Sample records for unknown biochemical function

  1. Function analysis of unknown genes

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.


      This thesis entitled "Function analysis of unknown genes" presents the use of proteome analysis for the characterisation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genes and their products (proteins especially those of unknown function). This study illustrates that proteome analysis can be used...... to describe different aspects of molecular biology of the cell, to study changes that occur in the cell due to overexpression or deletion of a gene and to identify various protein modifications. The biological questions and the results of the described studies show the diversity of the information that can...... genes and proteins. It reports the first global proteome database collecting 36 yeast single gene deletion mutants and selecting over 650 differences between analysed mutants and the wild type strain. The obtained results show that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based proteome...

  2. Heuristic method for searching global maximum of multimodal unknown function

    Kamei, K; Araki, Y; Inoue, K


    The method is composed of three kinds of searches. They are called g (grasping)-mode search, f (finding)-mode search and c (confirming)-mode search. In the g-mode search and the c-mode search, a heuristic method is used which was extracted from search behaviors of human subjects. In f-mode search, the simplex method is used which is well known as a search method for unimodal unknown function. Each mode search and its transitions are shown in the form of flowchart. The numerical results for one-dimensional through six-dimensional multimodal functions prove the proposed search method to be an effective one. 11 references.

  3. Vestibular Function in Adults With Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology.

    Hamed, Sherifa A; Tohamy, Amal M; Oseilly, Amira M


    This study aimed to evaluate vestibular function in adults with chronic epilepsy of unknown etiology in the inter-ictal period. Epilepsy is a chronic medical disorder. Life-long therapy may be required in one-third of patients. Epilepsy is associated with comorbid somatic conditions which impairs patients' quality of life. This cross-sectional study included 28 with generalized tonic clonic (GTC) convulsions and 14 and 3 with temporal (TLE) and frontal lobe (FLE) epilepsies with secondary generalization (all were on regular carbamazepine therapy) and 40 healthy control subjects. The patients' mean age was 34.97 ± 7.35 years and the duration of illness was 18.75 ± 7.99 years. All underwent videonystagmography (VNG). Compared with controls, patients had frequent vestibular symptoms including dizziness (62.22%) (p = 0.0001) and sense of imbalance (44.44%) (p = 0.0001). Eleven patients (24.44%) had central vestibular dysfunction (p = 0.0001); 9 (20%) had mixed vestibular dysfunction and one (2.22%) had peripheral vestibular dysfunction (p = 0.0001). Abnormalities were observed in saccadic (44.4%) and pursuit (42.2%) eye movements, optokinetic nystagmus (42.2%) and positioning/positional (11.11%) and caloric (13.33%) testing. TLE and FLE were associated with more VNG abnormalities than GTC. No significant differences were observed in the demographic and clinical characteristics between patients with and without VNG abnormalities. Vestibular manifestations are frequent in patients with epilepsy. This may be a result of the permanent damaging effect of chronic epilepsy on the vestibular cortical areas and/or a toxic effect from prolonged carbamazepine therapy on the peripheral and central vestibular systems.

  4. Adaptive Incentive Controls for Stackelberg Games with Unknown Cost Functionals.



  5. Dynamic changes in biochemical markers of renal function with ...

    Thyroid dysfunction is known to cause significant changes in glomerular filtration rate. The present cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the changes in biochemical markers of renal function in hypothyroid subjects before and after treatment. Thyroid function tests (T3, T4 and TSH levels) were assayed in 385 ...

  6. Structure-based inference of molecular functions of proteins of unknown function from Berkeley Structural Genomics Center

    Kim, Sung-Hou; Shin, Dong Hae; Hou, Jingtong; Chandonia, John-Marc; Das, Debanu; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Rosalind; Kim, Sung-Hou


    Advances in sequence genomics have resulted in an accumulation of a huge number of protein sequences derived from genome sequences. However, the functions of a large portion of them cannot be inferred based on the current methods of sequence homology detection to proteins of known functions. Three-dimensional structure can have an important impact in providing inference of molecular function (physical and chemical function) of a protein of unknown function. Structural genomics centers worldwide have been determining many 3-D structures of the proteins of unknown functions, and possible molecular functions of them have been inferred based on their structures. Combined with bioinformatics and enzymatic assay tools, the successful acceleration of the process of protein structure determination through high throughput pipelines enables the rapid functional annotation of a large fraction of hypothetical proteins. We present a brief summary of the process we used at the Berkeley Structural Genomics Center to infer molecular functions of proteins of unknown function.

  7. Biochemical mechanisms determine the functional compatibility of heterologous genes

    Porse, Andreas; Schou, Thea S.; Munck, Christian


    -gene libraries have suggested that sequence composition is a strong barrier for the successful integration of heterologous genes. Here we sample 200 diverse genes, representing >80% of sequenced antibiotic resistance genes, to interrogate the factors governing genetic compatibility in new hosts. In contrast...... factors governing the functionality and fitness of antibiotic resistance genes. These findings emphasize the importance of biochemical mechanism for heterologous gene compatibility, and suggest physiological constraints as a pivotal feature orienting the evolution of antibiotic resistance....

  8. Testing the Granger noncausality hypothesis in stationary nonlinear models of unknown functional form

    Péguin-Feissolle, Anne; Strikholm, Birgit; Teräsvirta, Timo

    In this paper we propose a general method for testing the Granger noncausality hypothesis in stationary nonlinear models of unknown functional form. These tests are based on a Taylor expansion of the nonlinear model around a given point in the sample space. We study the performance of our tests b...

  9. Exploiting fine-scale genetic and physiological variation of closely related microbes to reveal unknown enzyme functions.

    Badur, Ahmet H; Plutz, Matthew J; Yalamanchili, Geethika; Jagtap, Sujit Sadashiv; Schweder, Thomas; Unfried, Frank; Markert, Stephanie; Polz, Martin F; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Rao, Christopher V


    Polysaccharide degradation by marine microbes represents one of the largest and most rapid heterotrophic transformations of organic matter in the environment. Microbes employ systems of complementary carbohydrate-specific enzymes to deconstruct algal or plant polysaccharides (glycans) into monosaccharides. Because of the high diversity of glycan substrates, the functions of these enzymes are often difficult to establish. One solution to this problem may lie within naturally occurring microdiversity; varying numbers of enzymes, due to gene loss, duplication, or transfer, among closely related environmental microbes create metabolic differences akin to those generated by knock-out strains engineered in the laboratory used to establish the functions of unknown genes. Inspired by this natural fine-scale microbial diversity, we show here that it can be used to develop hypotheses guiding biochemical experiments for establishing the role of these enzymes in nature. In this work, we investigated alginate degradation among closely related strains of the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus One strain, V. splendidus 13B01, exhibited high extracellular alginate lyase activity compared with other V. splendidus strains. To identify the enzymes responsible for this high extracellular activity, we compared V. splendidus 13B01 with the previously characterized V. splendidus 12B01, which has low extracellular activity and lacks two alginate lyase genes present in V. splendidus 13B01. Using a combination of genomics, proteomics, biochemical, and functional screening, we identified a polysaccharide lyase family 7 enzyme that is unique to V. splendidus 13B01, secreted, and responsible for the rapid digestion of extracellular alginate. These results demonstrate the value of querying the enzymatic repertoires of closely related microbes to rapidly pinpoint key proteins with beneficial functions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Biochemical markers and neuropsychological functioning in distal urea cycle disorders.

    Waisbren, Susan E; Cuthbertson, David; Burgard, Peter; Holbert, Amy; McCarter, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen


    Urea cycle disorders often present as devastating metabolic conditions, resulting in high mortality and significant neuropsychological damage, despite treatment. The Urea Cycle Disorders Longitudinal Study is a natural history study that collects data from regular clinical follow-up and neuropsychological testing. This report examines links between biochemical markers (ammonia, glutamine, arginine, citrulline) and primary neuropsychological endpoints in three distal disorders, argininosuccinic acid synthetase deficiency (ASD or citrullinemia type I), argininosuccinic acid lyase deficiency (ASA or ALD), and arginase deficiency (ARGD). Laboratory results and test scores from neuropsychological evaluations were assessed in 145 study participants, ages 3 years and older, with ASD (n = 64), ASA (n = 65) and ARGD (n = 16). Mean full scale IQ was below the population mean of 100 ± 15 for all groups: (ASD = 79 ± 24; ASA = 71 ± 21; ARGD = 65 ± 19). The greatest deficits were noted in visual performance and motor skills for all groups. While ammonia levels remain prominent as prognostic biomarkers, other biomarkers may be equally valuable as correlates of neuropsychological functioning. Cumulative exposure to the biomarkers included in the study proved to be highly sensitive indicators of neuropsychological outcomes, even when below the cut-off levels generally considered toxic. Blood levels of biomarkers obtained on the day of neuropsychological evaluations were not correlated with measures of functioning for any disorder in any domain. The importance of cumulative exposure supports early identification and confirms the need for well-controlled management of all biochemical abnormalities (and not just ammonia) that occur in urea cycle disorders.

  11. Known structure, unknown function: An inquiry‐based undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W.; Lee, Christopher T.; Dewald, Alison H.; Cline, Matthew A.; McAnany, Charles E.


    Abstract Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry‐ and research‐based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's research expertise and confidence. We have developed a year‐long undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum wherein students determine, via experiment and computation, the function of a protein of known three‐dimensional structure. The first half of the course is inquiry‐based and modular in design; students learn general biochemical techniques while gaining preparation for research experiments in the second semester. Having learned standard biochemical methods in the first semester, students independently pursue their own (original) research projects in the second semester. This new curriculum has yielded an improvement in student performance and confidence as assessed by various metrics. To disseminate teaching resources to students and instructors alike, a freely accessible Biochemistry Laboratory Education resource is available at © 2015 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(4):245–262, 2015. PMID:26148241

  12. Known structure, unknown function: An inquiry-based undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course.

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W; Lee, Christopher T; Dewald, Alison H; Cline, Matthew A; McAnany, Charles E; Columbus, Linda; Mura, Cameron


    Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry- and research-based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's research expertise and confidence. We have developed a year-long undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum wherein students determine, via experiment and computation, the function of a protein of known three-dimensional structure. The first half of the course is inquiry-based and modular in design; students learn general biochemical techniques while gaining preparation for research experiments in the second semester. Having learned standard biochemical methods in the first semester, students independently pursue their own (original) research projects in the second semester. This new curriculum has yielded an improvement in student performance and confidence as assessed by various metrics. To disseminate teaching resources to students and instructors alike, a freely accessible Biochemistry Laboratory Education resource is available at © 2015 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Identifying an unknown function in a parabolic equation with overspecified data via He's variational iteration method

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Tatari, Mehdi


    In this research, the He's variational iteration technique is used for computing an unknown time-dependent parameter in an inverse quasilinear parabolic partial differential equation. Parabolic partial differential equations with overspecified data play a crucial role in applied mathematics and physics, as they appear in various engineering models. The He's variational iteration method is an analytical procedure for finding solutions of differential equations, is based on the use of Lagrange multipliers for identification of an optimal value of a parameter in a functional. To show the efficiency of the new approach, several test problems are presented for one-, two- and three-dimensional cases

  14. Locally optimal control under unknown dynamics with learnt cost function: application to industrial robot positioning

    Guérin, Joris; Gibaru, Olivier; Thiery, Stéphane; Nyiri, Eric


    Recent methods of Reinforcement Learning have enabled to solve difficult, high dimensional, robotic tasks under unknown dynamics using iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian control theory. These algorithms are based on building a local time-varying linear model of the dynamics from data gathered through interaction with the environment. In such tasks, the cost function is often expressed directly in terms of the state and control variables so that it can be locally quadratized to run the algorithm. If the cost is expressed in terms of other variables, a model is required to compute the cost function from the variables manipulated. We propose a method to learn the cost function directly from the data, in the same way as for the dynamics. This way, the cost function can be defined in terms of any measurable quantity and thus can be chosen more appropriately for the task to be carried out. With our method, any sensor information can be used to design the cost function. We demonstrate the efficiency of this method through simulating, with the V-REP software, the learning of a Cartesian positioning task on several industrial robots with different characteristics. The robots are controlled in joint space and no model is provided a priori. Our results are compared with another model free technique, consisting in writing the cost function as a state variable.

  15. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T.


    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of [14C]serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of [14C]serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of [14C]serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of [14C]serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP

  16. A chromatographic objective function to characterise chromatograms with unknown compounds or without standards available.

    Alvarez-Segura, T; Gómez-Díaz, A; Ortiz-Bolsico, C; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C


    Getting useful chemical information from samples containing many compounds is still a challenge to analysts in liquid chromatography. The highest complexity corresponds to samples for which there is no prior knowledge about their chemical composition. Computer-based methodologies are currently considered as the most efficient tools to optimise the chromatographic resolution, and further finding the optimal separation conditions. However, most chromatographic objective functions (COFs) described in the literature to measure the resolution are based on mathematical models fitted with the information obtained from standards, and cannot be applied to samples with unknown compounds. In this work, a new COF based on the automatic measurement of the protruding part of the chromatographic peaks (or peak prominences) that indicates the number of perceptible peaks and global resolution, without the need of standards, is developed. The proposed COF was found satisfactory with regard to the peak purity criterion when applied to artificial peaks and simulated chromatograms of mixtures built using the information of standards. The approach was applied to mixtures of drugs containing unknown impurities and degradation products and to extracts of medicinal herbs, eluted with acetonitrile-water mixtures using isocratic and gradient elution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced nanoimprint patterning for functional electronics and biochemical sensing

    Wang, Chao

    Nano-fabrication has been widely used for a variety of disciplines, including electronics, material science, nano-optics, and nano-biotechnology. This dissertation focuses on nanoimprint lithography (NIL) based novel nano-patterning techniques for fabricating functional structures, and discusses their applications in advanced electronics and high-sensitivity molecular sensing. In this dissertation, examples of using nano-fabricated structures for promising electronic applications are presented. For instance, 10 nm and 18 nm features are NIL-fabricated for Si/SiGe heterojunction tunneling transistors and graphene nano-ribbon transistors, using shadow evaporation and line-width shrinking techniques, respectively. An ultrafast laser melting based method is applied on flexible plastic substrates to correct defects of nano-features. Nano-texturing of sapphire substrate is developed to improve the light extraction of GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) by 70 %. A novel multi-layer nano-patterned Si-mediated catalyst is discovered to grow straight and uniform Si nanowires with optimized properties in size, location, and crystallization on amorphous SiO2 substrate. Nano-structures are also functionalized into highly sensitive bio-chemical sensors. Plasmonic nano-bar antenna arrays are demonstrated to effectively sense infrared molecules >10 times better than conventional plasmonic sensors. As small as 20 nm wide nano-channel fluidic devices are developed to linearize and detect DNA molecules for potential DNA sequencing. An integrated fluidic system is built to incorporate plasmonic nano-structures for 30X-enhanced fluorescence detection of large DNA molecules.

  18. Structure of a Trypanosoma brucei α/β-hydrolase fold protein with unknown function

    Merritt, Ethan A.; Holmes, Margaret; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Quartly, Erin; Phizicky, Eric M.; Lauricella, Angela; Luft, Joseph; DeTitta, George; Neely, Helen; Zucker, Frank; Hol, Wim G. J.


    T. brucei gene Tb10.6k15.0140 codes for an α/β-hydrolase fold protein of unknown function. The 2.2 Å crystal structure shows that members of this sequence family retain a conserved Ser residue at the expected site of a catalytic nucleophile, but that trypanosomatid sequences lack structural homologs for the other expected residues of the catalytic triad. The structure of a structural genomics target protein, Tbru020260AAA from Trypanosoma brucei, has been determined to a resolution of 2.2 Å using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se K edge. This protein belongs to Pfam sequence family PF08538 and is only distantly related to previously studied members of the α/β-hydrolase fold family. Structural superposition onto representative α/β-hydrolase fold proteins of known function indicates that a possible catalytic nucleophile, Ser116 in the T. brucei protein, lies at the expected location. However, the present structure and by extension the other trypanosomatid members of this sequence family have neither sequence nor structural similarity at the location of other active-site residues typical for proteins with this fold. Together with the presence of an additional domain between strands β6 and β7 that is conserved in trypanosomatid genomes, this suggests that the function of these homologs has diverged from other members of the fold family

  19. Assembly of Robust Bacterial Microcompartment Shells Using Building Blocks from an Organelle of Unknown Function

    Lassila, JK; Bernstein, SL; Kinney, JN; Axen, SD; Kerfeld, CA


    Bacterial microconnpartnnents (BMCs) sequester enzymes from the cytoplasmic environment by encapsulation inside a selectively permeable protein shell. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that many bacteria encode BMC clusters of unknown function and with diverse combinations of shell proteins. The genome of the halophilic myxobacterium Haliangium ochraceum encodes one of the most atypical sets of shell proteins in terms of composition and primary structure. We found that microconnpartnnent shells could be purified in high yield when all seven H. ochraceum BMC shell genes were expressed from a synthetic operon in Escherichia coll. These shells differ substantially from previously isolated shell systems in that they are considerably smaller and more homogeneous, with measured diameters of 39 2 nm. The size and nearly uniform geometry allowed the development of a structural model for the shells composed of 260 hexagonal units and 13 hexagons per icosahedral face. We found that new proteins could be recruited to the shells by fusion to a predicted targeting peptide sequence, setting the stage for the use of these remarkably homogeneous shells for applications such as three-dimensional scaffolding and the construction of synthetic BMCs. Our results demonstrate the value of selecting from the diversity of BMC shell building blocks found in genomic sequence data for the construction of novel compartments. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Meniscofibular Ligament: Morphology and Functional Significance of a Relatively Unknown Anatomical Structure

    K. Natsis


    Full Text Available Purpose. A relatively unknown ligamentous structure of the posterolateral corner of the knee joint, the so-called meniscofibular ligament (MFL, was investigated as regards its macroscopic morphology, its histological features, and its reaction to knee movements. Material and Methods. MFL was exposed on 21 fresh-frozen unpaired knee joints. Its microscopic morphology was examined utilizing for comparison the fibular collateral and the popliteofibular ligament. Results. MFL was encountered in 100% of the specimens as a thin striplike fibrous band extending between the lower border of the lateral meniscus and the head of the fibula. MFL was tense during knee extension and external rotation of the tibia, whereas its histological features were similar to those of fibular collateral and popliteofibular ligament. Discussion. Its precise histological nature is studied as well as its tension alterations during knee movements. The potential functional significance of the MFL with respect to its role in avoidance of lateral meniscus and lateral coronary ligament tears is discussed. Conclusions. MFL presumably provides an additional protection to the lateral meniscus during the last stages of knee extension, as well as to the lateral coronary ligament reducing the possibility of a potential rupture.

  1. An Approach to Function Annotation for Proteins of Unknown Function (PUFs in the Transcriptome of Indian Mulberry.

    K H Dhanyalakshmi

    Full Text Available The modern sequencing technologies are generating large volumes of information at the transcriptome and genome level. Translation of this information into a biological meaning is far behind the race due to which a significant portion of proteins discovered remain as proteins of unknown function (PUFs. Attempts to uncover the functional significance of PUFs are limited due to lack of easy and high throughput functional annotation tools. Here, we report an approach to assign putative functions to PUFs, identified in the transcriptome of mulberry, a perennial tree commonly cultivated as host of silkworm. We utilized the mulberry PUFs generated from leaf tissues exposed to drought stress at whole plant level. A sequence and structure based computational analysis predicted the probable function of the PUFs. For rapid and easy annotation of PUFs, we developed an automated pipeline by integrating diverse bioinformatics tools, designated as PUFs Annotation Server (PUFAS, which also provides a web service API (Application Programming Interface for a large-scale analysis up to a genome. The expression analysis of three selected PUFs annotated by the pipeline revealed abiotic stress responsiveness of the genes, and hence their potential role in stress acclimation pathways. The automated pipeline developed here could be extended to assign functions to PUFs from any organism in general. PUFAS web server is available at and the web service is accessible at

  2. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    Kragstrup, T W; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L


    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging....... Structural changes include an increase in the collagen concentration, a change in the elastic fiber system, and an increase in fat infiltration of skeletal muscle. Biochemical changes include a decreased turnover of collagen with potential accumulation of enzymatically mediated collagen cross...

  3. Biochemical evaluation of endometrial function at the time of implantation

    Lindhard, Anette; Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Ravn, Vibeke


    OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on various endometrial factors assumed to be of importance to implantation and to evaluate their potential clinical value in the assessment of endometrial function at the time of implantation in infertile women in natural and stimulated cycles. DESIGN: Literatu...

  4. Assessment of biochemical liver function tests in relation to age ...

    Background and Objective: Multiorgan failure including liver dysfunction is a common finding in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients, the cause of which is multifactorial with advancing age said to be a major determinant. There is a paucity of data on liver function among SCA patients in relation to age in northern Nigerian ...

  5. Pathomorphological changes of lungs and functional biochemical parameters of respiratory function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhages

    S. I. Tertyishniy


    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications and closely related with them systemic functional-biochemical abnormalities are the most common complications of cerebral stroke. The purpose of the work was to research functional-biochemical parameters of respiratory function and to find it’s association with morphological changes in the lungs because of intracerebral hemorrhage. 37 sectional observations in patients who die of intracerebral hemorrhage were analized. It was conducted analysis of morphological transformations and retrospective analysis of functional-biochemical findings of respiratory functions, in order to detect changes of systemic hemodynamics, oxygen balance and ion-osmotic one and acid-alkaline status. The results of the study. The changes of blood gas composition and acid-alkaline status are registered in the lungs in the background of microcirculation disturbance from the first hours of development of intracerebral hemorrhage. During the first days of the onset of disease the partial oxygen pressure in arterial blood (РаО2 decreased 50,88% in comparison with the calculated normative findings. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (РаСО2 in the arterial blood rosed by 52,17%. Without conducting artificial lung ventilation PO2 in venous blood decreased by 45,9%, and PCO2 increased by 40%. I has been marked a decrease in the oxygen capacity of the blood, due to the reduction of hemoglobin content in the blood to 103,7 minus 2 g/l and the concomitant decline in hematocrit up to 0,24-0,3. Deficit of the foundations has averaged from -6 to -10 mmol/l. These changes have led to a impression of the respiratory and metabolic acidosis, with a significant increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions. In the first day after the development of the disease with a rapid growing marks of swelling of the brain with concomitant dislocation of the brain stem, blood pH was 7,28 minus 0,02. It has been histologically determined interstitial edema, that

  6. Rampant adaptive evolution in regions of proteins with unknown function in Drosophila simulans.

    Alisha K Holloway


    Full Text Available Adaptive protein evolution is pervasive in Drosophila. Genomic studies, thus far, have analyzed each protein as a single entity. However, the targets of adaptive events may be localized to particular parts of proteins, such as protein domains or regions involved in protein folding. We compared the population genetic mechanisms driving sequence polymorphism and divergence in defined protein domains and non-domain regions. Interestingly, we find that non-domain regions of proteins are more frequent targets of directional selection. Protein domains are also evolving under directional selection, but appear to be under stronger purifying selection than non-domain regions. Non-domain regions of proteins clearly play a major role in adaptive protein evolution on a genomic scale and merit future investigations of their functional properties.

  7. Robust Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Generalized Function Projective Synchronization of Different Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters

    Xiuchun Li


    Full Text Available When the parameters of both drive and response systems are all unknown, an adaptive sliding mode controller, strongly robust to exotic perturbations, is designed for realizing generalized function projective synchronization. Sliding mode surface is given and the controlled system is asymptotically stable on this surface with the passage of time. Based on the adaptation laws and Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive sliding controller is designed to ensure the occurrence of the sliding motion. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method even when both drive and response systems are perturbed with external disturbances.

  8. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L


    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging......-links and a buildup of advanced glycation end-product cross-links. Altered mechanotransduction, poorer activation of satellite cells, poorer chemotactic and delayed inflammatory responses, and a change in modulators of the ECM are important cellular changes. It is possible that the structural and biochemical changes...... in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the increased stiffness and impairment in force generated by the contracting muscle fibers seen with aging. The cellular interactions provide and potentially coordinate an adaptation to mechanical loading and ensure successful regeneration after muscle injury. Some...

  9. Non-host disease resistance response in pea (Pisum sativum) pods: Biochemical function of DRR206 and phytoalexin pathway localization.

    Seneviratne, Herana Kamal; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye-Won; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Yang, Hong; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G


    Continually exposed to potential pathogens, vascular plants have evolved intricate defense mechanisms to recognize encroaching threats and defend themselves. They do so by inducing a set of defense responses that can help defeat and/or limit effects of invading pathogens, of which the non-host disease resistance response is the most common. In this regard, pea (Pisum sativum) pod tissue, when exposed to Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli spores, undergoes an inducible transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and also produces (+)-pisatin, its major phytoalexin. One of the inducible pathogenesis-related genes is Disease Resistance Response-206 (DRR206), whose role in vivo was unknown. DRR206 is, however, related to the dirigent protein (DP) family. In this study, its biochemical function was investigated in planta, with the metabolite associated with its gene induction being pinoresinol monoglucoside. Interestingly, both pinoresinol monoglucoside and (+)-pisatin were co-localized in pea pod endocarp epidermal cells, as demonstrated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging. In addition, endocarp epidermal cells are also the site for both chalcone synthase and DRR206 gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that both (+)-pisatin and pinoresinol monoglucoside function in the overall phytoalexin responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Remote Sensing of plant functional types: Relative importance of biochemical and structural plant traits

    Kattenborn, Teja; Schmidtlein, Sebastian


    Monitoring ecosystems is a key priority in order to understand vegetation patterns, underlying resource cycles and changes their off. Driven by biotic and abiotic factors, plant species within an ecosystem are likely to share similar structural, physiological or phenological traits and can therefore be grouped into plant functional types (PFT). It can be assumed that plants which share similar traits also share similar optical characteristics. Therefore optical remote sensing was identified as a valuable tool for differentiating PFT. Although several authors list structural and biochemical plant traits which are important for differentiating PFT using hyperspectral remote sensing, there is no quantitative or qualitative information on the relative importance of these traits. Thus, little is known about the explicit role of plant traits for an optical discrimination of PFT. One of the main reasons for this is that various optical traits affect the same wavelength regions and it is therefore difficult to isolate the discriminative power of a single trait. A way to determine the effect of single plant traits on the optical reflectance of plant canopies is given by radiative transfer models. The most established radiative transfer model is PROSAIL, which incorporates biochemical and structural plant traits, such as pigment contents or leaf area index. In the present study 25 grassland species of different PFT were cultivated and traits relevant for PROSAIL were measured for the entire vegetation season of 2016. The information content of each trait for differentiating PFTs was determined by applying a Multi-response Permutation Procedure on the actual traits, as well as on simulated canopy spectra derived from PROSAIL. According to our results some traits, especially biochemical traits, show a weaker separability of PFT on a spectral level than compared to the actual trait measurements. Overall structural traits (leaf angle and leaf area index) are more important for

  11. Functional outcome and survival after radiotherapy of metastatic spinal cord compression in patients with cancer of unknown primary

    Rades, Dirk; Fehlauer, Fabian; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Basic, Hiba; Hoskin, Peter J.; Rudat, Volker; Karstens, Johann H.; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen


    Purpose: Patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) account for about 10% of patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). This study aims to define the appropriate radiation regimen for these patients. Methods and Materials: Data of 143 CUP patients irradiated for MSCC were retrospectively evaluated. Short-course radiotherapy (RT) (1x8 Gy, 5x4 Gy, n = 68) and long-course RT (10x3 Gy, 15x2.5 Gy, 20x2 Gy, n = 75) plus 8 further potential prognostic factors (age, gender, performance status, visceral metastases, other bone metastases, number of involved vertebrae, ambulatory status, time of developing motor deficits before RT) were compared for functional outcome and survival. Results: Improvement of motor function occurred in 10% of patients, no further progression of motor deficits in 57%, and deterioration in 33%. On multivariate analysis, functional outcome was positively associated with slower development of motor deficits (p < 0.001), absence of visceral metastases (p = 0.008) and other bone metastases (p = 0.027), and ambulatory status (p = 0.054), not with the radiation regimen (p = 0.74). Recurrence of MSCC in the irradiated region occurred in 7 patients after median 6 months. Median survival was 4 months. On multivariate analysis, better survival was significantly associated with absence of visceral metastases (p < 0.001), absence of other bone metastases (p = 0.005), ambulatory status (p = 0.001), and slower development of motor deficits (p = 0.030). Conclusions: For MSCC treatment in patients with CUP, no significant difference was observed between short-course and long-course RT regarding functional outcome and survival. Short-course RT appears preferable, at least for patients with a poor predicted survival, as it is more patient convenient and more cost-effective

  12. Proteins of unknown function in the Protein Data Bank (PDB): an inventory of true uncharacterized proteins and computational tools for their analysis.

    Nadzirin, Nurul; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd


    Proteins of uncharacterized functions form a large part of many of the currently available biological databases and this situation exists even in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Our analysis of recent PDB data revealed that only 42.53% of PDB entries (1084 coordinate files) that were categorized under "unknown function" are true examples of proteins of unknown function at this point in time. The remainder 1465 entries also annotated as such appear to be able to have their annotations re-assessed, based on the availability of direct functional characterization experiments for the protein itself, or for homologous sequences or structures thus enabling computational function inference.

  13. Proteins of Unknown Function in the Protein Data Bank (PDB: An Inventory of True Uncharacterized Proteins and Computational Tools for Their Analysis

    Nurul Nadzirin


    Full Text Available Proteins of uncharacterized functions form a large part of many of the currently available biological databases and this situation exists even in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Our analysis of recent PDB data revealed that only 42.53% of PDB entries (1084 coordinate files that were categorized under “unknown function” are true examples of proteins of unknown function at this point in time. The remainder 1465 entries also annotated as such appear to be able to have their annotations re-assessed, based on the availability of direct functional characterization experiments for the protein itself, or for homologous sequences or structures thus enabling computational function inference.

  14. Aldehyde Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana: Biochemical Requirements, Metabolic Pathways, and Functional Analysis.

    Stiti, Naim; Missihoun, Tagnon D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Bartels, Dorothea


    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Here we summarize molecular genetic and biochemical analyses of selected ArabidopsisALDH genes. Aldehyde molecules are very reactive and are involved in many metabolic processes but when they accumulate in excess they become toxic. Thus activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases is important in regulating the homeostasis of aldehydes. Overexpression of some ALDH genes demonstrated an improved abiotic stress tolerance. Despite the fact that several reports are available describing a role for specific ALDHs, their precise physiological roles are often still unclear. Therefore a number of genetic and biochemical tools have been generated to address the function with an emphasis on stress-related ALDHs. ALDHs exert their functions in different cellular compartments and often in a developmental and tissue specific manner. To investigate substrate specificity, catalytic efficiencies have been determined using a range of substrates varying in carbon chain length and degree of carbon oxidation. Mutational approaches identified amino acid residues critical for coenzyme usage and enzyme activities.

  15. Synthesizing Configurable Biochemical Implementation of Linear Systems from Their Transfer Function Specifications.

    Tai-Yin Chiu

    Full Text Available The ability to engineer synthetic systems in the biochemical context is constantly being improved and has a profound societal impact. Linear system design is one of the most pervasive methods applied in control tasks, and its biochemical realization has been proposed by Oishi and Klavins and advanced further in recent years. However, several technical issues remain unsolved. Specifically, the design process is not fully automated from specification at the transfer function level, systems once designed often lack dynamic adaptivity to environmental changes, matching rate constants of reactions is not always possible, and implementation may be approximative and greatly deviate from the specifications. Building upon the work of Oishi and Klavins, this paper overcomes these issues by introducing a design flow that transforms a transfer-function specification of a linear system into a set of chemical reactions, whose input-output response precisely conforms to the specification. This system is implementable using the DNA strand displacement technique. The underlying configurability is embedded into primitive components and template modules, and thus the entire system is adaptive. Simulation of DNA strand displacement implementation confirmed the feasibility and superiority of the proposed synthesis flow.

  16. Acute toxicity of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes: A biochemical, histopathologic and proteomics approach.

    Ahmadi, Homa; Ramezani, Mohammad; Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan; Behnam, Behzad; Razavi Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Hashem Nia, Azadeh; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Matbou Riahi, Maryam; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil


    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) showed promising potentials in different biomedical applications but their safe use in humans and probable toxicities are still challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this project, PEGylated and Tween functionalized SWCNTs were prepared. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into nine groups, including PEGylated SWCNTs (75,150μg/mouse) and PEG, Tween80 suspended SWCNTs, Tween 80 and a control group (intact mice). One or 7 days after intravenous injection, the mice were killed and serum and livers were collected. The oxidative stress markers, biochemical and histopathological changes were studied. Subsequently, proteomics approach was used to investigate the alterations of protein expression profiles in the liver. Results showed that there were not any significant differences in malondealdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and biochemical enzymes (ALT and AST) between groups, while the histopathological observations of livers showed some injuries. The results of proteomics analysis revealed indolethylamine N-Methyltransferase (INMT), glycine N-Methyltransferase (GNMT), selenium binding protein (Selenbp), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), TNF receptor associated protein 1(Trap1), peroxiredoxin-6 (Prdx6), electron transport flavoprotein (Etf-α), regucalcin (Rgn) and ATP5b proteins were differentially expressed in functionalized SWCNTs groups. Western blot analyses confirmed that the changes in Prdx6 were consistent with 2-DE gel analysis. In summary, acute toxicological study on two functionalized SWCNTs did not show any significant toxicity at selected doses. Proteomics analysis also showed that following exposure to functionalized SWCNTs, the expression of some proteins with antioxidant activity and detoxifying properties were increased in liver tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying the molecular functions of electron transport proteins using radial basis function networks and biochemical properties.

    Le, Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh; Nguyen, Trinh-Trung-Duong; Ou, Yu-Yen


    The electron transport proteins have an important role in storing and transferring electrons in cellular respiration, which is the most proficient process through which cells gather energy from consumed food. According to the molecular functions, the electron transport chain components could be formed with five complexes with several different electron carriers and functions. Therefore, identifying the molecular functions in the electron transport chain is vital for helping biologists understand the electron transport chain process and energy production in cells. This work includes two phases for discriminating electron transport proteins from transport proteins and classifying categories of five complexes in electron transport proteins. In the first phase, the performances from PSSM with AAIndex feature set were successful in identifying electron transport proteins in transport proteins with achieved sensitivity of 73.2%, specificity of 94.1%, and accuracy of 91.3%, with MCC of 0.64 for independent data set. With the second phase, our method can approach a precise model for identifying of five complexes with different molecular functions in electron transport proteins. The PSSM with AAIndex properties in five complexes achieved MCC of 0.51, 0.47, 0.42, 0.74, and 1.00 for independent data set, respectively. We suggest that our study could be a power model for determining new proteins that belongs into which molecular function of electron transport proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 4-O-methylation of glucuronic acid in Arabidopsis glucuronoxylan is catalyzed by a domain of unknown function family 579 protein

    Urbanowicz, Breeanna R.; Peña, Maria J.; Ratnaparkhe, Supriya; Avci, Utku; Backe, Jason; Steet, Heather F.; Foston, Marcus; Li, Hongjia; O’Neill, Malcolm A.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Darvill, Alan G.; Wyman, Charles; Gilbert, Harry J.; York, William S.


    The hemicellulose 4-O-methyl glucuronoxylan is one of the principle components present in the secondary cell walls of eudicotyledonous plants. However, the biochemical mechanisms leading to the formation of this polysaccharide and the effects of modulating its structure on the physical properties of the cell wall are poorly understood. We have identified and functionally characterized an Arabidopsis glucuronoxylan methyltransferase (GXMT) that catalyzes 4-O-methylation of the glucuronic acid ...

  19. Biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin: the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    Gomes, Mário Sérgio R; Naves de Souza, Dayane L; Guimarães, Denise O; Lopes, Daiana S; Mamede, Carla C N; Gimenes, Sarah Natalie C; Achê, David C; Rodrigues, Renata S; Yoneyama, Kelly A G; Borges, Márcia H; de Oliveira, Fábio; Rodrigues, Veridiana M


    We present the biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin, the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. This protein was purified after three chromatographic steps on cation exchange CM-Sepharose fast flow, size-exclusion column Sephacryl S-300 and anion exchange Capto Q. Bothropoidin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions, and comprised a single chain of 49,558 Da according to MALDI TOF analysis. The protein presented an isoelectric point of 3.76, and the sequence of six fragments obtained by MS (MALDI TOF\\TOF) showed a significant score when compared with other PIII Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Bothropoidin showed proteolytic activity on azocasein, Aα-chain of fibrinogen, fibrin, collagen and fibronectin. The enzyme was stable at pH 6-9 and at lower temperatures when assayed on azocasein. Moreover, its activity was inhibited by EDTA, 1.10-phenanthroline and β-mercaptoethanol. Bothropoidin induced haemorrhage [minimum haemorrhagic dose (MHD) = 0.75 µg], inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP, and interfered with viability and cell adhesion when incubated with endothelial cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Our results showed that Bothropoidin is a haemorrhagic metalloproteinase that can play an important role in the toxicity of B. pauloensis envenomation and might be used as a tool for studying the effects of SVMPs on haemostatic disorders and tumour metastasis. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochemical and microbial soil functioning after application of the insecticide imidacloprid.

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia


    Imidacloprid is one of the most commonly used insecticides in agricultural practice, and its application poses a potential risk for soil microorganisms. The objective of this study was to assess whether changes in the structure of the soil microbial community after imidacloprid application at the field rate (FR, 1mg/kg soil) and 10 times the FR (10× FR, 10mg/kg soil) may also have an impact on biochemical and microbial soil functioning. The obtained data showed a negative effect by imidacloprid applied at the FR dosage for substrate-induced respiration (SIR), the number of total bacteria, dehydrogenase (DHA), both phosphatases (PHOS-H and PHOS-OH), and urease (URE) at the beginning of the experiment. In 10× FR treated soil, decreased activity of SIR, DHA, PHOS-OH and PHOS-H was observed over the experimental period. Nitrifying and N2-fixing bacteria were the most sensitive to imidacloprid. The concentration of NO3(-) decreased in both imidacloprid-treated soils, whereas the concentration of NH4(+) in soil with 10× FR was higher than in the control. Analysis of the bacterial growth strategy revealed that imidacloprid affected the r- or K-type bacterial classes as indicated also by the decreased eco-physiological (EP) index. Imidacloprid affected the physiological state of culturable bacteria and caused a reduction in the rate of colony formation as well as a prolonged time for growth. Principal component analysis showed that imidacloprid application significantly shifted the measured parameters, and the application of imidacloprid may pose a potential risk to the biochemical and microbial activity of soils. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Organochlorine pesticide level in patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology and its association with renal function.

    Ghosh, Rishila; Siddarth, Manushi; Singh, Neeru; Tyagi, Vipin; Kare, Pawan Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Kalra, Om Prakash; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar


    Involvement of agrochemicals have been suggested in the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). The association between CKDu and blood level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in CKDu patients has been examined in the present study. All the recruited study subjects (n = 300) were divided in three groups, namely, healthy control (n = 100), patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (n = 100), and patients with chronic kidney disease of known etiology (CKDk) (n = 100). Blood OCP levels of all three study groups were analyzed by gas chromatography. Increased level of OCPs, namely α-HCH, aldrin, and β-endosulfan, were observed in CKDu patients as compared to healthy control and CKD patients of known etiology. The levels of these pesticides significantly correlated negatively with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and positively with urinary albumin of CKD patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed association of γ-HCH, p, p'-DDE, and β-endosulfan with CKDu on adjustment of age, sex, BMI, and total lipid content. Increased blood level of certain organochlorine pesticides is associated with the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology.

  2. Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Parawixia bistriata Spider Venom with Potential Proteolytic and Larvicidal Activities

    Gimenez, Gizeli S.; Coutinho-Neto, Antonio; Kayano, Anderson M.; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Trindade, Frances; de Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Marcussi, Silvana; da Silva, Saulo L.; Fernandes, Carla F. C.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.


    Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa) that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:24895632

  3. Effects of fenspiride on human bronchial cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes: functional and biochemical study.

    Cortijo, J; Naline, E; Ortiz, J L; Berto, L; Girard, V; Malbezin, M; Advenier, C; Morcillo, E J


    We have investigated the role of human bronchial cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the effects of fenspiride, a drug endowed with bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory properties. Functional studies on human isolated bronchi showed that fenspiride (10(-6)-3 x 10(-3) M, 30 min) induced a shift to the left of the concentration-response curves for isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside with -logEC50 values of 4.1+/-0.1 (n = 7) and 3.5+/-0.2 (n = 8), respectively. Biochemical studies were carried out on three human bronchi in which separation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes was performed by ion exchange chromatography followed by determination of phosphodiesterase activity with a radioisotopic method. Phosphodiesterase 4 (cyclic AMP-specific) and phosphodiesterase 5 (cyclic GMP-specific) were the major phosphodiesterase isoforms present in the human bronchial tissue. The presence of phosphodiesterase 1 (Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated), phosphodiesterase 2 (cyclic GMP-stimulated) and, in two cases, phosphodiesterase 3 (cyclic GMP-inhibited) was also identified. Fenspiride inhibited phosphodiesterase 4 and phosphodiesterase 3 activities with -logIC50 values of 4.16+/-0.09 and 3.44+/-0.12, respectively. Phosphodiesterase 5 activity was also inhibited with a -logIC50 value of approximately 3.8. Fenspiride (fenspiride is an effective inhibitor of both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP hydrolytic activity in human bronchial tissues and this action may contribute to its airway effects.

  4. Functional and biochemical responses of cultured heart cells to angiotensin II

    Allen, I.; Gaa, S.; Rogers, T.B.


    The authors have utilized a cultured neonatal rat heart myocyte system to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the stimulation of heart cells by angiotensin II (AII). The intact cultured cells, and membranes from these cells, have specific, high affinity receptors for 125 I-AII and for an AII antagonist, 125 I-Sar 1 ,Leu 8 -AII. Binding affinity was in the nanomolar range and was inhibited by guanine nucleotides. Functional studies on intact, beating cells revealed a maximal increase in contractile frequency of 50%, observed at 5 nM AII, with half maximal effects noted at around 1 nM. These responses were reversible and specific as the antagonist, Sar 1 , Ala 8 -AII, inhibited AII-induced chronotropic stimulation. AII (100 nM) had no effect on basal adenylate cyclase activity (20 pmoles cAMP/mg prot/min at 2.5mM Mg 2+ ) in cell membranes. Further, in membranes where cyclase activity was stimulated with isoproterenol (290 pmoles cAMP/mg prot/min at 2.5mM Mg 2+ ), addition of AII had no effect. The cyclase-inhibitory muscarinic agonist, carbachol, also failed to reduce isoproterenol-stimulated activity. In preliminary work with the intact cells, AII again did not alter basal cAMP levels (3-10 pmoles cAMP/mg prot). However, the hormone increased isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP levels by almost 50%. These cells are an excellent system for correlating AII receptor binding with functional and biochemical responses

  5. The investigation of specific biochemical markers in monitoring kidney function of drug addicts.

    Gąsiorowski, Jacek; Marchewka, Zofia; Łapiński, Łukasz; Szymańska, Beata; Głowacka, Krystyna; Knysz, Brygida; Długosz, Anna; Wiela-Hojeńska, Anna


    An increasingly important issue in the Polish population is drug abuse. It leads to extensive damage of parenchymal organs, including kidney. Establishing early markers of organ damage and their monitoring during rehabilitation therapy is therefore of pivotal importance. This study evaluated the utility of highly specific and selective markers (NGAL, IL-18, a and π-GST isoenzyme, and ß2-M). The influence of opioid drugs and other factors on kidney function (HIV and HCV infections, duration and the kind of drugs abused) was determined. Urine collected from 83 subjects who abused drugs and 33 healthy volunteers was tested with ELISA using specific antibodies (IBL, Biotron, Bioporto-Diagnostics). HIV infection was confirmed with western-blotting and HCV with PCR. CD4 lymphocytes were quantified with flow cytometry. RFLP and PCR were used to determine the viral load of HIV and HCV (genotype). A significant increase of IL-18, NGAL and β2M activity in heroin addicts compared to the control group was noted as well as the influence of HIV infection on NGAL and β2M excretion. A statistically significant (p=0.04) correlation between the viral load and IL-18 concentration was noted while no significant influence of the duration and the kind of drugs abused, the route of intake or the age of addicts was seen. Only the NGAL concentration was sex dependent and significantly higher in women. This study showed the specific, clinical utility of IL-18, NGAL, and β2M in the evaluation of renal function in drug addicts. Early detection of nephropathy with biochemical indicators might help prevent severe conditions that require hospitalization and intensive care.

  6. Pasture degradation modifies soil organic matter properties and biochemical functioning in Tibetan grasslands

    Spielvogel, Sandra; Steingräber, Laura; Schleuß, Per; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Guggenberger, Georg


    degradation stages 1, 2 and 3 although OC contents and composition in the subsoil changed progressively from stage 1 to 4. Only the PLFA profiles of stage 4 differed from those of the other subsoils, suggesting that microbial communities were mainly controlled by other factors than C and N contents and SOM composition. These findings were also confirmed by the activities of β-glucosidase, xylanase, amino-peptidases and proteases. Those enzyme activities were highest in the subsoil of degradation stage 4, whereas degradation stages 2 and 3 showed low enzyme activities in the subsoil if related to soil OC amount and composition. We conclude that pasture degradation decreases not only mechanical protection of soil surface by Kobresia root mats, but also changes their biochemical and microbial functions.

  7. Impact of oil from the Neftyaniye kamni deposits on physiological and biochemical fishes reproductive functions

    Kasimov, R.YU; Akhundov, M.M; Vagabova, G.R; Mekhtiev, A.A; Palatnikov, G.M


    Full text: The problem of impact of oil and oil products on water organisms has been studying for a long time.However, the main and more profound studies were begun in the middle of seventies of 20th century due to increase of the tanker-mediated oil transportation and exploitation of the oil and gas deposits in the shelf area.Such kind of works was begun for the first time in the Caspian Sea in the N eftyaniye Kamni d eposits.Owing to the fact that the Caspian Sea is very rich with the sturgeon fishes and nearly 70% of the world sturgeon harvests are provided here, that time the wide-scale studies of impact of oil and oil products on water organisms were initiated. However, in these studies the authors' conclusions about oil impact on water organisms were equivocal. Analysis of these and other studies shows that authors mostly studied the values of fish survival and development under exposition to oil impact for a short time. So long-termexperiments with application of more sensitive values weren't accomplished. Beginning since 1965 in Azerbaijan in academy of Sciences and in Fish Industry Institute the comprehensive studies had been conducted on the oil impact on the most important physiological and biochemical values and further on reproductive functions of fishes.The main attention was given to chronic minimal oil concentrations that were present in a number of the Caspian Sea areas. In our investigations changes of defensive, orientation and food-seeking reflexes, changes of quantities of biogenic amines in the fish brains, dynamic of blood values changes, changes of amplitude and duration of evoked potentials of different brain areas,changes of reproduction activities and terms of sexual maturation and rates of gametogenesis in fishes were determined under the impact of oil pollution. The experiments were conducted on sturgeon juveniles and model aqurium fishes guppy. The results showed that crude oil from the Neftyaniye Kamni deposits in concentrations above

  8. Biochemical markers of the functional disorders of the liver in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    L.F. Bogmat


    Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in the basis of the pathogenesis has generalized autoimmune inflammation, which leads to the development of a wide range of immune-inflammatory organ disorders. Among them, the liver deserves special attention, since its functional state can reflect not only the severity of the pathological process, but also the response on aggressive treatment. The purpose of the work was studying the biochemical markers of the functional state of the liver in children with initial stages of SLE. Materials and methods. Features of the lipid, carbohydrate spectrum of the blood, indicators of pigment exchange, markers of cytolysis, cholestasis, fibrosis and protein-synthetic function of the liver were studied in children and adolescents with SLE. Twenty six patients aged 7–18 years were examined. Two groups were formed: 10 patients (38.4 % with the duration of the disease of 1–3 years and 16 people (61.5 % with duration of more than 3 years. Results. The average blood lipids levels did not exceed the reference values and did not have statistical differences among the patients of the selected groups. The levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in both groups of patients significantly exceeded the control values (p < 0.05. Indicators of low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased already in the early stages of the disease (p < 0.05 and reached the maximum values in individuals with a course of SLE over 3 years (p < 0.05. Concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients of the second group decreased somewhat (p < 0.1. There was an increase in the average values of atherogenic index by 1.7 times among patients in the first group (p < 0.05 and 2.25 times in persons from the second group (p < 0.05. Studies of other metabolic links showed that the average values of glycaemia and immunoreactive insulin (IRI were consistent with the physiological norm. However, half of patients with SLE had

  9. Stress tolerances of nullmutants of function-unknown genes encoding menadione stress-responsive proteins in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Leiter, Éva; Bálint, Mihály; Miskei, Márton; Orosz, Erzsébet; Szabó, Zsuzsa; Pócsi, István


    A group of menadione stress-responsive function-unkown genes of Aspergillus nidulans (Locus IDs ANID_03987.1, ANID_06058.1, ANID_10219.1, and ANID_10260.1) was deleted and phenotypically characterized. Importantly, comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the tested A. nidulans genes and their orthologs shed light only on the presence of a TANGO2 domain with NRDE protein motif in the translated ANID_06058.1 gene but did not reveal any recognizable protein-encoding domains in other protein sequences. The gene deletion strains were subjected to oxidative, osmotic, and metal ion stress and, surprisingly, only the ΔANID_10219.1 mutant showed an increased sensitivity to 0.12 mmol l(-1) menadione sodium bisulfite. The gene deletions affected the stress sensitivities (tolerances) irregularly, for example, some strains grew more slowly when exposed to various oxidants and/or osmotic stress generating agents, meanwhile the ΔANID_10260.1 mutant possessed a wild-type tolerance to all stressors tested. Our results are in line with earlier studies demonstrating that the deletions of stress-responsive genes do not confer necessarily any stress-sensitivity phenotypes, which can be attributed to compensatory mechanisms based on other elements of the stress response system with overlapping functions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Improving the success and impact of the metabolic engineering design, build, test, learn cycle by addressing proteins of unknown function.

    Jarboe, Laura R


    Rational, predictive metabolic engineering of organisms requires an ability to associate biological activity to the corresponding gene(s). Despite extensive advances in the 20 years since the Escherichia coli genome was published, there are still gaps in our knowledge of protein function. The substantial amount of data that has been published, such as: omics-level characterization in a myriad of conditions; genome-scale libraries; and evolution and genome sequencing, provide means of identifying and prioritizing proteins for characterization. This review describes the scale of this knowledge gap, demonstrates the benefit of addressing the knowledge gap, and demonstrates the availability of interesting candidates for characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Successes and failures of DFT functionals in acid/base and redox reactions of organic and biochemical interest

    Silva, Pedro J.; Ramos, Maria João


    The performance of 18 different DFT functionals in the prediction of absolute and relative energies of organic and biochemical acid/base and redox reactions was evaluated, using MP2 extrapolated to the complete basis set limit and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ energies as benchmark. Absolute reduction energies were predicted with relatively large average errors (2–4 kcal mol−1) except for the best functional, PBE0 (1.3 ± 1.2 kcal mol−1). The DFT predictions of relative reduction energies afforded mean ...

  12. Functional and biochemical adaptations of elite level futsal players from Brazil along a training season

    Rômulo Pillon Barcelos


    Conclusions: The tapering strategy was successful considering players presented lower levels of muscle damage, inflammation and oxidative stress makers before T2, which preceded the main championship of the year. These results are of great relevance, considering the team won the FIFA®-Intercontinental-Futsal-Cup, which happened at T2. Thus, it seems that routine-based biochemical markers may be useful as training control means in this population.

  13. Evaluation value of coronary CTA for coronary plaque features and its correlation with platelet function and serum biochemical indexes

    Jin-Xia Yang


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the evaluation value of coronary CT angiography for coronary plaque features and its correlation with platelet function and serum biochemical indexes. Methods: A total of 450 patients with coronary heart disease were divided into calcified plaque group (CT value≥130HU (n=117, soft plaque group (CT value≤60HU (n=150 and mixed plaque group (CT value 60-130HU (n=183 by coronary CT angiography (CTA, and 100 healthy subjects who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Differences in platelet function and serum biochemical indexes were compared among four groups of patients, and the judgment value of atheromatous plaque CT value from CTA for the severity of coronary heart disease was analyzed. Results: Platelet function parameters MPV, TEG-MA, P-selectin, PDGF-BB and vWF levels in peripheral blood of soft plaque group were higher than those of the other three groups; inflammatory factors CRP, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18 and IL-23 content in serum were higher than those of the other three groups; chemokines MCP-1, CXCL16, Fractalkine and RANTES content in serum were higher than those of the other three groups; adipocytokines Leptin and RBP4 content in serum were higher than those of the other three groups while SFRP5 content was lower than those of the other three groups. Atheromatous plaque CT value in patients with coronary heart disease was directly correlated with platelet function and the content of serum biochemical indexes. Conclusions: Coronary CTA can accurately assess coronary atheromatous plaque features, and can also be a reliable noninvasive method to judge coronary heart disease severity, treatment prognosis and so on.

  14. Rapid biochemical functionalization of technical surfaces by means of a photobleaching-based maskless projection lithography process

    Waldbaur, Ansgar; Waterkotte, Björn; Leuthold, Juerg; Schmitz, Katja; Rapp, Bastian E.


    MEMS/MOEMS based systems are increasingly applied in the biological and biomedical context, e.g. in form of biosensors or substrates for monitoring biological responses such as cell migration. For such applications, technical surfaces have to be provided with suitable biochemical functionalization. Typical functionalization procedures include wet-chemical techniques based on self-assembled monolayers of thiols on gold or silanes on glass. These processes create binary patterns and are often of limited use if spatially constrained non-binary patterns like surface bound biochemical gradients have to be provided. In order to create gradients or patterns, methods such as direct spotting or dip pen nanolithography can be used. Here, gradients can be emulated by varying the spot density or the concentration of the solutions employed. However, these methods are serial in nature and are thus of limited use if large surface areas have to be patterned. We present a technique to generate gradients of biochemical function by a photobleaching-based process allowing fast large-scale patterning. The process is based on photobleaching resulting in light-induced coupling of a fluorescently tagged biomolecule to a technical surface by concerted bleaching of the fluorophore. We custom designed a maskless projection lithography system based on a digital mirror device that allows the rapid creation of 8-bit grayscale protein patterns on any technical surface from digital data (e.g. bitmap files). We demonstrate how this process can be used to obtain patterns of several cm2 lateral size at micrometer resolution within minutes.

  15. Functional Diversity of Haloacid Dehalogenase Superfamily Phosphatases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: BIOCHEMICAL, STRUCTURAL, AND EVOLUTIONARY INSIGHTS.

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Makarova, Kira S; Flick, Robert; Wolf, Yuri I; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Evdokimova, Elena; Jin, Ke; Tan, Kemin; Hanson, Andrew D; Hasnain, Ghulam; Zallot, Rémi; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Babu, Mohan; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Edwards, Aled M; Koonin, Eugene V; Yakunin, Alexander F


    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes comprise a large superfamily of phosphohydrolases present in all organisms. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes at least 19 soluble HADs, including 10 uncharacterized proteins. Here, we biochemically characterized 13 yeast phosphatases from the HAD superfamily, which includes both specific and promiscuous enzymes active against various phosphorylated metabolites and peptides with several HADs implicated in detoxification of phosphorylated compounds and pseudouridine. The crystal structures of four yeast HADs provided insight into their active sites, whereas the structure of the YKR070W dimer in complex with substrate revealed a composite substrate-binding site. Although the S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli HADs share low sequence similarities, the comparison of their substrate profiles revealed seven phosphatases with common preferred substrates. The cluster of secondary substrates supporting significant activity of both S. cerevisiae and E. coli HADs includes 28 common metabolites that appear to represent the pool of potential activities for the evolution of novel HAD phosphatases. Evolution of novel substrate specificities of HAD phosphatases shows no strict correlation with sequence divergence. Thus, evolution of the HAD superfamily combines the conservation of the overall substrate pool and the substrate profiles of some enzymes with remarkable biochemical and structural flexibility of other superfamily members. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleurotus ferulae on biochemical and histological function in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Nuhu Alam


    Full Text Available Background: Pleurotus ferulae is an edible mushroom has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Irrespective of the medicinal importance or therapeutic potentials of P. ferulae, there have not been studies on anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of dietary P. ferulae fruiting bodies on plasma and feces biochemical and on the liver histological status in hypercholesterolemic rats. Methods: Six weeks old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Then biochemical and histological examinations were performed. Results: Feeding of a diet containing 5% P. ferulae fruiting bodies to hypercholesterolemic rat reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, total lipid, phospholipids, and LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio by 30.02, 49.31, 71.15, 30.23, 21.93, and 65.31%, respectively. Mushroom also significantly reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no adverse effects on plasma albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and enzyme profiles. Feeding mushroom increased total lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces. The plasma lipoprotein fraction, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, indicated that P. ferulae significantly reduced plasma β and pre-β-lipoprotein, while increased the α-lipoprotein. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining showed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests that 5% P. ferulae diet supplement provides health benefits, at least partially, by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  17. Ancient Origin of the CARD–Coiled Coil/Bcl10/MALT1-Like Paracaspase Signaling Complex Indicates Unknown Critical Functions

    Jens Staal


    Full Text Available The CARD–coiled coil (CC/Bcl10/MALT1-like paracaspase (CBM signaling complexes composed of a CARD–CC family member (CARD-9, -10, -11, or -14, Bcl10, and the type 1 paracaspase MALT1 (PCASP1 play a pivotal role in immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Targeting MALT1 proteolytic activity is of potential therapeutic interest. However, little is known about the evolutionary origin and the original functions of the CBM complex. Type 1 paracaspases originated before the last common ancestor of planulozoa (bilaterians and cnidarians. Notably in bilaterians, Ecdysozoa (e.g., nematodes and insects lacks Bcl10, whereas other lineages have a Bcl10 homolog. A survey of invertebrate CARD–CC homologs revealed such homologs only in species with Bcl10, indicating an ancient common origin of the entire CBM complex. Furthermore, vertebrate-like Syk/Zap70 tyrosine kinase homologs with the ITAM-binding SH2 domain were only found in invertebrate organisms with CARD–CC/Bcl10, indicating that this pathway might be related to the original function of the CBM complex. Moreover, the type 1 paracaspase sequences from invertebrate organisms that have CARD–CC/Bcl10 are more similar to vertebrate paracaspases. Functional analysis of protein–protein interactions, NF-κB signaling, and CYLD cleavage for selected invertebrate type 1 paracaspase and Bcl10 homologs supports this scenario and indicates an ancient origin of the CARD–CC/Bcl10/paracaspase signaling complex. By contrast, many of the known MALT1-associated activities evolved fairly recently, indicating that unknown functions are at the basis of the protein conservation. As a proof-of-concept, we provide initial evidence for a CBM- and NF-κB-independent neuronal function of the Caenorhabditis elegans type 1 paracaspase malt-1. In conclusion, this study shows how evolutionary insights may point at alternative functions of MALT1.

  18. Known knowns, known unknowns and unknown unknowns in prokaryotic transposition.

    Siguier, Patricia; Gourbeyre, Edith; Chandler, Michael


    Although the phenomenon of transposition has been known for over 60 years, its overarching importance in modifying and streamlining genomes took some time to recognize. In spite of a robust understanding of transposition of some TE, there remain a number of important TE groups with potential high genome impact and unknown transposition mechanisms and yet others, only recently identified by bioinformatics, yet to be formally confirmed as mobile. Here, we point to some areas of limited understanding concerning well established important TE groups with DDE Tpases, to address central gaps in our knowledge of characterised Tn with other types of Tpases and finally, to highlight new potentially mobile DNA species. It is not exhaustive. Examples have been chosen to provide encouragement in the continued exploration of the considerable prokaryotic mobilome especially in light of the current threat to public health posed by the spread of multiple Ab R . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristic Variations and Similarities in Biochemical, Molecular, and Functional Properties of Glyoxalases across Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    Kaur, Charanpreet; Sharma, Shweta; Hasan, Mohammad Rokebul; Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Sopory, Sudhir K


    The glyoxalase system is the ubiquitous pathway for the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG) in the biological systems. It comprises two enzymes, glyoxalase I (GLYI) and glyoxalase II (GLYII), which act sequentially to convert MG into d-lactate, thereby helping living systems get rid of this otherwise cytotoxic byproduct of metabolism. In addition, a glutathione-independent GLYIII enzyme activity also exists in the biological systems that can directly convert MG to d-lactate. Humans and Escherichia coli possess a single copy of GLYI (encoding either the Ni- or Zn-dependent form) and GLYII genes, which through MG detoxification provide protection against various pathological and disease conditions. By contrast, the plant genome possesses multiple GLYI and GLYII genes with a role in abiotic stress tolerance. Plants possess both Ni 2+ - and Zn 2+ -dependent forms of GLYI, and studies on plant glyoxalases reveal the various unique features of these enzymes distinguishing them from prokaryotic and other eukaryotic glyoxalases. Through this review, we provide an overview of the plant glyoxalase family along with a comparative analysis of glyoxalases across various species, highlighting similarities as well as differences in the biochemical, molecular, and physiological properties of these enzymes. We believe that the evolution of multiple glyoxalases isoforms in plants is an important component of their robust defense strategies.

  20. Non-natural and photo-reactive amino acids as biochemical probes of immune function.

    Marta Gómez-Nuñez

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor protein (WT1 is a transcription factor selectively overexpressed in leukemias and cancers; clinical trials are underway that use altered WT1 peptide sequences as vaccines. Here we report a strategy to study peptide-MHC interactions by incorporating non-natural and photo-reactive amino acids into the sequence of WT1 peptides. Thirteen WT1 peptides sequences were synthesized with chemically modified amino acids (via fluorination and photo-reactive group additions at MHC and T cell receptor binding positions. Certain new non-natural peptide analogs could stabilize MHC class I molecules better than the native sequences and were also able to elicit specific T-cell responses and sometimes cytotoxicity to leukemia cells. Two photo-reactive peptides, also modified with a biotin handle for pull-down studies, formed covalent interactions with MHC molecules on live cells and provided kinetic data showing the rapid clearance of the peptide-MHC complex. Despite "infinite affinity" provided by the covalent peptide bonding to the MHC, immunogenicity was not enhanced by these peptides because the peptide presentation on the surface was dominated by catabolism of the complex and only a small percentage of peptide molecules covalently bound to the MHC molecules. This study shows that non-natural amino acids can be successfully incorporated into T cell epitopes to provide novel immunological, biochemical and kinetic information.

  1. Initial biochemical and functional characterization of a 5'-nucleotidase from Xylella fastidiosa related to the human cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I.

    Santos, Clelton A; Saraiva, Antonio M; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Crucello, Aline; Favaro, Marianna T P; Horta, Maria A C; Santiago, André S; Mendes, Juliano S; Souza, Alessandra A; Souza, Anete P


    The 5'-nucleotidases constitute a ubiquitous family of enzymes that catalyze either the hydrolysis or the transfer of esterified phosphate at the 5' position of nucleoside monophosphates. These enzymes are responsible for the regulation of nucleotide and nucleoside levels in the cell and can interfere with the phosphorylation-dependent activation of nucleoside analogs used in therapies targeting solid tumors and viral infections. In the present study, we report the initial biochemical and functional characterization of a 5'-nucleotidase from Xylella fastidiosa that is related to the human cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I. X. fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that is responsible for numerous economically important crop diseases. Biochemical assays confirmed the phosphatase activity of the recombinant purified enzyme and revealed metal ion dependence for full enzyme activity. In addition, we investigated the involvement of Xf5'-Nt in the formation of X. fastidiosa biofilms, which are structures that occlude the xylem vessels of susceptible plants and are strictly associated with bacterial pathogenesis. Using polyclonal antibodies against Xf5'-Nt, we observed an overexpression of Xf5'-Nt during the initial phases of X. fastidiosa biofilm formation that was not observed during X. fastidiosa planktonic growth. Our results demonstrate that the de/phosphorylation network catalyzed by 5'-nucleotidases may play an important role in bacterial biofilm formation, thereby contributing novel insights into bacterial nucleotide metabolism and pathogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thyroid function and some related biochemical parameters in bilharzial liver disease

    Ibrahim, W. Abdel Massih


    Bilharziasis in its different forms is estimated to affect at least 200 million people in the world (W.H.O., 1973). In egypt, it affects 60 - 70% of the rural population (WcMullen, 1963). Bilharzial ova reaches the liver with the portal blood stream causing a fibro - cellular reaction in and around the portal tract resulting in hepatic periportal fibrosis with various clinical stages (Abdalla et al., 1978 b). The effect of liver disease on thyroid function is still a subject of controversy and contradiction. While some reports are published on the effect of non-bilharzial liver disease on thyroid function, there is scanty studies as regards to bilharzial liver diseases . Most of the studies carried out to evaluate thyroid function in bilharzial liver disease, were focused on the estimation of one or two parameters of thyroid function e.g., T 3 and TSH. The available review of literature was focused on some parameters of thyroid function ignoring the others thyroid function tests and not considering the hormone carrier proteins. Thus resulting inconsistent and contradictory results (Ghareeb, 1962; El Haieg and Ibrahim, 1977)

  3. Effect of spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen

    K Milasius


    Full Text Available Of highest biological value are natural concentrates of optimally combined substances produced by nature. One of food supplements of this kind is dietary Spirulina produced by the Tianshi firm (China. It is a most rationally balanced food supplement of a high biological value; it satisfies the needs of the whole body, including its immune system. The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of the multicomponent natural food supplement Spirulina on the physical development, blood morphological, biochemical picture and immune function of sportsmen. Materials and Methods: The study cohort comprised 12 high performance sportsmen (age 20-22 years. They were using tablets of Spirulina, a dietary product for 14 days. Physical development was determined with the aid of standard methods. The general blood picture was analyzed with the aid of a Micros-60 hematological analyzer (company ABX DIAGNOSTICS, France. Lymphocytes and their subsets were analysed by flow cytometery (FACSCalibur, Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS, USA and the absolute and percentage values were calculated. To evaluate immune function lymphocyte blasttransformation response to mitogens was studied. Results: Investigations carried out on endurance-training sportsmen showed that a 14-d administration of Spirulina exerted a positive effect on blood morphological composition indices and its biochemical changes. The results of our study confirm the positive effect of Spirulina food supplement on the quantitative parameters of immune system. Part of the study cohort after weeks showed a tendency of normalizing CD3 , CD3 CD4 lympocite count: positive changes were still present two weeks following the interruption of Spirulina intake

  4. Comparison of muscle/lean mass measurement methods: correlation with functional and biochemical testing.

    Buehring, B; Siglinsky, E; Krueger, D; Evans, W; Hellerstein, M; Yamada, Y; Binkley, N


    DXA-measured lean mass is often used to assess muscle mass but has limitations. Thus, we compared DXA lean mass with two novel methods-bioelectric impedance spectroscopy and creatine (methyl-d3) dilution. The examined methodologies did not measure lean mass similarly and the correlation with muscle biomarkers/function varied. Muscle function tests predict adverse health outcomes better than lean mass measurement. This may reflect limitations of current mass measurement methods. Newer approaches, e.g., bioelectric impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-C), may more accurately assess muscle mass. We hypothesized that BIS and D3-C measured muscle mass would better correlate with function and bone/muscle biomarkers than DXA measured lean mass. Evaluations of muscle/lean mass, function, and serum biomarkers were obtained in older community-dwelling adults. Mass was assessed by DXA, BIS, and orally administered D3-C. Grip strength, timed up and go, and jump power were examined. Potential muscle/bone serum biomarkers were measured. Mass measurements were compared with functional and serum data using regression analyses; differences between techniques were determined by paired t tests. Mean (SD) age of the 112 (89F/23M) participants was 80.6 (6.0) years. The lean/muscle mass assessments were correlated (.57-.88) but differed (p Lean mass measures were unrelated to the serum biomarkers measured. These three methodologies do not similarly measure muscle/lean mass and should not be viewed as being equivalent. Functional tests assessing maximal muscle strength/power (grip strength and jump power) correlated with all mass measures whereas gait speed was not. None of the selected serum measures correlated with mass. Efforts to optimize muscle mass assessment and identify their relationships with health outcomes are needed.

  5. Biochemical and functional analysis of two Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage 6-cys proteins: P12 and P41.

    Tana Taechalertpaisarn

    Full Text Available The genomes of Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria in humans, other primates, birds, and rodents all encode multiple 6-cys proteins. Distinct 6-cys protein family members reside on the surface at each extracellular life cycle stage and those on the surface of liver infective and sexual stages have been shown to play important roles in hepatocyte growth and fertilization respectively. However, 6-cys proteins associated with the blood-stage forms of the parasite have no known function. Here we investigate the biochemical nature and function of two blood-stage 6-cys proteins in Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic species to afflict humans. We show that native P12 and P41 form a stable heterodimer on the infective merozoite surface and are secreted following invasion, but could find no evidence that this complex mediates erythrocyte-receptor binding. That P12 and P41 do not appear to have a major role as adhesins to erythrocyte receptors was supported by the observation that antisera to these proteins did not substantially inhibit erythrocyte invasion. To investigate other functional roles for these proteins their genes were successfully disrupted in P. falciparum, however P12 and P41 knockout parasites grew at normal rates in vitro and displayed no other obvious phenotypic changes. It now appears likely that these blood-stage 6-cys proteins operate as a pair and play redundant roles either in erythrocyte invasion or in host-immune interactions.

  6. Biochemical function of typical and variant Arabidopsis thaliana U-box E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases.

    Wiborg, Jakob; O'Shea, Charlotte; Skriver, Karen


    The variance of the U-box domain in 64 Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) E3s (ubiquitin-protein ligases) was used to examine the interactions between E3s and E2s (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes). E2s and E3s are components of the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway. Seven U-box proteins were analysed for their ability to ubiquitinate proteins in vitro in co-operation with different E2s. All U-box domains exhibited ubiquitination activity and interacted productively with UBC4/5-type E2s. Three and four of the U-box domains mediated ubiquitin addition in the presence of UBC13 and UBC7 E2s respectively, but no productive interaction was observed with the UBC15 E2 tested. The activity of AtPUB54 [Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) plant U-box 54 protein] was dependent on Trp(266) in the E2-binding cleft, and the E2 selectivity was changed by substitution of this position. The function of the distant U-box protein, AtPUB49, representing a large family of eukaryotic proteins containing a U-box linked to a cyclophilin-like peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase domain, was characterized biochemically. AtPUB49 functioned both as a prolyl isomerase and a chaperone by catalysing cis-trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds and dissolving protein aggregates. In conclusion, both typical and atypical Arabidopsis U-box proteins were active E3s. The overlap in the E3/E2 selectivity suggests that in vivo specificity is not determined only by the E3-E2 interactions, but also by other parameters, e.g. co-existence or interactions with additional domains. The biochemical functions of AtPUB49 suggest that the protein can be involved in folding or degradation of protein substrates. Similar functions can also be retained within a protein complex with separate chaperone and U-box proteins.

  7. Microbiological, biochemical, and functional aspects of sugary kefir fermentation - A review.

    Fiorda, Fernanda Assumpção; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinicius; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar; Pagnoncelli, Maria Giovana Binder; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo


    Sugary kefir beverage is produce by fermenting raw sugar solution with kefir grains, the latter consisting of polysaccharide and microorganisms. This beverage, with great consumption in countries such as USA, Japan, France, and Brazil, represents a promising market to functional cultured drinks. This paper reviews the microbial diversity and interaction, kinetics, safety, and bioactivities of sugary kefir fermentation. The literature reviewed here demonstrates that sugary kefir possesses a similar microbial association relative to traditional milk kefir fermentation, especially among lactic acid bacteria and yeast species, such as Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, and Saccharomyces. However, a selective pressure at species level is generally observed, as, for example, the stimulation of Saccharomyces species metabolism, leading to a high content of alcohol in the final product. This also seems to stimulate the growth of acetic acid bacteria that benefit of increased ethanol production to acetic acid metabolism. Existing reports have suggested important bioactivities associated with sugary kefir beverage consumption, such as antimicrobial, antiedematogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cicatrizing, and healing activities. Other alternative non-dairy substrates, such as fruits, vegetables, and molasses, have also been tested for adaptation of kefir grains and production of functional beverages with distinct sensory characteristics. This diversification is of crucial importance for the production of new probiotic products to provide people with special needs (lactose intolerance) and vegan consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein Tyrosine Nitration: Biochemical Mechanisms and Structural Basis of its Functional Effects

    Radi, Rafael


    CONSPECTUS The nitration of protein tyrosine residues to 3-nitrotyrosine represents an oxidative postranslational modification that unveils the disruption of nitric oxide (•NO) signaling and metabolism towards pro-oxidant processes. Indeed, excess levels of reactive oxygen species in the presence of •NO or •NO-derived metabolites lead to the formation of nitrating species such as peroxynitrite. Thus, protein 3-nitrotyrosine has been established as a biomarker of cell, tissue and systemic “nitroxidative stress”. Moreover, tyrosine nitration modifies key properties of the amino acid (i.e. phenol group pKa, redox potential, hydrophobicity and volume). Thus, the incorporation of a nitro group (−NO2) to protein tyrosines can lead to profound structural and functional changes, some of which contribute to altered cell and tissue homeostasis. In this Account, I describe our current efforts to define 1) biologically-relevant mechanisms of protein tyrosine nitration and 2) how this modification can cause changes in protein structure and function at the molecular level. First, the relevance of protein tyrosine nitration via free radical-mediated reactions (in both peroxynitrite-dependent or independent pathways) involving the intermediacy of tyrosyl radical (Tyr•) will be underscored. This feature of the nitration process becomes critical as Tyr• can take variable fates, including the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. Fast kinetic techniques, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies, bioanalytical methods and kinetic simulations have altogether assisted to characterize and fingerprint the reactions of tyrosine with peroxynitrite and one-electron oxidants and its further evolution to 3-nitrotyrosine. Recent findings show that nitration of tyrosines in proteins associated to biomembranes is linked to the lipid peroxidation process via a connecting reaction that involves the one-electron oxidation of tyrosine by lipid peroxyl radicals (LOO•). Second

  9. Liver function in Huntington's disease assessed by blood biochemical analyses in a clinical setting

    Nielsen, Signe Marie Borch; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen E.


    dysfunction are seen. Blood levels of a wide range of hormones, metabolites and proteins have been analyzed in HD patients, identifying several changes associated with the disease. However, a comprehensive panel of liver function tests (LFT) has not been performed. We investigated a cohort of manifest......Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited, progressive neurological disorder caused by a CAG repeat elongation in the huntingtin gene. In addition to motor-, psychiatric- A nd cognitive dysfunction, peripheral disease manifestations in the form of metabolic changes and cellular...... and premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers and controls, using a clinically applied panel of LFTs. Here, we demonstrate that the level of alkaline phosphatase is increased in manifest HD gene-expansion carriers compared to premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers and correlate with increased disease severity...

  10. [Clinical, functional and biochemical characteristics of arterial hypertension in military men under chronic stress].

    Shpagina, L A; Ermakova, M A; Volkova, E A; Iakovleva, S A


    Peculiarities of military occupational activities are repeated stress and high degree of psychoemotional strain. The article deals with results of momentary study covering a select from military men cohort, with thyroid tests, renal functional tests, diurnal monitoring of blood pressure and psychologic state assessment. Course of arterial hypertension in military men subjected to chronic stress presents prevailing systolic-diastolic and diastolic variants with excessive decrease of blood pressure at night, with high values of albuminuria. Psychologic state of the military men examined, whe were subjects to chronic stress, was mostly mixed reactivity type with general overstrain and somatization of inner conflict (psychosomatic variant of dysadaptation). The authors demonstrated close correlation between intrinsic emotional strain degree with arterial hypertension type according to "hyper-dipper" variant and free T3 level.

  11. Prematurity and Related Biochemical Outcomes: Study of Bone Mineralization and Renal Function Parameters in Preterm Infants

    Sarika Singh Chauhan


    phosphorus levels were found to be significantly decreased, and serum ALP, creatinine, and electrolytes were found to be significantly increased (<0.001 at 28–30 weeks as compared to controls, but serum calcium and phosphorous levels were found to be insignificantly decreased, whereas serum ALP activities were found to be insignificantly increased at 28–30 weeks as compared to 30–32 weeks of gestational age in preterm babies. It can be concluded that high serum ALP activity and low serum calcium and phosphorus levels are associated with preterm babies. A significant difference in the mean values of these renal function parameters was also obtained, except for serum sodium and potassium.

  12. Designing towards the unknown

    Wilde, Danielle; Underwood, Jenny


    the research potential to far-ranging possibilities. In this article we unpack the motivations driving the PKI project. We present our mixed-methodology, which entangles textile crafts, design interactions and materiality to shape an embodied enquiry. Our research outcomes are procedural and methodological......New materials with new capabilities demand new ways of approaching design. Destabilising existing methods is crucial to develop new methods. Yet, radical destabilisation—where outcomes remain unknown long enough that new discoveries become possible—is not easy in technology design where complex......, to design towards unknown outcomes, using unknown materials. The impossibility of this task is proving as useful as it is disruptive. At its most potent, it is destabilising expectations, aesthetics and processes. Keeping the researchers, collaborators and participants in a state of unknowing, is opening...

  13. Comparative Biochemical and Functional Analysis of Viral and Human Secreted Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Decoy Receptors*

    Pontejo, Sergio M.; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio


    The blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by etanercept, a soluble version of the human TNF receptor 2 (hTNFR2), is a well established strategy to inhibit adverse TNF-mediated inflammatory responses in the clinic. A similar strategy is employed by poxviruses, encoding four viral TNF decoy receptor homologues (vTNFRs) named cytokine response modifier B (CrmB), CrmC, CrmD, and CrmE. These vTNFRs are differentially expressed by poxviral species, suggesting distinct immunomodulatory properties. Whereas the human variola virus and mouse ectromelia virus encode one vTNFR, the broad host range cowpox virus encodes all vTNFRs. We report the first comprehensive study of the functional and binding properties of these four vTNFRs, providing an explanation for their expression profile among different poxviruses. In addition, the vTNFRs activities were compared with the hTNFR2 used in the clinic. Interestingly, CrmB from variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, is the most potent TNFR of those tested here including hTNFR2. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new immunomodulatory activity of vTNFRs, showing that CrmB and CrmD also inhibit the activity of lymphotoxin β. Similarly, we report for the first time that the hTNFR2 blocks the biological activity of lymphotoxin β. The characterization of vTNFRs optimized during virus-host evolution to modulate the host immune response provides relevant information about their potential role in pathogenesis and may be used to improve anti-inflammatory therapies based on soluble decoy TNFRs. PMID:25940088

  14. Comparative Biochemical and Functional Analysis of Viral and Human Secreted Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Decoy Receptors.

    Pontejo, Sergio M; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio


    The blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by etanercept, a soluble version of the human TNF receptor 2 (hTNFR2), is a well established strategy to inhibit adverse TNF-mediated inflammatory responses in the clinic. A similar strategy is employed by poxviruses, encoding four viral TNF decoy receptor homologues (vTNFRs) named cytokine response modifier B (CrmB), CrmC, CrmD, and CrmE. These vTNFRs are differentially expressed by poxviral species, suggesting distinct immunomodulatory properties. Whereas the human variola virus and mouse ectromelia virus encode one vTNFR, the broad host range cowpox virus encodes all vTNFRs. We report the first comprehensive study of the functional and binding properties of these four vTNFRs, providing an explanation for their expression profile among different poxviruses. In addition, the vTNFRs activities were compared with the hTNFR2 used in the clinic. Interestingly, CrmB from variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, is the most potent TNFR of those tested here including hTNFR2. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new immunomodulatory activity of vTNFRs, showing that CrmB and CrmD also inhibit the activity of lymphotoxin β. Similarly, we report for the first time that the hTNFR2 blocks the biological activity of lymphotoxin β. The characterization of vTNFRs optimized during virus-host evolution to modulate the host immune response provides relevant information about their potential role in pathogenesis and may be used to improve anti-inflammatory therapies based on soluble decoy TNFRs. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Effects of Red Wine Vinegar Beverage on the Colonic Tissue of Rodents: Biochemical, Functional and Pharmacological Analyses.

    Enkhsaikhan, Azjargal; Takahara, Akira; Nakamura, Yuji; Goto, Ai; Chiba, Koki; Lubna, Nur Jaharat; Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Mihoko; Izumi-Nakaseko, Hiroko; Ando, Kentaro; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Sugiyama, Atsushi


    A beverage made of red wine vinegar and grape juice (Yamanashi-no-megumi™) was developed as a supplemental fluid containing polyphenols, which has been clinically shown to enhance the colonic transit. In this study, we assessed the mechanism of its prokinetic action by analyzing the effects on both the colonic phosphodiesterase activity of rats (n=4) and the isolated colonic strip preparation of guinea pigs (n=4). The 7% (v/v) solution of the beverage significantly decreased the phosphodiesterase activity by 9% (n=4). The beverage in concentrations of 0.7, 2.1 and 7% (v/v) relaxed the colonic strips pre-contracted by 1 µmol/L of carbachol in a concentration-related manner with 50, 58 and 79%, each response of which was diminished to 11, 19 and 46%, respectively in the presence of 100 µmol/L of L-nitro-arginine methyl ester. These results obtained by biochemical, functional and pharmacological analyses suggest that the beverage could relax the colon through both cAMP-associated and nitric oxide-dependent pathways, which may partly explain clinically observed prokinetic effect of the beverage.

  16. Biochemical function of typical and variant Arabidopsis thaliana U-box E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    Wiborg, Jakob; O'Shea, Charlotte; Skriver, Karen


    of the distant U-box protein, AtPUB49, representing a large family of eukaryotic proteins containing a U-box linked to a cyclophilin-like peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase domain, was characterized biochemically. AtPUB49 functioned both as a prolyl isomerase and a chaperone by catalysing cis......The variance of the U-box domain in 64 Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) E3s (ubiquitin-protein ligases) was used to examine the interactions between E3s and E2s (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes). E2s and E3s are components of the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway. Seven U-box proteins were...... analysed for their ability to ubiquitinate proteins in vitro in co-operation with different E2s. All U-box domains exhibited ubiquitination activity and interacted productively with UBC4/5-type E2s. Three and four of the U-box domains mediated ubiquitin addition in the presence of UBC13 and UBC7 E2s...

  17. Dietary supplementation of tiger nut alters biochemical parameters relevant to erectile function in l-NAME treated rats.

    Olabiyi, Ayodeji A; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Bottari, Nathieli B; Lopes, Thauan F; da Costa, Pauline; Stefanelo, Naiara; Morsch, Vera M; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A; Oboh, Ganiyu; Schetinger, Maria Rosa


    Tiger nut tubers have been reportedly used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in folk medicine without scientific basis. Hence, this study evaluated the effect of tiger nut on erectile dysfunction by assessing biochemical parameters relevant to ED in male rats by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) treatment. Rats were divided into five groups (n = 10) each: Control group; l-NAME plus basal diet; l-NAME plus Sildenafil citrate; diet supplemented processed tiger nut (20%) plus l-NAME;diet supplemented raw tiger nut (20%) plus l-NAME. l-NAME pre-treatment (40 mg/kg/day) lasted for 14 days. Arginase, acetycholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities as well as nitric oxide levels (NO) in serum, brain and penile tissue were measured. l-NAME increased the activity of arginase, AChE and ADA and reduced NO levels. However, dietary supplementation with tiger nut caused a reduction on the activities of the above enzymes and up regulated nitric oxide levels when compared to the control group. The effect of tiger nut supplemented diet may be said to prevent alterations of the activities of the enzymes relevant in erectile function. Quercetin was revealed to be the most active component of tiger nut tuber by HPLC finger printing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. From L-dopa to dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde: a toxic biochemical pathway plays a vital physiological function in insects.

    Christopher Vavricka


    Full Text Available One protein in Aedes aegypti, classified into the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD family based on extremely high sequence homology (∼70% with dopa decarboxylase (Ddc, was biochemically investigated. Our data revealed that this predicted AAAD protein use L-dopa as a substrate, as does Ddc, but it catalyzes the production of 3,4-dihydroxylphenylacetaldehyde (DHPAA directly from L-dopa and apparently has nothing to do with the production of any aromatic amine. The protein is therefore named DHPAA synthase. This subsequently led to the identification of the same enzyme in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus by an initial prediction of putative DHPAA synthase based on sequence homology and subsequent verification of DHPAA synthase identity through protein expression and activity assays. DHPAA is highly toxic because its aldehyde group readily reacts with the primary amino groups of proteins, leading to protein crosslinking and inactivation. It has previously been demonstrated by several research groups that Drosophila DHPAA synthase was expressed in tissues that produce cuticle materials and apparent defects in regions of colorless, flexible cuticular structures have been observed in its gene mutants. The presence of free amino groups in proteins, the high reactivity of DHPAA with the free amino groups, and the genetically ascertained function of the Drosophila DHPAA synthase in the formation of colorless, flexible cuticle, when taken together, suggest that mosquito and Drosophila DHPAA synthases are involved in the formation of flexible cuticle through their reactive DHPAA-mediated protein crosslinking reactions. Our data illustrate how a seemingly highly toxic pathway can serve for an important physiological function in insects.

  19. Why is intelligence correlated with semen quality?: Biochemical pathways common to sperm and neuron function and their vulnerability to pleiotropic mutations.

    Pierce, Arand; Miller, Geoffrey; Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S


    We recently found positive correlations between human general intelligence and three key indices of semen quality, and hypothesized that these correlations arise through a phenotype-wide 'general fitness factor' reflecting overall mutation load. In this addendum we consider some of the biochemical pathways that may act as targets for pleiotropic mutations that disrupt both neuron function and sperm function in parallel. We focus especially on the inter-related roles of polyunsaturated fatty acids, exocytosis and receptor signaling.

  20. Why is intelligence correlated with semen quality?: Biochemical pathways common to sperm and neuron function and their vulnerability to pleiotropic mutations

    Pierce, Arand; Miller, Geoffrey; Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S


    We recently found positive correlations between human general intelligence and three key indices of semen quality, and hypothesized that these correlations arise through a phenotype-wide ‘general fitness factor’ reflecting overall mutation load. In this addendum we consider some of the biochemical pathways that may act as targets for pleiotropic mutations that disrupt both neuron function and sperm function in parallel. We focus especially on the inter-related roles of polyunsaturated fatty a...

  1. Hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging in patients with liver disease: correlation of liver enhancement with biochemical liver function tests

    Kukuk, Guido M.; Schaefer, Stephanie G.; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Spengler, Ulrich [Department of Internal Medicine I, Bonn (Germany)


    To evaluate hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA in relation to various liver function tests in patients with liver disorders. Fifty-one patients with liver disease underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. Based on region-of-interest (ROI) analysis, liver signal intensity was calculated using the spleen as reference tissue. Liver-spleen contrast ratio (LSCR) and relative liver enhancement (RLE) were calculated. Serum levels of total bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin level (AL), prothrombin time (PT), creatinine (CR) as well as international normalised ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were tested for correlation with LSCR and RLE. Pre-contrast LSCR values correlated with total bilirubin (r = -0.39; p = 0.005), GGT (r = -0.37; p = 0.009), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), ALT (r = -0.29; p = 0.046), PT (r = 0.52; p < 0.001), GLDH (r = -0.55; p = 0.044), INR (r = -0.42; p = 0.003), and MELD Score (r = -0.53; p < 0.001). After administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA bilirubin (r = -0.45; p = 0.001), GGT (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), PT (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), AST (r = -0.46; p = 0.002), ALT (r = -0.31; p = 0.030), INR (r = -0.45; p = 0.001) and MELD Score (r = -0.56; p < 0.001) significantly correlated with LSCR. RLE correlated with bilirubin (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), PT (r = 0.42; p = 0.003), GGT (r = -0.33; p = 0.020), INR (r = -0.36; p = 0.011) and MELD Score (r = -0.43; p = 0.003). Liver-spleen contrast ratio and relative liver enhancement using Gd-EOB-DTPA correlate with a number of routinely used biochemical liver function tests, suggesting that hepatobiliary MRI may serve as a valuable biomarker for liver function. The strongest correlation with liver enhancement was found for the MELD Score. (orig.)

  2. Fever of unknown origin

    Misaki, Takashi; Matsui, Akira; Tanaka, Fumiko; Okuno, Yoshishige; Mitsumori, Michihide; Torizuka, Tatsurou; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Shimbo, Shin-ichirou


    Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a commonly performed imaging modality in deteting pyrogenic lesions in cases of long-standing inexplainable fever. To re-evaluate the significance of gallium imaging in such cases, a retrospective review was made of 56 scans performed in febrile patients in whom sufficient clinical and laboratory findings were obtained. Gallium scans were true positive in 30 patients, false positive in 3, true negative in 19, and false negative in 4. In the group of true positive, local inflammatory lesions were detected in 23 patients with a final diagnosis of lung tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and inflammatory joint disease. Abnormal gallium accumulation, as shown in the other 7 patients, provided clues to the diagnosis of generalized disorders, such as hematological malignancies (n=3), systemic autoimmune diseases (n=3), and severe infectious mononucleosis (n=one). In the group of false positive, gallium imaging revealed intestinal excretion of gallium in 2 patients and physiological pulmonary hilar accumulation in one. In the true negative group of 19 patients, fever of unknown origin was resolved spontaneously in 12 patients, and with antibiotics and corticosteroids in 2 and 5 patients, respectively. Four patients having false negative scans were finally diagnosed as having urinary tract infection (n=2), bacterial meningitis (n=one), and polyarteritis (n=one). Gallium imaging would remain the technique of choice in searching for origin of unknown fever. It may also be useful for early diagnosis of systemic disease, as well as focal inflammation. (N.K.)

  3. Assessment of biochemical liver function tests in relation to age among steady state sickle cell anemia patients.

    Akuyam, S A; Abubakar, A; Lawal, N; Yusuf, R; Aminu, S M; Hassan, A; Musa, A; Bello, A K; Yahaya, I A; Okafor, P A


    Multiorgan failure including liver dysfunction is a common finding in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients, the cause of which is multifactorial with advancing age said to be a major determinant. There is a paucity of data on liver function among SCA patients in relation to age in northern Nigerian hospitals, including Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria. This study was to assess the biochemical liver function tests (LFTs) as they relate to age among SCA patients in steady state, with a view to improving the overall monitoring of these patients. This study was carried out in ABUTH, Zaria, Northern Nigeria. LFTs were carried out in 100 SCA and 100 apparently healthy participants (controls). The SCA group was made up of fifty adults and fifty children diagnosed of SCA, whereas the control group was made up of fifty adults and fifty children who were apparently healthy and had hemoglobin AA. Paired two-tailed Student's t-test for matched samples and Pearson's linear correlation statistical methods were employed for the data analysis using Microsoft Office Excel 2007. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The serum concentrations of total bilirubin (TB), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and AST/ALT ratio were significantly higher in SCA patients compared to the controls (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.05, P = 0.05 and P = 0.001, respectively). Serum total protein (TP) and ALB were significantly lower (P = 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) in SCA patients compared with the controls. The levels of TB, ALT, AST, ALP, and AST/ALT were significantly lower in SCA adults compared to SCA children, whereas TP and ALB were higher in SCA adults compared to the SCA children. There were significant negative correlations between age and each of TB, ALT, AST, ALP, and AST/ALT, and significant positive correlations between age and each of TP and ALB in SCA patients. There are mild LFTs derangements

  4. [Badminton--unknown sport].

    Zekan-Petrinović, Lidija


    For a long time, badminton was considered to be only a slow and light game for children, a game that is played outdoors and is structurally undemanding.Today, it is not an unknown and unrecognised sport, especially after it was included into the Olympics Games in 1992. Badminton is one of the oldest sports in the world. It is suitable for all ages (for children and elderly equally), women and men and even handicapped persons. Beginners can start playing badminton matches early because the basics are learned quickly. As a recreational activity, badminton is very popular in Zagreb. In the last 10 years, a number of halls specialized for badminton or offering badminton as one of available sports activities have been opened in Zagreb. At present, there are over 70 professional playgrounds for training of top contestants but also for the citizens who can play recreational badminton.

  5. Associations of functional and biochemical parameters of endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal women with a different state of carbohydrate metabolism

    Lyudmila Aleksandrovna Ruyatkina


    Conclusions. We revealed the associations of metabolic, anthropometric, and hemodynamic factors as well as biochemical markers of endothelial dysfunction with microcirculation parameters in various modes of endothelial activity (basal, occlusion, and reperfusion in postmenopausal women according to their carbohydrate metabolism status; we also describe the effect of age on microvasculature vasomotion.

  6. Loss of Niemann-Pick C1 or C2 protein results in similar biochemical changes suggesting that these proteins function in a common lysosomal pathway.

    Sayali S Dixit

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the endolysosomal system. NPC disease results from a defect in either of two distinct cholesterol-binding proteins: a transmembrane protein, NPC1, and a small soluble protein, NPC2. NPC1 and NPC2 are thought to function closely in the export of lysosomal cholesterol with both proteins binding cholesterol in vitro but they may have unrelated lysosomal roles. To investigate this possibility, we compared biochemical consequences of the loss of either protein. Analyses of lysosome-enriched subcellular fractions from brain and liver revealed similar decreases in buoyant densities of lysosomes from NPC1 or NPC2 deficient mice compared to controls. The subcellular distribution of both proteins was similar and paralleled a lysosomal marker. In liver, absence of either NPC1 or NPC2 resulted in similar alterations in the carbohydrate processing of the lysosomal protease, tripeptidyl peptidase I. These results highlight biochemical alterations in the lysosomal system of the NPC-mutant mice that appear secondary to lipid storage. In addition, the similarity in biochemical phenotypes resulting from either NPC1 or NPC2 deficiency supports models in which the function of these two proteins within lysosomes are linked closely.

  7. Recension: Mao - The Unknown Story

    Clausen, Søren


    Anmeldelse - kritisk! - til Sveriges førende Kinatidsskrift af Jung Chang & Jon Halliday's sensationelle "Mao - the Unknown Story".......Anmeldelse - kritisk! - til Sveriges førende Kinatidsskrift af Jung Chang & Jon Halliday's sensationelle "Mao - the Unknown Story"....

  8. Automated pathway and reaction prediction facilitates in silico identification of unknown metabolites in human cohort studies.

    Quell, Jan D; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Colombo, Marco; Krumsiek, Jan; Evans, Anne M; Mohney, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; de Faire, Ulf; Groop, Leif C; Agakov, Felix; Looker, Helen C; McKeigue, Paul; Colhoun, Helen M; Kastenmüller, Gabi


    Identification of metabolites in non-targeted metabolomics continues to be a bottleneck in metabolomics studies in large human cohorts. Unidentified metabolites frequently emerge in the results of association studies linking metabolite levels to, for example, clinical phenotypes. For further analyses these unknown metabolites must be identified. Current approaches utilize chemical information, such as spectral details and fragmentation characteristics to determine components of unknown metabolites. Here, we propose a systems biology model exploiting the internal correlation structure of metabolite levels in combination with existing biochemical and genetic information to characterize properties of unknown molecules. Levels of 758 metabolites (439 known, 319 unknown) in human blood samples of 2279 subjects were measured using a non-targeted metabolomics platform (LC-MS and GC-MS). We reconstructed the structure of biochemical pathways that are imprinted in these metabolomics data by building an empirical network model based on 1040 significant partial correlations between metabolites. We further added associations of these metabolites to 134 genes from genome-wide association studies as well as reactions and functional relations to genes from the public database Recon 2 to the network model. From the local neighborhood in the network, we were able to predict the pathway annotation of 180 unknown metabolites. Furthermore, we classified 100 pairs of known and unknown and 45 pairs of unknown metabolites to 21 types of reactions based on their mass differences. As a proof of concept, we then looked further into the special case of predicted dehydrogenation reactions leading us to the selection of 39 candidate molecules for 5 unknown metabolites. Finally, we could verify 2 of those candidates by applying LC-MS analyses of commercially available candidate substances. The formerly unknown metabolites X-13891 and X-13069 were shown to be 2-dodecendioic acid and 9

  9. Serum zinc reference intervals and its relationship with dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators in 6- to 9-year-old healthy children

    Camila Xavier Alves


    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an important cause of morbidity, particularly among young children. The dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators should be used to assess zinc status and to indicate the need for zinc interventions. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the zinc status and reference intervals for serum zinc concentration considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators in apparently healthy children in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Design: The cross-sectional study included 131 healthy children: 72 girls and 59 boys, aged between 6 and 9 years. Anthropometric assessment was made by body mass index (BMI and age; dietary assessment by prospective 3-day food register, and an evaluation of total proteins was performed. Zinc in the serum samples was analyzed in triplicate in the same assay flame, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: With respect to dietary assessment, only the intake of fiber and calcium was below the recommendations by age and gender. All subjects were eutrophic according to BMI and age classification. Zinc intake correlated with energy (p=0.0019, protein (p=0.0054, fat (p<0.0001, carbohydrate (p=0.0305, fiber (p=0.0465, calcium (p=0.0006, and iron (p=0.0003 intakes. Serum zinc correlated with protein intake (p=0.0145 and serum albumin (p=0.0141, globulin (p=0.0041, and albumin/globulin ratio (p=0.0043. Biochemical parameters were all within the normal reference range. Reference intervals for basal serum zinc concentration were 0.70–1.14 µg/mL in boys, 0.73–1.17 µg/mL in girls, and 0.72–1.15 µg/mL in the total population. Conclusions: This study presents pediatric reference intervals for serum zinc concentration, considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators, which are useful to establish the zinc status in specific groups. In this regard, there are few studies in the literature conducted under these conditions, which make it an innovative methodology.

  10. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical Substances Relating to the Renal and Bone Function of Fasting Pregnant Women, 2011-2012

    Abolfazl Khoshdel


    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of fluid and food restrictions on biochemical substances relating to the renal and bone function of pregnant women is not well defined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of fluid and food restriction on the following substances in pregnant fasting women during Ramadan: blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (Cr, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, and alkaline phosphates (ALP. Material and Methods: Thirty fasting pregnant women voluntarily participated in this prospective descriptive study. The serum levels of BUN, Cr, P, and ALP were measured at the baseline, and on the 7th, 14th, and 28th days of Ramadan; the measurements were also performed 2 weeks after this month. The statistical significance was defined as P 0.05; also, Cr didn’t change during Ramadan and 2 weeks after it (P> 0.05. Moreover, no differences in P and ALP levels were noticed between the end of Ramadan and two weeks after it (P> 0.05. Conclusion: According to this study, there is no sufficient evidence regarding the adverse effects of Ramadan fasting on biochemical substances relating to the renal and bone function of pregnant fasting women.

  11. The effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on heart function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise in male rats.

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab


    Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (Ptraining and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (Ptraining significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (Ptraining improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  12. Structure-function relationships in soft tissue mechanics: Examining how the micro-scale architecture of biochemical constituents effects health

    Schultz, David Sheldon

    Countless debilitating pathologies exhibit symptoms that result from altered mechanical behavior of soft tissue. Therefore, it is of clinical and economic importance to mechanically evaluate soft tissues and attribute degenerative changes to alterations in structural constituents. The studies presented here focus on the annulus fibrosus and the sclera. Failure in these tissues is common and catastrophic. The annulus fibrosus may fail, resulting in herniation and nerve impingement, or the disc may degenerate over time, resulting in reduced mobility and pain. Similarly, the sclera may degenerate over time with intraocular pressure spurring creep behavior that distends the eye beyond its ideal shape. This causes myopic vision and puts patients at risk of macular degeneration and retinal detachment. These two tissues share a common structural role as the outer wall of a pressure vessel. Also, they are made of strikingly similar constituents, primarily consisting of water, type I collagen, glycosaminoglycans and elastin. The microstructure of these tissues, however, is very different. The annulus fibrosus is representative of an anisotropic tissue. Its well-organized fibril structure was analyzed via polarization modulated second harmonic microscopy in order to characterize fibril architecture. Structurally relevant biochemical constituents were quantified with biochemical assays. Morphologically healthy annulus tended to have a more highly organized microstructure and tended to absorb more strain energy when subject to a tensile load cycle. Given the strong correlation between fibril organization and select mechanical properties, predictive models will likely benefit from a characterization of fibril continuity and orientation coherence. The sclera is representative of an isotropic tissue. Its less-organized fibril structure has evolved to sustain biaxial plane stress. In the sclera, collagen content and associated crosslinks were primary determinants of stiffness

  13. Biochemical and functional characterization of an albumin protein belonging to the hemopexin superfamily from Lens culinaris seeds.

    Scarafoni, Alessio; Gualtieri, Elisa; Barbiroli, Alberto; Carpen, Aristodemo; Negri, Armando; Duranti, Marcello


    The present paper reports the purification and biochemical characterization of an albumin identified in mature lentil seeds with high sequence similarity to pea PA2. These proteins are found in many edible seeds and are considered potentially detrimental for human health due to the potential allergenicity and lectin-like activity. Thus, the description of their possible presence in food and the assessment of the molecular properties are relevant. The M(r), pI, and N-terminal sequence of this protein have been determined. The work included the study of (i) the binding properties to hemine to assess the presence of hemopexin structural domains and (ii) the binding properties of the protein to thiamin. In addition, the structural changes induced by heating have been evaluated by means of spectroscopic techniques. Denaturation temperature has also been determined. The present work provides new insights about the structural molecular features and the ligand-binding properties and dynamics of this kind of seed albumin.

  14. Biochemical liver function test parameter levels in relation to treatment response in liver metastatic colorectal patients treated with FOLFOX4 with or without bevacizumab

    Denić Kristina


    Full Text Available Introduction. Combined use of bevacizumab and conventional anticancer drugs leads to a significant improvement of treatment response in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC. Conventional treatment protocols exert undesired effects on the liver tissue. Hepatotoxic effects are manifested as a disturbance of liver function test parameters. The relation between clinical outcome and disorder of biochemical parameters has not been completely evaluated. Objective. The objective of our study was to examine whether clinical outcome in patients with liver metastatic CRC correlates with the level of liver function test parameters. Methods. The study included 96 patients with untreated liver metastatic CRC who received FOLFOX4 protocol with or without bevacizumab. Biochemical liver parameters were performed before and after the treatment completion. Treatment response was evaluated as disease regression, stable disease, and disease progression. The patients were divided into three groups according to the accomplished treatment response. Results. In the group of patients with disease regression the post-treatment levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and bilirubin were statistically significantly increased. In contrast to this, gamma-glutamyltransferase and protein post-treatment values were significantly lower in relation to initial values. In patients with stable disease, difference was found only in the level of proteins being lower after the treatment. In patients with disease progression, values of aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin were significantly increased after completed treatment. Conclusion. Treatment responses are not completely associated with the level of liver function test parameters. The only parameter which correlated with treatment response is gamma-glutamyltransferase. Its decrease is accompanied with disease regression.

  15. Unknown foundation determination for scour.


    Unknown foundations affect about 9,000 bridges in Texas. For bridges over rivers, this creates a problem : regarding scour decisions as the calculated scour depth cannot be compared to the foundation depth, and a : very conservative costly approach m...

  16. The effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical substances relating to the renal and bone function of fasting pregnant women, 2011-2012

    Abolfazl Khoshdel


    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of fluid and food restrictions on biochemical substances relating to the renal and bone function of pregnant women is not well defined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of fluid and food restriction on the following substances in pregnant fasting women during Ramadan: blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (Cr, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, and alkaline phosphates (ALP. Material and Methods: Thirty fasting pregnant women voluntarily participated in this prospective descriptive study. The serum levels of BUN, Cr, P, and ALP were measured  at the baseline, and on the 7th, 14th, and 28th days of Ramadan; the measurements were also performed 2 weeks after this month. The statistical significance was defined as PResults: As to the results of the present study,the weight and body mass index (BMI of women didn’t change during the experiment. BUN and Cr increased significantly by the 2nd week of Ramadan; however, no differences were observed between BUN and Cr values at the end of Ramadan and two weeks after it (P> 0.05; also, Cr didn’t change during Ramadan and 2 weeks after it (P> 0.05. Moreover, no differences in P and ALP levels were noticed between the end of Ramadan and two weeks after it (P> 0.05. Conclusion: According to this study, there is no sufficient evidence regarding the adverse effects of Ramadan fasting on biochemical substances relating to the renal and bone function of pregnant fasting women.

  17. [The use of controlled physical training in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with intervention - assessment of effects on biochemical parameters and functional myocardial].

    Kapusta, Joanna; Kapusta, Anna; Pawlicki, Lucjan; Irzmański, Robert


    Diseases of the cardiovascular system is one of the most common causes of death among people over 65 years. Due to its course and incidence are a major cause of disability and impaired quality of life for seniors, as well as a serious economic problem in health care. Important role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease plays making systematic physical activity, which is a component of any rehabilitation program. Regular physical training by doing cardio-and vasoprotective has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular status and physical performance in patients with diagnosed coronary heart disease, regardless of age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled exercise on selected biochemical parameters and functional myocardial infarction. A group of 89 patients were divided into 3 subgroups. In group I (n = 30) was performed 2 weeks cardiac rehabilitation program, in group II (n = 30) 4 weekly. Streamline the program consisted of a series of interval training performed using a bicycle ergometer and general exercise. The remaining group (gr. III, n = 29) participated in individually selected training program. In all subjects before and after the training cycle underwent thoracic impedance plethysmography, also determined the level of plasma natriuretic peptide NT-proBNP and echocardiography and exercise test. After training, in groups, which carried out a controlled physical training, improvement was observed: exercise capacity of patients respectively in group I (p = 0.0003), group II (p = 0.0001) and group III (p = 0.032), stroke volume SV, cardiac output CO and global myocardial contractility, there was also reduction in the concentration of natriuretic peptide NT-proBNP. Furthermore, the correlation between the results shown pletyzmography parameters and NT-proBNP, SV, CO and EF. Regular physical training as part of the cardiac rehabilitation has a beneficial effect on biochemical parameters and functional myocardial infarction in patients

  18. Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Brain-Dead Donors as Predictors of Early- and Long-Term Renal Function After Transplant.

    Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Domański, Leszek; Bober, Joanna; Safranow, Krzysztof; Pawlik, Andrzej; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Wiśniewska, Magda; Kędzierska, Karolina


    Organs from brain-dead donors are the main source of allografts for transplant. Comparisons between living-donor and brain-dead donor kidneys show that the latter are more likely to demonstrate delayed graft function and lower long-term survival. This study aimed to assess the effects of various clinical and biochemical factors of donors on early- and long-term renal function after transplant. We analyzed data from kidney recipients treated between 2006 and 2008 who received organs from brain-dead donors. Data from 54 donors and 89 recipients were analyzed. No relation was observed between donor sodium concentration and the presence of delayed graft function. Donor height was positively correlated with creatinine clearance in recipients in the 1 to 3 months after renal transplant. Donor diastolic blood pressure was negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate throughout the observation period. Donor age was negatively correlated with the allograft recipient's estimated glomerular filtration rate throughout 4 years of observation. Donor estimated glomerular filtration rate was positively correlated with that of the recipient throughout 3 years of observation. The results of this study indicate that various factors associated with allograft donors may influence graft function.

  19. Effects of endurance and endurance-strength exercise on biochemical parameters of liver function in women with abdominal obesity.

    Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Mądry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Paweł


    Obesity is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the standard therapy for obesity involves physical exercise, well-planned studies of the changes in liver function in response to different exercise intensities in obese subjects are scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine a question of how does exercise mode affect the liver function. 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into two exercise groups: endurance (group A) and endurance-strength (group B). Women in each group exercised for 60min 3 times/week for a 3-month period. Markers of liver function: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and bilirubin levels were quantified. We found significant differences in ALT (pexercise. Blood ALT and AST tended to decrease in group B, increase in group A. Significant reduction in serum GGT level after exercise in both groups was observed (pexercise led to changes in serum ALP activity and total or direct bilirubin level. However, endurance-strength training resulted in significant decreases in serum indirect bilirubin (pexercise (group B). The mode of exercise does matter: endurance-strength exercise led to a greater improvement, compared to endurance exercise, in the liver function in women with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated analysis of genetic, behavioral, and biochemical data implicates neural stem cell-induced changes in immunity, neurotransmission and mitochondrial function in Dementia with Lewy Body mice.

    Lakatos, Anita; Goldberg, Natalie R S; Blurton-Jones, Mathew


    We previously demonstrated that transplantation of murine neural stem cells (NSCs) can improve motor and cognitive function in a transgenic model of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). These benefits occurred without changes in human α-synuclein pathology and were mediated in part by stem cell-induced elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, instrastriatal NSC transplantation likely alters the brain microenvironment via multiple mechanisms that may synergize to promote cognitive and motor recovery. The underlying neurobiology that mediates such restoration no doubt involves numerous genes acting in concert to modulate signaling within and between host brain cells and transplanted NSCs. In order to identify functionally connected gene networks and additional mechanisms that may contribute to stem cell-induced benefits, we performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) on striatal tissue isolated from NSC- and vehicle-injected wild-type and DLB mice. Combining continuous behavioral and biochemical data with genome wide expression via network analysis proved to be a powerful approach; revealing significant alterations in immune response, neurotransmission, and mitochondria function. Taken together, these data shed further light on the gene network and biological processes that underlie the therapeutic effects of NSC transplantation on α-synuclein induced cognitive and motor impairments, thereby highlighting additional therapeutic targets for synucleinopathies.

  1. Interrelation between the changes of phase functions of cardiac muscle contraction and biochemical processes as an algorithm for identifying local pathologies in cardiovascular system

    Yury V. Fedosov


    Full Text Available Aims The interrelation between hemodynamic changes, functions of the cardiovascular system and biochemical reactions in the cells of the heart muscle is investigated in the present paper. Materials and methods Several methods were used to influence the metabolism processes in the myocardium. The changes in the phase functions of contraction of different cardiac muscles were recorded. In order to have comprehensive influence on the metabolism processes, normalization of the acid-base balance was performed. L-carnitine and octolipen were used to affect the lipid metabolism. Results Phase blood volumes that are characteristic of hemodynamics changed in the course of treatment to reach their nornal values. The ECG shape during the heart cycle phases also changed to reach the norm. The initial ECG shape describing Brugada syndrome almost reached its normal value. Extrasystole disappeared therewith. Conclusion The method of the heart cycle phase analysis enables monitoring any changes in hemodynamics and functions of the cardiovascular system. The method can be used for identifying the original cause of pathologies and efficient monitoring of the treatment progress.

  2. New function for Escherichia coli xanthosine phophorylase (xapA): genetic and biochemical evidences on its participation in NAD+ salvage from nicotinamide


    Background In an effort to reconstitute the NAD+ synthetic pathway in Escherichia coli (E. coli), we produced a set of gene knockout mutants with deficiencies in previously well-defined NAD+de novo and salvage pathways. Unexpectedly, the mutant deficient in NAD+de novo and salvage pathway I could grow in M9/nicotinamide medium, which was contradictory to the proposed classic NAD+ metabolism of E. coli. Such E. coli mutagenesis assay suggested the presence of an undefined machinery to feed nicotinamide into the NAD+ biosynthesis. We wanted to verify whether xanthosine phophorylase (xapA) contributed to a new NAD+ salvage pathway from nicotinamide. Results Additional knockout of xapA further slowed down the bacterial growth in M9/nicotinamide medium, whereas the complementation of xapA restored the growth phenotype. To further validate the new function of xapA, we cloned and expressed E. coli xapA as a recombinant soluble protein. Biochemical assay confirmed that xapA was capable of using nicotinamide as a substrate for nicotinamide riboside formation. Conclusions Both the genetic and biochemical evidences indicated that xapA could convert nicotinamide to nicotinamide riboside in E. coli, albeit with relatively weak activity, indicating that xapA may contribute to a second NAD+ salvage pathway from nicotinamide. We speculate that this xapA-mediated NAD+ salvage pathway might be significant in some bacteria lacking NAD+de novo and NAD+ salvage pathway I or II, to not only use nicotinamide riboside, but also nicotinamide as precursors to synthesize NAD+. However, this speculation needs to be experimentally tested. PMID:24506841

  3. Extracellular lipase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: biochemical characterization and effect on human neutrophil and monocyte function in vitro

    Jaeger, K E; Kharazmi, A; Høiby, N


    concentrations of this lipase preparation were preincubated with human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes. The chemotaxis and chemiluminescence of these cells were then determined. It was shown that lipase inhibited the monocyte chemotaxis and chemiluminescence, whereas it had no or very little effect...... on neutrophils. The inhibitory effect was concentration dependent and was abolished by heat treatment of the enzyme at 100 degrees C. Since monocytes are one of the important cells of the host defence system the inhibition of the function of these cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of infections caused...

  4. Concurrent targeting of nitrosative stress-PARP pathway corrects functional, behavioral and biochemical deficits in experimental diabetic neuropathy

    Negi, Geeta; Kumar, Ashutosh [Molecular Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab 160062 (India); Sharma, Shyam S., E-mail: [Molecular Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab 160062 (India)


    Peroxynitrite mediated nitrosative stress, an indisputable initiator of DNA damage and overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a nuclear enzyme activated after sensing DNA damage, are two crucial pathogenetic mechanisms in diabetic neuropathy. The intent of the present study was to investigate the effect of combination of a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst (PDC), FeTMPyP and a PARP inhibitor, 4-ANI against diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The end points of evaluation of the study included motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and nerve blood flow (NBF) for evaluating nerve functions; thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia for assessing nociceptive alterations, malondialdehyde and peroxynitrite levels to detect oxidative stress-nitrosative stress; NAD concentration in sciatic nerve to assess overactivation of PARP. Additionally immunohistochemical studies for nitrotyrosine and Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) was also performed. Treatment with the combination of FeTMPyP and 4-ANI led to significant improvement in nerve functions and pain parameters and also attenuated the oxidative-nitrosative stress markers. Further, the combination also reduced the overactivation of PARP as evident from increased NAD levels and decreased PAR immunopositivity in sciatic nerve microsections. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment with the combination of a PDC and PARP inhibitor attenuates alteration in peripheral nerves in diabetic neuropathy (DN).

  5. Comparative Biochemical and Functional Studies on a Branded Human Recombinant Factor VIIa and a Biosimilar Equivalent Product.

    Sadeghi, Nasiredin; Kahn, Daniel; Syed, Daneyal; Iqbal, Omer; Abro, Schuharazad; Eshraghi, Reza; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed


    Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa; NovoSeven, Novo Nordisk, Copenhagen, Denmark) is used to control bleeding in patients with hemophilia. A generic version of FVIIa was developed by AryoGen (Tehran, Iran). This study compared the composition and functional activities of AryoSeven and NovoSeven. Each product was compared at equigravimetric (1 mg/mL) stock solution for protein content. The proteomic profile was obtained using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis was carried out to determine the protein profile and Western blotting was performed using a polyclonal rabbit antihuman FVIIa antibody. The FVIIa-related antigen was also measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Functional assay included the prothrombin time correction in FVII-deficient plasma. The protein content was comparable in 2 products and the mass spectra analysis showed a single peak at 50 kDa in all products. The SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting studies were comparable. Both products exhibited similar coagulant properties in different assays. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns

    Wintle, B.A.; Runge, M.C.; Bekessy, S.A.


    There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal


    Full Text Available Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted, compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet, a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α-amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α-amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  8. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; González-Valdez, Abigail; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Cuevas-Cruz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto


    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I), Vanua-Lava (Class II) and Viangchan (Class II). For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT). Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site. PMID:27213370

  9. Physiological and biochemical studies on the function of 5-methyluridine in the transfer ribonucleic acid of Escherichia coli.

    Björk, G R; Neidhardt, F C


    Matched pairs of transductant strains differing by the presence of absence of 5-methyluridine (ribothymidine) (m5U) in their transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) were used to study the function of this modified nucleoside in Escherichia coli. Ordinary measurements of growth rate in different media revealed no effect of the loss of m5U in tRNA. A gene located close to trmA (the structural cistron for the methyltransferase that produces m5U in tRNA), however, was found to reduce the growth rates significantly, depending on the medium and the temperature of cultivation. Measurement of codon recognition, macromolecular composition, tRNA binding to the ribosome, and the rate of protein chain elongation in vivo indicated no disadvantage caused by the lack of m5U. The regulation of ilv and his operons seemed also to be unaffected by the absence of m5U in the tRNA. In a mixed population experiment, however, cells possessing m5U in their tRNA seemed to have a distinct advantage over cells lacking this modified nucleoside. This experiment provides the first indication of the overall value of m5U in tRNA.

  10. Biochemical properties of L-arabinose isomerase from Clostridium hylemonae to produce D-tagatose as a functional sweetener.

    Nguyen, Tien-Kieu; Hong, Moon-Gi; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Yoo, Sang-Ho


    d-Tagatose has gained substantial interest due to its potential functionalities as a sucrose substitute. In this study, the gene araA, encoding l-arabinose isomerase (l-AI) from Clostridium hylemonae (DSM 15053), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). This gene consists of 1,506 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 501 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 56,554 Da. Since l-AI was expressed as an intracellular inclusion body, this enzyme was solubilized with guanidine hydrochloride, refolded, and activated with a descending concentration gradient of urea. The purified enzyme exhibited the greatest activity at 50°C, pH 7-7.5, and required 1 mM of Mg2+ as a cofactor. Notably, the catalytic efficiency (3.69 mM-1sec-1) of l-AI from C. hylemonae on galactose was significantly greater than that of other previously reported enzymes. The bioconversion yield of d-tagatose using the C. hylemonae l-arabinose isomerase at 60°C reached approximately 46% from 10 mM of d-galactose after 2 h. From these results, it is suggested that the l-arabinose isomerase from C. hylemonae could be utilized as a potential enzyme for d-tagatose production due to its high conversion yield at an industrially competitive temperature.

  11. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, A Rich Source of a Natural Sweetener: A Complete Review on the Biochemical, Nutritional and Functional Features

    Leila Nikniaz


    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is an ancient perennial shrub of South American used since ancient times for various purposes throughout the world. Stevia extracts contain high levels of sweetening compounds called steviol glycosides which besides sweetening (300 times sweeter than sacarose possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antifungal activity. Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the main sweetening compounds of this plant which are thermostable even at temperatures of up to 200 °C, making them suitable for use in cooked foods. Preparations of steviol glycosides are reported to be used principally as sweeteners in fruit and milk-based drinks, desserts, yoghurts, confectioneries, and pickles. The use of Stevia extract as a table-top sweetener is well known. The leaves of Stevia has functional and sensory properties superior to those of many other high-potency sweeteners and is likely to become a major source of safe and high-potency sweetener for the growing natural food market in the future.​

  12. Functional and Biochemical Endothelial Profiling In Vivo in a Murine Model of Endothelial Dysfunction; Comparison of Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide and Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor

    Bar, Anna; Olkowicz, Mariola; Tyrankiewicz, Urszula; Kus, Edyta; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Smolenski, Ryszard T.; Skorka, Tomasz; Chlopicki, Stefan


    Although it is known that 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) displays vasoprotective activity in mice, as yet the effect of MNA on endothelial function has not been demonstrated in vivo. Here, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we profile the effects of MNA on endothelial phenotype in mice with atherosclerosis (ApoE/LDLR-/-) in vivo, in comparison to angiotensin (Ang) -converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (perindopril), with known vasoprotective activity. On a biochemical level, we analyzed whether MNA- or perindopril-induced improvement in endothelial function results in changes in ACE/Ang II-ACE2/Ang-(1–7) balance, and L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) ratio. Endothelial function and permeability were evaluated in the brachiocephalic artery (BCA) in 4-month-old ApoE/LDLR-/- mice that were non-treated or treated for 1 month or 2 months with either MNA (100 mg/kg/day) or perindopril (10 mg/kg/day). The 3D IntraGate®FLASH sequence was used for evaluation of BCA volume changes following acetylcholine (Ach) administration, and for relaxation time (T1) mapping around BCA to assess endothelial permeability using an intravascular contrast agent. Activity of ACE/Ang II and ACE2/Ang-(1–7) pathways as well as metabolites of L-arginine/ADMA pathway were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based methods. In non-treated 6-month-old ApoE/LDLR-/- mice, Ach induced a vasoconstriction in BCA that amounted to –7.2%. 2-month treatment with either MNA or perindopril resulted in the reversal of impaired Ach-induced response to vasodilatation (4.5 and 5.5%, respectively) and a decrease in endothelial permeability (by about 60% for MNA-, as well as perindopril-treated mice). Improvement of endothelial function by MNA and perindopril was in both cases associated with the activation of ACE2/Ang-(1–7) and the inhibition of ACE/Ang II axes as evidenced by an approximately twofold increase in Ang-(1–9) and Ang-(1–7) and a proportional decrease in Ang II

  13. Citrus psorosis virus RNA 1 is of negative polarity and potentially encodes in its complementary strand a 24K protein of unknown function and 280K putative RNA dependent RNA polymerase.

    Naum-Onganía, Gabriela; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Peña, Eduardo; Grau, Oscar; Garcia, Maria Laura


    Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), the type member of genus Ophiovirus, has three genomic RNAs. Complete sequencing of CPsV RNA 1 revealed a size of 8184 nucleotides and Northern blot hybridization with chain specific probes showed that its non-coding strand is preferentially encapsidated. The complementary strand of RNA 1 contains two open reading frames (ORFs) separated by a 109-nt intergenic region, one located near the 5'-end potentially encoding a 24K protein of unknown function, and another of 280K containing the core polymerase motifs characteristic of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp). Comparison of the core RdRp motifs of negative-stranded RNA viruses, supports grouping CPsV, Ranunculus white mottle virus (RWMV) and Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV) within the same genus (Ophiovirus), constituting a monophyletic group separated from all other negative-stranded RNA viruses. Furthermore, RNAs 1 of MiLV, CPsV and RWMV are similar in size and those of MiLV and CPsV also in genomic organization and sequence.

  14. Evaluation of the water disinfection by-product dichloroacetonitrile-induced biochemical, oxidative, histopathological, and mitochondrial functional alterations: Subacute oral toxicity in rats.

    Dong, Ying; Li, Fang; Shen, Haijun; Lu, Rongzhu; Yin, Siqi; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhuangfa; Wang, Suhua


    Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), an emerging nitrogenous disinfection by-product, is more genotoxic and cytotoxic than the currently regulated carbonaceous disinfection by-products such as haloacetic acids. Few mechanistic studies have been conducted on the hepatic and renal toxicities of DCAN. This study examined the clinical biochemical, hematological, histopathological, oxidative, and mitochondrial functional alterations to evaluate the systematic toxicity after subacute oral exposure of 11 or 44 mg/kg/day in rats for 28 days. Body and spleen weights were lower, and organ-to-body weight ratios of the liver and kidney were higher in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN than in controls. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, and concentrations of blood serum urea nitrogen and retinol-binding protein were increased in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN compared with those of controls, thereby indicating hepatic and renal damage in this group. This was confirmed by histopathological alterations, including hepatic sinus dilation, extensive hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration in the liver and glomerulus hemorrhage, and renal tubular swelling, in DCAN-exposed rats. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN induced hepatic oxidative damage shown by the significant increase in malonaldehyde levels, a poisonous product of lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN significantly increased hepatic glutathione content and mitochondrial bioenergy as noted by the elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c oxidase activity, which might be attributed to compensatory pathophysiologic responses to DCAN-induced hepatic mitochondrial damage.

  15. Effect of decimeter waves on functional state of cardiovascular system, some biochemical and immunological indices of myocardium infarction patients during convalescence

    Sorokina, E.I.; Poshkus, N.B.; Tupitsina, Yu.Yu.; Volkova, L.P.; Shubina, A.V.; Krasnikov, V.E.

    An attempt was made to determine optimal localization for the action of decimeter waves (DMW) and its intensity, and to evaluate the action of DMW on the functions of the cardiovascular system. Clinical biochemical and immunological indices were determined in myocardium infarction patients during the early convalescent period. The study was carried out on 186 male patients 47.5 years old on the average, 4 to 10 weeks after infarction. When applied at the same location, no significant differences could be observed in reflex reactions or in therapeutic effect when a 20 or 40 Vt intensity was applied. Considerable differences were seen in relationship to the location of applied DMW. Optimal results were obtained with 40 Vt intensity and D/sub I/-D/sub IV/ localization. The effect of DMW through segmental-vegetative apparatus gave more pronounced results than through the endocrine system or through peripheral vessels. DMW applied under such conditions optimized reparatory processes in cardiac muscle and improved immunological reactivity of the organism. 9 references.

  16. Biochemical and photochemical feedbacks of acute Cd toxicity in Juncus acutus seedlings: The role of non-functional Cd-chlorophylls

    Santos, D.; Duarte, B.; Caçador, I.


    The increasing metal pollution in salt marshes and its influence on the plants that inhabit these ecosystems, has become a major concern with serious implications on the species establishment. Juncus acutus is a highly common halophyte specie in Portuguese marshes. Seeds from his specie were exposed to a range of different Cd concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM) in order to evaluate the effects of acute Cd stress on seed germination and growth as well as on seedling pigment composition, photosynthetic apparatus and oxidative stress biomarkers. Seedling length was higher than in control in every Cd treatment, however biomass showed a decrease. It was also observed that increasing Cd treatments, lead to a proportional increase in the Cd tissue concentration. Also the Cd-substituted chlorophylls showed an increase with increasing Cd doses that were applied. This substitution results in a non-functional chlorophyll molecule, highly unstable under moderate light intensities which inevitably reduces the efficiency of the LHC II. As consequence, there was a decrease in the use-efficiency of the harvested energy, leading to a decay in the photosynthetic capacity and energy accumulation, which was dissipated as heat. As for the antioxidant enzymes, SOD and APX presented higher activity, responding to increasing cadmium concentrations. Thus, becomes evident that Cd affects negatively, both biochemically and photochemically, the establishment by seed process of J. acutus highlighting the potential of the use of this specie seed as potential sentinel and ecotoxicity test in extreme conditions.

  17. Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats.

    Amin, K A; Abdel Hameid, H; Abd Elsttar, A H


    Tartrazine and carmoisine are an organic azo dyes widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The present study conducted to evaluate the toxic effect of these coloring food additives; on renal, hepatic function, lipid profile, blood glucose, body-weight gain and biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissue. Tartrazine and carmoisine were administered orally in two doses, one low and the other high dose for 30 days followed by serum and tissue sample collection for determination of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose in serum and estimation of GSH, catalase, SOD and MDA in liver tissue in male albino rat. Our data showed a significant increase in ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine total protein and albumin in serum of rats dosed with tartrazine and carmoisine compared to control rats and these significant change were more apparent in high doses than low, GSH, SOD and Catalase were decreased and MDA increased in tissue homogenate in rats consumed high tartrazine and both doses of carmoisine. We concluded that tartrazine and carmoisine affect adversely and alter biochemical markers in vital organs e.g. liver and kidney not only at higher doses but also at low doses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    Pingel, Jessica; Fredberg, U.; Qvortrup, Klaus


    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy....... The expressions of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and tendon morphology were determined in both chronically diseased and healthy tendon parts....

  19. Biochemical characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis α-1,3-glucanase Agn1p, and its functionality by heterologous Expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Héctor Villalobos-Duno

    Full Text Available α-1,3-Glucan is present as the outermost layer of the cell wall in the pathogenic yeastlike (Y form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Based on experimental evidence, this polysaccharide has been proposed as a fungal virulence factor. To degrade α-1,3-glucan and allow remodeling of the cell wall, α-1,3-glucanase is required. Therefore, the study of this enzyme, its encoding gene, and regulatory mechanisms, might be of interest to understand the morphogenesis and virulence process in this fungus. A single gene, orthologous to other fungal α-1,3-glucanase genes, was identified in the Paracoccidioides genome, and labeled AGN1. Transcriptional levels of AGN1 and AGS1 (α-1,3-glucan synthase-encoding gene increased sharply when the pathogenic Y phase was cultured in the presence of 5% horse serum, a reported booster for cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthesis in this fungus. To study the biochemical properties of P. brasiliensis Agn1p, the enzyme was heterologously overexpressed, purified, and its activity profile determined by means of the degradation of carboxymethyl α-1,3-glucan (SCMG, chemically modified from P. brasiliensis α-1,3-glucan, used as a soluble substrate for the enzymatic reaction. Inhibition assays, thin layer chromatography and enzymatic reactions with alternative substrates (dextran, starch, chitin, laminarin and cellulose, showed that Agn1p displays an endolytic cut pattern and high specificity for SCMG. Complementation of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe agn1Δ strain with the P. brasiliensis AGN1 gene restored the wild type phenotype, indicating functionality of the gene, suggesting a possible role of Agn1p in the remodeling of P. brasiliensis Y phase cell wall. Based on amino acid sequence, P. brasiliensis Agn1p, groups within the family 71 of fungal glycoside hydrolases (GH-71, showing similar biochemical characteristics to other members of this family. Also based on amino acid sequence alignments, we propose a subdivision of fungal

  20. Financial Development and Economic Growth: Known Knowns, Known Unknowns, and Unknown Unknowns

    Ugo Panizza


    This paper summarizes the main findings of the literature on the relationship between financial and economic development (the known knowns), points to directions for future research (the known unknowns), and then speculates on the third Rumsfeldian category. The known knowns section organizes the empirical literature on finance and growth into three strands: (i) the traditional literature which established the link between finance and growth; (ii) the new literature which qualified some of th...

  1. BISEN: Biochemical simulation environment

    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F.; Vinnakota, K.C.; Han, Y.; Dash, R.K.; Yang, F.; Beard, D.A.


    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for

  2. Biochemical and Functional Studies on the Burkholderia cepacia Complex bceN Gene, Encoding a GDP-D-Mannose 4,6-Dehydratase

    Pinheiro, Pedro F.; Leitão, Jorge H.


    This work reports the biochemical and functional analysis of the Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 bceN gene, encoding a protein with GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase enzyme activity (E.C. Data presented indicate that the protein is active when in the tetrameric form, catalyzing the conversion of GDP-D-mannose into GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose. This sugar nucleotide is the intermediary necessary for the biosynthesis of GDP-D-rhamnose, one of the sugar residues of cepacian, the major exopolysaccharide produced by environmental and human, animal and plant pathogenic isolates of the Burkholderia cepacia complex species. Vmax and Km values of 1.5±0.2 µmol.min−−1 and 1024±123 µM, respectively, were obtained from the kinetic characterization of the B. cenocepacia J2315 BceN protein by NMR spectroscopy, at 25°C and in the presence of 1 mol MgCl2 per mol of protein. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by the substrate, with an estimated Ki of 2913±350 µM. The lack of a functional bceN gene in a mutant derived from B. cepacia IST408 slightly reduced cepacian production. However, in the B. multivorans ATCC17616 with bceN as the single gene in its genome with predicted GMD activity, a bceN mutant did not produce cepacian, indicating that this gene product is required for cepacian biosynthesis. PMID:23460819

  3. Inverse problem studies of biochemical systems with structure identification of S-systems by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm.

    Sarode, Ketan Dinkar; Kumar, V Ravi; Kulkarni, B D


    An efficient inverse problem approach for parameter estimation, state and structure identification from dynamic data by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm methodology (ETFGA) is proposed for nonlinear dynamical biosystems using S-system canonical models. Use of multiple shooting and decomposition approach as training functions has been shown for handling of noisy datasets and computational efficiency in studying the inverse problem. The advantages of the methodology are brought out systematically by studying it for three biochemical model systems of interest. By studying a small-scale gene regulatory system described by a S-system model, the first example demonstrates the use of ETFGA for the multifold aims of the inverse problem. The estimation of a large number of parameters with simultaneous state and network identification is shown by training a generalized S-system canonical model with noisy datasets. The results of this study bring out the superior performance of ETFGA on comparison with other metaheuristic approaches. The second example studies the regulation of cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium cells now assuming limited availability of noisy data. Here, flexibility of the approach to incorporate partial system information in the identification process is shown and its effect on accuracy and predictive ability of the estimated model are studied. The third example studies the phenomenological toy model of the regulation of circadian oscillations in Drosophila that follows rate laws different from S-system power-law. For the limited noisy data, using a priori information about properties of the system, we could estimate an alternate S-system model that showed robust oscillatory behavior with predictive abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical and functional studies on the Burkholderia cepacia complex bceN gene, encoding a GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase.

    Sílvia A Sousa

    Full Text Available This work reports the biochemical and functional analysis of the Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 bceN gene, encoding a protein with GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase enzyme activity (E.C. Data presented indicate that the protein is active when in the tetrameric form, catalyzing the conversion of GDP-D-mannose into GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose. This sugar nucleotide is the intermediary necessary for the biosynthesis of GDP-D-rhamnose, one of the sugar residues of cepacian, the major exopolysaccharide produced by environmental and human, animal and plant pathogenic isolates of the Burkholderia cepacia complex species. Vmax and Km values of 1.5±0.2 µmol.min( and 1024±123 µM, respectively, were obtained from the kinetic characterization of the B. cenocepacia J2315 BceN protein by NMR spectroscopy, at 25°C and in the presence of 1 mol MgCl2 per mol of protein. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by the substrate, with an estimated Ki of 2913±350 µM. The lack of a functional bceN gene in a mutant derived from B. cepacia IST408 slightly reduced cepacian production. However, in the B. multivorans ATCC17616 with bceN as the single gene in its genome with predicted GMD activity, a bceN mutant did not produce cepacian, indicating that this gene product is required for cepacian biosynthesis.

  5. Comparison of biochemical failure rates between permanent prostate brachytherapy and radical retropubic prostatectomy as a function of posttherapy PSA nadir plus ‘X’

    Ahmed, Kamran A; Davis, Brian J; Mynderse, Lance A; Slezak, Jeffrey M; Bergstralh, Eric J; Wilson, Torrence M; Choo, C Richard


    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir + 2 ng/mL, also known as the Phoenix definition, is the definition most commonly used to establish biochemical failure (BF) after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer management. The purpose of this study is to compare BF rates between permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) and radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) as a function of PSA nadir plus varying values of X and examine the associated implications. We retrospectively searched for patients who underwent PPB or RRP at our institution between 1998 and 2004. Only primary patients not receiving androgen-deprivation therapy were included in the study. Three RRP patients were matched to each PPB patient on the basis of prognostic factors. BF rates were estimated for PSA nadirs + different values of X. A total of 1,164 patients were used for analysis: 873 in the RRP group and 291 in the PPB group. Patients were equally matched by clinical stage, biopsy Gleason sum, primary Gleason grade, and pretherapy PSA value. Median follow-up was 3.1 years for RRP patients and 3.6 years in the PPB group (P = .01). Using PSA nadir + 0.1 ng/mL for the definition of BF, the 5-year BF rate was 16.3% for PPB patients and 13.5% for RRP patients (P = .007), whereas at nadir + 2 ng/mL or greater, the BF rates were less than 3% and were indistinguishable between PPB and RRP patients. In a cohort of well-matched patients who had prostatectomy or brachytherapy, we examined BF as a function of nadir + X, where X was treated as a continuous variable. As X increases from 0.1 to 2.0 ng/mL, the BF curves converge, and above 2.0 ng/mL they are essentially indistinguishable. The data presented are of interest as BF definitions continue to evolve

  6. Predictive hypotheses are ineffectual in resolving complex biochemical systems.

    Fry, Michael


    Scientific hypotheses may either predict particular unknown facts or accommodate previously-known data. Although affirmed predictions are intuitively more rewarding than accommodations of established facts, opinions divide whether predictive hypotheses are also epistemically superior to accommodation hypotheses. This paper examines the contribution of predictive hypotheses to discoveries of several bio-molecular systems. Having all the necessary elements of the system known beforehand, an abstract predictive hypothesis of semiconservative mode of DNA replication was successfully affirmed. However, in defining the genetic code whose biochemical basis was unclear, hypotheses were only partially effective and supplementary experimentation was required for its conclusive definition. Markedly, hypotheses were entirely inept in predicting workings of complex systems that included unknown elements. Thus, hypotheses did not predict the existence and function of mRNA, the multiple unidentified components of the protein biosynthesis machinery, or the manifold unknown constituents of the ubiquitin-proteasome system of protein breakdown. Consequently, because of their inability to envision unknown entities, predictive hypotheses did not contribute to the elucidation of cation theories remained the sole instrument to explain complex bio-molecular systems, the philosophical question of alleged advantage of predictive over accommodative hypotheses became inconsequential.

  7. Intraabdominal abscessus of unknown etiology

    Čolović Radoje


    Full Text Available Introduction. Intraabdominal abscesses are in 98-99% cases the result of secondary and only in 1-2% of primary peritonitis. They are easy and successfully diagnosed. Abdominal abscesses of unknown cause are extremely rare. Case Outline. The authors present a 68-year-old man, without significant data in past history, who suddenly developed epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and leukocytosis which was treated with antibiotics resulting in the alleviation of complaints and reduction of white blood cells count. After five days ultrasonography showed incapsulated collection of dense fluid in the epigastrium confirmed by CT scan two days later. Upper endoscopy excluded ulcer and/or perforation of the stomach and duodenum. Under local anesthesia, through the upper part of the left rectal muscle, puncture followed by incision was done, and about 50 ml of dense pus was removed. Finger exploration of the cavity showed no foreign body within the cavity. Using drainage, the recovery was quick and uneventful. By preoperative and postoperative abdominal investigations no cause of the abscess was found. Two and a half years after surgery the patient remained symptom-free with normal clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings. Conclusion. The authors presented an intraabdominal abscess of unknown cause that was successfully treated with antibiotics, percutaneous puncture and drainage under local anaesthesia. In spite of all diagnostic methods the cause of the abscess could not be found. Thus, such a possibility, although being rare, should be taken into account.

  8. [Focal myositis: An unknown disease].

    Gallay, L; Streichenberger, N; Benveniste, O; Allenbach, Y


    Focal myositis are inflammatory muscle diseases of unknown origin. At the opposite from the other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, they are restricted to a single muscle or to a muscle group. They are not associated with extramuscular manifestations, and they have a good prognosis without any treatment. They are characterized by a localized swelling affecting mostly lower limbs. The pseudo-tumor can be painful, but is not associated with a muscle weakness. Creatine kinase level is normal. Muscle MRI shows an inflammation restricted to a muscle or a muscle group. Muscle biopsy and pathological analysis remain necessary for the diagnosis, showing inflammatory infiltrates composed by macrophages and lymphocytes without any specific distribution within the muscle. Focal overexpression of HLA-1 by the muscle fibers is frequently observed. The muscle biopsy permits to rule out differential diagnosis such a malignancy (sarcoma). Spontaneous remission occurs within weeks or months after the first symptoms, relapse is unusual. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S


    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  10. Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of ...

    Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium ... tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as ... liver functions and blood parameters were studied in adult albino rats of both sexes.

  11. Studying the biochemical function of the pea receptor-like kinases sym10, sym37 and k1, required for the legume-rhizobia symbiosis development

    Elena A. Dolgikh


    Full Text Available Background. Rhizobial Nod factors (NFs, the key regulators of legume-rhizobia symbiosis, act in low concentrations and their biological activity depends on structural features, that suggests the presence of specific receptors in plants. Putative receptors, LysM-receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs, were found in model legumes L. japonicus and M. truncatula. However, binding capacity with NFs was only studied for L. japonicus LysM-RLKs. In pea a few candidates for NF receptors like Sym10, Sym37 and K1 were found. Analysis of mutants revealed the importance of these proteins for symbiosis development. However, the biochemical function of these receptors has not been studied. Materials and methods. Sequences encoding extracellular domains (ECDs of LysM-RLKs Sym10, Sym37, and K1 were cloned in the pRSETa vector. Constructs were introduced in E. coli strain C41 to produce proteins with His6 residues on either the amino or carboxyl terminus. Protein purification was carried out using metal chelate affinity chromatography. The binding capacity with ligand was evaluated using ProteonXPR36 biosensor. Results. To study binding capacity with NFs, we have developed approaches for the synthesis of LysM-RLK Sym10, Sym37 and K1 in soluble form in heterologous system. The high level of protein synthesis was achieved at +28 °C using 0,5 mM IPTG in 2-16 hours. Analysis of binding capacity of ECDs with NFs revealed the low affinity using the surface plasmon resonance. Conclusion. The possibility of recombinant receptor synthesis in soluble state in E. coli at high level was demonstrated. Analysis of binding capacity with NFs showed the potential interaction, but with low affinity.

  12. Structural and biochemical analysis of a unique phosphatase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus reveals its structural and functional relationship with the protein tyrosine phosphatase class of phytase.

    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an unusual δ-proteobacterium that invades and preys on other Gram-negative bacteria and is of potential interest as a whole cell therapeutic against pathogens of man, animals and crops. PTPs (protein tyrosine phosphatases are an important class of enzyme involved in desphosphorylating a variety of substrates, often with implications in cell signaling. The B. bacteriovorus open reading frame Bd1204 is predicted to encode a PTP of unknown function. Bd1204 is both structurally and mechanistically related to the PTP-like phytase (PTPLP class of enzymes and possesses a number of unique properties not observed in any other PTPLPs characterized to date. Bd1204 does not display catalytic activity against some common protein tyrosine phosphatase substrates but is highly specific for hydrolysis of phosphomonoester bonds of inositol hexakisphosphate. The structure reveals that Bd1204 has the smallest and least electropositive active site of all characterized PTPLPs to date yet possesses a unique substrate specificity characterized by a strict preference for inositol hexakisphosphate. These two active site features are believed to be the most significant contributors to the specificity of phytate degrading enzymes. We speculate that Bd1204 may be involved in phosphate acquisition outside of prey.

  13. Biochemical and functional characterization of MRA-1571 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and effect of its down-regulation on survival in macrophages

    Sharma, Rishabh; Keshari, Deepa; Singh, Kumar Sachin; Singh, Sudheer Kumar


    Amino acid biosynthesis has emerged as a source of new drug targets as many bacterial strains auxotrophic for amino acids fail to proliferate under in vivo conditions. Branch chain amino acids (BCAAs) are important for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survival and strains deficient in their biosynthesis were attenuated for growth in mice. Threonine dehydratase (IlvA) is a pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first step in isoleucine biosynthesis. The MRA-1571 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra), annotated to be coding for IlvA, was cloned, expressed and purified. Purified protein was subsequently used for developing enzyme assay and to study its biochemical properties. Also, E. coli BL21 (DE3) IlvA knockout (E. coli-ΔilvA) was developed and genetically complemented with Mtb-Ra ilvA expression construct (pET32a-ilvA) to make complemented E. coli strain (E. coli-ΔilvA + pET32a-ilvA). The E. coli-ΔilvA showed growth failure in minimal medium but growth restoration was observed in E. coli-ΔilvA + pET32a-ilvA. E. coli-ΔilvA growth was also restored in the presence of isoleucine. The IlvA localization studies detected its distribution in cell wall and membrane fractions with relatively minor presence in cytosolic fraction. Maximum IlvA expression was observed at 72 h in wild-type (WT) Mtb-Ra infecting macrophages. Also, Mtb-Ra IlvA knockdown (KD) showed reduced survival in macrophages compared to WT and complemented strain (KDC). - Highlights: • Mtb-Ra gene MRA-1571 codes for a functional threonine dehydratase (IlvA). • IlvA is pyridoxal 5’-phosphate dependent and is inhibited by isoleucine. • E. coli IlvA knockout growth can be supplemented by isoleucine or by Mtb-Ra IlvA. • The enzyme is primarily localized in cell wall and membrane fractions. • IlvA knockdown Mtb-Ra shows reduced growth in macrophages.

  14. Physio-Biochemical Composition and Untargeted Metabolomics of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Make It Promising Functional Food and Help in Mitigating Salinity Stress

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath


    Cumin is an annual, aromatic, herbaceous, medicinal, spice plant, most widely used as a food additive and flavoring agent in different cuisines. The study is intended to comprehensively analyse physiological parameters, biochemical composition and metabolites under salinity stress. Seed germination index, rate of seed emergence, rate of seed germination, mean germination time, plant biomass, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased concomitantly with salinity. In contrast, total an...

  15. Biochemical effects of lead exposure and toxicity on battery manufacturing workers of Western Maharashtra (India): with respect to liver and kidney function tests

    Mandakini Kshirsagar; Jyotsna Patil; Arun Patil; Ganesh Ghanwat; Ajit Sontakke; R.K. Ayachit


    Background: The battery recycling and manufacturing involves the use of metallic lead for making grids, bearing and solder. The process results in release of lead particles and lead oxide causing environmental pollution and severe lead poisoning. Aims and Objectives: To know the present scenario of the blood lead level and its biochemical effects on occupational lead-exposed population, mainly battery manufacturing workers in Western Maharashtra (India) with respect to liver and kidney functi...

  16. Iterative Selection of Unknown Weights in Direct Weight Optimization Identification

    Xiao Xuan


    Full Text Available To the direct weight optimization identification of the nonlinear system, we add some linear terms about input sequences in the former linear affine function so as to approximate the nonlinear property. To choose the two classes of unknown weights in the more linear terms, this paper derives the detailed process on how to choose these unknown weights from theoretical analysis and engineering practice, respectively, and makes sure of their key roles between the unknown weights. From the theoretical analysis, the added unknown weights’ auxiliary role can be known in the whole process of approximating the nonlinear system. From the practical analysis, we learn how to transform one complex optimization problem to its corresponding common quadratic program problem. Then, the common quadratic program problem can be solved by the basic interior point method. Finally, the efficiency and possibility of the proposed strategies can be confirmed by the simulation results.

  17. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Kim, Deog Yoon


    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  18. Fever of unknown origin in the elderly.

    Wakefield, K M; Henderson, S T; Streit, J G


    Fever is a prominent sign of an acute-phase response induced by microbial invasion, tissue injury, immunologic reactions, or inflammatory processes. This generalized host response is produced by a multiplicity of localized or systemic diseases and characterized by acute, subacute, or chronic changes in metabolic, endocrinologic, neurologic, and immunologic functions. The fundamental event is an initiation of the acute-phase response by the production of a mediated molecule called IL-1. This polypeptide is produced primarily from phagocytic cells such as blood monocytes, phagocytic lining cells of the liver and spleen, and other tissue macrophages. IL-1 produces a local reaction but also enters the circulation, acting as a hormone to mediate distant organ system responses to infection, immunologic reaction, and inflammatory processes. Fever is the result when IL-1 initiates the synthesis of prostaglandins, notably prostaglandin E2 in the thermoregulatory center located in the anterior hypothalamus. The thermostatic set point is then raised and mechanisms to conserve heat (vasoconstriction) and to produce heat (shivering) are initiated. The result is a sudden rise in body temperature. The same basic mechanisms are involved in FUO. Many of the biologic and biochemical changes that are seen in FUO are also evidence of an acute-phase response. The elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate is partly due to increased synthesis of hepatic proteins, including compliment components, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein. IL-1 acts directly on the bone marrow to increase absolute numbers and immaturity of circulating neutrophils. Anemia is produced by many mechanisms, including the reduction of circulating serum iron. Although fever production in the elderly maybe delayed or of less intensity, it is still a marker of significant disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  19. Biochemical and functional characterization of AcUFGT3a, a galactosyltransferase involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    Liu, Yanfei; Zhou, Bin; Qi, Yingwei; Liu, Cuihua; Liu, Zhande; Ren, Xiaolin


    Much of the diversity of anthocyanin pigmentation in plant tissues is due to the action of glycosyltransferases, which attach sugar moieties to the anthocyanin aglycone. This step can increase both their solubility and stability. We investigated the pigmentation of the outer and inner pericarps of developing fruits of the red-fleshed kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis cv. 'Hongyang'. The results show that the red color of the inner pericarp is due to anthocyanin. Based on expression analyses of structural genes, AcUFGT was shown to be the key gene involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Expression of AcUFGT in developing fruit paralleled changes in anthocyanin concentration. Thirteen putative UFGT genes, including different transcripts, were identified in the genome of 'Hongyang'. Among these, only the expression of AcUFGT3a was found to be highly consistent with anthocyanin accumulation. Fruit infiltrated with virus-induced gene silencing showed delayed red colorations, lower anthocyanin contents and lower expressions of AcUFGT3a. At the same time, transient overexpression of AcUFGT3a in both Actinidia arguta and green apple fruit resulted in higher anthocyanin contents and deeper red coloration. In vitro biochemical assays revealed that recombinant AcUFGT3a recognized only anthocyanidins as substrate but not flavonols. Also, UDP-galactose was used preferentially as the sugar donor. These results indicate AcUFGT3a is the key enzyme regulating anthocyanin accumulation in red-fleshed kiwifruit. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell


    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  1. Quantum circuits cannot control unknown operations

    Araújo, Mateus; Feix, Adrien; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav


    One of the essential building blocks of classical computer programs is the ‘if’ clause, which executes a subroutine depending on the value of a control variable. Similarly, several quantum algorithms rely on applying a unitary operation conditioned on the state of a control system. Here we show that this control cannot be performed by a quantum circuit if the unitary is completely unknown. The task remains impossible even if we allow the control to be done modulo a global phase. However, this no-go theorem does not prevent implementing quantum control of unknown unitaries in practice, as any physical implementation of an unknown unitary provides additional information that makes the control possible. We then argue that one should extend the quantum circuit formalism to capture this possibility in a straightforward way. This is done by allowing unknown unitaries to be applied to subspaces and not only to subsystems. (paper)

  2. Multifocal, chronic osteomyelitis of unknown etiology

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Feltham, C.; James, M.; Nespoli, L.; Tamaela, L.; Pavia Univ.; Municipal Hospital, Nelson; Medical School, Jakarta


    Four cases of multifocal osteomyelitis of unknown origin in childhood are reported. The variable clinical and radiographic appearances of the disease are illustrated and the diagnostic difficulties in the early stages of the disease are stressed. (orig.) [de

  3. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild


    BACKGROUND: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review...

  4. Known Unknowns in Judgment and Choice

    Walters, Daniel


    This dissertation investigates how people make inferences about missing information. Whereas most prior literature focuses on how people process known information, I show that the extent to which people make inferences about missing information impacts judgments and choices. Specifically, I investigate how (1) awareness of known unknowns affects overconfidence in judgment in Chapter 1, (2) beliefs about the knowability of unknowns impacts investment strategies in Chapter 2, and (3) inferences...

  5. Mobile assistant for unknown caller identification

    Hribernik, Andraž


    The main motivation of this diploma thesis is a development of Android application, which helps user of application to find out who is the owner of unknown phone number. Data source for finding unknown phone number are free available web sources. Through the development of prototype, data from different web sources were integrated. Result of this integration is shown in Android application. Data integration includes access to semi-structured data on web portal of Phone Directory of Slovenia, ...

  6. Uric Acid: The Unknown Uremic Toxin.

    Treviño-Becerra, Alejandro


    This review brings together concepts of uric acid metabolism affecting renal parenchyma and its function and the current therapies to reduce hyperuricemia (HyU) and avoid renal disease progression. High uric acid plays an important role in several chronic diseases including kidney diseases such as lithiasis, gout nephropathy, and preeclampsia. In the last 30 years, it has been shown that reducing HyU with low protein and low purine diets in addition to allopurinol creates physiopathological conditions that produce a slight increase in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In recent years, in a new era of research in clinical, genetics, pharmacological, and epidemiologic fields, they have been moving forward to support the idea that reduction in HyU could benefit the chronic renal failure (CRF) patients (stage III-IV), thereby avoiding the drop of GFR for undefined mechanisms. There are several clinical trials in progress that show the HyU reducing to very low values and an increased GFR. In a young population, when treating HyU there is a reduction in high blood pressure. There are some reports showing that HyU could play a role in the diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, there have been some speculations that HyU treatment could stop the progression of CRF modifying the natural history of the diseases. So there will be new clinical trials with old and new medication and metabolic procedure to maintain a very low blood levels in the unknown uremic toxin know as uric acid which seems to be the toxin to the damage kidney. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B₁.

    Ali Rajput, Shahid; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Mohamed Khalil, Mahmoud; Gao, Xin; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng


    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB₁ contaminated corn (AFB₁); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB₁ + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB₁ + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB₁ alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB₁ significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB₁ contaminated diet reduced AFB₁ residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB₁ negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB₁ in broiler chickens.

  8. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng


    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB1 in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB1 contaminated corn (AFB1); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB1 (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB1 + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB1 (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB1 + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB1 alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB1 significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB1 contaminated diet reduced AFB1 residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB1 negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB1 in broiler chickens. PMID:29140290

  9. Physio-Biochemical Composition and Untargeted Metabolomics of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. Make It Promising Functional Food and Help in Mitigating Salinity Stress.

    Sonika Pandey

    Full Text Available Cumin is an annual, aromatic, herbaceous, medicinal, spice plant, most widely used as a food additive and flavoring agent in different cuisines. The study is intended to comprehensively analyse physiological parameters, biochemical composition and metabolites under salinity stress. Seed germination index, rate of seed emergence, rate of seed germination, mean germination time, plant biomass, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased concomitantly with salinity. In contrast, total antioxidant activity, H2O2, proline and MDA contents increased concurrently with stress treatments. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were decreased initially about 1.4-fold at 50 mM, and thereafter increased about 1.2-fold at 100 mM NaCl stress. Relative water content remained unchanged up to 50 mM NaCl stress, and thereafter decreased significantly. About 2.8-fold electrolyte leakage was found in 50 mM, which increases further 4-fold at 100 mM NaCl stress. Saturated fatty acids (FAs increased gradually with salinity, whereas unsaturation index and degree of unsaturation change arbitrarily along with the percent quantity of unsaturated FAs. Total lipid and fatty acid composition were significantly influenced by salinity stress. A total of 45 differentially expressed metabolites were identified, including luteolin, salvianolic acid, kaempferol and quercetin, which are phenolic, flavonoid or alkaloids in nature and contain antioxidant activities. Additionally, metabolites with bioactivity such as anticancerous (docetaxel and antimicrobial (megalomicin properties were also identified. The study evidenced that plant shoots are a rich source of metabolites, essential amino acids, phenolic compounds and fatty acids, which unveil the medicinal potential of this plant, and also provide useful insight about metabolic responses under salinity stress.

  10. Physio-Biochemical Composition and Untargeted Metabolomics of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Make It Promising Functional Food and Help in Mitigating Salinity Stress.

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath


    Cumin is an annual, aromatic, herbaceous, medicinal, spice plant, most widely used as a food additive and flavoring agent in different cuisines. The study is intended to comprehensively analyse physiological parameters, biochemical composition and metabolites under salinity stress. Seed germination index, rate of seed emergence, rate of seed germination, mean germination time, plant biomass, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased concomitantly with salinity. In contrast, total antioxidant activity, H2O2, proline and MDA contents increased concurrently with stress treatments. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were decreased initially about 1.4-fold at 50 mM, and thereafter increased about 1.2-fold at 100 mM NaCl stress. Relative water content remained unchanged up to 50 mM NaCl stress, and thereafter decreased significantly. About 2.8-fold electrolyte leakage was found in 50 mM, which increases further 4-fold at 100 mM NaCl stress. Saturated fatty acids (FAs) increased gradually with salinity, whereas unsaturation index and degree of unsaturation change arbitrarily along with the percent quantity of unsaturated FAs. Total lipid and fatty acid composition were significantly influenced by salinity stress. A total of 45 differentially expressed metabolites were identified, including luteolin, salvianolic acid, kaempferol and quercetin, which are phenolic, flavonoid or alkaloids in nature and contain antioxidant activities. Additionally, metabolites with bioactivity such as anticancerous (docetaxel) and antimicrobial (megalomicin) properties were also identified. The study evidenced that plant shoots are a rich source of metabolites, essential amino acids, phenolic compounds and fatty acids, which unveil the medicinal potential of this plant, and also provide useful insight about metabolic responses under salinity stress.

  11. Tumor suppressor function of PGP9.5 is associated with epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer--novel predictor of biochemical recurrence after radical surgery.

    Mitsui, Yozo; Shiina, Hiroaki; Hiraki, Miho; Arichi, Naoko; Hiraoka, Takeo; Sumura, Masahiro; Honda, Satoshi; Yasumoto, Hiroaki; Igawa, Mikio


    The expression level of protein G product 9.5 (PGP9.5) is downregulated because of promoter CpG hypermethylation in several tumors. We speculated that impaired regulation of PGP9.5 through epigenetic pathways is associated with the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. CpG methylation of the PGP9.5 gene was analyzed in cultured prostate cancer cell lines, 226 localized prostate cancer samples from radical prostatectomy cases, and 80 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissues. Following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidune treatment, increased PGP9.5 mRNA transcript expression was found in the LNCaP and PC3 cell lines. With bisulfite DNA sequencing, partial methylation of the PGP9.5 promoter was shown in LNCaP whereas complete methylation was found in PC3 cells. After transfection of PGP9.5 siRNA, cell viability was significantly accelerated in LNCaP but not in PC3 cells as compared with control siRNA transfection. Promoter methylation of PGP9.5 was extremely low in only one of 80 BPH tissues, whereas it was found in 37 of 226 prostate cancer tissues. Expression of the mRNA transcript of PGP9.5 was significantly lower in methylation (+) than methylation (-) prostate cancer tissues. Multivariate analysis of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after an radical prostatectomy revealed pT category and PGP9.5 methylation as prognostically relevant. Further stratification with the pT category in addition to methylation status identified a stepwise reduction of BCR-free probability. This is the first clinical and comprehensive study of inactivation of the PGP9.5 gene via epigenetic pathways in primary prostate cancer. CpG methylation of PGP9.5 in primary prostate cancer might become useful as a molecular marker for early clinical prediction of BCR after radical prostatectomy. ©2012 AACR.

  12. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R


    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  13. Possibilities and methods for biochemical assessment of radiation injury

    Minkova, M [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya


    An extensitive review (77 references) is made of the application of biochemical diagnostic methods for assessment of radiation diseases. A brief characteristics of several biochemical indicators is given: deoxycytidine, thymidine, rho-aminoisocarboxylic acid, DNA-ase, nucleic acids. Influence of such factors as age, sex, season etc. is studied by means of functional biochemical indicators as: creatine, triptophanic metabolites, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid, biogenic amines, serum proteins, enzymes, etc.

  14. Metabonomics and medicine: the Biochemical Oracle.

    Mitchell, Steve; Holmes, Elaine; Carmichael, Paul


    Occasionally, a new idea emerges that has the potential to revolutionize an entire field of scientific endeavour. It is now within our grasp to be able to detect subtle perturbations within the phenomenally complex biochemical matrix of living organisms. The discipline of metabonomics promises an all-encompassing approach to understanding total, yet fundamental, changes occurring in disease processes, drug toxicity and cell function.

  15. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Hatim eSalih


    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  16. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers.

    Young, Joanna M; Shand, Brett I; McGregor, Patrice M; Scott, Russell S; Frampton, Christopher M


    Chronic smoking is associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, with oxidative stress contributing to both these processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined antioxidant treatment with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract from the bark of Pinus radiata and vitamin C, over and above vitamin C alone, on endothelial function, plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics. Forty-four chronic smokers without established cardiovascular disease were assigned randomly to receive either 480 mg Enzogenol and 60 mg vitamin C, or 60 mg vitamin C alone daily for 12 weeks. Endothelial function in the brachial artery was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). FMD improved in both treatment groups (p effect on macrovascular endothelial function over and above that seen in the vitamin C alone group. However, Enzogenol did demonstrate additional favourable effects on protein oxidative damage and fibrinogen levels.

  17. Multifocal chronic osteomyelitis of unknown etiology

    Kozlowski, K.; Masel, J.; Harbison, S.; Yu, J.; Royal Brisbane Children Hospital; Regional Hospital Bowral


    Five cases of chronic, inflammatory, multifocal bone lesions of unknown etiology are reported. Although bone biopsy confirmed osteomyelitis in each case in none of them were organisms found inspite of an extensive work up. Different clinical course of the disease reflects different aetiology in respective cases. These cases present changing aspects of osteomyelitis emerging since introduction of antibiotics. (orig.)

  18. Some biochemical studies on thyroid immunity

    Shoush, M.A.M.


    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of induced immunological environment on: a - Carbohydrate metabolism as reflected by immunoreactive insulin and blood sugar levels. b - Biochemical parameters, namely total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase and transaminases, reflecting liver function. c - Radioimmunological tests reflecting thyroid function. The study comprised 36 male rabbits, boscate strain of six months age assigned randomly to : control, albumin immunized and thyroglobulin immunized groups

  19. Longitudinal left ventricular function for prediction of survival in systemic light-chain amyloidosis: incremental value compared with clinical and biochemical markers.

    Buss, Sebastian J; Emami, Mostafa; Mereles, Derliz; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Kristen, Arnt V; Voss, Andreas; Schellberg, Dieter; Zugck, Christian; Galuschky, Christian; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Hegenbart, Ute; Ho, Anthony D; Katus, Hugo A; Schonland, Stefan O; Hardt, Stefan E


    The aim of the study was to determine whether longitudinal left ventricular (LV) function provides prognostic information in a large cohort of patients with systemic light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. AL amyloidosis is associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular events. Reduced myocardial longitudinal function is one of the hallmarks of myocardial involvement in this rare disease. Two hundred six consecutive patients with biopsy-proven AL amyloidosis were investigated in this prospective observational study. Echocardiographic imaging parameters, mean tissue Doppler-derived longitudinal strain (LS), and two-dimensional global longitudinal strain (2D-GLS) of the LV, cardiac serological biomarkers, and comprehensive clinical disease characteristics were assessed. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality or heart transplantation. After a median follow-up of 1207 days, LS and 2D-GLS were significant predictors of survival in AL amyloidosis. The cutoff values discriminating survivors from nonsurvivors were -10.65% for LS and -11.78% for 2D-GLS. In a multivariable echocardiographic Cox model, only diastolic dysfunction and 2D-GLS remained as independent predictors of survival. In comprehensive clinical models, 2D-GLS (p < 0.0001), diastolic dysfunction (p < 0.01), the pathologic free light chains (p < 0.05), cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) (p < 0.01), and the Karnofsky index (p < 0.001) remained as independent predictors. 2D-GLS delineated a superior prognostic value compared with that derived from pathologic free light chains or cTnT in patients evaluated before firstline chemotherapy (n = 113; p < 0.0001), and remained the only independent predictor besides the Karnofsky index in subjects with preserved LV ejection fraction (≥50%; n = 127; p < 0.01). LS and 2D-GLS both offered significant incremental information (p < 0.001) for the assessment of outcome compared with clinical variables (age, Karnofsky index, and New York Heart Association functional class) and

  20. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of an α-amylase family from Aspergillus niger

    Junying Wang


    Full Text Available Background: α-Amylase is widely used in the starch processing, food and paper industries, hydrolyzing starch, glycogen and other polysaccharides into glucose, maltose and oligosaccharides. An α-amylase gene family from Aspergillus niger CBS513.88 encode eight putative α-amylases. The differences and similarities, biochemical properties and functional diversity among these eight α-amylases remain unknown. Results: The eight genes were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 by shaking-flask fermentation under the induction of methanol. The sequence alignment, biochemical characterizations and product analysis of starch hydrolysis by these α-amylases were investigated. It is found that the eight α-amylases belonged to three different groups with the typical structure of fungal α-amylase. They exhibited maximal activities at 30–40°C except AmyG and were all stable at acidic pH. Ca2+ and EDTA had no effects on the activities of α-amylases except AmyF and AmyH, indicating that the six amylases were Ca2+ independent. Two novel α-amylases of AmyE and AmyF were found. AmyE hydrolyzed starch into maltose, maltotriose and a small amount of glucose, while AmyF hydrolyzed starch into mainly glucose. The excellent physical and chemical properties including high acidic stability, Ca2+-independent and high maltotriose-forming capacity make AmyE suitable in food and sugar syrup industries. Conclusions: This study illustrates that a gene family can encode multiple enzymes members having remarkable differences in biochemical properties. It provides not only new insights into evolution and functional divergence among different members of an α-amylase family, but the development of new enzymes for industrial application. Keywords: Biochemical properties, Food industry, Fungal α-amylase, Glycosyl hydrolase family, Glycosyl hydrolase family, Industrial application, Paper industry, Recombinant Pichia pastoris, Starch processing, α-amylase cloning

  1. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    J.K. Sugai


    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  2. Multi-Attribute Vickrey Auctions when Utility Functions are Unknown

    Máhr, T.; De Weerdt, M.M.


    Multi-attribute auctions allow negotiations over multiple attributes besides price. For example in task allocation, service providers can define their service by means of multiple attributes, such as quality of service, deadlines, or delay penalties. Auction mechanisms assume that the players have

  3. Conditional scale function estimate in the presence of unknown ...

    Standard approach for modeling and understanding the variability of statistical data or, generally, dependant data, is often based on the mean variance regression models. However, the assumptions employed on standardized residuals may be too restrictive, in particular, when the data follows heavy-tailed distribution with ...

  4. Estimating Functions of Distributions Defined over Spaces of Unknown Size

    David H. Wolpert


    Full Text Available We consider Bayesian estimation of information-theoretic quantities from data, using a Dirichlet prior. Acknowledging the uncertainty of the event space size m and the Dirichlet prior’s concentration parameter c, we treat both as random variables set by a hyperprior. We show that the associated hyperprior, P(c, m, obeys a simple “Irrelevance of Unseen Variables” (IUV desideratum iff P(c, m = P(cP(m. Thus, requiring IUV greatly reduces the number of degrees of freedom of the hyperprior. Some information-theoretic quantities can be expressed multiple ways, in terms of different event spaces, e.g., mutual information. With all hyperpriors (implicitly used in earlier work, different choices of this event space lead to different posterior expected values of these information-theoretic quantities. We show that there is no such dependence on the choice of event space for a hyperprior that obeys IUV. We also derive a result that allows us to exploit IUV to greatly simplify calculations, like the posterior expected mutual information or posterior expected multi-information. We also use computer experiments to favorably compare an IUV-based estimator of entropy to three alternative methods in common use. We end by discussing how seemingly innocuous changes to the formalization of an estimation problem can substantially affect the resultant estimates of posterior expectations.

  5. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    Kelly, J


    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  6. Autonomous Flight in Unknown Indoor Environments

    Bachrach, Abraham Galton; He, Ruijie; Roy, Nicholas


    This paper presents our solution for enabling a quadrotor helicopter, equipped with a laser rangefinder sensor, to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. While these capabilities are already commodities on ground vehicles, air vehicles seeking the same performance face unique challenges. In this paper, we describe the difficulties in achieving fully autonomous helicopter flight, highlighting the differences between ground and helicopter robots that make it ...

  7. Multidimensional procurement auctions with unknown weights

    Greve, Thomas

    This paper studies the consequences of holding a procurement auction when the principal chooses not to show its preferences. My paper extends the procurement auction model of Che (1993) to a situation where both the principal and the agents have private information. Thus, unknown parameters of bo...... gives rise to an analysis of a principal that can not fully commit to the outcome induced by the scoring rule. Therefore, my result apply to contract theory and it’s problems with imperfect commitment....

  8. Biochemical transport modeling, estimation, and detection in realistic environments

    Ortner, Mathias; Nehorai, Arye


    Early detection and estimation of the spread of a biochemical contaminant are major issues for homeland security applications. We present an integrated approach combining the measurements given by an array of biochemical sensors with a physical model of the dispersion and statistical analysis to solve these problems and provide system performance measures. We approximate the dispersion model of the contaminant in a realistic environment through numerical simulations of reflected stochastic diffusions describing the microscopic transport phenomena due to wind and chemical diffusion using the Feynman-Kac formula. We consider arbitrary complex geometries and account for wind turbulence. Localizing the dispersive sources is useful for decontamination purposes and estimation of the cloud evolution. To solve the associated inverse problem, we propose a Bayesian framework based on a random field that is particularly powerful for localizing multiple sources with small amounts of measurements. We also develop a sequential detector using the numerical transport model we propose. Sequential detection allows on-line analysis and detecting wether a change has occurred. We first focus on the formulation of a suitable sequential detector that overcomes the presence of unknown parameters (e.g. release time, intensity and location). We compute a bound on the expected delay before false detection in order to decide the threshold of the test. For a fixed false-alarm rate, we obtain the detection probability of a substance release as a function of its location and initial concentration. Numerical examples are presented for two real-world scenarios: an urban area and an indoor ventilation duct.

  9. Biochemical characterization of the maltokinase from Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    Lamosa Pedro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maltose-1-phosphate was detected in Mycobacterium bovis BCG extracts in the 1960's but a maltose-1-phosphate synthetase (maltokinase, Mak was only much later purified from Actinoplanes missouriensis, allowing the identification of the mak gene. Recently, this metabolite was proposed to be the intermediate in a pathway linking trehalose with the synthesis of glycogen in M. smegmatis. Although the M. tuberculosis H37Rv mak gene (Rv0127 was considered essential for growth, no mycobacterial Mak has, to date, been characterized. Results The sequence of the Mak from M. bovis BCG was identical to that from M. tuberculosis strains (99-100% amino acid identity. The enzyme was dependent on maltose and ATP, although GTP and UTP could be used to produce maltose-1-phosphate, which we identified by TLC and characterized by NMR. The Km for maltose was 2.52 ± 0.40 mM and 0.74 ± 0.12 mM for ATP; the Vmax was 21.05 ± 0.89 μmol/ Divalent cations were required for activity and Mg2+ was the best activator. The enzyme was a monomer in solution, had maximal activity at 60°C, between pH 7 and 9 (at 37°C and was unstable on ice and upon freeze/thawing. The addition of 50 mM NaCl markedly enhanced Mak stability. Conclusions The unknown role of maltokinases in mycobacterial metabolism and the lack of biochemical data led us to express the mak gene from M. bovis BCG for biochemical characterization. This is the first mycobacterial Mak to be characterized and its properties represent essential knowledge towards deeper understanding of mycobacterial physiology. Since Mak may be a potential drug target in M. tuberculosis, its high-level production and purification in bioactive form provide important tools for further functional and structural studies.

  10. Systemic distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a novel model: alteration of biochemical parameters, metabolic functions, liver accumulation, and inflammation in vivo

    Principi E


    Full Text Available Elisa Principi,1,* Rossana Girardello,2,* Antonino Bruno,1,* Isabella Manni,3 Elisabetta Gini,2 Arianna Pagani,1 Annalisa Grimaldi,2 Federico Ivaldi,4 Terenzio Congiu,5 Daniela De Stefano,1 Giulia Piaggio,3 Magda de Eguileor,2 Douglas M Noonan,1,2 Adriana Albini1 1Vascular Biology and Angiogenesis, Scientific and Technology Pole, IRCCS MultiMedica, Milano, 2Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, 3Department of Research, Advanced Diagnosis and Innovation, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, 4Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Genetics, University of Genoa, Genoa, 5Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in several industrial applications raises concerns on their potential toxicity due to factors such as tissue penetrance, small dimensions, and biopersistence. Using an in vivo model for CNT environmental exposure, mimicking CNT exposition at the workplace, we previously found that CNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in the lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidneys via the bloodstream in CD1 mice. Here, we monitored and traced the accumulation of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs, administered systemically in mice, in different organs and the subsequent biological responses. Using the novel in vivo model, MITO-Luc bioluminescence reporter mice, we found that SWCNTs induce systemic cell proliferation, indicating a dynamic response of cells of both bone marrow and the immune system. We then examined metabolic (water/food consumption and dejections, functional (serum enzymes, and morphological (organs and tissues alterations in CD1 mice treated with SWCNTs, using metabolic cages, performing serum analyses, and applying histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural (transmission electron


    O. O. Furyk


    Full Text Available Relevance of hepatitis B due to the high incidence complexity of pathogenesis, ineffective treatment, severe consequences of the disease. Among combined lesions of the liver, special attention is paid to viral-alcoholic type. One of the mechanisms of chronic hepatitis of different etiology is violation of the functional activity of the autonomic nervous system. The aim of this work- to determine the dynamics of spectral indices of heart rate variability in patients with acute hepatitis B from chronic use of alcohol in hepatotoxic doses. Materials and methods. 133 patients with acute hepatitis B were under observation. Patients were divided into groups taking account the presence or absence of chronic use of alcohol in hepatotoxic doses and using the classification of alcohol consumption based on the frequency and dose of consumed alcohol. I group comprised 52 patients with chronic use of alcohol in the hepatotoxic doses, II group consisted of 81 patient without this factor. Heart rate variability was diagnosed using computer cardiointervalometry performed by electrocardiographic diagnostic system CardioLab-2000. 20 healthy individuals were in the control group. Results and discussion. Prodromal period in patients of the I group was longer (p0,05. However, only patients in group I had marked hemorrhagic manifestations (5,8 % and itching (7.7%. Average serum total bilirubin level was higher (p<0,05 in patients from the I group than in patients from II group. Functional state of autonomic nervous system in patients of both groups were decreased in acute period (vagotonia. Period of convalescence in patients from the I group was accompanied by more severe autonomic dysfunction in 33,6 % (p<0,05. Conclusions. 1. Acute hepatitis B in patients with chronic alcohol use in hepatotoxic doses is characterized by longer (p<0,05 prodrome, cholestatic (7,7% and hemorrhagic manifestations (5,8%, higher levels of hyperbilirubinemia (p<0,05, and during

  12. Assessment of skin barrier function and biochemical changes of ex vivo human skin in response to physical and chemical barrier disruption.

    Döge, Nadine; Avetisyan, Araks; Hadam, Sabrina; Pfannes, Eva Katharina Barbosa; Rancan, Fiorenza; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika


    Topical dermatotherapy is intended to be used on diseased skin. Novel drug delivery systems even address differences between intact and diseased skin underlining the need for pre-clinical assessment of different states of barrier disruption. Herein, we studied how short-term incubation in culture media compared to incubation in humidified chambers affects human skin barrier function and viability. On both models we assessed different types and intensities of physical and chemical barrier disruption methods with regard to structural integrity, biophysical parameters and cytokine levels. Tissue degeneration and proliferative activity limited the use of tissue cultures to 48h. Viability is better preserved in cultured tissue. Tape-stripping (50×TS) and 4h sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) pre-treatment were identified as highly reproducible and effective procedures for barrier disruption. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values reproducibly increased with the intensity of disruption while sebum content and skin surface pH were of limited value. Interleukin (IL)-6/8 and various chemokines and proteases were increased in tape-stripped skin which was more pronounced in SLS-treated skin tissue extracts. Thus, albeit limited to 48h, cultured full-thickness skin maintained several barrier characteristics and responded to different intensities of barrier disruption. Potentially, these models can be used to assess pre-clinically the efficacy and penetration of anti-inflammatory compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical and biochemical function of polymorphic NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellites in Ewing sarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Michael J Monument

    Full Text Available The genetics involved in Ewing sarcoma susceptibility and prognosis are poorly understood. EWS/FLI and related EWS/ETS chimeras upregulate numerous gene targets via promoter-based GGAA-microsatellite response elements. These microsatellites are highly polymorphic in humans, and preliminary evidence suggests EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression is highly dependent on the number of GGAA motifs within the microsatellite.Here we sought to examine the polymorphic spectrum of a GGAA-microsatellite within the NR0B1 promoter (a critical EWS/FLI target in primary Ewing sarcoma tumors, and characterize how this polymorphism influences gene expression and clinical outcomes.A complex, bimodal pattern of EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression was observed across a wide range of GGAA motifs, with maximal expression observed in constructs containing 20-26 GGAA motifs. Relative to white European and African controls, the NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite in tumor cells demonstrated a strong bias for haplotypes containing 21-25 GGAA motifs suggesting a relationship between microsatellite function and disease susceptibility. This selection bias was not a product of microsatellite instability in tumor samples, nor was there a correlation between NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms and survival outcomes.These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms observed in human populations modulate EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression and may influence disease susceptibility in Ewing sarcoma.

  14. Functional and biochemical analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis MurC, an enzyme displaying UDP-N-acetylmuramate:amino acid ligase activity.

    Hesse, Lars; Bostock, Julieanne; Dementin, Sebastien; Blanot, Didier; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Chopra, Ian


    Chlamydiae are unusual obligate intracellular bacteria that cause serious infections in humans. Chlamydiae contain genes that appear to encode products with peptidoglycan biosynthetic activity. The organisms are also susceptible to antibiotics that inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis. However, chlamydiae do not synthesize detectable peptidoglycan. The paradox created by these observations is known as the chlamydial anomaly. The MurC enzyme of chlamydiae, which is synthesized as a bifunctional MurC-Ddl product, is expected to possess UDP-N-acetylmuramate (UDP-MurNAc):L-alanine ligase activity. In this paper we demonstrate that the MurC domain of the Chlamydia trachomatis bifunctional protein is functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, since it complements a conditional lethal E. coli mutant possessing a temperature-sensitive lesion in MurC. The recombinant MurC domain was overexpressed in and purified from E. coli. It displayed in vitro ATP-dependent UDP-MurNAc:L-alanine ligase activity, with a pH optimum of 8.0 and dependence upon magnesium ions (optimum concentration, 20 mM). Its substrate specificity was studied with three amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, and glycine); comparable Vmax/Km values were obtained. Our results are consistent with the synthesis of a muramic acid-containing polymer in chlamydiae with UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide as a precursor molecule. However, due to the lack of specificity of MurC activity in vitro, it is not obvious which amino acid is present in the first position of the pentapeptide.

  15. Implantable biochemical fuel cell

    Richter, G; Rao, J R


    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  16. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Omidvar Rezae


    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  17. EBNA1: Oncogenic Activity, Immune Evasion and Biochemical Functions Provide Targets for Novel Therapeutic Strategies against Epstein-Barr Virus- Associated Cancers

    Joanna B. Wilson


    Full Text Available The presence of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1 protein in all EBV-carrying tumours constitutes a marker that distinguishes the virus-associated cancer cells from normal cells and thereby offers opportunities for targeted therapeutic intervention. EBNA1 is essential for viral genome maintenance and also for controlling viral gene expression and without EBNA1, the virus cannot persist. EBNA1 itself has been linked to cell transformation but the underlying mechanism of its oncogenic activity has been unclear. However, recent data are starting to shed light on its growth-promoting pathways, suggesting that targeting EBNA1 can have a direct growth suppressing effect. In order to carry out its tasks, EBNA1 interacts with cellular factors and these interactions are potential therapeutic targets, where the aim would be to cripple the virus and thereby rid the tumour cells of any oncogenic activity related to the virus. Another strategy to target EBNA1 is to interfere with its expression. Controlling the rate of EBNA1 synthesis is critical for the virus to maintain a sufficient level to support viral functions, while at the same time, restricting expression is equally important to prevent the immune system from detecting and destroying EBNA1-positive cells. To achieve this balance EBNA1 has evolved a unique repeat sequence of glycines and alanines that controls its own rate of mRNA translation. As the underlying molecular mechanisms for how this repeat suppresses its own rate of synthesis in cis are starting to be better understood, new therapeutic strategies are emerging that aim to modulate the translation of the EBNA1 mRNA. If translation is induced, it could increase the amount of EBNA1-derived antigenic peptides that are presented to the major histocompatibility (MHC class I pathway and thus, make EBV-carrying cancers better targets for the immune system. If translation is further suppressed, this would provide another

  18. Time Course and Association of Functional and Biochemical Markers in Severe Semitendinosus Damage Following Intensive Eccentric Leg Curls: Differences between and within Subjects

    Gerard Carmona


    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the extent and evolution of hamstring muscle damage caused by an intensive bout of eccentric leg curls (ELCs by (1 assessing the time course and association of different indirect markers of muscle damage such as changes in the force-generating capacity (FGC, functional magnetic resonance (fMRI, and serum muscle enzyme levels and (2 analyzing differences in the degree of hamstring muscle damage between and within subjects (limb-to-limb comparison.Methods: Thirteen male participants performed six sets of 10 repetitions of an ELC with each leg. Before and at regular intervals over 7 days after the exercise, FGC was measured with maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC. Serum enzyme levels, fMRI transverse relaxation time (T2 and perceived muscle soreness were also assessed and compared against the FGC.Results: Two groups of subjects were identified according to the extent of hamstring muscle damage based on decreased FGC and increased serum enzyme levels: high responders (n = 10, severe muscle damage and moderate responders (n = 3, moderate muscle damage. In the high responders, fMRI T2 analysis revealed that the semitendinosus (ST muscle suffered severe damage in the three regions measured (proximal, middle, and distal. The biceps femoris short head (BFsh muscle was also damaged and there were significant differences in the FGC within subjects in the high responders.Conclusion: FGC and serum enzyme levels measured in 10 of the subjects from the sample were consistent with severe muscle damage. However, the results showed a wide range of peak MVC reductions, reflecting different degrees of damage between subjects (high and moderate responders. fMRI analysis confirmed that the ST was the hamstring muscle most damaged by ELCs, with uniform T2 changes across all the measured sections of this muscle. During intensive ELCs, the ST muscle could suffer an anomalous recruitment pattern due to fatigue and damage, placing an

  19. Towards high-speed autonomous navigation of unknown environments

    Richter, Charles; Roy, Nicholas


    In this paper, we summarize recent research enabling high-speed navigation in unknown environments for dynamic robots that perceive the world through onboard sensors. Many existing solutions to this problem guarantee safety by making the conservative assumption that any unknown portion of the map may contain an obstacle, and therefore constrain planned motions to lie entirely within known free space. In this work, we observe that safety constraints may significantly limit performance and that faster navigation is possible if the planner reasons about collision with unobserved obstacles probabilistically. Our overall approach is to use machine learning to approximate the expected costs of collision using the current state of the map and the planned trajectory. Our contribution is to demonstrate fast but safe planning using a learned function to predict future collision probabilities.

  20. Renal disease masquerading as pyrexia of unknown origin

    D Korivi


    Full Text Available Pyrexia of unknown origin is a challenging clinical problem. Infections, malignancies, and connective tissue diseases form the major etiologies for this condition. We report a case of a 57-year-old diabetic male who presented with fever of unknown origin for several months. The course of investigations led to a kidney biopsy which clinched the cause of his fever as well as the underlying diagnosis. The light microscopy findings of expansile storiform fibrosis with a dense inflammatory infiltrate suggested the diagnosis which was confirmed by positive staining of Immunoglobulin G4, the dense lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. A course of steroids followed by mycophenolate mofetil as maintenance immunosuppression rendered the patient afebrile with improvement of renal function.

  1. A Simple Approach to Study Designs in Complex Biochemical ...

    Somdatta Sinha

    Protein sequences. • Biochemical & Genetic information. REVERSE ENGINEERING. LARGE NETWORKS. FORWARD ENGINEERING. All designs that are not physically forbidden are realizable, but not all realizable designs are functionally effective. (in relation to context and constraints of the system and environment).


    Fotache Lacramioara


    Full Text Available The paper is an effort to unknown areas identity affirmation, through collaborative development of advertising mix, with an emphasis on virtual platforms as admissible solution for increasing visibility. Based upon comparative effective analysis of categories of communication particularities, it is suggested a positioning strategic solution, via virtual advertising platform as unique, integrated, complex and very attractive tourism product promotion, fitted for the internal and international tourism circuit. The active promotion of the specified territorial identity will launch a brand with an impact among tourists by using marketing techniques and innovating technical means and prioritizing tourism as a principal vector of local and regional development.

  3. Metastasis to neck from unknown primary tumor

    Jose, B.; Bosch, A.; Caldwell, W.L.; Frias, Z.


    The records of 54 consecutive patients who were irradiated for metastatic disease in the neck from an unknown primary tumor were reviewed. The overall survival results are comparable to those of other reported series. Patients with high or posterior cervical lymph node involvement were irradiated with fields including the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Patients with high neck nodes had a better survival rate than those with low neck nodes. The size of the neck tumors and the local control after treatment also have prognostic significance. (Auth.)

  4. The Glymphatic Hypothesis of Glaucoma : A Unifying Concept Incorporating Vascular, Biomechanical, and Biochemical Aspects of the Disease

    Wostyn, Peter; De Groot, Veva; Van Dam, Debby; Audenaert, Kurt; Killer, Hanspeter Esriel; De Deyn, Peter Paul


    The pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma is still largely unknown, although a joint contribution of vascular, biomechanical, and biochemical factors is widely acknowledged. Since glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, exploring its underlying pathophysiological

  5. Reconstructing biochemical pathways from time course data.

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Crampin, Edmund J; McSharry, Patrick E; Schnell, Santiago


    Time series data on biochemical reactions reveal transient behavior, away from chemical equilibrium, and contain information on the dynamic interactions among reacting components. However, this information can be difficult to extract using conventional analysis techniques. We present a new method to infer biochemical pathway mechanisms from time course data using a global nonlinear modeling technique to identify the elementary reaction steps which constitute the pathway. The method involves the generation of a complete dictionary of polynomial basis functions based on the law of mass action. Using these basis functions, there are two approaches to model construction, namely the general to specific and the specific to general approach. We demonstrate that our new methodology reconstructs the chemical reaction steps and connectivity of the glycolytic pathway of Lactococcus lactis from time course experimental data.

  6. Numerical method of identification of an unknown source term in a heat equation

    Fatullayev Afet Golayo?lu


    Full Text Available A numerical procedure for an inverse problem of identification of an unknown source in a heat equation is presented. Approach of proposed method is to approximate unknown function by polygons linear pieces which are determined consecutively from the solution of minimization problem based on the overspecified data. Numerical examples are presented.

  7. Multidimensional biochemical information processing of dynamical patterns.

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko


    Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.

  8. Adresse inconnue / Address unknown / Suchwiin Bulmyeong

    Serge Gruzinski


    Full Text Available Tous les films asiatiques parlent de métissage, même ceux qui se présentent comme de vastes fresques historiques perdues dans le temps. Les emprunts aux traditions hollywoodiennes et européennes n'ont cessé d'enrichir une cinématographie aussi ancienne que celle du monde occidental. Dans Adresse inconnue (Address unknown le cinéaste coréen Kim Ki-duk explore l'expérience du métissage et le corps du métis à la frontière entre Corée du Nord et Corée du sud. Fils d'un GI américain et noir et d...

  9. Adresse inconnue / Address unknown / Suchwiin Bulmyeong

    Serge Gruzinski


    Tous les films asiatiques parlent de métissage, même ceux qui se présentent comme de vastes fresques historiques perdues dans le temps. Les emprunts aux traditions hollywoodiennes et européennes n'ont cessé d'enrichir une cinématographie aussi ancienne que celle du monde occidental. Dans Adresse inconnue (Address unknown) le cinéaste coréen Kim Ki-duk explore l'expérience du métissage et le corps du métis à la frontière entre Corée du Nord et Corée du sud. Fils d'un GI américain et noir et d'...

  10. The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications

    Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto


    The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.

  11. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

    L. Favier


    Full Text Available Carcinomatous meningitis (CM occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

  12. Off-Policy Actor-Critic Structure for Optimal Control of Unknown Systems With Disturbances.

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank L; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Huaguang


    An optimal control method is developed for unknown continuous-time systems with unknown disturbances in this paper. The integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm is presented to obtain the iterative control. Off-policy learning is used to allow the dynamics to be completely unknown. Neural networks are used to construct critic and action networks. It is shown that if there are unknown disturbances, off-policy IRL may not converge or may be biased. For reducing the influence of unknown disturbances, a disturbances compensation controller is added. It is proven that the weight errors are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov techniques. Convergence of the Hamiltonian function is also proven. The simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control method for unknown systems with disturbances.

  13. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown

    Anbar, A. D.


    Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

  14. Biochemical thermodynamics: applications of Mathematica.

    Alberty, Robert A


    reactants. Thus loading this package makes available 774 mathematical functions for these properties. These functions can be added and subtracted to obtain changes in these properties in biochemical reactions and apparent equilibrium constants.

  15. High Valence, Normal Valence and Unknown Valence

    Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul

    the serendipitous synthesis of the nitrido-bridged [Rh(en)3]2- [(CN)5MnNMn(CN)5]. The complex anion have previously been studied in the form of the mixed Rb4Na2-salt. In this earlier study, the nitrido-bridge was found to be asymmetrical with the axial ligands in an eclipsed formation. The complex was described...... the [Rh(en)3]2-salt is best described as Mn3.5/Mn3.5. This means that the [(CN)5MnNMn(CN)5]6􀀀 ion displays crystal packing induced oxidation state isomerism, a rare phenomenon. Chapter 4 details the synthesis and characterisation of group 9 dithiolene complexes with focus on the hitherto unknown...... homoleptic iridium dithiolene complexes. When the complexes [M(mnt)3]3􀀀, M = Rh and Co are chemically oxidized, they decompose to yield dinuclear complexes with the metal still in oxidation state III. This is not the case for the corresponding Ir complex which can be oxidized and the oxidation...

  16. Lung Lesions During Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Krupa, Renata; Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Hadzik-Blaszczyk, Malgorzata; Wardyn, Kazimierz A; Zycinska, Katarzyna


    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges. The causes of FUO can be various diseases located in different organs. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and nature of pulmonary lesions during FUO. One hundred and sixty one patients with FUO participated in this prospective study. We performed a detailed comprehensive history, physical examination, and a wide spectrum of tests. The most common causes of FUO were infections (39%), autoimmune conditions (28%), and neoplasms (17%). Lung lesions were found in 30% of patients. In this group 35% were infections, 30% autoimmune diseases, and 4% cancer. Among patients with respiratory infections, there were cases of tuberculosis, atypical pneumonia, lung abscess, and bronchiectases. Autoimmune pulmonary lesions were observed during vasculitis and systemic lupus. The causes of FUO in the group of patients with lung lesions were also pulmonary embolism, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Chest CT played an important role in the diagnosis of the causes of FUO with pulmonary manifestations. Pulmonary lesions are a common cause of FUO. Most FUO with pulmonary lesions are recognized during infections and autoimmune diseases. An important part of diagnosing FUO is a detailed evaluation of the respiratory system.

  17. Unknown Risks: Parental Hesitation about Vaccination.

    Blaisdell, Laura L; Gutheil, Caitlin; Hootsmans, Norbert A M; Han, Paul K J


    This qualitative study of a select sample of vaccine-hesitant parents (VHPs) explores perceived and constructed personal judgments about the risks and uncertainties associated with vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and how these subjective risk judgments influence parents' decisions about childhood vaccination. The study employed semistructured focus group interviews with 42 VHPs to elicit parents' perceptions and thought processes regarding the risks associated with vaccination and nonvaccination, the sources of these perceptions, and their approach to decision making about vaccination for their children. VHPs engage in various reasoning processes and tend to perceive risks of vaccination as greater than the risks of VPDs. At the same time, VHPs engage in other reasoning processes that lead them to perceive ambiguity in information about the harms of vaccination-citing concerns about the missing, conflicting, changing, or otherwise unreliable nature of information. VHPs' refusal of vaccination may reflect their aversion to both the risk and ambiguity they perceive to be associated with vaccination. Mitigating this vaccine hesitancy likely requires reconstructing the risks and ambiguities associated with vaccination-a challenging task that requires providing parents with meaningful evidence-based information on the known risks of vaccination versus VPDs and explicitly acknowledging the risks that remain truly unknown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. The energy equation with three unknowns

    Schifano, Fabio; Moriconi, Daniele


    This article discusses the alarming situation of energy in Italy as this country depends at 82 per cent on its imports (oil, natural gas and electricity), a dependence which could even increase. The authors first propose overviews of the situation regarding oil, natural gas and electric power (origins of imports, role of Italian companies, status of infrastructures), and also briefly of renewable energies. They recall the history of the use of nuclear energy: Italy has been one of the first country to use nuclear energy to produce electric power, but a referendum organised after Chernobyl resulted in phasing out nuclear. Then, the authors discuss perspectives associated with three main strategic unknowns: an increase of energy dependence with respect to hydrocarbons and to foreign nuclear power, a supply insecurity due to a dependence concentrated on a small number of countries (notably as far as natural gas is concerned), and an increasing interdependence between economic growth and sustainable development (the reduction of greenhouse emissions is a prevailing parameter for future energetic choices)

  19. Optimal Information Processing in Biochemical Networks

    Wiggins, Chris


    A variety of experimental results over the past decades provide examples of near-optimal information processing in biological networks, including in biochemical and transcriptional regulatory networks. Computing information-theoretic quantities requires first choosing or computing the joint probability distribution describing multiple nodes in such a network --- for example, representing the probability distribution of finding an integer copy number of each of two interacting reactants or gene products while respecting the `intrinsic' small copy number noise constraining information transmission at the scale of the cell. I'll given an overview of some recent analytic and numerical work facilitating calculation of such joint distributions and the associated information, which in turn makes possible numerical optimization of information flow in models of noisy regulatory and biochemical networks. Illustrating cases include quantification of form-function relations, ideal design of regulatory cascades, and response to oscillatory driving.

  20. Biochemical failure after radical external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Nomoto, Satoshi; Imada, Hajime; Kato, Fumio; Yahara, Katsuya; Morioka, Tomoaki; Ohguri, Takayuki; Nakano, Keita; Korogi, Yukunori


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate biochemical failures after radical external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. A total of 143 patients with prostate cancer (5 cases in stage A2, 95 in stage B and 43 in stage C; 18 in low risk group, 37 in intermediate risk group, 67 in high risk group and 21 in unknown group) were included in this study. Patients of stage A2 and B underwent external irradiation of 46 Gy to the prostate gland and seminal vesicle and additional 20 Gy to the prostate gland, while patients of stage C underwent external irradiation of 66 Gy to the prostate gland and seminal vesicle including 46 Gy to the pelvis. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy was done in 66 cases, and long-term hormonal therapy in 75 cases; two cases were treated with radiation therapy alone. The 3-year relapse free survival rates by stage A2, B and C were 100%, 96.7% and 88.1%, respectively. The 3-year relapse free survival rates by low, intermediate and high risk groups were 100%, 92.3% and 89.7%, respectively. Biochemical failure was noted in nine cases during the average observation term of 32.2 months; in this group the median of prostate specific antigen (PSA) value was 2.6 ng/ml, the doubling time was 8.6 months, and the term of biochemical failure was 33.2 months. Six of eight cases with biochemical failure were the neoadjuvant hormonal therapy group, but biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) curve showed no significant difference between neoadjuvant and long-term hormonal groups. It is supposed that unnecessary hormonal therapies were performed based on the nonspecific diagnosis of biochemical failure after radical radiotherapy in our group of patients. A precise criterion of biochemical failure after radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer is necessary. (author)

  1. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    D. T. Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  2. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena


    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  3. Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter estimation for stochastic biochemical systems

    Daigle Bernie J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for the mechanistic simulation of a biochemical system is detailed knowledge of its kinetic parameters. Despite recent experimental advances, the estimation of unknown parameter values from observed data is still a bottleneck for obtaining accurate simulation results. Many methods exist for parameter estimation in deterministic biochemical systems; methods for discrete stochastic systems are less well developed. Given the probabilistic nature of stochastic biochemical models, a natural approach is to choose parameter values that maximize the probability of the observed data with respect to the unknown parameters, a.k.a. the maximum likelihood parameter estimates (MLEs. MLE computation for all but the simplest models requires the simulation of many system trajectories that are consistent with experimental data. For models with unknown parameters, this presents a computational challenge, as the generation of consistent trajectories can be an extremely rare occurrence. Results We have developed Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization with Modified Cross-Entropy Method (MCEM2: an accelerated method for calculating MLEs that combines advances in rare event simulation with a computationally efficient version of the Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM algorithm. Our method requires no prior knowledge regarding parameter values, and it automatically provides a multivariate parameter uncertainty estimate. We applied the method to five stochastic systems of increasing complexity, progressing from an analytically tractable pure-birth model to a computationally demanding model of yeast-polarization. Our results demonstrate that MCEM2 substantially accelerates MLE computation on all tested models when compared to a stand-alone version of MCEM. Additionally, we show how our method identifies parameter values for certain classes of models more accurately than two recently proposed computationally efficient methods

  4. Management of Gene Variants of Unknown Significance

    Alosi, Daniela; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Hemmingsen, Sophie Nowak


    by germline mutations in the VHL gene, which predispose to the development of multiple tumors such as central nervous system hemangioblastomas and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Objective: We propose a method for the evaluation of VUS pathogenicity through our experience with the VHL missense mutation c.241C...... (IHC); 3) Assessment of the variant’s impact on protein structure and function, using multiple databases, in silico algorithms, and reports of functional studies. Results: Only one family member had clinical signs of vHL with early-onset RCC. IHC analysis showed no VHL protein expressed in the tumor...

  5. Phylogenetic molecular function annotation

    Engelhardt, Barbara E; Jordan, Michael I; Repo, Susanna T; Brenner, Steven E


    It is now easier to discover thousands of protein sequences in a new microbial genome than it is to biochemically characterize the specific activity of a single protein of unknown function. The molecular functions of protein sequences have typically been predicted using homology-based computational methods, which rely on the principle that homologous proteins share a similar function. However, some protein families include groups of proteins with different molecular functions. A phylogenetic approach for predicting molecular function (sometimes called 'phylogenomics') is an effective means to predict protein molecular function. These methods incorporate functional evidence from all members of a family that have functional characterizations using the evolutionary history of the protein family to make robust predictions for the uncharacterized proteins. However, they are often difficult to apply on a genome-wide scale because of the time-consuming step of reconstructing the phylogenies of each protein to be annotated. Our automated approach for function annotation using phylogeny, the SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships) methodology, uses a statistical graphical model to compute the probabilities of molecular functions for unannotated proteins. Our benchmark tests showed that SIFTER provides accurate functional predictions on various protein families, outperforming other available methods.

  6. Structural and biochemical analysis of atypically low dephosphorylating activity of human dual-specificity phosphatase 28.

    Bonsu Ku

    Full Text Available Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs constitute a subfamily of protein tyrosine phosphatases, and are intimately involved in the regulation of diverse parameters of cellular signaling and essential biological processes. DUSP28 is one of the DUSP subfamily members that is known to be implicated in the progression of hepatocellular and pancreatic cancers, and its biological functions and enzymatic characteristics are mostly unknown. Herein, we present the crystal structure of human DUSP28 determined to 2.1 Å resolution. DUSP28 adopts a typical DUSP fold, which is composed of a central β-sheet covered by α-helices on both sides and contains a well-ordered activation loop, as do other enzymatically active DUSP proteins. The catalytic pocket of DUSP28, however, appears hardly accessible to a substrate because of the presence of nonconserved bulky residues in the protein tyrosine phosphatase signature motif. Accordingly, DUSP28 showed an atypically low phosphatase activity in the biochemical assay, which was remarkably improved by mutations of two nonconserved residues in the activation loop. Overall, this work reports the structural and biochemical basis for understanding a putative oncological therapeutic target, DUSP28, and also provides a unique mechanism for the regulation of enzymatic activity in the DUSP subfamily proteins.

  7. Analysing Trust Transitivity and The Effects of Unknown Dependence

    Touhid Bhuiyan


    Full Text Available Trust can be used to improve online automated recommendation within a given domain. Trust transitivity is used to make it successful. But trust transitivity has different interpretations. Trust and trust transitivity; both are the human mental phenomenon and for this reason, there is no such thing as objective transitivity. Trust transitivity and trust fusion both are important elements in computational trust. This paper analyses the parameter dependence problem in trust transitivity and proposes some definitions considering the effects of base rate. In addition, it also proposes belief functions based on subjective logic to analyse trust transitivity of three specified cases with sensitive and insensitive based rate. Then it presents a quantitative analysis of the effects of unknown dependence problem in an interconnected network environment; such Internet.

  8. Biochemical reactions of the organism

    Fedorova, A.V.


    Effects of mercury, strontium chloride, GMDA, trichlorfon as well as some radionuclides ( 89 Sr, 137 Cs, 203 Hg) were studied on rats. Changes in biochemical parameters (histamine content, activity of cholinesterase and histaminase) are noted. Most noticeable changes were observed in enzymatic activity. Distortion of enzymatic systems and accumulation of intermediate exchange and decay products of tissues in excess quantities affecting other systems can be the reason for changes in the organism. The observed changes in biochemical parameters should be necessarily taken into account at hygienic regulations of harmful effects of enviroment

  9. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs.

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie


    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ∼ 24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie


    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ~24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes.

  11. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction

    Ling Huang


    Full Text Available Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 1016 electrons/m2 with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the

  12. Applied spectrophotometry: analysis of a biochemical mixture.

    Trumbo, Toni A; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G; Pugh, Michael Eugene


    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the concentration of a given species (RNA, DNA, protein) in isolation (a contrived circumstance) as opposed to determining that concentration in the presence of other species (a more realistic situation). To present the student with a more realistic laboratory experience and also to fill a hole that we believe exists in student experience prior to reaching a biochemistry course, we have devised a three week laboratory experience designed so that students learn to: connect laboratory practice with theory, apply the Beer-Lambert-Bougert Law to biochemical analyses, demonstrate the utility and limitations of example quantitative colorimetric assays, demonstrate the utility and limitations of UV analyses for biomolecules, develop strategies for analysis of a solution of unknown biomolecular composition, use digital micropipettors to make accurate and precise measurements, and apply graphing software. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Rendezvous with connectivity preservation for multi-robot systems with an unknown leader

    Dong, Yi


    This paper studies the leader-following rendezvous problem with connectivity preservation for multi-agent systems composed of uncertain multi-robot systems subject to external disturbances and an unknown leader, both of which are generated by a so-called exosystem with parametric uncertainty. By combining internal model design, potential function technique and adaptive control, two distributed control strategies are proposed to maintain the connectivity of the communication network, to achieve the asymptotic tracking of all the followers to the output of the unknown leader system, as well as to reject unknown external disturbances. It is also worth to mention that the uncertain parameters in the multi-robot systems and exosystem are further allowed to belong to unknown and unbounded sets when applying the second fully distributed control law containing a dynamic gain inspired by high-gain adaptive control or self-tuning regulator.

  14. Matrix- and tensor-based recommender systems for the discovery of currently unknown inorganic compounds

    Seko, Atsuto; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Kashima, Hisashi; Tanaka, Isao


    Chemically relevant compositions (CRCs) and atomic arrangements of inorganic compounds have been collected as inorganic crystal structure databases. Machine learning is a unique approach to search for currently unknown CRCs from vast candidates. Herein we propose matrix- and tensor-based recommender system approaches to predict currently unknown CRCs from database entries of CRCs. Firstly, the performance of the recommender system approaches to discover currently unknown CRCs is examined. A Tucker decomposition recommender system shows the best discovery rate of CRCs as the majority of the top 100 recommended ternary and quaternary compositions correspond to CRCs. Secondly, systematic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to investigate the phase stability of the recommended compositions. The phase stability of the 27 compositions reveals that 23 currently unknown compounds are newly found to be stable. These results indicate that the recommender system has great potential to accelerate the discovery of new compounds.

  15. Determination of the origin of unknown irradiated nuclear fuel.

    Nicolaou, G


    An isotopic fingerprinting method is presented to determine the origin of unknown nuclear material with forensic importance. Spent nuclear fuel of known origin has been considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to demonstrate the method and verify its prediction capabilities. The method compares, using factor analysis, the measured U, Pu isotopic compositions of the 'unknown' material with U, Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. Then, the 'unknown' fuel has the same origin as the commercial fuel with which it exhibits the highest similarity in U, Pu compositions.

  16. Determination of the origin of unknown irradiated nuclear fuel

    Nicolaou, G.


    An isotopic fingerprinting method is presented to determine the origin of unknown nuclear material with forensic importance. Spent nuclear fuel of known origin has been considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to demonstrate the method and verify its prediction capabilities. The method compares, using factor analysis, the measured U, Pu isotopic compositions of the 'unknown' material with U, Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. Then, the 'unknown' fuel has the same origin as the commercial fuel with which it exhibits the highest similarity in U, Pu compositions

  17. Biochemical Process Development and Integration | Bioenergy | NREL

    Biochemical Process Development and Integration Biochemical Process Development and Integration Our conversion and separation processes to pilot-scale integrated process development and scale up. We also Publications Accounting for all sugar produced during integrated production of ethanol from lignocellulosic

  18. MUSIC-type imaging of small perfectly conducting cracks with an unknown frequency

    Park, Won-Kwang


    MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) is a famous non-iterative detection algorithm in inverse scattering problems. However, when the applied frequency is unknown, inaccurate locations are identified via MUSIC. This fact has been confirmed through numerical simulations. However, the reason behind this phenomenon has not been investigated theoretically. Motivated by this fact, we identify the structure of MUSIC-type imaging functionals with unknown frequency, by establishing a relationship with Bessel functions of order zero of the first kind. Through this, we can explain why inaccurate results appear. (paper)

  19. MUSIC-type imaging of small perfectly conducting cracks with an unknown frequency

    Park, Won-Kwang


    MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) is a famous non-iterative detection algorithm in inverse scattering problems. However, when the applied frequency is unknown, inaccurate locations are identified via MUSIC. This fact has been confirmed through numerical simulations. However, the reason behind this phenomenon has not been investigated theoretically. Motivated by this fact, we identify the structure of MUSIC-type imaging functionals with unknown frequency, by establishing a relationship with Bessel functions of order zero of the first kind. Through this, we can explain why inaccurate results appear.

  20. Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents

    Bruin, A. de


    A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents

  1. The Enzyme Function Initiative†

    Gerlt, John A.; Allen, Karen N.; Almo, Steven C.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Cronan, John E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C. Dale; Raushel, Frank M.; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.


    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID

  2. The Enzyme Function Initiative.

    Gerlt, John A; Allen, Karen N; Almo, Steven C; Armstrong, Richard N; Babbitt, Patricia C; Cronan, John E; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J; Jacobson, Matthew P; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C Dale; Raushel, Frank M; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K; Sweedler, Jonathan V


    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic, we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include (1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation), (2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia, (3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy, (4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization, and (5) dissemination of data via the EFI's Website, The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal, and pharmaceutical efforts.

  3. Biological and biochemical evaluation of some prepared high ...

    Biological and biochemical evaluation of some prepared high antioxidant fruit beverages as functional foods. W A El-Malky ... The beverage which contain mango, red grape, carrot and tomato was the best prepared beverages according to the sensory evaluation, chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The high ...

  4. Evaluation of haematological and plasma biochemical effects of ...



    Nov 1, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(88), pp. ... biochemical values revealed significant increase in total protein, albumin and aspartate amino transferase. However ... functions and damages to cellular membrane normally leads to the .... way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for statistical significance was.

  5. Mitochondrial oxidative function and type 2 diabetes

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Boushel, Robert; Dela, Flemming


    The cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is unknown. The major part of insulin-mediated glucose disposal takes place in the skeletal muscle, and increased amounts of intramyocellular lipid has been associated with insulin resistance and linked to decreased activity of mitochondrial...... oxidative phosphorylation. This review will cover the present knowledge and literature on the topics of the activity of oxidative enzymes and the electron transport chain (ETC) in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes. Different methods of studying mitochondrial function are described, including...... biochemical measurements of oxidative enzyme and electron transport activity, isolation of mitochondria for measurements of respiration, and ATP production and indirect measurements of ATP production using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - spectroscopy. Biochemical markers of mitochondrial content are also...

  6. Psychological profile: the problem of modeling the unknown criminal personality

    Г. М. Гетьман


    Full Text Available The article investigates the problem of modeling an unknown person in the preparation of criminal psychological profile. Some approaches to the concept of "psychological profile" and "psychological portrait", in particular the proposed delineation of these terms. We consider the system steps in the development of the psychological profile of an unknown perpetrator.

  7. Synthesis of Biochemical Applications on Flow-Based Microfluidic Biochips using Constraint Programming

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan


    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves. By combin...

  8. Designing Epigenome Editors: Considerations of Biochemical and Locus Specificities.

    Sen, Dilara; Keung, Albert J


    The advent of locus-specific protein recruitment technologies has enabled a new class of studies in chromatin biology. Epigenome editors enable biochemical modifications of chromatin at almost any specific endogenous locus. Their locus specificity unlocks unique information including the functional roles of distinct modifications at specific genomic loci. Given the growing interest in using these tools for biological and translational studies, there are many specific design considerations depending on the scientific question or clinical need. Here we present and discuss important design considerations and challenges regarding the biochemical and locus specificities of epigenome editors. These include how to account for the complex biochemical diversity of chromatin; control for potential interdependency of epigenome editors and their resultant modifications; avoid sequestration effects; quantify the locus specificity of epigenome editors; and improve locus specificity by considering concentration, affinity, avidity, and sequestration effects.

  9. Sublethal microcystin exposure and biochemical outcomes among hemodialysis patients.

    Elizabeth D Hilborn

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are commonly-occurring contaminants of surface waters worldwide. Microcystins, potent hepatotoxins, are among the best characterized cyanotoxins. During November, 2001, a group of 44 hemodialysis patients were exposed to microcystins via contaminated dialysate. Serum microcystin concentrations were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which measures free serum microcystin LR equivalents (ME. We describe serum ME concentrations and biochemical outcomes among a subset of patients during 8 weeks following exposure. Thirteen patients were included; 6 were males, patients' median age was 45 years (range 16-80, one was seropositive for hepatitis B surface antigen. The median serum ME concentration was 0.33 ng/mL (range: <0.16-0.96. One hundred thirty nine blood samples were collected following exposure. Patients' biochemical outcomes varied, but overall indicated a mixed liver injury. Linear regression evaluated each patient's weekly mean biochemical outcome with their maximum serum ME concentration; a measure of the extrinsic pathway of clotting function, prothrombin time, was negatively and significantly associated with serum ME concentrations. This group of exposed patients' biochemical outcomes display evidence of a mixed liver injury temporally associated with microcystin exposure. Interpretation of biochemical outcomes are complicated by the study population's underlying chronic disease status. It is clear that dialysis patients are a distinct 'at risk' group for cyanotoxin exposures due to direct intravenous exposure to dialysate prepared from surface drinking water supplies. Careful monitoring and treatment of water supplies used to prepare dialysate is required to prevent future cyanotoxin exposure events.

  10. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov


    The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...

  11. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R


    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of biochemical systems

    Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.


    Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process

  13. Biochemical Basis of Sestrin Physiological Activities

    Ho, Allison; Cho, Chun-Seok; Namkoong, Sim; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Lee, Jun Hee (Michigan)


    Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chronic activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) are well-characterized promoters of aging and age-associated degenerative pathologies. Sestrins, a family of highly conserved stress-inducible proteins, are important negative regulators of both ROS and mTORC1 signaling pathways; however, the mechanistic basis of how Sestrins suppress these pathways remains elusive. In the past couple of years, breakthrough discoveries about Sestrin signaling and its molecular nature have markedly increased our biochemical understanding of Sestrin function. These discoveries have also uncovered new potential therapeutic strategies that may eventually enable us to attenuate aging and age-associated diseases.

  14. The biochemical anatomy of cortical inhibitory synapses.

    Elizabeth A Heller

    Full Text Available Classical electron microscopic studies of the mammalian brain revealed two major classes of synapses, distinguished by the presence of a large postsynaptic density (PSD exclusively at type 1, excitatory synapses. Biochemical studies of the PSD have established the paradigm of the synapse as a complex signal-processing machine that controls synaptic plasticity. We report here the results of a proteomic analysis of type 2, inhibitory synaptic complexes isolated by affinity purification from the cerebral cortex. We show that these synaptic complexes contain a variety of neurotransmitter receptors, neural cell-scaffolding and adhesion molecules, but that they are entirely lacking in cell signaling proteins. This fundamental distinction between the functions of type 1 and type 2 synapses in the nervous system has far reaching implications for models of synaptic plasticity, rapid adaptations in neural circuits, and homeostatic mechanisms controlling the balance of excitation and inhibition in the mature brain.

  15. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.


    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  16. Robust Fault Detection for Switched Fuzzy Systems With Unknown Input.

    Han, Jian; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Yingchun; Sun, Xun


    This paper investigates the fault detection problem for a class of switched nonlinear systems in the T-S fuzzy framework. The unknown input is considered in the systems. A novel fault detection unknown input observer design method is proposed. Based on the proposed observer, the unknown input can be removed from the fault detection residual. The weighted H∞ performance level is considered to ensure the robustness. In addition, the weighted H₋ performance level is introduced, which can increase the sensibility of the proposed detection method. To verify the proposed scheme, a numerical simulation example and an electromechanical system simulation example are provided at the end of this paper.

  17. Biochemical parameters in chronic renal failure.

    Hakim, R M; Lazarus, J M


    We analyzed biochemical data derived from 911 patients with renal insufficiency observed at our institution for periods up to 7 years. During early renal failure (RF) (creatinine less than 5 mg/dL), the rate of change of hematocrit, total CO2 (tCO2) and urea per unit change of creatinine was significantly higher than during moderate (creatinine between 5 and 10 mg/dL) or advanced (creatinine greater than 10 mg/dL) RF. For example, the rate of change of hematocrit (%, volume/volume [v/v]) was (mean +/- SEM) -2.15 +/- 0.15% for each 1 mg/dL increase in creatinine in the range of creatinine less than 5 mg/dL, whereas for the range of creatinine greater than 10 mg/dL, the rate of change was only -0.48 +/- 0.06% (P less than 0.001). Similarly, the rate of change of tCO2 was -1.68 +/- 0.09 mEq/L for each 1 mg/dL increment in creatinine concentration during early RF, and -0.19 +/- 0.09 mEq/L per unit increase in creatinine during advanced RF (P less than 0.001). Chloride concentration initially increased as a function of creatinine in early RF, but decreased in advanced RF, whereas the anion gap increased throughout the course of RF. Mean serum phosphate concentration also increased steadily, but remained below the upper range of normal (4.7 mg/dL) during early RF without the use of phosphate binders. These data suggest that different biochemical parameters change at different rates as a function of the severity of renal dysfunction, and that although phosphate retention may occur, hyperphosphatemia is not a hallmark of early RF.

  18. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP), treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. Get detailed information about the diagnosis and treatment of CUP in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. RBF neural network based H∞ synchronization for unknown chaotic ...

    , 172 ... the effect of disturbance to an H∞ norm constraint. It is shown that ... unknown chaotic systems; linear matrix inequality (LMI); learning law. 1. Introduction .... (9) is RBFNN H∞ synchronized if the synchronization error e(t) satisfies. ∫ ∞.

  20. Classification of Unknown Thermocouple Types Using Similarity Factor Measurement

    Seshu K. DAMARLA


    Full Text Available In contrast to classification using PCA method, a new methodology is proposed for type identification of unknown thermocouple. The new methodology is based on calculating the degree of similarity between two multivariate datasets using two types of similarity factors. One similarity factor is based on principle component analysis and the angles between the principle component subspaces while the other is based on the Mahalanobis distance between the datasets. Datasets containing thermo-emfs against given temperature ranges are formed for each type of thermocouple (e.g. J, K, S, T, R, E, B and N type by experimentation are considered as reference datasets. Datasets corresponding to unknown type are captured. Similarity factor between the datasets one of which being the unknown type and the other being each known type are compared. When maximum similarity factor occurs, then the class of unknown type is allocated to that of known type.

  1. Projective and hybrid projective synchronization for the Lorenz-Stenflo system with estimation of unknown parameters

    Mukherjee, Payel; Banerjee, Santo


    In this work, in the first phase, we study the phenomenon of projective synchronization in the Lorenz-Stenflo system. Synchronization is then investigated for the same system with unknown parameters. We show analytically that synchronization is possible for some proper choice of the nonlinear controller by using a suitable Lyapunov function. With the help of this result, it is also possible to estimate the values of the unknown system parameters. In the second phase as an extension of our analysis, we investigate the new hybrid projective synchronization for the same system. All our analyses are well supported with numerical evidence.


    Li Shu; Zhuo Jiashou; Ren Qingwen


    In this paper, an optimal criterion is presented for adaptive Kalman filter in a control sys tem with unknown variances of stochastic vibration by constructing a function of noise variances and minimizing the function. We solve the model and measure variances by using DFP optimal method to guarantee the results of Kalman filter to be optimized. Finally, the control of vibration can be implemented by LQG method.

  3. Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing

    Qiuping Huang


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL, is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness.

  4. Emergence of switch-like behavior in a large family of simple biochemical networks.

    Dan Siegal-Gaskins


    Full Text Available Bistability plays a central role in the gene regulatory networks (GRNs controlling many essential biological functions, including cellular differentiation and cell cycle control. However, establishing the network topologies that can exhibit bistability remains a challenge, in part due to the exceedingly large variety of GRNs that exist for even a small number of components. We begin to address this problem by employing chemical reaction network theory in a comprehensive in silico survey to determine the capacity for bistability of more than 40,000 simple networks that can be formed by two transcription factor-coding genes and their associated proteins (assuming only the most elementary biochemical processes. We find that there exist reaction rate constants leading to bistability in ∼90% of these GRN models, including several circuits that do not contain any of the TF cooperativity commonly associated with bistable systems, and the majority of which could only be identified as bistable through an original subnetwork-based analysis. A topological sorting of the two-gene family of networks based on the presence or absence of biochemical reactions reveals eleven minimal bistable networks (i.e., bistable networks that do not contain within them a smaller bistable subnetwork. The large number of previously unknown bistable network topologies suggests that the capacity for switch-like behavior in GRNs arises with relative ease and is not easily lost through network evolution. To highlight the relevance of the systematic application of CRNT to bistable network identification in real biological systems, we integrated publicly available protein-protein interaction, protein-DNA interaction, and gene expression data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified several GRNs predicted to behave in a bistable fashion.

  5. Data Series Subtraction with Unknown and Unmodeled Background Noise

    Vitale, Stefano; Congedo, Giuseppe; Dolesi, Rita; Ferroni, Valerio; Hueller, Mauro; Vetrugno, Daniele; Weber, William Joseph; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; hide


    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory of the European Space Agency, will measure the degree to which two test masses can be put into free fall, aiming to demonstrate a suppression of disturbance forces corresponding to a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below (30 fm/sq s/Hz)(sup 2) around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the disturbance forces are obtained as the difference between the acceleration data and a linear combination of other measured data series. In many circumstances, the coefficients for this linear combination are obtained by fitting these data series to the acceleration, and the disturbance forces appear then as the data series of the residuals of the fit. Thus the background noise or, more precisely, its PSD, whose knowledge is needed to build up the likelihood function in ordinary maximum likelihood fitting, is here unknown, and its estimate constitutes instead one of the goals of the fit. In this paper we present a fitting method that does not require the knowledge of the PSD of the background noise. The method is based on the analytical marginalization of the posterior parameter probability density with respect to the background noise PSD, and returns an estimate both for the fitting parameters and for the PSD. We show that both these estimates are unbiased, and that, when using averaged Welchs periodograms for the residuals, the estimate of the PSD is consistent, as its error tends to zero with the inverse square root of the number of averaged periodograms. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively reweighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD and on data from several experiments performed with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

  6. CUP Syndrome-Metastatic Malignancy with Unknown Primary Tumor.

    Zaun, Gregor; Schuler, Martin; Herrmann, Ken; Tannapfel, Andrea


    2-4% of newly diagnosed cases of malignant disease involve cancer of unknown primary (CUP). This mixed entity is one of the 6 most common types of malignant disease in Germany. Highly refined treatment strategies can now be offered to patients with CUP. This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed with an emphasis on articles from the past decade. The current guidelines and recommendations of specialty societies were also considered in the evaluation. CUP most commonly manifests itself as metastases to the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, or bones. With the aid of imaging studies, including functional hybrid imaging and further medical examination, a primary tumor can be discovered in up to 40% of patients initially diagnosed with CUP. Immunohistochemistry guided by histomorphology often enables precise characterization of the lesion and can be supplemented, in selected cases, by molecular-genetic diagnostic evaluation. The most commonly detected types of primary tumor are cancers of the lung, pancreas, liver, and biliary system. For patients with local metastases, surgical resection or radiotherapy with curative intent is usually indicated, sometimes in the framework of a multimodal treatment concept. The median 2-year survival of patients with disseminated CUP is only 20%. For such patients, specific types of systemic therapy are recommended on the basis of the diagnostic characterization of the disease. Immune-modulatory antibodies can be effective, particularly in the treatment of CUP that has been characterized with biomarkers, but should still be considered experimental at present. A combination of conventional and innovative diagnostic methods enables the provision of highly refined therapeutic strategies to patients with CUP who are undergoing treatment in interdisciplinary cancer centers.

  7. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of Pycnogenol and Bacopa CDRI08 herbal medicines on cognitive, cardiovascular, and biochemical functioning in cognitively healthy elderly people: the Australian Research Council Longevity Intervention (ARCLI study protocol (ANZCTR12611000487910

    Stough Con K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major challenges associated with our ageing population is the increasing incidence of age-associated cognitive decline, which has significant implications for an individual's ability to lead a productive and fulfilling life. In pure economic terms the costs of ageing reflects decreased productivity and engagement with the workforce. The maintenance of brain health underpinning intact cognition is a key factor to maintaining a positive, engaged, and productive lifestyle. In light of this, the role of diet, including supplementation with nutritional and even pharmacological interventions capable of ameliorating the neurocognitive changes that occur with age constitute vital areas of research. Methods In order to reduce cognitive ageing, the ARC longevity intervention (ARCLI was developed to examine the effects of two promising natural pharmacologically active supplements on cognitive performance. ARCLI is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3-arm clinical trial in which 465 participants will be randomized to receive an extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI08 300 mg/day, Pycnogenol (150 mg/day, or placebo daily for 12 months. Participants will be tested at baseline and then at 3, 6 and 12 months post-randomization on a wide battery of cognitive, neuropsychological and mood measures, cardiovascular (brachial and aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as arterial stiffness, biochemical (assays to measure inflammation, oxidative stress and safety as well as genetic assessments (telomere length and several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. The primary aim is to investigate the effects of these supplements on cognitive performance. The secondary aims are to explore the time-course of cognitive enhancement as well as potential cardiovascular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning cognitive enhancement over the 12 months of administration. ARCLI will represent one of the largest and most comprehensive

  8. BALL - biochemical algorithms library 1.3

    Stöckel Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL is a comprehensive rapid application development framework for structural bioinformatics. It provides an extensive C++ class library of data structures and algorithms for molecular modeling and structural bioinformatics. Using BALL as a programming toolbox does not only allow to greatly reduce application development times but also helps in ensuring stability and correctness by avoiding the error-prone reimplementation of complex algorithms and replacing them with calls into the library that has been well-tested by a large number of developers. In the ten years since its original publication, BALL has seen a substantial increase in functionality and numerous other improvements. Results Here, we discuss BALL's current functionality and highlight the key additions and improvements: support for additional file formats, molecular edit-functionality, new molecular mechanics force fields, novel energy minimization techniques, docking algorithms, and support for cheminformatics. Conclusions BALL is available for all major operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and MacOS X. It is available free of charge under the Lesser GNU Public License (LPGL. Parts of the code are distributed under the GNU Public License (GPL. BALL is available as source code and binary packages from the project web site at Recently, it has been accepted into the debian project; integration into further distributions is currently pursued.

  9. Biochemical nature of Russell Bodies.

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Sitia, Roberto


    Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB.

  10. Thermodynamically consistent Bayesian analysis of closed biochemical reaction systems

    Goutsias John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry from noisy time series measurements of molecular concentrations is an important step for building predictive models of cellular function. Inference techniques currently available in the literature may produce rate constant values that defy necessary constraints imposed by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these techniques may lead to biochemical reaction systems whose concentration dynamics could not possibly occur in nature. Therefore, development of a thermodynamically consistent approach for estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system is highly desirable. Results We introduce a Bayesian analysis approach for computing thermodynamically consistent estimates of the rate constants of a closed biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry given experimental data. Our method employs an appropriately designed prior probability density function that effectively integrates fundamental biophysical and thermodynamic knowledge into the inference problem. Moreover, it takes into account experimental strategies for collecting informative observations of molecular concentrations through perturbations. The proposed method employs a maximization-expectation-maximization algorithm that provides thermodynamically feasible estimates of the rate constant values and computes appropriate measures of estimation accuracy. We demonstrate various aspects of the proposed method on synthetic data obtained by simulating a subset of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling pathway, and examine its robustness under conditions that violate key assumptions. Software, coded in MATLAB®, which implements all Bayesian analysis techniques discussed in this paper, is available free of charge at Conclusions Our approach provides an attractive statistical methodology for

  11. Solving differential equations with unknown constitutive relations as recurrent neural networks

    Hagge, Tobias J.; Stinis, Panagiotis; Yeung, Enoch H.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.


    We solve a system of ordinary differential equations with an unknown functional form of a sink (reaction rate) term. We assume that the measurements (time series) of state variables are partially available, and use a recurrent neural network to “learn” the reaction rate from this data. This is achieved by including discretized ordinary differential equations as part of a recurrent neural network training problem. We extend TensorFlow’s recurrent neural network architecture to create a simple but scalable and effective solver for the unknown functions, and apply it to a fedbatch bioreactor simulation problem. Use of techniques from recent deep learning literature enables training of functions with behavior manifesting over thousands of time steps. Our networks are structurally similar to recurrent neural networks, but differ in purpose, and require modified training strategies.

  12. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael


    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license.

  13. A comparison of the effects of Portulaca oleracea seeds hydro-alcoholic extract and Vitamin C on biochemical, hemodynamic and functional parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Khodadadi, Hadi; Pakdel, Roghayeh; Khazaei, Majid; Niazmand, Said; Bavarsad, Kowsar; Hadjzadeh, Mousa AL-Reza


    Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea) seeds and Vitamin C on biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Materials and Methods: Forty eight male rats were divided into six groups of 8 and treated for 4 weeks. T4 group received daily injection of levothyroxine sodium (20 μg/kg) and control group was given daily injection of saline. T4-Po groups were given T4 plus 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of P. oleracea seeds extract in drinking water daily. T4-Vit C group received T4 plus daily injection of Vitamin C (100 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, body weight, serum free T4 level, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol levels were measured. Results: Free T4 levels were increased in all groups that were treated with T4. Weight gain was decreased in T4 and T4-Po100 groups compared to control group (p<0.001 and p<0.05). However, body weight was increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group. LVDP was increased in T4 group compared to control group but, LVDP was decreased in T4-Po and T4-Vit C groups. Malondialdehyde was decreased in T4-Po groups and T4-Vit C group compared to T4 group. Total thiol groups were increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group. Conclusion: The results showed that P. oleracea extract has a protective effect on cardiac dysfunction due to subclinical hyperthyroidism induced by levothyroxine sodium in rats. PMID:29632847

  14. Grasping Unknown Objects in an Early Cognitive Vision System

    Popovic, Mila


    Grasping of unknown objects presents an important and challenging part of robot manipulation. The growing area of service robotics depends upon the ability of robots to autonomously grasp and manipulate a wide range of objects in everyday environments. Simple, non task-specific grasps of unknown ...... and comparing vision-based grasping methods, and the creation of algorithms for bootstrapping a process of acquiring world understanding for artificial cognitive agents....... presents a system for robotic grasping of unknown objects us- ing stereo vision. Grasps are defined based on contour and surface information provided by the Early Cognitive Vision System, that organizes visual informa- tion into a biologically motivated hierarchical representation. The contributions...... of the thesis are: the extension of the Early Cognitive Vision representation with a new type of feature hierarchy in the texture domain, the definition and evaluation of contour based grasping methods, the definition and evaluation of surface based grasping methods, the definition of a benchmark for testing...

  15. Elimination of some unknown parameters and its effect on outlier detection

    Serif Hekimoglu

    Full Text Available Outliers in observation set badly affect all the estimated unknown parameters and residuals, that is because outlier detection has a great importance for reliable estimation results. Tests for outliers (e.g. Baarda's and Pope's tests are frequently used to detect outliers in geodetic applications. In order to reduce the computational time, sometimes elimination of some unknown parameters, which are not of interest, is performed. In this case, although the estimated unknown parameters and residuals do not change, the cofactor matrix of the residuals and the redundancies of the observations change. In this study, the effects of the elimination of the unknown parameters on tests for outliers have been investigated. We have proved that the redundancies in initial functional model (IFM are smaller than the ones in reduced functional model (RFM where elimination is performed. To show this situation, a horizontal control network was simulated and then many experiences were performed. According to simulation results, tests for outlier in IFM are more reliable than the ones in RFM.

  16. Skin biochemical composition analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Oliveira, Patricia Karen; Tosato, Maira Gaspar; Alves, Rani de Souza; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - IP e D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UniVap, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    Skin aging is characterized by cellular and molecular alterations. In this context, Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used in vivo to measure these biochemical changes as function of the skin depth. In this study we have tried to correlate spectra from pure amino acids to in vivo spectra from volunteers with different ages. This study was performed on 32 volunteers: 11 from Group A (20-23 years), 11 from Group B (39-42 years) and 10 from Group C (59-62 years). For each group, the Raman spectra were measured on the surface (0 mm), 30 +- 3 mm and 60 +- 3 {mu}m below the surface. The results from intergroup comparisons showed that the oldest group had a prevalence of the tyrosine band, but it also presented a decrease in the band centered at 875 cm{sup -1} of pyrrolidone acid. The amide I band centered at 1637 cm{sup -1} that is attributed to collagen, as well as other proteins and lipid, showed a smaller amount of these biomolecules for Group C, which can be explained by the decrease in collagen concentration as a function of age. (author)

  17. Celiac Disease Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin

    Megan J. Cooney


    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a common autoimmune enteropathy that occurs, in affected individuals, with exposure to gluten in the diet and improves with removal of dietary gluten. Although CD is readily considered in patients with classical presentations of the disease, atypical manifestations may be the only presenting symptoms. We present a case of CD in a 16-year-old female presenting as fever of unknown origin, which has not been reported previously. The postulated mechanism for fever in CD and the importance of clinicians having a low threshold for considering CD in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and other enigmatic clinical presentations is discussed.

  18. Scheme for teleportation of unknown states of trapped ion

    Chen Mei-Feng; Ma Song-She


    A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped ion system.The scheme only requires a single laser beam.It allows the trap to be in any state with a few phonons,e.g.a thermal motion.Furthermore,it works in the regime,where the Rabi frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency.Thus,the teleportation speed is greatly increased,which is important for decreasing the decoherence effect.This idea can also be used to teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

  19. Homocystein: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Suleyman Kozat


    Full Text Available The livestock sector is making great contributions to the world economy. Many different diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney and mineral substance insufficiency, cause huge losses in yield and production in the livestock sector. Early diagnosis is essential to combat these diseases. Today, homocysteine levels are used as biochemical markers in the diagnosis of the functions and diseases of many different organs in human medicine. Homocysteine is an amino acid that occurs in the process of methionine metabolism and does not enter the primary structure of proteins. Homocysteine is a biochemical marker used in the assessment of cardiovascular and renal diseases as well as other organ functions. In this review, homocysteine determination methods and detailed information about which organ and system diseases can be used in livestock sector will be given. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 319-332

  20. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  1. Valuation of Biochemical and Microbiological Indicators in Soil Quality Assessment

    Peruzzi, Elisabetta


    This thesis research aimed at valuating the suitability of biochemical and microbiological indicators in soil quality and soil health assessment, applying an interdisciplinary approach by means of different methodologies. As the concept of soil quality encompasses both functionality and biological diversity, two cases of study are proposed and each of them aimed at the description of this two aspects. The first case study examined the degree of interference of high soil copper contamination w...

  2. Organic and biochemical synthesis group



    Stable isotopes, because of their unique properties and non-radioactive nature, have great potential for many fields of science and technology. In particular, isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (the basic building blocks of all biological molecules) would be widely used in biomedical and environmental research if they were economically available in sufficient quantities and in the required chemical forms. The major objective of our program continues to be stimulation of the widespread utilization of stable isotopes and commercial involvement through development and demonstration of applications which have potential requirements for large quantities of isotopes. Thus, demand will be created which is necessary for large-scale production of stable isotopes and labeled compounds and concomitant low unit costs. The program continues to produce a variety of labeled materials needed for clinical, biomedical, chemical, and environmental applications which serve as effective demonstrations of unique and advantageous utilization of stable isotopes. Future commercial involvement should benefit, and is a consideration in our research and development, from the technology transfer that can readily be made as a result of our organic and biochemical syntheses and also of various techniques involved in applications

  3. Designing towards the Unknown: Engaging with Material and Aesthetic Uncertainty

    Danielle Wilde


    Full Text Available New materials with new capabilities demand new ways of approaching design. Destabilising existing methods is crucial to develop new methods. Yet, radical destabilisation—where outcomes remain unknown long enough that new discoveries become possible—is not easy in technology design where complex interdisciplinary teams with time and resource constraints need to deliver concrete outcomes on schedule. The Poetic Kinaesthetic Interface project (PKI engages with this problematic directly. In PKI we use unfolding processes—informed by participatory, speculative and critical design—in emergent actions, to design towards unknown outcomes, using unknown materials. The impossibility of this task is proving as useful as it is disruptive. At its most potent, it is destabilising expectations, aesthetics and processes. Keeping the researchers, collaborators and participants in a state of unknowing, is opening the research potential to far-ranging possibilities. In this article we unpack the motivations driving the PKI project. We present our mixed-methodology, which entangles textile crafts, design interactions and materiality to shape an embodied enquiry. Our research outcomes are procedural and methodological. PKI brings together diverse human, non-human, known and unknown actors to discover where the emergent assemblages might lead. Our approach is re-invigorating—as it demands re-envisioning of—the design process.

  4. Liability for Unknown Risks: A Law and Economics Perspective

    M.G. Faure (Michael); L.T. Visscher (Louis); F. Weber (Franziska)


    textabstractIn the law and economics literature liability is generally regarded as an instrument which provides potential tortfeasors with incentives for optimal care taking. The question, however, arises whether liability can still provide those incentives when risks are unknown. That is the

  5. Fault tolerant control of wind turbines using unknown input observers

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob


    This paper presents a scheme for accommodating faults in the rotor and generator speed sensors in a wind turbine. These measured values are important both for the wind turbine controller as well as the supervisory control of the wind turbine. The scheme is based on unknown input observers, which...

  6. Value of Bone marrow Examination in Pyrexia of unknown origin

    A Jha


    Full Text Available Background: Pyrexia of unknown origin is a common diagnostic dilemma. Series of diagnostic modalities are required to arrive at diagnosis. Bone marrow examination is one of the common tests implicated in the diagnosis in combination with other diagnostic modalities. Present study has attempted to explore the causes of pyrexia of unknown origin based on bone marrow morphological study. Materials and Methods: In a one year prospective study conducted at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal; bone marrow aspiration and biopsy was performed and evaluated morphologically, in 57 patients fulfilling the criteria of classic pyrexia of unknown origin. Results: In 42% cases; specific diagnosis could be made and hematological neoplasm was the most common finding followed by megaloblastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia and one case each of hemophagocytosis, malaria and tuberculosis. Acute leukemia was the most frequently encountered hematological malignancy followed by multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, essential thrombocythemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Conclusion: Morphological examination of bone marrow has important role in diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin. However, yield of diagnosis can be increased if it is combined with other diagnostic modalities including radiological, microbiological and serological tests. DOI: Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, 447-451

  7. Fast grasping of unknown objects using principal component analysis

    Lei, Qujiang; Chen, Guangming; Wisse, Martijn


    Fast grasping of unknown objects has crucial impact on the efficiency of robot manipulation especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. In order to accelerate grasping speed of unknown objects, principal component analysis is utilized to direct the grasping process. In particular, a single-view partial point cloud is constructed and grasp candidates are allocated along the principal axis. Force balance optimization is employed to analyze possible graspable areas. The obtained graspable area with the minimal resultant force is the best zone for the final grasping execution. It is shown that an unknown object can be more quickly grasped provided that the component analysis principle axis is determined using single-view partial point cloud. To cope with the grasp uncertainty, robot motion is assisted to obtain a new viewpoint. Virtual exploration and experimental tests are carried out to verify this fast gasping algorithm. Both simulation and experimental tests demonstrated excellent performances based on the results of grasping a series of unknown objects. To minimize the grasping uncertainty, the merits of the robot hardware with two 3D cameras can be utilized to suffice the partial point cloud. As a result of utilizing the robot hardware, the grasping reliance is highly enhanced. Therefore, this research demonstrates practical significance for increasing grasping speed and thus increasing robot efficiency under unpredictable environments.

  8. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.


    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  9. Stochastic Online Learning in Dynamic Networks under Unknown Models


    The key is to develop online learning strategies at each individual node. Specifically, through local information exchange with its neighbors, each...infinitely repeated game with incomplete information and developed a dynamic pricing strategy referred to as Competitive and Cooperative Demand Learning...Stochastic Online Learning in Dynamic Networks under Unknown Models This research aims to develop fundamental theories and practical algorithms for

  10. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.


    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating

  11. Inventory control in case of unknown demand and control parameters

    Janssen, E.


    This thesis deals with unknown demand and control parameters in inventory control. Inventory control involves decisions on what to order when and in what quantity. These decisions are based on information about the demand. Models are constructed using complete demand information; these models ensure

  12. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown | Comoro | Tanzania Journal ...

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown. C. Comoro, J.

  13. Lod score curves for phase-unknown matings.

    Hulbert-Shearon, T; Boehnke, M; Lange, K


    For a phase-unknown nuclear family, we show that the likelihood and lod score are unimodal, and we describe conditions under which the maximum occurs at recombination fraction theta = 0, theta = 1/2, and 0 < theta < 1/2. These simply stated necessary and sufficient conditions seem to have escaped the notice of previous statistical geneticists.

  14. Teleportation of Unknown Superpositions of Collective Atomic Coherent States

    ZHENG ShiBiao


    We propose a scheme to teleport an unknown superposition of two atomic coherent states with different phases. Our scheme is based on resonant and dispersive atom-field interaction. Our scheme provides a possibility of teleporting macroscopic superposition states of many atoms first time.``

  15. Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage


    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.

  16. Clostridium difficile: A healthcare-associated infection of unknown ...

    Clostridium difficile: A healthcare-associated infection of unknown significance in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Abstract. Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes a high burden of disease in high-resource healthcare systems, with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial implications. CDI is a ...

  17. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen


    Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

  18. Vision-based autonomous grasping of unknown piled objects

    Johnson, R.K.


    Computer vision techniques have been used to develop a vision-based grasping capability for autonomously picking and placing unknown piled objects. This work is currently being applied to the problem of hazardous waste sorting in support of the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Operations Program

  19. Metastatic Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Presenting as Jugular Venous Thrombosis

    Prince Cheriyan Modayil


    Full Text Available Jugular venous thrombosis is unusual and is associated with central venous catheterisation, intravenous drug abuse and head and neck sepsis. It is rarely associated with malignancy. We report a case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary in a forty year old female which presented with jugular venous thrombosis. The discussion includes investigation and treatment options for this condition.

  20. Cancer of unknown primitive metastatic. About two clinical cases

    Cawen, L; Cordoba, A.


    This work is about the two clinical cases about the unknown primitive metastatic cancer. The main techniques used for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of different s carcinomas are: Electronic microscope, molecular biology and genetics, especially histopathological study, topographic survey, ultrasound, radiography, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

  1. Prediction of the preeclampsia: a view of biochemical markers

    Mehmet Sühha Bostancı


    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a diverse, multiorgan group of related disease processes that occurs in up to 5%-8% of pregnancies after 20 weeks’ gestation and it is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Many molecular mechanisms are contributed to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Although it is unknown whether the mechanisms act independently or have synergistic effects. This review describes review of primary papers investigating blood based biomarker such as PAP-A, Inhibin A, sFlt1, and PP13 in general and first trimester biochemical markers and combinations of them specifically for preeclampsia.

  2. Bayesian source term determination with unknown covariance of measurements

    Belal, Alkomiet; Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav


    Determination of a source term of release of a hazardous material into the atmosphere is a very important task for emergency response. We are concerned with the problem of estimation of the source term in the conventional linear inverse problem, y = Mx, where the relationship between the vector of observations y is described using the source-receptor-sensitivity (SRS) matrix M and the unknown source term x. Since the system is typically ill-conditioned, the problem is recast as an optimization problem minR,B(y - Mx)TR-1(y - Mx) + xTB-1x. The first term minimizes the error of the measurements with covariance matrix R, and the second term is a regularization of the source term. There are different types of regularization arising for different choices of matrices R and B, for example, Tikhonov regularization assumes covariance matrix B as the identity matrix multiplied by scalar parameter. In this contribution, we adopt a Bayesian approach to make inference on the unknown source term x as well as unknown R and B. We assume prior on x to be a Gaussian with zero mean and unknown diagonal covariance matrix B. The covariance matrix of the likelihood R is also unknown. We consider two potential choices of the structure of the matrix R. First is the diagonal matrix and the second is a locally correlated structure using information on topology of the measuring network. Since the inference of the model is intractable, iterative variational Bayes algorithm is used for simultaneous estimation of all model parameters. The practical usefulness of our contribution is demonstrated on an application of the resulting algorithm to real data from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). This research is supported by EEA/Norwegian Financial Mechanism under project MSMT-28477/2014 Source-Term Determination of Radionuclide Releases by Inverse Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling (STRADI).

  3. Functional Analysis of P4-ATPases

    Theorin, Lisa

    and mammalian P4-ATPases have been studied extensively and the physiological function is mostly known, while the exact biochemistry and specific activity is mostly unknown. Even though the plant Arabidopsis thaliana has 12 P4-ATPases, not much is known about their function. In this study, the biochemical...... for purification of the complex by one-step purification. The ATPase activity of the ALA2/ALIS5 complex was stimulated in a highly specific manner by phosphatidylserine. Changes in the phosphatidylserine headgroup or alteration of the stereochemistry affected enzymatic activity. The results demonstrate that ALA2...... is specific for phosphatidylserine and that binding of the lipid to the substrate binding site requires a unique spatial configuration of the lipid head group. Detailed information on the substrate requirements lead the way towards the full function and transport pathway of lipid flippases in plants. Recent...

  4. A Nonlinear Unit Root Test in the Presence of an Unknown Break

    Popp, Stephan


    The Perron test is the most commonly applied procedure to test for a unit root in the presence of a structural break of unknown timing in the trend function. Deriving the Perron-type test regression from an unobserved component model, it is shown that the test regression in fact is nonlinear in coefficient. Taking account of the nonlinearity leads to a test with properties that are exclusively assigned to Schmidt-Phillips LM-type unit root tests.

  5. Interactions of Cannabinoids With Biochemical Substrates

    Brian F Thomas


    Full Text Available Recent decades have seen much progress in the identification and characterization of cannabinoid receptors and the elucidation of the mechanisms by which derivatives of the Cannabis sativa plant bind to receptors and produce their physiological and psychological effects. The information generated in this process has enabled better understanding of the fundamental physiological and psychological processes controlled by the central and peripheral nervous systems and has fostered the development of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. A negative aspect of this decades-long effort is the proliferation of clandestinely synthesized analogs as recreational street drugs with dangerous effects. Currently, the interactions of cannabinoids with their biochemical substrates are extensively but inadequately understood, and the clinical application of derived and synthetic receptor ligands remains quite limited. The wide anatomical distribution and functional complexity of the cannabinoid system continue to indicate potential for both therapeutic and side effects, which offers challenges and opportunities for medicinal chemists involved in drug discovery and development.

  6. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops.

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D


    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Pin count-aware biochemical application compilation for mVLSI biochips

    Lander Raagaard, Michael; Pop, Paul


    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the fluidic flow manipulated using integrated microvalves, which are cont...... a biochemical application. We focus on the compilation task, where the strategy is to delay operations, without missing their deadlines, such that the sharing of control signals is maximized. The evaluation shows a significant reduction in the number of control pins required....

  8. Learning Unknown Structure in CRFs via Adaptive Gradient Projection Method

    Wei Xue


    Full Text Available We study the problem of fitting probabilistic graphical models to the given data when the structure is not known. More specifically, we focus on learning unknown structure in conditional random fields, especially learning both the structure and parameters of a conditional random field model simultaneously. To do this, we first formulate the learning problem as a convex minimization problem by adding an l_2-regularization to the node parameters and a group l_1-regularization to the edge parameters, and then a gradient-based projection method is proposed to solve it which combines an adaptive stepsize selection strategy with a nonmonotone line search. Extensive simulation experiments are presented to show the performance of our approach in solving unknown structure learning problems.

  9. Quadrotor Control in the Presence of Unknown Mass Properties

    Duivenvoorden, Rikky Ricardo Petrus Rufino

    Quadrotor UAVs are popular due to their mechanical simplicity, as well as their capability to hover and vertically take-off and land. As applications diversify, quadrotors are increasingly required to operate under unknown mass properties, for example as a multirole sensor platform or for package delivery operations. The work presented here consists of the derivation of a generalized quadrotor dynamic model without the typical simplifying assumptions on the first and second moments of mass. The maximum payload capacity of a quadrotor in hover, and the observability of the unknown mass properties are discussed. A brief introduction of L1 adaptive control is provided, and three different L 1 adaptive controllers were designed for the Parrot AR.Drone quadrotor. Their tracking and disturbance rejection performance was compared to the baseline nonlinear controller in experiments. Finally, the results of the combination of L1 adaptive control with iterative learning control are presented, showing high performance trajectory tracking under uncertainty.

  10. Improved biochemical preservation of heart slices during cold storage.

    Bull, D A; Reid, B B; Connors, R C; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V


    Development of myocardial preservation solutions requires the use of whole organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that myocardial slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat hearts were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 200 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in one of the following solutions: Columbia University (CU), University of Wisconsin (UW), D5 0.2% normal saline with 20 meq/l KCL (QNS), normal saline (NS), or a novel cardiac preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Myocardial biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamoles ATP/mg wet weight) and capacity for protein synthesis (counts per minute (cpm)/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 hours), and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as the mean +/- standard deviation. ATP content was higher in the heart slices stored in the NPS compared to all other solutions at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours of cold storage (p cold storage (p cold storage.

  11. Improved biochemical preservation of lung slices during cold storage.

    Bull, D A; Connors, R C; Reid, B B; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V


    Development of lung preservation solutions typically requires whole-organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that lung slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat lungs were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 500 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in the following solutions: University of Wisconsin (UW), Euro-Collins (EC), low-potassium-dextran (LPD), Kyoto (K), normal saline (NS), or a novel lung preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Lung biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamol ATP/mg wet wt) and capacity for protein synthesis (cpm/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as means +/- SD. ATP content was significantly higher in the lung slices stored in NPS compared with all other solutions at each time point (P cold storage. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. BioCluster: Tool for Identification and Clustering of Enterobacteriaceae Based on Biochemical Data

    Ahmed Abdullah


    Full Text Available Presumptive identification of different Enterobacteriaceae species is routinely achieved based on biochemical properties. Traditional practice includes manual comparison of each biochemical property of the unknown sample with known reference samples and inference of its identity based on the maximum similarity pattern with the known samples. This process is labor-intensive, time-consuming, error-prone, and subjective. Therefore, automation of sorting and similarity in calculation would be advantageous. Here we present a MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI tool named BioCluster. This tool was designed for automated clustering and identification of Enterobacteriaceae based on biochemical test results. In this tool, we used two types of algorithms, i.e., traditional hierarchical clustering (HC and the Improved Hierarchical Clustering (IHC, a modified algorithm that was developed specifically for the clustering and identification of Enterobacteriaceae species. IHC takes into account the variability in result of 1–47 biochemical tests within this Enterobacteriaceae family. This tool also provides different options to optimize the clustering in a user-friendly way. Using computer-generated synthetic data and some real data, we have demonstrated that BioCluster has high accuracy in clustering and identifying enterobacterial species based on biochemical test data. This tool can be freely downloaded at

  13. Diagnosis of the cancer of unknown primary origin

    Jurisova, S.; Poersoek, S.


    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) is one of the ten most frequent cancers worldwide. It constitutes of 3-5% of all human malignancies. At time of diagnosis patients with CUP present with disseminated metastases without established primary origin. CUP manifests as heterogenous group of mainly epithelial cancers recognised by distinct clinico pathological entities. The diagnostic work-up includes extensive histopathology investigations and modern imaging technology. Nevertheless, the primary tumour remains undetected most of the time. (author)

  14. Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location

    Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.


    Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for...

  15. Metastatic meningioma presenting as cancer of unknown primary

    Vinay Gupta


    Full Text Available We describe a case of anaplastic meningioma presenting in an extracranial osseous location, initially diagnosed as cancer of unknown primary. Although anaplastic meningioma comprise 3% of all meningiomas, this subtype is more likely to be associated with metastases. The increased degree of dedifferentiation in anaplastic meningioma makes diagnosis difficult, especially if characteristic imaging findings of meningioma are not identified. Adequate tissue for diagnostic purposes and appropriate imaging studies may help in establishing a definitive diagnosis.

  16. Transfer of an unknown quantum state, quantum networks, and memory

    Biswas, Asoka; Agarwal, G.S.


    We present a protocol for transfer of an unknown quantum state. The protocol is based on a two-mode cavity interacting dispersively in a sequential manner with three-level atoms in the Λ configuration. We propose a scheme for quantum networking using an atomic channel. We investigate the effect of cavity decoherence in the entire process. Further, we demonstrate the possibility of an efficient quantum memory for arbitrary superposition of two modes of a cavity containing one photon

  17. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Muna, Demitri; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Weaver, Benjamin A.


    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study

  18. Quantum key distribution with an unknown and untrusted source

    Zhao, Yi; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong


    The security of a standard bi-directional ``plug & play'' quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been an open question for a long time. This is mainly because its source is equivalently controlled by an eavesdropper, which means the source is unknown and untrusted. Qualitative discussion on this subject has been made previously. In this paper, we present the first quantitative security analysis on a general class of QKD protocols whose sources are unknown and untrusted. The securities of standard BB84 protocol, weak+vacuum decoy state protocol, and one-decoy decoy state protocol, with unknown and untrusted sources are rigorously proved. We derive rigorous lower bounds to the secure key generation rates of the above three protocols. Our numerical simulation results show that QKD with an untrusted source gives a key generation rate that is close to that with a trusted source. Our work is published in [1]. [4pt] [1] Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A, 77:052327 (2008).

  19. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bahcall, Neta [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brinkmann, Jonathan [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Muna, Demitri [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pâris, Isabelle [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, Patrick [Université Paris 6 et CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Streblyanska, Alina [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)


    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study.

  20. Navigation through unknown and dynamic open spaces using topological notions

    Miguel-Tomé, Sergio


    Until now, most algorithms used for navigation have had the purpose of directing system towards one point in space. However, humans communicate tasks by specifying spatial relations among elements or places. In addition, the environments in which humans develop their activities are extremely dynamic. The only option that allows for successful navigation in dynamic and unknown environments is making real-time decisions. Therefore, robots capable of collaborating closely with human beings must be able to make decisions based on the local information registered by the sensors and interpret and express spatial relations. Furthermore, when one person is asked to perform a task in an environment, this task is communicated given a category of goals so the person does not need to be supervised. Thus, two problems appear when one wants to create multifunctional robots: how to navigate in dynamic and unknown environments using spatial relations and how to accomplish this without supervision. In this article, a new architecture to address the two cited problems is presented, called the topological qualitative navigation architecture. In previous works, a qualitative heuristic called the heuristic of topological qualitative semantics (HTQS) has been developed to establish and identify spatial relations. However, that heuristic only allows for establishing one spatial relation with a specific object. In contrast, navigation requires a temporal sequence of goals with different objects. The new architecture attains continuous generation of goals and resolves them using HTQS. Thus, the new architecture achieves autonomous navigation in dynamic or unknown open environments.

  1. Prevalence and Impact of Unknown Diabetes in the ICU.

    Carpenter, David L; Gregg, Sara R; Xu, Kejun; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M


    Many patients with diabetes and their care providers are unaware of the presence of the disease. Dysglycemia encompassing hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glucose variability is common in the ICU in patients with and without diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of unknown diabetes on glycemic control in the ICU. Prospective observational study. Nine ICUs in an academic, tertiary hospital and a hybrid academic/community hospital. Hemoglobin A1c levels were ordered at all ICU admissions from March 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Electronic medical records were examined for a history of antihyperglycemic medications or International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition diagnosis of diabetes. Patients were categorized as having unknown diabetes (hemoglobin A1c > 6.5%, without history of diabetes), no diabetes (hemoglobin A1c 6.5%, with documented history of diabetes). None. A total of 15,737 patients had an hemoglobin A1c and medical record evaluable for the history of diabetes, and 5,635 patients had diabetes diagnosed by either medical history or an elevated hemoglobin A1c in the ICU. Of these, 1,460 patients had unknown diabetes, accounting for 26.0% of all patients with diabetes. This represented 41.0% of patients with an hemoglobin A1c > 6.5% and 9.3% of all ICU patients. Compared with patients without diabetes, patients with unknown diabetes had a higher likelihood of requiring an insulin infusion (44.3% vs 29.3%; p 180 mg/dL; p < 0.0001) and hypoglycemia (8.9% vs 2.5%; blood glucose < 70 mg/dL; p < 0.0001), higher glycemic variability (55.6 vs 28.8, average of patient SD of glucose; p < 0.0001), and increased mortality (13.8% vs 11.4%; p = 0.01). Patients with unknown diabetes represent a significant percentage of ICU admissions. Measurement of hemoglobin A1c at admission can prospectively identify a population that are not known to have diabetes but have significant challenges in glycemic control in the ICU.

  2. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...



    Feb 28, 2014 ... compounds seem to reflect inherent biochemical and physiological differences among P. grisea isolates .... solutions for imaging and microscopy, soft image system .... characteristics among 12 P. grisea isolates from rice were.

  3. Biochemical changes in blood caused by radioisotopes

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.


    The changes were studied occurring in some biochemical indicators in blood at chronic peroral administration of strontium-90, cesium-137 and iodine-131 in amounts resulting in accumulation of commensurable doses in critical organs corresponding to each isotope

  4. Biochemical and kinetic characterization of geranylgeraniol 18 ...



    Jul 22, 2015 ... biochemical characterization of GGOH 18-hydroxylase activity in the microsomal fraction from C. .... method as previously described (Chanama et al., 2009). Briefly, 30 g of frozen ..... Catalytic properties of the plant cytochrome.

  5. Short Report Biochemical derangements prior to emergency ...

    MMJ VOL 29 (1): March 2017. Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at QECH 55. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 ... Venepuncture was performed preoperatively for urgent cases, defined as those requiring.

  6. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.


    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  7. Raman spectroscopic biochemical mapping of tissues

    Stone, Nicholas; Hart Prieto, Maria C.; Kendall, Catherine A.; Shetty, Geeta; Barr, Hugh


    Advances in technologies have brought us closer to routine spectroscopic diagnosis of early malignant disease. However, there is still a poor understanding of the carcinogenesis process. For example it is not known whether many cancers follow a logical sequence from dysplasia, to carcinoma in situ, to invasion. Biochemical tissue changes, triggered by genetic mutations, precede morphological and structural changes. These can be probed using Raman or FTIR microspectroscopy and the spectra analysed for biochemical constituents. Local microscopic distribution of various constituents can then be visualised. Raman mapping has been performed on a number of tissues including oesophagus, breast, bladder and prostate. The biochemical constituents have been calculated at each point using basis spectra and least squares analysis. The residual of the least squares fit indicates any unfit spectral components. The biochemical distribution will be compared with the defined histopathological boundaries. The distribution of nucleic acids, glycogen, actin, collagen I, III, IV, lipids and others appear to follow expected patterns.

  8. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L


    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  9. Improving Marine Ecosystem Models with Biochemical Tracers

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Choy, C. Anela; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.


    Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Here, we explore the trophic information required by ecosystem model frameworks (species, individual, and size based) and match them to the most commonly used biochemical tracers (bulk tissue and compound-specific stable isotopes, fatty acids, and trace elements). Key quantitative parameters derived from biochemical tracers include estimates of diet composition, niche width, and trophic position. Biochemical tracers also provide powerful insight into the spatial and temporal variability of food web structure and the characterization of dominant basal and microbial food web groups. A major challenge in incorporating biochemical tracer data into ecosystem models is scale and data type mismatches, which can be overcome with greater knowledge exchange and numerical approaches that transform, integrate, and visualize data.

  10. RMBNToolbox: random models for biochemical networks

    Niemi Jari


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest to model biochemical and cell biological networks, as well as to the computational analysis of these models. The development of analysis methodologies and related software is rapid in the field. However, the number of available models is still relatively small and the model sizes remain limited. The lack of kinetic information is usually the limiting factor for the construction of detailed simulation models. Results We present a computational toolbox for generating random biochemical network models which mimic real biochemical networks. The toolbox is called Random Models for Biochemical Networks. The toolbox works in the Matlab environment, and it makes it possible to generate various network structures, stoichiometries, kinetic laws for reactions, and parameters therein. The generation can be based on statistical rules and distributions, and more detailed information of real biochemical networks can be used in situations where it is known. The toolbox can be easily extended. The resulting network models can be exported in the format of Systems Biology Markup Language. Conclusion While more information is accumulating on biochemical networks, random networks can be used as an intermediate step towards their better understanding. Random networks make it possible to study the effects of various network characteristics to the overall behavior of the network. Moreover, the construction of artificial network models provides the ground truth data needed in the validation of various computational methods in the fields of parameter estimation and data analysis.

  11. Stoichiometric estimates of the biochemical conversion efficiencies in tsetse metabolism

    Custer Adrian V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time varying flows of biomass and energy in tsetse (Glossina can be examined through the construction of a dynamic mass-energy budget specific to these flies but such a budget depends on efficiencies of metabolic conversion which are unknown. These efficiencies of conversion determine the overall yields when food or storage tissue is converted into body tissue or into metabolic energy. A biochemical approach to the estimation of these efficiencies uses stoichiometry and a simplified description of tsetse metabolism to derive estimates of the yields, for a given amount of each substrate, of conversion product, by-products, and exchanged gases. This biochemical approach improves on estimates obtained through calorimetry because the stoichiometric calculations explicitly include the inefficiencies and costs of the reactions of conversion. However, the biochemical approach still overestimates the actual conversion efficiency because the approach ignores all the biological inefficiencies and costs such as the inefficiencies of leaky membranes and the costs of molecular transport, enzyme production, and cell growth. Results This paper presents estimates of the net amounts of ATP, fat, or protein obtained by tsetse from a starting milligram of blood, and provides estimates of the net amounts of ATP formed from the catabolism of a milligram of fat along two separate pathways, one used for resting metabolism and one for flight. These estimates are derived from stoichiometric calculations constructed based on a detailed quantification of the composition of food and body tissue and on a description of the major metabolic pathways in tsetse simplified to single reaction sequences between substrates and products. The estimates include the expected amounts of uric acid formed, oxygen required, and carbon dioxide released during each conversion. The calculated estimates of uric acid egestion and of oxygen use compare favorably to

  12. Adaptive fuzzy wavelet network control of second order multi-agent systems with unknown nonlinear dynamics.

    Taheri, Mehdi; Sheikholeslam, Farid; Najafi, Majddedin; Zekri, Maryam


    In this paper, consensus problem is considered for second order multi-agent systems with unknown nonlinear dynamics under undirected graphs. A novel distributed control strategy is suggested for leaderless systems based on adaptive fuzzy wavelet networks. Adaptive fuzzy wavelet networks are employed to compensate for the effect of unknown nonlinear dynamics. Moreover, the proposed method is developed for leader following systems and leader following systems with state time delays. Lyapunov functions are applied to prove uniformly ultimately bounded stability of closed loop systems and to obtain adaptive laws. Three simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of the false discovery proportion with unknown dependence.

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Xu


    Large-scale multiple testing with correlated test statistics arises frequently in many scientific research. Incorporating correlation information in approximating false discovery proportion has attracted increasing attention in recent years. When the covariance matrix of test statistics is known, Fan, Han & Gu (2012) provided an accurate approximation of False Discovery Proportion (FDP) under arbitrary dependence structure and some sparsity assumption. However, the covariance matrix is often unknown in many applications and such dependence information has to be estimated before approximating FDP. The estimation accuracy can greatly affect FDP approximation. In the current paper, we aim to theoretically study the impact of unknown dependence on the testing procedure and establish a general framework such that FDP can be well approximated. The impacts of unknown dependence on approximating FDP are in the following two major aspects: through estimating eigenvalues/eigenvectors and through estimating marginal variances. To address the challenges in these two aspects, we firstly develop general requirements on estimates of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for a good approximation of FDP. We then give conditions on the structures of covariance matrices that satisfy such requirements. Such dependence structures include banded/sparse covariance matrices and (conditional) sparse precision matrices. Within this framework, we also consider a special example to illustrate our method where data are sampled from an approximate factor model, which encompasses most practical situations. We provide a good approximation of FDP via exploiting this specific dependence structure. The results are further generalized to the situation where the multivariate normality assumption is relaxed. Our results are demonstrated by simulation studies and some real data applications.

  14. Neurological autoantibodies in drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause.

    Tecellioglu, Mehmet; Kamisli, Ozden; Kamisli, Suat; Yucel, Fatma Ebru; Ozcan, Cemal


    Autoimmune epilepsy is a rarely diagnosed condition. Recognition of the underlying autoimmune condition is important, as these patients can be resistant to antiepileptic drugs. To determine the autoimmune and oncological antibodies in adult drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause and identify the clinical, radiological, and EEG findings associated with these antibodies according to data in the literature. Eighty-two patients with drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause were prospectively identified. Clinical features were recorded. The levels of anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex (anti-VGKCc), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD), anti-phospholipid IgG and IgM, anti-cardiolipin IgG and IgM, and onconeural antibodies were determined. Serum antibody positivity suggesting the potential role of autoimmunity in the aetiology was present in 17 patients with resistant epilepsy (22.0%). Multiple antibodies were found in two patients (2.6%). One of these patients (1.3%) had anti-VGKCc and ANA, whereas another (1.3%) had anti-VGKCc and anti-TPO. A single antibody was present in 15 patients (19.5%). Of the 77 patients finally included in the study, 4 had anti-TPO (5.2%), 1 had anti-GAD (1.3%), 4 had anti-VGKCc (5.2%) 8 had ANA (10.3%), and 2 had onconeural antibodies (2.6%) (1 patient had anti-Yo and 1 had anti-MA2/TA). The other antibodies investigated were not detected. EEG abnormality (focal), focal seizure incidence, and frequent seizures were more common in antibody-positive patients. Autoimmune factors may be aetiologically relevant in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause, especially if focal seizures are present together with focal EEG abnormality and frequent seizures.

  15. Optimal unambiguous comparison of two unknown squeezed vacua

    Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Sedlak, Michal; Rapsan, Peter; Busek, Vladimir


    We propose a scheme for the unambiguous state comparison (USC) of two unknown squeezed vacuum states of the electromagnetic field. Our setup is based on linear optical elements and photon-number detectors, and it achieves optimal USC in an ideal case of unit quantum efficiency. In realistic conditions, i.e., for nonunit quantum efficiency of photodetectors, we evaluate the probability of getting an ambiguous result as well as the reliability of the scheme, thus showing its robustness in comparison to previous proposals.

  16. Fast entanglement detection for unknown states of two spatial qutrits

    Lima, G.; Gomez, E. S.; Saavedra, C.; Vargas, A.; Vianna, R. O.


    We investigate the practicality of the method proposed by Maciel et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 80, 032325 (2009).] for detecting the entanglement of two spatial qutrits (three-dimensional quantum systems), which are encoded in the discrete transverse momentum of single photons transmitted through a multislit aperture. The method is based on the acquisition of partial information of the quantum state through projective measurements, and a data processing analysis done with semidefinite programs. This analysis relies on generating gradually an optimal entanglement witness operator, and numerical investigations have shown that it allows for the entanglement detection of unknown states with a cost much lower than full state tomography.

  17. Algorithms for Rapidly Dispersing Robot Swarms in Unknown Environments

    Hsiang, Tien-Ruey; Arkin, Esther M.; Bender, Michael; Fekete, Sandor P.; Mitchell, Joseph S. B.


    We develop and analyze algorithms for dispersing a swarm of primitive robots in an unknown environment, R. The primary objective is to minimize the makespan, that is, the time to fill the entire region. An environment is composed of pixels that form a connected subset of the integer grid. There is at most one robot per pixel and robots move horizontally or vertically at unit speed. Robots enter R by means of k>=1 door pixels Robots are primitive finite automata, only having local communicatio...

  18. Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune


    Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied....... This is accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the actual force(s) applied to the structure. The white noise input(s) and the structures responses are then used...

  19. Inverse estimation for the unknown frost geometry on the external wall of a forced-convection pipe

    Chen, W.-L.; Yang, Y.-C.


    In this study, a conjugate gradient method based inverse algorithm is applied to estimate the unknown frost-layer boundary profile on the external wall of a pipe system using temperature measurements. It is assumed that no prior information is available on the functional form of the unknown profile; hence the procedure is classified as the function estimation in inverse calculation. The temperature data obtained from the direct problem are used to simulate the temperature measurements. The accuracy of the inverse analysis is examined by using simulated exact and inexact temperature measurements. Results show that an excellent estimation on boundary profile can be obtained for the test case considered in this study.

  20. Causal correlation of foliar biochemical concentrations with AVIRIS spectra using forced entry linear regression

    Dawson, Terence P.; Curran, Paul J.; Kupiec, John A.


    A major goal of airborne imaging spectrometry is to estimate the biochemical composition of vegetation canopies from reflectance spectra. Remotely-sensed estimates of foliar biochemical concentrations of forests would provide valuable indicators of ecosystem function at regional and eventually global scales. Empirical research has shown a relationship exists between the amount of radiation reflected from absorption features and the concentration of given biochemicals in leaves and canopies (Matson et al., 1994, Johnson et al., 1994). A technique commonly used to determine which wavelengths have the strongest correlation with the biochemical of interest is unguided (stepwise) multiple regression. Wavelengths are entered into a multivariate regression equation, in their order of importance, each contributing to the reduction of the variance in the measured biochemical concentration. A significant problem with the use of stepwise regression for determining the correlation between biochemical concentration and spectra is that of 'overfitting' as there are significantly more wavebands than biochemical measurements. This could result in the selection of wavebands which may be more accurately attributable to noise or canopy effects. In addition, there is a real problem of collinearity in that the individual biochemical concentrations may covary. A strong correlation between the reflectance at a given wavelength and the concentration of a biochemical of interest, therefore, may be due to the effect of another biochemical which is closely related. Furthermore, it is not always possible to account for potentially suitable waveband omissions in the stepwise selection procedure. This concern about the suitability of stepwise regression has been identified and acknowledged in a number of recent studies (Wessman et al., 1988, Curran, 1989, Curran et al., 1992, Peterson and Hubbard, 1992, Martine and Aber, 1994, Kupiec, 1994). These studies have pointed to the lack of a physical

  1. Biochemical and biomedical applications of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles: a review

    Huang, Shih-Hung; Juang, Ruey-Shin


    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for future medical diagnosis and therapy. Various types of nanoparticles have been extensively studied for numerous biochemical and biomedical applications. Magnetic nanoparticles are well-established nanomaterials that offer controlled size, ability to be manipulated by an external magnetic field, and enhancement of contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, these nanoparticles could have many applications including bacterial detection, protein purification, enzyme immobilization, contamination decorporation, drug delivery, hyperthermia, etc. All these biochemical and biomedical applications require that these nanoparticles should satisfy some prerequisites including high magnetization, good stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Because of the potential benefits of multimodal functionality in biomedical applications, in this account highlights some general strategies to generate magnetic nanoparticle-based multifunctional nanostructures. After these magnetic nanoparticles are conjugated with proper ligands (e.g., nitrilotriacetate), polymers (e.g., polyacrylic acid, chitosan, temperature- and pH-sensitive polymers), antibodies, enzymes, and inorganic metals (e.g., gold), such biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles exhibit many advantages in biomedical applications. In addition, the multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles have been widely applied in biochemical fields including enzyme immobilization and protein purification.

  2. Group prioritisation with unknown expert weights in incomplete linguistic context

    Cheng, Dong; Cheng, Faxin; Zhou, Zhili; Wang, Juan


    In this paper, we study a group prioritisation problem in situations when the expert weights are completely unknown and their judgement preferences are linguistic and incomplete. Starting from the theory of relative entropy (RE) and multiplicative consistency, an optimisation model is provided for deriving an individual priority vector without estimating the missing value(s) of an incomplete linguistic preference relation. In order to address the unknown expert weights in the group aggregating process, we define two new kinds of expert weight indicators based on RE: proximity entropy weight and similarity entropy weight. Furthermore, a dynamic-adjusting algorithm (DAA) is proposed to obtain an objective expert weight vector and capture the dynamic properties involved in it. Unlike the extant literature of group prioritisation, the proposed RE approach does not require pre-allocation of expert weights and can solve incomplete preference relations. An interesting finding is that once all the experts express their preference relations, the final expert weight vector derived from the DAA is fixed irrespective of the initial settings of expert weights. Finally, an application example is conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the RE approach.

  3. Unknown facets of Well-Known Scientists Series - Part II

    V S Dixit


    Full Text Available 1st in the series of articles on “Unknown Facets of well-known Scientists” was about Sir Frederick Grant Banting, co-discoverer of Insulin, who also researched in Aviation and Diving Medicines, results of which brought extraordinary benefits for Flight crew during the World War II. The article was published in the previous issue of the Journal Unknown facets could be celebrated attributes, talents or otherwise, but it is necessary that we get to know fully about the “great mind". THIS ARTICLE IS ABOUT DR WERNER THEODOR OTTO FORSSMANN, A CARDIOLOGIST, WHO BECAME A UROLOGIST! Does the name Dr Forssmann ring a bell? He shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with “Andre Cournand and Dickinson Richards". The trio was awarded for their “discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system". Dr Forssmann was nominated for performing an experiment in which he introduced a catheter into a vein of his arm, further passing it onward into his heart It was risky. This was in the year 1929. Subject of this article is the self-experimentation he carried out and what happened later.

  4. Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer

    Wang Shaoming; Luo Haigeng; Yue Chaoyuan; Liao Xiaoxin


    Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer is discussed generally. Based on the work of Guan et al. [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26], the design of unknown parameter observer is improved. The application of the improved approach is extended greatly. The works in some literatures [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26; J.H. Lue, S.C. Zhang, Phys. Lett. A 286 (2001) 148; X.Q. Wu, J.A. Lu, Chaos Solitons Fractals 18 (2003) 721; J. Liu, S.H. Chen, J. Xie, Chaos Solitons Fractals 19 (2004) 533] are only the special cases of our Corollaries 1 and 2. Some observers for Lue system and a new chaos system are designed to test our improved method, and simulations results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved approach

  5. Unknown quantum states: The quantum de Finetti representation

    Caves, Carlton M.; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Schack, Ruediger


    We present an elementary proof of the quantum de Finetti representation theorem, a quantum analog of de Finetti's classical theorem on exchangeable probability assignments. This contrasts with the original proof of Hudson and Moody [Z. Wahrschein. verw. Geb. 33, 343 (1976)], which relies on advanced mathematics and does not share the same potential for generalization. The classical de Finetti theorem provides an operational definition of the concept of an unknown probability in Bayesian probability theory, where probabilities are taken to be degrees of belief instead of objective states of nature. The quantum de Finetti theorem, in a closely analogous fashion, deals with exchangeable density-operator assignments and provides an operational definition of the concept of an ''unknown quantum state'' in quantum-state tomography. This result is especially important for information-based interpretations of quantum mechanics, where quantum states, like probabilities, are taken to be states of knowledge rather than states of nature. We further demonstrate that the theorem fails for real Hilbert spaces and discuss the significance of this point

  6. Atmospheric turbulence profiling with unknown power spectral density

    Helin, Tapio; Kindermann, Stefan; Lehtonen, Jonatan; Ramlau, Ronny


    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology in modern ground-based optical telescopes to compensate for the wavefront distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence. One method that allows to retrieve information about the atmosphere from telescope data is so-called SLODAR, where the atmospheric turbulence profile is estimated based on correlation data of Shack-Hartmann wavefront measurements. This approach relies on a layered Kolmogorov turbulence model. In this article, we propose a novel extension of the SLODAR concept by including a general non-Kolmogorov turbulence layer close to the ground with an unknown power spectral density. We prove that the joint estimation problem of the turbulence profile above ground simultaneously with the unknown power spectral density at the ground is ill-posed and propose three numerical reconstruction methods. We demonstrate by numerical simulations that our methods lead to substantial improvements in the turbulence profile reconstruction compared to the standard SLODAR-type approach. Also, our methods can accurately locate local perturbations in non-Kolmogorov power spectral densities.

  7. Three-dimensional cinematography with control object of unknown shape.

    Dapena, J; Harman, E A; Miller, J A


    A technique for reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) motion which involves a simple filming procedure but allows the deduction of coordinates in large object volumes was developed. Internal camera parameters are calculated from measurements of the film images of two calibrated crosses while external camera parameters are calculated from the film images of points in a control object of unknown shape but at least one known length. The control object, which includes the volume in which the activity is to take place, is formed by a series of poles placed at unknown locations, each carrying two targets. From the internal and external camera parameters, and from locations of the images of point in the films of the two cameras, 3D coordinates of the point can be calculated. Root mean square errors of the three coordinates of points in a large object volume (5m x 5m x 1.5m) were 15 mm, 13 mm, 13 mm and 6 mm, and relative errors in lengths averaged 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively.

  8. Reactive Path Planning Approach for Docking Robots in Unknown Environment

    Peng Cui


    Full Text Available Autonomous robots need to be recharged and exchange information with the host through docking in the long-distance tasks. Therefore, feasible path is required in the docking process to guide the robot and adjust its pose. However, when there are unknown obstacles in the work area, it becomes difficult to determine the feasible path for docking. This paper presents a reactive path planning approach named Dubins-APF (DAPF to solve the path planning problem for docking in unknown environment with obstacles. In this proposed approach the Dubins curves are combined with the designed obstacle avoidance potential field to plan the feasible path. Firstly, an initial path is planned and followed according to the configurations of the robot and the docking station. Then when the followed path is evaluated to be infeasible, the intermediate configuration is calculated as well as the replanned path based on the obstacle avoidance potential field. The robot will be navigated to the docking station with proper pose eventually via the DAPF approach. The proposed DAPF approach is efficient and does not require the prior knowledge about the environment. Simulation results are given to validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed approach.

  9. Neurological Autoantibody Prevalence in Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology.

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Alqallaf, Abdulradha; Hays, Ryan; Freeman, Matthew; Chen, Kevin; Ding, Kan; Agostini, Mark; Vernino, Steven


    Autoimmune epilepsy is an underrecognized condition, and its true incidence is unknown. Identifying patients with an underlying autoimmune origin is critical because these patients' condition may remain refractory to conventional antiseizure medications but may respond to immunotherapy. To determine the prevalence of neurological autoantibodies (Abs) among adult patients with epilepsy of unknown etiology. Consecutive patients presenting to neurology services with new-onset epilepsy or established epilepsy of unknown etiology were identified. Serum samples were tested for autoimmune encephalitis Abs as well as thyroperoxidase (TPO) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) Abs. An antibody prevalence in epilepsy (APE) score based on clinical characteristics was assigned prospectively. Data were collected from June 1, 2015, to June 1, 2016. Presence of neurological Abs. A score based on clinical characteristics was assigned to estimate the probability of seropositivity prior to antibody test results. Good seizure outcome was estimated on the basis of significant reduction of seizure frequency at the first follow-up or seizure freedom. Of the 127 patients (68 males and 59 females) enrolled in the study, 15 were subsequently excluded after identification of an alternative diagnosis. Serum Abs suggesting a potential autoimmune etiology were detected in 39 (34.8%) cases. More than 1 Ab was detected in 7 patients (6.3%): 3 (2.7%) had TPO-Ab and voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKCc) Ab, 2 (1.8%) had GAD65-Ab and VGKCc-Ab, 1 had TPO-Ab and GAD65-Ab, and 1 had anti-Hu Ab and GAD65-Ab. Thirty-two patients (28.6%) had a single Ab marker. Among 112 patients included in the study, 15 (13.4%) had TPO-Ab, 14 (12.5%) had GAD65-Ab, 12 (10.7%) had VGKCc (4 of whom were positive for leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 [LGI1] Ab), and 4 (3.6%) had N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) Ab. Even after excluding TPO-Ab and low-titer GAD65-Ab, Abs strongly suggesting an

  10. Biochemical analyses and molecular modeling explain the functional loss of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 mutant G133R in three Tunisian patients with 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development.

    Engeli, Roger T; Rhouma, Bochra Ben; Sager, Christoph P; Tsachaki, Maria; Birk, Julia; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Keskes, Leila; Belguith, Neila; Odermatt, Alex


    Mutations in the HSD17B3 gene resulting in 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD3) deficiency cause 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development (46, XY DSD). Approximately 40 different mutations in HSD17B3 have been reported; only few mutant enzymes have been mechanistically investigated. Here, we report novel compound heterozygous mutations in HSD17B3, composed of the nonsense mutation C206X and the missense mutation G133R, in three Tunisian patients from two non-consanguineous families. Mutants C206X and G133R were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in HEK-293 cells. The truncated C206X enzyme, lacking part of the substrate binding pocket, was moderately expressed and completely lost its enzymatic activity. Wild-type 17β-HSD3 and mutant G133R showed comparable expression levels and intracellular localization. The conversion of Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione (androstenedione) to testosterone was almost completely abolished for mutant G133R compared with wild-type 17β-HSD3. To obtain further mechanistic insight, G133 was mutated to alanine, phenylalanine and glutamine. G133Q and G133F were almost completely inactive, whereas G133A displayed about 70% of wild-type activity. Sequence analysis revealed that G133 on 17β-HSD3 is located in a motif highly conserved in 17β-HSDs and other short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzymes. A homology model of 17β-HSD3 predicted that arginine or any other bulky residue at position 133 causes steric hindrance of cofactor NADPH binding, whereas substrate binding seems to be unaffected. The results indicate an essential role of G133 in the arrangement of the cofactor binding pocket, thus explaining the loss-of-function of 17β-HSD3 mutant G133R in the patients investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Running over unknown rough terrain with a one-legged planar robot

    Andrews, Ben; Miller, Bruce; Clark, Jonathan E; Schmitt, John


    The ability to traverse unknown, rough terrain is an advantage that legged locomoters have over their wheeled counterparts. However, due to the complexity of multi-legged systems, research in legged robotics has not yet been able to reproduce the agility found in the animal kingdom. In an effort to reduce the complexity of the problem, researchers have developed single-legged models to gain insight into the fundamental dynamics of legged running. Inspired by studies of animal locomotion, researchers have proposed numerous control strategies to achieve stable, one-legged running over unknown, rough terrain. One such control strategy incorporates energy variations into the system during the stance phase by changing the force-free leg length as a sinusoidal function of time. In this research, a one-legged planar robot capable of implementing this and other state-of-the-art control strategies was designed and built. Both simulated and experimental results were used to determine and compare the stability of the proposed controllers as the robot was subjected to unknown drop and raised step perturbations equal to 25% of the nominal leg length. This study illustrates the relative advantages of utilizing a minimal-sensing, active energy removal control scheme to stabilize running over rough terrain.

  12. Stability of Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Time-varying Feedback Delay

    Chunodkar, Apurva A.; Akella, Maruthi R.


    This paper considers the problem of stabilizing a class of nonlinear systems with unknown bounded delayed feedback wherein the time-varying delay is 1) piecewise constant 2) continuous with a bounded rate. We also consider application of these results to the stabilization of rigid-body attitude dynamics. In the first case, the time-delay in feedback is modeled specifically as a switch among an arbitrarily large set of unknown constant values with a known strict upper bound. The feedback is a linear function of the delayed states. In the case of linear systems with switched delay feedback, a new sufficiency condition for average dwell time result is presented using a complete type Lyapunov-Krasovskii (L-K) functional approach. Further, the corresponding switched system with nonlinear perturbations is proven to be exponentially stable inside a well characterized region of attraction for an appropriately chosen average dwell time. In the second case, the concept of the complete type L-K functional is extended to a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown time-varying time-delay. This extension ensures stability robustness to time-delay in the control design for all values of time-delay less than the known upper bound. Model-transformation is used in order to partition the nonlinear system into a nominal linear part that is exponentially stable with a bounded perturbation. We obtain sufficient conditions which ensure exponential stability inside a region of attraction estimate. A constructive method to evaluate the sufficient conditions is presented together with comparison with the corresponding constant and piecewise constant delay. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results of this paper.

  13. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.


    This project addresses DOE's interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals

  14. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.


    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  15. eQuilibrator--the biochemical thermodynamics calculator.

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron


    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like 'how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?' are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator ( enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use.

  16. eQuilibrator—the biochemical thermodynamics calculator

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron


    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like ‘how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?’ are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator ( enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use. PMID:22064852

  17. An Evidence-Based Review Literature About Risk Indicators and Management of Unknown-Origin Xerostomia

    Farzaneh Agha-hosseini


    Full Text Available Objective: This evidence-based article reviews risk indicators and management of unknown-origin xerostomia. Xerostomia and hyposalivation refer to different aspects of dry mouth. Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth, whilst hyposalivation is defined as an objective assessment of reduced salivary flow rate. About 30% of the elderly (65 years and older experience xerostomia and hyposalivation. Structural and functional factors, or both may lead to salivary gland dysfunction.Study Selection: The EBM literature search was conducted by using the medical literature database MEDLINE via PubMed and OvidMedline search engines. Results were limited to English language articles (1965 to present including clinical trials (CT, randomized controlled trials (RCT, systematic reviews and review articles. Case control or cohort studies were included for the etiology.Results: Neuropathic etiology such as localized oral alteration of thermal sensations, saliva composition change (for example higher levels of K, Cl, Ca, IgA, amylase, calcium, PTH and cortisol, lower levels of estrogen and progesterone, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as lichen planus, are risk indicators for unknown-origin xerostomia. The management is palliative and preventative. Management of symptoms includes drug administration (systemic secretogogues, saliva substitutes and bile secretion-stimulator, night guard, diet and habit modifications. Other managements may be indicated to treat adverse effects.Conclusion: Neuropathic etiology, saliva composition change, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as oral lichen planus can be suggestive causes for unknown-origin xerostomia. However, longitudinal studies will be important to elucidate the causes of unknown-origin xerostomia.

  18. Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Undersea Vehicle in Unknown Unstructured Environment

    Zheping Yan


    Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.

  19. Fever of unknown origin (FUO): CMV infectious mononucleosis or lymphoma?

    Cunha, Burke A; Chawla, Karishma


    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) refers to fevers of > 101 °F that persist for > 3 weeks and remain undiagnosed after a focused inpatient or outpatient workup. FUO may be due to infectious, malignant/neoplastic, rheumatic/inflammatory, or miscellaneous disorders. The FUO category determines the focus of the diagnostic workup. In the case presented of an FUO in a young woman, there were clinical findings of both CMV infectious mononucleosis or a lymphoma, e.g., highly elevated ESR, elevated ferritin levels, and elevated ACE level, β-2 microglobulins. The indium scan showed intense splenic uptake. Lymph node biopsy, PET scan, and flow cytometry were negative for lymphoma. CMV infectious mononucleosis was the diagnosis, and she made a slow recovery.

  20. Impact of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin

    Barkhausen, J.; Stoeblen, F.; Mueller, R.D.


    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Sixty-three consecutive intensive care patients with suspicion of an abscess and negative or inconclusive previous radiological examinations were included. CT was performed using the helical technique. A total of 45 abdominal and 38 chest examinations were evaluated. Results: 5/38 examinations of the chest revealed the source of sepsis (pleural empyema 2, lung abscess 1, mediastinitis 1, retrosternal abscess 1). 7/45 abdominal CT examinations showed the source of sepsis (intraabdominal abscess 2, hepatic abscess 3, intestinal perforation 1, gangrenous colitis 1). Conclusion: CT is useful for the evaluation of patients with fever or sepsis without a known source. Due to the detection of a spetic focus by CT, 19% of the patients in our study could be immediately referred to causal therapy as percutaneous drainage or surgery. (orig.)

  1. Impact of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin

    Barkhausen, J.; Stoeblen, F.; Mueller, R.D. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Dominguez-Fernandez, E. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of General Surgery; Henseke, P. [Nycomed-Amersham Arzneimittel GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)


    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Sixty-three consecutive intensive care patients with suspicion of an abscess and negative or inconclusive previous radiological examinations were included. CT was performed using the helical technique. A total of 45 abdominal and 38 chest examinations were evaluated. Results: 5/38 examinations of the chest revealed the source of sepsis (pleural empyema 2, lung abscess 1, mediastinitis 1, retrosternal abscess 1). 7/45 abdominal CT examinations showed the source of sepsis (intraabdominal abscess 2, hepatic abscess 3, intestinal perforation 1, gangrenous colitis 1). Conclusion: CT is useful for the evaluation of patients with fever or sepsis without a known source. Due to the detection of a spetic focus by CT, 19% of the patients in our study could be immediately referred to causal therapy as percutaneous drainage or surgery. (orig.)

  2. Mobile robot navigation in unknown static environments using ANFIS controller

    Anish Pandey


    Full Text Available Navigation and obstacle avoidance are the most important task for any mobile robots. This article presents the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS controller for mobile robot navigation and obstacle avoidance in the unknown static environments. The different sensors such as ultrasonic range finder sensor and sharp infrared range sensor are used to detect the forward obstacles in the environments. The inputs of the ANFIS controller are obstacle distances obtained from the sensors, and the controller output is a robot steering angle. The primary objective of the present work is to use ANFIS controller to guide the mobile robot in the given environments. Computer simulations are conducted through MATLAB software and implemented in real time by using C/C++ language running Arduino microcontroller based mobile robot. Moreover, the successful experimental results on the actual mobile robot demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed controller.

  3. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Juan David Hernández


    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  4. Metastatic cancer of unknown primary in 21 dogs.

    Rossi, F; Aresu, L; Vignoli, M; Buracco, P; Bettini, G; Ferro, S; Gattino, F; Ghiani, F; Costantino, R; Ressel, L; Bellei, E; Marconato, L


    The aim of this retrospective study was to describe clinical features, treatment and outcome of 21 dogs with metastatic cancer of unknown primary (MCUP), a biopsy-proven malignancy being diagnosed at a metastatic stage, in which the anatomical origin of the primary tumour cannot be detected. All dogs underwent total-body computed tomography. Signalment, type and duration of clinical signs, metastasis site, pathology results, treatment and outcome were recorded. Carcinoma was the most common diagnosis (57.1%), followed by sarcoma, melanoma and mast cell tumour. The median number of disease sites per dog was 2, with bones, lymph nodes, lungs and spleen being the most frequent metastatic locations. The median survival for all dogs was 30 days. Overall, a primary site was not identified in 20 (95.2%) dogs. MCUP encompasses a variety of different pathologic entities and harbours a poor prognosis. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Distributed Synchronization Control of Multiagent Systems With Unknown Nonlinearities.

    Su, Shize; Lin, Zongli; Garcia, Alfredo


    This paper revisits the distributed adaptive control problem for synchronization of multiagent systems where the dynamics of the agents are nonlinear, nonidentical, unknown, and subject to external disturbances. Two communication topologies, represented, respectively, by a fixed strongly-connected directed graph and by a switching connected undirected graph, are considered. Under both of these communication topologies, we use distributed neural networks to approximate the uncertain dynamics. Decentralized adaptive control protocols are then constructed to solve the cooperative tracker problem, the problem of synchronization of all follower agents to a leader agent. In particular, we show that, under the proposed decentralized control protocols, the synchronization errors are ultimately bounded, and their ultimate bounds can be reduced arbitrarily by choosing the control parameter appropriately. Simulation study verifies the effectiveness of our proposed protocols.

  6. Keratosis of unknown significance and leukoplakia: a preliminary study.

    Woo, Sook-Bin; Grammer, Rebecca L; Lerman, Mark A


    The objectives were to (1) determine the frequency of specific diagnoses in a series of white lesions, and (2) describe the nature of keratotic lesions that are neither reactive nor dysplastic. White lesions were analyzed and diagnosed as reactive keratoses, dysplastic/malignant, or keratoses of unknown significance (KUS). Of the 1251 specimens that were evaluated, 703 met criteria for inclusion, and approximately 75% were reactive, 10% dysplastic/malignant, and 14% KUS. Excluding reactive keratoses, 43% were dysplastic/malignant and 57% were KUS. Reactive keratoses were the most common white lesions followed by lichen planus. Dysplastic/malignant lesions constituted almost 50% of all true leukoplakias. KUS constituted the remaining cases and do not show typical reactive histopathology as well as clear dysplasia. They may represent evolving or devolving reactive keratoses but may also represent the very earliest dysplasia phenotype. Clinical findings may be helpful in differentiating the two. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Villitis of unknown aetiology: correlation of recurrence with clinical outcome.

    Feeley, L


    Villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Consequently, an ability to predict recurrence could be clinically relevant. We examined placentas where villitis was diagnosed in a previous pregnancy to establish the risk of recurrence and outcome. A total of 304 cases of VUA were diagnosed in our laboratory over a 4-year period. Subsequently, 19 of this cohort had a second placenta examined histologically. Recurrence and clinical outcome were recorded. Villitis recurred in 7 of 19 cases (37%). There was a high level of adverse pregnancy outcome in this cohort overall, characterised by small for gestational age infants and stillbirth, particularly in cases with high-grade villitis. We identified recurrent villitis more frequently than previously reported. Our findings confirm an association between high-grade villitis and poor outcome. Adequately powered prospective studies are required to determine if enhanced surveillance of subsequent pregnancies is indicated following a diagnosis of villitis.

  8. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities.

    Almaguer, Miguel; Herrera, Raúl; Orantes, Carlos M


    In recent years, Central America, Egypt, India and Sri Lanka have reported a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. This essay examines the disease's case definitions, epidemiology (disease burden, demographics, associated risk factors) and causal hypotheses, by reviewing published findings from El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, Egypt and India. The range of confirmed chronic kidney disease prevalence was 17.9%-21.1%. Prevalence of reduced glomerular filtration (homemade alcohol use and family history of chronic kidney disease. There is no strong evidence for a single cause, and multiple environmental, occupational and social factors are probably involved. Further etiological research is needed, plus interventions to reduce preventable risk factors.

  9. A Brief Introduction on Mystery, the Unknown, Surprise

    Sean Scanlan


    Full Text Available In this age of globalization, this age of so many ways to know—and so many ways to know things so quickly—it is both satisfying and deeply unnerving to come upon things and events that are really hard to understand, things and events so shocking or strange or mysterious, that they seem Unknown. Perhaps even unknowable. The first note of NANO Issue 2 focuses on an unsolved murder and reveals a mystery that is confounding, creepy, and yet oddly compelling. In “Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age,” Jeremy Biles and Brian Collins explore the edges of where cyber-crime threatens to turn real—and vice versa. In the second note, Jennifer Ballengee compares Oedipus at Colonus with Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.

  10. Cancer of unknown primary origin: a case report

    Elisa De Carlo


    Full Text Available Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP accounts for 2-10% of all malignancies. The apparent absence of the primary tumour, the development of early, uncommon systemic metastases and the resistance to therapy and poor prognosis are hallmarks of this heterogeneous clinical entity and are a challenge for physicians. The diagnostic workup of patients with CUP includes a large amount of histopathological examination, as well as the use of imaging techniques that often fail to identify the primary tumour. Therefore, the optimal workup and treatment for these patients remains to be determined. Molecular diagnostic tools, such as DNA microarray analysis, could help in the search for "lost" CUP origin and guide the further treatment approach. We report the case of a 66-year-old man, with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis of carcinoma and neurological syndrome with diplopia and balance disorders, in which many exams have been performed without finding the primary tumour.

  11. Searching for unknown transfusion-transmitted hepatitis viruses

    Edgren, G.; Hjalgrim, H.; Rostgaard, K.


    Background: Both hepatitis B and C viruses were transmitted through blood transfusion before implementation of donor screening. The existence of additional, yet unknown transfusion transmittable agents causing liver disease could have important public health implications. Methods: Analyses were...... 1992 to account for the effect of screening for hepatitis C virus. Results: A total of 1 482 922 transfused patients were included in the analyses. Analyses showed evidence of transfusion transmission of liver diseases before, but not after the implementation of hepatitis C virus screening in 1992...... for transfusion transmission of agents causing liver disease after the implementation of screening for hepatitis B and C, and suggest that if such transmission does occur, it is rare....

  12. Use of laminar flow patterning for miniaturised biochemical assays

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Krühne, Ulrich; Beyer, M.


    Laminar flow in microfluidic chambers was used to construct low (one dimensional) density arrays suitable for miniaturized biochemical assays. By varying the ratio of flows of two guiding streams flanking a sample stream, precise focusing and positioning of the latter was achieved, and reactive s...... species carried in the sample stream were deposited on functionalized chip surfaces as discrete 50 mm wide lanes. Using different model systems we have confirmed the method's suitability for qualitative screening and quantification tasks in receptor-ligand assays, recording biotin...

  13. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B


    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  14. Calculation of Unknown Preoperative K Readings in Postrefractive Surgery Patients

    Nicola Rosa


    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the unknown preoperative K readings (Kpre to be used in history-based methods, for intraocular lens (IOL power calculation in patients who have undergone myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. Methods. A regression formula generated from the left eyes of 174 patients who had undergone PRK for myopia or for myopic astigmatism was compared with other methods in 168 right eyes. The Pearson index and paired t-test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results. The differences between Kpre and those obtained with the other methods were as follows: 0.61 ± 0.94 D (range: −3.94 to 2.05 D, p<0.01 subtracting the effective treatment, 0.01 ± 0.86 D (range: −2.61 to 2.34 D, p=0.82 with Rosa’s formula, −0.02 ± 1.31 D (range: −3.43 to 3.68 D, p=0.82 with the current study formula, and −0.43 ± 1.40 D (range: −3.98 to 3.12 D, p<0.01 utilizing a mean K (Km of 43.5 D. Conclusions. These formulas may permit the utilization of history-based methods, that is, the double-K method in calculating the IOL power following PRK when Kpre are unknown.

  15. Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models

    Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.


    Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.

  16. A 'range test' for determining scatterers with unknown physical properties

    Potthast, Roland; Sylvester, John; Kusiak, Steven


    We describe a new scheme for determining the convex scattering support of an unknown scatterer when the physical properties of the scatterers are not known. The convex scattering support is a subset of the scatterer and provides information about its location and estimates for its shape. For convex polygonal scatterers the scattering support coincides with the scatterer and we obtain full shape reconstructions. The method will be formulated for the reconstruction of the scatterers from the far field pattern for one or a few incident waves. The method is non-iterative in nature and belongs to the type of recently derived generalized sampling schemes such as the 'no response test' of Luke-Potthast. The range test operates by testing whether it is possible to analytically continue a far field to the exterior of any test domain Omegatest. By intersecting the convex hulls of various test domains we can produce a minimal convex set, the convex scattering support of which must be contained in the convex hull of the support of any scatterer which produces that far field. The convex scattering support is calculated by testing the range of special integral operators for a sampling set of test domains. The numerical results can be used as an approximation for the support of the unknown scatterer. We prove convergence and regularity of the scheme and show numerical examples for sound-soft, sound-hard and medium scatterers. We can apply the range test to non-convex scatterers as well. We can conclude that an Omegatest which passes the range test has a non-empty intersection with the infinity-support (the complement of the unbounded component of the complement of the support) of the true scatterer, but cannot find a minimal set which must be contained therein.

  17. Identification of unknown sample using NAA, EDXRF, XRD techniques

    Dalvi, Aditi A.; Swain, K.K.; Chavan, Trupti; Remya Devi, P.S.; Wagh, D.N.; Verma, R.


    Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) receives samples from law enforcement agencies such as Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Customs for analysis. Five unknown grey powdered samples were received for identification and were suspected to be Iridium (Ir). Identification of unknown sample is always a challenging task and suitable analytical techniques have to be judiciously utilized for arriving at the conclusion. Qualitative analysis was carried out using Jordan Valley, EX-3600 M Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer at ACD, BARC. A SLP series LEO Si (Li) detector (active area: 30 mm 2 ; thickness: 3.5 mm; resolution: 140 eV at 5.9 keV of Mn K X-ray) was used during the measurement and only characteristic X-rays of Ir (Lα: 9.17 keV and Lβ: 10.70 keV) was seen in the X-ray spectrum. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results indicated that the Ir was in the form of metal. To confirm the XRD data, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was carried out by irradiating samples and elemental standards (as comparator) in graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor Critical Facility (AHWR CF) reactor, BARC, Mumbai. After suitable decay period, gamma activity measurements were carried out using 45% HPGe detector coupled to 8 k multi channel analyzer. Characteristic gamma line at 328.4 keV of the activation product 194 Ir was used for quantification of iridium and relative method of NAA was used for concentration calculations. NAA results confirmed that all the samples were Iridium metal. (author)

  18. Switched-Observer-Based Adaptive Neural Control of MIMO Switched Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Control Gains.

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun


    In this paper, the problem of adaptive neural output-feedback control is addressed for a class of multi-input multioutput (MIMO) switched uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown control gains. Neural networks (NNs) are used to approximate unknown nonlinear functions. In order to avoid the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer for all subsystems, an MIMO NN switched observer is designed to estimate unmeasurable states. A new switched observer-based adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is then provided by exploiting the classical average dwell time (ADT) method and the backstepping method and the Nussbaum gain technique. It effectively handles the obstacle about the coexistence of multiple Nussbaum-type function terms, and improves the classical ADT method, since the exponential decline property of Lyapunov functions for individual subsystems is no longer satisfied. It is shown that the technique proposed is able to guarantee semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system under a class of switching signals with ADT, and the tracking errors converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. The effectiveness of the approach proposed is illustrated by its application to a two inverted pendulum system.

  19. The determination of an unknown boundary condition in a fractional diffusion equation

    Rundell, William


    In this article we consider an inverse boundary problem, in which the unknown boundary function ∂u/∂v = f(u) is to be determined from overposed data in a time-fractional diffusion equation. Based upon the free space fundamental solution, we derive a representation for the solution f as a nonlinear Volterra integral equation of second kind with a weakly singular kernel. Uniqueness and reconstructibility by iteration is an immediate result of a priori assumption on f and applying the fixed point theorem. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Biochemical activity of fullerenes and related derivatives

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.


    An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)

  1. Improved methods for the mathematically controlled comparison of biochemical systems

    Schwacke John H


    Full Text Available Abstract The method of mathematically controlled comparison provides a structured approach for the comparison of alternative biochemical pathways with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. Under this approach, alternative implementations of a biochemical pathway are modeled mathematically, forced to be equivalent through the application of selected constraints, and compared with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. While the method has been applied successfully in a variety of studies, we offer recommendations for improvements to the method that (1 relax requirements for definition of constraints sufficient to remove all degrees of freedom in forming the equivalent alternative, (2 facilitate generalization of the results thus avoiding the need to condition those findings on the selected constraints, and (3 provide additional insights into the effect of selected constraints on the functional effectiveness measures. We present improvements to the method and related statistical models, apply the method to a previously conducted comparison of network regulation in the immune system, and compare our results to those previously reported.

  2. An unknown oxidative metabolism substantially contributes to soil CO2 emissions

    T. Shahzad


    Full Text Available The respiratory release of CO2 from soils is a major determinant of the global carbon cycle. It is traditionally considered that this respiration is an intracellular metabolism consisting of complex biochemical reactions carried out by numerous enzymes and co-factors. Here we show that the endoenzymes released from dead organisms are stabilised in soils and have access to suitable substrates and co-factors to permit function. These enzymes reconstitute an extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET that may substantially contribute to soil respiration (16 to 48% of CO2 released from soils in the present study. EXOMET and respiration from living organisms should be considered separately when studying effects of environmental factors on the C cycle because EXOMET shows specific properties such as resistance to high temperature and toxic compounds.

  3. The unknown-unknowns: Revealing the hidden insights in massive biomedical data using combined artificial intelligence and knowledge networks

    Chris Yoo


    Full Text Available Genomic data is estimated to be doubling every seven months with over 2 trillion bases from whole genome sequence studies deposited in Genbank in just the last 15 years alone. Recent advances in compute and storage have enabled the use of artificial intelligence techniques in areas such as feature recognition in digital pathology and chemical synthesis for drug development. To apply A.I. productively to multidimensional data such as cellular processes and their dysregulation, the data must be transformed into a structured format, using prior knowledge to create contextual relationships and hierarchies upon which computational analysis can be performed. Here we present the organization of complex data into hypergraphs that facilitate the application of A.I. We provide an example use case of a hypergraph containing hundreds of biological data values and the results of several classes of A.I. algorithms applied in a popular compute cloud. While multiple, biologically insightful correlations between disease states, behavior, and molecular features were identified, the insights of scientific import were revealed only when exploration of the data included visualization of subgraphs of represented knowledge. The results suggest that while machine learning can identify known correlations and suggest testable ones, the greater probability of discovering unexpected relationships between seemingly independent variables (unknown-unknowns requires a context-aware system – hypergraphs that impart biological meaning in nodes and edges. We discuss the implications of a combined hypergraph-A.I. analysis approach to multidimensional data and the pre-processing requirements for such a system.

  4. Biochemical and functional properties of wheat gliadins: a review.

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak; Khatkar, B S


    Gliadins account for 40-50% of the total storage proteins of wheat and are classified into four subcategories, α-, β-, γ-, and ω-gliadins. They have also been classified as ω5-, ω1, 2-, α/β-, and γ-gliadins on the basis of their primary structure and molecular weight. Cysteine residues of gliadins mainly form intramolecular disulfide bonds, although α-gliadins with odd numbers of cysteine residues have also been reported. Gliadins are generally regarded to possess globular protein structure, though recent studies report that the α/β-gliadins have compact globular structures and γ- and ω-gliadins have extended rod-like structures. Newer techniques such as Mass Spectrometry with the development of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) have been employed to determine the molecular weight of purified ω- gliadins and to carry out the direct analysis of bread and durum wheat gliadins. Few gliadin alleles and components, such as Gli-B1b, Gli-B2c and Gli-A2b in bread wheat cultivars, γ-45 in pasta, γ-gliadins in cookies, lower gliadin content for chapatti and alteration in Gli 2 loci in tortillas have been reported to improve the product quality, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the precise role of gliadin subgroups in dough strength and product quality.

  5. Assessment of Biochemical Liver Function Tests in Relation to Age ...


    Jan 24, 2018 ... and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations ... and Family Medicine General Outpatients Department clinics of ..... hepatitis, iron overload (hemosiderosis), and gallstones. Coiner et al ... this study, and therefore their role in the causation of the observed ...

  6. Importance of biochemical analysis of the liver function in the ...

    Liver diseases in HIV infected persons can occur due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infections, chronic alcoholism, and hepatic tuberculosis as well as antiretroviral drugs. Coinfection by HIV and HBV is frequently encountered with negative impact on HIV progression. The aim of this study was to ...

  7. Xyloside effects on in vitro hematopoiesis: Functional and biochemical studies

    Kirby, S.L.; Bentley, S.A.


    Xyloside supplementation of long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMCs) has been reported to result in greatly enhanced proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. This was presumed to be the result of xyloside-mediated perturbation of proteoglycan synthesis by marrow-derived stromal cells. To investigate this phenomenon, we first studied the effects of xyloside supplementation on proteoglycan synthesis by D2XRadII bone marrow stromal cells, which support hematopoietic stem cell proliferation in vitro. D2XRadII cells were precursor labelled with 35S-sulfate, and proteoglycans separated by ion exchange chromatography, isopyknic CsCl gradient centrifugation, and gel filtration HPLC. Xyloside-supplemented cultures showed an approximately fourfold increase in total 35S incorporation, mainly as free chondroitin-dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) glycosaminoglycan chains in the culture media. Both xyloside supplemented and nonsupplemented cultures synthesized DS1, DS2, and DS3 CS/DS proteoglycans as previously described. In contrast to previous reports, xyloside was found to inhibit hematopoietic cell growth in LTBMC. Inhibitory effects were observed both in cocultures of IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cell lines with supportive stromal cell lines and in primary murine LTBMCs. Xyloside was found to have a marked inhibitory effect on the growth of murine hematopoietic stem cells and IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cell lines in clonal assay systems and in suspension cultures. In contrast, dialyzed concentrated conditioned media from LTBMCs had no such inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that xyloside-mediated inhibition of hematopoietic cell growth in LTBMC resulted from a direct effect of xyloside on proteoglycan synthesis by hematopoietic cells

  8. Effects of artemether on biochemical markers of liver function in ...


    concentrations of glucose was also observed in UNR. The levels of ... caused neuronal necrosis in the region of the brainstem of rats (Genovese et al., ... cycle and were fed on normal mouse cubes (Ladokun Feeds,. Ibadan, Nigeria) and clean ...

  9. Changes in some biochemical parameters of kidney functions of ...



    Apr 3, 2012 ... Following one week of intramuscular administration of. 12.5 to 50.0 mg/kg ... of drug administration in those rats that received 50.0 mg/kg of the drug, ... Preparation of thin and thick films and staining technique. A small drop of ...

  10. Changes in Biochemical Markers of Kidney Function and ...

    Cases of diabetic kidney disease continue to increase worldwide despite advances in knowledge of the disease. Oxidative stress has been shown to play major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, since free radicals are formed disproportionately in diabetes by glucose oxidation, non-enzymatic glycation of ...

  11. The exercise-induced biochemical milieu enhances collagen content and tensile strength of engineered ligaments.

    West, Daniel W D; Lee-Barthel, Ann; McIntyre, Todd; Shamim, Baubak; Lee, Cassandra A; Baar, Keith


    Exercise stimulates a dramatic change in the concentration of circulating hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), but the biological functions of this response are unclear. Pharmacological GH administration stimulates collagen synthesis; however, whether the post-exercise systemic milieu has a similar action is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the collagen content and tensile strength of tissue-engineered ligaments is enhanced by serum obtained post-exercise. Primary cells from a human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) were used to engineer ligament constructs in vitro. Blood obtained from 12 healthy young men 15 min after resistance exercise contained GH concentrations that were ∼7-fold greater than resting serum (P Ligament constructs were treated for 7 days with medium supplemented with serum obtained at rest (RestTx) or 15 min post-exercise (ExTx), before tensile testing and collagen content analysis. Compared with RestTx, ExTx enhanced collagen content (+19%; 181 ± 33 vs. 215 ± 40 μg per construct P = 0.001) and ligament mechanical properties - maximal tensile load (+17%, P = 0.03 vs. RestTx) and ultimate tensile strength (+10%, P = 0.15 vs. RestTx). In a separate set of engineered ligaments, recombinant IGF-1, but not GH, enhanced collagen content and mechanics. Bioassays in 2D culture revealed that acute treatment with post-exercise serum activated mTORC1 and ERK1/2. In conclusion, the post-exercise biochemical milieu, but not recombinant GH, enhances collagen content and tensile strength of engineered ligaments, in association with mTORC1 and ERK1/2 activation. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  12. Biochemical characterization of Tunisian grapevine varieties

    Ferjani Ben Abdallah


    The study of GPI, PGM, AAT and peroxydase isozyme banding patterns in combination with berry colour has led to establish a classification of the 61 autochton varieties into 37 groups including 26 varieties definitely differentiated through the results of this biochemical study.

  13. Survey of Biochemical Education in Japanese Universities.

    Kagawa, Yasuo


    Reports findings of questionnaires sent to faculty in charge of biochemical education in medical schools and other programs from dentistry to agriculture. Total class hours have declined since 1984. New trends include bioethics and computer-assisted learning. Tables show trends in lecture hours, lecture content, laboratory hours, core subject…

  14. Haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler ...

    A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...

  15. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems.

    Zhang, Hong-Xuan; Dempsey, William P; Goutsias, John


    Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems as well as for designing optimal approaches for selective perturbation and intervention. Deterministic sensitivity analysis techniques, using derivatives of the system response, have been extensively used in the literature. However, these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, which must be carefully considered before using them in problems of systems biology. We develop here a probabilistic approach to sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems. The proposed technique employs a biophysically derived model for parameter fluctuations and, by using a recently suggested variance-based approach to sensitivity analysis [Saltelli et al., Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 105, 2811 (2005)], it leads to a powerful sensitivity analysis methodology for biochemical reaction systems. The approach presented in this paper addresses many problems associated with derivative-based sensitivity analysis techniques. Most importantly, it produces thermodynamically consistent sensitivity analysis results, can easily accommodate appreciable parameter variations, and allows for systematic investigation of high-order interaction effects. By employing a computational model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, we demonstrate that our approach is well suited for sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems and can produce a wealth of information about the sensitivity properties of such systems. The price to be paid, however, is a substantial increase in computational complexity over derivative-based techniques, which must be effectively addressed in order to make the proposed approach to sensitivity analysis more practical.

  16. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    Pistorius, A.M.A.


    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  17. Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...



    Jan 4, 2007 ... The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and.

  18. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)


    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  19. Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...

    The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and basophiles counts were ...

  20. Haematological And Biochemical Effects Of Sulphadimidine In ...

    Haematological and biochemical efects of sulphadmidine were studied in Nigerian mongrel dogs. Five Nigerian mongrel dogs of either sex weighing between 7 and 12 kg were used for the study. The pretreatment blood and serum samples were collected and the weight of animals taken before the administraton of 100 ...

  1. Biochemical and secondary metabolites changes under moisture ...

    The study showed the importance of carbohydrate and nitrogen cycle related metabolites in mediating tolerance in cassava by affecting their phenotypic expression in the plant. Keywords: Hydrothermal stress, bio-chemicals, pigments, secondary metabolites, cassava. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(31) 3173-3186 ...

  2. Biochemical and serological characterization of Escherichia coli ...

    This study was designed to determine the isolation rate, serotypes and biochemical profiles of E. coli from colibacillosis and dead-in-shell embryos in Zaria, Northern-Nigeria. The isolation rate of E. coli from hatcheries studied were 4.67% and 7.50% from farms of Simtu Agricultural Company and National Animal Production ...

  3. Biochemical and Kinetic Characterization of Geranylgeraniol 18 ...

    This enzyme and its gene are an attractive target for development of plaunotol production and its detailed biochemical properties need to be understood. Recently, even though the gene (CYP97C27) coding for GGOH 18-hydroxylase has been identified, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli system, the enzyme activity ...

  4. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  5. Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of ...


    Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of Juvenile Oreochromis niloticus after Exposure to Water Soluble Fractions of ... niloticus were evaluated. After a preliminary determination of the 96 h-LC50 of ... evaporation, dissolution, emulsion, photolysis and biodegradation which generate a water soluble.

  6. Discordant results between biochemical and molecular transthyretin

    Discordant results between biochemical and molecular transthyretin assays: lessons learned from a unique testing algorithm at the Mayo Clinic. Honey V. Reddi Brittany C. Thomas Kurt S. Willkomm Matthew J. Ferber Kandelaria M. Rumilla Kimiyo M. Raymond John F. O'Brien W. Edward Highsmith. Research Note Volume ...

  7. Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of meat samples ...

    This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of different plant proteases for changing biochemical and microstructural characteristics in muscle foods. The meat samples from chicken, giant catfish, pork and beef were treated with four types of proteolytic enzymes: Calotropis procera latex proteases, papaya latex ...

  8. How to know unknown fungi: the role of a herbarium.

    Brock, Patrick M; Döring, Heidi; Bidartondo, Martin I


    The development of a universal approach to the identification of fungi from the environment is impeded by the limited number and narrow phylogenetic range of the named internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences available on GenBank. The goal here was to assess the potential impact of systematic DNA sequencing from a fungal herbarium collection. DNA sequences were generated from a diverse set of 279 specimens deposited at the fungal herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew (UK) and bioinformatic analyses were used to study their overlap with the public database. It is estimated that c. 70% of the herbarium taxonomic diversity is not yet represented in GenBank and that a further c. 10% of our sequences match solely to 'environmental samples' or fungi otherwise unidentified. Here it is shown that the unsampled diversity residing in fungal herbaria can substantially enlarge the coverage of GenBank's fully identified sequence pool to ameliorate the problem of environmental unknowns and to aid in the detection of truly novel fungi by molecular data.

  9. Developing Probabilistic Safety Performance Margins for Unknown and Underappreciated Risks

    Benjamin, Allan; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris


    Probabilistic safety requirements currently formulated or proposed for space systems, nuclear reactor systems, nuclear weapon systems, and other types of systems that have a low-probability potential for high-consequence accidents depend on showing that the probability of such accidents is below a specified safety threshold or goal. Verification of compliance depends heavily upon synthetic modeling techniques such as PRA. To determine whether or not a system meets its probabilistic requirements, it is necessary to consider whether there are significant risks that are not fully considered in the PRA either because they are not known at the time or because their importance is not fully understood. The ultimate objective is to establish a reasonable margin to account for the difference between known risks and actual risks in attempting to validate compliance with a probabilistic safety threshold or goal. In this paper, we examine data accumulated over the past 60 years from the space program, from nuclear reactor experience, from aircraft systems, and from human reliability experience to formulate guidelines for estimating probabilistic margins to account for risks that are initially unknown or underappreciated. The formulation includes a review of the safety literature to identify the principal causes of such risks.

  10. PMS2 monoallelic mutation carriers: the known unknown.

    Goodenberger, McKinsey L; Thomas, Brittany C; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas; Boland, C Richard; Plon, Sharon E; Clendenning, Mark; Win, Aung Ko; Senter, Leigha; Lipkin, Steven M; Stadler, Zsofia K; Macrae, Finlay A; Lynch, Henry T; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; de la Chapelle, Albert; Syngal, Sapna; Lynch, Patrick; Parry, Susan; Jenkins, Mark A; Gallinger, Steven; Holter, Spring; Aronson, Melyssa; Newcomb, Polly A; Burnett, Terrilea; Le Marchand, Loïc; Pichurin, Pavel; Hampel, Heather; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Lu, Karen H; Thibodeau, Stephen; Lindor, Noralane M


    Germ-line mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 have been shown to cause Lynch syndrome. The penetrance of the cancer and tumor spectrum has been repeatedly studied, and multiple professional societies have proposed clinical management guidelines for affected individuals. Several studies have demonstrated a reduced penetrance for monoallelic carriers of PMS2 mutations compared with the other mismatch repair (MMR) genes, but clinical management guidelines have largely proposed the same screening recommendations for all MMR gene carriers. The authors considered whether enough evidence existed to propose new screening guidelines specific to PMS2 mutation carriers with regard to age at onset and frequency of colonic screening. Published reports of PMS2 germ-line mutations were combined with unpublished cases from the authors' research registries and clinical practices, and a discussion of potential modification of cancer screening guidelines was pursued. A total of 234 monoallelic PMS2 mutation carriers from 170 families were included. Approximately 8% of those with colorectal cancer (CRC) were diagnosed before age 30, and each of these tumors presented on the left side of the colon. As it is currently unknown what causes the early onset of CRC in some families with monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations, the authors recommend against reducing cancer surveillance guidelines in families found having monoallelic PMS2 mutations in spite of the reduced penetrance.Genet Med 18 1, 13-19.

  11. Systemic treatment of cancer of unknown primary origin

    Reckova, M.


    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) comprises a heterogenous group of cancers with distinct biology and prognosis. There is, however, a specific group of patients with curable diseases, or incurable diseases with good prognosis. The main aim of treatment in the group of patients with CUP is timely initiation of therapy in the cases of curable disease. There is no known standard of care in the cases of CUP with poor prognosis, but most frequently, platinum-based regimens are used. In the cases of specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) or molecular gene expression profile, there are used the treatment regimens similar to those used in the patients with known primary tumor and similar IHC or molecular profile. Currently, most of data in patients with CUP are from phase II clinical trials. Thus proficiently designed phase III randomized clinical trials with translation research is priority, with aim to improve our knowledge and personalize treatment of such heterogenous group of patients as is a group of patients with CUP. (author)

  12. Radiotherapeutic concepts in cancer of unknown primary site

    Krug, D.; Debus, J.; Sterzing, F.


    The term cancer of unknown primary (CUP) encompasses a group of entities which differ to a great extent regarding etiology, prognosis and therapeutic management. The aim of the study was an elaboration of the role of radiotherapy in CUP syndrome. Systematic literature search and specification of the available treatment options. Radiotherapy is an integral part of interdisciplinary management approaches for patients with CUP in both curative and palliative situations. Radio-oncological techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy increase the therapeutic window. Modern diagnostic modalities from radiology and nuclear medicine are the cornerstone of radiotherapeutic interventions, especially in terms of target volume definition and pretherapeutic staging. In the interdisciplinary setting radiation oncology offers the possibility of curative and often organ preserving approaches in patients with axillary and cervical CUP. In addition, improvement and preservation of quality of life can be achieved in patients with metastatic disease. Radiation oncology is a crucial component of the interdisciplinary management of patients with CUP. Therapeutic decisions in patients with CUP should be made in an interdisciplinary setting. (orig.) [de

  13. Crowdsourcing the unknown: the satellite search for Genghis Khan.

    A Y M Lin

    Full Text Available Massively parallel collaboration and emergent knowledge generation is described through a large scale survey for archaeological anomalies within ultra-high resolution earth-sensing satellite imagery. Over 10K online volunteers contributed 30K hours (3.4 years, examined 6,000 km², and generated 2.3 million feature categorizations. Motivated by the search for Genghis Khan's tomb, participants were tasked with finding an archaeological enigma that lacks any historical description of its potential visual appearance. Without a pre-existing reference for validation we turn towards consensus, defined by kernel density estimation, to pool human perception for "out of the ordinary" features across a vast landscape. This consensus served as the training mechanism within a self-evolving feedback loop between a participant and the crowd, essential driving a collective reasoning engine for anomaly detection. The resulting map led a National Geographic expedition to confirm 55 archaeological sites across a vast landscape. A increased ground-truthed accuracy was observed in those participants exposed to the peer feedback loop over those whom worked in isolation, suggesting collective reasoning can emerge within networked groups to outperform the aggregate independent ability of individuals to define the unknown.

  14. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics

    Graham Rose


    Full Text Available Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres.

  15. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Selvarajah, Mathu


    In the last two decades, chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has emerged as a significant contributor to the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rural Sri Lanka. It is characterized by the absence of identified causes for CKD. The prevalence of CKDu is 15.1-22.9% in some Sri Lankan districts, and previous research has found an association with farming occupations. A systematic literature review in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Lilacs databases identified 46 eligible peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract. Geographical mapping indicates a relationship between CKDu and agricultural irrigation water sources. Health mapping studies, human biological studies, and environment-based studies have explored possible causative agents. Most studies focused on likely causative agents related to agricultural practices, geographical distribution based on the prevalence and incidence of CKDu, and contaminants identified in drinking water. Nonetheless, the link between agrochemicals or heavy metals and CKDu remains to be established. No definitive cause for CKDu has been identified. Evidence to date suggests that the disease is related to one or more environmental agents, however pinpointing a definite cause for CKDu is challenging. It is plausible that CKDu is multifactorial. No specific guidelines or recommendations exist for treatment of CKDu, and standard management protocols for CKD apply. Changes in agricultural practices, provision of safe drinking water, and occupational safety precautions are recommended by the World Health Organization.

  16. Dead or Alive? Dealing with Unknown Eligibility in Longitudinal Surveys

    Watson Nicole


    Full Text Available Longitudinal surveys follow people over time and some of these people will die during the life of the panel. Through fieldwork effort, some deaths will be reported or known, but others will be unobserved due to sample members no longer being issued to field or having inconclusive fieldwork outcomes (such as a noncontact that is not followed by a contact at a later wave. The coverage of deaths identified among sample members has flow-on implications to nonresponse correction. Using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA Survey, four methods are used to examine the extent of missing death reports. The first method matches the sample to the national death register. The second method uses life-expectancy tables to extrapolate the expected number of deaths among the sample with unknown eligibility. The third method is similar but models deaths from data internal to the survey. The fourth method models deaths as part of the attrition process of a longitudinal survey. The last three methods are compared to the first method and the implications for the construction of balanced panel weights and subsequent population inference are explored.

  17. Physics at 13 TeV: CMS - scanning the unknown

    Antonella Del Rosso


    CMS is getting ready to use its accurate detector to scan the many ripples of the unknown physics that may lie beyond the Standard Model. Foremost in everyone’s mind is the search for signs of the production of dark matter at a man-made machine.   Interestingly, the observation of dark matter or new weakly interacting particles implies detecting that some energy has escaped, i.e. it’s missing from the upcoming proton collisions at the LHC. This is why measuring and understanding “missing energy” will be a very important step in that direction. “A large amount of missing energy is the signature for many processes of physics beyond the Standard Model. However, it’s not the only interesting signature that we will be able to exploit when the new collision energy is available,” explains Luca Malgeri, CMS Physics Coordinator. Among the interesting things not associated with missing energy are high-mass resonanc...

  18. Adaptively locating unknown steady states: Formalism and basin of attraction

    Wu, Yu; Lin, Wei


    The adaptive technique, which includes both dynamical estimators and coupling gains, has been recently verified to be practical for locating the unknown steady states numerically. This Letter, in the light of the center manifold theory for dynamical systems and the matrix spectrum principle, establishes an analytical formalism of this adaptive technique and reveals a connection between this technique and the original adaptive controller which includes only the dynamical estimator. More interestingly, in study of the well-known Lorenz system, the selections of the estimator parameters and initial values are found to be crucial to the successful application of the adaptive technique. Some Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures are found quantitatively. All the results obtained in the Letter can be further extended to more general dynamical systems of higher dimensions. -- Highlights: → Establishing a new and rigorous formalism for the adaptive stabilization technique. → Showing a close connection between the adaptive technique and the original controller. → Providing feasible algorithms for simultaneous stabilization of multiple steady states. → Finding Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures in adaptive control.

  19. Investigation of cervical lymph node metastasis from primary unknown carcinoma

    Sagawa, Kosuke; Terada, Tomonori; Saeki, Nobuo; Uwa, Nobuhiro; Mohri, Takeshi; Sakagami, Masafumi


    We retrospectively evaluated 41 patients with metastatic cervical tumors from unknown primary sites at the Hyogo College of Medicine between 1997 and 2007. The N stage classification of cervical lymph nodes was: N1 in 3 cases, N2a in 10 cases, N2b in 10 cases, N2c in 4 cases, and N3 in 14 cases. The histopathological diagnoses of cervical lymph node were: squamous cell carcinoma in 33 cases, adenocarcinoma in 5 cases, undifferentiated carcinoma in 2 cases, and papillary carcinoma in 1 cases. Primary tumor sites were: tonsil in 5 cases, esophaguses in 2 cases, hypopharynxies in 2 cases, and thyroid, oral floor, submandibular gland, lung, gastric and colon in 1 case each. The useful tests were gastric endoscope, positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and blind biopsy of tonsil. We treated 24 of the 41 patients. Therapies were: neck dissection with postoperative radiation therapy in 11 cases, neck dissection alone in 1 case, only radiation or chemoradiation therapy alone in 8 cases, and chemotherapy alone in 4 cases. The 5-year survival rate was 40.1% in all cases and 81.5% in cases who underwent neck dissection. (author)

  20. Gravity, strings and particles a journey into the unknown

    Gasperini, Maurizio


    New fundamental forces of Nature? New forms of "dark'' energy? Signals from epochs preceding the Big Bang? Is our space-time unique? Only a joint study of the three topics examined in this book – gravity, strings and particles – may provide answers to these questions. Such a study may also provide the key to solving one of the most fascinating mysteries of modern science, namely: Besides time and the three spatial dimensions, how many other dimensions exist in our universe? The book is primarily addressed to readers who do not necessarily have a specific background in physics but are nevertheless interested in discovering the originality and the possible implications of some of the amazing ideas in modern theoretical physics. The emphasis is on conveying ideas rather than explaining formulas, focusing not on what is known but -- mainly -- on what is still unknown. Many parts of the book are devoted to fundamental theoretical models and results which are potentially highly relevant for a deeper understand...

  1. Security Measurement for Unknown Threats Based on Attack Preferences

    Lihua Yin


    Full Text Available Security measurement matters to every stakeholder in network security. It provides security practitioners the exact security awareness. However, most of the works are not applicable to the unknown threat. What is more, existing efforts on security metric mainly focus on the ease of certain attack from a theoretical point of view, ignoring the “likelihood of exploitation.” To help administrator have a better understanding, we analyze the behavior of attackers who exploit the zero-day vulnerabilities and predict their attack timing. Based on the prediction, we propose a method of security measurement. In detail, we compute the optimal attack timing from the perspective of attacker, using a long-term game to estimate the risk of being found and then choose the optimal timing based on the risk and profit. We design a learning strategy to model the information sharing mechanism among multiattackers and use spatial structure to model the long-term process. After calculating the Nash equilibrium for each subgame, we consider the likelihood of being attacked for each node as the security metric result. The experiment results show the efficiency of our approach.

  2. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Yang Tian


    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel


    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

  4. Random neural Q-learning for obstacle avoidance of a mobile robot in unknown environments

    Jing Yang


    Full Text Available The article presents a random neural Q-learning strategy for the obstacle avoidance problem of an autonomous mobile robot in unknown environments. In the proposed strategy, two independent modules, namely, avoidance without considering the target and goal-seeking without considering obstacles, are first trained using the proposed random neural Q-learning algorithm to obtain their best control policies. Then, the two trained modules are combined based on a switching function to realize the obstacle avoidance in unknown environments. For the proposed random neural Q-learning algorithm, a single-hidden layer feedforward network is used to approximate the Q-function to estimate the Q-value. The parameters of the single-hidden layer feedforward network are modified using the recently proposed neural algorithm named the online sequential version of extreme learning machine, where the parameters of the hidden nodes are assigned randomly and the sample data can come one by one. However, different from the original online sequential version of extreme learning machine algorithm, the initial output weights are estimated subjected to quadratic inequality constraint to improve the convergence speed. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed random neural Q-learning strategy can successfully solve the obstacle avoidance problem. Also, the higher learning efficiency and better generalization ability are achieved by the proposed random neural Q-learning algorithm compared with the Q-learning based on the back-propagation method.

  5. A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of 177Lu Radiolabeled Anti-PSMA Monoclonal Antibody J591in Patients with High-Risk Castrate, Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer


    2010 and 2011 annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncologists  Manuscript detailing background and rationale for the...noncancerous causes, and 6.6% died from unknown causes [15]. A pooled analysis of salvage cryoablation demonstrated 54.5% 5-year actuarial biochemical

  6. Deterministic modelling and stochastic simulation of biochemical pathways using MATLAB.

    Ullah, M; Schmidt, H; Cho, K H; Wolkenhauer, O


    The analysis of complex biochemical networks is conducted in two popular conceptual frameworks for modelling. The deterministic approach requires the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODEs, reaction rate equations) with concentrations as continuous state variables. The stochastic approach involves the simulation of differential-difference equations (chemical master equations, CMEs) with probabilities as variables. This is to generate counts of molecules for chemical species as realisations of random variables drawn from the probability distribution described by the CMEs. Although there are numerous tools available, many of them free, the modelling and simulation environment MATLAB is widely used in the physical and engineering sciences. We describe a collection of MATLAB functions to construct and solve ODEs for deterministic simulation and to implement realisations of CMEs for stochastic simulation using advanced MATLAB coding (Release 14). The program was successfully applied to pathway models from the literature for both cases. The results were compared to implementations using alternative tools for dynamic modelling and simulation of biochemical networks. The aim is to provide a concise set of MATLAB functions that encourage the experimentation with systems biology models. All the script files are available from publications_matlab-paper.html.

  7. The Glymphatic Hypothesis of Glaucoma: A Unifying Concept Incorporating Vascular, Biomechanical, and Biochemical Aspects of the Disease

    Wostyn, Peter; De Groot, Veva; Van Dam, Debby; Audenaert, Kurt; Killer, Hanspeter Esriel; De Deyn, Peter Paul


    Abstract: The pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma is still largely unknown, although a joint contribution of vascular, biomechanical, and biochemical factors is widely acknowledged. Since glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, exploring its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms is extremely important and challenging. Evidence from recent studies appears supportive of the hypothesis that a "glymphatic system" exists in the eye and optic nerve, analogous ...

  8. CADLIVE toolbox for MATLAB: automatic dynamic modeling of biochemical networks with comprehensive system analysis.

    Inoue, Kentaro; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Miyabe, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Yu; Kurata, Hiroyuki


    Mathematical modeling has become a standard technique to understand the dynamics of complex biochemical systems. To promote the modeling, we had developed the CADLIVE dynamic simulator that automatically converted a biochemical map into its associated mathematical model, simulated its dynamic behaviors and analyzed its robustness. To enhance the feasibility by CADLIVE and extend its functions, we propose the CADLIVE toolbox available for MATLAB, which implements not only the existing functions of the CADLIVE dynamic simulator, but also the latest tools including global parameter search methods with robustness analysis. The seamless, bottom-up processes consisting of biochemical network construction, automatic construction of its dynamic model, simulation, optimization, and S-system analysis greatly facilitate dynamic modeling, contributing to the research of systems biology and synthetic biology. This application can be freely downloaded from together with an instruction.

  9. Glory on Venus and selection among the unknown UV absorbers

    Petrova, Elena V.


    The comparison of the phase profiles of glories observed on the cloud top of Venus by the Venus Monitoring Camera (Venus Express) and the light-scattering characteristics of sulfuric acid droplets, containing admixtures with a high refractive index, makes it easier to choose between some candidates for the so-called unknown UV absorber in the Venus clouds. Since among the candidates there are materials wetted and not wetted by sulfuric acid, we analyze whether small submicron particles adhered to or embedded into the 1-μm H2SO4 droplets may actually change the glory pattern normally produced by homogeneous spherical particles and what the conditions are, under which the composite particles formed in heterogeneous nucleation may still produce a glory feature. We have found that one of the most frequently considered candidates, sulfur, can hardly be responsible for the contrasts observed at 0.365 μm on the upper clouds, since it is not wetted by sulfuric acid and submicron sulfur particles, serving as condensation nuclei for sulfuric acid, can only adhere to the H2SO4 droplets rather than be enveloped by them. Such droplets decorated by sulfur blobs substantially distort the glory feature characteristic of the scattering by spherical particles or even smooth it at all, while a glory pattern is practically always seen in the images of Venus taken at small phase angles. At the same time, the grains of the other UV absorbers that can be embedded in H2SO4 droplets, e.g., the widely discussed ferric chloride, pose no problem in terms of interpretation of the observations of glory.

  10. Treatment of Regional Metastatic Melanoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    Elke J. A. H. van Beek


    Full Text Available (1 Background: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the recurrence and survival rates of metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin (MUP, in order to further refine current recommendations for the surgical treatment; (2 Methods: Medical data of all MUP patients registered between 2000 and 2011, were analyzed. Seventy-eight patients were categorized in either lymph node (axilla, groin, head-and neck or subcutaneous MUP. Axillary node MUPs were generally treated with dissections of levels I-III, inguinal node MUPs with combined superficial and deep groin dissections, and head-and-neck node MUPs with neck dissections to various extents, based on lymph drainage patterns. Subcutaneous lesions were excised with 1–2 cm margins. The primary outcome was treatment outcomes in terms of (locoregional recurrence and survival rates; (3 Results: Lymph node MUP recurred regionally in 11% of patients, with an overall recurrence rate of 45%. In contrast, subcutaneous MUP recurred locally in 65% of patients with an overall recurrence rate of 78%. This latter group had a significantly shorter disease-free interval than patients with lymph node MUP (p = 0.000. In the entire study population, 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 56% and 47% respectively, with no differences observed between the various subgroups; (4 Conclusion: The relatively low regional recurrence rate after regional lymph node dissection (11% supports its current status as standard surgical treatment for lymph node MUP. Subcutaneous MUP, on the contrary, appears to recur both locally (65% and overall (78% at a significantly higher rate, suggesting a different biological behavior. However, wide local excision remains the best available option for this specific group.

  11. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.


    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  12. Popular Music in Jia Zhangke’s Unknown Pleasures

    Jie Zhang


    Full Text Available With his documentary-style films reflecting upon China’s unprecedented transformation from a state-controlled to a market-driven economy, Jia Zhangke has risen from within the movement of independent Chinese cinema that began to flourish in the late 1990s to become one of the most recognized filmmakers of contemporary China. Born in 1970 and raised in the underdeveloped Shanxi Province, Jia studied film theory at Beijing Film Academy and was first noticed for his controversial “Hometown Trilogy”—'Pickpocket '('Xiao Wu', 1997, 'Platform '('Zhantai', 1999, and 'Unknown Pleasures '('Ren xiao yao', 2002. These three films, shot with handheld video camera on the streets of his hometown province, focus on the reckless changes that China’s aggressive economic growth and globalization have brought to socially marginalized groups. Like other independently made films—films that are produced with capital from outside the state-sponsored avenues and without the approval of film censorship, and that are not allowed to be shown in China’s public theaters—Jia’s first three films reach domestic audiences only through unofficial DVD copies and small-scaled screenings at universities, film bars, and art salons. His limited domestic influence sharply contrasts with the critical acclaim that he receives from international film festival audiences, who are searching for alternative film culture from China after the Fifth Generation directors. By the late 1990s, Jia had become a spokesperson for an ever-increasing group of aspiring Chinese independent filmmakers, particularly through writings and interviews that theorize independent Chinese cinema’s practice.

  13. Hyperprolactinemia after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An unknown phenomenon

    Omrani Gholamhossein R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ovarian drilling on the serum levels of gonadotropins and androgens have been studied previously. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ovarian drilling on the serum prolactin levels and its relation to ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods This is a prospective controlled study. Thirty-six women with PCOS underwent ovarian electrocauterization in university hospitals. Control group consisted of 35 ovulatory women with unexplained infertility. Hormonal assessment performed in early follicular phase of spontaneous or induced cycle before operation in the two groups and repeated one week after operation. Hormonal assay was also performed in the early follicular phase of the first post-operative menstruation, folliculometry and progesterone assay were also performed in the same cycle. Data were analyzed by "repeated measurement design, discriminant analysis, correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact test". Results Six to ten weeks after operation the serum mean +/- SD prolactin levels increased from 284.41 +/- 114.32 mIU/ml to 354.06 +/- 204.42 mIU/ml (P = 0.011. The same values for the control group were 277.73 +/- 114.65 to 277.4 +/- 111.4 (P = 0.981 respectively. Approximately 45% of subjects in PCOS group remained anovulatory in spite of decreased level of LH and testosterone. Prolactin level remained elevated in 73.2% of women who did not ovulate 6–10 weeks after the procedure. Conclusion Hyperprolactinemia after ovarian cauterization may be considered as a possible cause of anovulation in women with polycystic ovaries and improved gonadotropin and androgen levels. The cause of hyperprolactinemia is unknown. Hormonal assay particularly PRL in anovulatory patients after ovarian cauterization is recommended.

  14. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L.; Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M.; Castruita D, J. P.; Barbosa S, G.


    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H 2 O 2 /1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  15. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Biologia, DCNE, Noria Alta s/n, 36250 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, DCI, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Castruita D, J. P. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Ecologia, CUCBA, Las Agujas, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Barbosa S, G., E-mail: [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ciencias Medicas, DCS, 20 de Enero No. 929, Col. Obregon, 37000 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)


    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  16. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan


    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  17. Biochemical Post-Irradiation Changes and Radiation Indicators: A Review

    Streffer, G. [Radiologisches Institut, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)


    In a number of mammalian tissues a breakdown of the biological macromolecules, as nucleic acids and proteins, is observed after irradiation. This degradation appears in lymphatic tissues even after a radiation exposure less than 100 R and proceeds with increasing exposure to about 600 R. On the other hand, other biochemical effects are found after the whole-body irradiation of mammals which seem to have some relation to the functional status of the organs and the organisms. It appears therefore useful to classify the biochemical effects of radiation into two groups: (1) Observations which are a consequence of the degradation processes; (2) observations which are a consequence of functional changes. Most investigations in the field of biochemical indicators after irradiation have been concerned with the first class of reactions. The excretion of deoxycytidine, thymidine and pseudouridine have been extensively investigated in animals during recent years. However, in humans the normal deoxycytidine excretion is very low, as this substance is metabolized to a higher degree in humans than in other species. {beta}-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), a metabolite of thymine, was also investigated in this connection. Besides nucleic acids, proteins are broken down in these radiosensitive organs. This leads to an increased content of amino acids for instance in the lymphatic tissues and to an increase in urinary excretion of amino acids. There are two amino acids which play a special role for this discussion: cysteine and tryptophan. Taurine, a metabolite of cysteine, is excreted in the urine to an increased extent after the irradiation of mice, rats and man. Again the enhancement is proportional to the radiation exposure between 100 and 300 R. Another substance which has been extensively studied is creatine. It has been shown that there is a good relationship between radiation exposure (up to about 600 R) and the increased excretion of creatine/creatinine in the urine of rats

  18. Known Structure, Unknown Function: An Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W.; Lee, Christopher T.; Dewald, Alison H.; Cline, Matthew A.; McAnany, Charles E.; Columbus, Linda; Mura, Cameron


    Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry- and research-based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's…

  19. Known structure, unknown function: An inquiry?based undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W.; Lee, Christopher T.; Dewald, Alison H.; Cline, Matthew A.; McAnany, Charles E.; Columbus, Linda; Mura, Cameron


    Abstract Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry? and research?based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's research expertise and confidence. We have developed a year?long undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum wherein students determine...

  20. Domain swapping in structure of mNKR-P1A: unique feature with unknown function

    Kolenko, Petr; Rozbeský, Daniel; Skálová, Tereza; Koval, Tomáš; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušková, Jarmila; Stránský, Jan; Hašek, Jindřich; Dohnálek, Jan


    Roč. 70, Supplement /August/ (2014), C249 ISSN 0108-7673. [Congress and General Assembly of the International Union of Crystallography /23./ - IUCr 2014. 05.08.2014-12.08.2014, Montreal] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : NK cell * receptor * swapping Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  1. Functional and in silico assessment of MAX variants of unknown significance

    Comino-Méndez, Iñaki; Leandro-García, Luis J; Montoya, Guillermo


    UNLABELLED: The presence of germline mutations affecting the MYC-associated protein X (MAX) gene has recently been identified as one of the now 11 major genetic predisposition factors for the development of hereditary pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma. Little is known regarding how missense v...

  2. Dynamics of biochemical parameters of blood serum in kidney injuries

    Y. L. Podgainiy


    Full Text Available Aim. Annually injuries of varying severity are registered in more than 4,5 million people (up to 10% of the population in Ukraine; renal injury in polytrauma is detected in 26,4% of cases and takes 2 – 3 place of injury of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space. In order to study the kidney function and other vital organs systems 108 patients were examined. Methods and results. Laboratory methods (clinical and biochemical parameters of blood and urine tests, ultrasound and CT scans of the kidneys and abdominal organs were used. Conclusion. It was established that polytrauma often occurs in males (73,5% of middle-age. 42% of patients presented renal function violation - nitrogen excretion and 84% of patients had activated blood coagulation in the first 7 – 10 days of injury.

  3. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules.

    Chepelev, Leonid L; Hastings, Janna; Ennis, Marcus; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel


    The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI) are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. We conclude that the proposed methodology can ease the burden of chemical data annotators and

  4. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules


    Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI) are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology can ease the burden of

  5. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules

    Chepelev Leonid L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology

  6. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana


    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  7. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Carlos Angulo Barrios


    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  8. Biochemical composition and methane production correlations

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Moscoviz, Roman; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe


    Substrates for anaerobic digestion are composed of heterogeneous and complex organic matter. General parameters of the organic matter can be used to describe its composition such as sugar, protein and lipid contents, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) and kinetic of methane production. These parameters are required for the monitoring of digesters but their characterization are time consuming and expensive; thus, these parameters are rarely assessed all together....

  9. Biochemical characterization of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium.

    Mott, G E; Brinkley, A W; Mersinger, C L


    We characterized two isolates of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium by conducting conventional biochemical tests and by testing various sterols and glycerolipids as potential growth factors. In media containing cholesterol and plasmenylethanolamine, the tests for nitrate reduction, indole production, and gelatin and starch hydrolyses were negative, and no acid was produced from any of 22 carbohydrates. Both isolates hydrolyzed esculin to esculetin, indicating beta-glycosidase activity. In addit...

  10. Biochemical changes in ginger after gamma irradiation

    Kausar, T.; Salahuddin; Pervaiz, K.; Niazi, A.H.K.


    Ginger (Zingiber officinate) was irradiated with gamma rays (0.1Kgy, 1.0Kgy). Biochemical changes during storage at room temperature (23-28 degree centigrade), in sand (23-28 degree centigrade) and at cold (8 degree centigrade) temperature were observed. Changes in starch, soluble protein, fixed oil and volatile oil contents showed that treatment of ginger at 0.1Kgy radiation level was most appropriate for storage upto 45 days

  11. Biochemical Factors Modulating Cellular Neurotoxicity of Methylmercury

    Parvinder Kaur


    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg, an environmental toxicant primarily found in fish and seafood, poses a dilemma to both consumers and regulatory authorities, given the nutritional benefits of fish consumption versus the possible adverse neurological damage. Several studies have shown that MeHg toxicity is influenced by a number of biochemical factors, such as glutathione (GSH, fatty acids, vitamins, and essential elements, but the cellular mechanisms underlying these complex interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this paper is to outline the cellular response to dietary nutrients, as well as to describe the neurotoxic exposures to MeHg. In order to determine the cellular mechanism(s of toxicity, the effect of pretreatment with biochemical factors (e.g., N-acetyl cysteine, (NAC; diethyl maleate, (DEM; docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA; selenomethionine, SeM; Trolox and MeHg treatment on intercellular antioxidant status, MeHg content, and other endpoints was evaluated. This paper emphasizes that the protection against oxidative stress offered by these biochemical factors is among one of the major mechanisms responsible for conferring neuroprotection. It is therefore critical to ascertain the cellular mechanisms associated with various dietary nutrients as well as to determine the potential effects of neurotoxic exposures for accurately assessing the risks and benefits associated with fish consumption.

  12. Explorations into Chemical Reactions and Biochemical Pathways.

    Gasteiger, Johann


    A brief overview of the work in the research group of the present author on extracting knowledge from chemical reaction data is presented. Methods have been developed to calculate physicochemical effects at the reaction site. It is shown that these physicochemical effects can quite favourably be used to derive equations for the calculation of data on gas phase reactions and on reactions in solution such as aqueous acidity of alcohols or carboxylic acids or the hydrolysis of amides. Furthermore, it is shown that these physicochemical effects are quite effective for assigning reactions into reaction classes that correspond to chemical knowledge. Biochemical reactions constitute a particularly interesting and challenging task for increasing our understanding of living species. The BioPath.Database is a rich source of information on biochemical reactions and has been used for a variety of applications of chemical, biological, or medicinal interests. Thus, it was shown that biochemical reactions can be assigned by the physicochemical effects into classes that correspond to the classification of enzymes by the EC numbers. Furthermore, 3D models of reaction intermediates can be used for searching for novel enzyme inhibitors. It was shown in a combined application of chemoinformatics and bioinformatics that essential pathways of diseases can be uncovered. Furthermore, a study showed that bacterial flavor-forming pathways can be discovered. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown

    Stephens, Carolyn


    In November 2011, botanists on a remote island off Papua New Guinea discovered a new species of orchid—uniquely and mysteriously night-flowering [1]. New to science, and with so much more to understand, this flower is threatened by deforestation [2]. Also in November 2011, a survey of 583 conservation scientists reported a unanimous (99.5%) view that 'it is likely a serious loss of biological diversity is underway at a global extent' and that, for scientists, 'protection of biological diversity for its cultural and spiritual values and because of its usefulness to humans were low priorities, which suggests that many scientists do not fully support the utilitarian concept of ecosystem services' [3]. In terms of management, some scientists now advocate controversial conservation strategies such as triage (prioritization of species that provide unique or necessary functions to ecosystems) [4, 5]. Meanwhile, there are many scientists who contend that there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the importance of biodiversity for human health and well-being, arguing that only an anthropocentric view of biodiversity within a paradigm 'ecosystem service' will enable decision-makers to prioritize the theme [6-9]. A 2011 UN report argues that this need for understanding is especially urgent in fragile and vulnerable ecosystems where communities depend directly on the resources of their environment [10]. Here we have a paradox: international conservation scientists think that we cannot protect biodiversity on the basis of its cultural and spiritual value, nor its usefulness to humans. Other scientists argue that using a utilitarian ecosystem services framework is the only way to get humans to protect biodiversity. Meanwhile, communities directly dependent on biodiverse ecosystems are often those who best understand and protect biodiversity, for exactly these reasons of use and spiritual connection, but they do not hold only a utilitarian view of their

  14. Thin-layer chromatography of polyphosphoinositides from platelet extracts: interference by an unknown phospholipid

    Tysnes, O.B.; Aarbakke, G.M.; Verhoeven, A.J.; Holmsen, H.


    Different ratios of radioactive polyphosphoinositides in platelets pulse-labelled with 32p-orthophosphate have been reported by various laboratories. We studied whether these differences originate from differences in methodology. Extracts of 32p-Pi labelled human platelets were prepared at various times after gel-filtration and phosphatidylinositol (PI)-, mono (PIP)- and bisphosphate (PIP2) were separated by thin-layer chromatography using four different solvent systems. The 32p-levels in PIP and PIP2 remained constant during one hour after gel-filtration, whereas 32p-PI increased continuously and more than doubled within the first h. In two of the systems PIP co-chromatographed with a radioactive compound which separated well from PIP in the two other systems. This unknown compound was also labelled with 3H-glycerol, 3H-inositol and 3H-arachidonic acid, but it was metabolically and functionally different from the polyphosphoinositides. Both the co-chromatography of this unknown phospholipid and the increase in 32p-PI in gel-filtered platelets can explain the difference in 32p-labelling in phosphoinositides reported in the literature

  15. The determination of a neutron source position in an unknown homogeneous medium: The planar case

    Dubinski, S.; Talmor, A.; Presler, O.; Tshuva, A.; Yaar, I.; Orion, I.; Alfassi, Z.B.


    The possibility of localization of an unknown neutron source in various bulky homogeneous media (box) was studied. For the planar case, two 3 He detectors on the opposite faces of the box were used. A constant polypropylene shield around the box and detectors was used to eliminate the varying contribution from the environment to increase count rates of the detectors and to protect the experimentalist. It is shown that the location of a single small neutron emitting source in a large box can be found to a better than 7% by using two neutron detectors positioned on parallel faces of the box, coplanar with the source. The localization requires measurement of the count rate of both the unknown source and an extra source positioned on one of the faces of the box. The localization is based on the finding that the ratio of the count rates of the two detectors is an exponential function of the distance of the source from one of the detectors

  16. Identification of CJC-1295, a growth-hormone-releasing peptide, in an unknown pharmaceutical preparation.

    Henninge, John; Pepaj, Milaim; Hullstein, Ingunn; Hemmersbach, Peter


    Several peptide drugs are being manufactured illicitly, and in some cases they are being made available to the public before entering or completing clinical trials. At the request of Norwegian police and customs authorities, unknown pharmaceutical preparations suspected to contain peptide drugs are regularly subjected to analysis. In 2009, an unknown pharmaceutical preparation was submitted for analysis by liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS). The preparation was found to contain a 29 amino acid peptide with a C-terminal amide function. Based on the interpretation of mass spectrometric data, an amino acid sequence was proposed. The sequence is consistent with a peptide currently marketed under the name CJC-1295. CJC-1295 is a releasing factor for growth hormone and is therefore considered a Prohibited Substance under Section S2 of the WADA Prohibited List. This substance has potential performance-enhancing effects, it is readily available, and there is reason to believe that it is being used within the bodybuilding community. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Experience Replay for Optimal Control of Nonzero-Sum Game Systems With Unknown Dynamics.

    Zhao, Dongbin; Zhang, Qichao; Wang, Ding; Zhu, Yuanheng


    In this paper, an approximate online equilibrium solution is developed for an N -player nonzero-sum (NZS) game systems with completely unknown dynamics. First, a model identifier based on a three-layer neural network (NN) is established to reconstruct the unknown NZS games systems. Moreover, the identifier weight vector is updated based on experience replay technique which can relax the traditional persistence of excitation condition to a simplified condition on recorded data. Then, the single-network adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) with experience replay algorithm is proposed for each player to solve the coupled nonlinear Hamilton- (HJ) equations, where only the critic NN weight vectors are required to tune for each player. The feedback Nash equilibrium is provided by the solution of the coupled HJ equations. Based on the experience replay technique, a novel critic NN weights tuning law is proposed to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system and the convergence of the value functions. Furthermore, a Lyapunov-based stability analysis shows that the uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is achieved. Finally, two simulation examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  18. Importance of biochemical exploration of the liver in the control of ...

    Viral infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world in particular those caused by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of the biochemical exploration of the liver function in the control of disease ...

  19. Postmatch recovery of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sports : a systematic review

    Doeven, Steven H; Brink, Michel S; Kosse, Silke J; Lemmink, Koen A P M


    Background: Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. Objective: To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Study design:

  20. Enhanced protein and biochemical production using CRISPRi-based growth switches

    Li, Songyuan; Jendresen, Christian Bille; Grünberger, Alexander


    functionality of the growth switches. Decoupling of growth from production of biochemicals was demonstrated for mevalonate, a precursor for isoprenoid compounds. Mass yield of mevalonate was increased by 41%, and production was maintained for more than 45 h after activation of the pyrF-based growth switch...

  1. Use-wear Analysis, Something Unknown in the Prehistory Researchs

    Francisco José Vicente Santos


    Full Text Available The interest generated by the Paleolithic retouched stone tools is a distant event and dissections performed to determine its function are a little early. The Speculations about their function were obtained bymorphological variation, by ethnological data or stories and so on etc. However, in 1957 since Semenov Publication "Prehistoric Tecnology" this form to find out their funcionality get old and the most important would be the new one. This Semenov new line of investigation will be go on with the Scientist: L. H. Keeley, G. H. Odell, M. E. Masur-Franchomme, H. Plisson, P. C. Anderson Gerfaud, Korokoba C., or the Spanish Gutierrez, I. Clemente, J. J. Ibáñez, J. E. González, J. F. Gibaja, I. Martín, R. Domingo, C. Mazo, M. Calvo and P. Jardón. It´s based in test of diferents objects use-wear produted in the Stone´s tools. With them, we can answer questions like How, With what material and Why they have been used. This is the base of Traceology and analysis functional. The Text purpose is show this investigation line, his method and his results.

  2. Combination of biochemical and mechanical cues for tendon tissue engineering.

    Testa, Stefano; Costantini, Marco; Fornetti, Ersilia; Bernardini, Sergio; Trombetta, Marcella; Seliktar, Dror; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare


    Tendinopathies negatively affect the life quality of millions of people in occupational and athletic settings, as well as the general population. Tendon healing is a slow process, often with insufficient results to restore complete endurance and functionality of the tissue. Tissue engineering, using tendon progenitors, artificial matrices and bioreactors for mechanical stimulation, could be an important approach for treating rips, fraying and tissue rupture. In our work, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblast cell line was exposed to a combination of stimuli: a biochemical stimulus provided by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) and Ascorbic Acid (AA); a three-dimensional environment represented by PEGylated-Fibrinogen (PEG-Fibrinogen) biomimetic matrix; and a mechanical induction exploiting a custom bioreactor applying uniaxial stretching. In vitro analyses by immunofluorescence and mechanical testing revealed that the proposed combined approach favours the organization of a three-dimensional tissue-like structure promoting a remarkable arrangement of the cells and the neo-extracellular matrix, reflecting into enhanced mechanical strength. The proposed method represents a novel approach for tendon tissue engineering, demonstrating how the combined effect of biochemical and mechanical stimuli ameliorates biological and mechanical properties of the artificial tissue compared to those obtained with single inducement. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. Physiological and biochemical performances of menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals.

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available The unique mutualism between corals and their photosynthetic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp. is the driving force behind functional assemblages of coral reefs. However, the respective roles of hosts and Symbiodinium in this endosymbiotic association, particularly in response to environmental challenges (e.g., high sea surface temperatures, remain unsettled. One of the key obstacles is to produce and maintain aposymbiotic coral hosts for experimental purposes. In this study, a simple and gentle protocol to generate aposymbiotic coral hosts (Isopora palifera and Stylophora pistillata was developed using repeated incubation in menthol/artificial seawater (ASW medium under light and in ASW in darkness, which depleted more than 99% of Symbiodinium from the host within 4∼8 days. As indicated by the respiration rate, energy metabolism (by malate dehydrogenase activity, and nitrogen metabolism (by glutamate dehydrogenase activity and profiles of free amino acids, the physiological and biochemical performances of the menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals were comparable to their symbiotic counterparts without nutrient supplementation (e.g., for Stylophora or with a nutrient supplement containing glycerol, vitamins, and a host mimic of free amino acid mixture (e.g., for Isopora. Differences in biochemical responses to menthol-induced bleaching between Stylophora and Isopora were attributed to the former digesting Symbiodinium rather than expelling the algae live as found in the latter species. Our studies showed that menthol could successfully bleach corals and provided aposymbiotic corals for further exploration of coral-alga symbioses.

  4. Coarse-graining stochastic biochemical networks: adiabaticity and fast simulations

    Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hengartner, Nick [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We propose a universal approach for analysis and fast simulations of stiff stochastic biochemical kinetics networks, which rests on elimination of fast chemical species without a loss of information about mesoscoplc, non-Poissonian fluctuations of the slow ones. Our approach, which is similar to the Born-Oppenhelmer approximation in quantum mechanics, follows from the stochastic path Integral representation of the cumulant generating function of reaction events. In applications with a small number of chemIcal reactions, It produces analytical expressions for cumulants of chemical fluxes between the slow variables. This allows for a low-dimensional, Interpretable representation and can be used for coarse-grained numerical simulation schemes with a small computational complexity and yet high accuracy. As an example, we derive the coarse-grained description for a chain of biochemical reactions, and show that the coarse-grained and the microscopic simulations are in an agreement, but the coarse-gralned simulations are three orders of magnitude faster.

  5. A biochemical framework for eIF4E-dependent mRNA export and nuclear recycling of the export machinery.

    Volpon, Laurent; Culjkovic-Kraljacic, Biljana; Sohn, Hye Seon; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Osborne, Michael J; Borden, Katherine L B


    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E acts in the nuclear export and translation of a subset of mRNAs. Both of these functions contribute to its oncogenic potential. While the biochemical mechanisms that underlie translation are relatively well understood, the molecular basis for eIF4E's role in mRNA export remains largely unexplored. To date, over 3000 transcripts, many encoding oncoproteins, were identified as potential nuclear eIF4E export targets. These target RNAs typically contain a ∼50-nucleotide eIF4E sensitivity element (4ESE) in the 3' UTR and a 7-methylguanosine cap on the 5' end. While eIF4E associates with the cap, an unknown factor recognizes the 4ESE element. We previously identified cofactors that functionally interacted with eIF4E in mammalian cell nuclei including the leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat protein LRPPRC and the export receptor CRM1/XPO1. LRPPRC simultaneously interacts with both eIF4E bound to the 5' mRNA cap and the 4ESE element in the 3' UTR. In this way, LRPPRC serves as a specificity factor to recruit 4ESE-containing RNAs within the nucleus. Further, we show that CRM1 directly binds LRPPRC likely acting as the export receptor for the LRPPRC-eIF4E-4ESE RNA complex. We also found that Importin 8, the nuclear importer for cap-free eIF4E, imports RNA-free LRPPRC, potentially providing both coordinated nuclear recycling of the export machinery and an important surveillance mechanism to prevent futile export cycles. Our studies provide the first biochemical framework for the eIF4E-dependent mRNA export pathway. © 2017 Volpon et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Organizational conditions for dealing with the unknown unknown : illustrated by how a Dutch water management authority is preparing for climate change

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Brink, van den M.A.


    The central question of this article is the extent to which organizations, governmental authorities in particular, are able to deal with the unknown unknown. Drawing on Weick’s work on sensemaking, we introduce seven organizational conditions that can facilitate organizations to be reliable under

  7. Organizational Conditions for Dealing with The Unknown Unknown Illustrated by how a Dutch water management authority is preparing for climate change

    Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.; van den Brink, Margo A.


    The central question of this article is the extent to which organizations, governmental authorities in particular, are able to deal with the unknown unknown. Drawing on Weick's work on sensemaking, we introduce seven organizational conditions that can facilitate organizations to be reliable under

  8. Hierarchical thinking in network biology: the unbiased modularization of biochemical networks.

    Papin, Jason A; Reed, Jennifer L; Palsson, Bernhard O


    As reconstructed biochemical reaction networks continue to grow in size and scope, there is a growing need to describe the functional modules within them. Such modules facilitate the study of biological processes by deconstructing complex biological networks into conceptually simple entities. The definition of network modules is often based on intuitive reasoning. As an alternative, methods are being developed for defining biochemical network modules in an unbiased fashion. These unbiased network modules are mathematically derived from the structure of the whole network under consideration.

  9. Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces after left lateral temporo-occipital venous infarction: a double dissociation with prosopagnosia.

    Vuilleumier, Patrik; Mohr, Christine; Valenza, Nathalie; Wetzel, Corinne; Landis, Theodor


    Right hemisphere dominance in face processing is well established and unilateral right inferior temporo-occipital damage can result in prosopagnosia. Here, we describe a 21-year-old right-handed woman with acute impairment in face recognition that selectively concerned unfamiliar faces, following a focal left lateral temporo-occipital venous infarct. She was severely impaired in discerning that unknown people seen in everyday life were unfamiliar, although she had no difficulty recognizing familiar people. Thus, she had no prosopagnosia, but abnormal 'hyperfamiliarity' for unknown faces. Her difficulty was not accompanied by delusions or deficits in discrimination, identification or memory for faces. Standard neuropsychological testing showed that her recognition of familiar faces was entirely normal. By contrast, her sense of personally knowing faces was severely impaired when unknown faces evoked weak signals of familiarity based on spurious cues, to the extent that she would misattribute fame to faces that were unknown but to which she had been incidentally exposed on a prior occasion. Priming experiments also revealed that, unlike normal subjects, she made familiarity judgements without accessing semantic identity representations. Moreover, in face recognition tests, she generally showed bias in that she relied more on right-hemisphere strategies to identify global traits and less on left-hemisphere processes compared with healthy subjects. This case provides novel evidence for a differential contribution of the two hemispheres to face recognition. Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces might arise from an imbalance between reciprocal hemispheric functions in face recognition, with relative hypoactivation of left hemisphere processes but hyperactivation of right-hemisphere processes for retrieving stored associations about people, linking seen faces to representations of affective and personal relevance. Hence, abnormal bias in attributing some personal meaning to

  10. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study



    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca-Cola, Pepsi and 7-Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi-quantitat...

  11. Microbial Dark Matter Phase II: Stepping deeper into unknown territory

    Jarett, Jessica; Dunfield, Peter; Peura, Sari; Wielen, Paul van der; Hedlund, Brian; Elshahed, Mostafa; Kormas, Konstantinos; Stott, Andreas Teske8, Matt; Birkeland, Nils-Kare; Zhang, Chuanlun; Rengefors, Karin; Lindemann, Stephen; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Spear, John; Hallam, Steven; Crowe, Sean; Steele, Jillian; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex; Kyrpides, Nikos; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Woyke, Tanja


    Currently available microbial genomes are of limited phylogenetic breadth due to our historical inability to cultivate most microorganisms in the laboratory. The first phase of the Microbial Dark Matter project used single-cell genomics to sequence 201 single cells from uncultivated lineages, and was able to resolve new superphyla and reveal novel metabolic features in bacteria and archaea. However, many fundamental questions about the evolution and function of microbes remain unanswered, and many candidate phyla remain uncharacterized. Phase II of the Microbial Dark Matter project will target candidate phyla with no sequenced representatives at a variety of new sites using a combination of single-cell sequencing and shotgun metagenomics approaches.

  12. Modelling biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays: a hybrid semi-parametric approach

    Oliveira Rui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a method for modelling dynamical biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays. Since the fundamental mechanisms leading to such delays are many times unknown, non conventional modelling approaches become necessary. Herein, a hybrid semi-parametric identification methodology is proposed in which discrete time series are incorporated into fundamental material balance models. This integration results in hybrid delay differential equations which can be applied to identify unknown cellular dynamics. Results The proposed hybrid modelling methodology was evaluated using two case studies. The first of these deals with dynamic modelling of transcriptional factor A in mammalian cells. The protein transport from the cytosol to the nucleus introduced a delay that was accounted for by discrete time series formulation. The second case study focused on a simple network with distributed time delays that demonstrated that the discrete time delay formalism has broad applicability to both discrete and distributed delay problems. Conclusions Significantly better prediction qualities of the novel hybrid model were obtained when compared to dynamical structures without time delays, being the more distinctive the more significant the underlying system delay is. The identification of the system delays by studies of different discrete modelling delays was enabled by the proposed structure. Further, it was shown that the hybrid discrete delay methodology is not limited to discrete delay systems. The proposed method is a powerful tool to identify time delays in ill-defined biochemical networks.

  13. Analysis of the maximum likelihood channel estimator for OFDM systems in the presence of unknown interference

    Dermoune, Azzouz; Simon, Eric Pierre


    This paper is a theoretical analysis of the maximum likelihood (ML) channel estimator for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems in the presence of unknown interference. The following theoretical results are presented. Firstly, the uniqueness of the ML solution for practical applications, i.e., when thermal noise is present, is analytically demonstrated when the number of transmitted OFDM symbols is strictly greater than one. The ML solution is then derived from the iterative conditional ML (CML) algorithm. Secondly, it is shown that the channel estimate can be described as an algebraic function whose inputs are the initial value and the means and variances of the received samples. Thirdly, it is theoretically demonstrated that the channel estimator is not biased. The second and the third results are obtained by employing oblique projection theory. Furthermore, these results are confirmed by numerical results.

  14. A case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin

    Indira Madhavan


    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a potentially fatal hyper inflammatory condition, which occurs as either primary (genetic or secondary (acquired due to impaired or absent function of natural killer cells and cytotoxic cells. Common secondary causes include viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases, and hematological malignancies. Extensive phagocytosis of blood cells by histiocytes in bone marrow, spleen, liver and lymphnodes result in peripheral blood cytopenias, hepatosplenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy. We evaluated a case of pyrexia of unknown origin and found out that he fulfilled the criteria for diagnosing HLH. He was started on immunochemotherapy with etoposide, cyclosporine and steroids, but he succumbed to illness within 2 weeks of treatment. High index of suspicion is needed to diagnose HLH and prompt treatment on diagnosis can be lifesaving.

  15. Mapping of unknown industrial plant using ROS-based navigation mobile robot

    Priyandoko, G.; Ming, T. Y.; Achmad, M. S. H.


    This research examines how humans work with teleoperated unmanned mobile robot inspection in industrial plant area resulting 2D/3D map for further critical evaluation. This experiment focuses on two parts, the way human-robot doing remote interactions using robust method and the way robot perceives the environment surround as a 2D/3D perspective map. ROS (robot operating system) as a tool was utilized in the development and implementation during the research which comes up with robust data communication method in the form of messages and topics. RGBD SLAM performs the visual mapping function to construct 2D/3D map using Kinect sensor. The results showed that the mobile robot-based teleoperated system are successful to extend human perspective in term of remote surveillance in large area of industrial plant. It was concluded that the proposed work is robust solution for large mapping within an unknown construction building.

  16. Computational Approach to Annotating Variants of Unknown Significance in Clinical Next Generation Sequencing.

    Schulz, Wade L; Tormey, Christopher A; Torres, Richard


    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has become a common technology in the clinical laboratory, particularly for the analysis of malignant neoplasms. However, most mutations identified by NGS are variants of unknown clinical significance (VOUS). Although the approach to define these variants differs by institution, software algorithms that predict variant effect on protein function may be used. However, these algorithms commonly generate conflicting results, potentially adding uncertainty to interpretation. In this review, we examine several computational tools used to predict whether a variant has clinical significance. In addition to describing the role of these tools in clinical diagnostics, we assess their efficacy in analyzing known pathogenic and benign variants in hematologic malignancies. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  17. Neural-network-observer-based optimal control for unknown nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming

    Liu, Derong; Huang, Yuzhu; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai


    In this paper, an observer-based optimal control scheme is developed for unknown nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm. First, a neural-network (NN) observer is designed to estimate system states. Then, based on the observed states, a neuro-controller is constructed via ADP method to obtain the optimal control. In this design, two NN structures are used: a three-layer NN is used to construct the observer which can be applied to systems with higher degrees of nonlinearity and without a priori knowledge of system dynamics, and a critic NN is employed to approximate the value function. The optimal control law is computed using the critic NN and the observer NN. Uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. The actor, critic, and observer structures are all implemented in real-time, continuously and simultaneously. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  18. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the effect of ionizing radiations on the lung parenchyma

    Pasquier, Christian.


    Concerning the biochemical reactions of the lung parenchyma to irradiation the following points have been developed. Role of biochemically active substances (histamine, serotonin, kinins, catecholamines, prostaglandins) in the early reaction of the lung to irradiation, their common feature being their vascular impact point. Lung irradiation and lipids (fatty acids and lipid metabolism in general); irradiation, by raising the proportion of unsaturated at the expense of saturated fatty acids, may give rise to serious physiological respiratory disorders. Lung irradiation and blood fluidity (fibrinolytic activity, heparin, platelet factors). Pulmonary interstitium and irradiation (of the three interstitium components collagen plays a preferential part). Irradiation and immunological lung reaction (reasons behind the immunological theory, immunological assistance, immunological mechanism of pulmonary reactions towards pollutants). Enzymatic lung radiolesion indicators. Three kinds of physiological changes have been considered. Vascular physiology disturbances caused by the initial biochemical reactions; anomalies of physiological or functional trials, images of the lesion formed; disorders of the cell physiology of carcinogenesis [fr

  19. Dynamics of biochemical processes and redox conditions in geochemically linked landscapes of oligotrophic bogs

    Inisheva, L. I.; Szajdak, L.; Sergeeva, M. A.


    The biological activity in oligotrophic peatlands at the margins of the Vasyugan Mire has been studied. It is shown found that differently directed biochemical processes manifest themselves in the entire peat profile down to the underlying mineral substrate. Their activity is highly variable. It is argued that the notion about active and inert layers in peat soils is only applicable for the description of their water regime. The degree of the biochemical activity is specified by the physical soil properties. As a result of the biochemical processes, a micromosaic aerobic-anaerobic medium is developed under the surface waterlogged layer of peat deposits. This layer contains the gas phase, including oxygen. It is concluded that the organic and mineral parts of peat bogs represent a single functional system of a genetic peat profile with a clear record of the history of its development.

  20. Biochemical Stimulus-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    Chen, Mingxue; Guo, Weimin; Gao, Shunag; Hao, Chunxiang; Shen, Shi; Zhang, Zengzeng; Wang, Zhenyong; Wang, Zehao; Li, Xu; Jing, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xueliang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Wang, Mingjie; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Aiyuan; Wang, Yu; Sui, Xiang


    Meniscus injuries are very common and still pose a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon. Meniscus injuries in the inner two-thirds of the meniscus remain incurable. Tissue-engineered meniscus strategies seem to offer a new approach for treating meniscus injuries with a combination of seed cells, scaffolds, and biochemical or biomechanical stimulation. Cell- or scaffold-based strategies play a pivotal role in meniscus regeneration. Similarly, biochemical and biomechanical stimulation are also important. Seed cells and scaffolds can be used to construct a tissue-engineered tissue; however, stimulation to enhance tissue maturation and remodeling is still needed. Such stimulation can be biomechanical or biochemical, but this review focuses only on biochemical stimulation. Growth factors (GFs) are one of the most important forms of biochemical stimulation. Frequently used GFs always play a critical role in normal limb development and growth. Further understanding of the functional mechanism of GFs will help scientists to design the best therapy strategies. In this review, we summarize some of the most important GFs in tissue-engineered menisci, as well as other types of biological stimulation. PMID:29581987

  1. Integration of electrochemistry in micro-total analysis systems for biochemical assays: recent developments.

    Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Song; Chen, Hui; Kong, Jilie


    Micro-total analysis systems (microTAS) integrate different analytical operations like sample preparation, separation and detection into a single microfabricated device. With the outstanding advantages of low cost, satisfactory analytical efficiency and flexibility in design, highly integrated and miniaturized devices from the concept of microTAS have gained widespread applications, especially in biochemical assays. Electrochemistry is shown to be quite compatible with microanalytical systems for biochemical assays, because of its attractive merits such as simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, reduced power consumption, and sample/reagent economy. This review presents recent developments in the integration of electrochemistry in microdevices for biochemical assays. Ingenious microelectrode design and fabrication methods, and versatility of electrochemical techniques are involved. Practical applications of such integrated microsystem in biochemical assays are focused on in situ analysis, point-of-care testing and portable devices. Electrochemical techniques are apparently suited to microsystems, since easy microfabrication of electrochemical elements and a high degree of integration with multi-analytical functions can be achieved at low cost. Such integrated microsystems will play an increasingly important role for analysis of small volume biochemical samples. Work is in progress toward new microdevice design and applications.

  2. Joint estimation of the fractional differentiation orders and the unknown input for linear fractional non-commensurate system

    Belkhatir, Zehor


    This paper deals with the joint estimation of the unknown input and the fractional differentiation orders of a linear fractional order system. A two-stage algorithm combining the modulating functions with a first-order Newton method is applied to solve this estimation problem. First, the modulating functions approach is used to estimate the unknown input for a given fractional differentiation orders. Then, the method is combined with a first-order Newton technique to identify the fractional orders jointly with the input. To show the efficiency of the proposed method, numerical examples illustrating the estimation of the neural activity, considered as input of a fractional model of the neurovascular coupling, along with the fractional differentiation orders are presented in both noise-free and noisy cases.

  3. On the Adaptive Design Rules of Biochemical Networks in Evolution

    Bor-Sen Chen


    Full Text Available Biochemical networks are the backbones of physiological systems of organisms. Therefore, a biochemical network should be sufficiently robust (not sensitive to tolerate genetic mutations and environmental changes in the evolutionary process. In this study, based on the robustness and sensitivity criteria of biochemical networks, the adaptive design rules are developed for natural selection in the evolutionary process. This will provide insights into the robust adaptive mechanism of biochemical networks in the evolutionary process. We find that if a mutated biochemical network satisfies the robustness and sensitivity criteria of natural selection, there is a high probability for the biochemical network to prevail during natural selection in the evolutionary process. Since there are various mutated biochemical networks that can satisfy these criteria but have some differences in phenotype, the biochemical networks increase their diversities in the evolutionary process. The robustness of a biochemical network enables co-option so that new phenotypes can be generated in evolution. The proposed robust adaptive design rules of natural selection gain much insight into the evolutionary mechanism and provide a systematic robust biochemical circuit design method of biochemical networks for biotechnological and therapeutic purposes in the future.

  4. Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS: software for stochastic modeling of biochemical networks

    Elston Timothy C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrinsic fluctuations due to the stochastic nature of biochemical reactions can have large effects on the response of biochemical networks. This is particularly true for pathways that involve transcriptional regulation, where generally there are two copies of each gene and the number of messenger RNA (mRNA molecules can be small. Therefore, there is a need for computational tools for developing and investigating stochastic models of biochemical networks. Results We have developed the software package Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS for efficientlyand accurately simulating stochastic models of biochemical networks. BioNetS has a graphical user interface that allows models to be entered in a straightforward manner, and allows the user to specify the type of random variable (discrete or continuous for each chemical species in the network. The discrete variables are simulated using an efficient implementation of the Gillespie algorithm. For the continuous random variables, BioNetS constructs and numerically solvesthe appropriate chemical Langevin equations. The software package has been developed to scale efficiently with network size, thereby allowing large systems to be studied. BioNetS runs as a BioSpice agent and can be downloaded from BioNetS also can be run as a stand alone package. All the required files are accessible from Conclusions We have developed BioNetS to be a reliable tool for studying the stochastic dynamics of large biochemical networks. Important features of BioNetS are its ability to handle hybrid models that consist of both continuous and discrete random variables and its ability to model cell growth and division. We have verified the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by considering several test systems.

  5. Biochemical and Biophysical Cues in Matrix Design for Chronic and Diabetic Wound Treatment.

    Xiao, Yun; Ahadian, Samad; Radisic, Milica


    Progress in biomaterial science and engineering and increasing knowledge in cell biology have enabled us to develop functional biomaterials providing appropriate biochemical and biophysical cues for tissue regeneration applications. Tissue regeneration is particularly important to treat chronic wounds of people with diabetes. Understanding and controlling the cellular microenvironment of the wound tissue are important to improve the wound healing process. In this study, we review different biochemical (e.g., growth factors, peptides, DNA, and RNA) and biophysical (e.g., topographical guidance, pressure, electrical stimulation, and pulsed electromagnetic field) cues providing a functional and instructive acellular matrix to heal diabetic chronic wounds. The biochemical and biophysical signals generally regulate cell-matrix interactions and cell behavior and function inducing the tissue regeneration for chronic wounds. Some technologies and devices have already been developed and used in the clinic employing biochemical and biophysical cues for wound healing applications. These technologies can be integrated with smart biomaterials to deliver therapeutic agents to the wound tissue in a precise and controllable manner. This review provides useful guidance in understanding molecular mechanisms and signals in the healing of diabetic chronic wounds and in designing instructive biomaterials to treat them.

  6. Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination

    Zdeňka Svobodová


    Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.

  7. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.


    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  8. The biochemical womb of schizophrenia: A review.

    Gaur, N; Gautam, S; Gaur, M; Sharma, P; Dadheech, G; Mishra, S


    The conclusive identification of specific etiological factors or pathogenic processes in the illness of schizophrenia has remained elusive despite great technological progress. The convergence of state-of-art scientific studies in molecular genetics, molecular neuropathophysiology, in vivo brain imaging and psychopharmacology, however, indicates that we may be coming much closer to understanding the genesis of schizophrenia. In near future, the diagnosis and assessment of schizophrenia using biochemical markers may become a "dream come true" for the medical community as well as for the general population. An understanding of the biochemistry/ visa vis pathophysiology of schizophrenia is essential to the discovery of preventive measures and therapeutic intervention.

  9. Conservation Laws in Biochemical Reaction Networks

    Mahdi, Adam; Ferragut, Antoni; Valls, Claudia


    We study the existence of linear and nonlinear conservation laws in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. It is straightforward to compute the linear conservation laws as they are related to the left null-space of the stoichiometry matrix. The nonlinear conservation laws...... are difficult to identify and have rarely been considered in the context of mass-action reaction networks. Here, using the Darboux theory of integrability, we provide necessary structural (i.e., parameterindependent) conditions on a reaction network to guarantee the existence of nonlinear conservation laws...

  10. Lipoprotein (a) and biochemical parameters in elderly

    Yuttana Sudjaroen


    Background: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an low-density lipoprotein like particle and is an important independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases (CAD). Few studies on Lp(a) level in Thai elderly to screening risk of CAD may concerned. Aims: To study the relation of Lp(a) level and routine biochemical parameters including lipid profiles and fasting blood glucose in elderly and to determine risk of subclinical symptoms by using Lp(a) levels as early risk predictor. Settings and Design: ...

  11. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Kirsch, B.; Kotowski, H.; Teupel, D.


    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60 Co and to a lesser extent by 137 Cs, 182 Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  12. Polyphenol Oxidases in Crops: Biochemical, Physiological and Genetic Aspects

    Francesca Taranto


    Full Text Available Enzymatic browning is a colour reaction occurring in plants, including cereals, fruit and horticultural crops, due to oxidation during postharvest processing and storage. This has a negative impact on the colour, flavour, nutritional properties and shelf life of food products. Browning is usually caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs, following cell damage caused by senescence, wounding and the attack of pests and pathogens. Several studies indicated that PPOs play a role in plant immunity, and emerging evidence suggested that PPOs might also be involved in other physiological processes. Genomic investigations ultimately led to the isolation of PPO homologs in several crops, which will be possibly characterized at the functional level in the near future. Here, focusing on the botanic families of Poaceae and Solanaceae, we provide an overview on available scientific literature on PPOs, resulting in useful information on biochemical, physiological and genetic aspects.

  13. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian


    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...... define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis...

  14. Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist.

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert


    Synthesis of sugars from simple carbon sources is critical for survival of animals under limited nutrient availability. Thus, sugar-synthesizing enzymes should be present across the entire metazoan spectrum. Here, we explore the evolution of glucose and trehalose synthesis using a phylogenetic analysis of enzymes specific for the two pathways. Our analysis reveals that the production of trehalose is the more ancestral biochemical process, found in single cell organisms and primitive metazoans, but also in insects. The gluconeogenic-specific enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) first appears in Cnidaria, but is also present in Echinodermata, Mollusca and Vertebrata. Intriguingly, some species of nematodes and arthropods possess the genes for both pathways. Moreover, expression data from Drosophila suggests that G6Pase and, hence, gluconeogenesis, initially had a neuronal function. We speculate that in insects-and possibly in some vertebrates-gluconeogenesis may be used as a means of neuronal signaling.

  15. Complexity of generic biochemical circuits: topology versus strength of interactions

    Tikhonov, Mikhail; Bialek, William


    The historical focus on network topology as a determinant of biological function is still largely maintained today, illustrated by the rise of structure-only approaches to network analysis. However, biochemical circuits and genetic regulatory networks are defined both by their topology and by a multitude of continuously adjustable parameters, such as the strength of interactions between nodes, also recognized as important. Here we present a class of simple perceptron-based Boolean models within which comparing the relative importance of topology versus interaction strengths becomes a quantitatively well-posed problem. We quantify the intuition that for generic networks, optimization of interaction strengths is a crucial ingredient of achieving high complexity, defined here as the number of fixed points the network can accommodate. We propose a new methodology for characterizing the relative role of parameter optimization for topologies of a given class.

  16. Clinical and Biochemical Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Peroxisomal Disorders.

    Klouwer, Femke C C; Huffnagel, Irene C; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R; Wanders, Ronald J A; Engelen, Marc; Poll-The, Bwee Tien


    Peroxisomal disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic metabolic disorders, caused by a defect in peroxisome biogenesis or a deficiency of a single peroxisomal enzyme. The peroxisomal disorders include the Zellweger spectrum disorders, the rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata spectrum disorders, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and multiple single enzyme deficiencies. There are several core phenotypes caused by peroxisomal dysfunction that clinicians can recognize. The diagnosis is suggested by biochemical testing in blood and urine and confirmed by functional assays in cultured skin fibroblasts, followed by mutation analysis. This review describes the phenotype of the main peroxisomal disorders and possible pitfalls in (laboratory) diagnosis to aid clinicians in the recognition of this group of diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. γ-Glutamyltranspeptidases: sequence, structure, biochemical properties, and biotechnological applications.

    Castellano, Immacolata; Merlino, Antonello


    γ-Glutamyltranspeptidases (γ-GTs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of γ-glutamyl bonds in glutathione and glutamine and the transfer of the released γ-glutamyl group to amino acids or short peptides. These enzymes are involved in glutathione metabolism and play critical roles in antioxidant defense, detoxification, and inflammation processes. Moreover, γ-GTs have been recently found to be involved in many physiological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and diabetes. In this review, the main biochemical and structural properties of γ-GTs isolated from different sources, as well as their conformational stability and mechanism of catalysis, are described and examined with the aim of contributing to the discussion on their structure-function relationships. Possible applications of γ-glutamyltranspeptidases in different fields of biotechnology and medicine are also discussed.

  18. Structural and Biochemical Studies of LysM Proteins

    Wong, Mei Mei Jaslyn Elizabeth


    . Most of the signalling components in the Nod factor signalling pathway have been identified through genetic approaches. The current symbiosis signalling model, however, lacks components that could link Nod factor perception at the plasma membrane to downstream responses, such as calcium influx and perinuclear calcium...... involved in peptidoglycan hydrolysis; the Cell Wall Lytic enzyme associated with cell Separation (CwlS) from Bacillus subtilis, and P60_Tth from Thermus thermopiles. Biochemical studies conducted on purified CwlS showed that multiple LysM modules function cooperatively to bind N-acetylglucosamine (NAG......-induced intermolecular dimerization was observed in the co-crystal structure of P60_2LysM and NAG6. Until today, this is the only structural evidence illustrating intermolecular dimerization of LysM proteins. Intermolecular dimerization of plant LysM receptor kinases (RK) has been proposed as a mechanism...

  19. Impulsive synchronization of Markovian jumping randomly coupled neural networks with partly unknown transition probabilities via multiple integral approach.

    Chandrasekar, A; Rakkiyappan, R; Cao, Jinde


    This paper studies the impulsive synchronization of Markovian jumping randomly coupled neural networks with partly unknown transition probabilities via multiple integral approach. The array of neural networks are coupled in a random fashion which is governed by Bernoulli random variable. The aim of this paper is to obtain the synchronization criteria, which is suitable for both exactly known and partly unknown transition probabilities such that the coupled neural network is synchronized with mixed time-delay. The considered impulsive effects can be synchronized at partly unknown transition probabilities. Besides, a multiple integral approach is also proposed to strengthen the Markovian jumping randomly coupled neural networks with partly unknown transition probabilities. By making use of Kronecker product and some useful integral inequalities, a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional was designed for handling the coupled neural network with mixed delay and then impulsive synchronization criteria are solvable in a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Discovery of an All-Pervading Previously Unknown Longitudinal Wave

    Wagner, Orvin E.


    In 1988 a new species of longitudinal sound like wave was identified in this laboratory. These waves travel through (dark matter filled) vacuum as well as through ordinary matter. So far as is known these waves always appear as standing waves. The data suggest that they organize plants, organize structures in manipulated granular materials, organize planetary systems, and other structures of the universe. They are likely the basis for the beginnings of life and are closely associated with quantum waves. The repeating structures that they produce suggest that they are a basis for fractal structures. Their velocities appear to be a function of the medium as well as the timing of their sources since quantized velocities have been found. 12 years of data collected in this laboratory suggest that the waves are all pervading but they still interact with ordinary matter. These waves apparently provide for the stability of the solar system and probably the whole universe. They interact with gravity within plants, for example, to provide a basis for a plant's response to gravity. See the Wagner web site.

  1. Discovery of an Important Previously Unknown Longitudinal Wave.

    Wagner, Orvin


    In 1988 a new species of longitudinal sound like wave was identified in this laboratory. These waves travel through (dark matter filled) vacuum as well as through ordinary matter. So far as is known these waves always appear as standing waves. The data suggest that they organize plants, organize structures in manipulated granular materials, organize planetary systems, and other structures of the universe. They are likely the basis for the beginnings of life and are closely associated with quantum waves. The repeating structures that they produce suggest that they are a basis for fractal structures. Their velocities appear to be a function of the medium as well as the timing of their sources since quantized velocities have been found. 12 years of data collected in this laboratory suggest that the waves are all pervading but they still interact with ordinary matter. These waves apparently provide for the stability of the solar system and probably the whole universe. They interact with gravity within plants, for example, to provide a basis for a plant's response to gravity. See the Wagner web site.

  2. The great unknown seven journeys to the frontiers of science

    Du Sautoy, Marcus


    Ever since the dawn of civilization we have been driven by a desire to know—to understand the physical world and the laws of nature. The idea that there might be a limit to human knowledge has inspired and challenged scientists and functioned as a spur to innovation. Now, in this dazzling journey through seven great breakthroughs in our understanding of the world, Marcus du Sautoy invites us to consider the outer reaches of human understanding. Are some things beyond the predictive powers of science? Or are those thorny challenges our next breakthroughs? In 1900, Lord Kelvin—who gave the world telegraph cables and the Second Law of Thermodynamics—pronounced that there was “nothing new to be discovered in physics now.” Then came Einstein. Du Sautoy reminds us that again and again major breakthroughs were ridiculed and dismissed at the time of their discovery. He takes us into the minds of the greats and reveals the fraught circumstances of their discoveries. And he carries us on a whirlwind tour of ...

  3. Functional dyspepsia

    Kleibeuker, JH; Thijs, JC


    Purpose of review Functional dyspepsia is a common disorder, most of the time of unknown etiology and with variable pathophysiology. Therapy has been and still is largely empirical. Data from recent studies provide new clues for targeted therapy based on knowledge of etiology and pathophysiologic

  4. [Biochemical principles of early saturnism recognition].

    Tsimakuridze, M P; Mansuradze, E A; Zurashvili, D G; Tsimakuridze, M P


    The aim of the work is to determine the major sensitive criteria of biochemical indicators that allow timely discovery of negative influence of lead on organism and assist in early diagnosis of primary stages of saturnism. The workers of Georgian typographies, performing technological processes of letterpress printing were observed. Professional groups having contact with lead aerosols (main group of 66 people) and the workers of the same typography not being in touch with the poison (control group of 24 people) were studied. It was distinguished that, protracted professional contact with lead causes moderate increase of lead, coproporphyrin and DALA in daily urine in most cases; it is more clearly evidenced in the professional groups of lead smelters and lino operators and less clearly among typesetter and printers. Upon the checkup of people, having a direct contact with lead, biochemical analysis of urine should be given a preference, especially the determination of quantitative content of lead and coproporphyrin in urine with the aim of revealing the lead carrier, which is one of the first signals for occupational lookout and medical monitoring of the similar contingent.

  5. Identifying optimal models to represent biochemical systems.

    Mochamad Apri

    Full Text Available Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an "optimal" reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model.

  6. Biochemical Manifestation of HIV Lipodystrophy Syndrome.

    Ihenetu, Kenneth; Mason, Darius


    Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), including protease inhibitors (PI) have led to dramatic improvements in the quality and quantity of life in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a significant number of AIDS patients on HAART develop characteristic changes in body fat redistribution referred to as lipodystrophy syndrome (LDS). Features of LDS include hypertrophy in the neck fat pad (buffalo hump), increased fat in the abdominal region (protease paunch), gynecomastia and loss of fat in the mid-face and extremities. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding this syndrome. This article reviews the published investigations on biochemical manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome. It is estimated that approximately 64% of patients treated with PI will experience this syndrome. Biochemically, these patients have increased triglycerides (Trig), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and extremely low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). It is hoped that awareness of this syndrome would aid in early diagnosis and better patient management, possibly leading to a lower incidence of cardiovascular complications among these patients.

  7. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Kaneshiro E.S.


    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  8. Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: Biochemical and genetic diagnosis.

    Cano Megías, Marta; Rodriguez Puyol, Diego; Fernández Rodríguez, Loreto; Sención Martinez, Gloria Lisette; Martínez Miguel, Patricia

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are tumours derived from neural crest cells, which can be diagnosed by biochemical measurement of metanephrine and methoxytyramine. Advances in genetic research have identified many genes involved in the pathogenesis of these tumours, suggesting that up to 35-45% may have an underlying germline mutation. These genes have a singular transcriptional signature and can be grouped into 2 clusters (or groups): cluster 1 (VHL and SHDx), involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia pathways; and cluster 2 (MEN2 and NF1), linked to the kinase signalling pathway. In turn, these genes are associated with a characteristic biochemical phenotype (noradrenergic and adrenergic), and clinical features (location, biological behaviour, age of presentation, etc.) in a large number of cases. Early diagnosis of these tumours, accompanied by a correct genetic diagnosis, should eventually become a priority to enable better treatment, early detection of complications, proper screening of family members and related tumours, as well as an improvement in the overall prognosis of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic and biochemical evidence that haploinsufficiency of the Nf1 tumor suppressor gene modulates melanocyte and mast cell fates in vivo.

    Ingram, D A; Yang, F C; Travers, J B; Wenning, M J; Hiatt, K; New, S; Hood, A; Shannon, K; Williams, D A; Clapp, D W


    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutaneous neurofibromas infiltrated with large numbers of mast cells, melanocyte hyperplasia, and a predisposition to develop malignant neoplasms. NF1 encodes a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Ras. Consistent with Knudson's "two hit" model of tumor suppressor genes, leukemias and malignant solid tumors in NF1 patients frequently demonstrate somatic loss of the normal NF1 allele. However, the phenotypic and biochemical consequences of heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 are largely unknown. Recently neurofibromin, the protein encoded by NF1, was shown to negatively regulate Ras activity in Nf1-/- murine myeloid hematopoietic cells in vitro through the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase (dominant white spotting, W). Since the W and Nf1 locus appear to function along a common developmental pathway, we generated mice with mutations at both loci to examine potential interactions in vivo. Here, we show that haploinsufficiency at Nf1 perturbs cell fates in mast cells in vivo, and partially rescues coat color and mast cell defects in W(41) mice. Haploinsufficiency at Nf1 also increased mast cell proliferation, survival, and colony formation in response to Steel factor, the ligand for c-kit. Furthermore, haploinsufficiency was associated with enhanced Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, a major downstream effector of Ras, via wild-type and mutant (W(41)) c-kit receptors. These observations identify a novel interaction between c-kit and neurofibromin in vivo, and offer experimental evidence that haploinsufficiency of Nf1 alters both cellular and biochemical phenotypes in two cell lineages that are affected in individuals with NF1. Collectively, these data support the emerging concept that heterozygous inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may have profound biological effects in multiple cell types.

  10. Intravenous thrombolysis in ischemic stroke with unknown onset using CT perfusion.

    Cortijo, E; García-Bermejo, P; Calleja, A I; Pérez-Fernández, S; Gómez, R; del Monte, J M; Reyes, J; Arenillas, J F


    Acute ischemic stroke patients with unclear onset time presenting >4.5 h from last-seen-normal (LSN) time are considered late patients and excluded from i.v. thrombolysis. We aimed to evaluate whether this subgroup of patients is different from patients presenting >4.5 h from a witnessed onset, in terms of eligibility and response to computed tomography perfusion (CTP)-guided i.v. thrombolysis. We prospectively studied consecutive acute non-lacunar middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke patients presenting >4.5 h from LSN. All patients underwent multimodal CT and were considered eligible for i.v. thrombolysis according to CTP criteria. Two patient groups were established based on the knowledge of the stroke onset time. We compared the proportion of candidates suitable for intravenous thrombolysis between both groups, and their outcome after thrombolytic therapy. Among 147 MCA ischemic stroke patients presenting >4.5 h from LSN, stroke onset was witnessed in 74 and unknown in 73. Thirty-seven (50%) patients in the first group and 32 (44%) in the second met CTP criteria for thrombolysis (P = 0.7). Baseline variables were comparable between both groups with the exception of age, which was higher in the unclear onset group. The rates of early neurological improvement (54.1% vs 46.9%), 2-h MCA recanalization (43.5% vs 37%), symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation (3% vs 0%) and good 3-month functional outcome (62.2% vs 56.3%) did not differ significantly between both groups. Delayed stroke patients with unknown onset time were no different than patients >4.5 h regarding eligibility and response to CTP-based i.v. thrombolysis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cystatin C: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo


    Full Text Available The livestock sector contributes largely to the economy of India. Different systemic diseases like renal diseases, neurological and cardiovascular diseases cause huge loss in production and productive potential of livestock in India, which is considered as a major concern for both small and large ruminants. Early detection of diseseses is essential to combat the economic loss. An efficient biochemical marker can be developed which would provide more specific, sensitive and reliable measurement of functions of different organs. Determination of endogenous marker Cystatin C may fulfill the above need which can provide a detection platform not only for Kidney function but also for assaying other organs' function. Cystatin C is a low molecular weight protein which is removed from the bloodstream by glomerular filtration in the kidneys. Thus, it may act as a potential biological tool in diagnosis of renal and other systemic diseases in livestock. This mini-review focuses on the Cystatin C and its clinical importance which can be extensively employed in the livestock sector. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 200-205

  12. Discrete-time online learning control for a class of unknown nonaffine nonlinear systems using reinforcement learning.

    Yang, Xiong; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai


    In this paper, a reinforcement-learning-based direct adaptive control is developed to deliver a desired tracking performance for a class of discrete-time (DT) nonlinear systems with unknown bounded disturbances. We investigate multi-input-multi-output unknown nonaffine nonlinear DT systems and employ two neural networks (NNs). By using Implicit Function Theorem, an action NN is used to generate the control signal and it is also designed to cancel the nonlinearity of unknown DT systems, for purpose of utilizing feedback linearization methods. On the other hand, a critic NN is applied to estimate the cost function, which satisfies the recursive equations derived from heuristic dynamic programming. The weights of both the action NN and the critic NN are directly updated online instead of offline training. By utilizing Lyapunov's direct method, the closed-loop tracking errors and the NN estimated weights are demonstrated to be uniformly ultimately bounded. Two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the present approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Some Unknown Pages of the Living Organisms' First Orbital Flight

    Malashenkov, D. C.


    The successful creation of ballistic rockets in USSR has allowed at the end of 1953 to make a real task of delivery of a payload into the Earth's orbit. In March 1954 during the meeting in the Academy of Sciences of USSR, the basic research problems conducted by means of artificial satellites of the Earth were determined. In May, 1954 S. Korolev has sent to Government of the USSR the report with the offer of creation the space satellites on the basis of intercontinental ballistic rocket -7 developed by him. It was the first time when the idea about possibility of interplanetary flights was stated in the official document. In August 1954 Council of Ministers of the USSR had ratified the submitted offers and have entrusted to work over scientific and theoretical problems of space flight. In the beginning of 1956 the Korolev's United Design Bureau was officially entrusted the creation and launch of undirected research satellite named "Object D" weighing 1.000-1.400 kg in 1957-1958. The main scientific management and development of scientific equipment was assigned to a commission of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the direction of . Keldysh. The measurement of parameters of the atmosphere, corpuscular radiation of the Sun, magnetic fields, space radiation etc. was planned during the "Object D" flight. The successful performance in the middle of 1956 of the second series of launches of geophysical rockets has allowed to gain a large volume of the information about parameters of physiological functions and behavior of animals in conditions of flight. For enlargement of these works the laboratory of V. Yazdovsky in the Institute of aviation medicine was extended to a department, the large group of the new employees, including V. Antipov, . Baevsky, I. Balakhovsky, B. Buylov, . Genin, O. Gazenko, A. Gurdjian, I. Kasyan, A. Kotovskaya, E..Yuganov, . Shepelev and others came to the department. But, owing to the delay of development of the scientific equipment for

  14. Chaotic system optimal tracking using data-based synchronous method with unknown dynamics and disturbances

    Song Ruizhuo; Wei Qinglai


    We develop an optimal tracking control method for chaotic system with unknown dynamics and disturbances. The method allows the optimal cost function and the corresponding tracking control to update synchronously. According to the tracking error and the reference dynamics, the augmented system is constructed. Then the optimal tracking control problem is defined. The policy iteration (PI) is introduced to solve the min-max optimization problem. The off-policy adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm is then proposed to find the solution of the tracking Hamilton–Jacobi–Isaacs (HJI) equation online only using measured data and without any knowledge about the system dynamics. Critic neural network (CNN), action neural network (ANN), and disturbance neural network (DNN) are used to approximate the cost function, control, and disturbance. The weights of these networks compose the augmented weight matrix, and the uniformly ultimately bounded (UUB) of which is proven. The convergence of the tracking error system is also proven. Two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronous solution method for the chaotic system tracking problem. (paper)

  15. Distributed Optimal Consensus Control for Nonlinear Multiagent System With Unknown Dynamic.

    Zhang, Jilie; Zhang, Huaguang; Feng, Tao


    This paper focuses on the distributed optimal cooperative control for continuous-time nonlinear multiagent systems (MASs) with completely unknown dynamics via adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) technology. By introducing predesigned extra compensators, the augmented neighborhood error systems are derived, which successfully circumvents the system knowledge requirement for ADP. It is revealed that the optimal consensus protocols actually work as the solutions of the MAS differential game. Policy iteration algorithm is adopted, and it is theoretically proved that the iterative value function sequence strictly converges to the solution of the coupled Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Based on this point, a novel online iterative scheme is proposed, which runs based on the data sampled from the augmented system and the gradient of the value function. Neural networks are employed to implement the algorithm and the weights are updated, in the least-square sense, to the ideal value, which yields approximated optimal consensus protocols. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  16. Direct Position Determination of Unknown Signals in the Presence of Multipath Propagation.

    Du, Jianping; Wang, Ding; Yu, Wanting; Yu, Hongyi


    A novel geolocation architecture, termed "Multiple Transponders and Multiple Receivers for Multiple Emitters Positioning System (MTRE)" is proposed in this paper. Existing Direct Position Determination (DPD) methods take advantage of a rather simple channel assumption (line of sight channels with complex path attenuations) and a simplified MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm cost function to avoid the high dimension searching. We point out that the simplified assumption and cost function reduce the positioning accuracy because of the singularity of the array manifold in a multi-path environment. We present a DPD model for unknown signals in the presence of Multi-path Propagation (MP-DPD) in this paper. MP-DPD adds non-negative real path attenuation constraints to avoid the mistake caused by the singularity of the array manifold. The Multi-path Propagation MUSIC (MP-MUSIC) method and the Active Set Algorithm (ASA) are designed to reduce the dimension of searching. A Multi-path Propagation Maximum Likelihood (MP-ML) method is proposed in addition to overcome the limitation of MP-MUSIC in the sense of a time-sensitive application. An iterative algorithm and an approach of initial value setting are given to make the MP-ML time consumption acceptable. Numerical results validate the performances improvement of MP-MUSIC and MP-ML. A closed form of the Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) is derived as a benchmark to evaluate the performances of MP-MUSIC and MP-ML.

  17. BioNessie - a grid enabled biochemical networks simulation environment

    Liu, X.; Jiang, J.; Ajayi, O.; Gu, X.; Gilbert, D.; Sinnott, R.O.


    The simulation of biochemical networks provides insight and understanding about the underlying biochemical processes and pathways used by cells and organisms. BioNessie is a biochemical network simulator which has been developed at the University of Glasgow. This paper describes the simulator and focuses in particular on how it has been extended to benefit from a wide variety of high performance compute resources across the UK through Grid technologies to support larger scale simulations.

  18. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Eric Almeida Xavier


    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  19. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten


    techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...... canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...

  20. Biochemical and genetic improvement of Zymomonas mobilis

    Ingram, L O; Carey, V C; Dombek, K M; Holt, A S; Holt, W A; Osman, Y A; Walia, S K


    Zymomonas mobilis offers many advantages for alcohol production including three- to five-fold higher rates of substrate conversion. Current progress and approaches are discussed for the biochemical and genetic improvement of this organism. These include the isolation of salt-resistant mutants and low pH-tolerant mutants. Gene banks of Lactobacillus heterohiochi are being screened for genes encoding alcohol resistance which can be subsequently introduced into Zymomonas mobilis. In addition, an enteric lactose operon has been inserted into Zymomonas mobilis and is expressed. These new strains are being further modified to increase the substrate range of Zymomonas mobilis to include lactose. This lactose operon serves as a model system to investigate the expression of foreign genes in Zymomonas mobilis. 25 references.