time when the mesh is irregular. Finally, operation counts are roughly estimated for the solution of certain linear system associated with two competing collocation methods; namely, collocation with smooth splines and collocation of the equivalent first order system with continuous piecewise polynomials

1. Exact multiplicity results for quasilinear boundary-value problems with cubic-like nonlinearities

2000-01-01

Full Text Available We consider the boundary-value problem $$displaylines{ -(varphi_p (u'' =lambda f(u mbox{ in }(0,1 cr u(0 = u(1 =0,, }$$ where $p>1$, $lambda >0$ and $varphi_p (x =| x|^{p-2}x$. The nonlinearity $f$ is cubic-like with three distinct roots 0=a less than b less than c. By means of a quadrature method, we provide the exact number of solutions for all $lambda >0$. This way we extend a recent result, for $p=2$, by Korman et al. cite{KormanLiOuyang} to the general case $p>1$. We shall prove that when 1less than $pleq 2$ the structure of the solution set is exactly the same as that studied in the case $p=2$ by Korman et al. cite{KormanLiOuyang}, and strictly different in the case $p>2$.

2. Positive Solutions of Three-Order Delayed Periodic Boundary Value Problems

Na Wang

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Our main purpose is to consider the existence of positive solutions for three-order two-point boundary value problem in the following form: u′′′(t+ρ3u(t=f(t,u(t-τ,  0≤t≤2π,  u(i(0=u(i(2π,  i=1,2,  u(t=σ,  -τ≤t≤0, where σ,ρ, and τ are given constants satisfying τ∈(0,π/2. Some inequality conditions on ρ3u-f(t,u guaranteeing the existence and nonexistence of positive solutions are presented. Our discussion is based on the fixed point theorem in cones.

3. Convergence Analysis of the Preconditioned Group Splitting Methods in Boundary Value Problems

Norhashidah Hj. Mohd Ali

2012-01-01

Full Text Available The construction of a specific splitting-type preconditioner in block formulation applied to a class of group relaxation iterative methods derived from the centred and rotated (skewed finite difference approximations has been shown to improve the convergence rates of these methods. In this paper, we present some theoretical convergence analysis on this preconditioner specifically applied to the linear systems resulted from these group iterative schemes in solving an elliptic boundary value problem. We will theoretically show the relationship between the spectral radiuses of the iteration matrices of the preconditioned methods which affects the rate of convergence of these methods. We will also show that the spectral radius of the preconditioned matrices is smaller than that of their unpreconditioned counterparts if the relaxation parameter is in a certain optimum range. Numerical experiments will also be presented to confirm the agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results.

4. Multiple Solutions of Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Order: A New Analytic Iterative Technique

Omar Abu Arqub

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new kind of analytical method, the so-called residual power series, to predict and represent the multiplicity of solutions to nonlinear boundary value problems of fractional order. The present method is capable of calculating all branches of solutions simultaneously, even if these multiple solutions are very close and thus rather difficult to distinguish even by numerical techniques. To verify the computational efficiency of the designed proposed technique, two nonlinear models are performed, one of them arises in mixed convection flows and the other one arises in heat transfer, which both admit multiple solutions. The results reveal that the method is very effective, straightforward, and powerful for formulating these multiple solutions.

5. Variational Iteration Method for Fifth-Order Boundary Value Problems Using He's Polynomials

2008-01-01

Full Text Available We apply the variational iteration method using He's polynomials (VIMHP for solving the fifth-order boundary value problems. The proposed method is an elegant combination of variational iteration and the homotopy perturbation methods and is mainly due to Ghorbani (2007. The suggested algorithm is quite efficient and is practically well suited for use in these problems. The proposed iterative scheme finds the solution without any discritization, linearization, or restrictive assumptions. Several examples are given to verify the reliability and efficiency of the method. The fact that the proposed technique solves nonlinear problems without using Adomian's polynomials can be considered as a clear advantage of this algorithm over the decomposition method.

6. What do we actually mean by 'sociotechnical'? On values, boundaries and the problems of language.

Klein, Lisl

2014-03-01

The term 'sociotechnical' was first coined in the context of industrial democracy. In comparing two projects on shipping in Esso to help define the concept, the essential categories were found to be where systems boundaries were set, and what factors were considered to be relevant 'human' characteristics. This is often discussed in terms of values. During the nineteen-sixties and seventies sociotechnical theory related to the shop-floor work system, and contingency theory to the organisation as a whole, the two levels being distinct. With the coming of information technology, this distinction became blurred; the term 'socio-structural' is proposed to describe the whole system. IT sometimes is the operating technology, it sometimes supports the operating technology, or it may sometimes be mistaken for the operating technology. This is discussed with reference to recent air accidents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

7. The Laplace equation boundary value problems on bounded and unbounded Lipschitz domains

Medková, Dagmar

2018-01-01

This book is devoted to boundary value problems of the Laplace equation on bounded and unbounded Lipschitz domains. It studies the Dirichlet problem, the Neumann problem, the Robin problem, the derivative oblique problem, the transmission problem, the skip problem and mixed problems. It also examines different solutions - classical, in Sobolev spaces, in Besov spaces, in homogeneous Sobolev spaces and in the sense of non-tangential limit. It also explains relations between different solutions. The book has been written in a way that makes it as readable as possible for a wide mathematical audience, and includes all the fundamental definitions and propositions from other fields of mathematics. This book is of interest to research students, as well as experts in partial differential equations and numerical analysis.

8. Lower and Upper Solutions Method for Positive Solutions of Fractional Boundary Value Problems

R. Darzi

2013-01-01

Full Text Available We apply the lower and upper solutions method and fixed-point theorems to prove the existence of positive solution to fractional boundary value problem D0+αut+ft,ut=0, 0

9. Positive solutions for second-order boundary-value problems with phi-Laplacian

Diana-Raluca Herlea

2016-02-01

Full Text Available This article concerns the existence, localization and multiplicity of positive solutions for the boundary-value problem $$\\displaylines{ \\big(\\phi(u' \\big '+f(t,u =0, \\cr u(0 - a u'(0 = u'(1= 0, }$$ where $f:[0,1]\\times \\mathbb{R}_{+}\\to \\mathbb{R}_{+}$ is a continuous function and $\\phi :\\mathbb{R}\\to (-b,b$ is an increasing homeomorphism with $\\phi (0=0$. We obtain existence, localization and multiplicity results of positive solutions using Krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem in cones, and a weak Harnack type inequality. Concerning systems, the localization is established by the vector version of Krasnosel'skii theorem, where the compression-expansion conditions are expressed on components.

10. Numerical continuation methods for dynamical systems path following and boundary value problems

Krauskopf, Bernd; Galan-Vioque, Jorge

2007-01-01

Path following in combination with boundary value problem solvers has emerged as a continuing and strong influence in the development of dynamical systems theory and its application. It is widely acknowledged that the software package AUTO - developed by Eusebius J. Doedel about thirty years ago and further expanded and developed ever since - plays a central role in the brief history of numerical continuation. This book has been compiled on the occasion of Sebius Doedel''s 60th birthday. Bringing together for the first time a large amount of material in a single, accessible source, it is hoped that the book will become the natural entry point for researchers in diverse disciplines who wish to learn what numerical continuation techniques can achieve. The book opens with a foreword by Herbert B. Keller and lecture notes by Sebius Doedel himself that introduce the basic concepts of numerical bifurcation analysis. The other chapters by leading experts discuss continuation for various types of systems and objects ...

11. A symmetric solution of a multipoint boundary value problem at resonance

2006-01-01

Full Text Available We apply a coincidence degree theorem of Mawhin to show the existence of at least one symmetric solution of the nonlinear second-order multipoint boundary value problem u ″ ( t = f ( t , u ( t , | u ′ ( t | , t ∈ ( 0 , 1 , u ( 0 = ∑ i = 1 n μ i u ( ξ i , u ( 1 − t = u ( t , t ∈ ( 0 , 1 ] , where 0 < ξ 1 < ξ 2 < … ≤ ξ n 1 / 2 , ∑ i = 1 n μ i = 1 , f : [ 0 , 1 ] × ℝ 2 → ℝ with f ( t , x , y = f ( 1 − t , x , y , ( t , x , y ∈ [ 0 , 1 ] × ℝ 2 , satisfying the Carathéodory conditions.

12. Existence of solutions to fractional boundary-value problems with a parameter

Ya-Ning Li

2013-06-01

Full Text Available This article concerns the existence of solutions to the fractional boundary-value problem $$displaylines{ -frac{d}{dt} ig(frac{1}{2} {}_0D_t^{-eta}+ frac{1}{2}{}_tD_{T}^{-eta}igu'(t=lambda u(t+abla F(t,u(t,quad hbox{a.e. } tin[0,T], cr u(0=0,quad u(T=0. }$$ First for the eigenvalue problem associated with it, we prove that there is a sequence of positive and increasing real eigenvalues; a characterization of the first eigenvalue is also given. Then under different assumptions on the nonlinearity F(t,u, we show the existence of weak solutions of the problem when $lambda$ lies in various intervals. Our main tools are variational methods and critical point theorems.

13. Initial-Boundary Value Problem Solution of the Nonlinear Shallow-water Wave Equations

Kanoglu, U.; Aydin, B.

2014-12-01

The hodograph transformation solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear shallow-water wave (NSW) equations are usually obtained through integral transform techniques such as Fourier-Bessel transforms. However, the original formulation of Carrier and Greenspan (1958 J Fluid Mech) and its variant Carrier et al. (2003 J Fluid Mech) involve evaluation integrals. Since elliptic integrals are highly singular as discussed in Carrier et al. (2003), this solution methodology requires either approximation of the associated integrands by smooth functions or selection of regular initial/boundary data. It should be noted that Kanoglu (2004 J Fluid Mech) partly resolves this issue by simplifying the resulting integrals in closed form. Here, the hodograph transform approach is coupled with the classical eigenfunction expansion method rather than integral transform techniques and a new analytical model for nonlinear long wave propagation over a plane beach is derived. This approach is based on the solution methodology used in Aydın & Kanoglu (2007 CMES-Comp Model Eng) for wind set-down relaxation problem. In contrast to classical initial- or boundary-value problem solutions, here, the NSW equations are formulated to yield an initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) solution. In general, initial wave profile with nonzero initial velocity distribution is assumed and the flow variables are given in the form of Fourier-Bessel series. The results reveal that the developed method allows accurate estimation of the spatial and temporal variation of the flow quantities, i.e., free-surface height and depth-averaged velocity, with much less computational effort compared to the integral transform techniques such as Carrier et al. (2003), Kanoglu (2004), Tinti & Tonini (2005 J Fluid Mech), and Kanoglu & Synolakis (2006 Phys Rev Lett). Acknowledgments: This work is funded by project ASTARTE- Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV

14. The polynomial property of self-adjoint elliptic boundary-value problems and an algebraic description of their attributes

Nazarov, S A

1999-01-01

We describe a wide class of boundary-value problems for which the application of elliptic theory can be reduced to elementary algebraic operations and which is characterized by the following polynomial property: the sesquilinear form corresponding to the problem degenerates only on some finite-dimensional linear space P of vector polynomials. Under this condition the boundary-value problem is elliptic, and its kernel and cokernel can be expressed in terms of P. For domains with piecewise-smooth boundary or infinite ends (conic, cylindrical, or periodic), we also present fragments of asymptotic formulae for the solutions, give specific versions of general conditional theorems on the Fredholm property (in particular, by modifying the ordinary weighted norms), and compute the index of the operator corresponding to the boundary-value problem. The polynomial property is also helpful for asymptotic analysis of boundary-value problems in thin domains and junctions of such domains. Namely, simple manipulations with P permit one to find the size of the system obtained by dimension reduction as well as the orders of the differential operators occurring in that system and provide complete information on the boundary layer structure. The results are illustrated by examples from elasticity and hydromechanics

15. Existence of positive solutions for nonlocal second-order boundary value problem with variable parameter in Banach spaces

Zhang Peiguo

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Abstract By obtaining intervals of the parameter λ, this article investigates the existence of a positive solution for a class of nonlinear boundary value problems of second-order differential equations with integral boundary conditions in abstract spaces. The arguments are based upon a specially constructed cone and the fixed point theory in cone for a strict set contraction operator. MSC: 34B15; 34B16.

16. Boundary value problems of finite elasticity local theorems on existence, uniqueness, and analytic dependence on data

Valent, Tullio

1988-01-01

In this book I present, in a systematic form, some local theorems on existence, uniqueness, and analytic dependence on the load, which I have recently obtained for some types of boundary value problems of finite elasticity. Actually, these results concern an n-dimensional (n ~ 1) formal generalization of three-dimensional elasticity. Such a generalization, be­ sides being quite spontaneous, allows us to consider a great many inter­ esting mathematical situations, and sometimes allows us to clarify certain aspects of the three-dimensional case. Part of the matter presented is unpublished; other arguments have been only partially published and in lesser generality. Note that I concentrate on simultaneous local existence and uniqueness; thus, I do not deal with the more general theory of exis­ tence. Moreover, I restrict my discussion to compressible elastic bodies and I do not treat unilateral problems. The clever use of the inverse function theorem in finite elasticity made by STOPPELLI [1954, 1957a, 1957b]...

17. Two-dimensional boundary-value problem for ion-ion diffusion

Tuszewski, M.; Lichtenberg, A.J.

1977-01-01

Like-particle diffusion is usually negligible compared with unlike-particle diffusion because it is two orders higher in spatial derivatives. When the ratio of the ion gyroradius to the plasma transverse dimension is of the order of the fourth root of the mass ratio, previous one-dimensional analysis indicated that like-particle diffusion is significant. A two-dimensional boundary-value problem for ion-ion diffusion is investigated. Numerical solutions are found with models for which the nonlinear partial differential equation reduces to an ordinary fourth-order differential equation. These solutions indicate that the ion-ion losses are higher by a factor of six for a slab geometry, and by a factor of four for circular geometry, than estimated from dimensional analysis. The solutions are applied to a multiple mirror experiment stabilized with a quadrupole magnetic field which generates highly elliptical flux surfaces. It is found that the ion-ion losses dominate the electron-ion losses and that these classical radial losses contribute to a significant decrease of plasma lifetime, in qualitiative agreement with the experimental results

18. Uniqueness and Asymptotic Behavior of Positive Solutions for a Fractional-Order Integral Boundary Value Problem

Min Jia

2012-01-01

Full Text Available We study a model arising from porous media, electromagnetic, and signal processing of wireless communication system -tαx(t=f(t,x(t,x'(t,x”(t,…,x(n-2(t,  0boundary value problem for fractional differential equation are obtained. Our analysis relies on Schauder's fixed-point theorem and upper and lower solution method.

19. Response of Non-Linear Shock Absorbers-Boundary Value Problem Analysis

Rahman, M. A.; Ahmed, U.; Uddin, M. S.

2013-08-01

A nonlinear boundary value problem of two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) untuned vibration damper systems using nonlinear springs and dampers has been numerically studied. As far as untuned damper is concerned, sixteen different combinations of linear and nonlinear springs and dampers have been comprehensively analyzed taking into account transient terms. For different cases, a comparative study is made for response versus time for different spring and damper types at three important frequency ratios: one at r = 1, one at r > 1 and one at r <1. The response of the system is changed because of the spring and damper nonlinearities; the change is different for different cases. Accordingly, an initially stable absorber may become unstable with time and vice versa. The analysis also shows that higher nonlinearity terms make the system more unstable. Numerical simulation includes transient vibrations. Although problems are much more complicated compared to those for a tuned absorber, a comparison of the results generated by the present numerical scheme with the exact one shows quite a reasonable agreement

20. Existence of solutions to boundary value problems arising from the fractional advection dispersion equation

Lingju Kong

2013-04-01

Full Text Available We study the existence of multiple solutions to the boundary value problem $$displaylines{ frac{d}{dt}Big(frac12{}_0D_t^{-eta}(u'(t+frac12{}_tD_T^{-eta}(u'(t Big+lambda abla F(t,u(t=0,quad tin [0,T],cr u(0=u(T=0, }$$ where $T>0$, $lambda>0$ is a parameter, $0leqeta<1$, ${}_0D_t^{-eta}$ and ${}_tD_T^{-eta}$ are, respectively, the left and right Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals of order $eta$, $F: [0,T]imesmathbb{R}^Nomathbb{R}$ is a given function. Our interest in the above system arises from studying the steady fractional advection dispersion equation. By applying variational methods, we obtain sufficient conditions under which the above equation has at least three solutions. Our results are new even for the special case when $eta=0$. Examples are provided to illustrate the applicability of our results.

1. Positive solutions of boundary value problem for singular positone and semi-positone third-order difference equations

Gai Gongqi

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Abstract This article studies the boundary value problems for the third-order nonlinear singular difference equations Δ 3 u ( i - 2 + λ a ( i f ( i , u ( i = 0 , i ∈ [ 2 , T + 2 ] , satisfying five kinds of different boundary value conditions. This article shows the existence of positive solutions for positone and semi-positone type. The nonlinear term may be singular. Two examples are also given to illustrate the main results. The arguments are based upon fixed point theorems in a cone. MSC [2008]: 34B15; 39A10.

2. On angularly perturbed Laplace equations in the unit ball of IR{sup n+2} and their distributional boundary values

Massopust, P.R.

1997-08-01

All solutions of an in its angular coordinates continuously perturbed Laplace-Beltrami equation in the open unit ball IB{sup n+2} {contained_in} IR{sup n+2}, n {ge} 1, are characterized. Moreover, it is shown that such pertubations yield distributional boundary values which are different from, but algebraically and topologically equivalent to, the hyperfunctions of Lions & Magenes. This is different from the case of radially perturbed Laplace-Beltrami operators (cf. [7]) where one has stability of distributional boundary values under such perturbations.

3. Initial boundary-value problem for the spherically symmetric Einstein equations with fluids with tangential pressure.

Brito, Irene; Mena, Filipe C

2017-08-01

We prove that, for a given spherically symmetric fluid distribution with tangential pressure on an initial space-like hypersurface with a time-like boundary, there exists a unique, local in time solution to the Einstein equations in a neighbourhood of the boundary. As an application, we consider a particular elastic fluid interior matched to a vacuum exterior.

4. Diagnostic value of [18F]-FDG PET/CT in children with fever of unknown origin or unexplained signs of inflammation

Jasper, Niklas; Daebritz, Jan; Frosch, Michael; Foell, Dirk; Loeffler, Markus; Weckesser, Matthias

2010-01-01

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained signs of inflammation are challenging medical problems especially in children and predominantly caused by infections, malignancies or noninfectious inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of 18 F-FDG PET and PET/CT in the diagnostic work-up in paediatric patients. In this retrospective study, 47 FDG PET and 30 PET/CT scans from 69 children (median age 8.1 years, range 0.2-18.1 years, 36 male, 33 female) were analysed. The diagnostic value of PET investigations in paediatric patients presenting with FUO (44 scans) or unexplained signs of inflammation without fever (33 scans) was analysed. A diagnosis in paediatric patients with FUO or unexplained signs of inflammation could be established in 32 patients (54%). Of all scans, 63 (82%) were abnormal, and of the total number of 77 PET and PET/CT scans 35 (45%) were clinically helpful. In patients with a final diagnosis, scans were found to have contributed to the diagnosis in 73%. Laboratory, demographic or clinical parameters of the children did not predict the usefulness of FDG PET scans. This is the first larger study demonstrating that FDG PET and PET/CT may be valuable diagnostic tools for the evaluation of children with FUO and unexplained signs of inflammation. Depicting inflammation in the whole body, while not being traumatic, it is attractive for use especially in children. The combination of PET with CT seems to be superior, since the site of inflammation can be localized more accurately. (orig.)

5. [The diagnostic value of human chorionic gonadotrophin ratio compared to single measurements of S-human chorionic gonadotrophin on the outcome of pregnancy of unknown location].

Majeed, Huda Galib; Lyngsø, Julie; Bor, Pinar

2014-10-13

Pregnancy of unknown location is defined by a positive pregnancy test, without visualizing of the intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy by transvaginal sonography. We present the advantages of using human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) ratio instead of single measurements of S-hCG for predicting the outcomes of pregnancies of unknown location.

6. Existence and Nonexistence of Positive Solutions for Coupled Riemann-Liouville Fractional Boundary Value Problems

Johnny Henderson

2016-01-01

Full Text Available We investigate the existence and nonexistence of positive solutions for a system of nonlinear Riemann-Liouville fractional differential equations with two parameters, subject to coupled integral boundary conditions.

7. Antiperiodic Boundary Value Problems for Second-Order Impulsive Ordinary Differential Equations

2009-02-01

Full Text Available We consider a second-order ordinary differential equation with antiperiodic boundary conditions and impulses. By using Schaefer's fixed-point theorem, some existence results are obtained.

8. A Novel Approach to Calculation of Reproducing Kernel on Infinite Interval and Applications to Boundary Value Problems

Jing Niu

2013-01-01

reproducing kernel on infinite interval is obtained concisely in polynomial form for the first time. Furthermore, as a particular effective application of this method, we give an explicit representation formula for calculation of reproducing kernel in reproducing kernel space with boundary value conditions.

9. Existence of Positive Solutions for a Coupled System of (p, q-Laplacian Fractional Higher Order Boundary Value Problems

2015-11-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we establish the existence of at least three positive solutions for a system of (p,q-Laplacian fractional order two-point boundary value problems by applying five functionals fixed point theorem under suitable conditions on a cone in a Banach space.

10. EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTION TO TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR A SYSTEM OF SECOND ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

2009-01-01

In this paper, we consider a two-point boundary value problem for a system of second order ordinary differential equations. Under some conditions, we show the existence of positive solution to the system of second order ordinary differential equa-tions.

11. Solvability conditions for non-local boundary value problems for two-dimensional half-linear differential systems

2011-01-01

Roč. 74, č. 17 (2011), s. 6537-6552 ISSN 0362-546X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : half-linear differential system * non-local boundary value problem * solvability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.536, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X11004573

12. Existence and nonexistence results for a singular boundary value problem arising in the theory of epitaxial growth

Escudero, C.; Hakl, Robert; Peral, I.; Torres, P.J.

2014-01-01

Roč. 37, č. 6 (2014), s. 793-807 ISSN 0170-4214 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : singular boundary value problem * epitaxial growth * radial solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mma.2836/full

13. Global solutions to the initial-boundary value problem for the quasilinear viscoelastic equation with a derivative nonlinearity

Mitsuhiro Nakao

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We prove the existence and uniqueness of a global decaying solution to the initial boundary value problem for the quasilinear wave equation with Kelvin-Voigt dissipation and a derivative nonlinearity. To derive the required estimates of the solutions we employ a 'loan' method and use a difference inequality on the energy.

14. Research on the Automatic Fusion Strategy of Fixed Value Boundary Based on the Weak Coupling Condition of Grid Partition

Wang, X. Y.; Dou, J. M.; Shen, H.; Li, J.; Yang, G. S.; Fan, R. Q.; Shen, Q.

2018-03-01

With the continuous strengthening of power grids, the network structure is becoming more and more complicated. An open and regional data modeling is used to complete the calculation of the protection fixed value based on the local region. At the same time, a high precision, quasi real-time boundary fusion technique is needed to seamlessly integrate the various regions so as to constitute an integrated fault computing platform which can conduct transient stability analysis of covering the whole network with high accuracy and multiple modes, deal with the impact results of non-single fault, interlocking fault and build “the first line of defense” of the power grid. The boundary fusion algorithm in this paper is an automatic fusion algorithm based on the boundary accurate coupling of the networking power grid partition, which takes the actual operation mode for qualification, complete the boundary coupling algorithm of various weak coupling partition based on open-loop mode, improving the fusion efficiency, truly reflecting its transient stability level, and effectively solving the problems of too much data, too many difficulties of partition fusion, and no effective fusion due to mutually exclusive conditions. In this paper, the basic principle of fusion process is introduced firstly, and then the method of boundary fusion customization is introduced by scene description. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the specific algorithm on how it effectively implements the boundary fusion after grid partition and to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm.

15. An Issue of Boundary Value for Velocity and Training Overhead Using Cooperative MIMO Technique in Wireless Sensor Network

M. R. Islam

2011-06-01

Full Text Available A boundary value of velocity of data gathering node (DGN and a critical value for training overhead beyond which the cooperative communication in wireless sensor network will not be feasible is proposed in this paper. Multiple Input Multiple Outputs (MIMO cooperative communication is taken as an application. The performance in terms of energy efficiency and delay for a combination of two transmitting and two receiving antennas is analyzed. The results show that a set of critical value of velocity and training overhead pair is present for the long haul communication from the sensors to the data gathering node. Later a graphical relation between boundary value of training overhead and velocity is simulated. A mathematical relation between velocity and training overhead is also developed. The effects of several parameters on training overhead and velocity are analyzed.

16. Classical boundary-value problem in Riemannian quantum gravity and self-dual Taub-NUT-(anti)de Sitter geometries

Akbar, M.M.; D'Eath, P.D.

2003-01-01

The classical boundary-value problem of the Einstein field equations is studied with an arbitrary cosmological constant, in the case of a compact (S 3 ) boundary given a biaxial Bianchi-IX positive-definite three-metric, specified by two radii (a,b). For the simplest, four-ball, topology of the manifold with this boundary, the regular classical solutions are found within the family of Taub-NUT-(anti)de Sitter metrics with self-dual Weyl curvature. For arbitrary choice of positive radii (a,b), we find that there are three solutions for the infilling geometry of this type. We obtain exact solutions for them and for their Euclidean actions. The case of negative cosmological constant is investigated further. For reasonable squashing of the three-sphere, all three infilling solutions have real-valued actions which possess a 'cusp catastrophe' structure with a non-self-intersecting 'catastrophe manifold' implying that the dominant contribution comes from the unique real positive-definite solution on the ball. The positive-definite solution exists even for larger deformations of the three-sphere, as long as a certain inequality between a and b holds. The action of this solution is proportional to -a 3 for large a (∼b) and hence larger radii are favoured. The same boundary-value problem with more complicated interior topology containing a 'bolt' is investigated in a forthcoming paper

17. A Direct Approach to Determine the External Disturbing Gravity Field by Applying Green Integral with the Ground Boundary Value

TIAN Jialei

2015-11-01

Full Text Available By using the ground as the boundary, Molodensky problem usually gets the solution in form of series. Higher order terms reflect the correction between a smooth surface and the ground boundary. Application difficulties arise from not only computational complexity and stability maintenance, but also data-intensiveness. Therefore, in this paper, starting from the application of external gravity disturbance, Green formula is used on digital terrain surface. In the case of ignoring the influence of horizontal component of the integral, the expression formula of external disturbance potential determined by boundary value consisted of ground gravity anomalies and height anomaly difference are obtained, whose kernel function is reciprocal of distance and Poisson core respectively. With this method, there is no need of continuation of ground data. And kernel function is concise, and suitable for the stochastic computation of external disturbing gravity field.

18. Integral methods of solving boundary-value problems of nonstationary heat conduction and their comparative analysis

Kot, V. A.

2017-11-01

The modern state of approximate integral methods used in applications, where the processes of heat conduction and heat and mass transfer are of first importance, is considered. Integral methods have found a wide utility in different fields of knowledge: problems of heat conduction with different heat-exchange conditions, simulation of thermal protection, Stefantype problems, microwave heating of a substance, problems on a boundary layer, simulation of a fluid flow in a channel, thermal explosion, laser and plasma treatment of materials, simulation of the formation and melting of ice, inverse heat problems, temperature and thermal definition of nanoparticles and nanoliquids, and others. Moreover, polynomial solutions are of interest because the determination of a temperature (concentration) field is an intermediate stage in the mathematical description of any other process. The following main methods were investigated on the basis of the error norms: the Tsoi and Postol’nik methods, the method of integral relations, the Gudman integral method of heat balance, the improved Volkov integral method, the matched integral method, the modified Hristov method, the Mayer integral method, the Kudinov method of additional boundary conditions, the Fedorov boundary method, the method of weighted temperature function, the integral method of boundary characteristics. It was established that the two last-mentioned methods are characterized by high convergence and frequently give solutions whose accuracy is not worse that the accuracy of numerical solutions.

19. A three-point Taylor algorithm for three-point boundary value problems

J.L. López; E. Pérez Sinusía; N.M. Temme (Nico)

2011-01-01

textabstractWe consider second-order linear differential equations $\\varphi(x)y''+f(x)y'+g(x)y=h(x)$ in the interval $(-1,1)$ with Dirichlet, Neumann or mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions given at three points of the interval: the two extreme points $x=\\pm 1$ and an interior point

20. On non-linear boundary value problems and parametrisation at multiple nodes

Rontó, András; Rontó, M.; Varha, J.

2016-01-01

Roč. 2016, Č. 80 (2016), s. 1-18 ISSN 1417-3875 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : non-local boundary conditions * parametrisation * successive approximations * interval division Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.926, year: 2016 http://www.math.u-szeged.hu/ejqtde/periodica.html?periodica=1¶mtipus_ertek=publication¶m_ertek=5302

1. Layer potentials and boundary-value problems for second order elliptic operators with data in Besov spaces

Barton, Ariel

2016-01-01

This monograph presents a comprehensive treatment of second order divergence form elliptic operators with bounded measurable t-independent coefficients in spaces of fractional smoothness, in Besov and weighted L^p classes. The authors establish: (1) Mapping properties for the double and single layer potentials, as well as the Newton potential; (2) Extrapolation-type solvability results: the fact that solvability of the Dirichlet or Neumann boundary value problem at any given L^p space automatically assures their solvability in an extended range of Besov spaces; (3) Well-posedness for the non-homogeneous boundary value problems. In particular, the authors prove well-posedness of the non-homogeneous Dirichlet problem with data in Besov spaces for operators with real, not necessarily symmetric, coefficients.

2. Numeric treatment of nonlinear second order multi-point boundary value problems using ANN, GAs and sequential quadratic programming technique

Zulqurnain Sabir

2014-06-01

Full Text Available In this paper, computational intelligence technique are presented for solving multi-point nonlinear boundary value problems based on artificial neural networks, evolutionary computing approach, and active-set technique. The neural network is to provide convenient methods for obtaining useful model based on unsupervised error for the differential equations. The motivation for presenting this work comes actually from the aim of introducing a reliable framework that combines the powerful features of ANN optimized with soft computing frameworks to cope with such challenging system. The applicability and reliability of such methods have been monitored thoroughly for various boundary value problems arises in science, engineering and biotechnology as well. Comprehensive numerical experimentations have been performed to validate the accuracy, convergence, and robustness of the designed scheme. Comparative studies have also been made with available standard solution to analyze the correctness of the proposed scheme.

3. The SMM Model as a Boundary Value Problem Using the Discrete Diffusion Equation

Campbell, Joel

2007-01-01

A generalized single step stepwise mutation model (SMM) is developed that takes into account an arbitrary initial state to a certain partial difference equation. This is solved in both the approximate continuum limit and the more exact discrete form. A time evolution model is developed for Y DNA or mtDNA that takes into account the reflective boundary modeling minimum microsatellite length and the original difference equation. A comparison is made between the more widely known continuum Gaussian model and a discrete model, which is based on modified Bessel functions of the first kind. A correction is made to the SMM model for the probability that two individuals are related that takes into account a reflecting boundary modeling minimum microsatellite length. This method is generalized to take into account the general n-step model and exact solutions are found. A new model is proposed for the step distribution.

4. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions for a Discrete Fractional Mixed Type Sum-Difference Equation Boundary Value Problem

Weidong Lv

2015-01-01

Full Text Available By means of Schauder’s fixed point theorem and contraction mapping principle, we establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions to a boundary value problem for a discrete fractional mixed type sum-difference equation with the nonlinear term dependent on a fractional difference of lower order. Moreover, a suitable choice of a Banach space allows the solutions to be unbounded and two representative examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the main results.

5. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for the Existence of Positive Solution for Singular Boundary Value Problems on Time Scales

Zhang Xuemei

2009-01-01

Full Text Available By constructing available upper and lower solutions and combining the Schauder's fixed point theorem with maximum principle, this paper establishes sufficient and necessary conditions to guarantee the existence of as well as positive solutions for a class of singular boundary value problems on time scales. The results significantly extend and improve many known results for both the continuous case and more general time scales. We illustrate our results by one example.

6. The Initial and Neumann Boundary Value Problem for a Class Parabolic Monge-Ampère Equation

Juan Wang

2013-01-01

Full Text Available We consider the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic behavior of a classical solution to the initial and Neumann boundary value problem for a class nonlinear parabolic equation of Monge-Ampère type. We show that such solution exists for all times and is unique. It converges eventually to a solution that satisfies a Neumann type problem for nonlinear elliptic equation of Monge-Ampère type.

7. Triple Positive Solutions of a Nonlocal Boundary Value Problem for Singular Differential Equations with p-Laplacian

Jufang Wang

2013-01-01

Full Text Available We establish the existence of triple positive solutions of an m-point boundary value problem for the nonlinear singular second-order differential equations of mixed type with a p-Laplacian operator by Leggett-William fixed point theorem. At last, we give an example to demonstrate the use of the main result of this paper. The conclusions in this paper essentially extend and improve the known results.

8. Efficient Closed Form Cut-Off Planes and Propagation Planes Characteristics for Dielectric Slab Loaded Boundary Value Problems

Zafar, Junaid

2012-01-01

The geometrical relationship between the cut-off and propagating planes of any waveguide system is a prerequisite for any design process. The characterization of cut-off planes and optimisation are challenging for numerical methods, closed-form solutions are always preferred. In this paper Maxwells coupled field equations are used to characterise twin E-plane and H-plane slab loaded boundary value problems. The single mode bandwidths and dispersion characteristics of these structures are pres...

9. Computation of Charged-Particle Transfer Maps for General Fields and Geometries Using Electromagnetic Boundary-Value Data

Dragt, A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Dragt, A. Bodoh-Creed A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Bodoh-Creed, A.; Walstrom, P. L.

2010-01-01

Three-dimensional field distributions from realistic beamline elements can be obtained only by measurement or by numerical solution of a boundary-value problem. In numerical charged-particle map generation, fields along a reference trajectory are differentiated multiple times. Any attempt to differentiate directly such field data multiple times is soon dominated by "noise" due to finite meshing and/or measurement errors. This problem can be overcome by the use of field data on a surface outsi...

10. The mixed boundary value problem, Krein resolvent formulas and spectral asymptotic estimates

Grubb, Gerd

2011-01-01

For a second-order symmetric strongly elliptic operator A on a smooth bounded open set in Rn, the mixed problem is defined by a Neumann-type condition on a part Σ+ of the boundary and a Dirichlet condition on the other part Σ−. We show a Kreĭn resolvent formula, where the difference between its...... to the area of Σ+, in the case where A is principally equal to the Laplacian...

11. Symmetry analysis and exact solutions of one class of (1+3)-dimensional boundary-value problems of the Stefan type

Kovalenko, S. S.

2014-01-01

We present the group classification of one class of (1+3)-dimensional nonlinear boundary-value problems of the Stefan type that simulate the processes of melting and evaporation of metals. The results obtained are used for the construction of the exact solution of one boundary-value problem from the class under study.

12. Existence of Triple Positive Solutions for Second-Order Discrete Boundary Value Problems

Yanping Guo

2007-01-01

Full Text Available By using a new fixed-point theorem introduced by Avery and Peterson (2001, we obtain sufficient conditions for the existence of at least three positive solutions for the equation Δ2x(k−1+q(kf(k,x(k,Δx(k=0, for k∈{1,2,…,n−1}, subject to the following two boundary conditions: x(0=x(n=0 or x(0=Δx(n−1=0, where n≥3.

13. Initial-boundary-value problem of the self-gravitating scalar field in the Bondi-Sachs gauge

Frittelli, Simonetta; Gomez, Roberto

2007-01-01

It is shown that, in the Bondi-Sachs gauge that fixes the speed of incoming light rays to the value 1, the Einstein equations coupled to a scalar field in spherical symmetry are cast into a symmetric-hyperbolic system of equations for the scalar field, lapse and shift as fundamental variables. In this system of equations, the lapse and shift are incoming characteristic fields, and the scalar field has three components: incoming, outgoing and static. A constraint-preserving boundary condition is prescribed by imposing the projection of the Einstein equation normal to the boundary at the outer value of the radial coordinate. The boundary condition specifies one of the two incoming metric fields. The remaining incoming metric field and the incoming scalar field component need to be specified arbitrarily. Numerical simulations of the scattering of the scalar field by a black hole in the nonlinear regime are presented that illustrate interesting facts about black-hole physics and the behavior of the characteristic variables of the problem

14. Random walks in the quarter plane algebraic methods, boundary value problems, applications to queueing systems and analytic combinatorics

2017-01-01

This monograph aims to promote original mathematical methods to determine the invariant measure of two-dimensional random walks in domains with boundaries. Such processes arise in numerous applications and are of interest in several areas of mathematical research, such as Stochastic Networks, Analytic Combinatorics, and Quantum Physics. This second edition consists of two parts. Part I is a revised upgrade of the first edition (1999), with additional recent results on the group of a random walk. The theoretical approach given therein has been developed by the authors since the early 1970s. By using Complex Function Theory, Boundary Value Problems, Riemann Surfaces, and Galois Theory, completely new methods are proposed for solving functional equations of two complex variables, which can also be applied to characterize the Transient Behavior of the walks, as well as to find explicit solutions to the one-dimensional Quantum Three-Body Problem, or to tackle a new class of Integrable Systems. Part II borrows spec...

15. A new Ellipsoidal Gravimetric-Satellite Altimetry Boundary Value Problem; Case study: High Resolution Geoid of Iran

Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

2003-04-01

A new ellipsoidal gravimetric-satellite altimetry boundary value problem has been developed and successfully tested. This boundary value problem has been constructed for gravity observables of the type (i) gravity potential (ii) gravity intensity (iii) deflection of vertical and (iv) satellite altimetry data. The developed boundary value problem is enjoying the ellipsoidal nature and as such can take advantage of high precision GPS observations in the set-up of the problem. The highlights of the solution are as follows: begin{itemize} Application of ellipsoidal harmonic expansion up to degree/order and ellipsoidal centrifugal field for the reduction of global gravity and isostasy effects from the gravity observable at the surface of the Earth. Application of ellipsoidal Newton integral on the equal area map projection surface for the reduction of residual mass effects within a radius of 55 km around the computational point. Ellipsoidal harmonic downward continuation of the residual observables from the surface of the earth down to the surface of reference ellipsoid using the ellipsoidal height of the observation points derived from GPS. Restore of the removed effects at the application points on the surface of reference ellipsoid. Conversion of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies into potential. Combination of the downward continued gravity information with the potential equivalent of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies. Application of ellipsoidal Bruns formula for converting the potential values on the surface of the reference ellipsoid into the geoidal heights (i.e. ellipsoidal heights of the geoid) with respect to the reference ellipsoid. Computation of the high-resolution geoid of Iran has successfully tested this new methodology!

16. About Positivity of Green's Functions for Nonlocal Boundary Value Problems with Impulsive Delay Equations

Alexander Domoshnitsky

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The impulsive delay differential equation is considered (Lx(t=x′(t+∑i=1mpi(tx(t-τi(t=f(t, t∈[a,b],  x(tj=βjx(tj-0, j=1,…,k, a=t0boundary condition lx=∫abφsx′sds+θxa=c,  φ∈L∞a,b;  θ, c∈R. Various results on existence and uniqueness of solutions and on positivity/negativity of the Green's functions for this equation are obtained.

17. The added value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography in patients with neck lymph node metastases from an unknown primary malignancy.

Prowse, S J B; Shaw, R; Ganeshan, D; Prowse, P M; Hanlon, R; Lewis-Jones, H; Wieshmann, H

2013-08-01

The search for a primary malignancy in patients with a metastatic cervical lymph node is challenging yet ultimately of utmost clinical importance. This study evaluated the efficacy of positron emission tomography computed tomography in detecting the occult primary, within the context of a tertiary referral centre head and neck cancer multidisciplinary team tumour board meeting. Thirty-two patients (23 men and 9 women; mean and median age, 61 years) with a metastatic cervical lymph node of unknown primary origin, after clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging, underwent positron emission tomography computed tomography. The primary tumour detection rate was 50 per cent (16/32). Positron emission tomography computed tomography had a sensitivity of 94 per cent (16/17) and a specificity of 67 per cent (10/15). Combining these results with those of 10 earlier studies of similar patients gave an overall detection rate of 37 per cent. Positron emission tomography computed tomography has become an important imaging modality. To date, it has the highest primary tumour detection rate, for head and neck cancer patients presenting with cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary.

18. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for the Existence of Positive Solution for Singular Boundary Value Problems on Time Scales

Meiqiang Feng

2009-01-01

Full Text Available By constructing available upper and lower solutions and combining the Schauder's fixed point theorem with maximum principle, this paper establishes sufficient and necessary conditions to guarantee the existence of Cld[0,1]𝕋 as well as CldΔ[0,1]𝕋 positive solutions for a class of singular boundary value problems on time scales. The results significantly extend and improve many known results for both the continuous case and more general time scales. We illustrate our results by one example.

19. Initial-boundary value problems for multi-term time-fractional diffusion equations with x-dependent coefficients

Li, Zhiyuan; Huang, Xinchi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

2018-01-01

In this paper, we discuss an initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) for the multi-term time-fractional diffusion equation with x-dependent coefficients. By means of the Mittag-Leffler functions and the eigenfunction expansion, we reduce the IBVP to an equivalent integral equation to show the unique existence and the analyticity of the solution for the equation. Especially, in the case where all the coefficients of the time-fractional derivatives are non-negative, by the Laplace and inversion L...

20. Numerical solution of singularity-perturbed two-point boundary-value problems

Masenge, R.W.P.

1993-07-01

Physical processes which involve transportation of slowly diffusing substances in a fast-flowing medium are mathematically modelled by so-called singularly-perturbed second order convection diffusion differential equations in which the convective first order terms dominate over the diffusive second order terms. In general, analytical solutions of such equations are characterized by having sharp solution fronts in some sections of the interior and/or the boundary of the domain of solution. The presence of these (usually very narrow) layer regions in the solution domain makes the task of globally approximating such solutions by standard numerical techniques very difficult. In this expository paper we use a simple one-dimensional prototype problem as a vehicle for analysing the nature of the numerical approximation difficulties involved. In the sequel we present, without detailed derivation, two practical numerical schemes which succeed in varying degrees in numerically resolving the layer of the solution to the prototype problem. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

1. Positive solutions of three-point boundary-value problems for p-Laplacian singular differential equations

George N. Galanis

2005-10-01

Full Text Available In this paper we prove the existence of positive solutions for the three-point singular boundary-value problem$$-[phi _{p}(u']'=q(tf(t,u(t,quad 0boundary-value problem remains away from the origin for the case where the nonlinearity is sublinear and so we avoid its singularity at u=0. 2. Solvability of fractional multi-point boundary-value problems with p-Laplacian operator at resonance Tengfei Shen 2014-02-01 Full Text Available In this article, we consider the multi-point boundary-value problem for nonlinear fractional differential equations with p-Laplacian operator:$$\\displaylines{ D_{0^+}^\\beta \\varphi_p (D_{0^+}^\\alpha u(t = f(t,u(t,D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 2} u(t,D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 1} u(t, D_{0^+}^\\alpha u(t,\\quad t \\in (0,1, \\cr u(0 = u'(0=D_{0^+}^\\alpha u(0 = 0,\\quad D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 1} u(1 = \\sum_{i = 1}^m {\\sigma_i D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 1} u(\\eta_i } , }$$where 2 < \\alpha \\le 3, 0 < \\beta \\le 1, 3 < \\alpha + \\beta \\le 4, \\sum_{i = 1}^m {\\sigma_i } = 1, D_{0^+}^\\alpha is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. \\varphi_{p}(s=|s|^{p-2}s is p-Laplacians operator. The existence of solutions for above fractional boundary value problem is obtained by using the extension of Mawhin's continuation theorem due to Ge, which enrich konwn results. An example is given to illustrate the main result. 3. A boundary value problem for a third order hyperbolic equation with degeneration of order inside the domain Ruzanna Kh. Makaova 2017-12-01 Full Text Available In this paper we study the boundary value problem for a degenerating third order equation of hyperbolic type in a mixed domain. The equation under consideration in the positive part of the domain coincides with the Hallaire equation, which is a pseudoparabolic type equation. Moreover, in the negative part of the domain it coincides with a degenerating hyperbolic equation of the first kind, the particular case of the Bitsadze–Lykov equation. The existence and uniqueness theorem for the solution is proved. The uniqueness of the solution to the problem is proved with the Tricomi method. Using the functional relationships of the positive and negative parts of the domain on the degeneration line, we arrive at the convolution type Volterra integral equation of the 2nd kind with respect to the desired solution by a derivative trace. With the Laplace transform method, we obtain the solution of the integral equation in its explicit form. At last, the solution to the problem under study is written out explicitly as the solution of the second boundary-value problem in the positive part of the domain for the Hallaire equation and as the solution to the Cauchy problem in the negative part of the domain for a degenerate hyperbolic equation of the first kind. 4. A prospective multi-centre study of the value of FDG-PET as part of a structured diagnostic protocol in patients with fever of unknown origin Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; Vos, Fidel J.; Meer, Jos W.M. van der; Mudde, Aart H.; Dofferhoff, Anton S.M.; Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de; Rijnders, Anton J.; Krabbe, Paul F.M.; Corstens, Frans H.M.; Oyen, Wim J.G. 2007-01-01 Since 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulates in neoplastic cells and in activated inflammatory cells, positron emission tomography (PET) with FDG could be valuable in diagnosing patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). The aim of this study was to validate the use of FDG-PET as part of a structured diagnostic protocol in the general patient population with FUO. From December 2003 to July 2005, 70 patients with FUO were recruited from one university hospital (n=38) and five community hospitals (n=32). A structured diagnostic protocol including FDG-PET was used. A dedicated, full-ring PET scanner was used for data acquisition. FDG-PET scans were interpreted by two staff members of the department of nuclear medicine without further clinical information. The final clinical diagnosis was used for comparison with the FDG-PET results. Of all scans, 33% were clinically helpful. The contribution of FDG-PET to the final diagnosis did not differ significantly between patients diagnosed in the university hospital and patients diagnosed in the community hospitals. FDG-PET contributed significantly more often to the final diagnosis in patients with continuous fever than in patients with periodic fever. FDG-PET was not helpful in any of the patients with normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). FDG-PET is a valuable imaging technique as part of a diagnostic protocol in the general patient population with FUO and a raised ESR or CRP. (orig.) 5. A meta-analysis of the value of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/PET-CT in the evaluation of fever of unknown origin Dong Mengjie; Zhao Kui; Liu Zhenfeng; Wang Guolin; Yang Shuye; Zhou Guojun 2011-01-01 Background and purpose: The diagnosis of patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains a challenging medical problem for internal medicine. A reliable estimate of the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT in the assessment of FUO unidentified by conventional workup has never been systematically assessed, and present systematic review was aimed at this issue. Methods: A systematic search for relevant studies was performed of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Methodological quality of each study was assessed. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) were meta-analyzed. Subgroup analyses were performed if results of individual studies were heterogeneous. Results: The inclusion criteria were met by nine studies. Overall, the studies had good methodological quality. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for the detection of FUO were 0.826 (95% CI; 0.729–0.899) and 0.578 (95% CI; 0.488–0.665), respectively, and the AUC was 0.810. Heterogeneity among the results of FDG PET studies was present (QSE = 12.40, I 2 = 67.7%; QSp = 35.98, I 2 = 88.9%). Pooled sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT were 0.982 (95% CI; 0.936–0.998) and 0.859 (95% CI; 0.750–0.934), respectively, and the AUC was 0.947. We did not find any statistical differences in the AUC and Q* index between FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT (Z = 0.566, p > 0.05). Conclusions: Although the FDG-PET studies that we examined were heterogeneous, FDG-PET appears to be a sensitive and promising diagnostic tool for the detection of the causes of FUO. FDG-PET/CT should be considered among the first diagnostic tools for patients with FUO in whom conventional diagnostics have been unsuccessful. 6. An Existence Principle for Nonlocal Difference Boundary Value Problems with ÃÂ†-Laplacian and Its Application to Singular Problems Svatoslav Stanêk 2008-03-01 Full Text Available The paper presents an existence principle for solving a large class of nonlocal regular discrete boundary value problems with the ÃÂ†-Laplacian. Applications of the existence principle to singular discrete problems are given. 7. Sufficient condition for existence of solutions for higher-order resonance boundary value problem with one-dimensional p-Laplacian Liu Yang 2007-10-01 Full Text Available By using coincidence degree theory of Mawhin, existence results for some higher order resonance multipoint boundary value problems with one dimensional p-Laplacian operator are obtained. 8. Applications of Voronoi and Delaunay Diagrams in the solution of the geodetic boundary value problem C. A. B. Quintero Full Text Available Voronoi and Delaunay structures are presented as discretization tools to be used in numerical surface integration aiming the computation of geodetic problems solutions, when under the integral there is a non-analytical function (e. g., gravity anomaly and height. In the Voronoi approach, the target area is partitioned into polygons which contain the observed point and no interpolation is necessary, only the original data is used. In the Delaunay approach, the observed points are vertices of triangular cells and the value for a cell is interpolated for its barycenter. If the amount and distribution of the observed points are adequate, gridding operation is not required and the numerical surface integration is carried out by point-wise. Even when the amount and distribution of the observed points are not enough, the structures of Voronoi and Delaunay can combine grid with observed points in order to preserve the integrity of the original information. Both schemes are applied to the computation of the Stokes' integral, the terrain correction, the indirect effect and the gradient of the gravity anomaly, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil area. 9. Singular boundary value problem for the integrodifferential equation in an insurance model with stochastic premiums: Analysis and numerical solution Belkina, T. A.; Konyukhova, N. B.; Kurochkin, S. V. 2012-10-01 A singular boundary value problem for a second-order linear integrodifferential equation with Volterra and non-Volterra integral operators is formulated and analyzed. The equation is defined on ℝ+, has a weak singularity at zero and a strong singularity at infinity, and depends on several positive parameters. Under natural constraints on the coefficients of the equation, existence and uniqueness theorems for this problem with given limit boundary conditions at singular points are proved, asymptotic representations of the solution are given, and an algorithm for its numerical determination is described. Numerical computations are performed and their interpretation is given. The problem arises in the study of the survival probability of an insurance company over infinite time (as a function of its initial surplus) in a dynamic insurance model that is a modification of the classical Cramer-Lundberg model with a stochastic process rate of premium under a certain investment strategy in the financial market. A comparative analysis of the results with those produced by the model with deterministic premiums is given. 10. Most oxidative stress response in water samples comes from unknown chemicals: the need for effect-based water quality trigger values. Escher, Beate I; van Daele, Charlotte; Dutt, Mriga; Tang, Janet Y M; Altenburger, Rolf 2013-07-02 The induction of adaptive stress response pathways is an early and sensitive indicator of the presence of chemical and non-chemical stressors in cells. An important stress response is the Nrf-2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway where electrophilic chemicals or chemicals that cause the formation of reactive oxygen species initiate the production of antioxidants and metabolic detoxification enzymes. The AREc32 cell line is sensitive to chemicals inducing oxidative stress and has been previously applied for water quality monitoring of organic micropollutants and disinfection byproducts. Here we propose an algorithm for the derivation of effect-based water quality trigger values for this end point that is based on the combined effects of mixtures of regulated chemicals. Mixture experiments agreed with predictions by the mixture toxicity concept of concentration addition. The responses in the AREc32 and the concentrations of 269 individual chemicals were quantified in nine environmental samples, ranging from treated effluent, recycled water, stormwater to drinking water. The effects of the detected chemicals could explain less than 0.1% of the observed induction of the oxidative stress response in the sample, affirming the need to use effect-based trigger values that account for all chemicals present. 11. Multiplicity results for classes of one-dimensional p-Laplacian boundary-value problems with cubic-like nonlinearities Idris Addou 2000-07-01 Full Text Available We study boundary-value problems of the type$$displaylines{ -(varphi_{p}( u' ' =lambda f( u ,hbox{ in }(0,1 cr u( 0 =u( 1 =0, }where p>1, varphi_{p}( x =left| x ight| ^{p-2}x, and lambda >0. We provide multiplicity results when f behaves like a cubic with three distinct roots, at which it satisfies Lipschitz-type conditions involving a parameter q>1. We shall show how changes in the position of q with respect to p lead to different behavior of the solution set. When dealing with sign-changing solutions, we assume that f is {it half-odd}; a condition generalizing the usual oddness. We use a quadrature method. 12. Solvability, regularity, and optimal control of boundary value problems for pdes in honour of Prof. Gianni Gilardi Favini, Angelo; Rocca, Elisabetta; Schimperna, Giulio; Sprekels, Jürgen 2017-01-01 This volume gathers contributions in the field of partial differential equations, with a focus on mathematical models in phase transitions, complex fluids and thermomechanics. These contributions are dedicated to Professor Gianni Gilardi on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It particularly develops the following thematic areas: nonlinear dynamic and stationary equations; well-posedness of initial and boundary value problems for systems of PDEs; regularity properties for the solutions; optimal control problems and optimality conditions; feedback stabilization and stability results. Most of the articles are presented in a self-contained manner, and describe new achievements and/or the state of the art in their line of research, providing interested readers with an overview of recent advances and future research directions in PDEs. 13. Known knowns, known unknowns and unknown unknowns in prokaryotic transposition. Siguier, Patricia; Gourbeyre, Edith; Chandler, Michael 2017-08-01 Although the phenomenon of transposition has been known for over 60 years, its overarching importance in modifying and streamlining genomes took some time to recognize. In spite of a robust understanding of transposition of some TE, there remain a number of important TE groups with potential high genome impact and unknown transposition mechanisms and yet others, only recently identified by bioinformatics, yet to be formally confirmed as mobile. Here, we point to some areas of limited understanding concerning well established important TE groups with DDE Tpases, to address central gaps in our knowledge of characterised Tn with other types of Tpases and finally, to highlight new potentially mobile DNA species. It is not exhaustive. Examples have been chosen to provide encouragement in the continued exploration of the considerable prokaryotic mobilome especially in light of the current threat to public health posed by the spread of multiple Ab R . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 14. Elliptic boundary value problems Maz'ya, V G; Plamenevskii, B A; Stupyali, L; Plamenevskii, B A 1984-01-01 The papers in this volume have been selected, translated, and edited from publications not otherwise translated into English under the auspices of the AMS-ASL-IMS Committee on Translations from Russian and Other Foreign Languages. 15. A Third-Order p-Laplacian Boundary Value Problem Solved by an SL(3,ℝ Lie-Group Shooting Method Chein-Shan Liu 2013-01-01 Full Text Available The boundary layer problem for power-law fluid can be recast to a third-order p-Laplacian boundary value problem (BVP. In this paper, we transform the third-order p-Laplacian into a new system which exhibits a Lie-symmetry SL(3,ℝ. Then, the closure property of the Lie-group is used to derive a linear transformation between the boundary values at two ends of a spatial interval. Hence, we can iteratively solve the missing left boundary conditions, which are determined by matching the right boundary conditions through a finer tuning of r∈[0,1]. The present SL(3,ℝ Lie-group shooting method is easily implemented and is efficient to tackle the multiple solutions of the third-order p-Laplacian. When the missing left boundary values can be determined accurately, we can apply the fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4 method to obtain a quite accurate numerical solution of the p-Laplacian. 16. Asymptotics of the Eigenvalues of a Self-Adjoint Fourth Order Boundary Value Problem with Four Eigenvalue Parameter Dependent Boundary Conditions Manfred Möller 2013-01-01 Full Text Available Considered is a regular fourth order ordinary differential equation which depends quadratically on the eigenvalue parameter λ and which has separable boundary conditions depending linearly on λ. It is shown that the eigenvalues lie in the closed upper half plane or on the imaginary axis and are symmetric with respect to the imaginary axis. The first four terms in the asymptotic expansion of the eigenvalues are provided. 17. A scheme to calculate higher-order homogenization as applied to micro-acoustic boundary value problems Vagh, Hardik A.; Baghai-Wadji, Alireza 2008-12-01 Current technological challenges in materials science and high-tech device industry require the solution of boundary value problems (BVPs) involving regions of various scales, e.g. multiple thin layers, fibre-reinforced composites, and nano/micro pores. In most cases straightforward application of standard variational techniques to BVPs of practical relevance necessarily leads to unsatisfactorily ill-conditioned analytical and/or numerical results. To remedy the computational challenges associated with sub-sectional heterogeneities various sophisticated homogenization techniques need to be employed. Homogenization refers to the systematic process of smoothing out the sub-structural heterogeneities, leading to the determination of effective constitutive coefficients. Ordinarily, homogenization involves a sophisticated averaging and asymptotic order analysis to obtain solutions. In the majority of the cases only zero-order terms are constructed due to the complexity of the processes involved. In this paper we propose a constructive scheme for obtaining homogenized solutions involving higher order terms, and thus, guaranteeing higher accuracy and greater robustness of the numerical results. We present 18. Designing towards the unknown Wilde, Danielle; Underwood, Jenny 2018-01-01 the research potential to far-ranging possibilities. In this article we unpack the motivations driving the PKI project. We present our mixed-methodology, which entangles textile crafts, design interactions and materiality to shape an embodied enquiry. Our research outcomes are procedural and methodological......New materials with new capabilities demand new ways of approaching design. Destabilising existing methods is crucial to develop new methods. Yet, radical destabilisation—where outcomes remain unknown long enough that new discoveries become possible—is not easy in technology design where complex......, to design towards unknown outcomes, using unknown materials. The impossibility of this task is proving as useful as it is disruptive. At its most potent, it is destabilising expectations, aesthetics and processes. Keeping the researchers, collaborators and participants in a state of unknowing, is opening... 19. Multiple Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear Four-Point Singular Boundary Value Problem with a p-Laplacian Operator on Time Scales Shihuang Hong 2009-01-01 Full Text Available We present sufficient conditions for the existence of at least twin or triple positive solutions of a nonlinear four-point singular boundary value problem with a p-Laplacian dynamic equation on a time scale. Our results are obtained via some new multiple fixed point theorems. 20. Existence and smoothness of solutions to second initial boundary value problems for Schrodinger systems in cylinders with non-smooth bases Nguyen Manh Hung 2008-03-01 Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the second initial boundary value problem for strongly general Schrodinger systems in both the finite and the infinite cylinders Q_T, 0 1. Triple solutions for a Dirichlet boundary value problem involving a perturbed discrete p(k-Laplacian operator Khaleghi Moghadam Mohsen 2017-08-01 Full Text Available Triple solutions are obtained for a discrete problem involving a nonlinearly perturbed one-dimensional p(k-Laplacian operator and satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions. The methods for existence rely on a Ricceri-local minimum theorem for differentiable functionals. Several examples are included to illustrate the main results. 2. Using Social Network Analysis to Measure the Impact and Value of Work That Takes Us beyond Institutional Boundaries Cassidy, Alice; Poole, Gary 2016-01-01 In educational development, accountability is paramount, in particular for activities that take educational developers away from their institutional boundaries to local, national, and international venues. Educational developers must demonstrate the benefits of such work to the home institution and its constituents. We asked educational developers… 3. Unique solvability of some two-point boundary value problems for linear functional differential equations with singularities Rontó, András; Samoilenko, A. M. 2007-01-01 Roč. 41, - (2007), s. 115-136 ISSN 1512-0015 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : two-point problem * functional differential equation * singular boundary problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics 4. Classical solutions for discrete potential boundary value problems with generalized Leray-Lions type operator and variable exponent Bila Adolphe Kyelem 2017-04-01 Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of solutions for some discrete nonlinear difference equations subjected to a potential boundary type condition. We use a variational technique that relies on Szulkin's critical point theory, which ensures the existence of solutions by ground state and mountain pass methods. 5. A classical Perron method for existence of smooth solutions to boundary value and obstacle problems for degenerate-elliptic operators via holomorphic maps Feehan, Paul M. N. 2017-09-01 We prove existence of solutions to boundary value problems and obstacle problems for degenerate-elliptic, linear, second-order partial differential operators with partial Dirichlet boundary conditions using a new version of the Perron method. The elliptic operators considered have a degeneracy along a portion of the domain boundary which is similar to the degeneracy of a model linear operator identified by Daskalopoulos and Hamilton [9] in their study of the porous medium equation or the degeneracy of the Heston operator [21] in mathematical finance. Existence of a solution to the partial Dirichlet problem on a half-ball, where the operator becomes degenerate on the flat boundary and a Dirichlet condition is only imposed on the spherical boundary, provides the key additional ingredient required for our Perron method. Surprisingly, proving existence of a solution to this partial Dirichlet problem with ;mixed; boundary conditions on a half-ball is more challenging than one might expect. Due to the difficulty in developing a global Schauder estimate and due to compatibility conditions arising where the ;degenerate; and ;non-degenerate boundaries; touch, one cannot directly apply the continuity or approximate solution methods. However, in dimension two, there is a holomorphic map from the half-disk onto the infinite strip in the complex plane and one can extend this definition to higher dimensions to give a diffeomorphism from the half-ball onto the infinite ;slab;. The solution to the partial Dirichlet problem on the half-ball can thus be converted to a partial Dirichlet problem on the slab, albeit for an operator which now has exponentially growing coefficients. The required Schauder regularity theory and existence of a solution to the partial Dirichlet problem on the slab can nevertheless be obtained using previous work of the author and C. Pop [16]. Our Perron method relies on weak and strong maximum principles for degenerate-elliptic operators, concepts of 6. Fever of unknown origin Misaki, Takashi; Matsui, Akira; Tanaka, Fumiko; Okuno, Yoshishige; Mitsumori, Michihide; Torizuka, Tatsurou; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Shimbo, Shin-ichirou 1990-01-01 Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a commonly performed imaging modality in deteting pyrogenic lesions in cases of long-standing inexplainable fever. To re-evaluate the significance of gallium imaging in such cases, a retrospective review was made of 56 scans performed in febrile patients in whom sufficient clinical and laboratory findings were obtained. Gallium scans were true positive in 30 patients, false positive in 3, true negative in 19, and false negative in 4. In the group of true positive, local inflammatory lesions were detected in 23 patients with a final diagnosis of lung tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and inflammatory joint disease. Abnormal gallium accumulation, as shown in the other 7 patients, provided clues to the diagnosis of generalized disorders, such as hematological malignancies (n=3), systemic autoimmune diseases (n=3), and severe infectious mononucleosis (n=one). In the group of false positive, gallium imaging revealed intestinal excretion of gallium in 2 patients and physiological pulmonary hilar accumulation in one. In the true negative group of 19 patients, fever of unknown origin was resolved spontaneously in 12 patients, and with antibiotics and corticosteroids in 2 and 5 patients, respectively. Four patients having false negative scans were finally diagnosed as having urinary tract infection (n=2), bacterial meningitis (n=one), and polyarteritis (n=one). Gallium imaging would remain the technique of choice in searching for origin of unknown fever. It may also be useful for early diagnosis of systemic disease, as well as focal inflammation. (N.K.) 7. Differential and Difference Boundary Value Problem for Loaded Third-Order Pseudo-Parabolic Differential Equations and Difference Methods for Their Numerical Solution Beshtokov, M. Kh. 2017-12-01 Boundary value problems for loaded third-order pseudo-parabolic equations with variable coefficients are considered. A priori estimates for the solutions of the problems in the differential and difference formulations are obtained. These a priori estimates imply the uniqueness and stability of the solution with respect to the initial data and the right-hand side on a layer, as well as the convergence of the solution of each difference problem to the solution of the corresponding differential problem. 8. Difference method for solving a nonlocal boundary value problem for a degenerating third-order pseudo-parabolic equation with variable coefficients Beshtokov, M. Kh. 2016-10-01 A nonlocal boundary value problem for a degenerating third-order pseudo-parabolic equation with variable coefficients is considered. For solving this problem, a priori estimates in the differential and difference forms are obtained. The a priori estimates imply the uniqueness and stability of the solution on a layer with respect to the initial data and the right-hand side and the convergence of the solution of the difference problem to the solution of the differential problem. 9. Twin Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear m-Point Boundary Value Problem for Third-Order p-Laplacian Dynamic Equations on Time Scales Wei Han 2008-01-01 Full Text Available Several existence theorems of twin positive solutions are established for a nonlinear m-point boundary value problem of third-order p-Laplacian dynamic equations on time scales by using a fixed point theorem. We present two theorems and four corollaries which generalize the results of related literature. As an application, an example to demonstrate our results is given. The obtained conditions are different from some known results. 10. Boundary-value problems with integral conditions for a system of Lame equations in the space of almost periodic functions Volodymyr S. Il'kiv 2016-11-01 Full Text Available We study a problem with integral boundary conditions in the time coordinate for a system of Lame equations of dynamic elasticity theory of an arbitrary dimension. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solution in the class of almost periodic functions in the spatial variables. To solve the problem of small denominators arising while constructing solutions, we use the metric approach. 11. [Badminton--unknown sport]. Zekan-Petrinović, Lidija 2007-01-01 For a long time, badminton was considered to be only a slow and light game for children, a game that is played outdoors and is structurally undemanding.Today, it is not an unknown and unrecognised sport, especially after it was included into the Olympics Games in 1992. Badminton is one of the oldest sports in the world. It is suitable for all ages (for children and elderly equally), women and men and even handicapped persons. Beginners can start playing badminton matches early because the basics are learned quickly. As a recreational activity, badminton is very popular in Zagreb. In the last 10 years, a number of halls specialized for badminton or offering badminton as one of available sports activities have been opened in Zagreb. At present, there are over 70 professional playgrounds for training of top contestants but also for the citizens who can play recreational badminton. 12. Positive solutions of a three-point boundary-value problem for differential equations with damping and actively bounded delayed forcing term George L. Karakostas 2006-08-01 Full Text Available We provide sufficient conditions for the existence of positive solutions of a three-point boundary value problem concerning a second order delay differential equation with damping and forcing term whose the delayed part is an actively bounded function, a meaning introduced in [19]. By writing the damping term as a difference of two factors one can extract more information on the solutions. (For instance, in an application, given in the last section, we can give the exact value of the norm of the solution. 13. Reconstruction from one boundary measurement of a potential homogeneous of degree zero Cornean, Horia Decebal; Knudsen, Kim We consider the inverse boundary value problem concerning the determination and reconstruction of an unknown potential in a Schrödinger equation in a bounded domain from measurements on the boundary of the domain. For the special case of a small potential homogeneous of degree zero we show that one... 14. Reconstruction from one boundary measurement of a potential homogeneous of degree zero Cornean, Horia; Knudsen, Kim 2006-01-01 We consider the inverse boundary value problem concerning the determination and reconstruction of an unknown potential in a Schrödinger equation in a bounded domain from measurements on the boundary of the domain. For the special case of a small potential homogeneous of degree zero we show that one... 15. Solution of a Problem Linear Plane Elasticity with Mixed Boundary Conditions by the Method of Boundary Integrals Nahed S. Hussein 2014-01-01 Full Text Available A numerical boundary integral scheme is proposed for the solution to the system of eld equations of plane. The stresses are prescribed on one-half of the circle, while the displacements are given. The considered problem with mixed boundary conditions in the circle is replaced by two problems with homogeneous boundary conditions, one of each type, having a common solution. The equations are reduced to a system of boundary integral equations, which is then discretized in the usual way, and the problem at this stage is reduced to the solution to a rectangular linear system of algebraic equations. The unknowns in this system of equations are the boundary values of four harmonic functions which define the full elastic solution and the unknown boundary values of stresses or displacements on proper parts of the boundary. On the basis of the obtained results, it is inferred that a stress component has a singularity at each of the two separation points, thought to be of logarithmic type. The results are discussed and boundary plots are given. We have also calculated the unknown functions in the bulk directly from the given boundary conditions using the boundary collocation method. The obtained results in the bulk are discussed and three-dimensional plots are given. A tentative form for the singular solution is proposed and the corresponding singular stresses and displacements are plotted in the bulk. The form of the singular tangential stress is seen to be compatible with the boundary values obtained earlier. The efficiency of the used numerical schemes is discussed. 16. Stable Boundary Layer Issues Steeneveld, G.J. 2012-01-01 Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ... 17. A boundary-value inverse model and its application to the calculation of tidal oscillation systems in the Western South Atlantic Ocean Miranda-Alonso, S. 1991-01-01 A Cauchy-Riemann problem is solved for the case of the linearized equations for long waves. The initial-values are amplitudes and phases measured at the coast. No boundary values are made use of. This inverse-problem is solved by starting the calculations at the coast and continuing outwards to the open ocean in a rectangular areas with one side at the coast and the other three at the open ocean. The initial values were expanded into the complex plane to get a platform to perform with the calculations. This non-well-posed problem was solved by means of two different mathematical techniques for comparison. The results produced with the inverse model were compared with those produced with a 'classical' model initialized at the three open boundaries with the results of the inverse model. The oscillating systems produced by both models were quite similar, giving validity to this invese modeling approach which should be a useful technique to solve problems when only initial values are known. (orig.) 18. Evolution of solar magnetic fields - A new approach to MHD initial-boundary value problems by the method of nearcharacteristics Nakagawa, Y. 1980-01-01 A method of analysis for the MHD initial-boundary problem is presented in which the model's formulation is based on the method of nearcharacteristics developed by Werner (1968) and modified by Shin and Kot (1978). With this method, the physical causality relationship can be traced from the perturbation to the response as in the method of characteristics, while achieving the advantage of a considerable reduction in mathematical procedures. The method offers the advantage of examining not only the evolution of nonforce free fields, but also the changes of physical conditions in the atmosphere accompanying the evolution of magnetic fields. The physical validity of the method is demonstrated with examples, and their significance in interpreting observations is discussed. 19. Unique solvability of a non-linear non-local boundary-value problem for systems of non-linear functional differential equations Dilna, N.; Rontó, András 2010-01-01 Roč. 60, č. 3 (2010), s. 327-338 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-linear boundary value-problem * functional differential equation * non-local condition * unique solvability * differential inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs12175-010-0015-9 20. The Use of Source-Sink and Doublet Distributions Extended to the Solution of Boundary-Value Problems in Supersonic Flow Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard 1948-01-01 A direct analogy is established between the use of source-sink and doublet distributions in the solution of specific boundary-value problems in subsonic wing theory and the corresponding problems in supersonic theory. The correct concept of the "finite part" of an integral is introduced and used in the calculation of the improper integrals associated with supersonic doublet distributions. The general equations developed are shown to include several previously published results and particular examples are given for the loading on rolling and pitching triangular wings with supersonic leading edges. 1. Recension: Mao - The Unknown Story Clausen, Søren 2005-01-01 Anmeldelse - kritisk! - til Sveriges førende Kinatidsskrift af Jung Chang & Jon Halliday's sensationelle "Mao - the Unknown Story".......Anmeldelse - kritisk! - til Sveriges førende Kinatidsskrift af Jung Chang & Jon Halliday's sensationelle "Mao - the Unknown Story".... 2. Bayesian Inference for Linear Parabolic PDEs with Noisy Boundary Conditions Ruggeri, Fabrizio; Sawlan, Zaid A; Scavino, Marco; Tempone, Raul 2015-01-01 have been assumed for the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary values. Our approach is applied to synthetic data for the one-dimensional heat equation model, where the thermal diffusivity is the unknown parameter. We show how to infer the thermal 3. Determination of Minimised Kt Values and Boundary Shapes for a Class of Quasi-Rectangular Holes in Infinite Plates 2015-07-01 COMPUTING SHAPES AND STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS FOR QUASI-RECTANGULAR HOLES USING EXCEL VBA .......... 35 APPENDIX B: LISTING OF FADD2D INPUT DECK FOR STRESS...from which Kt values may be readily calculated, have been implemented in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet using the Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ...Professor Mark E Mear, University of Texas at Austin, and Professor James C Newman Jr, Mississippi State University, for providing access to the 4. A Value Chain Analysis of ghost nets in the Arafura Sea: identifying trans-boundary stakeholders, intervention points and livelihood trade-offs. Butler, J R A; Gunn, R; Berry, H L; Wagey, G A; Hardesty, B D; Wilcox, C 2013-07-15 Lost or discarded fishing nets are a significant component of marine debris which has trans-boundary impacts in large marine ecosystems. Such 'ghost nets' cause the by-catch of marine fauna and require retrieval from coastlines where they wash up. Identifying the causes of discarded nets and feasible intervention points requires analysis of a complex value chain and the stakeholders within it, yet no studies have attempted this. In this paper we combine Value Chain Analysis, commonly applied to understand value-adding for a commodity, with elements of Life Cycle Assessment and social network analysis to examine the drivers, stakeholders, economic, environmental and social costs and benefits in the life of a trawl net. We use the Arafura Sea as a case study, which is shared by Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia, and is the focus of a Trans-boundary Diagnostic Assessment (TDA) within the Arafura-Timor Seas Ecosystem Action program (ATSEA). We follow a trawl net through four sub-systems: manufacture of webbing in South Korea, fishing and loss by an Indonesian vessel, retrieval as ghost net on the northern Australian coastline by Indigenous rangers, and disposal or re-cycling as 'GhostNet Art' by Indigenous artists. Primary stakeholders along the value chain incur economic and social benefits, and economic and environmental costs. There is an anomaly in the chain between Indonesian fishermen and Indigenous rangers, artists and communities due to the lack of market linkages between these primary stakeholders. The first 'nexus of influence' where reductions in net losses and environmental costs can be achieved is through interactions between GhostNets Australia, the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Australian Government, which can influence Indonesian fishery management institutions and fishing crews. The second nexus is via the international art market which by publicising GhostNet Art can raise awareness amongst fish consumers about the impacts of ghost nets 5. Quantum circuits cannot control unknown operations Araújo, Mateus; Feix, Adrien; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav 2014-01-01 One of the essential building blocks of classical computer programs is the ‘if’ clause, which executes a subroutine depending on the value of a control variable. Similarly, several quantum algorithms rely on applying a unitary operation conditioned on the state of a control system. Here we show that this control cannot be performed by a quantum circuit if the unitary is completely unknown. The task remains impossible even if we allow the control to be done modulo a global phase. However, this no-go theorem does not prevent implementing quantum control of unknown unitaries in practice, as any physical implementation of an unknown unitary provides additional information that makes the control possible. We then argue that one should extend the quantum circuit formalism to capture this possibility in a straightforward way. This is done by allowing unknown unitaries to be applied to subspaces and not only to subsystems. (paper) 6. A method of self-pursued boundary value on a body and the Magnus effect calculated with this method Yoshino, Fumio; Hayashi, Tatsuo; Waka, Ryoji 1991-03-01 A computational method, designated 'SPB', is proposed for the automatic determination of the stream function Phi on an arbitrarily profiled body without recourse to empirical factors. The method is applied to the case of a rotating, circular cross-section cylinder in a uniform shear flow, and the results obtained are compared with those of both the method in which the value of Phi is fixed on a body and the conventional empirical method; it is in view of this established that the SPB method is very efficient and applicable to both steady and unsteady flows. The SPB method, in addition to yielding the aerodynamic forces acting on a cylinder, shows that the Magnus effect lift force decreases as the velocity gradient of the shear flow increases while the cylinder's rotational speed is kept constant. 7. Material equations for rock salt under mechanical and thermal load including treatment of boundary value problems by the finite element method Olschewski, J.; Stein, E.; Wagner, W.; Wetjen, D. 1981-01-01 This paper is a first step in the development of thermodynamically consistent material equations for inelastic materials, such as polycrystalline rock salt. In this context it is of particular importance to reduce the number and the structure of the internal variables, in order to allow for a fit with available experimental data. As an example this is demonstrated in detail in the case of the so-called dislocation model. As physical non-linearities and in addition also geometrical non-linearities lead to an inhomogeneous deformation - and stress state even in the case of simple samples, boundary value problems have to be studied, in order to test the material equations. For this purpose the finite element method has been used. (orig./HP) [de 8. Use Residual Correction Method and Monotone Iterative Technique to Calculate the Upper and Lower Approximate Solutions of Singularly Perturbed Non-linear Boundary Value Problems Chi-Chang Wang 2013-09-01 Full Text Available This paper seeks to use the proposed residual correction method in coordination with the monotone iterative technique to obtain upper and lower approximate solutions of singularly perturbed non-linear boundary value problems. First, the monotonicity of a non-linear differential equation is reinforced using the monotone iterative technique, then the cubic-spline method is applied to discretize and convert the differential equation into the mathematical programming problems of an inequation, and finally based on the residual correction concept, complex constraint solution problems are transformed into simpler questions of equational iteration. As verified by the four examples given in this paper, the method proposed hereof can be utilized to fast obtain the upper and lower solutions of questions of this kind, and to easily identify the error range between mean approximate solutions and exact solutions. 9. Initial value methods for boundary value problems Meyer, Gunter H 1973-01-01 In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat 10. Unknown foundation determination for scour. 2012-04-01 Unknown foundations affect about 9,000 bridges in Texas. For bridges over rivers, this creates a problem : regarding scour decisions as the calculated scour depth cannot be compared to the foundation depth, and a : very conservative costly approach m... 11. Agenda-setting the unknown Dannevig, Halvor -setting theory, it is concluded that agenda-setting of climate change adaptation requires human agency in providing local legitimacy and salience for the issue. The thesis also finds that boundary arrangements are needed to bridge the gap between local knowledge and scientific knowledge for adaptation governance....... Attempts at such boundary arrangements are already in place at the regional governance levels, but they must be strengthened if municipalities are to take further steps in implementing adaptation measures.... 12. Boundaries of the universe Glasby, John S 2013-01-01 The boundaries of space exploration are being pushed back constantly, but the realm of the partially understood and the totally unknown is as great as ever. Among other things this book deals with astronomical instruments and their application, recent discoveries in the solar system, stellar evolution, the exploding starts, the galaxies, quasars, pulsars, the possibilities of extraterrestrial life and relativity. 13. On The Relationship between Suspended Solids of Different Size, the Observed Boundary Flux and Rejection Values for Membranes Treating a Civil Wastewater Stream Marco Stoller 2014-08-01 Full Text Available Membrane fouling is one of the main issues in membrane processes, leading to a progressive decrease of permeability. High fouling rates strongly reduce the productivity of the membrane plant, and negatively affect the surviving rate of the membrane modules, especially when real wastewater is treated. On the other hand, since selectivity must meet certain target requirements, fouling may lead to unexpected selectivity improvements due to the formation of an additional superficial layer formed of foulants and that act like a selective secondary membrane layer. In this case, a certain amount of fouling may be profitable to the point where selectivity targets were reached and productivity is not significantly affected. In this work, the secondary clarifier of a step sludge recirculation bioreactor treating municipal wastewater was replaced by a membrane unit, aiming at recovering return sludge and producing purified water. Fouling issues of such a system were checked by boundary flux measurements. A simple model for the description of the observed productivity and selectivity values as a function of membrane fouling is proposed. 14. A boundary integral equation for boundary element applications in multigroup neutron diffusion theory Ozgener, B. 1998-01-01 A boundary integral equation (BIE) is developed for the application of the boundary element method to the multigroup neutron diffusion equations. The developed BIE contains no explicit scattering term; the scattering effects are taken into account by redefining the unknowns. Boundary elements of the linear and constant variety are utilised for validation of the developed boundary integral formulation 15. Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns Wintle, B.A.; Runge, M.C.; Bekessy, S.A. 2010-01-01 There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS. 16. New formulations on the finite element method for boundary value problems with internal/external boundary layers; Novas formulacoes de elementos finitos para problemas de valor de contorno com camadas limite interna/externa Pereira, Luis Carlos Martins 1998-06-15 New Petrov-Galerkin formulations on the finite element methods for convection-diffusion problems with boundary layers are presented. Such formulations are based on a consistent new theory on discontinuous finite element methods. Existence and uniqueness of solutions for these problems in the new finite element spaces are demonstrated. Some numerical experiments shows how the new formulation operate and also their efficacy. (author) 17. Boundary issues Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen 2011-03-01 What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine 18. Function analysis of unknown genes Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A. 2002-01-01 This thesis entitled "Function analysis of unknown genes" presents the use of proteome analysis for the characterisation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genes and their products (proteins especially those of unknown function). This study illustrates that proteome analysis can be used...... to describe different aspects of molecular biology of the cell, to study changes that occur in the cell due to overexpression or deletion of a gene and to identify various protein modifications. The biological questions and the results of the described studies show the diversity of the information that can...... genes and proteins. It reports the first global proteome database collecting 36 yeast single gene deletion mutants and selecting over 650 differences between analysed mutants and the wild type strain. The obtained results show that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based proteome... 19. The theory of discrete barriers and its applications to linear boundary-value problems of the 'Dirichlet type'; Theorie des barrieres discretes et applications a des problemes lineaires elliptiques du ''type de dirichlet'' Jamet, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires 1967-07-01 This report gives a general presentation of barrier theory for finite difference operators, with its applications to some boundary value problems. (author) [French] Ce rapport est un expose synthetique de la theorie des barrieres pour les operateurs aux differences finies et ses applications a certaines classes de problemes lineaires elliptiques du 'type de Dirichlet'. (auteur) 20. Reconstruction of boundary conditions from internal conditions using viability theory Hofleitner, Aude; Claudel, Christian G.; Bayen, Alexandre M. 2012-01-01 This article presents a method for reconstructing downstream boundary conditions to a HamiltonJacobi partial differential equation for which initial and upstream boundary conditions are prescribed as piecewise affine functions and an internal condition is prescribed as an affine function. Based on viability theory, we reconstruct the downstream boundary condition such that the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the prescribed initial and upstream conditions and reconstructed downstream boundary condition satisfies the internal value condition. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks with unknown capacity reductions. It is applied to urban traffic, to reconstruct signal timings and temporary capacity reductions at intersections, using Lagrangian sensing such as GPS devices onboard vehicles. 1. Reconstruction of boundary conditions from internal conditions using viability theory Hofleitner, Aude 2012-06-01 This article presents a method for reconstructing downstream boundary conditions to a HamiltonJacobi partial differential equation for which initial and upstream boundary conditions are prescribed as piecewise affine functions and an internal condition is prescribed as an affine function. Based on viability theory, we reconstruct the downstream boundary condition such that the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the prescribed initial and upstream conditions and reconstructed downstream boundary condition satisfies the internal value condition. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks with unknown capacity reductions. It is applied to urban traffic, to reconstruct signal timings and temporary capacity reductions at intersections, using Lagrangian sensing such as GPS devices onboard vehicles. 2. Financial Development and Economic Growth: Known Knowns, Known Unknowns, and Unknown Unknowns Ugo Panizza 2014-01-01 This paper summarizes the main findings of the literature on the relationship between financial and economic development (the known knowns), points to directions for future research (the known unknowns), and then speculates on the third Rumsfeldian category. The known knowns section organizes the empirical literature on finance and growth into three strands: (i) the traditional literature which established the link between finance and growth; (ii) the new literature which qualified some of th... 3. Intraabdominal abscessus of unknown etiology Čolović Radoje 2012-01-01 Full Text Available Introduction. Intraabdominal abscesses are in 98-99% cases the result of secondary and only in 1-2% of primary peritonitis. They are easy and successfully diagnosed. Abdominal abscesses of unknown cause are extremely rare. Case Outline. The authors present a 68-year-old man, without significant data in past history, who suddenly developed epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and leukocytosis which was treated with antibiotics resulting in the alleviation of complaints and reduction of white blood cells count. After five days ultrasonography showed incapsulated collection of dense fluid in the epigastrium confirmed by CT scan two days later. Upper endoscopy excluded ulcer and/or perforation of the stomach and duodenum. Under local anesthesia, through the upper part of the left rectal muscle, puncture followed by incision was done, and about 50 ml of dense pus was removed. Finger exploration of the cavity showed no foreign body within the cavity. Using drainage, the recovery was quick and uneventful. By preoperative and postoperative abdominal investigations no cause of the abscess was found. Two and a half years after surgery the patient remained symptom-free with normal clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings. Conclusion. The authors presented an intraabdominal abscess of unknown cause that was successfully treated with antibiotics, percutaneous puncture and drainage under local anaesthesia. In spite of all diagnostic methods the cause of the abscess could not be found. Thus, such a possibility, although being rare, should be taken into account. 4. [Focal myositis: An unknown disease]. Gallay, L; Streichenberger, N; Benveniste, O; Allenbach, Y 2017-10-01 Focal myositis are inflammatory muscle diseases of unknown origin. At the opposite from the other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, they are restricted to a single muscle or to a muscle group. They are not associated with extramuscular manifestations, and they have a good prognosis without any treatment. They are characterized by a localized swelling affecting mostly lower limbs. The pseudo-tumor can be painful, but is not associated with a muscle weakness. Creatine kinase level is normal. Muscle MRI shows an inflammation restricted to a muscle or a muscle group. Muscle biopsy and pathological analysis remain necessary for the diagnosis, showing inflammatory infiltrates composed by macrophages and lymphocytes without any specific distribution within the muscle. Focal overexpression of HLA-1 by the muscle fibers is frequently observed. The muscle biopsy permits to rule out differential diagnosis such a malignancy (sarcoma). Spontaneous remission occurs within weeks or months after the first symptoms, relapse is unusual. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS. 5. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus. Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S 2016-08-01 The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and 6. Emerging boundaries Løvschal, Mette 2014-01-01 of temporal and material variables have been applied as a means of exploring the processes leading to their socioconceptual anchorage. The outcome of this analysis is a series of interrelated, generative boundary principles, including boundaries as markers, articulations, process-related devices, and fixation... 7. Changing Boundaries Brodkin, Evelyn; Larsen, Flemming 2013-01-01 project that is altering the boundary between the democratic welfare state and the market economy. We see workfare policies as boundary-changing with potentially profound implications both for individuals disadvantaged by market arrangements and for societies seeking to grapple with the increasing... 8. Negotiating boundaries Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke 2010-01-01 to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home.......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work... 9. Nonlinear parabolic equations with blowing-up coefficients with respect to the unknown and with soft measure data Khaled Zaki 2016-12-01 Full Text Available We establish the existence of solutions for the nonlinear parabolic problem with Dirichlet homogeneous boundary conditions, \\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial t} - \\sum_{i=1}^N\\frac{\\partial}{\\partial x_i} \\Big( d_i(u\\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial x_i} \\Big =\\mu,\\quad u(t=0=u_0, $$in a bounded domain. The coefficients d_i(s are continuous on an interval ]-\\infty,m[, there exists an index p such that d_p(u blows up at a finite value m of the unknown u, and \\mu is a diffuse measure. 10. On reconstruction of an unknown polygonal cavity in a linearized elasticity with one measurement Ikehata, M; Itou, H 2011-01-01 In this paper we consider a reconstruction problem of an unknown polygonal cavity in a linearized elastic body. For this problem, an extraction formula of the convex hull of the unknown polygonal cavity is established by means of the enclosure method introduced by Ikehata. The advantages of our method are that it needs only a single set of boundary data and we do not require any a priori assumptions for the unknown polygonal cavity and any constraints on boundary data. The theoretical formula may have possibility of application in nondestructive evaluation. 11. Boundary Spanning Zølner, Mette The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil.... 12. Solvability of a (p, n-p-type multi-point boundary-value problem for higher-order differential equations Yuji Liu 2003-12-01 Full Text Available In this article, we study the differential equation$$ (-1^{n-p} x^{(n}(t=f(t,x(t,x'(t,dots,x^{(n-1}(t, $$subject to the multi-point boundary conditions$$displaylines{ x^{(i}(0=0 quad hbox{for }i=0,1,dots,p-1,cr x^{(i}(1=0 quad hbox{for }i=p+1,dots,n-1,cr sum_{i=1}^malpha_ix^{(p}(xi_i=0, }$$where 1le ple n-1. We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of at least one solution at resonance and another at non-resonance. The emphasis in this paper is that f depends on all higher-order derivatives. Examples are given to illustrate the main results of this article. 13. Tourism potential value assessment model for rural-mountain and boundary contact areas. Case study: Cluj County, the district of Ciceu and the balneal area of Bacău County (Romania Bianca Sorina RĂCĂŞAN 2016-11-01 Full Text Available This paper aimed to develop a specific assessment method focused on the tourism potential of the rural-mountain and boundary contact areas. Once elaborated, the model was employed within three appropriate territories of Cluj, Bistrița and Bacău counties (Romania, who’s investigated administrative units, were repeatedly ranked into hierarchical order according to the different tourist categories, invested with numerical values. In order to reach its goals, several objectives were assigned, from awarding the components of the primary and secondary tourism supply certain scores, proposing scales and calculating values, to comparing the results and identifying best rated tourism potential categories, units and areas. With respect to the research methodology, the most commonly used methods dealt with observation, analysis and synthesis along with comparison, cartographical, statistical and mathematical techniques. Therefore, main results regarded both proposal and testing the evaluation model, highlighting values and ranging territorial units in concordance with the tourist attractiveness power. 14. Blurring Boundaries Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth 2010-01-01 of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level.... 15. Bayesian Inference for Linear Parabolic PDEs with Noisy Boundary Conditions Ruggeri, Fabrizio; Sawlan, Zaid A; Scavino, Marco; Tempone, Raul 2016-01-01 In this work we develop a hierarchical Bayesian setting to infer unknown parameters in initial-boundary value problems (IBVPs) for one-dimensional linear parabolic partial differential equations. Noisy boundary data and known initial condition are assumed. We derive the likelihood function associated with the forward problem, given some measurements of the solution field subject to Gaussian noise. Such function is then analytically marginalized using the linearity of the equation. Gaussian priors have been assumed for the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary values. Our approach is applied to synthetic data for the one-dimensional heat equation model, where the thermal diffusivity is the unknown parameter. We show how to infer the thermal diffusivity parameter when its prior distribution is lognormal or modeled by means of a space-dependent stationary lognormal random field. We use the Laplace method to provide approximated Gaussian posterior distributions for the thermal diffusivity. Expected information gains and predictive posterior densities for observable quantities are numerically estimated for different experimental setups. 16. Bayesian Inference for Linear Parabolic PDEs with Noisy Boundary Conditions Ruggeri, Fabrizio 2015-01-07 In this work we develop a hierarchical Bayesian setting to infer unknown parameters in initial-boundary value problems (IBVPs) for one-dimensional linear parabolic partial differential equations. Noisy boundary data and known initial condition are assumed. We derive the likelihood function associated with the forward problem, given some measurements of the solution field subject to Gaussian noise. Such function is then analytically marginalized using the linearity of the equation. Gaussian priors have been assumed for the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary values. Our approach is applied to synthetic data for the one-dimensional heat equation model, where the thermal diffusivity is the unknown parameter. We show how to infer the thermal diffusivity parameter when its prior distribution is lognormal or modeled by means of a space-dependent stationary lognormal random field. We use the Laplace method to provide approximated Gaussian posterior distributions for the thermal diffusivity. Expected information gains and predictive posterior densities for observable quantities are numerically estimated for different experimental setups. 17. Bayesian Inference for Linear Parabolic PDEs with Noisy Boundary Conditions Ruggeri, Fabrizio 2016-01-06 In this work we develop a hierarchical Bayesian setting to infer unknown parameters in initial-boundary value problems (IBVPs) for one-dimensional linear parabolic partial differential equations. Noisy boundary data and known initial condition are assumed. We derive the likelihood function associated with the forward problem, given some measurements of the solution field subject to Gaussian noise. Such function is then analytically marginalized using the linearity of the equation. Gaussian priors have been assumed for the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary values. Our approach is applied to synthetic data for the one-dimensional heat equation model, where the thermal diffusivity is the unknown parameter. We show how to infer the thermal diffusivity parameter when its prior distribution is lognormal or modeled by means of a space-dependent stationary lognormal random field. We use the Laplace method to provide approximated Gaussian posterior distributions for the thermal diffusivity. Expected information gains and predictive posterior densities for observable quantities are numerically estimated for different experimental setups. 18. Fault tolerant control of wind turbines using unknown input observers Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob 2012-01-01 This paper presents a scheme for accommodating faults in the rotor and generator speed sensors in a wind turbine. These measured values are important both for the wind turbine controller as well as the supervisory control of the wind turbine. The scheme is based on unknown input observers, which... 19. Description of internal flow problems by a boundary integral method with dipole panels Krieg, R.; Hailfinger, G. 1979-01-01 In reactor safety studies the failure of single components is postulated or sudden accident loadings are assumed and the consequences are investigated. Often as a first consequence highly transient three dimensional flow problems occur. In contrast to classical flow problems, in most of the above cases the fluid velocities are relatively small whereas the accelerations assume high values. As a consequence both, viscosity effects and dynamic pressures which are proportional to the square of the fluid velocities are usually negligible. For cases, where the excitation times are considerably longer than the times necessary for a wave to traverse characteristic regions of the fluid field, also the fluid compressibility is negligible. Under these conditions boundary integral methods are an appropriate tool to deal with the problem. Flow singularities are distributed over the fluid boundaries in such a way that pressure and velocity fields are obtained which satisfy the boundary conditions. In order to facilitate the numerical treatment the fluid boundaries are approximated by a finite number of panels with uniform singularity distributions on each of them. Consequently the pressure and velocity field of the given problem may be obtained by superposition of the corresponding fields due to these panels with their singularity intensities as unknown factors. Then satisfying the boundary conditions in so many boundary points as panels have been introduced, yields a system of linear equations which in general allows for a unique determination of the unknown intensities. (orig./RW) 20. On revealing graph cycles via boundary measurements Belishev, M I; Wada, N 2009-01-01 This paper deals with boundary value inverse problems on a metric graph, the structure of the graph being assumed unknown. The question under consideration is how to detect from the dynamical and/or spectral inverse data whether the graph contains cycles (is not a tree). For any graph Ω, the dynamical as well as spectral boundary inverse data determine the so-called wave diameter d w : H -1 (Ω) → R defined on functionals supported in the graph. The known fact is that if Ω is a tree then d w ≥ 0 holds and, in this case, the inverse data determine Ω up to isometry. A graph Ω is said to be coordinate if the functions {dist Ω (., γ)} γin∂Ω constitute a coordinate system on Ω. For such graphs, we propose a procedure, which reveals the presence/absence of cycles. The hypothesis is that Ω contains cycles if and only if d w takes negative values. We do not justify this hypothesis in the general case but reduce it to a certain special class of graphs (suns) 1. The Boundary Function Method. Fundamentals Kot, V. A. 2017-03-01 The boundary function method is proposed for solving applied problems of mathematical physics in the region defined by a partial differential equation of the general form involving constant or variable coefficients with a Dirichlet, Neumann, or Robin boundary condition. In this method, the desired function is defined by a power polynomial, and a boundary function represented in the form of the desired function or its derivative at one of the boundary points is introduced. Different sequences of boundary equations have been set up with the use of differential operators. Systems of linear algebraic equations constructed on the basis of these sequences allow one to determine the coefficients of a power polynomial. Constitutive equations have been derived for initial boundary-value problems of all the main types. With these equations, an initial boundary-value problem is transformed into the Cauchy problem for the boundary function. The determination of the boundary function by its derivative with respect to the time coordinate completes the solution of the problem. 2. Analytic invariants of boundary links Garoufalidis, Stavros; Levine, Jerome 2001-01-01 Using basic topology and linear algebra, we define a plethora of invariants of boundary links whose values are power series with noncommuting variables. These turn out to be useful and elementary reformulations of an invariant originally defined by M. Farber. 3. boundary dissipation Mehmet Camurdan 1998-01-01 are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation. 4. Uric Acid: The Unknown Uremic Toxin. Treviño-Becerra, Alejandro 2018-01-01 This review brings together concepts of uric acid metabolism affecting renal parenchyma and its function and the current therapies to reduce hyperuricemia (HyU) and avoid renal disease progression. High uric acid plays an important role in several chronic diseases including kidney diseases such as lithiasis, gout nephropathy, and preeclampsia. In the last 30 years, it has been shown that reducing HyU with low protein and low purine diets in addition to allopurinol creates physiopathological conditions that produce a slight increase in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In recent years, in a new era of research in clinical, genetics, pharmacological, and epidemiologic fields, they have been moving forward to support the idea that reduction in HyU could benefit the chronic renal failure (CRF) patients (stage III-IV), thereby avoiding the drop of GFR for undefined mechanisms. There are several clinical trials in progress that show the HyU reducing to very low values and an increased GFR. In a young population, when treating HyU there is a reduction in high blood pressure. There are some reports showing that HyU could play a role in the diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, there have been some speculations that HyU treatment could stop the progression of CRF modifying the natural history of the diseases. So there will be new clinical trials with old and new medication and metabolic procedure to maintain a very low blood levels in the unknown uremic toxin know as uric acid which seems to be the toxin to the damage kidney. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel. 5. Multifocal, chronic osteomyelitis of unknown etiology Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Feltham, C.; James, M.; Nespoli, L.; Tamaela, L.; Pavia Univ.; Municipal Hospital, Nelson; Medical School, Jakarta 1985-01-01 Four cases of multifocal osteomyelitis of unknown origin in childhood are reported. The variable clinical and radiographic appearances of the disease are illustrated and the diagnostic difficulties in the early stages of the disease are stressed. (orig.) [de 6. Known Unknowns in Judgment and Choice Walters, Daniel 2017-01-01 This dissertation investigates how people make inferences about missing information. Whereas most prior literature focuses on how people process known information, I show that the extent to which people make inferences about missing information impacts judgments and choices. Specifically, I investigate how (1) awareness of known unknowns affects overconfidence in judgment in Chapter 1, (2) beliefs about the knowability of unknowns impacts investment strategies in Chapter 2, and (3) inferences... 7. Mobile assistant for unknown caller identification Hribernik, Andraž 2012-01-01 The main motivation of this diploma thesis is a development of Android application, which helps user of application to find out who is the owner of unknown phone number. Data source for finding unknown phone number are free available web sources. Through the development of prototype, data from different web sources were integrated. Result of this integration is shown in Android application. Data integration includes access to semi-structured data on web portal of Phone Directory of Slovenia, ... 8. Effective Stress Law in Unconventional Reservoirs under Different Boundary Conditions Saurabh, S.; Harpalani, S. 2017-12-01 Unconventional reservoirs have attracted a great deal of research interest worldwide during the past two decades. Low permeability and specialized techniques required to exploit these resources present opportunities for improvement in both production rates and ultimate recovery. Understanding subsurface stress modifications and permeability evolution are valuable when evaluating the prospects of unconventional reservoirs. These reservoir properties are functions of effective stress. As a part of this study, effective stress law, specifically the variation of anisotropic Biot's coefficient under various boundary conditions believed to exist in gas reservoirs by different researchers, has been established. Pressure-dependent-permeability (PdK) experiments were carried out on San Juan coal under different boundary conditions, that is, uniaxial strain condition and constant volume condition. Stress and strain in the vertical and horizontal directions were monitored throughout the experiment. Data collected during the experiments was used to determine the Biot's coefficient in vertical and horizontal directions under these two boundary conditions, treating coal as transversely isotropic. The variation of Biot's coefficient was found to be well correlated with the variation in coal permeability. Based on the estimated values of Biot's coefficients, a theory of variation in its value is presented for other boundary conditions. The findings of the study shed light on the inherent behavior of Biot's coefficient under different reservoir boundary conditions. This knowledge can improve the modeling work requiring estimation of effective stress in reservoirs, such as, pressure-/stress- dependent permeability. At the same time, if the effective stresses are known with more certainty by other methods, it enables assessment of the unknown reservoir boundary conditions. 9. Pressure effect on grain boundary diffusion Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N. 1997-01-01 The influence of hydrostatic pressure on grain boundary diffusion and grain boundary migration in metallic materials is theoretically investigated. The model is suggested that permits describing changes in activation energy of grain boundary self-diffusion and diffusion permeability of grain boundaries under hydrostatic pressure. The model is based on the ideas about island-type structure of grain boundaries as well as linear relationship of variations in grain boundary free volume to hydrostatic pressure value. Comparison of theoretical data with experimental ones for a number of metals and alloys (α-Zr, Sn-Ge, Cu-In with Co, In, Al as diffusing elements) shows a qualitative agreement 10. Boundary-value problems in cosmological dynamics Nusser, Adi 2008-08-01 The dynamics of cosmological gravitating system is governed by the Euler and the Poisson equations. Tiny fluctuations near the big bang singularity are amplified by gravitational instability into the observed structure today. Given the current distribution of galaxies and assuming initial homogeneity, dynamic reconstruction methods have been developed to derive the cosmic density and velocity fields back in time. The reconstruction method described here is based on a least action principle formulation of the dynamics of collisionless particles (representing galaxies). Two observational data sets will be considered. The first is the distribution of galaxies which is assumed to be an fair tracer of the mass density field of the dark matter. The second set is measurements of the peculiar velocities (deviations from pure Hubble flow) of galaxies. Given the first data set, the reconstruction method recovers the associated velocity field which can then be compared with the second data set. This comparison constrains the nature of the dark matter and the relation between mass and light in the Universe. 11. Boundary value problems and Fourier expansions MacCluer, Charles R 2004-01-01 Based on modern Sobolev methods, this text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students is highly physical in its orientation. It integrates numerical methods and symbolic manipulation into an elegant viewpoint that is consonant with implementation by digital computer. The first five sections form an informal introduction that develops students' physical and mathematical intuition. The following section introduces Hilbert space in its natural environment, and the next six sections pose and solve the standard problems. The final seven sections feature concise introductions to selected topi 12. Boundary Value Problems and Approximate Solutions Tadesse Department of Mathematics, College of Natural and Computational Scineces, Mekelle ..... In this section, the Variational Iteration Method is applied to different forms of .... Some problems in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, Ph.D. thesis, Wales. 13. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit Hatim eSalih 2016-01-01 Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement. 14. Conformal boundary loop models Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert 2008-01-01 We study a model of densely packed self-avoiding loops on the annulus, related to the Temperley-Lieb algebra with an extra idempotent boundary generator. Four different weights are given to the loops, depending on their homotopy class and whether they touch the outer rim of the annulus. When the weight of a contractible bulk loop x≡q+q -1 element of (-2,2], this model is conformally invariant for any real weight of the remaining three parameters. We classify the conformal boundary conditions and give exact expressions for the corresponding boundary scaling dimensions. The amplitudes with which the sectors with any prescribed number and types of non-contractible loops appear in the full partition function Z are computed rigorously. Based on this, we write a number of identities involving Z which hold true for any finite size. When the weight of a contractible boundary loop y takes certain discrete values, y r ≡([r+1] q )/([r] q ) with r integer, other identities involving the standard characters K r,s of the Virasoro algebra are established. The connection with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in the O(n) model is discussed in detail, and new scaling dimensions are derived. When q is a root of unity and y=y r , exact connections with the A m type RSOS model are made. These involve precise relations between the spectra of the loop and RSOS model transfer matrices, valid in finite size. Finally, the results where y=y r are related to the theory of Temperley-Lieb cabling 15. Multifocal chronic osteomyelitis of unknown etiology Kozlowski, K.; Masel, J.; Harbison, S.; Yu, J.; Royal Brisbane Children Hospital; Regional Hospital Bowral 1983-01-01 Five cases of chronic, inflammatory, multifocal bone lesions of unknown etiology are reported. Although bone biopsy confirmed osteomyelitis in each case in none of them were organisms found inspite of an extensive work up. Different clinical course of the disease reflects different aetiology in respective cases. These cases present changing aspects of osteomyelitis emerging since introduction of antibiotics. (orig.) 16. Tokamak plasma boundary layer model Volkov, T.F.; Kirillov, V.D. 1983-01-01 A model has been developed for the limiter layer and for the boundary region of the plasma column in a tokamak to facilitate analytic calculations of the thickness of the limiter layers, the profiles and boundary values of the temperature and the density under various conditions, and the difference between the electron and ion temperatures. This model can also be used to analyze the recycling of neutrals, the energy and particle losses to the wall and the limiter, and other characteristics 17. Technology for Boundaries Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina 2003-01-01 .After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies......This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries...... seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries.... 18. Grain boundaries in Ni3Al. 2 Kung, H.; Sass, S.L. 1992-01-01 This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface 19. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series. Kelly, J 2010-12-01 The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997). 20. Autonomous Flight in Unknown Indoor Environments Bachrach, Abraham Galton; He, Ruijie; Roy, Nicholas 2009-01-01 This paper presents our solution for enabling a quadrotor helicopter, equipped with a laser rangefinder sensor, to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. While these capabilities are already commodities on ground vehicles, air vehicles seeking the same performance face unique challenges. In this paper, we describe the difficulties in achieving fully autonomous helicopter flight, highlighting the differences between ground and helicopter robots that make it ... 1. Multidimensional procurement auctions with unknown weights Greve, Thomas This paper studies the consequences of holding a procurement auction when the principal chooses not to show its preferences. My paper extends the procurement auction model of Che (1993) to a situation where both the principal and the agents have private information. Thus, unknown parameters of bo...... gives rise to an analysis of a principal that can not fully commit to the outcome induced by the scoring rule. Therefore, my result apply to contract theory and it’s problems with imperfect commitment.... 2. Optimal boundary control and boundary stabilization of hyperbolic systems Gugat, Martin 2015-01-01 This brief considers recent results on optimal control and stabilization of systems governed by hyperbolic partial differential equations, specifically those in which the control action takes place at the boundary. The wave equation is used as a typical example of a linear system, through which the author explores initial boundary value problems, concepts of exact controllability, optimal exact control, and boundary stabilization. Nonlinear systems are also covered, with the Korteweg-de Vries and Burgers Equations serving as standard examples. To keep the presentation as accessible as possible, the author uses the case of a system with a state that is defined on a finite space interval, so that there are only two boundary points where the system can be controlled. Graduate and post-graduate students as well as researchers in the field will find this to be an accessible introduction to problems of optimal control and stabilization. 3. The complex variable boundary element method: Applications in determining approximative boundaries Hromadka, T.V. 1984-01-01 The complex variable boundary element method (CVBEM) is used to determine approximation functions for boundary value problems of the Laplace equation such as occurs in potential theory. By determining an approximative boundary upon which the CVBEM approximator matches the desired constant (level curves) boundary conditions, the CVBEM is found to provide the exact solution throughout the interior of the transformed problem domain. Thus, the acceptability of the CVBEM approximation is determined by the closeness-of-fit of the approximative boundary to the study problem boundary. ?? 1984. 4. TOURISM PROMOTION FOR UNKNOWN AREAS IN ROMANIA Fotache Lacramioara 2013-12-01 Full Text Available The paper is an effort to unknown areas identity affirmation, through collaborative development of advertising mix, with an emphasis on virtual platforms as admissible solution for increasing visibility. Based upon comparative effective analysis of categories of communication particularities, it is suggested a positioning strategic solution, via virtual advertising platform as unique, integrated, complex and very attractive tourism product promotion, fitted for the internal and international tourism circuit. The active promotion of the specified territorial identity will launch a brand with an impact among tourists by using marketing techniques and innovating technical means and prioritizing tourism as a principal vector of local and regional development. 5. Metastasis to neck from unknown primary tumor Jose, B.; Bosch, A.; Caldwell, W.L.; Frias, Z. 1979-01-01 The records of 54 consecutive patients who were irradiated for metastatic disease in the neck from an unknown primary tumor were reviewed. The overall survival results are comparable to those of other reported series. Patients with high or posterior cervical lymph node involvement were irradiated with fields including the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Patients with high neck nodes had a better survival rate than those with low neck nodes. The size of the neck tumors and the local control after treatment also have prognostic significance. (Auth.) 6. Nonlinear fractional differential equations and inclusions of arbitrary order and multi-strip boundary conditions Bashir Ahmad 2012-06-01 Full Text Available We study boundary value problems of nonlinear fractional differential equations and inclusions of order q in (m-1, m], m ge 2 with multi-strip boundary conditions. Multi-strip boundary conditions may be regarded as the generalization of multi-point boundary conditions. Our problem is new in the sense that we consider a nonlocal strip condition of the form:$$ x(1=sum_{i=1}^{n-2}alpha_i int^{eta_i}_{zeta_i} x(sds, $$which can be viewed as an extension of a multi-point nonlocal boundary condition:$$ x(1=sum_{i=1}^{n-2}alpha_i x(eta_i.  In fact, the strip condition corresponds to a continuous distribution of the values of the unknown function on arbitrary finite segments $(zeta_i,eta_i$ of the interval $[0,1]$ and the effect of these strips is accumulated at $x=1$. Such problems occur in the applied fields such as wave propagation and geophysics. Some new existence and uniqueness results are obtained by using a variety of fixed point theorems. Some illustrative examples are also discussed.

7. SurfCut: Free-Boundary Surface Extraction

Algarni, Marei Saeed Mohammed; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

2016-01-01

We present SurfCut, an algorithm for extracting a smooth simple surface with unknown boundary from a noisy 3D image and a seed point. In contrast to existing approaches that extract smooth simple surfaces with boundary, our method requires less user

8. Finite-time sliding surface constrained control for a robot manipulator with an unknown deadzone and disturbance.

Ik Han, Seong; Lee, Jangmyung

2016-11-01

Serge Gruzinski

2005-03-01

Full Text Available Tous les films asiatiques parlent de métissage, même ceux qui se présentent comme de vastes fresques historiques perdues dans le temps. Les emprunts aux traditions hollywoodiennes et européennes n'ont cessé d'enrichir une cinématographie aussi ancienne que celle du monde occidental. Dans Adresse inconnue (Address unknown le cinéaste coréen Kim Ki-duk explore l'expérience du métissage et le corps du métis à la frontière entre Corée du Nord et Corée du sud. Fils d'un GI américain et noir et d...

Serge Gruzinski

2005-01-01

Tous les films asiatiques parlent de métissage, même ceux qui se présentent comme de vastes fresques historiques perdues dans le temps. Les emprunts aux traditions hollywoodiennes et européennes n'ont cessé d'enrichir une cinématographie aussi ancienne que celle du monde occidental. Dans Adresse inconnue (Address unknown) le cinéaste coréen Kim Ki-duk explore l'expérience du métissage et le corps du métis à la frontière entre Corée du Nord et Corée du sud. Fils d'un GI américain et noir et d'...

11. The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications

Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto

2012-01-01

The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.

12. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

L. Favier

2009-10-01

Full Text Available Carcinomatous meningitis (CM occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

13. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics

2008-01-15

We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

14. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown

Anbar, A. D.

2015-12-01

Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

15. A Hierarchical Bayesian Setting for an Inverse Problem in Linear Parabolic PDEs with Noisy Boundary Conditions

Ruggeri, Fabrizio

2016-05-12

In this work we develop a Bayesian setting to infer unknown parameters in initial-boundary value problems related to linear parabolic partial differential equations. We realistically assume that the boundary data are noisy, for a given prescribed initial condition. We show how to derive the joint likelihood function for the forward problem, given some measurements of the solution field subject to Gaussian noise. Given Gaussian priors for the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary values, we analytically marginalize the joint likelihood using the linearity of the equation. Our hierarchical Bayesian approach is fully implemented in an example that involves the heat equation. In this example, the thermal diffusivity is the unknown parameter. We assume that the thermal diffusivity parameter can be modeled a priori through a lognormal random variable or by means of a space-dependent stationary lognormal random field. Synthetic data are used to test the inference. We exploit the behavior of the non-normalized log posterior distribution of the thermal diffusivity. Then, we use the Laplace method to obtain an approximated Gaussian posterior and therefore avoid costly Markov Chain Monte Carlo computations. Expected information gains and predictive posterior densities for observable quantities are numerically estimated using Laplace approximation for different experimental setups.

16. Group prioritisation with unknown expert weights in incomplete linguistic context

Cheng, Dong; Cheng, Faxin; Zhou, Zhili; Wang, Juan

2017-09-01

In this paper, we study a group prioritisation problem in situations when the expert weights are completely unknown and their judgement preferences are linguistic and incomplete. Starting from the theory of relative entropy (RE) and multiplicative consistency, an optimisation model is provided for deriving an individual priority vector without estimating the missing value(s) of an incomplete linguistic preference relation. In order to address the unknown expert weights in the group aggregating process, we define two new kinds of expert weight indicators based on RE: proximity entropy weight and similarity entropy weight. Furthermore, a dynamic-adjusting algorithm (DAA) is proposed to obtain an objective expert weight vector and capture the dynamic properties involved in it. Unlike the extant literature of group prioritisation, the proposed RE approach does not require pre-allocation of expert weights and can solve incomplete preference relations. An interesting finding is that once all the experts express their preference relations, the final expert weight vector derived from the DAA is fixed irrespective of the initial settings of expert weights. Finally, an application example is conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the RE approach.

17. Inverse estimation for the unknown frost geometry on the external wall of a forced-convection pipe

Chen, W.-L.; Yang, Y.-C.

2009-01-01

In this study, a conjugate gradient method based inverse algorithm is applied to estimate the unknown frost-layer boundary profile on the external wall of a pipe system using temperature measurements. It is assumed that no prior information is available on the functional form of the unknown profile; hence the procedure is classified as the function estimation in inverse calculation. The temperature data obtained from the direct problem are used to simulate the temperature measurements. The accuracy of the inverse analysis is examined by using simulated exact and inexact temperature measurements. Results show that an excellent estimation on boundary profile can be obtained for the test case considered in this study.

18. Soot and radiation in combusting boundary layers

Beier, R.A.

1981-12-01

In most fires thermal radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer. Carbon particles within the fire are responsible for most of this emitted radiation and hence warrant quantification. As a first step toward understanding thermal radiation in full scale fires, an experimental and theoretical study is presented for a laminar combusting boundary layer. Carbon particulate volume fraction profiles and approximate particle size distributions are experimentally determined in both free and forced flow for several hydrocarbon fuels and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate). A multiwavelength laser transmission technique determines a most probable radius and a total particle concentration which are two unknown parameters in an assumed Gauss size distribution. A sooting region is observed on the fuel rich side of the main reaction zone. For free flow, all the flames are in air, but the free stream ambient oxygen mass fraction is a variable in forced flow. To study the effects of radiation heat transfer, a model is developed for a laminar combusting boundary layer over a pyrolyzing fuel surface. An optically thin approximation simplifies the calculation of the radiant energy flux at the fuel surface. For the free flames in air, the liquid fuel soot volume fractions, f/sub v/, range from f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for n-heptane, a paraffin, to f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for toluene, an aromatic. The PMMA soot volume fractions, f/sub v/ approx. 5 x 10/sup -7/, are approximately the same as the values previously reported for pool fires. Soot volume fraction increases monotonically with ambient oxygen mass fraction in the forced flow flames. For all fuels tested, a most probable radius between 20 nm and 80 nm is obtained which varies only slightly with oxygen mass fraction, streamwise position, or distance normal to the fuel surface. The theoretical analysis yields nine dimensionless parameters, which control the mass flux rate at the pyrolyzing fuel surface.

19. High Valence, Normal Valence and Unknown Valence

Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul

the serendipitous synthesis of the nitrido-bridged [Rh(en)3]2- [(CN)5MnNMn(CN)5]. The complex anion have previously been studied in the form of the mixed Rb4Na2-salt. In this earlier study, the nitrido-bridge was found to be asymmetrical with the axial ligands in an eclipsed formation. The complex was described...... the [Rh(en)3]2-salt is best described as Mn3.5/Mn3.5. This means that the [(CN)5MnNMn(CN)5]6􀀀 ion displays crystal packing induced oxidation state isomerism, a rare phenomenon. Chapter 4 details the synthesis and characterisation of group 9 dithiolene complexes with focus on the hitherto unknown...... homoleptic iridium dithiolene complexes. When the complexes [M(mnt)3]3􀀀, M = Rh and Co are chemically oxidized, they decompose to yield dinuclear complexes with the metal still in oxidation state III. This is not the case for the corresponding Ir complex which can be oxidized and the oxidation...

20. Lung Lesions During Fever of Unknown Origin.

Krupa, Renata; Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Hadzik-Blaszczyk, Malgorzata; Wardyn, Kazimierz A; Zycinska, Katarzyna

2017-01-01

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges. The causes of FUO can be various diseases located in different organs. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and nature of pulmonary lesions during FUO. One hundred and sixty one patients with FUO participated in this prospective study. We performed a detailed comprehensive history, physical examination, and a wide spectrum of tests. The most common causes of FUO were infections (39%), autoimmune conditions (28%), and neoplasms (17%). Lung lesions were found in 30% of patients. In this group 35% were infections, 30% autoimmune diseases, and 4% cancer. Among patients with respiratory infections, there were cases of tuberculosis, atypical pneumonia, lung abscess, and bronchiectases. Autoimmune pulmonary lesions were observed during vasculitis and systemic lupus. The causes of FUO in the group of patients with lung lesions were also pulmonary embolism, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Chest CT played an important role in the diagnosis of the causes of FUO with pulmonary manifestations. Pulmonary lesions are a common cause of FUO. Most FUO with pulmonary lesions are recognized during infections and autoimmune diseases. An important part of diagnosing FUO is a detailed evaluation of the respiratory system.

1. Unknown Risks: Parental Hesitation about Vaccination.

Blaisdell, Laura L; Gutheil, Caitlin; Hootsmans, Norbert A M; Han, Paul K J

2016-05-01

This qualitative study of a select sample of vaccine-hesitant parents (VHPs) explores perceived and constructed personal judgments about the risks and uncertainties associated with vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and how these subjective risk judgments influence parents' decisions about childhood vaccination. The study employed semistructured focus group interviews with 42 VHPs to elicit parents' perceptions and thought processes regarding the risks associated with vaccination and nonvaccination, the sources of these perceptions, and their approach to decision making about vaccination for their children. VHPs engage in various reasoning processes and tend to perceive risks of vaccination as greater than the risks of VPDs. At the same time, VHPs engage in other reasoning processes that lead them to perceive ambiguity in information about the harms of vaccination-citing concerns about the missing, conflicting, changing, or otherwise unreliable nature of information. VHPs' refusal of vaccination may reflect their aversion to both the risk and ambiguity they perceive to be associated with vaccination. Mitigating this vaccine hesitancy likely requires reconstructing the risks and ambiguities associated with vaccination-a challenging task that requires providing parents with meaningful evidence-based information on the known risks of vaccination versus VPDs and explicitly acknowledging the risks that remain truly unknown. © The Author(s) 2015.

2. The energy equation with three unknowns

Schifano, Fabio; Moriconi, Daniele

2008-01-01

This article discusses the alarming situation of energy in Italy as this country depends at 82 per cent on its imports (oil, natural gas and electricity), a dependence which could even increase. The authors first propose overviews of the situation regarding oil, natural gas and electric power (origins of imports, role of Italian companies, status of infrastructures), and also briefly of renewable energies. They recall the history of the use of nuclear energy: Italy has been one of the first country to use nuclear energy to produce electric power, but a referendum organised after Chernobyl resulted in phasing out nuclear. Then, the authors discuss perspectives associated with three main strategic unknowns: an increase of energy dependence with respect to hydrocarbons and to foreign nuclear power, a supply insecurity due to a dependence concentrated on a small number of countries (notably as far as natural gas is concerned), and an increasing interdependence between economic growth and sustainable development (the reduction of greenhouse emissions is a prevailing parameter for future energetic choices)

3. From boundaries to boundary work: middle managers creating inter-organizational change.

Oldenhof, Lieke; Stoopendaal, Annemiek; Putters, Kim

2016-11-21

Purpose In healthcare, organizational boundaries are often viewed as barriers to change. The purpose of this paper is to show how middle managers create inter-organizational change by doing boundary work: the dual act of redrawing boundaries and coordinating work in new ways. Design/methodology/approach Theoretically, the paper draws on the concept of boundary work from Science and Technology Studies. Empirically, the paper is based on an ethnographic investigation of middle managers that participate in a Dutch reform program across health, social care, and housing. Findings The findings show how middle managers create a sense of urgency for inter-organizational change by emphasizing "fragmented" service provision due to professional, sectoral, financial, and geographical boundaries. Rather than eradicating these boundaries, middle managers change the status quo gradually by redrawing composite boundaries. They use boundary objects and a boundary-transcending vocabulary emphasizing the need for societal gains that go beyond production targets of individual organizations. As a result, work is coordinated in new ways in neighborhood teams and professional expertise is being reconfigured. Research limitations/implications Since boundary workers create incremental change, it is necessary to follow their work for a longer period to assess whether boundary work contributes to paradigm change. Practical implications Organizations should pay attention to conditions for boundary work, such as legitimacy of boundary workers and the availability of boundary spaces that function as communities of practice. Originality/value By shifting the focus from boundaries to boundary work, this paper gives valuable insights into "how" boundaries are redrawn and embodied in objects and language.

4. Integral Method of Boundary Characteristics: Neumann Condition

Kot, V. A.

2018-05-01

A new algorithm, based on systems of identical equalities with integral and differential boundary characteristics, is proposed for solving boundary-value problems on the heat conduction in bodies canonical in shape at a Neumann boundary condition. Results of a numerical analysis of the accuracy of solving heat-conduction problems with variable boundary conditions with the use of this algorithm are presented. The solutions obtained with it can be considered as exact because their errors comprise hundredths and ten-thousandths of a persent for a wide range of change in the parameters of a problem.

5. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries

Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.

2014-12-01

The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

6. Business unknowns shape oil industry risks

Pane, R.

1991-01-01

Strategic thinking about an exploration and production program requires a careful assessment of risk, which can be defined as variability in the components of value creation. This article surveys, categorizes, and ranks business risks in the upstream petroleum business. It can serve as a checklist for thinking strategically about an E and P program

7. Political State Boundary (National)

Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

8. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

9. HUD GIS Boundary Files

Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

11. Hamiltonian boundary term and quasilocal energy flux

Chen, C.-M.; Nester, James M.; Tung, R.-S.

2005-01-01

The Hamiltonian for a gravitating region includes a boundary term which determines not only the quasilocal values but also, via the boundary variation principle, the boundary conditions. Using our covariant Hamiltonian formalism, we found four particular quasilocal energy-momentum boundary term expressions; each corresponds to a physically distinct and geometrically clear boundary condition. Here, from a consideration of the asymptotics, we show how a fundamental Hamiltonian identity naturally leads to the associated quasilocal energy flux expressions. For electromagnetism one of the four is distinguished: the only one which is gauge invariant; it gives the familiar energy density and Poynting flux. For Einstein's general relativity two different boundary condition choices correspond to quasilocal expressions which asymptotically give the ADM energy, the Trautman-Bondi energy and, moreover, an associated energy flux (both outgoing and incoming). Again there is a distinguished expression: the one which is covariant

12. On boundary superalgebras

Doikou, Anastasia

2010-01-01

We examine the symmetry breaking of superalgebras due to the presence of appropriate integrable boundary conditions. We investigate the boundary breaking symmetry associated with both reflection algebras and twisted super-Yangians. We extract the generators of the resulting boundary symmetry as well as we provide explicit expressions of the associated Casimir operators.

13. Working with boundaries in systems psychodynamic consulting

Henk Struwig

2012-03-01

Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to produce a set of theoretical assumptions about organisational boundaries and boundary management in organisations and, from these, to develop a set of hypotheses as a thinking framework for practising consulting psychologists when they work with boundaries from a systems psychodynamic stance. Motivation for the study: The researcher used the belief that organisational boundaries reflect the essence of organisations. Consulting to boundary managers could facilitate a deep understanding of organisational dynamics. Research design, approach and method: The researcher followed a case study design. He used systems psychodynamic discourse analysis. It led to six working hypotheses. Main findings: The primary task of boundary management is to hold the polarities of integration and differentiation and not allow the system to become fragmented or overly integrated. Boundary management is a primary task and an ongoing activity of entire organisations. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should work actively at effective boundary management and at balancing integration and differentiation. Leaders should become aware of how effective boundary management leads to good holding environments that, in turn, lead to containing difficult emotions in organisations. Contribution/value-add: The researcher provided a boundary-consulting framework in order to assist consultants to balance the conceptual with the practical when they consult.

14. Row Reduced Echelon Form for Solving Fully Fuzzy System with Unknown Coefficients

Ghassan Malkawi

2014-08-01

Full Text Available This study proposes a new method for finding a feasible fuzzy solution in positive Fully Fuzzy Linear System (FFLS, where the coefficients are unknown. The fully fuzzy system is transferred to linear system in order to obtain the solution using row reduced echelon form, thereafter; the crisp solution is restricted in obtaining the positive fuzzy solution. The fuzzy solution of FFLS is included crisp intervals, to assign alternative values of unknown entries of fuzzy numbers. To illustrate the proposed method, numerical examples are solved, where the entries of coefficients are unknown in right or left hand side, to demonstrate the contributions in this study.

15. Selection of geohydrologic boundaries for ground-water flow models, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Downey, J.S.; Gutentag, E.D.; Kolm, K.E.

1990-01-01

The conceptual ground-water model of the southern Nevada/Death Valley, California region presented in this paper includes two aquifer systems: a shallow, intermontane, mostly unconfined aquifer composed of unconsolidated or poorly consolidated sediments and consolidated, layered volcanics, and a deep, regional multiple-layered, confined aquifer system composed of faulted and fractured carbonate and volcanic rocks. The potentiometric surfaces of both aquifer systems indicate that ground water leaks vertically from the deeper to the shallower geologic units, and that water in the shallower aquifer may not flow beyond the intermontane subbasin, whereas water in the deeper aquifer may indicate transbasinal flow to the playas in Death Valley. Most of the hydrologic boundaries of the regional aquifer systems in the Yucca Mountain region are geologically complex. Most of the existing numerical models simulating the ground-water flow system in the Yucca Mountain region are based on limited potentiometric-head data elevation and precipitation estimates, and simplified geology. These models are two-dimensional, and are not adequate. The alternative approach to estimating unknown boundary conditions for the regional ground-water flow system involves the following steps: (1) Incorporate known boundary-conditions data from the playas in Death Valley and the Ash Meadows spring line; (2) use estimated boundary data based on geological, pedological, geomorphological, botanical, and hydrological observations; (3) test these initial boundary conditions with three-dimensional models, both steady-state and transient; (4) back-calculate the boundary conditions for the northern, northwestern, northeastern and eastern flux boundaries; (5) compare these calculated values with known data during model calibration steps; and (6) adjust the model. 9 refs., 6 figs

16. Method for solving the problem of nonlinear heating a cylindrical body with unknown initial temperature

Yaparova, N.

2017-10-01

We consider the problem of heating a cylindrical body with an internal thermal source when the main characteristics of the material such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and material density depend on the temperature at each point of the body. We can control the surface temperature and the heat flow from the surface inside the cylinder, but it is impossible to measure the temperature on axis and the initial temperature in the entire body. This problem is associated with the temperature measurement challenge and appears in non-destructive testing, in thermal monitoring of heat treatment and technical diagnostics of operating equipment. The mathematical model of heating is represented as nonlinear parabolic PDE with the unknown initial condition. In this problem, both the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are given and it is required to calculate the temperature values at the internal points of the body. To solve this problem, we propose the numerical method based on using of finite-difference equations and a regularization technique. The computational scheme involves solving the problem at each spatial step. As a result, we obtain the temperature function at each internal point of the cylinder beginning from the surface down to the axis. The application of the regularization technique ensures the stability of the scheme and allows us to significantly simplify the computational procedure. We investigate the stability of the computational scheme and prove the dependence of the stability on the discretization steps and error level of the measurement results. To obtain the experimental temperature error estimates, computational experiments were carried out. The computational results are consistent with the theoretical error estimates and confirm the efficiency and reliability of the proposed computational scheme.

17. Detection of viral sequence fragments of HIV-1 subfamilies yet unknown

Stanke Mario

2011-04-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods of determining whether or not any particular HIV-1 sequence stems - completely or in part - from some unknown HIV-1 subtype are important for the design of vaccines and molecular detection systems, as well as for epidemiological monitoring. Nevertheless, a single algorithm only, the Branching Index (BI, has been developed for this task so far. Moving along the genome of a query sequence in a sliding window, the BI computes a ratio quantifying how closely the query sequence clusters with a subtype clade. In its current version, however, the BI does not provide predicted boundaries of unknown fragments. Results We have developed Unknown Subtype Finder (USF, an algorithm based on a probabilistic model, which automatically determines which parts of an input sequence originate from a subtype yet unknown. The underlying model is based on a simple profile hidden Markov model (pHMM for each known subtype and an additional pHMM for an unknown subtype. The emission probabilities of the latter are estimated using the emission frequencies of the known subtypes by means of a (position-wise probabilistic model for the emergence of new subtypes. We have applied USF to SIV and HIV-1 sequences formerly classified as having emerged from an unknown subtype. Moreover, we have evaluated its performance on artificial HIV-1 recombinants and non-recombinant HIV-1 sequences. The results have been compared with the corresponding results of the BI. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that USF is suitable for detecting segments in HIV-1 sequences stemming from yet unknown subtypes. Comparing USF with the BI shows that our algorithm performs as good as the BI or better.

18. Absorbing boundary conditions for Einstein's field equations

Sarbach, Olivier [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria. C. P. 58040 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

2007-11-15

A common approach for the numerical simulation of wave propagation on a spatially unbounded domain is to truncate the domain via an artificial boundary, thus forming a finite computational domain with an outer boundary. Absorbing boundary conditions must then be specified at the boundary such that the resulting initial-boundary value problem is well posed and such that the amount of spurious reflection is minimized. In this article, we review recent results on the construction of absorbing boundary conditions in General Relativity and their application to numerical relativity.

19. Grain boundary migration

Dimitrov, O.

1975-01-01

Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

20. Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models

Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.

2015-03-01

Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.

1. Boundary conditions for the gravitational field

Winicour, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

A review of the treatment of boundaries in general relativity is presented with the emphasis on application to the formulations of Einstein's equations used in numerical relativity. At present, it is known how to treat boundaries in the harmonic formulation of Einstein's equations and a tetrad formulation of the Einstein-Bianchi system. However, a universal approach valid for other formulations is not in hand. In particular, there is no satisfactory boundary theory for the 3+1 formulations which have been highly successful in binary black hole simulation. I discuss the underlying problems that make the initial-boundary-value problem much more complicated than the Cauchy problem. I review the progress that has been made and the important open questions that remain. Science is a differential equation. Religion is a boundary condition. (Alan Turing, quoted in J D Barrow, 'Theories of Everything') (topical review)

2. The unknown-unknowns: Revealing the hidden insights in massive biomedical data using combined artificial intelligence and knowledge networks

Chris Yoo

2017-12-01

Full Text Available Genomic data is estimated to be doubling every seven months with over 2 trillion bases from whole genome sequence studies deposited in Genbank in just the last 15 years alone. Recent advances in compute and storage have enabled the use of artificial intelligence techniques in areas such as feature recognition in digital pathology and chemical synthesis for drug development. To apply A.I. productively to multidimensional data such as cellular processes and their dysregulation, the data must be transformed into a structured format, using prior knowledge to create contextual relationships and hierarchies upon which computational analysis can be performed. Here we present the organization of complex data into hypergraphs that facilitate the application of A.I. We provide an example use case of a hypergraph containing hundreds of biological data values and the results of several classes of A.I. algorithms applied in a popular compute cloud. While multiple, biologically insightful correlations between disease states, behavior, and molecular features were identified, the insights of scientific import were revealed only when exploration of the data included visualization of subgraphs of represented knowledge. The results suggest that while machine learning can identify known correlations and suggest testable ones, the greater probability of discovering unexpected relationships between seemingly independent variables (unknown-unknowns requires a context-aware system – hypergraphs that impart biological meaning in nodes and edges. We discuss the implications of a combined hypergraph-A.I. analysis approach to multidimensional data and the pre-processing requirements for such a system.

3. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

Steeneveld, G.J.

2012-01-01

Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

4. Boundary-Layer & health

Costigliola, V.

2010-09-01

It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

5. Development of boundary layers

Herbst, R.

1980-01-01

Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

6. Natural convection flow between moving boundaries | Chepkwony ...

The two-point boundary value problem governing the flow is characterized by a non-dimensional parameter K. It is solved numerically using shooting method and the Newton-Raphson method to locate the missing initial conditions. The numerical results reveal that no solution exists beyond a critical value of K and that dual ...

7. Optimal Wentzell Boundary Control of Parabolic Equations

Luo, Yousong

2017-01-01

This paper deals with a class of optimal control problems governed by an initial-boundary value problem of a parabolic equation. The case of semi-linear boundary control is studied where the control is applied to the system via the Wentzell boundary condition. The differentiability of the state variable with respect to the control is established and hence a necessary condition is derived for the optimal solution in the case of both unconstrained and constrained problems. The condition is also sufficient for the unconstrained convex problems. A second order condition is also derived.

8. Optimal Wentzell Boundary Control of Parabolic Equations

Luo, Yousong, E-mail: yousong.luo@rmit.edu.au [RMIT University, School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences (Australia)

2017-04-15

This paper deals with a class of optimal control problems governed by an initial-boundary value problem of a parabolic equation. The case of semi-linear boundary control is studied where the control is applied to the system via the Wentzell boundary condition. The differentiability of the state variable with respect to the control is established and hence a necessary condition is derived for the optimal solution in the case of both unconstrained and constrained problems. The condition is also sufficient for the unconstrained convex problems. A second order condition is also derived.

9. Determination of the origin of unknown irradiated nuclear fuel.

Nicolaou, G

2006-01-01

An isotopic fingerprinting method is presented to determine the origin of unknown nuclear material with forensic importance. Spent nuclear fuel of known origin has been considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to demonstrate the method and verify its prediction capabilities. The method compares, using factor analysis, the measured U, Pu isotopic compositions of the 'unknown' material with U, Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. Then, the 'unknown' fuel has the same origin as the commercial fuel with which it exhibits the highest similarity in U, Pu compositions.

10. Determination of the origin of unknown irradiated nuclear fuel

Nicolaou, G.

2006-01-01

An isotopic fingerprinting method is presented to determine the origin of unknown nuclear material with forensic importance. Spent nuclear fuel of known origin has been considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to demonstrate the method and verify its prediction capabilities. The method compares, using factor analysis, the measured U, Pu isotopic compositions of the 'unknown' material with U, Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. Then, the 'unknown' fuel has the same origin as the commercial fuel with which it exhibits the highest similarity in U, Pu compositions

Wu, Yu; Lin, Wei

2011-01-01

The adaptive technique, which includes both dynamical estimators and coupling gains, has been recently verified to be practical for locating the unknown steady states numerically. This Letter, in the light of the center manifold theory for dynamical systems and the matrix spectrum principle, establishes an analytical formalism of this adaptive technique and reveals a connection between this technique and the original adaptive controller which includes only the dynamical estimator. More interestingly, in study of the well-known Lorenz system, the selections of the estimator parameters and initial values are found to be crucial to the successful application of the adaptive technique. Some Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures are found quantitatively. All the results obtained in the Letter can be further extended to more general dynamical systems of higher dimensions. -- Highlights: → Establishing a new and rigorous formalism for the adaptive stabilization technique. → Showing a close connection between the adaptive technique and the original controller. → Providing feasible algorithms for simultaneous stabilization of multiple steady states. → Finding Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures in adaptive control.

12. Contrasting Boundary Scavenging in two Eastern Boundary Current Regimes

Anderson, R. F.; Fleisher, M. Q.; Pavia, F. J.; Vivancos, S. M.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, P.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

2016-02-01

We use data from two US GEOTRACES expeditions to compare boundary scavenging intensity in two eastern boundary current systems: the Canary Current off Mauritania and the Humboldt Current off Peru. Boundary scavenging refers to the enhanced removal of trace elements from the ocean by sorption to sinking particles in regions of greater than average particle abundance. Both regimes experience high rates of biological productivity and generation of biogenic particles, with rates of productivity potentially a little greater off Peru, whereas dust fluxes are an order of magnitude greater off NW Africa (see presentation by Vivancos et al., this meeting). Despite greater productivity off Peru, we find greater intensity of scavenging off NW Africa as measured by the residence time of dissolved 230Th integrated from the surface to a depth of 2500 m (10-11 years off NW Africa vs. 15-17 years off Peru). Dissolved 231Pa/230Th ratios off NW Africa (Hayes et al., Deep Sea Res.-II 116 (2015) 29-41) are nearly twice the values observed off Peru. We attribute this difference to the well-known tendency for lithogenic phases (dust) to strongly fractionate in favor of Th uptake during scavenging and removal, leaving the dissolved phase enriched in Pa. This behavior needs to be considered when interpreting sedimentary 231Pa/230Th ratios as a paleo proxy.

13. Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

14. Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

15. Psychological profile: the problem of modeling the unknown criminal personality

Г. М. Гетьман

2013-10-01

Full Text Available The article investigates the problem of modeling an unknown person in the preparation of criminal psychological profile. Some approaches to the concept of "psychological profile" and "psychological portrait", in particular the proposed delineation of these terms. We consider the system steps in the development of the psychological profile of an unknown perpetrator.

16. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

2010-01-01

The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

17. Diagnostic and prognostic yield of tumor markers in cancer of unknown primary site

Pervez, T.; Ibraheim, M.I.

2006-01-01

A case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary is reported that had widely disseminated disease from the very outset. Every effort was made to find out the primary by integrating all results and specially tumor markers. It was assumed that lung was the most possible site for primary. Tumor markers did not show their diagnostic value even in combined panel, they only showed their prognostic value. (author)

18. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction

Ling Huang

2017-02-01

Full Text Available Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 1016 electrons/m2 with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the

19. A place for genetic uncertainty: parents valuing an unknown in the meaning of disease.

Whitmarsh, Ian; Davis, Arlene M; Skinner, Debra; Bailey, Donald B

2007-09-01

Klinefelter, Turner, and fragile X syndromes are conditions defined by a genetic or chromosomal variant. The timing of diagnosis, tests employed, specialists involved, symptoms evident, and prognoses available vary considerably within and across these syndromes, but all three share in common a diagnosis verified through a molecular or cytogenetic test. The genetic or chromosomal variant identified designates a syndrome, even when symptoms associated with the particular syndrome are absent. This article analyzes interviews conducted with parents and grandparents of children with these syndromes from across the USA to explore how they interpret a confirmed genetic diagnosis that is associated with a range of possible symptoms that may never be exhibited. Parents' responses indicate that they see the genetic aspects of the syndrome as stable, permanent, and authoritative. But they allow, and even embrace, uncertainty about the condition by focusing on variation between diagnosed siblings, the individuality of their diagnosed child, his or her accomplishments, and other positive aspects that go beyond the genetic diagnosis. Some families counter the genetic diagnosis by arguing that in the absence of symptoms, the syndrome does not exist. They use their own expertise to question the perceived certainty of the genetic diagnosis and to employ the diagnosis strategically. These multiple and often conflicting evaluations of the diagnostic label reveal the rich ways families make meaning of the authority attributed to genetic diagnosis.

20. Tax Unit Boundaries

Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

1. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

2. National Forest Boundaries

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

3. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

4. Boundary representation modelling techniques

2006-01-01

Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

5. NM School District Boundaries

Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

6. Site Area Boundaries

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

7. HUC 8 Boundaries

Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

8. State Park Statutory Boundaries

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

9. Lovelock action with nonsmooth boundaries

Cano, Pablo A.

2018-05-01

We examine the variational problem in Lovelock gravity when the boundary contains timelike and spacelike segments nonsmoothly glued. We show that two kinds of contributions have to be added to the action. The first one is associated with the presence of a boundary in every segment and it depends on intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures. We can think of this contribution as adding a total derivative to the usual surface term of Lovelock gravity. The second one appears in every joint between two segments and it involves the integral along the joint of the Jacobson-Myers entropy density weighted by the Lorentz boost parameter, which relates the orthonormal frames in each segment. We argue that this term can be straightforwardly extended to the case of joints involving null boundaries. As an application, we compute the contribution of these terms to the complexity of global anti-de Sitter space in Lovelock gravity by using the "complexity =action " proposal and we identify possible universal terms for arbitrary values of the Lovelock couplings. We find that they depend on the charge a* controlling the holographic entanglement entropy and on a new constant that we characterize.

Taroni, M.; Breward, C. J. W.; Howell, P. D.; Oliver, J. M.

2012-01-01

We investigate and compare the boundary conditions that are to be applied to free-surface problems involving inlet and outlets of Newtonian fluid, typically found in coating processes. The flux of fluid is a priori known at an inlet, but unknown

11. A NEW METHOD OF CHANNEL FRICTION INVERSION BASED ON KALMAN FILTER WITH UNKNOWN PARAMETER VECTOR

CHENG Wei-ping; MAO Gen-hai; LIU Guo-hua

2005-01-01

Channel friction is an important parameter in hydraulic analysis.A channel friction parameter inversion method based on Kalman Filter with unknown parameter vector is proposed.Numerical simulations indicate that when the number of monitoring stations exceeds a critical value, the solution is hardly affected.In addition, Kalman Filter with unknown parameter vector is effective only at unsteady state.For the nonlinear equations, computations of sensitivity matrices are time-costly.Two simplified measures can reduce computing time, but not influence the results.One is to reduce sensitivity matrix analysis time, the other is to substitute for sensitivity matrix.

12. Optimal conclusive teleportation of a d-dimensional two-particle unknown quantum state

Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan; Zhu Fu-Chen

2006-01-01

A conclusive teleportation protocol of a d-dimensional two-particle unknown quantum state using three ddimensional particles in an arbitrary pure state is proposed. A sender teleports the unknown state conclusively to a receiver by using the positive operator valued measure(POVM) and introducing an ancillary qudit to perform the generalized Bell basis measurement. We calculate the optimal teleportation fidelity. We also discuss and analyse the reason why the information on the teleported state is lost in the course of the protocol.

13. Projective and hybrid projective synchronization for the Lorenz-Stenflo system with estimation of unknown parameters

Mukherjee, Payel; Banerjee, Santo

2010-01-01

In this work, in the first phase, we study the phenomenon of projective synchronization in the Lorenz-Stenflo system. Synchronization is then investigated for the same system with unknown parameters. We show analytically that synchronization is possible for some proper choice of the nonlinear controller by using a suitable Lyapunov function. With the help of this result, it is also possible to estimate the values of the unknown system parameters. In the second phase as an extension of our analysis, we investigate the new hybrid projective synchronization for the same system. All our analyses are well supported with numerical evidence.

14. Robust Fault Detection for Switched Fuzzy Systems With Unknown Input.

Han, Jian; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Yingchun; Sun, Xun

2017-10-03

This paper investigates the fault detection problem for a class of switched nonlinear systems in the T-S fuzzy framework. The unknown input is considered in the systems. A novel fault detection unknown input observer design method is proposed. Based on the proposed observer, the unknown input can be removed from the fault detection residual. The weighted H∞ performance level is considered to ensure the robustness. In addition, the weighted H₋ performance level is introduced, which can increase the sensibility of the proposed detection method. To verify the proposed scheme, a numerical simulation example and an electromechanical system simulation example are provided at the end of this paper.

15. On the reconstruction of inclusions in a heat conductive body from dynamical boundary data over a finite time interval

Ikehata, Masaru; Kawashita, Mishio

2010-01-01

The enclosure method was originally introduced for inverse problems concerning non-destructive evaluation governed by elliptic equations. It was developed as one of the useful approaches in inverse problems and applied for various equations. In this paper, an application of the enclosure method to an inverse initial boundary value problem for a parabolic equation with a discontinuous coefficient is given. A simple method to extract the depth of unknown inclusions in a heat conductive body from a single set of the temperature and heat flux on the boundary observed over a finite time interval is introduced. Other related results with infinitely many data are also reported. One of them gives the minimum radius of the open ball centred at a given point that contains the inclusions. The formula for the minimum radius is newly discovered

16. Zero Distribution of System with Unknown Random Variables Case Study: Avoiding Collision Path

Parman Setyamartana

2014-07-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the stochastic analysis of finding the feasible trajectories of robotics arm motion at obstacle surrounding. Unknown variables are coefficients of polynomials joint angle so that the collision-free motion is achieved. ãk is matrix consisting of these unknown feasible polynomial coefficients. The pattern of feasible polynomial in the obstacle environment shows as random. This paper proposes to model the pattern of this randomness values using random polynomial with unknown variables as coefficients. The behavior of the system will be obtained from zero distribution as the characteristic of such random polynomial. Results show that the pattern of random polynomial of avoiding collision can be constructed from zero distribution. Zero distribution is like building block of the system with obstacles as uncertainty factor. By scale factor k, which has range, the random coefficient pattern can be predicted.

17. Circuit realization, chaos synchronization and estimation of parameters of a hyperchaotic system with unknown parameters

A. Elsonbaty

2014-10-01

Full Text Available In this article, the adaptive chaos synchronization technique is implemented by an electronic circuit and applied to the hyperchaotic system proposed by Chen et al. We consider the more realistic and practical case where all the parameters of the master system are unknowns. We propose and implement an electronic circuit that performs the estimation of the unknown parameters and the updating of the parameters of the slave system automatically, and hence it achieves the synchronization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to implement a circuit that estimates the values of the unknown parameters of chaotic system and achieves synchronization. The proposed circuit has a variety of suitable real applications related to chaos encryption and cryptography. The outputs of the implemented circuits and numerical simulation results are shown to view the performance of the synchronized system and the proposed circuit.

18. Adaptive control of Parkinson's state based on a nonlinear computational model with unknown parameters.

Su, Fei; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Chen, Ying-Yuan; Liu, Chen; Li, Hui-Yan

2015-02-01

The objective here is to explore the use of adaptive input-output feedback linearization method to achieve an improved deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithm for closed-loop control of Parkinson's state. The control law is based on a highly nonlinear computational model of Parkinson's disease (PD) with unknown parameters. The restoration of thalamic relay reliability is formulated as the desired outcome of the adaptive control methodology, and the DBS waveform is the control input. The control input is adjusted in real time according to estimates of unknown parameters as well as the feedback signal. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive control algorithm succeeds in restoring the relay reliability of the thalamus, and at the same time achieves accurate estimation of unknown parameters. Our findings point to the potential value of adaptive control approach that could be used to regulate DBS waveform in more effective treatment of PD.

19. Building a RAPPOR with the Unknown: Privacy-Preserving Learning of Associations and Data Dictionaries

Fanti Giulia

2016-07-01

Full Text Available Techniques based on randomized response enable the collection of potentially sensitive data from clients in a privacy-preserving manner with strong local differential privacy guarantees. A recent such technology, RAPPOR [12], enables estimation of the marginal frequencies of a set of strings via privacy-preserving crowdsourcing. However, this original estimation process relies on a known dictionary of possible strings; in practice, this dictionary can be extremely large and/or unknown. In this paper, we propose a novel decoding algorithm for the RAPPOR mechanism that enables the estimation of “unknown unknowns,” i.e., strings we do not know we should be estimating. To enable learning without explicit dictionary knowledge, we develop methodology for estimating the joint distribution of multiple variables collected with RAPPOR. Our contributions are not RAPPOR-specific, and can be generalized to other local differential privacy mechanisms for learning distributions of string-valued random variables.

20. Boundaries immersed in a scalar quantum field

Actor, A.A.; Bender, I.

1996-01-01

We study the interaction between a scalar quantum field φ(x), and many different boundary configurations constructed from (parallel and orthogonal) thin planar surfaces on which φ(x) is constrained to vanish, or to satisfy Neumann conditions. For most of these boundaries the Casimir problem has not previously been investigated. We calculate the canonical and improved vacuum stress tensors left angle T μv (x) right angle and left angle direct difference μv (x) right angle of φ(x) for each example. From these we obtain the local Casimir forces on all boundary planes. For massless fields, both vacuum stress tensors yield identical attractive local Casimir forces in all Dirichlet examples considered. This desirable outcome is not a priori obvious, given the quite different features of left angle T μv (x) right angle and left angle direct difference μv (x) right angle. For Neumann conditions, left angle T μv (x) right angle and left angle direct difference μv (x) right angle lead to attractive Casimir stresses which are not always the same. We also consider Dirichlet and Neumann boundaries immersed in a common scalar quantum field, and find that these repel. The extensive catalogue of worked examples presented here belongs to a large class of completely solvable Casimir problems. Casimir forces previously unknown are predicted, among them ones which might be measurable. (orig.)

1. Grain boundary structure and properties

Balluffi, R.W.

1979-01-01

An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

2. Hyperprolactinemia after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An unknown phenomenon

Omrani Gholamhossein R

2005-08-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ovarian drilling on the serum levels of gonadotropins and androgens have been studied previously. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ovarian drilling on the serum prolactin levels and its relation to ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods This is a prospective controlled study. Thirty-six women with PCOS underwent ovarian electrocauterization in university hospitals. Control group consisted of 35 ovulatory women with unexplained infertility. Hormonal assessment performed in early follicular phase of spontaneous or induced cycle before operation in the two groups and repeated one week after operation. Hormonal assay was also performed in the early follicular phase of the first post-operative menstruation, folliculometry and progesterone assay were also performed in the same cycle. Data were analyzed by "repeated measurement design, discriminant analysis, correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact test". Results Six to ten weeks after operation the serum mean +/- SD prolactin levels increased from 284.41 +/- 114.32 mIU/ml to 354.06 +/- 204.42 mIU/ml (P = 0.011. The same values for the control group were 277.73 +/- 114.65 to 277.4 +/- 111.4 (P = 0.981 respectively. Approximately 45% of subjects in PCOS group remained anovulatory in spite of decreased level of LH and testosterone. Prolactin level remained elevated in 73.2% of women who did not ovulate 6–10 weeks after the procedure. Conclusion Hyperprolactinemia after ovarian cauterization may be considered as a possible cause of anovulation in women with polycystic ovaries and improved gonadotropin and androgen levels. The cause of hyperprolactinemia is unknown. Hormonal assay particularly PRL in anovulatory patients after ovarian cauterization is recommended.

3. Iterative Selection of Unknown Weights in Direct Weight Optimization Identification

Xiao Xuan

2014-01-01

Full Text Available To the direct weight optimization identification of the nonlinear system, we add some linear terms about input sequences in the former linear affine function so as to approximate the nonlinear property. To choose the two classes of unknown weights in the more linear terms, this paper derives the detailed process on how to choose these unknown weights from theoretical analysis and engineering practice, respectively, and makes sure of their key roles between the unknown weights. From the theoretical analysis, the added unknown weights’ auxiliary role can be known in the whole process of approximating the nonlinear system. From the practical analysis, we learn how to transform one complex optimization problem to its corresponding common quadratic program problem. Then, the common quadratic program problem can be solved by the basic interior point method. Finally, the efficiency and possibility of the proposed strategies can be confirmed by the simulation results.

4. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP), treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. Get detailed information about the diagnosis and treatment of CUP in this expert-reviewed summary.

5. RBF neural network based H∞ synchronization for unknown chaotic ...

, 172 ... the effect of disturbance to an H∞ norm constraint. It is shown that ... unknown chaotic systems; linear matrix inequality (LMI); learning law. 1. Introduction .... (9) is RBFNN H∞ synchronized if the synchronization error e(t) satisfies. ∫ ∞.

6. Classification of Unknown Thermocouple Types Using Similarity Factor Measurement

Seshu K. DAMARLA

2011-01-01

Full Text Available In contrast to classification using PCA method, a new methodology is proposed for type identification of unknown thermocouple. The new methodology is based on calculating the degree of similarity between two multivariate datasets using two types of similarity factors. One similarity factor is based on principle component analysis and the angles between the principle component subspaces while the other is based on the Mahalanobis distance between the datasets. Datasets containing thermo-emfs against given temperature ranges are formed for each type of thermocouple (e.g. J, K, S, T, R, E, B and N type by experimentation are considered as reference datasets. Datasets corresponding to unknown type are captured. Similarity factor between the datasets one of which being the unknown type and the other being each known type are compared. When maximum similarity factor occurs, then the class of unknown type is allocated to that of known type.

7. A combined ANN-GA and experimental based technique for the estimation of the unknown heat flux for a conjugate heat transfer problem

M K, Harsha Kumar; P S, Vishweshwara; N, Gnanasekaran; C, Balaji

2018-05-01

The major objectives in the design of thermal systems are obtaining the information about thermophysical, transport and boundary properties. The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the unknown heat flux at the surface of a solid body. A constant area mild steel fin is considered and the base is subjected to constant heat flux. During heating, natural convection heat transfer occurs from the fin to ambient. The direct solution, which is the forward problem, is developed as a conjugate heat transfer problem from the fin and the steady state temperature distribution is recorded for any assumed heat flux. In order to model the natural convection heat transfer from the fin, an extended domain is created near the fin geometry and air is specified as a fluid medium and Navier Stokes equation is solved by incorporating the Boussinesq approximation. The computational time involved in executing the forward model is then reduced by developing a neural network (NN) between heat flux values and temperatures based on back propagation algorithm. The conjugate heat transfer NN model is now coupled with Genetic algorithm (GA) for the solution of the inverse problem. Initially, GA is applied to the pure surrogate data, the results are then used as input to the Levenberg- Marquardt method and such hybridization is proven to result in accurate estimation of the unknown heat flux. The hybrid method is then applied for the experimental temperature to estimate the unknown heat flux. A satisfactory agreement between the estimated and actual heat flux is achieved by incorporating the hybrid method.

8. Temperature and species measurement in a quenching boundary layer on a flat-flame burner

Fuyuto, Takayuki; Fujikawa, Taketoshi; Akihama, Kazuhiro [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Kronemayer, Helmut [University of Duisburg-Essen, IVG, Institute for Combustion and Gasdynamics, Duisburg (Germany); BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Lewerich, Burkhard; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof [University of Duisburg-Essen, IVG, Institute for Combustion and Gasdynamics, Duisburg (Germany); Bruebach, Jan [Technical University Darmstadt, EKT, Institute for Energy and Powerplant Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

2010-10-15

A detailed understanding of transport phenomena and reactions in near-wall boundary layers of combustion chambers is essential for further reducing pollutant emissions and improving thermal efficiencies of internal combustion engines. In a model experiment, the potential of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was investigated for measurements inside the boundary layer connected to flame-wall interaction at atmospheric pressure. Temperature and species distributions were measured in the quenching boundary layer formed close to a cooled metal surface located parallel to the flow of a premixed methane/air flat flame. Multi-line NO-LIF thermometry provided gas-phase temperature distributions. In addition, flame species OH, CH{sub 2}O and CO were monitored by single-photon (OH, CH{sub 2}O) and two-photon (CO) excitation LIF, respectively. The temperature dependence of the OH-LIF signal intensities was corrected for using the measured gas-phase temperature distributions. The spatial line-pair resolution of the imaging system was 22 {mu}m determined by imaging microscopic line pairs printed on a resolution target. The experimental results show the expected flame quenching behavior in the boundary layer and they reveal the potential and limitations of the applied diagnostics techniques. Limitations in spatial resolution are attributed to refraction of fluorescence radiation propagating through steep temperature gradients in the boundary layer. For the present experimental arrangements, the applied diagnostics techniques are applicable as close to the wall as 200 {mu}m with measurement precision then exceeding the 15-25% limit for species detection, with estimates of double this value for the case of H{sub 2}CO due to the unknown effect of the Boltzmann fraction corrections not included in the data evaluation process. Temperature measurements are believed to be accurate within 50 K in the near-wall zone, which amounts to roughly 10% at the lower temperatures encountered in

9. Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing

Qiuping Huang

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL, is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness.

10. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

2018-01-03

The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

11. The Bottom Boundary Layer

Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

2018-01-01

The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

12. The effect of boundaries on the asymptotic wavenumber of spiral wave solutions of the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation

Aguareles, M.

2014-06-01

In this paper we consider an oscillatory medium whose dynamics are modeled by the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. In particular, we focus on n-armed spiral wave solutions of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in a disk of radius d with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. It is well-known that such solutions exist for small enough values of the twist parameter q and large enough values of d. We investigate the effect of boundaries on the rotational frequency of the spirals, which is an unknown of the problem uniquely determined by the parameters d and q. We show that there is a threshold in the parameter space where the effect of the boundary on the rotational frequency switches from being algebraic to exponentially weak. We use the method of matched asymptotic expansions to obtain explicit expressions for the asymptotic wavenumber as a function of the twist parameter and the domain size for small values of q. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

13. Unknown loads affect force production capacity in early phases of bench press throws.

Hernández Davó, J L; Sabido Solana, R; Sarabia Marínm, J M; Sánchez Martos, Á; Moya Ramón, M

2015-10-01

14. Cost-effective computations with boundary interface operators in elliptic problems

Khoromskij, B.N.; Mazurkevich, G.E.; Nikonov, E.G.

1993-01-01

The numerical algorithm for fast computations with interface operators associated with the elliptic boundary value problems (BVP) defined on step-type domains is presented. The algorithm is based on the asymptotically almost optimal technique developed for treatment of the discrete Poincare-Steklov (PS) operators associated with the finite-difference Laplacian on rectangles when using the uniform grid with a 'displacement by h/2'. The approach can be regarded as an extension of the method proposed for the partial solution of the finite-difference Laplace equation to the case of displaced grids and mixed boundary conditions. It is shown that the action of the PS operator for the Dirichlet problem and mixed BVP can be computed with expenses of the order of O(Nlog 2 N) both for arithmetical operations and computer memory needs, where N is the number of unknowns on the rectangle boundary. The single domain algorithm is applied to solving the multidomain elliptic interface problems with piecewise constant coefficients. The numerical experiments presented confirm almost linear growth of the computational costs and memory needs with respect to the dimension of the discrete interface problem. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

15. The Value of Value

Sørensen, Asger

parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

16. Boundary-layer effects in droplet splashing

Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel

2017-11-01

A drop falling onto a solid substrate will disintegrate into smaller parts when its impact velocity exceeds the so called critical velocity for splashing. Under these circumstances, the very thin liquid sheet ejected tangentially to the solid after the drop touches the substrate, lifts off as a consequence of the aerodynamic forces exerted on it and finally breaks into smaller droplets, violently ejected radially outwards, provoking the splash. Here, the tangential deceleration experienced by the fluid entering the thin liquid sheet is investigated making use of boundary layer theory. The velocity component tangent to the solid, computed using potential flow theory provides the far field boundary condition as well as the pressure gradient for the boundary layer equations. The structure of the flow permits to find a self similar solution of the boundary layer equations. This solution is then used to calculate the boundary layer thickness at the root of the lamella as well as the shear stress at the wall. The splash model presented in, which is slightly modified to account for the results obtained from the boundary layer analysis, provides a very good agreement between the measurements and the predicted values of the critical velocity for the splash.

17. An analytical boundary element integral approach to track the boundary of a moving cavity using electrical impedance tomography

Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Kim, Sin; Lee, Bo An; Kim, Kyung Youn

2012-01-01

This paper is about locating the boundary of a moving cavity within a homogeneous background from the voltage measurements recorded on the outer boundary. An inverse boundary problem of a moving cavity is formulated by considering a two-phase vapor–liquid flow in a pipe. The conductivity of the flow components (vapor and liquid) is assumed to be constant and known a priori while the location and shape of the inclusion (vapor) are the unknowns to be estimated. The forward problem is solved using the boundary element method (BEM) with the integral equations solved analytically. A special situation is considered such that the cavity changes its location and shape during the time taken to acquire a full set of independent measurement data. The boundary of a cavity is assumed to be elliptic and is parameterized with Fourier series. The inverse problem is treated as a state estimation problem with the Fourier coefficients that represent the center and radii of the cavity as the unknowns to be estimated. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the time varying Fourier coefficients. Numerical experiments are shown to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Through the results, it can be noticed that the proposed BEM with EKF method is successful in estimating the boundary of a moving cavity. (paper)

18. New boundary values for PM2.5. What is the situation in the Rijnmond area, Netherlands?; Nieuwe grenswaarden voor PM2,5. Wat is de situatie in De Rijnmond?

Rodink, R.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands); Schaap, M. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); De Gier, C. [DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2010-08-15

As of 2008 the guideline for air quality was expanded with the limits and indicative values for PM2.5. These standards were added to the existing standards for PM10. PM2.5 constitutes a significant part of PM10. The fine particles must meet demands due to new insights in the health risks of fine particles but also for pragmatic reasons: more than PM10, PM2.5 results from human activities and can therefore be more successfully influenced. [Dutch] Sinds 2008 is de richtlijn voor luchtkwaliteit uitgebreid met grens- en streefwaarden voor PM2,5. Deze staan nu naast de normen die al gelden voor PM10. PM2,5 is een substantieel deel van PM10. Aan het 'fijnere stof' worden eisen gesteld vanwege nieuwe inzichten in de gezondheidsrisico's van het fijnere stof maar ook om een pragmatische reden: PM2,5 is meer dan PM10 het gevolg van menselijk handelen en is daardoor ook beter beinvloedbaar.

19. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

20. Boundary-Object Trimming

Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Udsen, Flemming Witt

2014-01-01

implementation, which also coupled the work of medical secretaries more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. Medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, and we propose the term ‘boundary-object trimming’ to foreground and conceptualize...

1. Minnesota County Boundaries

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

2. A boundary element model for diffraction of water waves on varying water depth

Poulin, Sanne

1997-12-31

In this thesis a boundary element model for calculating diffraction of water waves on varying water depth is presented. The varying water depth is approximated with a perturbed constant depth in the mild-slope wave equation. By doing this, the domain integral which is a result of the varying depth is no longer a function of the unknown wave potential but only a function of position and the constant depth wave potential. The number of unknowns is the resulting system of equations is thus reduced significantly. The integration procedures in the model are tested very thoroughly and it is found that a combination of analytical integration in the singular region and standard numerical integration outside works very well. The gradient of the wave potential is evaluated successfully using a hypersingular integral equation. Deviations from the analytical solution are only found on the boundary or very close to, but these deviations have no significant influence on the accuracy of the solution. The domain integral is evaluated using the dual reciprocity method. The results are compared with a direct integration of the integral, and the accuracy is quite satisfactory. The problem with irregular frequencies is taken care of by the CBIEM (or CHIEF-method) together with a singular value decomposition technique. This method is simple to implement and works very well. The model is verified using Hommas island as a test case. The test cases are limited to shallow water since the analytical solution is only valid in this region. Several depth ratios are examined, and it is found that the accuracy of the model increases with increasing wave period and decreasing depth ratio. Short waves, e.g. wind generated waves, can allow depth variations up to approximately 2 before the error exceeds 10%, while long waves can allow larger depth ratios. It is concluded that the perturbation idea is highly usable. A study of (partially) absorbing boundary conditions is also conducted. (EG)

3. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

2016-04-01

Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license.

4. On the analytical solution of the SN equation in a rectangle assuming an exponential exiting angular flux boundary

Goncalez, Tifani T.; Segatto, Cynthia F.; Vilhena, Marco Tullio

2011-01-01

In this work, we report an analytical solution for the set of S N equations for the angular flux, in a rectangle, using the double Laplace transform technique. Its main idea comprehends the steps: application of the Laplace transform in one space variable, solution of the resulting equation by the LTS N method and reconstruction of the double Laplace transformed angular flux using the inversion theorem of the Laplace transform. We must emphasize that we perform the Laplace inversion by the LTS N method in the x direction, meanwhile we evaluate the inversion in the y direction performing the calculation of the corresponding line integral solution by the Stefest method. We have also to figure out that the application of Laplace transform to this type of boundary value problem introduces additional unknown functions associated to the partial derivatives of the angular flux at boundary. Based on the good results attained by the nodal LTS N method, we assume that the angular flux at boundary is also approximated by an exponential function. By analytical we mean that no approximation is done along the solution derivation except for the exponential hypothesis for the exiting angular flux at boundary. For sake of completeness, we report numerical comparisons of the obtained results against the ones of the literature. (author)

5. Boundary organizations to boundary chains: Prospects for advancing climate science application

Christine J. Kirchhoff

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Adapting to climate change requires the production and use of climate information to inform adaptation decisions. By facilitating sustained interaction between science producers, boundary organizations narrow the gap between science and decision-making and foster the co-production of actionable knowledge. While traditional boundary organization approaches focused on intense one-on-one interactions between producers and users increases usability, this approach requires significant time and resources. Forming “boundary chains”, linking complimentary boundary organizations together, may reduce those costs. In this paper, we use longitudinal observations of a boundary chain, interviews and surveys to explore: (1 how producer-user interactions increase understanding and information usability and (2 if and how efficiencies in climate information production, dissemination and use arise as a result of the boundary chain. We find that forming and sustaining an effective boundary chain requires not only interest, commitment and investment from every link in the chain but also a level of non-overlapping mutual dependency and complementary skill sets. In this case, GLISA’s strength in producing scientific information and their credibility as climate scientists and HRWC’s strengths in facilitation, connection with potential information users, and their recognition and reputation in the watershed add value to the boundary chain enabling the boundary chain to accomplish more with greater efficiency than if each organization in the chain tried to work independently. Finally, data show how the boundary chain increased efficiencies in educating potential users about the strengths and limitations of climate science and improving the production, dissemination, and use of climate information.

6. Grasping Unknown Objects in an Early Cognitive Vision System

Popovic, Mila

2011-01-01

Grasping of unknown objects presents an important and challenging part of robot manipulation. The growing area of service robotics depends upon the ability of robots to autonomously grasp and manipulate a wide range of objects in everyday environments. Simple, non task-specific grasps of unknown ...... and comparing vision-based grasping methods, and the creation of algorithms for bootstrapping a process of acquiring world understanding for artificial cognitive agents....... presents a system for robotic grasping of unknown objects us- ing stereo vision. Grasps are defined based on contour and surface information provided by the Early Cognitive Vision System, that organizes visual informa- tion into a biologically motivated hierarchical representation. The contributions...... of the thesis are: the extension of the Early Cognitive Vision representation with a new type of feature hierarchy in the texture domain, the definition and evaluation of contour based grasping methods, the definition and evaluation of surface based grasping methods, the definition of a benchmark for testing...

7. Fluctuations of physical values in statistical mechanics

Zaripov, R.G.

1999-01-01

The new matrix inequalities for the boundary of measurement accuracy of physical values in the ensemble of quantum systems were obtained. The multidimensional thermodynamical parameter measurement is estimated. The matrix inequalities obtained are quantum analogs of the Cramer-Rao information inequalities in mathematical statistics. The quantity of information in quantum mechanical measurement, connected with the boundaries of jointly measurable values in one macroscopic experiment was determined. The lower boundary of the variance of estimation of multidimensional quantum mechanical parameter was found. (author)

8. SurfCut: Free-Boundary Surface Extraction

Algarni, Marei Saeed Mohammed

2016-09-15

We present SurfCut, an algorithm for extracting a smooth simple surface with unknown boundary from a noisy 3D image and a seed point. In contrast to existing approaches that extract smooth simple surfaces with boundary, our method requires less user input, i.e., a seed point, rather than a 3D boundary curve. Our method is built on the novel observation that certain ridge curves of a front propagated using the Fast Marching algorithm are likely to lie on the surface. Using the framework of cubical complexes, we design a novel algorithm to robustly extract such ridge curves and form the surface of interest. Our algorithm automatically cuts these ridge curves to form the surface boundary, and then extracts the surface. Experiments show the robustness of our method to errors in the data, and that we achieve higher accuracy with lower computational cost than comparable methods. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

9. Towards realistic molecular dynamics simulations of grain boundary mobility

Zhou, J.; Mohles, V.

2011-01-01

In order to investigate grain boundary migration by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations a new approach involving a crystal orientation-dependent driving force has been developed by imposing an appropriate driving force on grain boundary atoms and enlarging the effective range of driving force. The new approach has been validated by the work of the driving force associated with the motion of grain boundaries. With the new approach the relation between boundary migration velocity and driving force is found to be nonlinear, as was expected from rate theory for large driving forces applied in MD simulations. By evaluating grain boundary mobility nonlinearly for a set of symmetrical tilt boundaries in aluminum at high temperature, high-angle grain boundaries were shown to move much faster than low-angle grain boundaries. This agrees well with experimental findings for recrystallization and grain growth. In comparison with the available data the simulated mobility of a 38.21 o Σ7 boundary was found to be significantly lower than other MD simulation results and comparable with the experimental values. Furthermore, the average volume involved during atomic jumps for boundary migration is determined in MD simulations for the first time. The large magnitude of the volume indicates that grain boundary migration is accomplished by the correlated motion of atom groups.

10. Celiac Disease Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin

Megan J. Cooney

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a common autoimmune enteropathy that occurs, in affected individuals, with exposure to gluten in the diet and improves with removal of dietary gluten. Although CD is readily considered in patients with classical presentations of the disease, atypical manifestations may be the only presenting symptoms. We present a case of CD in a 16-year-old female presenting as fever of unknown origin, which has not been reported previously. The postulated mechanism for fever in CD and the importance of clinicians having a low threshold for considering CD in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and other enigmatic clinical presentations is discussed.

11. Adaptive Incentive Controls for Stackelberg Games with Unknown Cost Functionals.

1984-01-01

APR EZT:: F I AN 73S e OsL:-: UNCLASSI?:-- Q4~.’~- .A.., 6, *~*i i~~*~~*.- U ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH UNKNOWN COST...AD-A161 885 ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH i/1 UNKNOWN COST FUNCTIONALSCU) ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA DECISION AND CONTROL LAB T...ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7.. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION CoriaeLcenef~pda~ Joint Services Electronics Program Laboratory, Univ. of Illinois N/A

12. Scheme for teleportation of unknown states of trapped ion

Chen Mei-Feng; Ma Song-She

2008-01-01

A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped ion system.The scheme only requires a single laser beam.It allows the trap to be in any state with a few phonons,e.g.a thermal motion.Furthermore,it works in the regime,where the Rabi frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency.Thus,the teleportation speed is greatly increased,which is important for decreasing the decoherence effect.This idea can also be used to teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

13. Accounting for unknown foster dams in the genetic evaluation of embryo transfer progeny.

Suárez, M J; Munilla, S; Cantet, R J C

2015-02-01

Animals born by embryo transfer (ET) are usually not included in the genetic evaluation of beef cattle for preweaning growth if the recipient dam is unknown. This is primarily to avoid potential bias in the estimation of the unknown age of dam. We present a method that allows including records of calves with unknown age of dam. Assumptions are as follows: (i) foster cows belong to the same breed being evaluated, (ii) there is no correlation between the breeding value (BV) of the calf and the maternal BV of the recipient cow, and (iii) cows of all ages are used as recipients. We examine the issue of bias for the fixed level of unknown age of dam (AOD) and propose an estimator of the effect based on classical measurement error theory (MEM) and a Bayesian approach. Using stochastic simulation under random mating or selection, the MEM estimating equations were compared with BLUP in two situations as follows: (i) full information (FI); (ii) missing AOD information on some dams. Predictions of breeding value (PBV) from the FI situation had the smallest empirical average bias followed by PBV obtained without taking measurement error into account. In turn, MEM displayed the highest bias, although the differences were small. On the other hand, MEM showed the smallest MSEP, for either random mating or selection, followed by FI, whereas ignoring measurement error produced the largest MSEP. As a consequence from the smallest MSEP with a relatively small bias, empirical accuracies of PBV were larger for MEM than those for full information, which in turn showed larger accuracies than the situation ignoring measurement error. It is concluded that MEM equations are a useful alternative for analysing weaning weight data when recipient cows are unknown, as it mitigates the effects of bias in AOD by decreasing MSEP. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

14. Acoustic scattering on spheroidal shapes near boundaries

Miloh, Touvia

2016-11-01

A new expression for the Lamé product of prolate spheroidal wave functions is presented in terms of a distribution of multipoles along the axis of the spheroid between its foci (generalizing a corresponding theorem for spheroidal harmonics). Such an "ultimate" singularity system can be effectively used for solving various linear boundary-value problems governed by the Helmholtz equation involving prolate spheroidal bodies near planar or other boundaries. The general methodology is formally demonstrated for the axisymmetric acoustic scattering problem of a rigid (hard) spheroid placed near a hard/soft wall or inside a cylindrical duct under an axial incidence of a plane acoustic wave.

15. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown

Stephens, Carolyn

2012-03-01

In November 2011, botanists on a remote island off Papua New Guinea discovered a new species of orchid—uniquely and mysteriously night-flowering [1]. New to science, and with so much more to understand, this flower is threatened by deforestation [2]. Also in November 2011, a survey of 583 conservation scientists reported a unanimous (99.5%) view that 'it is likely a serious loss of biological diversity is underway at a global extent' and that, for scientists, 'protection of biological diversity for its cultural and spiritual values and because of its usefulness to humans were low priorities, which suggests that many scientists do not fully support the utilitarian concept of ecosystem services' [3]. In terms of management, some scientists now advocate controversial conservation strategies such as triage (prioritization of species that provide unique or necessary functions to ecosystems) [4, 5]. Meanwhile, there are many scientists who contend that there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the importance of biodiversity for human health and well-being, arguing that only an anthropocentric view of biodiversity within a paradigm 'ecosystem service' will enable decision-makers to prioritize the theme [6-9]. A 2011 UN report argues that this need for understanding is especially urgent in fragile and vulnerable ecosystems where communities depend directly on the resources of their environment [10]. Here we have a paradox: international conservation scientists think that we cannot protect biodiversity on the basis of its cultural and spiritual value, nor its usefulness to humans. Other scientists argue that using a utilitarian ecosystem services framework is the only way to get humans to protect biodiversity. Meanwhile, communities directly dependent on biodiverse ecosystems are often those who best understand and protect biodiversity, for exactly these reasons of use and spiritual connection, but they do not hold only a utilitarian view of their

16. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

Lejcek, Pavel

2010-01-01

Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

17. Reactor pressure boundary materials

Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Lee, B. S.

2002-04-01

With a long-term operation of nuclear power plants, the component materials are degraded under severe reactor conditions such as neutron irradiation, high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environment. It is necessary to establish the reliable and practical technologies for improving and developing the component materials and for evaluating the mechanical properties. Especially, it is very important to investigate the technologies for reactor pressure boundary materials such as reactor vessel and pipings in accordance with their critical roles. Therefore, this study was focused on developing and advancing the microstructural/micro-mechanical evaluation technologies, and on evaluating the neutron irradiation characteristics and radiation effects analysis technology of the reactor pressure boundary materials, and also on establishing a basis of nuclear material property database

18. Grain Boundary Complexions

2014-05-01

Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 challenging from a scientific perspective, but it can also be very technologically rewarding , given the...energy) is a competing explanation that remains to be explored. Strategies to drive the grain boundary energy toward zero have produced some success...Thompson AM, Soni KK, Chan HM, Harmer MP, Williams DB, Chabala JM, et al. J Am Ceram Soc 1997;80:373. [172] Behera SK. PhD dissertation, Materials Science

19. Boundary-layer theory

Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

2017-01-01

This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

20. Exploring the magnetospheric boundary layer

Hapgood, M.A.; Bryant, D.A.

1992-01-01

We show how, for most crossings of the boundary layer, one can construct a 'transition parameter', based on electron density and temperature, which orders independent plasma measurements into well-defined patterns which are consistent from case to case. We conclude that there is a gradual change in the balance of processes which determine the structure of the layer and suggest that there is no advantage in dividing the layer into different regions. We further conclude that the mixing processes in layer act in an organised way to give the consistent patterns revealed by the transition parameter. More active processes must sometimes take to give the extreme values (e.g. in velocity) which are seen in some crossings

1. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Garratt, J. R.

1994-05-01

A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.

2. Regional boundaries study

Zavatsky, S.; Phaneuf, P.; Topaz, D.; Ward, D.

1978-02-01

The NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) has elected to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of its existing regional boundary alignment because of the anticipated future growth of nuclear power generating facilities and corresponding inspection requirements. This report documents a management study designed to identify, analyze, and evaluate alternative regional boundary configurations for the NRC/IE regions. Eight boundary configurations were chosen for evaluation. These configurations offered alternatives ranging from two to ten regions, and some included the concepts of subregional or satellite offices. Each alternative configuration was evaluated according to three major criteria: project workload, cost, and office location. Each major criterion included elements such as management control, program uniformity, disruption, costs, and coordination with other agencies. The conclusion reached was that regional configurations with regions of equal and relatively large workloads, combined with the concepts of subregional or satellite offices, may offer a significant benefit to the Office of Inspection and Enforcement and the Commission and are worthy of further study. A phased implementation plan, which is suitable to some configurations, may help mitigate the disruption created by realignment

3. Shared care and boundaries:

Winthereik, Brit Ross

2008-01-01

Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science and techno......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...... and technology studies. Findings – The paper shows how a version of “the responsible patient” emerges from the project which is different from the version envisioned by the project organisation. The emerging one is concerned with the boundary between primary and secondary sector care, and not with the boundary......, IT designers and project managers should attend to the specific ways in which boundaries are inevitably enacted and to the ways in which care is already shared. This will provide them with opportunities to use the potentials of new identities and concerns that emerge from changing the organisation...

4. Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms

Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles

2014-11-01

We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.

5. Designing towards the Unknown: Engaging with Material and Aesthetic Uncertainty

Danielle Wilde

2017-12-01

Full Text Available New materials with new capabilities demand new ways of approaching design. Destabilising existing methods is crucial to develop new methods. Yet, radical destabilisation—where outcomes remain unknown long enough that new discoveries become possible—is not easy in technology design where complex interdisciplinary teams with time and resource constraints need to deliver concrete outcomes on schedule. The Poetic Kinaesthetic Interface project (PKI engages with this problematic directly. In PKI we use unfolding processes—informed by participatory, speculative and critical design—in emergent actions, to design towards unknown outcomes, using unknown materials. The impossibility of this task is proving as useful as it is disruptive. At its most potent, it is destabilising expectations, aesthetics and processes. Keeping the researchers, collaborators and participants in a state of unknowing, is opening the research potential to far-ranging possibilities. In this article we unpack the motivations driving the PKI project. We present our mixed-methodology, which entangles textile crafts, design interactions and materiality to shape an embodied enquiry. Our research outcomes are procedural and methodological. PKI brings together diverse human, non-human, known and unknown actors to discover where the emergent assemblages might lead. Our approach is re-invigorating—as it demands re-envisioning of—the design process.

6. Liability for Unknown Risks: A Law and Economics Perspective

M.G. Faure (Michael); L.T. Visscher (Louis); F. Weber (Franziska)

2017-01-01

textabstractIn the law and economics literature liability is generally regarded as an instrument which provides potential tortfeasors with incentives for optimal care taking. The question, however, arises whether liability can still provide those incentives when risks are unknown. That is the

7. Fast grasping of unknown objects using principal component analysis

Lei, Qujiang; Chen, Guangming; Wisse, Martijn

2017-09-01

Fast grasping of unknown objects has crucial impact on the efficiency of robot manipulation especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. In order to accelerate grasping speed of unknown objects, principal component analysis is utilized to direct the grasping process. In particular, a single-view partial point cloud is constructed and grasp candidates are allocated along the principal axis. Force balance optimization is employed to analyze possible graspable areas. The obtained graspable area with the minimal resultant force is the best zone for the final grasping execution. It is shown that an unknown object can be more quickly grasped provided that the component analysis principle axis is determined using single-view partial point cloud. To cope with the grasp uncertainty, robot motion is assisted to obtain a new viewpoint. Virtual exploration and experimental tests are carried out to verify this fast gasping algorithm. Both simulation and experimental tests demonstrated excellent performances based on the results of grasping a series of unknown objects. To minimize the grasping uncertainty, the merits of the robot hardware with two 3D cameras can be utilized to suffice the partial point cloud. As a result of utilizing the robot hardware, the grasping reliance is highly enhanced. Therefore, this research demonstrates practical significance for increasing grasping speed and thus increasing robot efficiency under unpredictable environments.

8. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

2015-01-01

Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

9. Stochastic Online Learning in Dynamic Networks under Unknown Models

2016-08-02

The key is to develop online learning strategies at each individual node. Specifically, through local information exchange with its neighbors, each...infinitely repeated game with incomplete information and developed a dynamic pricing strategy referred to as Competitive and Cooperative Demand Learning...Stochastic Online Learning in Dynamic Networks under Unknown Models This research aims to develop fundamental theories and practical algorithms for

10. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.

1985-01-01

Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating

11. Inventory control in case of unknown demand and control parameters

Janssen, E.

2010-01-01

This thesis deals with unknown demand and control parameters in inventory control. Inventory control involves decisions on what to order when and in what quantity. These decisions are based on information about the demand. Models are constructed using complete demand information; these models ensure

12. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown | Comoro | Tanzania Journal ...

13. Lod score curves for phase-unknown matings.

Hulbert-Shearon, T; Boehnke, M; Lange, K

1996-01-01

For a phase-unknown nuclear family, we show that the likelihood and lod score are unimodal, and we describe conditions under which the maximum occurs at recombination fraction theta = 0, theta = 1/2, and 0 < theta < 1/2. These simply stated necessary and sufficient conditions seem to have escaped the notice of previous statistical geneticists.

14. Teleportation of Unknown Superpositions of Collective Atomic Coherent States

ZHENG ShiBiao

2001-01-01

We propose a scheme to teleport an unknown superposition of two atomic coherent states with different phases. Our scheme is based on resonant and dispersive atom-field interaction. Our scheme provides a possibility of teleporting macroscopic superposition states of many atoms first time.

15. Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage

2007-01-01

We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.

16. Clostridium difficile: A healthcare-associated infection of unknown ...

Clostridium difficile: A healthcare-associated infection of unknown significance in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Abstract. Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes a high burden of disease in high-resource healthcare systems, with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial implications. CDI is a ...

17. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen

2015-03-01

Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

18. Vision-based autonomous grasping of unknown piled objects

Johnson, R.K.

1994-01-01

Computer vision techniques have been used to develop a vision-based grasping capability for autonomously picking and placing unknown piled objects. This work is currently being applied to the problem of hazardous waste sorting in support of the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Operations Program

19. Metastatic Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Presenting as Jugular Venous Thrombosis

Prince Cheriyan Modayil

2009-01-01

Full Text Available Jugular venous thrombosis is unusual and is associated with central venous catheterisation, intravenous drug abuse and head and neck sepsis. It is rarely associated with malignancy. We report a case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary in a forty year old female which presented with jugular venous thrombosis. The discussion includes investigation and treatment options for this condition.

20. Cancer of unknown primitive metastatic. About two clinical cases

Cawen, L; Cordoba, A.

2010-01-01

This work is about the two clinical cases about the unknown primitive metastatic cancer. The main techniques used for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of different s carcinomas are: Electronic microscope, molecular biology and genetics, especially histopathological study, topographic survey, ultrasound, radiography, chemotherapy, radiotherapy