Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaik, Shaffi A.
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones....
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Al Mahyijari, Nawal; Shaik, Shaik A
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones. Seventy-five percent used at least 4 applications per day, primarily for social networking and watching news. As a consequence of using the smartphones, at least 43% had decrease sleeping hours, and experienced a lack of energy the next day, 30% had a more unhealthy lifestyle (ate more fast food, gained weight, and exercised less), and 25% reported that their academic achievement been adversely affected. There are statistically significant positive relationships among the 4 study variables, consequences of smartphone use (negative lifestyle, poor academic achievement), number of hours per day spent using smartphones, years of study, and number of applications used, and the outcome variable score on the PUMP. The mean values of the PUMP scale were 60.8 with a median of 60. University students in Saudi Arabia are at risk of addiction to smartphones; a phenomenon that is associated with negative effects on sleep, levels of energy, eating habits, weight, exercise, and academic performance.
Ikonen, Anne Leena; Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard
(from SDU to Princess Nourah University - PNU) in Bachelor level education in 2013-17. The SDU BSc in Public Health curriculum was adjusted into a BSc in Health Education and Promotion and BSc in Epidemiology Programmes to fit into the Saudi context and culture and education needs. Training the PNU......Abstract title: Training of trainers in active learning methods at the Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Students’ learning outcome of teaching activity/course presented: University of Southern Denmark (SDU) conducted a cross-cultural knowledge transfer project...
Al-Turki, Yousef A.; Al-Fraih, Yasser S.; Jalalay, Jalal B.; Al-Maghlouth, Ibrahim A.; Al-Rashoudi, Fahad H.; Al-Otaibi, Azzam F.; Al-Thnayan, Anas A.; Trabzoni, Abdulmohsin I.; Al-Shaykh, Abdulaziz S.
Objective was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among the students of King Saud University. This study was a cross sectional survey among King Saud University students, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which took place on December 17-20, 2006. The data was collected from self-administered questionnaires prepared in Arabic. The questionnaires were distributed to all 15 colleges of the university. Out of a study sample of 2250 students, 31% did not have prior CPR information. Of those with previous knowledge, 85% feel that it is inadequate. The most common sources of information were television and movies. The 12.7% of individuals encountered a situation that required the use of CPR. However, 14% of them performed it. This was mostly due to lack of knowledge (42.8%). Eighty-eight percent of students would like to learn how to perform CPR. Out of all King Saud University students, 45% believe that CPR training should be a graduation requirement. It was found that overall attitude towards CPR was positive. However, the knowledge on the topic was insufficient. Thus, more focus should be placed on the improvement of CPR skills. In addition, more studies are needed to assess knowledge and attitudes towards CPR in the community. (author)
Khraif, Rshood; Abdul Salam, Asharaf; Al-Mutairi, Abdullah; Elsegaey, Ibrahim
Fertility levels and their determinants in Saudi Arabia have not been studied sufficiently for formulating family policy, although some attention has been paid to rapid fertility transitions in the context of socioeconomic and cultural change. This study focused on the fertility of a particular occupational category in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess determinants of fertility, measured as the number of children. The sample was drawn from the King Saud University staff - ever-married Saudi Arabian women. Results found that proximate factors (age, age at first marriage, intended number of children, length of marriage and contraceptive use) were significant in predicting fertility behaviour, whereas geographic, social and economic factors were insignificant. Thus, the fertility behaviour of this occupational group seems unique. This might be due to the special characteristics and lifestyle of this particular occupational group. The effect of the intended number of children on the actual number signified the fertility behaviour of this group of women. This, expectedly, should improve the influence of social and economic factors on fertility behaviour, in the future. Thus, advocates, policies and programmes (population and public health) at the societal and familial levels, should consider the demographic change in the social and economic context.
Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA is an Islamic monarchy and was established in 1932. Saudi women first entered the medical field in 1975 and the country has since seen a steady increase in women pursuing medicine. However, there is limited data on gender related issues for women doctors practicing in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, our study objective was to assess the perception amongst peers regarding gender equality and social issues faced by women doctors in Saudi Arabia. An online anonymous cross-sectional survey was administered in English to doctors at King Khalid Hospital, affiliated to King Saud University, in Riyadh, between April and May of 2016. Of 1015 doctors, 304 (30% participated, of which 129 (42.4% were females and 231 (76% were Saudi nationals. The average age was 32.4 years (±SD: 8.7. The majority opined that there was no gender discrimination in salaries (73.7% p-value = 0.4, hospital benefits (62.2% p-value = 0.06 or entry into any field of Medicine/Pediatrics (68.4% p-value = 0.207. However, only a minority believed that there was no gender discrimination for entry into surgery (37.3% p-value = .091. A higher proportion of male doctors agreed that promotion opportunities are equal (66.3% vs 45.7%, p-value = 0.002. However, of 54 consultants, only 18 (33.3% were women. Over half of the women (52.3% reported that they never wear the face veil. Only a minority of male and female doctors (12.2% believed women doctors should wear the veil since they examine male patients. Fewer respondents believed that female doctors face harassment from male doctors (14.5% whereas 30.7% believed female doctors face harassment from male patients. More females, than males, agreed with the statement that female doctors are as committed to their careers as are males (92.2% vs 67.4%, p-value<0.0001. Of 304 participants, 210 (69.1% said that they would still choose to become a doctor with approximately equal proportions between males and females (68% vs
Baqi, Shehla; Albalbeesi, Amal; Iftikhar, Sundus; Baig-Ansari, Naila; Alanazi, Mohammad; Alanazi, Awadh
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is an Islamic monarchy and was established in 1932. Saudi women first entered the medical field in 1975 and the country has since seen a steady increase in women pursuing medicine. However, there is limited data on gender related issues for women doctors practicing in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, our study objective was to assess the perception amongst peers regarding gender equality and social issues faced by women doctors in Saudi Arabia. An online anonymous cross-sectional survey was administered in English to doctors at King Khalid Hospital, affiliated to King Saud University, in Riyadh, between April and May of 2016. Of 1015 doctors, 304 (30%) participated, of which 129 (42.4%) were females and 231 (76%) were Saudi nationals. The average age was 32.4 years (±SD: 8.7). The majority opined that there was no gender discrimination in salaries (73.7% p-value = 0.4), hospital benefits (62.2% p-value = 0.06) or entry into any field of Medicine/Pediatrics (68.4% p-value = 0.207). However, only a minority believed that there was no gender discrimination for entry into surgery (37.3% p-value = .091). A higher proportion of male doctors agreed that promotion opportunities are equal (66.3% vs 45.7%, p-value = 0.002). However, of 54 consultants, only 18 (33.3%) were women. Over half of the women (52.3%) reported that they never wear the face veil. Only a minority of male and female doctors (12.2%) believed women doctors should wear the veil since they examine male patients. Fewer respondents believed that female doctors face harassment from male doctors (14.5%) whereas 30.7% believed female doctors face harassment from male patients. More females, than males, agreed with the statement that female doctors are as committed to their careers as are males (92.2% vs 67.4%, p-valueequal proportions between males and females (68% vs 70.5%, p-value = 0.79). In conclusion, our survey of male and female doctors at a government university hospital in
Abu-Mostafa, Nedal A; Al-Mejlad, Najmah J; Al-Yami, Amal S; Al-Sakhin, Fatimah Z; Al-Mudhi, Shahad A
Inappropriate use of antibiotics may lead to adverse side effects. This cross-sectional survey aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitude of female non-medical students regarding the medical and dental use of antibiotics. Four hundred validated self-administered questionnaires were distributed in Princess Norah Bint-Abdurrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire included questions about accessibility, attitude toward usage, efficacy, side effects, resistance, and usage for dental issues. Knowledge was estimated for every respondent by counting the correct answers, which were considered as points. The scores were categorized as poor, moderate, and high. Of the respondents, 77.8% answered they get antibiotics according to a doctor's prescription; however, 31% stops taking antibiotics when they feel well. Only 38.8% of respondents knew that antibiotics may cause allergic reactions while 59.8% believed the human body can be resistant to antibiotics. The percentages of answers related to dental issues were: antibiotics relieve dental pain (68.8%), antibiotics can be harmful for children's teeth (27.3%), antibiotics are best avoided in pregnancy (56.7%) and no need for antibiotics after scaling (33.8%), root canal treatment (16%), or simple extraction (40.3%). Of respondents, 68% had poor scores about antibiotics efficacy, side effects, and resistance while 86.8% had poor scores related to dental problems. This study noticed a bad attitude related to antibiotics usage, with many misconceptions and poor knowledge. Moreover, the necessity of antibiotics for treatment of dental disease or after dental procedures was totally unclear for the respondents. Community campaigns are recommended every university semester to educate students about the indications, efficacy, and side effects of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hamadah, Reem; Kharraz, Razan; Alshanqity, Airabab; AlFawaz, Danah; Eshaq, Abdulaziz M; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed
Little is known about the clerkship (clinical) medical students' knowledge of hand hygiene as the single most important precautionary measure to reduce nosocomial healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study is to explore the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, hand hygiene practices among fourth-year clerkship medical students at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional, paper-based, Yes/No formatted questionnaire was administered to explore the students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, hand hygiene practices. Data were decoded in Microsoft Excel sheet and presented as numbers and percentages. One hundred and eleven students (n=111/147) participated in the questionnaire (response rate: 76%). Although the majority of students had a fair knowledge of hand hygiene practices, a number of them had some misconceptions. Only 14% of students correctly agreed to the statement: "Traditional hand washing (water, plus regular soap) decreases the number of germs." Furthermore, only 32% of students correctly answered that "hand washing with a regular soap, instead of an antiseptic soap, is better in limiting the transmission of clostridium difficile infections". Almost all students (93%) agreed to the importance of hand hygiene education in medical curricula and its awareness in healthcare centers. Despite the importance of hand hygiene, only 13% of students reviewed the respective WHO and CDC guidelines before starting their clinical training in the teaching hospital. The students' inadequate knowledge about hand hygiene needs to be enriched by well-structured curricular and extra-curricular programs as well as more positive attitudes by healthcare workers.
This study investigates the level of existence of organized retail crime in supermarkets of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The store managers, security managers and general employees were asked about the types of retail crimes occur in the stores. Three independent variables were related to the report of organized retail theft. The independent variables are: 1) the supermarket profile (volume, location, standard and type of the store), 2) the social physical environment of the store (maintenance, clea...
Ibrahim Al Alwan
Full Text Available Background The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods Cross-sectional study among male school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2006, 542 schoolboys, aged 6 to 16 years old, from diverse socioeconomic levels were selected into the sample using a cluster sample design. Tanner stages were ascertained during physical examination by pediatric endocrine consultants, and also trained pediatric residents and fellows. Results The mean age (standard deviation at Tanner Stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 for pubic hair development of Saudi boys was 11.4 (1.6, 13.3 (1.3, 14.4 (1.0 and 15.1 (0.8 years old, respectively. For gonadal development, the mean age (standard deviation at stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.4 (1.5, 13.3 (1.2, 14.3 (1.1 and 15.0 (0.9 years old, respectively. Conclusion The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics, based on gonadal development, among Saudi boys are comparable to those reported in Western populations.
Full Text Available Aims To determine whether there is an effect of healthy behaviours (diet, physical activity, sleep pattern and coping with stress strategies on academic performance among King Saud University (KSU female students who study in different academic fields. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 14342 female students aged from 18-25 from different colleges fields, these colleges are Medical Colleges, Sciences Colleges and Humanities Colleges. We distributed the questionnaires through the students’ official emails and only 310 students who completed them. Results The study results show, there was a very weak, positive monotonic correlation between GPA and family income (rs=0.105, n=310, p>0.001 while, there was a very weak, negative monotonic correlation between GPA and the number of family members, marital status, and with whom they live (p<0.001. Regarding the health behaviours; Physical activity seems to be related to academic performance among students of sciences colleges (X2 =174.34, and p<0.001 while, sleep pattern and stress are related to academic performance for medical students, (X2 =297.470, X2 =120.7 respectively and p<0.001. Conclusion The medical students are the most affected group by the health behaviours where sleep pattern and cope with stress are found to be the most health behaviours affecting their academic performance.
Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Aleissa, Khalid A.
The influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia survey was carried out for 786 dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm ® Electret ion chamber. Radon levels ranged from 1 to 195 Bq m −3 , with a mean value of 24.68 Bq m −3 , the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation are 21 and 2 respectively. 98.5% of the results were below the action level recommended by WHO of 100 Bq.m −3 . The results were found to vary substantially due to types of houses and rooms, ventilation, seasons and building materials. Radon concentrations were higher in houses with no ventilation systems, and central air conditioners, and were relatively lower in well ventilated houses with red bricks and water air conditioners. - Highlights: • Limited information about indoor radon in Riyadh. • Several factors influence Radon level were investigated in 786 dwellings in Riyadh over one year. • Some results are over the action level and are advised to improve their ventilation systems
Hatim O. Sharif
Full Text Available Riyadh, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has experienced unusual levels of urbanization in the past few decades, making it one of the fastest growing cities in the world. This paper examines flood hazards in the rapidly urbanizing catchment of Al-Aysen in Riyadh. Remote sensing and geographic information system techniques were employed to obtain and prepare input data for hydrologic and hydraulic models, with the former based on the very popular curve number approach. Due to the limited nature of the rainfall data, observations from two rain gauges in the vicinity of the catchment were used to estimate design storms. The hydrologic model was run in a semi-distributed mode by dividing the catchment into many sub-catchments. The impact of urbanization on run-off volume and peak discharge resulting from different storms was investigated, with various urbanization scenarios simulated. Flood hazard zones and affected streets were also identified through hydrologic/hydraulic model simulation. The mismatch between administrative and catchment boundaries can create problems in flood risk management for similar cities since hydrologic processes and flood hazards are based on the hydrologic connectivity. Since flooding events impact the road network and create driving hazards, governmental decision-makers must take the necessary precautions to protect drivers in these situations.
Sarah Abdullah AlSalman
Full Text Available Context: Choosing a future speciality for medical students can be frightening as well as confusing. Identifying factors that influence medical students' future career choice is critical and can play an important role in shaping the future workforce. Aims: The study aims to determine factors associated with medical students' preference of Ophthalmology as a future career choice at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out among Saudi students of both genders who were enrolled in KSAU-HS (clinical phase during the study. Subjects and Methods: A validated questionnaire was sent through E-mail to 302 eligible students, of which 275 participated, with a response rate of (91%. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis was carried out for all categorical variables. In addition, data were compared using Chi-square test; all tests were two-sided and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 28 students (10.2% considered Ophthalmology as their first choice, while it was the second choice for four students (1.5%. Among all the participants, factors that attracted medical students to consider Ophthalmology as a career choice included the high income (54%, private sector opportunities (40%, part-time opportunities (40% and leisure (34%. Whereas, the difficulty of getting into the Ophthalmology Residency Programme (53% was the most important factor that pushed students away from choosing Ophthalmology. Conclusions: Multiple factors influenced the KSAU-HS medical students' choice of when choosing a future speciality. Knowing these factors can help in directing work-force to choose specialities that are currently limited in Saudi Arabia.
Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.
The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…
Al Saud, Al Johara Fahad
Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that encounter the issue of bilingualism due to the spread of private schools that offer programs in different languages. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of bilingualism on the creative capabilities (Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, Details) of kindergarten children in Riyadh. It aims at…
Salih, Mustafa A M; Murshid, Waleed R; Mohamed, Ashry Gad; Ignacio, Lena C; de Jesus, Julie E; Baabbad, Rubana; El Bushra, Hassan M
Both genetic and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in the etiology of neural tube defects (NTD) which affect 0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for the development of NTD in Saudi population, and highlight identifiable and preventable causes. Similar studies are scarce in similar populations ofthe Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. This is an unmatched concurrent case-control study including NTD cases born at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh during a 4-year period (2002-2006). The case-control study included 25 cases and 125 controls (case: control ratio of 1:5). Years of formal education, employment, household environment (including availability of air conditioning) and rate of parental consanguinity did not differ between mothers of cases and controls. Significantly higher proportion of mothers of cases had history of stillbirth compared to control mothers (16% vs 4.1%, P=0.02). Also family history of hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies were more prevalent in cases than controls (P values=0.0000 and 0.003, respectively). There was significant protective effect of periconceptional folic acid consumption both prior to conception (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.07) and during the first 6 weeks of conception (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). Further research, including a larger cohort, is required to enable ascertainment of gene-nutrient and gene environment interactions associated with NTD in Saudi Arabia.
Conclusion: Nail-biting habit was highly prevalent among preschool children in Riyadh, followed by mouth breathing, thumb sucking, and teeth clenching. Malocclusion was the main factor related to the habits of thumb sucking and pacifier sucking. Respiratory and tonsils problems were related to mouth breathing. Teeth clenching was highly related to the presence of carious teeth.
Alquaiz, ALJohara M; Almuneef, Maha; Kazi, Ambreen; Almeneessier, Aljohara
Intimate partner violence is a worldwide public health problem. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence and types of domestic violence, and to explore the association between social determinants (sociodemographic factors, husband-related factors, and social support) and violence against women by their intimate partner (husband). We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 randomly selected primary health care centers and 13 private institutions (teaching institutes, government offices, social welfare organizations) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Female data collectors took interview from 1,883 married Saudi females aged 30 to 75 years. Interviews included sociodemographic information, reproductive health variables, and social support questionnaire. Violence was measured using modified Intimate Partner Violence Against Women questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. The lifetime prevalence for any type of violence was 43.0% ( n = 810). The most frequent type was controlling behavior (36.8%), followed by emotional violence (22%), sexual violence (12.7%), and physical violence (9.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the following were associated with greater odds of reporting domestic violence: younger age 30 to 40 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.3, 3.0]), 41 to 50 years (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.1, 2.5]); lack of emotional support (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.5]); lack of tangible support (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.9]); and perceived poor self-health (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.0, 3.0]), husbands' poor health (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.0]), and polygamy (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.5, 2.6]). Domestic violence occurs frequently in Saudi Arabia. Both social conditions and social relations are significantly associated with domestic violence against Saudi women. Furthermore, improvement in implementation of the local policies
Shubayr, Nasser Ali M.
The threat of nuclear attack will remain imminent in an ever-advancing society. Saudi Arabia is not immune to this threat. This dissertation establishes planning guidance for response to a nuclear attack on Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, based on a hypothetical scenario of a nuclear detonation. A case scenario of a one-megaton thermonuclear bomb detonated at ground level over Riyadh is used to support the thesis. Previous nuclear tests and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings have been used to present possible effects on Riyadh. US planning guidance and lessons learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear plants accidents have been used to develop the emergency response guidance. The planning guidance outlines a rapid response to the nuclear detonation. Four damage zones have been identified; severe damage zone, moderate damage zone, light damage zone and dangerous fallout zone. Actions that are recommended, and those that should be avoided, have been determined for each zone. Shelter/ evacuation evaluation for blast-affected and fallout-affected areas is the basis for the recommendation that shelter in place is the best decision for the first hours to days after the attack. Guidelines for medical care response and population monitoring and decontamination are included to reduce the early and long-term effects of the attack. Recommendations to the Saudi Arabian authorities have been made to facilitate suitable preparedness and response for such an event.
Saad, R R; el-Gindy, A A
30 species belonging to 18 genera were isolated from floor dust of 30 homes in Riyadh. Out of them 16 species and 10 genera were isolated from dust of air conditioners of the same homes. The most common genera in floor dust were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Aspergillus repens, A. amstelodami, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus, Penicillium purpurogenum, P. crustosum, Cladosporium cladosporoides and C. herbarum were frequently isolated. The most abundant genera in air conditioner dust were Aspergillus and Penicillium. Aspergillus fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, Penicillium oxalicium and P. crustosum were most frequent species.
Al-Jobair, Asma M; Baidas, Laila F; Al-Hamid, Anfal A; Al-Qahtani, Sara G; Al-Najjar, Amani T; Al-Kawari, Huda M
To assess and compare the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis receiving free treatment at public dental practices versus those paying for treatment at private practices. This retrospective study evaluated the records of 300 patients (179 females, 121 males; age 13-21 years) treated at orthodontic clinics from 2013 through 2015. The public sample was selected from orthodontic clinics at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University (KSU); the private sample was selected from five private orthodontic clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records were examined for the severity of malocclusion and for orthodontic treatment need using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The prevalence of each occlusal discrepancy and the Dental Health Component grade were recorded. The severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need were compared between practice types, age groups, and sexes with the chi-square test. Displacement, increased overjet, and Class II and III malocclusion were the most common orthodontic problems in this study. Patients attending public clinics at KSU generally had more severe malocclusion than the patients attending private clinics. Seventy-seven percent of orthodontically treated patients at KSU clinics were in great need of treatment, compared with 58.5% of patients treated at private clinics ( P =0.003). Among the patients with great treatment need, approximately 62% of male patients and 70% of patients ≤16 years of age were treated at KSU clinics, compared with 38% and 48%, respectively, treated at private clinics ( P orthodontic treatment at public clinics at KSU had more severe malocclusion with greater need of orthodontic treatment than the patients paying for treatment at private clinics.
Al-Jurayyan N, Nasir A; Mohamed, Sarar H; Al Otaibi, Hessah M; Al Issa, Sharifah T; Omer, Hala G
Longitudinal growth assessment is essential in child care. Short stature can be promptly recognized only with accurate measurements of growth and critical analysis of growth data. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of short stature among patients referred to an endocrine pediatric clinic, King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to ascertain the aetiological profile of short stature. This is a retrospective review of patients referred to a pediatric endocrine clinic with short stature during the period January 1990 and December 2009. After a proper detailed medical history, growth analysis and physical examination, followed by a radiological (bone age) and laboratory screening (complete blood count and thyroid function). Growth hormone stimulation tests were performed when indicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary was performed when necessary. As well, celiac screening and small bowel biopsy were performed when appropriate. During the period under review, hundred and ten patients were evaluated for short stature. Their age ranged from 2 years and six months to 4 years. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1. The commonest etiology was genetic short stature found in 57 (51.8%) patients, while in the other 53 (48.2%) patients, variable endocrine and nutritional causes were noted. Short stature was a common referral. A wide variety of etiological diagnosis was noticed with genetic short stature being the commonest. A wide variety of endocrine causes were evident, with growth hormone deficiency, as a results of different etiologies, being the commonest.
Al Fayez, Hanan; Lappin, Julia; Murray, Robin; Boydell, Jane
Recent studies of 'duration of untreated psychosis' (DUP) indicate that some patients remain untreated in the community for some time. Considerable emphasis has been placed on reducing the DUP. However, most studies investigating DUP have been conducted in Western countries, where well-developed primary care systems are available. This study aims to describe DUP and its association with both demographic factors and pathways to care in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A retrospective study of 421 new case records of all Saudi schizophrenia patients over a 2-year period in six governmental hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The median DUP was 1.41 years (interquartile range 0.35-2.81 years). The longest time to contact was 9.86 years but 90% had a DUP shorter than 5 years. Older age at onset, single marital status and higher educational level were associated with shorter DUP. Long DUP was associated with help seeking from traditional healers. In Saudi Arabia, it usually takes longer for patients to seek help from psychiatric services after their first psychosis onset than it does in Western countries. The results suggest that the DUP is influenced by both demographic factors and pathways to care. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Rowe, D.R. (D.R. Rowe Engineering Services, Inc., Bowling Green, KY (United States)); Al-Dhowalia, K.H.; Mansour, M.E. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nitric oxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations indoors and outdoors at three sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results show that the outdoor and indoor concentrations for NO were at least 270 and 16 times the reported average worldwide NO concentrations, respectively. The NO(sub 2) concentrations were about 14 times reported outdoor worldwide levels; however, NO(sub 2) concentrations indoors were generally below those reported in the literature. The data presented, in combination with information presented in previous articles, will provide a valuable background database for use in dispersion models to determine the effect of the Kuwaiti oil well fires on the air quality of Riyadh.
Tekeli, Ahmet Emre; Fouli, Hesham
Floods are among the most common disasters harming humanity. In particular, flash floods cause hazards to life, property and any type of structures. Arid and semi-arid regions are equally prone to flash floods like regions with abundant rainfall. Despite rareness of intensive and frequent rainfall events over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); an arid/semi-arid region, occasional flash floods occur and result in large amounts of damaging surface runoff. The flooding of 16 November, 2013 in Riyadh; the capital city of KSA, resulted in killing some people and led to much property damage. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) Real Time (RT) data (3B42RT) are used herein for flash flood forecasting. 3B42RT detected high-intensity rainfall events matching with the distribution of observed floods over KSA. A flood early warning system based on exceedance of threshold limits on 3B42RT data is proposed for Riyadh. Three different indexes: Constant Threshold (CT), Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF) and Riyadh Flood Precipitation Index (RFPI) are developed using 14-year 3B42RT data from 2000 to 2013. RFPI and CDF with 90% captured the three major flooding events that occurred in February 2005, May 2010 and November 2013 in Riyadh. CT with 3 mm/h intensity indicated the 2013 flooding, but missed those of 2005 and 2010. The methodology implemented herein is a first-step simple and accurate way for flash flood forecasting over Riyadh. The simplicity of the methodology enables its applicability for the TRMM follow-on missions like Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.
Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki
Full Text Available Nosema sp. is recorded in Saudi Arabia for the first time, in adult Apis mellifera collected from apiaries in Riyadh city. Samples of 100 workers were collected and examined for the infection with Nosema sp. 5% of the bees were found positively infected with Nosema sp. Spores were oval to elliptical shaped and measuring 6.4 (5.0–7.0 μm in length, 3.4 (3.0–4.5 μm in width. The conclusive identification of the present Nosema species will preclude until further ultrastructure and molecular studies. The present study concluded that intensive surveys are prerequisite to identify the species of Nosema and to estimate their distribution and prevalence in different regions of Saudi Arabia.
Kotb, Amgad A; Hammouda, Ehab F; Tabbara, Khalid F
To determine the major causes of eye diseases leading to visual loss and blindness among children attending a school for the blind in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 217 school children with visual disabilities attending a school for the blind in Riyadh were included. All children were brought to The Eye Center, Riyadh, and had complete ophthalmologic examinations including visual acuity testing, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, tonometry and laboratory investigations. In addition, some patients were subjected to electroretinography (ERG), electrooculography (EOG), measurement of visual evoked potentials (VEP), and laboratory work-up for congenital disorders. There were 117 male students with an age range of 6-19 years and a mean age of 16 years. In addition, there were 100 females with an age range of 6-18 years and a mean age of 12 years. Of the 217 children, 194 (89%) were blind from genetically determined diseases or congenital disorders and 23 (11%) were blind from acquired diseases. The major causes of bilateral blindness in children were retinal degeneration, congenital glaucoma, and optic atrophy. The most common acquired causes of childhood blindness were infections and trauma. The etiological pattern of childhood blindness in Saudi Arabia has changed from microbial keratitis to genetically determined diseases of the retina and optic nerve. Currently, the most common causes of childhood blindness are genetically determined causes. Consanguineous marriages may account for the autosomal recessive disorders. Public education programs should include information for the prevention of trauma and genetic counseling. Eye examinations for preschool and school children are mandatory for the prevention and cure of blinding disorders.
Alsanea, Mohammd; Masuadi, Emad; Hazwani, Tarek
Child restraint system (CRS) is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC). However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed across Riyadh targeting families who drove with children aged less than 5 years. The questionnaire inquired about CRS availability, patterns of child transportation if a CRS was unavailable, seat belt use by the driver and adult passengers, and the perception of CRS. Of 385 respondents, only 36.6% reported the availability of a CRS (95% CI: 31.8-41.7%), with only half of those reported consistent use 74 (52.2%). Nearly 30% of all children aged less than 5 years were restrained during car journeys. Sitting on the lap of an adult passenger on the front seat was the most common pattern of child transportation (54.5%). Approximately 13.5% of respondents were involved in an MVC while driving with children; 63.5% of these children were unprotected by any safety system. Seat belt use by drivers was low, with only 15.3% reporting constant use. The prevalence of CRS use in Riyadh is low, and safety practices are seldom used by drivers and passengers. In addition to legal enforcement of CRS use, implementation of a child transportation policy with age-appropriate height and weight specifications is imperative.
Full Text Available Child restraint system (CRS is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC. However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed across Riyadh targeting families who drove with children aged less than 5 years. The questionnaire inquired about CRS availability, patterns of child transportation if a CRS was unavailable, seat belt use by the driver and adult passengers, and the perception of CRS.Of 385 respondents, only 36.6% reported the availability of a CRS (95% CI: 31.8-41.7%, with only half of those reported consistent use 74 (52.2%. Nearly 30% of all children aged less than 5 years were restrained during car journeys. Sitting on the lap of an adult passenger on the front seat was the most common pattern of child transportation (54.5%. Approximately 13.5% of respondents were involved in an MVC while driving with children; 63.5% of these children were unprotected by any safety system. Seat belt use by drivers was low, with only 15.3% reporting constant use.The prevalence of CRS use in Riyadh is low, and safety practices are seldom used by drivers and passengers. In addition to legal enforcement of CRS use, implementation of a child transportation policy with age-appropriate height and weight specifications is imperative.
Mandil, Ahmed; Yamani, Mohammad; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz; Ahmad, Shaffi; Younis, Afnan; Al-Mutlaq, Ahmad; Al-Baqmy, Omar; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz
AIM: This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%); food handlers/hospitality workers (20 %) and employers (5 %). Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WHO-CDC-Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used for data collection. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use at food facilities was found to be 40.3 %, of which 74% were customers, 18.8% were food handlers and 7.2% were managers. The consumption of tobacco was higher at restaurants (39.9%), but lowest at food courts of shopping malls. Water pipe (55.3%) was the main consumption type, followed by cigarettes (42.6%) and chewing tobacco (2.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that gender (male), marital status (single), and type of food facility (Estaraha and café/coffee shop) were independent risk factors associated with tobacco use at food facilities. CONCLUSION: Tobacco use is very common in food facilities in Riyadh as reflected by results of our study, especially among single males Saudis. We should build on success encountered in banning smoking in airports, airplanes, shopping malls, market places, educational institutions and healthcare facilities, extending the ban to include food facilities as well. This is important for the health of non-smokers as well as smokers themselves. PMID:24987478
ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M
Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.
ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.
Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229
Nora A. ALFaris
Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.
Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.
Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Altannir, Mohamad A; Almansor, Mohammed A; Almohaya, Mohammed S; Onazi, Atallah S; Marei, Mohammed A; Aldossary, Oweida F; Obeidat, Sadek A; Obeidat, Mustafa A; Riaz, Muhammad S; Tleyjeh, Imad M
Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI) in childbearing aged women). A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6%) of 327, of which 231 (95%) were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90%) of encounters, followed by UTI (75%), acute bronchitis (73%), otitis media (51%) and acute sinusitis (40%). Metronidazole (89%) and ciprofloxacin (86%) were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51%) for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.
Obeidat Sadek A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.
Full Text Available A survey of phytopathogenic fungi and Oomyceteswas conducted in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia duringOctober 2008 – May 2009. Total of 223 samples were collectedfrom four regions; Al-Kharj, Oyaynah, Old Diriyah, and Al Amariyah. Isolation was done using Potato Dextrose Agar(PDA. Infected parts were cut then sterilized in chlorox(10%, then were put in petridish that contain PDA andincubated at 25-27 °C. A total twelve genera of fungi andsingle genera of Oomycetes were isolated from the infectedplants and identifi ed as Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp.,Helmintosphorium (Bipolaris spp., Sclerotium spp., Rhizoctoniaspp., Cladosporium spp., Mauginiella scattae, Erysiphe spp.,Leveillula spp., Macrophomina phaseolina, Ustilago spp.,Ulocladium spp., and Phytium spp.
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M; Raheel, Hafsa M
To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire was distributed and collected after 15 minutes by 3 research assistants. Forty-two adolescent students (10%) were exposed to sexual violence. Only 31% of the students were taught how to react to sexual violence. Students whose order was > or = 5th among siblings and who had unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were more exposed to sexual violence (chi2=4.02, p=0.044, chi2=4.24, p=0.039). Being > or = 5th in order among siblings and having unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were correlates for exposure to sexual violence.
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing performance of hospital nurses in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. Specific objectives were to estimate self-reported performance, and determine whether differences in employee demographics, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, influenced performance. In total, 15 hospitals were randomly selected. The questionnaire was sent to all nurses (1,834) in these facilities and 923 nurses responded. Statistical analysis included correlation, t-test, and regression analysis. The study finds that job performance is positively correlated with organizational commitment, job satisfaction and personal and professional variables. Both job satisfaction and organizational commitment are strong predictors of nurses' performance. Job performance is positively related to some personal factors, including years of experience, nationality, gender, and marital status. Level of education is negatively related to performance. The findings of this study have a limited generalisability due to the fact that all measures used are based on self-reports. Future research may be directed to other objective measures of performance. Emphasis should be placed on effective supervision, empowerment, and a better reward system. Cultural diversity is a reality for most health organizations in Saudi Arabia; therefore, they need to adopt effective human resources strategies that aim to improve commitment and retention of qualified workers, and build a high performance organizational culture based on empowerment, open communication, and appreciation of impact of national culture on work attitudes. This study fulfills a research gap in the area of nursing performance, and its relationship with work attitudes in Saudi Arabia. The paper also highlights the impact of national culture on job performance and work attitude among nurses in Saudi Arabia, and other countries facing the issue of multi-national work force.
Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly
Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Altuwirqi, Maram Hani; Bukhari, Mujahid; Abotalib, Zeinab; BinSaleh, Saleh
No study has assessed psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women seeking fertility treatment in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we sought to measure the rate of psychiatric disorders in this population. This was a cross-sectional observational study among patients attending infertility clinics at three referral hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2013 and September 2014. 406 patients (206 women and 200 men) participated in the study. The approved Arabic version of the MINI tool was used to assess 18 common psychiatric illnesses. The response rate was 81%. Of the men surveyed, only 4.5% self-reported having a psychiatric disorder. Of the women surveyed, only 10.2% reported having a psychiatric disorder. However, using the MINI scale, psychiatric illness was documented in 30% of males and 36.9% of females. The most common diagnoses for both genders were depression (21.7%) and anxiety (21.2%). Significantly more females than males exhibited suicidality and depression. In contrast, significantly more males than females had bipolar disorders and substance-related disorders. A low monthly income among male and female participants and polygamy among female participants were significantly associated with psychiatric disorders. This study shows that a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, among infertile men and women in Saudi Arabia is associated with lower income and polygamy. This study highlights the importance of integrated care for alleviating the psychological burden of this unfortunate population and improving outcomes and quality of life. This study also encourages follow-up studies that aim to further understand the complex relationship between fertility and psychological well-being.
Sales, Ibrahim; Aljadhey, Hisham; Albogami, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mansour A
Purpose: To assess the general public awareness and perception about Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reporting and pharmacovigilance. Method: A cross-sectional study conducted on June 2012 during awareness campaign held in two malls in Riyadh city for two days. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of three parts was distributed to the attendees who accepted to participate in the study. Results: A total of 204 questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 68%. Twenty-three percent could correctly define ADRs. Only 13(15.7%) of responders were familiar with the term "Pharmacovigilance" and only 78.6% were aware about the Saudi Pharmacovigilance Center. Sixty-seventy percent indicated that their physicians or pharmacists don't actively encourage them to report ADRs that may occur when they take their medications. The majority of responders (73.2%) believed that the medical team, rather than consumers, should report ADRs. When asked why patients do not report ADRs, 19.1(48.5%) believed that patients do not know whether the ADR is from the medication or not, 18.1(46.1%) stated that the reason was because patients don't know about the Pharmacovigilance Center, 16(40.7%) think that patients don't know about the importance of ADRs reporting, and 14(36.3%) responded that patients probably don't know how to report ADRs. Conclusion: The general public in Saudi Arabia are not aware about ADRs reporting and the pharmacovigilance system. The Saudi Food and Drug Authorities (FDA) need to put more efforts to increasing public awareness about the importance of ADRs reporting process and the importance of pharmacovigilance system in promoting patient safety.
Alwakeel, Suaad S
This study was conducted to determine the microbial and inhabitant of household environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Overall, a total of 180 samples were collected and analyzed for fungal growth, 160 house samples were obtained on BAP medium and PDA medium. The Eastern Riyadh region turned out with the highest fungal isolates with 15/61 (24.6%). Among the most common fungal isolates from bedroom carpets were Aspergillus niger (21.6%), Alternaria sp. (15.7%), Aspergillus flavus (15.7%) Candida sp. (11.8%), Cladosporium sp. (9.8%) and Rhizopus sp. (9.8%). Other fungal isolates from bedroom carpets included Penicillium sp (5.9%)., Cunninghamella sp.(3.9%), Rhodotorula sp.(3.9%) and Aspergillus terreus (1.9%) Overall relative densities from all specimens obtained from household carpets, bedroom walls and carpet stores showed Alternaria spp. as the most common fungal isolate (55.3%) followed by Aspergillus niger (29%), Aspergillus flavus (19.3%), Rhizopus spp. (9.7%) and Penicillium spp. (7.0%). Other fungal isolates such as Candida spp., Cladosporium spp., Cunninghamella spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus terreus had less than 6% overall relative density. From 40 carpet specimens collected for microbial analysis, 20 (50%) showed bacterial growth. Bacillus spp. was the most common isolated organism (35%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Epiococcus spp. (10%), Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Bacillus polymyxa (10%). Other bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)
Bian, Qijing; Alharbi, Badr; Shareef, Mohammed M.; Husain, Tahir; Pasha, Mohammad J.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.
Knowledge of the sources of carbonaceous aerosol affecting air quality in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is limited but needed for the development of pollution control strategies. We conducted sampling of PM2.5 from April to September 2012 at various sites in the city and used a thermo-optical semi-continuous method to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations. The average OC and EC concentrations were 4.7 ± 4.4 and 2.1 ± 2.5 µg m-3, respectively, during this period. Both OC and EC concentrations had strong diurnal variations, with peaks at 06:00-08:00 LT and 20:00-22:00 LT, attributed to the combined effect of increased vehicle emissions during rush hour and the shallow boundary layer in the early morning and at night. This finding suggested a significant influence of local vehicular emissions on OC and EC. The OC / EC ratio in primary emissions was estimated to be 1.01, close to documented values for diesel emissions. Estimated primary organic carbon (POC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations were comparable, with average concentrations of 2.0 ± 2.4 and 2.8 ± 3.4 µg m-3, respectively.We also collected 24 h samples of PM10 onto quartz microfiber filters and analyzed these for an array of metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Total OC was correlated with Ca (R2 of 0.63), suggesting that OC precursors and Ca may have similar sources, and the possibility that they underwent similar atmospheric processing. In addition to a ubiquitous dust source, Ca is emitted during desalting processes in the numerous refineries in the region and from cement kilns, suggesting these sources may also contribute to observed OC concentrations in Riyadh. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis showed that high OC and EC concentrations were associated with air masses arriving from the Persian Gulf and the region around Baghdad, locations with high densities of oil fields and refineries as well as a
Hesham I Al-Khashan
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Health reforms that tend to increase the participation of clients in decision-making requires them to be health-literate; hence, the importance of health education. However, not much research has been done to investigate the differences in health education needs according to demographic characteristics of the clients. The aim of this study was to find out any possible gender differences there may be in health education needs and preferences. Subjects and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted at Riyadh Military Hospital, Saudi Arabia, on a convenience sample of adult Saudis attending its clinics. Data was collected from April 2009 to May 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire covering demographic data, history and needs of health education, methods, and preferred educator. Results: Of the 1300 forms distributed, 977 were returned completed (75.2% response. Most men (74.0% and women (77.9% had had health education, but more women reported that it had been helpful (P = 0.014. More men mentioned health education needs relating to primary prevention (P = 0.027, and unhealthy practices (P = 0.003, and considered the different language a barrier (P = 0.002 even after adjustment for age and education. The one-to-one method was the most preferred health education method for men (72.7% and women (67.9%. More women preferred group health education (P = 0.02 after adjustment for age and education. Significantly more men preferred pharmacists and dietitians as health educators. Conclusion: The results point to a few significant differences between men and women regarding their health education needs, barriers, and preferences. These must be taken into consideration when planning health education programs.
Almutairi, Khalid M
This study aims to determine the level of satisfaction of patients who visit primary healthcare centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted in twenty randomly selected primary healthcare centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from October to December 2014. A descriptive data analysis was performed. Eligible participants had visited at least one of the selected primary healthcare centers within the past 12 months. A total of 1741 participants completed the survey, providing a response rate of 87 % (43 % male, 57 % female). The highest satisfaction rates were in the following areas: comprehensiveness and coordination 76.2 % (95 % CI 74.8 ± 77.5), communication 72.7 % (95 % CI 71.3 ± 74) and attitude of staff 73.4 % (95 % CI 72.1 ± 74.8) The areas of greatest concern expressed by the participants were the length of the wait and the quality of the facility 55.4 % (95 % CI 53.3 ± 57.5), 50.5 % (95 % CI 48.3 ± 52.7), respectively. The majority of the patients attending primary healthcare centers in Riyadh showed high levels of satisfaction; however, there are still some factors that need to be considered and improved upon. These include the accessibility of primary healthcare centers as well as waiting time of patients. The results of the current study showed relative improvement in other factors such as comprehensiveness and coordination, communication and attitude of staff. The level of satisfaction of patients and stakeholders shows the progress of the quality of care in healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Alwakeel, Suaad S.
A randomized sampling of 50 households in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia was conducted to determine microbial and Aspergillus spp contaminants in domestic kitchens between May and June 2006. Samples were taken from open air in the kitchen and from used kitchen sponges. Inoculation procedures were varied from direct inoculation of the sponge into the medium to dilution of a cut portion of the sponge. A total of 200 samples were taken from which, 700 culture plates were done (BAP and Nutrient agar). Identification by the API system of identification (Analytical Profile Index, BioMerieux) revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Diphtheroids and Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus spp. was isolated and identified microscopically. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 90% of the plates followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (83%) , Klebsiella pneumonia ; Bacillus cereus (63%).and Aspergillus spp (15%) These opportunistic pathogens may be harmful especially in immunocompromised hosts. In this setting, there is a constant risk of contamination and transfer to willing hosts, thus appropriate measures should be implemented such as the use of disposable sponges. (author)
El-Shobokshy, Mohammad S.; Al-Saedi, Yaseen G.
During the last two decades, the urban areas in the city of Riyadh—the capital of Saudi Arabia—were increasing at an exceptionally high rate through a series of development plans. The major plans had been completed by the end of 1982. Some other big utility projects were started and completed during 1987. As a consequence, the air quality has deteriorated markedly and air pollution episodes recorded during these activities showed that particulates were present in the atmosphere at high concentrations. Later in January 1991 the Gulf war started and the firing of the oil fields in Kuwait soon followed. It was estimated that soot particulates were emitted at a rate of 600 ton d -1 along with high rates of other gases. This event has led to significant air quality and visibility problems. Direct normal solar radiation has been measured during the summer months of July and August which were characterized by very dry and cloudless weather for the period between 1982 and 1992. A year-to-year trend of the transmittance of direct normal solar irradiance was then determined. The atmospheric fine aerosol (oil field fires in Kuwait were passing over Riyadh are presented. The reduction in solar irradiation reflects the intensity of dark smoke at a distance of 500 km from Kuwait.
Secondary school girls, ages 15 - 19 yrs were surveyed to find out the coping strategies they used when stressed. Adolescents, who are affected with stress and depression early in life, suffer from depression throughout their lives especially if they are utilizing improper ways to cope with it. A cross sectional school based survey among 1028 adolescent girls was conducted among the secondary schools in Riyadh city,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. About 25% stated that they cry, 19% listen to music, 15% start eating a lot, 12% sit alone/isolate themselves, 11% pray/read the Quran, 10% get into a verbal argument or a fight. Only a few, 3% exercise, and 2% stated that they find someone to discuss and talk to. Majority of the adolescent girls in our survey, rely on emotion related coping mechanisms rather than problem solving mechanisms. This can cause long term implications in these adolescents as there is an increased probability to develop depression later on in life. Policy makers need to implement strategies for early identification of stress and depression. Talking to friends and family can serve as an effective way to cope with stress.
Waleed A. Al Rashed
Full Text Available Aim. The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of eye disease and awareness of eye care among the Saudi adults and to explore existing eye-related misconceptions in the community. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh city during May and June 2016. A self-administered anonymous online questionnaire was used to explore the most common misconceptions related to eye diseases and eye care. Results. Out of 1000 individuals, only 711 (71.1% participant responses were received. The participants’ acceptable knowledge (score ≥50% was high about the eye problem in diabetes (88.6%, ocular trauma (81.2%, and other general eye diseases (91.3%, whereas low about refractive errors (63%, pediatric eye problems (51.5%, and glaucoma (14.8%. The variation in knowledge about specific ocular morbidities was significant (p<0.001. The majority of participants reported sources of information about the common eye diseases and eye care encountered from the community, internet-based resources, and social media. Conclusions. The majority of the participants had awareness about the common eye diseases, whereas low percentage of participant’s awareness about specific condition of eye diseases. Public eye health awareness should be more focused on social media and the internet to be able to cover the younger individuals of the community.
Chang, Jonghwa; Lee, Wonjae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
N GNP reactor plant adopted a Rank in steam cycle for early deployment and for reducing R and D risk and cost. Original plant design is based on a wet cooling tower with wet bulb temperature of 34 .deg. C. This cooling environment may be sufficient for most area in North America. However, we should consider air temperature of 45 .deg. C and no available cooling water for any site near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A plausible option in such arid area is using an air-cooled condenser(ACC) which is widely used in a combined cycle plant in arid region. ACC is also suitable for freezing area such as northern territory or high elevation remote area. We have studied impact of the cooling method on the power generation efficiency and the annual average power production referencing N GNP steam turbine. Even though condenser split is assumed to be the same between ACC and wet cooling tower, large difference in air temperature and wet bulb temperature makes large efficiency loss in the ACC. The ACC efficiency is lower than that of the wet cooling tower by 1.12%. To make up this loss, we proposed the variable steam extraction rates operation. An air cooled condenser is a practical.
Full Text Available Knowledge of the sources of carbonaceous aerosol affecting air quality in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is limited but needed for the development of pollution control strategies. We conducted sampling of PM2.5 from April to September 2012 at various sites in the city and used a thermo-optical semi-continuous method to quantify the organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC concentrations. The average OC and EC concentrations were 4.7 ± 4.4 and 2.1 ± 2.5 µg m−3, respectively, during this period. Both OC and EC concentrations had strong diurnal variations, with peaks at 06:00–08:00 LT and 20:00–22:00 LT, attributed to the combined effect of increased vehicle emissions during rush hour and the shallow boundary layer in the early morning and at night. This finding suggested a significant influence of local vehicular emissions on OC and EC. The OC ∕ EC ratio in primary emissions was estimated to be 1.01, close to documented values for diesel emissions. Estimated primary organic carbon (POC and secondary organic carbon (SOC concentrations were comparable, with average concentrations of 2.0 ± 2.4 and 2.8 ± 3.4 µg m−3, respectively.We also collected 24 h samples of PM10 onto quartz microfiber filters and analyzed these for an array of metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Total OC was correlated with Ca (R2 of 0.63, suggesting that OC precursors and Ca may have similar sources, and the possibility that they underwent similar atmospheric processing. In addition to a ubiquitous dust source, Ca is emitted during desalting processes in the numerous refineries in the region and from cement kilns, suggesting these sources may also contribute to observed OC concentrations in Riyadh. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT analysis showed that high OC and EC concentrations were associated with air masses arriving from the Persian Gulf and the region around Baghdad, locations with
Mohammed S. Alhussaini
Full Text Available Background: Candida species are important hospital-acquired pathogens in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This study was performed in the NICU of Saudi Arabian Hospital, Riyadh region, KSA to analyze patterns of neonatal Candida colonization as well as to determine the potential risk factors.Methods: Weekly surveillance fungal cultures of anal area, oral cavity, umbilicus and ear canal of neonates were performed from birth until their discharge from the hospital. Colonization was analyzed for timing, site, species, birth weight and gestational age. Potential environmental reservoirs and hands of health care workers (HCWs were also cultured monthly for fungi. Antifungal susceptibility of the identified isolates was also determined.Results: One hundred subjects have been recruited in this study. The overall colonization rate was 51%. Early colonization was found in 27 (27% neonates whereas 24 (24% neonates were lately colonized during their stay in NICU. Colonization was more in preterm neonates than in full and post term. Perianal area and oral cavity were the most frequent colonized sites. C. albicans was the main spp. (58.8% isolated from the neonates followed by C. tropicalis (17.6%, C. glabrata (15.6%, and C. krusei (2%. Of the 51 isolated Candida spp., 68.6% were sensitive to fluconazole, 80% to itraconazole and 64.7% to ketoconazole, while only 33% were sensitive to amphotericin B.Conclusion: Candida has emerged as a common cause of infections in infants admitted to NICU, and C. albicans is the most commonly isolated candidal species. Neonatal infections caused by non- albicans species occur at a later age during their stay in NICU.
Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed
The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend
AlWakeel, Suaad S
This study aimed to determine the bacterial species colonizing the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a microbiological and molecular level. Throat and nasal swab samples were obtained from 29 fuel station attendants in the period of time extending from March to May 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Microbiological identification techniques were utilized to identify the bacterial species isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was assessed for each of the bacterial isolates. Molecular identification techniques based on PCR analysis of specific genomic sequences was conducted and was the basis on which phylogeny representation was done for 10 randomly selected samples of the isolates. Blood was drawn and a complete blood count was conducted to note the hematological indices for each of the study participants. Nineteen bacterial species were isolated from both the nasal cavity and the oropharynx including Streptococcus thoraltensis , alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus hominis , coagulase-negative staphylococci, Leuconostoc mesenteroides , Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and several others. We found 100% sensitivity of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Whereas cefotaxime and azithromycin posted sensitivities of 85.7% and 91.4%, respectively. Low sensitivities (fuel products may be a contributing factor to bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract in fuel workers.
Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10-12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory-II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97-6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56-8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97-3.23), been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56-8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence, at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89-5.91). Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.
Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K.; Almussaed, Eman M.; Fayed, Amel A.; Khan, Farida H.; Syed, Sadiqa B.; Al-Tamimi, Tahani N.; Elmorshedy, Hala N.
Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer and the acceptance of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Saudi female students in health colleges. Methods: This cross-sectional study of a convenient sample encompassed 1400 students in Health Colleges at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Data collected in...
Alghabiwi, Reem; Palianopoulou, Maria; Eklund Karlsson, Leena
-efficacy in self-managing chronic disease in 253 female patients aged 18-55 years from six primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The data were collected using two standard questionnaires (PDRQ-9 and SEMCD) and analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (SPSS Software). Our findings showed...
Aly, M M; Abu Alsoud, N M; Elrobh, M S; Al Johani, S M; Balkhy, H H
The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Saudi Arabia and their resistance genetic mechanisms are yet to be identified. We studied the prevalence and genetic diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes, particularly the PER-1 gene, among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains from patients at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2006 and 2014. Fresh subcultured samples were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total genomic DNA was extracted from each isolate and further used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping, sequence-based typing (SBT) of PER-1 and OXA-51-like gene, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of positive isolates. Randomly selected clinical isolates (n = 100) were subjected to MLST. A total of 503 isolates were characterized as multidrug-resistant (MDR) using the MIC. Isolates were further PCR tested for bla -TEM and bla -PER-1 resistance genes (n = 503). The genotyping results showed that 68/503 (14 %) isolates were positive to bla TEM. The genotyping results of PER-1-like genes showed that 384/503 (76.3 %) were positive among MDR Acinetobacter isolates. Based on SBT, the majority of these isolates were clustered into three main groups including isolates harboring PER-1: AB11 (bla -PER-1 ), isolate AB16 (bla -PER-1 ), and, finally, the plasmid pAB154 (bla -PER-7 ). Remarkably, many isolates were concealing the PER-1 gene and harboring the TEM resistance genes as well. MLST results for selected isolates (n = 100) identified four main sequence types (STs: 2, 19, 20, and 25) and four novel isolates (ST 486-489). We report 76.3 % prevalence of the PER-1 resistance gene among Acinetobacter clinical isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Further work is needed to explore the clinical risks and patient outcome with such resistance related to healthcare-associated infections and investigate the genetic and molecular mechanisms that confer the MDR
Al-Mohrej, Omar A; Al-Ayedh, Noura K; Masuadi, Emad M; Al-Kenani, Nader S
Anatomy instructors adopt individual teaching methods and strategies to convey anatomical information to medical students for learning. Students also exhibit their own individual learning preferences. Instructional methods preferences vary between both instructors and students across different institutions. In attempt to bridge the gap between teaching methods and the students' learning preferences, this study aimed to identify students' learning methods and different strategies of studying anatomy in two different Saudi medical schools in Riyadh. A cross-sectional study, conducted in Saudi Arabia in April 2015, utilized a three-section questionnaire, which was distributed to a consecutive sample of 883 medical students to explore their methods and strategies in learning and teaching anatomy in two separate institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Medical students' learning styles and preferences were found to be predominantly affected by different cultural backgrounds, gender, and level of study. Many students found it easier to understand and remember anatomy components using study aids. In addition, almost half of the students felt confident to ask their teachers questions after class. The study also showed that more than half of the students found it easier to study by concentrating on a particular part of the body rather than systems. Students' methods of learning were distributed equally between memorizing facts and learning by hands-on dissection. In addition, the study showed that two thirds of the students felt satisfied with their learning method and believed it was well suited for anatomy. There is no single teaching method which proves beneficial; instructors should be flexible in their teaching in order to optimize students' academic achievements.
Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity increases the risk of several chronic, non-communicable diseases which ultimately reduces life expectancy. Recently, major lifestyle changes in Saudi Arabia due to economic growth, globalization, and modernization resulted in physical inactivity and low level of physical fitness. Health care professionals can play an important role in developing awareness about physical fitness among people. However, little is known about the impact of current health promotion practices of Saudi healthcare providers. This cross-sectional study evaluates Saudi primary healthcare providers’ attitudes, knowledge, and awareness associated with advising patients about physical activity during routine consultations. Methods: A quantitative survey on 803 respondents who comprised of general physicians, nurses, nurse assistants, dieticians and health educators in five districts of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia was conducted using convenience sampling method. Results: The data showed that most of the primary care staffs are quite enthusiastic in promoting physical activity among the patients and revealed that they routinely discussed and advised about the benefits of physical fitness. However, there are some factors acting as barriers for promoting physical activity, such as i lack of time, ii lack of educational materials for patients, iii lack of proper training and protocols for health care professionals, iv lack of patient cooperation, and v lack of financial incentive. Conclusion: Proper strategies should be developed to motivate primary health care professionals, so that they can effectively encourage the general population to be more active physically. Hence, there is an urgent need to integrate physical activity promotion in to practice consultation in Saudi Arabia. In addition, more efforts are required from the policy makers and health professionals to gather sufficient knowledge about current physical activity recommendations.
Full Text Available Mohammad A Aldosari, Aljazi H Aljabaa, Fares S Al-Sehaibany, Sahar F Albarakati Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Students differ in their preferred methods of acquiring, processing, and recalling new information. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of undergraduate dental students and examine the influence of gender, Grade Point Average (GPA, and academic year levels on these preferences.Methods: The Arabic version of the visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic (VARK questionnaire was administered to 491 students from the first- to the fifth-year academic classes at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the learning styles of the students, and Chi-square test and Fisher’s test were used to compare the learning preferences between genders and among academic years. Significance was set at a p-value of <0.05.Results: A total of 368 dental students completed the questionnaire. The multimodal learning style was preferred by 63.04% of the respondents, with the remaining 36% having a unimodal style preference. The aural (A and the kinesthetic (K styles were the most preferred unimodal styles. The most common style overall was the quadmodal (VARK style with 23.64% having this preference. These differences did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05. Females were more likely to prefer a bimodal learning style over a unimodal style (relative risk =2.37. Students with a GPA of “C” were less likely to have a bimodal or a quadmodal style preference compared to students with a GPA of “A” (relative risk =0.34 and 0.36, respectively. Second-year students were less likely to prefer a bimodal over a unimodal style compared to first-year students (relative risk =0.34.Conclusion: The quadmodal VARK style is the preferred learning method chosen by dental students
Abdullah M.N. AlBedah
Full Text Available Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.Results: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70�0Saudi and 30�0non-Saudis. About 89�0ofthe participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g.(T.V., newspapers and radio and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5�0and46.3�0respectively. Nearly 85�0of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write, as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89� prayer (54� honey and bee products (54� hijama (35.71�nd cauterization or medical massage therapy (22�20were thecommonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8� regulations for CAM(94.9� health education (96.6� specialized centers (94.8�20and CAM clinics (92.7� While only 8.3�0of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positiv eattitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.
Almajhdi Fahad N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human parainfluenza type 2 (HPIV-2 virus is an important respiratory pathogen, a little is known about strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. Findings Among 180 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from suspected cases in Riyadh, only one sample (0.56% was confirmed HPIV-2 positive by nested RT-PCR. The sample that was designated Riyadh 105/2009 was used for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the most variable virus gene; the haemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN. Comparison of HN gene of Riyadh 105/2009 strain and the relevant sequences available in GenBank revealed a strong relationship with Oklahoma-94-2009 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four different clusters of HPIV-2 strains (G1-4. Twenty-three amino acid substitutions were recorded for Riyadh 105/2009, from which four are unique. The majority of substitutions (n=18 had changed their amino acids characteristics. By analyzing the effect of the recorded substitutions on the protein function using SIFT program, only two located at positions 360 and 571 were predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions The presented changes of Riyadh 105/2009 strain may possess potential effect on the protein structure and/or function level. This is the first report that describes partial characterization of Saudi HPIV-2 strain.
Al-Ayedh, Hassan Ibn Yahiya
Trapping efficiency of seven different colored sticky traps (Green, Fluorescent yellow, Orange, Pink, red, White and Yellow) was evaluated in some solanacea plants, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), eggplant (Solanum Magellan) and sweet pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops, for whitefly (Bemis ia airlifting), leaf miners (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips tabaci) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The traps were placed at four different heights (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m above the ground). The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with four replications during autumn 2001, spring and autumn 2002. Significantly high insect populations were trapped on Fluorescent yellow, yellow and green colored sticky traps. No significant differences were witnessed between mean numbers of various insects caught on sticky traps placed at different heights but more insects were trapped at 0.5 - 1.5m. (author)
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the tuberculosis (TB mobile teams on treatment outcomes in Riyadh Region by comparing patients who received treatment under mobile teams and those who did not, from 2013 to 2015. This was a retrospective descriptive study using National TB Control and Prevention Program data from 2013 to 2015 from Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize characteristics of TB case-patients served by mobile teams and those who were not served. The χ2 test measured the significant differences between mobile-served and non-mobile-served case-patients. Exposure was whether or not the TB case-patient was under the care of the mobile team; the outcome of interest was whether or not treatment was successful, defined as treatment completed and cured. We found that the ratio of treatment success among mobile team case-patients was 1.28 greater than among those not served by mobile teams. The χ2 test showed a statistically significant finding (probability ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.21–1.35, p < 0.01. Mobile teams increased the treatment success rate to 92%, compared to 71.77% among those not served by mobile teams. This study shows that community mobilization of mobile teams is an effective strategy to enhance TB treatment, reduced mortality and loss to follow-up and improve TB treatment outcomes. Keywords: Directly observed therapy, Mobile teams, Saudi Arabia, Tuberculosis
Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K.
The present investigation is a retrospective review of snake bites in Riyadh province over the period (2005–2010). A total of 1019 cases of bites admitted to the Ministry of Health medical centers in Riyadh province were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, time of bite and its site on the body, outcome of treatment, antiserum dose and type of snake. Bites occurred throughout the six years with the highest frequency in 2005 and least in 2006 where most of the bite cases were mild and all evolved to cure except four patients who died following the administration of antivenom during 24 h after snake bite. Most of the patients were males (81.7%) and the most attacked age was within the range of 11–30 years (51.5%). All the bites were mainly in the exposed limbs and the most frequently bitten anatomical regions were the lower limbs (427 cases, 41.9%), principally the feet. The study incriminates Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in most of the bites indicating it as the snake of medical importance in Riyadh province. Also, the study indicates low degree of threat in spite of high rate of snake bites as a result of the availability of the medical facilities and the antivenin use in medical centers in Riyadh province. PMID:25737653
Allala, Saeb; Alzubairi, Sharefa
The current study is an attempt to identify social shyness among mothers of children with disabilities based on (Disability type, mother's academic qualification, and family's economic level) in Riyadh. Thus, Social Shyness Scale was prepared of (28) paragraphs according to five-point Likert Scale. The reliability coefficient of the scale rated…
Barnawi, Fatima Hamza
Domestic violence (DV) against women can negatively affect the physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health of the women as well as the well-being of their children. The objective was to estimate among Saudi women the prevalence of different types of DV, to identify its associated risk factors, and to determine the immediate victims' reactions to such violence. A cross-sectional study was carried between March and July, 2011. Self-administrated questionnaire was administered to ever-married Saudi women attending Al-Wazarat primary health care center, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Out of the 720 women studied, 144 (20%) reported exposure to DV over the last year. The most common DV types were emotional (69%), social (34%), economic (26%), physical (20%), and sexual violence (10%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the following characteristics were independently associated with DV: younger women age, longer duration of marriage, higher women education, lower husband education, working husbands, military occupation, fewer children, husbands with multiple wives, smoking husbands, aggressive husbands, presence of chronic disease in women or husbands, and non-sufficient family income. The most common impacts of DV on women were medical or behavioral problems (72%) and psychiatric problems (58%). The most common reactions to DV were seeking separation (56%) and doing nothing (41%). More than 90% of children of abused women suffered psychological or behavioral problems. In conclusion, DV against Saudi women is considerable and the response is generally passive. Promoting a culture non-tolerant to DV and providing accessible, effective, and trustful social services to abused women are critically needed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Almegbel, Faisal Yousef; Alotaibi, Ibrahim Muthyib; Alhusain, Faisal Ahmed; Masuadi, Emad M; Al Sulami, Salma Lafyan; Aloushan, Amairah Fahad; Almuqbil, Bashayer Ibrahim
Approximately 28% to 35% of people aged 65 and over fall each year. The consequent injuries of falls are considered a major public health problem. Falls account for more than half of injury-related hospitalisations among old people. The aim of this study was to measure a 1-year period prevalence of falling among old people in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, this study described the most common risk factors and consequent injuries of falls. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Riyadh, using a convenient sampling. The targeted population were Saudi citizens who were 60 years or above. Over a 6-month period, 1182 individuals were sampled (545 men and 637 women). The 1-year prevalence of falling among old Saudis (>=60 years) was 49.9%. Our results show that 74% of the participants who experienced falls had postfall injuries. Old participants who were uneducated and those with middle school certification were associated with falls (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.72; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.56, aOR 1.81; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.85, respectively). Those who live in rented houses had a higher risk of falls. Interestingly, having a caregiver was significantly associated with more falls (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.79). However, not using any medications was significantly related to fewer falls. In addition, old individuals using walking aids were more likely to fall than those who did not. Participants who mentioned 'not having stressors were associated with less frequent falls (aOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.97). Cerebrovascular accidents were strongly associated with falls with an estimated OR of 2.75 (95% CI 1.18 to 6.43). Moreover, osteoporosis, poor vision and back pain were found to be predictors for falls among the elderly. 49.9% of elderly Saudis had experienced one or more falls during a 12-month period. Several preventable risk factors could be addressed by routine geriatric assessment. Research on the impact of these risk factors is needed. © Article author(s) (or their
Alrukban, Mohammed O; Albadr, Badr O; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad
Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task.
Almajwal, Ali M
Nurses are the largest group of direct health providers and can serve as role models for their patients. In this cross sectional study we assessed the relationship among physical activity and barriers, shift duty, elevated BMI, and selected eating habits among 362 non-Saudi female nurses in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results showed that 46.7% were either overweight or obese. Marital status, shift duty, education level, and BMI were significant predictors of physical activity. Weather was the most frequently reported barrier to physical activity (88.3%), followed by a lack of transportation (82.6%), and a lack of time (81.3%). Nurses who worked shift duty had significantly (p = 0.004) higher BMIs compared with day shift nurses. Nurses who rarely ate breakfast (p = 0.004) and meals (p = 0.001) and often eat fast food (p = 0.001) were more likely to be overweight or obese. Nurses should be encouraged for a better healthy lifestyles.
Alrukban, Mohammed O.; Albadr, Badr O.; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad
Background: Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. Objectives: This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task. PMID:24987276
Mosher, Cynthia; Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola
The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Prospective cohort study. This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Women 36-40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. This is the first study assessing the effectiveness of BFHI implementation in Saudi Arabia. Although women
Full Text Available Background: Emergency department nurses are continuously exposed to violence on the job. Objectives: This study sought to identify the prevalence and pattern of workplace violence and the consequences of violence on nurses working in emergency departments in Riyadh. Design: Cross-sectional survey conducted from April to May 2015. Setting: Emergency departments of three hospitals in Riyadh. Participants: Nurses participated voluntarily and anonymously. Methods: Nurses were recruited by advertisement. A self-administered questionnaire with 23 items was given to participants by a head nurse. Violent acts were classified as physical or nonphysical. Descriptive statistics are presented and statistical comparisons were made to evaluate differences by gender, nationality, age, experience and other demographic variables. Results: Of 150 questionnaires distributed, 121 were returned (80.6%. One hundred were females (82.6% and 71 (58.7% had worked in nursing for less than or equal to 5 years. Most participants (n=108, 89.3% had experienced a violent incident in the past 12 months. Eighty (80/108, 74.1% of those who had experienced violence had experienced verbal abuse and 20 (20/108, 18.5% had faced verbal and physical violence during the past year. The type of violence was associated with gender and educational level. Patients (89/108, 82.4% and their relatives (70/108, 64.8% were the most common instigators of violence. Most nurses (78/108, 72.3% expressed dissatisfaction with the manner in which incidents were handled. Conclusion: Workplace violence was pervasive in the emergency departments of these three hospitals in Riyadh. The data are consistent with other reports of workplace violence in emergency departments in Saudi Arabia and in other countries. Recommendations: Suitable strategies to deal with the issue include establishing workplace violence management teams and creating appropriate rules and regulations thatÂ can improve workplace safety
A. A. Mustafa
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24% and 122 males (76%. A total of 36 (22% students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78% students studied at problem based learning (PBL schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19% of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48% of them obtained a correct score of (4–6 out of 10, and 53 students (33% scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology.
Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
Physical inactivity is among the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Saudi Arabia has just begun to address physical inactivity as recent studies have shown an alarming prevalence of insufficiently physically active adults. Saudi women are identified as among the most overweight/obese and least active worldwide. With an increase in the number of women in office based jobs, the risk of physical inactivity is likely to increase. Identifying the level and correlates for high BMI and physical inactivity in Saudi women will help to plan more effective public health strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for overweight, obesity and low physical activity. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 420 Saudi women aged 18 to 58 years working in office based jobs in eight worksites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index was determined using weight and height measurements and physical activity was assessed based on a validated self-administered questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were overweight or obese (58.3 %). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased age, lower income and with those working in the public versus private sector. More than half of the sample (52.1 %) were insufficiently physically active. Participants working seven or more hours per day and those working in private versus public sector were significantly associated with low physical activity. This study identified Saudi women working in office based jobs as a high risk group for overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. As sedentary jobs may compound the risk for obesity and physical inactivity, this may support the use of workplace health programs to reduce sitting time and promote physical activity as a viable public health initiative.
Alkorashy, Hanan A Ezzat; Al Moalad, Fawziah Bakheet
Violence against nurses is a major challenge for healthcare administrators. It is gaining more attention because it has a negative impact on nurses, the quality of health care and health organization. Common types of violence include physical harassment, sexual abuse, aggression, mobbing and bullying. Patients, their relatives and co-workers are considered the main perpetrators. To determine the prevalence rate of workplace violence against nursing professionals in a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, most frequent type and perpetrators as well as the contributing factors. This quantitative cross-sectional study adapted a survey questionnaire from the Massachusetts Nurses Association Survey on Workplace Violence/Abuse to collect data from a quota sample of 370 nursing personnel. Almost half of the participants had experienced violence in the professional setting during the 12 months prior to the study. The majority of subjects perceived workplace violence as verbal abuse. Nearly all nursing professionals identified patients as the leading cause. Slightly more than half mentioned understaffing, misunderstandings, long waits for service and lack of staff training and policies for preventing crisis as contributing factors. The prevalence rate is extremely high among nurses in the targeted Saudi university hospital. Saudi health as well as university hospitals' administration and policy makers should adopt and introduce a 'zero tolerance policy', set standards and develop practical measures for preventing the incidence and for controlling the prevalence of violence against nurses. Besides, healthcare organizations, particularly hospitals, can fulfil their obligations to provide both staff and patients with more secure environment. Further research on the topic is needed. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Al Tufail, M. A. [محمد عبد الله الطفيل; Al Araidh, I. A. [ابراهيم عبد الله العريض
11 honey various samples commercially available in Saudi Arabia, were subjected to chemical, toxicological and bacteriological tests. The samples were checked for As and CN, presence of pollens, and for bacteria contamination. The carbohydrate profile was analyzed with HPLC. Fe, P, Ca, K, and Mg were measured with colorimetry. Toxic metals, As, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Hg were determined with ICP-MS. The samples were investigated by GC-MS. The investigation revealed the presence of syringaldehyde, men...
Abdullah M AlBedah
Full Text Available Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is a popular treatment option for many populations. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward CAM. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, a multistage random sample was taken from health professionals working in hospitals in Riyadh city and surrounding governorates. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, from 306 health professionals working in 19 hospitals, on socio-demographic data, knowledge about CAM and their sources, and attitudes toward CAM practices. Results: Of the participants, 88.9% had some knowledge about CAM. Respondents with a doctorate degree (94.74% and 92.53% of those with a bachelor′s degree had significantly higher knowledge of CAM than subjects with a diploma, a fellowship, or a master′s degree (68.75%, 76.67%, and 85.41%, respectively, P = 0.004. Mass media represented 60.1% of sources of the knowledge of CAM followed by family, relatives, and friends (29.08% and health educational organizations (14.71%. Participants estimated that prophetic medicine including prayer, honey and bee products, medical herbs, Hijama, nutrition and nutritional supplements, cauterization, and camel milk and urine were the most commonly used CAM practices (90.5%, 85%, 76.9%, 70.6%, 61.4%, 55.9%, and 52.5%, respectively in addition to medical massage (61.8% and acupuncture (55%. One hundred and fifteen (80% physicians were ready to talk with their patients on CAM. Conclusion: The willingness to improve knowledge and create a positive attitude in health professionals toward CAM has increased. Religious practices, especially those related to prophetic medicine, are more common in the region. Health educational organizations have to play a greater role by being the source of evidence-based knowledge of CAM. Talking on CAM with patients should be improved by rooting
Ahmed I. Rushdi
Full Text Available Soil particles contain a variety of anthropogenic and natural organic components derived from many sources such as industrial and traffic fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial biota. The organic contents of soil and sand from the Arabian region have not fully characterized. Thus, samples of fine soil particles (sieved to <125 μM were collected from the Riyadh area in November 2006 (late summer and February 2007 (late winter. The samples were extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane/hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS in order to characterize the chemical composition and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The results showed that both anthropogenic and natural biogenic inputs were the major sources of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in these extracts. Vehicular emission products and discarded plastics were the major anthropogenic sources in the fine particles of the soils and ranged from 64% to 96% in November 2006 and from 70% to 92% in February 2007. Their tracers were n-alkanes, hopanes, sterane, plasticizers and UCM. Vegetation was also a major natural source of hydrocarbon compounds in samples ranging from ∼0% to18% in November 2006 and from 1% to 13% in February 2007 and included n-alkanes and triterpenoids.
Fetohy, Ebtisam M
An experimental study was conducted to assess the impact and suitability of menstrual education program (MEP) for 1st and 2nd graders at a girls' secondary school in Riyadh city. The MEP was conducted on 5 classes, through one session and one assessment. The results revealed that the mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of the intervention classes (1st and 2nd graders) were significantly higher than that of the control classes. Stepwise linear regression models show that the age of menarche and grade were the predictors of students' knowledge among the control group and explained 7.8% of the variation of the knowledge score. Knowledge was a predictor of students' attitude of both groups (control and intervention) (beta = 0.359, 0.300 respectively). Knowledge was also a predictor of students' menstrual practice among control group (beta = -2.12). Attitude was a predictor of students' menstrual practice for both groups (beta = 0.360, 0.252 respectively). The study recommended the replication of the same program among elementary, preparatory, and other secondary schools for improvement of students' menstrual knowledge, attitudes and practice.
Mohamed, Ashry G
To determine the extent of work-related violence against nurses in hospitals in Riyadh. Through a cross sectional approach, a self administered questionnaire was offered to 500 active-duty nurses selected randomly. In addition to the demographic characteristics, the questionnaire inquired about exposure to workplace violence, hospital and department of employment at the time of exposure, characteristics of the assailant and nurses' perception of the causes of violence. Out of 434 respondents, 93 (21.4%) were males, and 341 (78.6%) females. The mean age was 36.1 ± 7.97 years. Workplace violence was experienced by 235 (54.3%) nurses. Of these 93.2% were exposed to harsh insulting language, 32.8% to verbal threat, 28.1% to attempts of physical assault, 17.4% to sexual harassment and 16.2% to actual physical assault. Nurses working in psychiatry and emergency units had the highest rate of exposure to violence (84.3% & 62.1% respectively) Nurses perceived shortage in security personnel (82%), shortage in nursing staff (63%), language barrier (36.3%) and unrestricted movement of patients in hospitals (21.5%) as causes of their exposure to violence. improve security in hospitals by increasing the number of security officers on duty and increase the community's awareness of the problem.
Sayigh, A A.M.; El-Salem, E M.A.
The performance of seven reinforced-concrete solar stills in Saudi Arabia was compared. The stills varied with respect to the thickness of the glass cover, the cover slope, absorbent materials, and the sealing agent between the glass cover and the frame. The absorbent materials were red sand, black sand, straw, black dye, and charcoal. A still with a cover sloped at 20/sup 0/ gave the best performance. This still was tested with different absorbents, and it was found that black stone yielded the highest output with 1.5 liters/day at a yearly average efficiency of 45%.
Kentab, Mohammad Y.
The problem of the study revolves around the application of the requirements of governance at King Saud University. The study aims to identify the extent of governance requirements at King Saud University as seen by faculty members through transparency, accountability, organizational structure, laws, regulations, and justice. To achieve the…
Al Garni, Bishi; Pani, Sharat Chandra; Almaaz, Adel; Al Qeshtaini, Ehsan; Abu-Haimed, Hamad; Al Sharif, Khalid
One of the factors that dissuade patients needing tooth replacement from choosing dental implants is the prohibitive cost. Willingness to pay (WTP) is a useful tool to determine the ideal cost of an expensive procedure. The aim of this study was to study the factors that influence the willingness to pay (WTP) among patients attending a private clinic and compare them to those attending a government setup. A total of 100 patients (38 male, 62 female) who had one or more missing teeth were presented with different cost-benefit scenarios and then asked if they were willing to pay the median cost of a single implant in Riyadh city. The mean WTP price was compared using the one way-ANOVA, factors which could possibly influence patients' WTP were grouped together in a Binomial logistic regression model. Of the 100 individuals surveyed 67% said they would be willing to pay the median price for the placement of an implant. A comparison of socio-demographic factors showed that significant differences were found between gender, income groups and setting of the clinic in the mean WTP price of the patients (P difference in the mean WTP price between groups with regard to the area of the missing tooth, the patients' perception of their oral health and the their desire to want an implant (P pay the median price for an implant. Willingness to pay (WTP) is a multifactorial variable which is significantly influenced by the income of the patient, the setting of the clinic and the gender; the most significant factor being the acceptability of the implant to the patient.
Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Alqahtani, Fulwah Y; Aleanizy, Fadilah S
Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). Retrospective chart review for patients admitted to emergency department and diagnosed with UTIS at KAMC, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January to March 2008 was performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate), cefazolin, co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin, and cefpodoxime was determined for 101 E. coli urinary isolates. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen contributing to UTIS representing 93.55, 60.24, and 45.83% of all pathogen isolated from urine culture of pediatric, adult, and elderly, respectively. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (82.76, 58, and 63.64%) and co-trimoxazole (51.72, 42, and 59.09%), among E. coli isolated from pediatric, adult and elderly respectively. Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent, followed by ciprofloxacin, augmentin and cefazolin. 22.77% of E. coli isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance (MDR). Among 66 and 49 isolates resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, respectively, 34.84 and 42.85% were MDR. In contrast, all isolates resistant to augmentin and nitrofurantoin were MRD, while 72.7 and 82.4% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefazolin were MDR. High resistance was observed to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole which commonly used as empirical treatments for UTIS, limiting their clinical use. This necessitates continuous surveillance for resistance pattern of uropathogens against antibiotics.
Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman S
The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD) among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College) were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs) and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs) and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20-39-years) and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40-59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable.
AlSaeed, Eyad Fawzi; Tunio, Mutahir A
We aimed to compare the dietary habits, engagement in various sports, smoking habits, marital status and other demographic characteristics, between cancer patients and healthy adults (control) at our institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 500 participants (237 cancer patients and 263 healthy adults). A well-structured questionnaire was given to these participants regarding the life style, dietary habits, and marital status through interviews. Mean age of whole cohort was 39.3 years (range: 14-85). Among the cancer patients, breast cancer was predominant (45.6%). Compared to controls, higher percentage of married (72.6% vs. 55.5%) and divorced (10.2% vs.4.2%) was noticed in cancer patients (P = 0.002). In cancer patients, majority were unemployed (housewives = 49.3%; retired = 16.0%) as compared to controls (housewives = 14.1%; retired = 2.0%) P = 0.0001. Use of computer laptops/tablets and internet surfing was significantly higher in controls as compared to cancer patients (80.3% vs. 42.2%) P = 0.0001. Similarly, cancer patients started smoking at early age and were relatively heavy smokers with P = 0.03 and P = 0.001 respectively. Cancer patients consumed < 3 cups of coffee/day as compared to control (42.4% vs. 21.5%) P = 0.02. More cancer patients got married at early age between 11-20 years (58.7% vs. 37.7%) P = 0.01. Unemployment, marital status, lack of nutritional knowledge through internet, heavy smoking, heavy coffee consumption and early age at marriage were associated with the risk of various cancers in both genders.
Abdulrahman S. Al-Ajlan
Full Text Available The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20–39-years and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40–59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable.
Saad S. Albogami
Full Text Available ARTIs have a huge impact in health systems in which 20–30% of all hospital admissions and 30–60% of practitioner visits are related to respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and seasonal variation of respiratory viruses. This study was descriptive retrospective study in which all patients 14 years of age and below who presented with signs and symptoms of ARTIs between January 2013 and December 2014 and had respiratory specimen tested by direct immunofluorescence assays for viruses identification were included in the study. During that period, a total of 4611 patients who presented with ARTIs from January 2013 to December 2014 were investigated, viruses were detected in 1115 (24%. RSV was associated with 97.4% of the total viral pathogens. Viruses were detected throughout all the two years with a peak in winter; Dec (n: 265, Jan (n: 418, Feb (n: 218, and Mar (n: 109. Viral pathogens are very important cause of ARTIs in our region. RSV was the most common virus detected with the highest detection rate in children who are two years old and below. A multi-center surveillance with more sensitive detection methods like PCR may help to provide a comprehensive understanding of virus distribution in our area, which may contribute implant an effective prevention approach for each virus. Keywords: Pediatrics, Infectious diseases, Respiratory infections, Respiratory syncytial virus, Saudi Arabia
Vinodkumar Balakrishna Pillai Padmakshiamma
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Low back pain is the second most common symptom related reason for clinician visits in the United States. Up to 84 percent of adults have low back pain at some time in their lives. Low back pain poses an economic burden to society mainly in terms of the large number of work days lost by a small percentage of patients who develop chronic back pain. Lifestyle diseases are defined as those problems that evolve due to changes in lifestyle. The contributing factors are bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body postures, habits and personality including sleep and disturbed biological clock. Spinal disorders contribute to loss more than 20 million of productive life years. Wrong sitting and standing posture while working gives stress to backbone and leads to chronic backache. Regularly spending a lot of time in front of computer may also lead to muscular pain of neck and back. People who lift heavy weight are predisposed to disc diseases and sciatica. In this background this study was conducted to 1. Determine the obesity as a risk factor for back ache 2. Find out other factors that contribute to backache. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design- Case-Control Study. Study Period- April 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015. Study Site- KMCR, Al-Malaz, Riyadh, KSA. All persons coming to Orthopaedics OP during the study period with back pain both males and females for the first time constituted the cases and a person coming to orthopaedics OP without backache Exclusion criteria- Acute trauma with RTA and fall. Data was collected by self-administered structured questionnaire and personal examination and investigation evaluation. Software support- Excel, SPSS RESULTS 1 BMI with OR (odds ratio 4.85(p=0.000, 95%; CI 2.30-10.19; 2 Stress-OR=2.82(p=0.002, 95%; CI 1.45-5.50; 3 Personality-OR=2.94 (p=0.003, 95%; CI 1.45-5.96. The other factors tested having OR more than one were-1 Age, OR=1.15; 2 Exercises, OR=1.24; 3 Existences of comorbid conditions, OR=1
Fagbo, Shamsudeen F; Garbati, Musa A; Hasan, Rami; AlShahrani, Dayel; Al-Shehri, Mohamed; AlFawaz, Tariq; Hakawi, Ahmed; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Skakni, Leila
The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia has intensified focus on Acute Respiratory Infections [ARIs]. This study sought to identify respiratory viruses (RVs) associated with ARIs in children presenting at a tertiary hospital. Children (aged ≤13) presenting with ARI between January 2012 and December 2013 tested for 15 RVs using the Seeplex R RV15 kit were retrospectively included. Epidemiological data was retrieved from patient records. Of the 2235 children tested, 61.5% were ≤1 year with a male: female ratio of 3:2. Viruses were detected in 1364 (61.02%) children, 233 (10.4%) having dual infections: these viruses include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (24%), human rhinovirus (hRV) (19.7%), adenovirus (5.7%), influenza virus (5.3%), and parainfluenzavirus-3 (4.6%). Children, aged 9-11 months, were most infected (60.9%). Lower respiratory tract infections (55.4%) were significantly more than upper respiratory tract infection (45.3%) (P < 0.001). Seasonal variation of RV was directly and inversely proportional to relative humidity and temperature, respectively, for non MERS coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, and OC43). The study confirms community-acquired RV associated with ARI in children and suggests modulating roles for abiotic factors in RV epidemiology. However, community-based studies are needed to elucidate how these factors locally influence RV epidemiology. J. Med. Virol. 89:195-201, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Turki H. Albatti
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to 1 determine the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD among both governmental and private primary Saudi school children, 2 measure the gender difference of ADHD prevalence, and 3 determine any association between the socio-demographic characteristic of the parents of children with ADHD. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study of 1000 primary school children belonging to 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade. The selected students were screened by the ADHD rating scale using multistage sampling technique. The first stage was selection of 20 schools from all Riyadh regions by simple randomization. The second stage was choosing children whom serial numbers were multiples of five in each class. The ADHD rating scale was filled by both parents and teachers along with a socio-demographic questionnaire for the parents. Results: The estimated prevalence of ADHD was 3.4%. ADHD manifestations affect boys more than girls. In addition, ADHD was more frequent among children of illiterate mothers. Finally, ADHD was significantly more prevalent among first grade children. Conclusion: This epidemiological study filled the data gap of ADHD prevalence in Riyadh. The study's findings go in line with many nearby and global studies. Keywords: ADHD, Prevalence, Socio-demographics, Children, Saudi Arabia
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the impact of a school-based oral hygiene instructions program on the gingival health of children in randomly selected middle schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred and fourteen children were selected from nine schools that were randomly determined from Riyadh City public schools. After obtaining the parents′ consent, the criteria-guided enrolment of study participants yielded 457 children in the control group and 457 students in the experimental group. The intervention design was 90 days experimental period with an intermediate follow-up visit at 45 days. A calibrated examiner (HW measured the plaque index (PI and the gingival index (GI. The indices were measured at day 1, day 45 and day 90 in both the control and the experimental groups. Results were analyzed with Wilcoxon sign rank test for each index, site, and by sessions for each group to determine if the scores had increased, decreased, or remained the same between intervals. Results: Plaque and gingival scores in the control group showed a steady improvement throughout the experimental period when compared with the baseline scores. Scores in the experimental group were significantly improved at each session between baseline and session 2 (45 days and session 3 (90days respectively. Conclusions: The continued reduction of GI and PI scores at the end of the intervention observed in this pilot study suggest that a school-based oral hygiene measures program can significantly improve oral health among school children in Saudi Arabia.
Alkharfy Khalid M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Follow-up epidemiologic studies are needed to assess trends and patterns of disease spread. No follow-up epidemiologic study has been done in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the current prevalence of major chronic, noncommunicable diseases, specifically in the urban region, where modifiable risk factors remain rampant. This study aims to fill this gap. Methods A total of 9,149 adult Saudis ages seven to eighty years (5,357 males (58.6% and 3,792 females (41.4% were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2 and obesity were based on the World Health Organization definitions. Diagnoses of hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD were based on the Seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and American Heart Association criteria, respectively. Results The overall crude prevalence of DMT2 was 23.1% (95% confidence interval (95% CI 20.47 to 22.15. The age-adjusted prevalence of DMT2 was 31.6%. DMT2 prevalence was significantly higher in males, with an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 34.7% (95% CI 32.6 to 35.4, than in females, who had an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 28.6% (95% CI 26.7 to 29.3 (P P Conclusion Comparisons of our findings with earlier data show that the prevalence of DMT2, hypertension and CAD in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has alarmingly worsened. Aggressive promotion of public awareness, continued screening and early intervention are pivotal to boosting a positive response.
Rahman, M. T.
The city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia has experienced rapid population growth and urban expansion over the past several decades. Due to such growth, the capital city faces many short and long-term social and environmental consequences. In order to monitor and mitigate some of these consequences, it is essential to examine the past changes and historical growth of the city. It is also essential to measure its urban sprawl over the past few decades. The objective of this study is to fulfil these goals. It does so by first examining the historical growth of the city of Riyadh. To do so, Landsat data over the past two and half decades are classified using a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification techniques. Based on the classification results, the study then uses Shannon's Entropy to measure the urban sprawl in the city. The results show that from 1990-2009, the urban built-up area of the city has increased by 90% in the western, south-eastern, and northern parts. The Shannon's entropy values show that the city is dispersing towards the outskirts of the city. The results from this study will assist city planners and government officials to plan, reduce, and perhaps mitigate some of the social and environmental consequences and enable the growth of the city in a sustainable manner in the near future.
Qurashi, Salem; Tamimi, Abdulrahman; Jaradat, Maha; Al Sayyari, Abulla
To assess the effect of fasting Ramadan during the hottest month of the year in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This prospective cohort study was performed at the King Fahd National Guard Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula to estimate the glomerular filtration rate in renal transplant patients who fasted and did not fast before and after Ramadan. There were 43 fasters and 37 nonfasters of comparable ages, with fasters having longer posttransplant times compared with nonfasters (P = .0001). The 2 groups had similar mean estimated glomerular filtration rates before Ramadan: 75.6 ± 29.2 and 65.9 ± 25.9 mL/min (P = .1) and similar mean estimated glomerular filtration rates 6 months after Ramadan: 77.2 ± 29.7 and 64.1 ± 29 mL/min (P = .21). Mean changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar in the 2 groups: -1.5 ± 10.9 and -2.8 ± 19.3 (P = .7) as was the percentage change (-0.2.2 ± 13.4 and 1.8 ± 15.9; P = .4). In the fasting group, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar before and 6 months after Ramadan: 105.1 ± 55 and 105.14 ± 61 μmol/L (P = 1.0) and 75.6 ± 29 and 72.2 ± 29.7 mL/min (P = .36). No significant changes were observed in the nonfasting group. No significant differences were detected regarding fasting in the estimated glomerular filtration rate before and 6 months after Ramadan in the 3 groups with the low, moderate, and high glomerular filtration rates at baseline. Fasting for Ramadan in August does not adversely affect graft function at a mean follow-up of 7.6 ± 1.3 months.
Al-Mohaissen, Maha A
Awareness of basic life support (BLS) is paramount to ensure the provision of essential life-saving medical care in emergency situations. This study aimed to measure knowledge of BLS and attitudes towards BLS training among female health students at a women's university in Saudi Arabia. This prospective cross-sectional study took place between January and April 2016 at five health colleges of the Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All 2,955 students attending the health colleges were invited to participate in the study. Participants were subsequently asked to complete a validated English-language questionnaire which included 21 items assessing knowledge of BLS and six items gauging attitudes to BLS. A total of 1,349 students completed the questionnaire (response rate: 45.7%). The mean overall knowledge score was very low (32.7 ± 13.9) and 87.9% of the participants had very poor knowledge scores. A total of 32.5% of the participants had never received any BLS training. Students who had previously received BLS training had significantly higher knowledge scores ( P supported mandatory BLS training. Overall knowledge about BLS among the students was very poor; however, attitudes towards BLS training were positive. These findings call for an improvement in BLS education among Saudi female health students so as to ensure appropriate responses in cardiac arrest or other emergency situations.
Al-Haqwi Ali I
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early
Full Text Available Abstract: Self-medication is a widespread behavior worldwide. It is defined as the practice of self-diagnosis and drug prescription without proper professional consultation. Aim: To determine the prevalence and predictors of self-medication for oral health problems among adults living in Riyadh city. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a structured close-ended questionnaire was distributed among adults visiting shopping malls in all different five regions of Riyadh. A two-stage sampling technique was used: cluster and simple random sampling. The questionnaire was composed of two main sections: demographic characteristics and questions assessing the behavior of self-medication. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was found to be 63.25%, with a higher prevalence among females than males. Gender and nationality were significantly associated with self-medication. Salt in hot water locally (52.57% and acetaminophen (47.43%, a type of an analgesic, were, systemically, the most frequently used. Pharmacy shops were the main source of these medicaments (66.01%. Similarly, the advice for using them was mainly given by pharmacists (53.36%. Lack of time was claimed to be the main reason for practicing self-medication (54.55% with abscess, toothache, and gingival bleeding being the main predictors. Conclusions: Self-medication was found to be a common practice among the population of Riyadh city.
Alfaifi, Mousa S.
This study aimed to determine the level of self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) among undergraduate students at Saudi Electronic University in Saudi Arabia. Also, investigated were potential relationships between the level of self-directed learning readiness and selected demographic variables such as gender and specific college within the…
Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Alokail, Majed S; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P
In this observational study, we aimed to see whether transition in Saudi students entering university life could be a breeding stage for cardiometabolic risk factor emergence and clustering. A total of 1878 apparently healthy Saudi students of the Preparatory Year, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (1112 men and 766 women) spanning 2 academic years were included. They were divided into 2 groups based on the validated perceived stress test (PST). Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of fasting blood glucose and a lipid profile. PST score (>27) considered indicative of stress was noted in 44.4% of students. The prevalence of this score was higher in women than in men (49.7% versus 40.7%). The prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia was significantly higher in men than women (p students entering universities. This study sheds light on the social responsibility of universities in promoting a healthy lifestyle, particularly in this age group, when exposure to different kinds of stressors may result in body weight and metabolic changes.
Full Text Available Anastasia Samara,1 Anne Nistrup,1 Tamader Y AL-Rammah,2 Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion and Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Faculty of Rehabilitation and Health Sciences, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women’s low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females.Patients and methods: Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor’s programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1 socioeconomic status, 2 physical activity, 3 self-efficacy 4 social factors, and 5 barriers and facilitators related to physical activity.Results: The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14. Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%. Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10. Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity.Conclusion: The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of
Rushdi, Ahmed I; Al-Mutlaq, Khalid; Simoneit, Bernd R T
Major advances have been made in molecular marker analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic organic matter inputs to the atmosphere. Resuspension of soil and sand by wind is one of the major mechanisms that produces particle dusts in the atmosphere. Soil and sand samples from the Riyadh area were collected in winter 2002, sieved to remove coarse particles and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1, v:v). The total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the contents and identify the potential sources of the organic components. The major organic compounds of these extracts were derived from natural biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Organic compounds from natural sources, mainly vegetation, were major in samples from outside the city of Riyadh and included n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n- alkanols, methyl alkanoates, and sterols. Anthropogenic inputs were significant in the fine particles of soil and sand samples collected from populated areas of the city. They consisted mainly of n-alkanes, hopanes, UCM (from vehicular emissions), and plasticizers (from discarded plastics, e.g., shopping bags). Carbohydrates had high concentrations in all samples and indicate sources from decomposed cellulose fibers and/or the presence of viable microbiota such as bacteria and fungi.
Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.
Alquraini, Turki A.
In Saudi Arabia, the majority of students with severe intellectual disabilities are still educated in special schools that do not meet their unique needs for interaction with their typically developing peers in public schools settings where they could improve social, communication and academic skills. One of the most significant obstacles to…
El-Ansary, Afaf; Warsy, Arjumand; Daghestani, Maha; Merghani, Nada M.; Al-Dbass, Abeer; Bukhari, Wadha; Al-Ojayan, Badryah; Ibrahim, Eiman M.; Al-Qahtani, Asma M.; Shafi Bhat, Ramesa
The current study aims to synthesize silver nanoparticles using Ziziphus spina Christi (ZSC) or (Sidr) aqueous leaf extract collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using sidr leaves extract was successful. Production of silver nanoparticles was confirmed through UV-vis Spectrophotometer, particles size and zeta potential analysis, Infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning, and Transmission Electron Microscope (SEM and TEM). The UV-visible spectra showed that the absorption peak existed at 400 nm. SEM analysis showed that the synthesized AgNPs were spherical but in slightly aggregated form. TEM demonstrated different size range of 4-33 nm with an average size of 13. The element analysis profile showed silver signal together with oxygen, calcium, and potassium peaks which might be related to the plant structure. Biological effects of the synthesized AgNPs exhibit satisfactory inhibitory effect against ten tested microorganisms. It inhibited the growth of 5 gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, AgNPs demonstrated a synergistic effect on the neurotoxicity induced in rat pups with orally administered methyl mercury (MeHg). The present study showed that AgNPs prepared from ZSC might be a promising antimicrobial agent for successful treatment of bacterial infection in intensive care units (ICU) especially in case of antibiotic resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that while graphic warning labels are perceived as necessary on cigarette packages the currently used messages are not clear and therefore do not serve their intended purposes. Measures should be undertaken to ensure that pictorial cigarette labels used in Saudi Arabia are culturally and ethnically appropriate and are rotated on a regular basis to ensure salience among smokers and nonsmokers alike.
Alanazi, Abdullah D; Mukbel, Rami M; Alyousif, Mohamed S; AlShehri, Zafer S; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I
In the last decade, Parascaris spp. resistance to anthelmintics has been recorded in many countries. In Saudi Arabia, there are limited data available on Parascaris spp. resistance to anthelmintics. To determine the current status of ivermectin, abamectin and praziquantel combined, and fenbendazole resistance to Parascaris spp. in horses in Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and forty-one foals from eleven different farms were examined by faecal egg count (FEC). The foals were all Arab horses aged 17.2 ± 4.5 (SD) months. Ivermectin (n = 46 foals), abamectin and praziquantel combined (n = 46), and fenbendazole (n = 46) were administered on day 0 and faeces were collected on day 14. The study comprised 41 untreated foals as controls. Animals that have FEC of ≥100 eggs per gram (EPG) were used to measure anthelmintic efficacy. Parascaris spp. populations were considered susceptible when faecal egg count reduction (FECR) was ≥95% associated with a lower 95% confidence limit (LCL) >90%, suspected resistant when FECR ≤90% or LCL Saudi Arabia.
Bandar Khalaf Alharthey
Full Text Available Nowadays, many researchers focus on the relocation of the government in the transformation of The purpose of this study is to examine the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR practices in higher education of Saudi Arabia. The growing importance of CSR has made it necessary for every university to use international benchmarks as standard to devise their CSR practices accordingly. This realization has shifted focus of CSR practices of Saudi universities towards every dimension of CSR. The study collected secondary data through 120 advertisements published from 2012 to 2015 and found out that CSR practices of universities of Saudi Arabia remain focused on social dimension of CSR because Saudi culture and religion had profound impact on business laws and eventually on CSR practices.
Suliman Ibrahim Alhaidari
Full Text Available Background: An important indication of a child′s well-being is evidence of having a normal growth pattern. A child′s growth pattern is influenced by multiple factors, genetic and/or environmental. From an environmental point of view, the socio-economic status of the mother plays an important role in a child′s growth during the early stages of childhood. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the association between mothers′ educational and socio-economic status on their children′s growth in Riyadh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in eight hospitals in Riyadh. The target population was children aged between 1 month and 7 years and their mothers visiting the vaccination clinics. The mother′s data were collected using a structured interview, and the child′s weight and height were measured and plotted on growth charts. Results: A total of 744 mothers and children were screened (392 males, 352 females. The proportion of children with weight and height under the 25 th percentile was 40% and 29%, respectively. In terms of education, the height of a higher proportion of children (33% was under the 25 th percentile if the mother had a high school education compared with 25% when the mother had a college education (P = 0.02. Private sector-employed mothers had a lower proportion of children (26% with weight below the 25 th percentile compared to mothers who were government-employed or unemployed (both 41%. Mothers living in an apartment had a significantly lower proportion of children (24% with height under the 25 th percentile compared to mothers living in a house (33% (P = 0.04. In addition, mothers living in a rented residence had a significantly lower proportion (40% of children with weight under the 25 th percentile than mothers living in owned ones (42% (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Underweight and short stature among children are associated with less educated and unemployed mothers and with mothers who live in a house. The
Alotaibi, Faihan D.; Ali, Adel A.
In mobile radio systems, path loss models are necessary for proper planning, interference estimations, frequently assignments and cell parameters which are basic for network planning process as well as Location Based Services (LBS) techniques that are not based on GPS system. Empirical models are the most adjustable models that can be suited to different types of environments. In this paper, the Lee path loss model has been tuned using Least Square (LS) algorithm to fit measured data for TETRA system operating 400 MHz in Riyadh urban and suburbs. Consequently, Lee model's parameter (L0, y) are obtained for the targeted areas. The performance of the tuned Lee model is then compared to the three most widely used empirical path loss models: Hat, ITU-R and Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami non line-of-sight (CWI-NLOS) path loss models. The performance criterion selected for the comparison of various empirical path loss models are the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and goodness of fit (R2). The RMSE and R2between the actual and predicted data are calculated for various path loss models. It turned that the tuned Lee model outperforms the other empirical models. (author)
Elsayid, Mohieldin; Al Qahtani, Faris Saeed; Al Qarni, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Almajed, Faisal; Al Saqri, Faisal; Qureshi, Shoeb
Background: The Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is one of the most polymorphic and immunogenic systems known in humans, because of its immunogenicity along with ABO grouping, RhD antigen testing was made mandatory before issuing a compatible blood. At present, there are five major antigens, i.e., D, C, E, c, and e in Rh blood group system. Aims: The aim of this study is to provide essential data about the distribution of the major Rh antigens and the most common phenotype among the Saudi popul...
Samara, Anastasia; Nistrup, Anne; Al-Rammah, Tamader Y; Aro, Arja R
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women's low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females. Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor's programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1) socioeconomic status, 2) physical activity, 3) self-efficacy 4) social factors, and 5) barriers and facilitators related to physical activity. The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14). Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%). Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10). Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity. The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of knowledge is to be expected given their health and well-being studies backgrounds) and/or restrictions from families and society, seem to hinder female students' physical activity, at least young Saudi students.
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Al-Sultan, Omar A; Alghamdi, Qusay A; Almohaimeed, Ibrahim K; Alqannas, Sulaiman I
To evaluate the gender-specific difference in the prevalence of depression and anxiety and the help-seeking behavior among gastroenterology outpatients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in gastroenterology clinics in 4 hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between February and September 2013. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and administered to patients. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaires were used to identify depression and anxiety. A total of 438 patients completed the study questionnaire; 135 (31%) females, and 303 (69%) males. Compared with males, females had more depression symptoms (44% versus 32%, p=0.012), anxiety symptoms (34% versus 24%, p=0.036), anxiety-associated difficulty (65% versus 52%, p=0.012), but similar suicidal thoughts (14% versus 11%, p=0.347). Females had similar gastrointestinal complaints but longer duration of symptoms. In both females and males, the most common first interventions were using medications (63% versus 69%), and undergoing endoscopy (19% versus 15%), while very few patients initially used herbs or Islamic incantation `Roquia` (7% versus 8%). Compared with males, females were more likely to subsequently seek help at private clinics (23% versus 14%, p=0.014), or with a Quran therapist (11% versus 5%, p=0.012). There are clear gender-specific differences in depression and anxiety symptoms and associated perceived difficulty, but modest differences in help-seeking behavior. Female patients at the gastroenterology clinic may deserve more psychological attention to diagnose depression and anxiety and to alleviate their impact.
Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E
The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators.
Full Text Available Saleh Alsulami, Zaid Al Omar, Mohammed S Binnwejim, Fahad Alhamdan, Amr Aldrees, Abdulkarim Al-bawardi, Meshary Alsohim, Mohammed Alhabeeb Departments of Family Medicine and Medical Education, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The Health Science Preparatory Program (HSPP is a special program that aims to enhance the educational preparedness of students for participation in a health sciences career. Students spend their first university year in a combined extensive teaching program before they can be assigned to a particular health science specialty. It is thought that students enrolled in a highly competitive environment such as HSPP with a long list of potential stressors, including developmental, academic overload, language barriers and competition, are more disposed to stress and stress-related complications. This study aims to measure the level of academic stress and to determine its risk factors in students enrolled in HSPP-adapted local universities in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted at two Saudi universities, King Saud University (KSU and Imam Mohammad ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSU with competition-based and non-competition-based HSPP learning models, respectively. Both universities adopt the HSPP system. The scale for assessing academic stress (SAAS was used to assess students’ perceived stress. A total of 290 students successfully completed the questionnaire (N=290, with a mean age of 18.66 years. Mean SAAS scores for KSU and IMSU students were 8.37 (SD = 4.641 and 7.97 (SD = 5.104, P=0.480, respectively. Only “satisfaction” and “associated social and health problems” have shown statistically significant correlation with university (P=0.000 and P=0.049, respectively. This study has found mean SAAS score for two local universities with competition-based versus non-competition-based HSPP learning models. Academic stress correlation with age, gender and
Imededdine Arbi Nehdi
Full Text Available Rhazya stricta (R. stricta known as Harmal is widely distributed in Saudi Arabia and throughout the Middle East. It is used as a medicinal plant in traditional cultures and the seeds are a source of unsaturated oil. In the present study, tocol (tocopherol and tocotrienol, triacylglycerol, and fatty acid compositions, pigment content, thermal behavior, and various physicochemical properties of R. stricta oil were characterized to determine the potential uses of this seed oil. Our results indicate that the oil is a rich source of bioactive molecules, including δ-tocopherol (896 mg/100 g, γ-tocopherol (148 mg/100 g and carotenoids (15.67 mg/kg. The oil content of the seeds was 13.68% and the triacylglycerols mainly consisted of linoleic acid (59.03%, and oleic acid (27.01%. The major triacylglycerols were trilinoleate, dilinoleate and monolinoleate. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA in the oil was high (9.20. Additionally, the oil showed a high degree of thermal stability and a low melting point of approximately −25 °C. These data indicate that R. stricta seed oil, which is low in saturated fats and rich in bioactive compounds, is potentially useful in food and pharmaceutical applications.
Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif
This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…
Al-Johar, Al-Waleed; Al-Saud, Abdulrahman; Abalkhail, Yazeed; Jawdat, Talal; Al-Khamees, Saleh; Al-Thunayan Faisal; Abdel-Gader, Abdel G
Saudi females constitute less than 5% of blood donors and as demand for blood is ever increasing there is a need to identify the factors that discourage them from donating their blood and subsequently to find approaches to enhance their share as blood donors. The aim of this study is to find out the knowledge, attitude and motivation of Saudi female university students towards blood donation. This is a questionnaire-based cross-sectional descriptive study among female students (n = 300) from six colleges: Medicine, Dentistry, Applied Medical Sciences, Science, Arts, and Business Administration at King Saud University, Riyadh. Questions covered their knowledge on blood donation and factors that discourage or motivate them to donate. The majority of participants are unaware that females constitute less than 5% of donors, but know that blood banks are in continuous need for donors to give support for needy patients particularly road traffic accidents and surgical patients. Fear from complications of the donation process prevailed widely. Most participants would donate as a religious obligation, need of a relative or friend, but not for money. The most prominent hurdle preventing them from donating is the difficulty of reaching the blood bank as they cannot drive cars or move alone in public transport. Most will donate if blood collection is done at their colleges and other places of gather- ing such as shopping malls. The attitude of Saudi female students towards blood donation is positive and few misconceptions that emerged could be corrected by health awareness campaigns. Careful organization of blood collection efforts that would observe the special status of women in the society by reaching them in their colleges and other gathering sites could enhance female donor input markedly.
Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K; Almussaed, Eman M; Fayed, Amel A; Khan, Farida H; Syed, Sadiqa B; Al-Tamimi, Tahani N; Elmorshedy, Hala N
To assess the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer and the acceptance of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Saudi female students in health colleges. This cross-sectional study of a convenient sample encompassed 1400 students in Health Colleges at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Data collected included socio-demographic data, knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and clinical presentation, Pap smear, and HPV vaccine acceptance. The questionnaire reliability as tested by Cronbach's alpha was 0.82. The response rate was 89.9%, and data analysis revealed that 95.7% of students had poor knowledge level. The Pap smear was poorly recognized as a screening tool, with 46.7% of students having heard of the test. Senior and medical students had a significantly higher knowledge score. Father's health profession, high monthly income, and presence of cervical cancer among family members or friends increased the level of knowledge. Vaccine acceptance is influenced by its price, approximately 80% of students thought that an affordable vaccine price should not exceed 300 Saudi Riyals. Perceived barriers to the vaccine were fear of injections and vaccine side effects. There is a lack of knowledge and misinformation regarding cervical cancer, Pap smear, and HPV as a major risk factor for cancer of the cervix. These data can be used as a benchmark to formulate effective awareness programs.
Alharbi, Wafa Owaydhah; Alturki, Khaled Ibrahim
The study aimed to identify the degree of social media contribution to reinforcing digital citizenship meaning from the viewpoint of female students at Imam Mohammed bin Saud Islamic University in Riyadh. The study was an attempt to answer the following two questions in order to achieve the objectives of the study: To which extent does SnapChat…
Abdulaziz I. Alharrah
Full Text Available E-learning that integrates digital knowledge content, network and information technology has become an emerging learning method. As the e-learning platform approach is becoming an important tool to allow the flexibility and quality requested by such a kind of learning process. There is a new kind of problem faced by organizations consisting in the selection of the most suitable e-learning platform. This paper proposes evaluation model for E-Learning platform in Riyadh City universities (RCU with Applied Geographic Information System (GIS. The E-Learning platform solution selection is a multiple criteria decision-making problem that needs to be addressed objectively taking into consideration the relative weights of the criteria for any organization. We formulate the quoted multi criteria problem as a decision hierarchy to be solved using GIS. AGIS-based evaluation index system and web-based evaluating platform were established. In this paper we will show the general evaluation strategy and some obtained results using our model to evaluate some existing commercial platforms.The results of evaluation model are outlined as follows: Total weights of the proposed framework in management feature is 20.25/25, in collaborative feature is 9.2/10, in adaption learning path is 6.8/10 and in interactive learning object is 5/5. The total weights of all features are 41.25/50. In this study an evaluation model was applied on Riyadh City universities like KSU, IMAMU, NAUSS, YU and FU. Then, the results were compared with each other. The total weighs of KSU was 41. While the total weights of FU, IMAMU, YU and NAUSS was 40, 37, 36 and 32, respectively. Evaluation process shows that the proposed framework satisfied the objectives with applied GIS.
Saeed, Elshazaly; Assiri, Asaad Mohammed; AwadEljack, Ibrahim; Aljasser, Abdullah S; Alhuzimi, Abdulrahman Mohammed; Assiri, Ahmed Assad; Alqahtani, Nasser Ali; Alshahrani, Saud Amer; Al-Ammar, Yousif A
To determine the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to March 2013 at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Using stratified sampling technique, undergraduate students of either gender from the health colleges were included. Information was collected through a pretested questionnaire. Measurements of the height and weight were noted and body mass index for all the subjects was calculated. Of the 292 students, 146(50%) were males and 146(50%) were females. Obesity was found in 40(13.7%)students. It was more prevalent among males than females (pobesity was significantly associated with obesity (p=0.016). No significant association was found between physical activity and obesity (p=0.863). There was considerable prevalence of obesity among the medical students. Being male, having family history of obesity, and having chronic diseases were important risk factors.
Abu-Rafea, Basim F; Al-Hassan, Basmah F; Al Nakshabandi, Kholoud A; Rahbini, Nora O; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K
To determine factors influencing final year medical undergraduate trainees at King Saud University in choosing a career in Obstetrics and Gynecology. In this cross sectional study, the undergraduate final year medical students and interns at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were asked to complete a survey instrument designed to assess possible attracting and detracting factors. The survey was conducted from January 2010 to February 2010. Factors were analyzed in a univariable and multivariable analysis. The survey was distributed to 507 students. Completed questionnaires were returned by 330 participants (response rate 65%). Overall, 32 (9.7 %) of students listed Obstetrics and Gynecology in their top 3 choices. The rotation of students through Obstetrics and Gynecology was the most influential factor attracting 81.3% of the students who chose to take this course. Faculty interaction was a major reason for attracting students accounting for 71.9%, but resident interaction was less attractive where only 37.5% of students mentioned that they were affected positively by residents. Hands-on experience such as performing deliveries and other procedures were significant attracting factors. (p=0.006 and p=0.004). The findings in this study will hopefully aid in recruiting trainees to the specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Saudi Arabia. Identifying the 5 major attracting factors from our study will allow our institute to integrate these factors in Obstetrics and Gynecology curriculum design, eventually increasing interest in postgraduate training in this specialty.
Abd El-Azeem Taha, Azza Ali; Abu-Zaid, Hany Ahmed; El-Sayed Desouky, Dalia
Eating disorders are a common health problem among adolescents, and females are especially vulnerable to them. There is lack of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in Saudi Arabia. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders among female undergraduate university students in Taif city, Saudi Arabia. The study was undertaken in the female section at Taif university from November 1, 2016 to March 30, 2017. Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of eating disorders. The questionnaire was distributed among undergraduate students and their anthropometric measurements were assessed after obtaining their consent. The sample included 1200 university students with a median age of 21 years (range 17-33). Nonparametric tests were used to assess relationship between variables. Chi-squared test was used to compare items of the disordered eating attitudes and behaviors between positive and negative EAT respondents. Using the cutoff score of 20 on EAT-26 test, 35.4% of the students were classified at risk for eating disorders. Medical and obese students achieved the highest significant EAT scores. A high prevalence of eating disorders was found among females at Taif university, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Our findings call for prevention of these disorders and we recommend establishing a national screening program among Saudi university female students for early detection and management of these problems. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Young, Barbara N.; Snead, Donald
Enrollment of Saudi Arabian International students' in United States institutions of higher learning has increased substantially over the years since King Abdullah initially launched the Saudi scholarship program in 2005 that was renewed in 2010 and funded an outward flow of Saudi student, including females, to universities worldwide. A commitment…
Turki Homod Albatti
Conclusion: Self-medication is highly prevalent in Riyadh, particularly among adolescents. Easy access to pharmacies was found to be the leading cause for self-medication. The use of these drugs was associated with inappropriate drug use and the deterioration of health status. Self-medication should be closely monitored and awareness should be increased with educational programs among students.
Suraya, Faryal; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Almubarak, Zaid; Alqaseem, Yazeed Abdullah
The aim was to investigate the effect of obesity on academic grades among Saudi female medical students. This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Plastic Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period November 2014 to June 2015. In all 191 second and third year female medical students with an average age of 21.31 years and body mass indices 15-40 were included. An English language questionnaire was established to obtain the information about age, gender, body mass index, level of study and the academic grades [Grade Point Average-GPA]. Female medical students with BMI 21-25 and 26-30 achieved high GPA while female medical students with higher BMI 31-35 and greater than 36 obtained low GPA. High BMI in female medical students impair the academic performance. The academic institutes must establish extra-curricular physical fitness policies to minimize the obesity and achieve better health and academic outcomes.
To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy. Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region. (author)
Gosadi, Ibrahim M.; Alatar, Abdullah A.; Otayf, Mojahed M.; AlJahani, Dhaherah M.; Ghabbani, Hisham M.; AlRajban, Waleed A.; Alrsheed, Abdullah M.; Al-Nasser, Khalid A.
Objectives: To create a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed to capture the dietary habits of Saudis and test its validity and reliability. Methods: This investigation is a longitudinal, test-retest study conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and March 2016. A list of 140 food items was included in the questionnaire where a closed-ended and open-ended approach was used. Regarding past year food frequency consumption and 24 hours...
Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K.; Almussaed, Eman M.; Fayed, Amel A.; Khan, Farida H.; Syed, Sadiqa B.; Al-Tamimi, Tahani N.; Elmorshedy, Hala N.
Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer and the acceptance of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Saudi female students in health colleges. Methods: This cross-sectional study of a convenient sample encompassed 1400 students in Health Colleges at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Data collected included socio-demographic data, knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and clinical presentation, Pap smear, and HPV vaccine acceptance. The questionnaire reliability as tested by Cronbach’s alpha was 0.82. Results: The response rate was 89.9%, and data analysis revealed that 95.7% of students had poor knowledge level. The Pap smear was poorly recognized as a screening tool, with 46.7% of students having heard of the test. Senior and medical students had a significantly higher knowledge score. Father’s health profession, high monthly income, and presence of cervical cancer among family members or friends increased the level of knowledge. Vaccine acceptance is influenced by its price, approximately 80% of students thought that an affordable vaccine price should not exceed 300 Saudi Riyals. Perceived barriers to the vaccine were fear of injections and vaccine side effects. Conclusion: There is a lack of knowledge and misinformation regarding cervical cancer, Pap smear, and HPV as a major risk factor for cancer of the cervix. These data can be used as a benchmark to formulate effective awareness programs. PMID:25316467
Aljaad, Nawal Hamad Mohamad
This study aims at identifying the role of social communication tools in education from the Saudi female students' perspectives that are studying at the college of education in King Saud University-Riyadh. This study used a survey, which was distributed to 500 female students. The results showed that 90% of respondents used social media where 95%…
Danish Hasan Qaiser
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: College students are at risk of many sleep disorders that may affect their performance. We conducted this study to identify the sleeping patterns, poor sleep quality factors among medical students, and to observe if there is any relationship between the student’s grades and their level of distress. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine (male campus, Riyadh. We included 101 (2nd, 3rd, and 4th year male medical students who completed a self-administered questionnaire. The students sleeping disturbances were evaluated by using Epworth Sleeping Scale (ESS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and their distress was evaluated by the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUD. A relationship between student’s distress and their grade was determined by using one-way ANOVA. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. RESULTS: The mean ±SD of the number of hours medical students slept was 5.6±2.6 hours. The most common cause of disturbed sleep was not being able to fall asleep within 30 minutes after going to bed. The mean score for ESS was 8.2 ±5.4. Most students had an ESS score <10 indicating that they had a normal amount of daytime sleepiness and good sleep. There was a relationship between the academic year and ESS; a higher percentage of the students in 3rd and 4th year were sleepy (ESS ≥ 10 than 2nd year (P = 0.04. There was no relation between the student’s grades and their level of distress (P = 0.37. CONCLUSION: Medical students got less actual sleep hours than the optimal sleep duration. However, most had normal day time sleepiness. There was no relation between the student’s grades and their level of distress.
Asi, Khaled Yousef
The present study aimed to identify the level of shyness among talented students in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and detect differences according to the variable of socio-economic level of the family. The sample consisted of (101) students, who randomly chosen from centers of talented students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Shyness scale utilized…
Al Ghamdi, Azala M.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the influence of leaders' sense of psychological empowerment for women leaders on those leaders' administrative creativity in both established and emerging universities in Saudi Arabia. The five guiding research questions were used at both established and emerging Saudi universities: (1) what…
Almazrou S; Alsahli H; Alwattar H; Alturki L; Alamri M
Saja Almazrou, Hind Alsahly, Huda Alwattar, Lamya Alturki, Mona Alamri Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Most liquid medications are packaged with administration devices, which may be used inappropriately or inaccurately, and sometimes are not used at all. Because of the importance of their proper use for children's health, this study was designed to assess Saudi mothers' experiences with measuring cup...
Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Soneidar, Walid Ahmed; Dhaifullah, Esam; Halboub, Esam Saleh; Tarakji, Bassel
More than 50 % of oral cancer cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Public knowledge about oral cancer can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of awareness and knowledge about signs and risk factors of oral cancer among dental patients in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from 1410 randomly selected patients attending dental departments within public hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at P oral cancer. Some 68.2 and 56.5 %, respectively, were able to correctly identify tobacco and alcohol as risk factors. More than two thirds of subjects had no knowledge about any signs of oral cancer. Participants with lower than university education were significantly less aware, and had much less knowledge, of the signs and risk factors of oral cancer. The knowledge regarding oral cancer among Saudi dental patients is alarmingly low. Interventions to improve public knowledge about oral cancer and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment are urgently indicated.
Alghamdi, Abdullah S.; Yahya, Mohammed A.; Alshammari, Ghedeir M.; Osman, Magdi A.
Background Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity and increases in associated diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in the Saudi population, no studies have addressed the spread of obesity among Saudi police officers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associations with biochemical parameters among the police in Riyadh. Method The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 160 police officers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthr...
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2Albaha University, Al Baha city, Saudi Arabia; 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al Baha, 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHSTrust, Lincoln, UK Background: This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods: Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results: In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32, followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07, and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69 than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men. Conclusion: A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the
NASSER, Mohamed; AL-AHMED, Azzam; SHOBRAK, Mohammed; ALDRYHIM, Yousif
The amblyceran and ischnoceran lice removed from the Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus L.) collected at the Riyadh bird market, and other specimens available in the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were identified. Amyrsidea minuta Emerson, a new country record, and Goniodes dissimilis Denny were found infesting the Indian Peafowl in Saudi Arabia. Goniodes dissimilis is recorded for the first time from this bird species, along with Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzs...
Turjoman, Mona Obaid Alrahman Ashik
Since the English Language teaching system differs from public schools to private ones, it is presumed that this would have a great impact of students' willingness to communicate in English in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of private and public school education on WTC in English among Saudi Female…
Fayed, Amel A; Wahabi, Hayfaa; Mamdouh, Heba; Kotb, Reham; Esmaeil, Samia
To investigate the impact of maternal age on pregnancy outcomes with special emphasis on adolescents and older mothers and to investigate the differences in demographic profile between adolescents and older mothers. This study is a secondary analysis of pregnancy outcomes of women in Riyadh Mother and Baby cohort study according to maternal age. The study population was grouped according to maternal age into five subgroups; mothers were married when conceived with the index pregnancy. Young mothers were less likely to be illiterate, more likely to achieve higher education and be employed compared with mothers ≥ 40 years. Compared with the reference group, adolescents were more likely to have vaginal delivery (and least likely to deliver by caesarean section (CS); OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9, while women ≥40 years, were more likely to deliver by CS; OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.3 to 3.7. Maternal age was a risk factor for gestational diabetes in women ≥40 years; OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.1. Adolescents had increased risk of preterm delivery; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1 and women ≥40 years had similar risk; OR, 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6. Adverse pregnancy outcomes show a continuum with the advancement of maternal age. Adolescents mother are more likely to have vaginal delivery; however, they are at increased risk of preterm delivery. Advanced maternal age is associated with increased risk of preterm delivery, gestational diabetes and CS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M
To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t -test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can
Saeed, E.; Assiri, A.M.; Awadeljack, I.; Aljasser, A.S.; Alhuzimi, A.M.; Assiri, A.A.; Alqahtani, N.A.; Alshahrani, S.A.; Ammar, Y.A.A
To determine the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to March 2013 at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Using stratified sampling technique, undergraduate students of either gender from the health colleges were included. Information was collected through a pretested questionnaire. Measurements of the height and weight were noted and body mass index for all the subjects was calculated. Results: Of the 292 students, 146(50%) were males and 146(50%) were females. Obesity was found in 40(13.7%)students. It was more prevalent among males than females (p<0.05) and among those who had chronic diseases (p<0.001). Family history of obesity was significantly associated with obesity (p=0.016). No significant association was found between physical activity and obesity (p=0.863). Conclusions: There was considerable prevalence of obesity among the medical students. Being male, having family history of obesity, and having chronic diseases were important risk factors. (author)
Full Text Available Mona M Soliman,1,2 Kamran Sattar,2 Sami Alnassar,3 Faisal Alsaif,4 Khalid Alswat,5 Mohamed Alghonaim,6 Maysoon Alhaizan,7 Nawaf Al-furaih7 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Medical Education, 3Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, 4Department of Surgery, King Saud University Medical City, 5Department of Internal Medicine, 6Department of Medicine, 7College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: The students’ perception of the learning environment is an important aspect for evaluation and improvement of the educational program. The College of Medicine at King Saud University (KSU reformed its curriculum in 2009 from a traditional to a system-oriented hybrid curriculum.Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the perception of the second batch (reformed curriculum of medical graduates about the educational environment at the College of Medicine, KSU, using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM scale.Methods: The fifth year medical students were asked to evaluate the educational program after graduation in May 2014. The questionnaire was distributed to the graduate students electronically. The DREEM questionnaire consisted of 50 items based on Likert’s scale; and five domains, namely, students’ perceptions of learning, perceptions of teachers, academic self-perceptions, perceptions of atmosphere, and social self-perceptions. Data were analyzed using SPSS.Results: A total of 62 students participated in the study. The score for students’ perception of learning among medical students ranged from 2.93 to 3.64 (overall mean score: 40.17. The score for students’ perception of teachers ranged from 2.85 to 4.01 (overall mean score: 33.35. The score for students’ academic self-perceptions ranged from 3.15 to 4.06 (overall mean score: 28.4. The score for students’ perception of atmosphere ranged from 2.27 to 3.91 (overall mean score: 41.32. The
Full Text Available Background We all want to live a long, happy and healthy life with an abundance of energy and vitality to perform well both mentally and physically. A healthy lifestyle is a valuable resource for reducing the incidence and impact of health problems, enabling you better to cope with life stressors, as well as improving your quality of life. Aims The study was aimed to assess the lifestyle (eating habits and physical activity of health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. Methods This cross-sectional institutional based study was conducted from 25th November 2014-3rd May 2015. A total of 450 students (370 males and 80 females aged between 18–28 years were randomly chosen. Self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection from the College of Medicine, College of Applied Medical Sciences and College of Dentistry. Results Majority of the students, 62.4 per cent, were physically inactive. Students from the College of Medicine, 40.4 per cent, were the most physically active. The most common reason that restrained the students from being active was time limitation. In addition to that, many of the participants, 29.6 per cent, have never had breakfast at home. Also, most of the participants, 42.7 per cent, were not satisfied with their eating habits. Almost one quarter of students were consuming soft drinks more than four times a day. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. There is an urgent need for arranging health education programs for promoting healthy and active living among health sciences students of Majmaah University in Saudi Arabia.
Al Rawaf, Haya Saad Abdulla; Fattah, Azza Khalil Abdel; Megeid, Fadia Yousif Abdel; Nazmy, Rania Mohammed Aziz; Alarifi, Sarah Nasser; Al Sulaihm, Hind Sulaiman
This study aims at highlighting the role of Continuous Education Programs at the Saudi Universities in Religious, Social, and Health Literacy; King Saud University was taken as an example. To achieve the goals of the study two questionnaires were distributed among two samples from King Saud University; (101) of students, and (9) of continuous…
El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Sulimani, Riyadh A.
Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)
Alanazy, Salim M.
This study aims to take an initial step toward investigating the readiness of faculty members for adopting online learning at Aljouf University, a Saudi newly established university. Participants (n = 156) were asked to complete a Web-based questionnaire that starts with eight demographic questions and has four other parts: attitude toward online…
Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1 Khalid A Alhasan,2 Mohammed Alotaibi,3 Khalid Al Fakeeh41Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1 is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency culminating in end-stage renal disease, and a wide range of clinical features related to systemic oxalosis in different organs. It is caused by autosomal recessive deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase due to a defect in AGXT gene.Case report: Two brothers (one 6 months old; the other 2 years old presented with acute renal failure and urinary tract infection respectively. PH1 was confirmed by high urinary oxalate level, demonstration of oxalate crystals in bone biopsy, and pathogenic homozygous known AGXT gene mutation. Despite the same genetic background, same sex, and shared environment, the outcome of the two siblings differs widely. While one of them died earlier with end-stage renal disease and multiorgan failure caused by systemic oxalosis, the older brother is pyridoxine responsive with normal development and renal function.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of extreme intrafamilial variability of PH1 and international registries are needed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in such disorder.Keywords: primary hyperoxaluria, oxalosis, PH1, intrafamilial variability
Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.
Alhabeeb, Abdullah; Rowley, Jennifer
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer insights into the development of eLearning systems and the perceptions of key players in the management of eLearning systems in three large universities in Saudi Arabia. It establishes the relative importance of different factors and compares these findings with studies conducted elsewhere in the…
Alghamdi, AbdulKhaliq Hajjad; Bin Sihes, Ahmad Johari
"Scientific studies found the impact of professional development on effective classroom practices in Higher Education." This paper hypothesizes no statistically significant effect of lecturers' professional development on classroom practices in some selected Saudi Universities not as highlighted in the model. Hierarchical multiple…
Alabdulmenem, Fahad Mohammed
Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that allot substantial amount of government resources for education. Thus, it is important to measure how these resources are used to generate favorable academic outcomes for its nationals. In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to measure the relative efficiency of 25 public universities in…
Al Mansour MA
Full Text Available Mohammed Abdullah Al Mansour,1 Abdullah MN Al-Bedah,2 Mohammed Othman AlRukban,3 Ibrahim S Elsubai,2 Elsadiq Yousif Mohamed,4 Ahmed Tawfik El Olemy,2 Asim AH Khalil,2 Mohamed KM Khalil,2 Meshari Saleh Alqaed,2 Abdullah Almudaiheem,2 Waqas Sami Mahmoud,4 Khalid Altohami Medani,4 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi2 1College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, 2National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, 3Department of Family Medicine and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 4Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, Saudi Arabia Background: Evidently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is a recognized medical practice that efficiently uses multiple treatment therapies and techniques in the prevention and management of a variety of human disorders. Many medical schools have integrated CAM curriculum in medical education system worldwide. Research in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of diverse health professionals exposed to CAM courses is important from many perspectives including improvement in KAP and teaching skills of faculty, together with capacity building and curriculum development.Objective and setting: This pre- and post-design cross-sectional study aimed to assess CAM-KAP of two intakes of medical students in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia.Methods: The second-year medical students of the first (year 2012–2013 and second (year 2013–2014 intake (n=26 and 39, respectively were selected for this study. A reliable, 16-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all the students for answering before and after the 48-hour CAM course. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test of significance.Results: Medical students’ knowledge and attitude toward CAM significantly improved across some subitems of CAM questionnaire with a positive trend in the rest of its items
Full Text Available This study was designed to identify various barriers that have hindered the adoption of LMSs in Saudi Arabian universities. Learning management systems (LMSs have been adopted in many learning institutions because of their functionalities and applications to improve pedagogy. Universities have been encouraged to use LMSs to enhance the collaborative working environment among students and between the students and their instructors. This study was done by administering 150 questionnaires to students in three universities in Saudi Arabia. Findings from the study revealed that the main barriers to the use of LMSs were inadequate technical support by the universities, negative attitude toward technology, and inadequate training on the LMS platforms. Minor barriers identified include poor Internet access and networking, limited infrastructure to support the LMS, lack of hardware and software to run the LMS, and challenges in English language proficiency.
Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Hossam S Alawad,2 Ayedh K Alamri,2 Abdullah I Saeed,2 Khalid A Aljuaydi,2 Alwaleed S Alotaibi,2 Khalid M Alotaibi,2 Eiad A Alfaris3 1Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University Chair for the Development of Medical Education, Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Physicians experience several work-related stressors that have been mounting up in recent decades. This study aimed to examine perceived stress and its risk factors and consequences among consultant physicians in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015 among physicians who were assigned rank of consultant. The stress level was assessed using perceived stress scale (PSS.Results: A total of 582 consultants participated. The average age was 46.9±7.9 years, 71% were males, 56% were Saudi, 15% were smokers, and 68% slept ≤6 hours per night. The median PSS score was 17 (interquartile range of 14–21, which represented 44% of maximum possible PSS score. The upper tertile of PSS score (represents a high stress level was significantly associated with being younger, female, and Saudi. The majority (85% considered job environment to be stressful and ~50% attributed that to a high workload and a noncooperative administration. In the year preceding this study, half of consultants frequently contemplated or even worked toward changing their medical institutes or even moving to work outside Saudi Arabia because of perception of a stressful working environment. Over the previous year, encountering life stressors, considering job environment as stressful and experiencing passive suicidal ideation, were significantly associated with higher levels of stress
Hussain Ahmed Liton
Full Text Available The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers’ perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit and non-credit Foundation English courses as a part of their program, which are not being very effective. These courses do not promote the students in dealing with their disciplines or programs oriented courses. Even after completion of the Foundation English courses in consecutive two or three semesters, students fail to grasp comprehensive control over the reading materials of their discipline-oriented courses. This is a common scenario in almost all the universities in KSA. The author of this paper ventured to study the predicament of EFL courses in some universities through survey questionnaires, observation as well as primary and secondary sources. The data were collected through questionnaires from a total of 25 EFL teachers at renowned Saudi universities. The research results revealed that the existing Foundation English Course syllabus is not tailored appropriately to the needs of the students so far as the higher studies concerned, and EFL classroom is not conducive to task-based language teaching (TBLT practice due to large class size (100-140. It, therefore, suggests that university Foundation English Courses should be redesigned in assimilating the learners’ standard and previous learning, and course contents should cover the socio-cultural factors of the learners. The study also concludes with some effective implications and recommendations based on the findings of the present research.
Rohra, Dileep K.; Rohra, Vikram K.; Cahusac, Peter
Objectives: To compare the journal impact factor (JIF) and Eigenfactor score (ES) of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)-indexed biomedical journals published from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 8 years. Methods: This is a retrospective study, conducted at Alfaisal University, Riyadh, KSA from January to March 2016. The Journal Citation Reports of ISI Web of Knowledge were accessed, and 6 Saudi biomedical journals were included for analysis. Results: All Saudi journals have improved their IF compared with their baseline. However, the performance of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Neurosciences has been exceptionally good. The biggest improvement in percent growth in JIF was seen in the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (approximately 887%) followed by Neurosciences (approximately 462%). Interestingly, the ES of all biomedical journals, except Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology and Saudi Medical Journal, increased over the years. The greatest growth in ES (more than 5 fold) was noted for Neurosciences and Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. Conclusion: This study shows that the overall quality of all Saudi biomedical journals has improved in the last 8 years. PMID:27761565
Al-Dossary, R; Vail, J; Macfarlane, F
Saudi Arabia is developing very fast in all disciplines, especially in nursing and health. Only about five studies between 1990 and 2010 have been undertaken in Saudi Arabia concerning factors influencing job satisfaction of nurses, although a body of knowledge exists globally. The purpose of this research was to measure nurses' job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia in a university teaching hospital and to determine the influencing factors. A quantitative, cross sectional method, self-administered questionnaire was used for this study. A systematic sample of N=189 nurses was used to collect data. The SPSS version 16.0. was used to analyze the data. An independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to test hypotheses concerning different groups, and correlation tests (the Pearson's and Spearman's rank tests) were used to examine relationships between variables. Overall, nurses were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with their jobs. However, nurses indicated satisfaction with supervision, co-workers and nature of work. The sources of dissatisfaction were with subscales such as pay, fringe benefits, contingent rewards and operating conditions. These findings indicate that there is a need to increase nurses' salaries and bonuses for extra duties. More training programmes and further education also should be encouraged for all nurses. Therefore, it is imperative that nursing managers and policy makers in Saudi Arabia consider these findings to improve nurses' job satisfaction. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.
Taha, Saud A.; Kamal, Baher A.
Implementation of a pilot screening program for prostate cancer among Saudi patients that would serve as a nucleus for a Kingdom-wide screening program. A prospective study on 1,213 Saudi males between 50-80 years of age who attended the Outpatient Department at King Fahd Hospital of King Faisal University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during a period of 18 months (April 2001-October 2002). They were included at random from different clinics including the urology clinic. Free and total prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate were performed in all patients. Patients with abnormal DRE or PSA were scheduled for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate. Abnormal DRE or PSA were present in 84 out of 1,213 patients. Only 63 patients agreed to have TRUS and ultrasound guided biopsies. Prostate cancer was confirmed in 14 out of 1,192 patients who completed the study (1.17%). The incidence of prostate cancer among Saudi men in this hospital based study is low. A population based screening for prostate cancer may reveal the incidence of this disease. (author)
Full Text Available Objectives: Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed® search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015. Results: A total of 1,292 neurologyrelated publications were identified. Neurology research increased linearly with time, with most publications originating from Riyadh (67% and the university sector (≈47%. However, most neurology-related articles were published in journals which had an impact factor of <1 (55%. Conclusion: Neurology research in Saudi Arabia has increased substantially over the last 20 years. However, as most articles were published in low-impact journals, the quality of research remains inadequate and should be improved. It is important that an official research culture be established in both governmental and private universities as well as colleges and health institutions in Saudi Arabia. The formation of clinical academic departments staffed by research experts is recommended to ensure the quality of neurology research output.
Algahtani, Hussein; Shirah, Bader; Boker, Faisal; Algamdi, Albaraa; Alkahtani, Abdulah
Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed ® search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015. A total of 1,292 neurology-related publications were identified. Neurology research increased linearly with time, with most publications originating from Riyadh (67%) and the university sector (≈47%). However, most neurology-related articles were published in journals which had an impact factor of Saudi Arabia has increased substantially over the last 20 years. However, as most articles were published in low-impact journals, the quality of research remains inadequate and should be improved. It is important that an official research culture be established in both governmental and private universities as well as colleges and health institutions in Saudi Arabia. The formation of clinical academic departments staffed by research experts is recommended to ensure the quality of neurology research output.
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah
AlFakhri, Lama; Sarraj, Jumana; Kherallah, Shouq; Kuhail, Khulood; Obeidat, Akef; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed
Background The medical student population is believed to be at an increased risk for sleep deprivation. Little is known about students? perceptions towards sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. The aim of study is to explore the perceptions of medical students and their academic advisors about sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. Methods The study took place at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An online, anony...
Full Text Available Imran A Siddiqui,1 Khalid A Bin Abdulrahman,2 Mohammed A Alsultan3 1Department of Medical Education and Postgraduate Studies, Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine, Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Every year nearly 1,500 students enter into medical program after passing high school and national aptitude exams. However, many students experience frustration, failure, and psychological morbidities like stress, depression, and anxiety because they are not aware of their learning styles or do not have effective learning skills and strategies. The College of Medicine of Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University has adopted the outcome based, community oriented, Spiral Curriculum. Although the curriculum is innovative, on the other hand, it is very demanding. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to share educational structure and evaluation results of the course on effective learning and study skills for the 1st year medical students. Methods: To prepare our students in order to cope with this demanding but promising curriculum, we conducted an effective and comprehensive learning skills course for 16 weeks in the first semester of year 1 in the medical program. Performance of each student was assessed and the course evaluation was done by students at the end of the course. Results: The attendance of the students throughout the course was over 90%. The average performance of students in the summative assessment was 78% and the course was generally liked by the students. Discussion: Students overall had a positive attitude toward the learning skills course. Majority of the students showed interest in attending the sessions regularly and realized the significance of this course to improve their learning skills. Keywords: medical students, learning
Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Al-Haj, A.N.
A gamma spectroscopy system was used to analyze the radionuclides in soil samples and to determine the cumulative radioactivity of terrestrial origin in the Riyadh City area. Minimal work has been done in the 1980s to measure the natural background radiation level in Saudi Arabia by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The measurement of the natural radioactivity in the Riyadh area for the radionuclide concentration in becquerels per kilogram, the exposure rate arising from radionuclides in grays per hour, and the equivalent dose rate in sieverts per hour are the goals of this work. Soil samples were collected from 21 places in Riyadh City. Each site was sampled for two depth profiles, 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm. These measurements were taken before the Chernobyl accident, and in the absence of any measurements for that area in the past, this work can be considered in future work for a reference 137 Cs concentration in Riyadh soil to determine the 137 Cs increase in the soil after the Chernobyl accident
The interactive capacities of social networking instruments have unleashed a number of possibilities for enhancing teaching and learning in the higher education sector and many universities are engaged in harnessing the capabilities of these tools. While much valuable research has been conducted on this theme, scholarship has tended to be oriented…
Alzahrani, Majed Gharmallah
This study aims to investigate student satisfaction with using online discussion forums (ODFs). It also aims to examine the relationships between student satisfaction with using ODFs and student demographics as well as with their experience with ICT and online education. Data are collected from 2171 students from four leading universities at Saudi…
Samia M Al-Amoudi
Full Text Available Health care is a basic human right, and Saudi Arabia affirms these rights for all its citizens.To assess the knowledge of medical students regarding health rights in Saudi Arabia.This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University (KAU from September 2015 through November 2015. A questionnaire written in English collected demographic data and included questions about reproductive health care and health rights of women and patients with cancer, senility, or special needs.Of the 267 participants, 184 (68.9% were female, and 252 (94.4% were Saudi. Regarding consent, 87 (32.6% and 113 (42.3% participants believed a female patient required the consent of a male guardian to receive medical treatment or surgery, respectively, in Saudi Arabia, and only 106 (39.7% knew that a female patient could provide consent for a caesarean section. Sixty-six (24.7% believed that abortion is never allowed in Islam. Only 93 (34.8% were aware that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients had health rights, about half (144, 53.9% knew that cancer patients have a right to full information, and most (181, 67.8% believed that a patient had the right to withhold health information from his/her family. Approximately half were aware that cancer patients have the right to free medical treatment (138, 51.7% or that health rights applied to special needs patients (137, 51.3% and senile patients (122, 45.7%.The knowledge of KAU medical students regarding health rights of certain patient populations highlights the importance of health rights education in medical school.
Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training
Alsulami, Saleh; Al Omar, Zaid; Binnwejim, Mohammed S; Alhamdan, Fahad; Aldrees, Amr; Al-Bawardi, Abdulkarim; Alsohim, Meshary; Alhabeeb, Mohammed
The Health Science Preparatory Program (HSPP) is a special program that aims to enhance the educational preparedness of students for participation in a health sciences career. Students spend their first university year in a combined extensive teaching program before they can be assigned to a particular health science specialty. It is thought that students enrolled in a highly competitive environment such as HSPP with a long list of potential stressors, including developmental, academic overload, language barriers and competition, are more disposed to stress and stress-related complications. This study aims to measure the level of academic stress and to determine its risk factors in students enrolled in HSPP-adapted local universities in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted at two Saudi universities, King Saud University (KSU) and Imam Mohammad ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSU) with competition-based and non-competition-based HSPP learning models, respectively. Both universities adopt the HSPP system. The scale for assessing academic stress (SAAS) was used to assess students' perceived stress. A total of 290 students successfully completed the questionnaire (N=290), with a mean age of 18.66 years. Mean SAAS scores for KSU and IMSU students were 8.37 (SD = 4.641) and 7.97 (SD = 5.104), P =0.480, respectively. Only "satisfaction" and "associated social and health problems" have shown statistically significant correlation with university ( P =0.000 and P =0.049, respectively). This study has found mean SAAS score for two local universities with competition-based versus non-competition-based HSPP learning models. Academic stress correlation with age, gender and universities was discussed, and valuable future work guidance was recommended.
Tariq M. Alhawassi
Full Text Available Low-quality medicines deliver sub-optimal clinical outcomes and waste precious health resources. It is important to ensure that public funds are spent on healthcare technologies that meet national regulatory bodies such as the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA, quality standards for safety, efficacy, and quality. Medicines quality is a complicated combination of pre-market regulatory specifications, appropriate sourcing of ingredients (active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, excipients, etc., manufacturing processes, healthcare ecosystem communications, and regular and robust pharmacovigilance practices. A recent conference in Riyadh, sponsored by King Saud University, sought to discuss these issues and develop specific policy recommendations for the Saudi 2030 Vision plan. This and other efforts will require more and more creative educational programs for physicians, pharmacists, hospitals, and patients, and, most importantly evolving regulations on quality standards and oversight by Saudi health authorities.
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor
Attitudes of students and employees towards the implementation of a totally smoke free university campus policy at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional baseline study on smoking behavior following the implementation of policy.
Almutairi, Khalid M
Tobacco smoking is the preventable health issue worldwide. The harmful consequences of tobacco smoking and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke are well documented. The aim of this study is to compares the prevalence of smoking among students, faculty and staff and examines their interest to quit. Study also determines the difference on perceptions of smoking and non-smoking students, faculty and staff with regard to implementation of a smoke-free policy. A cross-sectional survey was administered to one of the largest universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the academic year of 2013. A Likert scale was used on questionnaires towards attitude to smoking and smoking free policy. The Chi squared test was used to determine the difference of support on completely smoke free campus for smokers and non-smokers. Smoking rates were highest among staff members (36.8 %) followed by students (11.2 %) and faculty (6.4 %). About half of the smokers (53.7 %) within the university attempted to quit smoking. Students (OR 3.10, 95 % CI 1.00-9.60) and faculty (OR 4.06, 95 % CI 1.16-14.18) were more likely to make quit smoking than staff members. Majority of the respondents (89.6 %) were supportive of a smoking--free policy and indicated that should be strictly enforced especially into public places. Results also showed that smokers were more likely to support a smoke-free policy if there are no fines or penalties. These baseline findings will provide information among administrators in formulating and carrying out a total smoke free policy. Although the majority of people within the King Saud University demonstrate a high support for a smoke-free policy, administrators should consider difference between smokers and non-smokers attitudes when implementing such a policy.
Shams, Tarek; El-Masry, Ragaa; Al Wadani, Hamed; Amr, Mostafa
The assessment of the anesthesia course in our university comprises Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), in conjunction with portfolio and multiple-choice questions (MCQ). The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of different forms of anesthesia course assessment among 5(th) year medical students in our university, as well as study the influence of gender on student performance in anesthesia. We examined the performance of 154, 5(th) year medical students through OSCE, portfolios, and MCQ. The score ranges in the portfolio, OSCE, and MCQs were 16-24, 4.2-28.9, and 15.5-44.5, respectively. There was highly significant difference in scores in relation to gender in all assessments other than the written one (P=0.000 for Portfolio, OSCE, and Total exam, whereas P=0.164 for written exam). In the generated linear regression model, OSCE alone could predict 86.4% of the total mark if used alone. In addition, if the score of the written examination is added, OSCE will drop to 57.2% and the written exam will be 56.8% of the total mark. This study demonstrates that different clinical methods used to assess medical students during their anesthesia course were consistent and integrated. The performance of female was superior to male in OSCE and portfolio. This information is the basis for improving educational and assessment standards in anesthesiology and for introducing a platform for developing modern learning media in countries with dearth of anesthesia personnel.
Ahmed Mohamed Aboud
Full Text Available In spite of the short history of the Saudi fiction, compared with the genre of poetry and with the rise of novel in other Arab countries like Egypt, Lebanon and Iraqi, Saudi novelists start to occupy a remarkable part of the space of Arab narration. Although Saudi novelists face the challenge of a restrictive cultural milieu, they seek to go beyond the local and regional levels and maintain a real significant universal presence. This study is a critical reaction to an outstanding attitude that colors the reception of Saudi fictional works. In reading of Saudi narrative texts readers, critics and scholars obviously focus on the local and regional aspects, and consciously or unconsciously ignore the universal perspectives that characterize their thematic and technical concerns. The study, accordingly, explores the world of Saudi fiction, concentrating on the question of universality, a concern which has been and will remain a core issue of critical and scholarly controversy. With reference to selected works, the study is an attempt to shed light on the universal aspects in Saudi novel. The basic and core premise of the study, then, is that the production of some Saudi novelists is rich in universal elements. The study concentrates on Gazi Al-Gosaibi (1940 – 2010 and Rajaa Alem (1956 – present as writers representing the search for universality in Saudi novel. Al-Gosaibi’s Freedom Apartment (1994 and Alem’s The Doves’ Necklace (2010 are works rich in persistent universal narrative themes and images. The main objective of the study is to show how these two texts, like many others, incarnate and present both Saudi culture and universal human values. With reference to these two novels, the researchers seek to prove the reliability of the main premise of the study. Keywords: Challenge Saudi novel, Universal elements of novel, Human values, Culture, Comparative literature
Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen
To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value energy drink consumers. The reasons for increased consumption of energy drinks mainly include giving company to friends (59.4%), better performance in exams (41.2%), and better concentration in studies (39.4%). The most common side effect was headache (32.3%), and the least was identified as allergy (2%). Only 39.4% and 29.9% of students acquired awareness regarding the harmful effects of energy drink consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding respectively. A significant proportion of female students at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.
Ismaila R. Abubakar
Full Text Available Higher education institutions are major drivers of change in achieving environmental sustainability both within college campuses and beyond campuses in communities at large. However, achieving campus sustainability is not possible without the involvement of students as one of the major stakeholders of a university. Based on survey of 152 students of the College of Architecture and Planning, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, this study explores students’ assessment of campus sustainability components: curriculum and research; campus operations; and community involvement. The results show that even though the students indicate a great deal of awareness and concern about campus environmental sustainability, they lack interest and willingness to participate in initiatives towards achieving sustainability. Apart from some sustainable landscaping and waste recycling practices, there are few sustainability initiatives in transportation and energy and water conservation on the campus. Offered courses and student projects have also been reported to have modest focus on sustainability. The article concludes by highlighting the roles of incorporating sustainability into campus operations, and training university students in promoting environmental sustainability in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East.
Mustafa S Saeed
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess self-medication practice among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted by distributing a self-administered 18-item questionnaire among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia in the period between October and December 2012. The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique. Data were collected from the questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 19. A total of 354 male students with an average age of 21.95 (SD ± 3.43 participated in this study. Our study showed that self-medication among male students was high (86.6% compared to results shown in other studies in the same region. Headache (59.9%, cough/cold (41% and fever (24.6% were the most common symptoms associated with self-medication. Congruent with the medical conditions reported, the most widely used medications without prescriptions were paracetamol (34.7%, followed by antibiotics (31.4% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (28.7%. Our study shows that antibiotics were sometimes irrationally used for self-treatment of cough and fever. Self-medication was highly frequent among the students. Influence of TV advertisements, high accessibility of pharmacies and convenience stores, as well as good buying power were found to be leading factors for self-medication among male university students.
Sait, K.; Al-Khattabi, M.; Boker, A.; Al-Hashemi, J.
Hysterectomy is a common surgical procedure among women with a lifetime prevalence of 10%. The indications and complications of this procedure have not been previously reported from a teaching institution in Saudi Arabia. We examined the indications for hysterectomy and the surgical morbidity for women undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia. We reviewed the records of women who underwent hysterectomies for benign gynecological conditions between January 1990 and December 2002, at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, comparing patient characteristics, indications for hysterectomy and the rate of complications in women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy (AH) versus vaginal hysterectomy (VH). Of 251 women 199 (79%) underwent AH and 52 (21%) underwent VH. An estimated blood loss of >=500 mL occurred in 104 patients (52.3%) in the AH group and in 20 patients (38.5%) in the VH group (difference not statistically significant). The most common indications for hysterectomy were uterine fibroids (n=107, 41.6%) and dysfunctional uterine bleeding (n=68, 27.1%). The most common indication for VH was uterine prolapsed (n=45, 86.5%). The overall complication rates were 33.5%, 15.4% and 30.4% in women who underwent the AH group and in 51 patients in the VH group (20.3%). Postoperative infection occurred in 42/199 (21.6%) in the AH group and 5/52 (9.6%) in the VH group (difference not statistically significant). We describe a large series of hysterectomies, which provides information for surgeons on the expected of complications following hysterectomy for benign conditions. We describe a large series of hysterectomies, which provides information for surgeons on the expected rate of complications following hysterectomy for benign conditions. We found that the rate of complications was not significantly higher than other centers internationally. (author)
Al-Kahtani, N H
Health counseling before marriage can be a most worthwhile and satisfying aspect of preventive medicine. It is important in genetic diagnosis and the prevention of hereditary, sexually transmitted and other infectious diseases. To determine the acceptance of the concept of Premarital Health Counseling (PMHC), and to identify some factors, which may efect this acceptance among Saudis who attend Primary Health Care Center in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), 1417H. The present study is a cross-sectional one with a selected sample of Saudis who attended the Primary Health Care Centers in Riyadh during the year 1417H. A multistage sampling and equal allocation stratified sampling within was used to select 484 persons comprising an equal number of males and females, married and single above the age of 18 years. A pre-designed pre-tested questionnaire sheet was used to collect the required data, which were then tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study indicated that 364 (75.2%) of the study population accepted the concept of Premarital Health Counseling. PMHC was positively affected by the advancing age, experience of marriage, educational level and well-understood Islamic-health related issues. Out f those who accepted the concept, 273 (75%) agreed on the exchange of PMHC certificates between couples to be married and 152 (42%) agreed on the implementation of legislation on PMHC. Also, 298 (82%) of them wanted PMHC to be confidential and 168 (46%) agreed to the concept despite its cost. As regards the location of PMHC, most of participants who agreed to PMHC would prefer it to be given at governmental establishments. The study recommended the implementation of PMHC in Saudi Arabia, since it was accepted by the study population. However, further studies should be carried out to determine the details to be incorporated in the PMHC, their implementation and legislation on demographic basis of the Saudi community. Also, a community health education program for
Alyahya, Sulaiman; Irfan, Mohammad A.
In Saudi Arabia, domestic consumption of fossil fuel is expected to grow from 3.4 MBOE (Million Barrels of Oil Equivalent) to 8.3 MBOE by 2028; peak power demand from 55 GW to 121 GW by 2030. About 61 GW of demand appears unmet by the output of planned projects. In response, KACARE (King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy, the nation’s energy policy maker) has announced the target of installing 41 GW of solar capacity by 2030 (24 GW by 2020). Deployment of so much solar power requires a substantial, locally trained, technical workforce. A lower bound estimate of 8.9 persons/MW of Solar PV and 3.04 persons/MW of Solar Thermal can be taken for manufacturing, operations and maintenance. This conservative figure would mean employment for 218,650 workers by 2030. This would require the 24 local universities to graduate 14,577 technically qualified workers annually for the next 15 years (607 graduates per year per university). Even assuming a 50% import of technical manpower, the above estimate can be revised as 303 graduates per university per year. The need for so many technical workers makes it imperative for local universities to immediately ramp up their capacity to graduate technical workforce. - Highlights: •A review was made for manpower requirement of solar projects. •Manpower requirement was suggested for the Solar Target 2030 of 41 GW for Saudi Arabia. •Role of universities was elaborated in achieving tis manpower requirement.
Baig, Mukhtiar; Gazzaz, Zohair Jamil; Atta, Hazem; Alyaseen, Mujtaba Ahmed; Albagshe, Ammar Jameel; Alattallah, Haidar Ghalib
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and attitude of university students towards mobile phone use while driving. The present study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Five hundred and ninety-three participants were recruited for this study. Attitude, consequences and their involvement in various reckless behaviours pertaining to the use of mobile phone while driving were checked by a questionnaire. Overall, the majority of the respondents (90%) use a mobile phone while driving. About half of the participants had experienced consequences regarding texting while driving and had engaged in reckless behaviour. The majority of the students of Faculty of Medicine, Engineering Sciences, Earth Sciences, Administration and Economics and Orientation Classes were more frequently texting while driving (p mobile phone while driving.
Full Text Available Rania M Fahmy,1,2 Ramesa S Bhat,3 Manar Al-Mutairi,4 Feda S Aljaser,5 Afaf El-Ansary4 1Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; 3Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Central Laboratory, Female Center for Medical Studies and Scientific Section, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: To evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM, diabetic retinopathy, and degree of glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] on peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT using optical coherence tomography.Methods: The study included 126 eyes of healthy controls (n=32 and diabetics patients (n=31, whose ages ranged from 40 to 70 years. The diabetic group was divided into: Subgroup 1: with HbA1c <7% and Subgroup 2: with HbA1c ≥7%. All patients underwent full ophthalmic examination. HbA1c level was obtained with the A1cNow+ system and the peripapillary RNFLT was measured using 3D-OCT 2000 Topcon (360-degree circular scan with 3.4 mm diameter centered on optic disc.Results: The obtained data demonstrates significant decrease in peripapillary RNFLT in superior and inferior quadrants of the right eye (p=0.000 and p=0.039, respectively, and in superior quadrant of the left eye (p=0.002 with impairment of glycemic control. Pearson’s correlation test showed significant negative correlation of RNFLT with HbA1c in the superior quadrant in both eyes.Conclusion: Impairment of glycemic control affects the peripapillary RNFLT mainly in the superior quadrant. This thickness also tends to decrease with long-standing DM, use of DM medications, and development of diabetic retinopathy. The measurement of peripapillary RNFLT
At first glance, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's current multi-billion dollar investment in its social sector, especially in setting up new schools and universities, seems to have as its primary aim the preparation of the Kingdom for a future that is not dependent on its oil resources which are predicted to run out in less than a 100 years. However,…
Alowaydhi, Wafa Hafez
The current study aimed at standardizing the program of learning Arabic for non-native speakers in Saudi Electronic University according to certain standards of total quality. To achieve its purpose, the study adopted the descriptive analytical method. The author prepared a measurement tool for evaluating the electronic learning programs in light…
Al-bakr, Fawziah; Bruce, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Petrina M.; Schlaffer, Edit; Kropiunigg, Ulrich
This study examines perspectives of Saudi university students regarding changing gender roles as affected by women's rights, education, employment, and activity in the public sphere. Results from a questionnaire distributed among 4,455 male and female students indicate students are confident and optimistic about improving gender equity, however…
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and
Jomoah, Ibrahim M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, R. Sreerama; Abdel-Shafi, Nabil Yassien [Saudi Electricity Company Chair for DSM and EE, Vice Presidency for Projects, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abdulaziz, Abdulaziz Uthman M.; Obaid, Ramzy R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia)
This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.
Wael Sh. Basri
Full Text Available This study investigates and explores the adoption of information communication technology by the universities and the impact it makes on the university students’ academic performance. The study also examines the moderators’ effect of gender, GPA, and student majors on the relationship between ICT and academic achievement. By using a quantitative research approach and a sample size of 1000 students, data were collected about the ICT adoption in universities and the relative performance of students belonging to four Saudi universities. Structure equation modelling was chosen to determine the validity of the research model. The Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS, specially used for structural equation modelling and path analysis, was used as the research tool. The findings reveal that there exists a relationship between ICT adoption and academic performance in a conservative environment. An additional finding also stated that ICT adoption resulted in the improvement of the performance of female students more than the male. However, students’ IT major was found to be making no impact on students’ academic achievement. A discussion of findings, limitations, and suggestions for future research has been provided in the study. Finally, it also provides implications of the current study to the existing knowledge.
Abdulfattah, Azza Khalil; Badawood, Asma Saeid
The current study aims to verify the impact of children's secure attachment to their mothers on their mastery motivation in the light of the dependence on domestic workers' phenomenon in the Saudi society. To achieve the goals of the study, a random sample of Saudi children was selected from Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia, whose favorable economic…
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Al-Nasser, Mohammad N.; Bahakim, Hassan M.; Kurban, Khadija M.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Nasir, Ali A.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.; Khoja, Waleed A.
To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and
Ramli, Rindra M.
An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables
Alfawzan, Norah Saad
Despite opportunities for female leadership in the field of higher education made available through gender-segregation policies, women leaders are underrepresented in Saudi Arabia (Jamjoom & Kelly, 2013). There are obstacles that Saudi women face when seeking leadership positions in higher education, including societal attitudes on gender. Due…
Al-Aklabi, Nouf; Al-Dowsari, Wejdan; Andrioti, Despena
Background: The price of a given food product is an indicative measure of its nutritious value. Forthis reason, people belonging to low-income groups are specifically vulnerable to malnutrition. Thisstudy aims to identify nutritional patterns among students at the Princess Nora University, Riyadh,Saudi Arabia, quantify students’ level of awareness of health risks associated with fast food consumption,examine how price affects their choice of food, and provide general guidelines for improving ...
Alrehaly, Essa D.
Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of education and participant's choice of science major were used to identify groups for the purpose of data analysis. Data were gathered using five independent variables concerning parental educational practices (attitude, involvement, autonomy support, structure and control) and the dependent variable of science scores in high school. The sample consisted of 338 participants and was arbitrarily drawn from the science-based colleges (medical, engineering, and natural science) at Jazan University in Saudi Arabia. The data were tested using Pearson's analysis, backward multiple regression, one way ANOVA and independent t-test. The findings of the study reveal significant correlations for all five of the variables. Multiple regressions revealed that all five of the parents' educational practices indicators combined together could explain 19% of the variance in science scores and parental attitude toward science and educational involvement combined accounted for more than 18% of the variance. Analysis indicates that no significant difference is attributable to parental involvement and educational level. This finding is important because it indicates that, in Saudi Arabia, results are not consistent with research in Western or other Asian contexts.
Alzeidan, Rasmieh A; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Mandil, Ahmed A; Hersi, Ahmad S; Ullah, Anhar A
The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of living in Saudi Arabia on expatriate employees and their families' behavioural cardiovascular risk factors (BCVRFs), and to examine the association between changes in BCVRFs and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1437 individuals, aged ≥ 18 years, from King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the World Health Organization STEPS questionnaire to ask every participant questions about BCVRFs twice: (1) to reflect their period of living in Saudi Arabia and (2) to shed light upon life in their country of origin. Their mean age was 40.9 (11.7) years. The prevalence of BCVRFs was as follows: tobacco use in 156 (11%), physical inactivity in 1049 (73%) low intake of fruit and vegetables in 1264 (88%) and MetS in 378 (26%). Residing in Saudi Arabia had reduced physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables. There was also a significant increase in the fast food consumption. In conclusion, living in Saudi Arabia had a significant negative effect on BCVRFs. However, there was no statistically significant association between changes in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity and MetS status, except that intake of fast food was lower among participants with MetS.
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility
Huda A. Al-Shehri
Full Text Available Objectives: To probe dental students’ perceptions on their cultural competency and international student exchange programs as a way of improving cultural competency training. Methods: A cross-sectional survey (n=460 was distributed to predoctoral students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May 2014 at the male and female university campuses. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (p=0.05. Results: It was found that 79.6% of students think that teaching them regarding cultural diversity is important. Only 41% of students thought their dental education teaches them on the importance of volunteerism and philanthropy. Most students (89.8% think that international student exchanges can enhance their cultural competence. Conclusion: In this study, it was found that students believe that cultural competence is important and participation in international student exchange programs can enhance their training.
Al-Shehri, Huda A; Al-Taweel, Sara M; Ivanoff, Chris S
To probe dental students' perceptions on their cultural competency and international student exchange programs as a way of improving cultural competency training. A cross-sectional survey (n=460) was distributed to predoctoral students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May 2014 at the male and female university campuses. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (p=0.05). It was found that 79.6% of students think that teaching them regarding cultural diversity is important. Only 41% of students thought their dental education teaches them on the importance of volunteerism and philanthropy. Most students (89.8%) think that international student exchanges can enhance their cultural competence. In this study, it was found that students believe that cultural competence is important and participation in international student exchange programs can enhance their training.
Full Text Available Ayidh M Alqarni,1,2 Vishal Vennu,1 Sulaiman A Alshammari,3 Saad M Bindawas1 1Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, King Abdullah Hospital, Bisha, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Purpose: Older adults are the fastest growing population group worldwide. Regular physical activity (PA is reported to reduce the risk of health conditions and improve personal well-being. Few validated instruments can be used to measure the PA levels among older adults in Saudi Arabia. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE is used worldwide for evaluating the PA levels of the elderly in epidemiological studies. However, this scale has not been translated into Arabic. This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt the PASE into Arabic language and evaluate its reliability and validity among community-dwelling older adults in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: This study was a cross-sectional one following Beaton guidelines to translate and perform cultural adaptation, as well as test the reliability and validity of the PASE Arabic version (PASE-A. Elderly (N=74 people from both genders, who lived in a community dwelling in Riyadh city, were selected from several primary health care centers. The study used Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to assess the internal consistency reliability, while intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1 was used for test–retest reliability and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (r was used to evaluate the correlation among PASE-A and grip strength, Timed Up and Go test, body mass index, and fat percentage. Results: Out of 74 older adults, 59 (79.7% completed the PASE-A questionnaire twice. The internal consistency of the PASE-A components was good (Cronbach’s alpha 0.70–0.75, and the reliability of the components
Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P
In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010-2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.
Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P.
In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010−2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life. PMID:24727357
Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M; Rahim, Sheikh Idris A; Abumadini, Mahdi S; Wosornu, Lade
Job satisfaction is a major determinant of job performance, manpower retention and employee well-being. To explore the state of job satisfaction among the academic staff of King Faisal University - Dammam (KFU-D), and detect the areas and groups at a higher risk of being dissatisfied. A fully-structured 5-option Likert-type Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ) composed of an evaluative item and eleven domains making a total of 46 items was used. It was distributed by internal mail to all the 340 academic staff, 248 of whom returned completed questionnaires (response rate = 72.9 %). The overall mean Job Satisfaction Rate (JSR) was 73.6 %. The highest JSR's were found in three domains ("Supervision", "Responsibility", and "Interpersonal Relationships"), and the lowest in four others ("Salary", "My Work Itself", "Working Conditions", and "Advancement"). The JSR was significantly lower among Saudi nationals, females, those below age 40, those from clinical medical and Dentistry departments. Multiple Regression identified six independent variables which conjointly explained 25 % of the variance in job satisfaction (p jobs, but there was significant dissatisfaction with several job-related aspects and demographic features. Appropriate interventions are indicated. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to monitor future trends.
Al Qauhiz, Norah M
The remarkable economic growth in Saudi Arabia has affected the population life style negatively. The increasing problem of obesity has been reported from different regions in the kingdom. The rate of overweight and obesity reached 65.4% in the eastern region among females aged 18-74 years old. Although there is considerable amount of data on prevalence of obesity, yet, data on dietary habits and food consumption pattern are limited. The present study is a cross- sectional descriptive study aimed at exploring the BMI distribution among university female students. Food consumption pattern and health related behaviors were also assessed. 799 students participated in the study; data were collected using self administered questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured to calculate the BMI. Among the study participants, overweight and obesity reached 47.9%. Marriage, presence of obesity among family members, frequency of drinking aerated beverages increased the risk of obesity significantly. Misperception of body image was reported by 17.4% and 54.2% of obese and overweight students respectively. Analysis of dietary habits and life styles indicated the predominance of unhealthy behaviors. The study results mandate the need for a national strategy to adopt healthy dietary habits and life styles.
Ramzi M. Hakami
Full Text Available Although social anxiety disorder (SAD is a common mental disorder, it is often under diagnosed and under treated. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence, severity, disability, and quality of life towards SAD among students of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a stratified sample of 500 undergraduate students to identify the prevalence of SAD, its correlates, related disability, and its impact on the quality life. All participants completed the Social Phobia Inventory, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, and the WHO Quality of Life – BREF questionnaire. Of 476 students, 25.8% were screened positive for SAD. About 47.2% of the students had mild symptoms, 42.3% had moderate to marked symptoms, and 10.5% had severe to very severe symptoms of SAD. Students who resulted positive for SAD reported significant disabilities in work, social, and family areas, and this has adversely affected their quality of life as compared to those who screened negative for SAD. Students reported several clinical manifestations that affected their functioning and social life. Acting, performing or giving a talk in front of an audience was the most commonly feared situation. Blushing in front of people was the most commonly avoided situation. Since the present study showed a marked prevalence of SAD among students, increased disability, and impaired quality of life, rigorous efforts are needed for early recognition and treatment of SAD.
Sayedalamin, Zaid; Imran, Muhammad; Almutairi, Osama; Lamfon, Mohammed; Alnawwar, Majd; Baig, Mukhtiar
To assess awareness and attitude of medical students about organ donation. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and comprised medical students. The participants were asked about their religious and other beliefs towards organ donation, their reasons for not donating organs, and their personal opinions about organ donation through a questionnaire. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Of the 481 participants, 250(52%) were females, and 231(48%) were males. The overall mean age was 21.36±1.63 years. Besides, 437(90.9%) students knew what organ donation means, 433(90%) supported organ donation, and 90(18.7%) knew someone who had donated an organ. Moreover, 245(50.9%) participants were willing to donate their organ to their family alone, 198(41.2%) were willing to donate to any deserving patient while 439(91.3%) rejected that religion precluded organ donation, and 354(73.6%) did not know about the grafting of organs from a man to a woman and vice versa. Awareness and attitude towards organ donation were not up to the mark among the participants.
Full Text Available Ahmad Abulaban, Abdulrahman Alharbi, Osama BinDajam, Mohammed Al Jarbou, Hatem Alharbi, Faiz Alanazi, Khalid Aldamiri, Ahmed Althobaiti, Abdulla Al Sayyari Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research in five Saudi universities and examine the changes observed in these opinions and attitudes in one of these universities over a period of time.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in five Saudi universities. This study was based on a survey undertaken in 2015. The survey consisted of five questions inquiring about the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research. The same survey was carried out 8 years earlier in one of these universities (King Abdulaziz University [KAU], and the results obtained during the two periods (2007 and 2015 were compared.Results: A convenient sample of 924 students was selected from five Saudi universities. Ninety-five (10.3% of the medical students were not aware of the usefulness and importance scientific research will have on their future careers. A total of 409 (44.3% stated that they had no knowledge on how to conduct scientific research. On the other hand, a vast majority of medical students (98.1% expressed a willingness and interest to participate in scientific research if provided with an opportunity. The percentage of students from KAU strongly agreeing to participate in research rose from 33.1% in 2007 to 81.5% in 2015 (P=0.001. Of all the students surveyed, 431 (46.6% had participated in scientific research as undergraduates.Conclusion: Most students in five Saudi universities expressed enthusiasm for participating in a research project, but only a few of them had
Abdullah M Al-Rubaish
Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction is a major determinant of job performance, manpower retention and employee well-being. Objectives: To explore the state of job satisfaction among the academic staff of King Faisal University - Dammam (KFU-D, and detect the areas and groups at a higher risk of being dissatisfied. Method: A fully-structured 5-option Likert-type Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ composed of an evaluative item and eleven domains making a total of 46 items was used. It was distributed by internal mail to all the 340 academic staff, 248 of whom returned completed questionnaires (response rate = 72.9 %. Findings: The overall mean Job Satisfaction Rate (JSR was 73.6 %. The highest JSR′s were found in three domains ("Supervision", "Responsibility", and "Interpersonal Relationships", and the lowest in four others ("Salary", "My Work Itself", "Working Conditions", and "Advancement". The JSR was significantly lower among Saudi nationals, females, those below age 40, those from clinical medical and Dentistry departments. Multiple Regression identified six independent variables which conjointly explained 25 % of the variance in job satisfaction (p < 0.0001. These were: being an expatriate, above the age of 50, serving the university for less than one or more than ten years, and, not from a clinical department of Medicine or Dentistry. Conclusions : Most staff were satisfied with many aspects of their jobs, but there was significant dissatisfaction with several job-related aspects and demographic features. Appropriate interventions are indicated. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to monitor future trends.
Qari, Faiza A.
The aim is to study the incidence of thyroid cancer in surgically treated nodular thyroid disease, clinicopathological characteristics and treatment results. A retrospective review of 45 patients with thyroid malignancy at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during a 3-years period between January 2000 through to December 2003 was carried out. Analysis of clinicopathologic characteristics, age correlation to different risk factors, outcome of surgery and radioiodine treatment. A total of 120 thyroidectomies were performed during the 3-years period, January 2000 through to December 2003 at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital. Forty-five (37.5%) patients had histopathology confirmed diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Eighty-two point two percent cases of papillary carcinoma, 4.4% follicular type and 6.7% anaplastic and medullary carcinoma of thyroid. Mean age was 40.5 +/- 14.8 years. Male preponderance was seen in this study with males: females ratio is 1.1:1. Nodular goiter was the most frequent presentation, observed in 30 (66.7%) cases. Fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of malignancy in 76% of cases. Ninety-seven patients with papillary carcinoma received ablative dose of radioiodine with average dose of 100-200 mCi. One female patient with follicular carcinoma of thyroid with bone, lung, and brain metastases received 4 doses of radioiodine with total dose of 800 mCi. Mortality rate was (2.2%), one patient died of complication of invasive anaplastic carcinoma with invasion of the trachea. There is a lot of controversy regarding thyroid malignancy investigations and management. We recommend that thyroid cancer patients should be treated by a team of endocrinologist, pathologist, experience thyroid surgeon, nuclear medicine and external radiotherapy physician to achieve an optimum care and good prognosis. (author)
Khabaz, Mohamad Nidal; Bakarman, Marwan Abdulrahman; Baig, Mukhtiar; Ghabrah, Tawfik Mohammed; Gari, Mamdouh Abdullah; Butt, Nadeem Shafiq; Alghanmi, Faisal; Balubaid, Abdulaziz; Alzahrani, Ahmed; Hamouh, Safwan
To investigate dietary habits, lifestyle pattern and obesity in young university students. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Rabigh campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from March to May 2016, and comprised healthy male students. A close-ended questionnaire was filled by all students about their dietary habits and lifestyle pattern and the lipid profile, blood glucose levels and body mass index was determined. The participants were selected by convenience sampling method. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Of the 116 participants, 34(29.3%) were obese, 34(29.3%) were overweight and 48(41.4%) had normal body mass index. Overall, 66(57%) participants were taking 3 to 4 fast food meals weekly and was also taking junk food at least once in a day. Also, 50(43%) participants were using soft/energy drink more than once per day. Besides, 82(70.7%) respondents were spending 3 to 4 hours daily in watching TV, using the Internet or PlayStation. Significant differences were observed for low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (p=0.02 and p=0.006, respectively) among overweight and obese subjects as compared to those having normal weight. The majority of the overweight and obese participants' had experienced shame or other uncomfortable feelings and had a negative impact on their activity (p<0.001). Dietary habits and lifestyle of the majority of the participants were not up to the mark and the obesity prevalence was common.
Jamjoom, Abdulhakim B
To calculate the h-index for neurosurgeons in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to assess its association with a number of features relating to neurosurgical practice in KSA. The h-index for 84 neurosurgeons that worked in KSA during 1990-2013 was evaluated using Google Scholar during the period September to October 2014. The correlation between the h-index and a number of neurosurgeon and neurosurgical center characteristics was determined and examined statistically. The median h-index was 2.5 (range 0-33) and the mean was 5.04. The h-index was significantly higher for neurosurgeons who obtained their certification before 2001 and those working at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. The h-index was also higher, but without reaching significance, for non-Saudi neurosurgeons, those with international certification and those working at the university hospitals. Additionally, the h-index was significantly lower for neurosurgeons working in the Ministry of Health hospitals. Application of the h-index to KSA neurosurgeons revealed a significant correlation with the duration after certification and with certain centers. Evaluation of the h-index should be included in the consideration for academic positions in KSA. Saudi neurosurgeons should be encouraged to publish in journals with high impact factor.
Alabdulkareem, Saleh Abdullah
The researcher aims to investigate Saudi science teachers' beliefs about learning and teaching issues. The sample consisted of 247 middle school teachers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study conducted in the academic school year 2014/2015, and utilized a questionnaire and an interview that included 10% of the sample. The questionnaire targeted the…
Daghistan, Bulquees Ismail Abdul Majid
This research study aims at investigating the impact of Mind Maps on modifying the lack of attention in Arabic language class among Saudi Kindergarten children. To achieve the goals of this study the researcher used an experimental design with a random sample from AlRae'd Kindergarten's children in Riyadh -Saudi Arabia for the academic year…
AL-Hazmi, Mohammad Abdullah; Hammad, Mohammad Ahamd; AL-Shahrani, Hend Faye
The study aimed to identify the obstacles facing Saudi woman while working in a mixed work environment. The main study sample consisted of (223) from the health sector female affiliates and were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of (129) participants from the health sector and workers in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)…
Waltermire, Bradley J.
Renewed violent attacks in Saudi Arabia against the monarchy, combined with growing concern over royal corruption has led some analysts to predict that Saudi Arabia is likely to be "the next Iran"-that Islamist revolutionaries will come to power in Riyadh. I test this theory through the lens of network analysis in order to measure the degree of state-society integration in Pahlavi Iran and Saudi Arabia. My analysis finds that a) the Saudi state is far more integrated in society through so...
Full Text Available Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: After almost a decade of implementing competency-based programs in postgraduate training programs, the assessment of technical skills remains more subjective than objective. National data on the assessment of technical skills during surgical training are lacking. We conducted this study to document the assessment tools for technical skills currently used in different surgical specialties, their relationship with remediation, the recommended tools from the program directors’ perspective, and program directors’ attitudes toward the available objective tools to assess technical skills.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of surgical program directors (PDs. The survey was initially developed using a focus group and was then sent to 116 PDs. The survey contains demographic information about the program, the objective assessment tools used, and the reason for not using assessment tools. The last section discusses the recommended tools to be used from the PDs’ perspective and the PDs’ attitude and motivation to apply these tools in each program. The associations between the responses to the assessment questions and remediation were statistically evaluated.Results: Seventy-one (61% participants responded. Of the respondents, 59% mentioned using only nonstandardized, subjective, direct observation for technical skills assessment. Sixty percent use only summative
Mohamed Ibrahim Alscati
This study aimed to develop a proposed strategy at th Universities of Saudi Arabia to meet the educational changes and challenges in the light of the perspectives of the teaching staff at the colleges of education. The study sample consisted of all teaching staff members in the colleges of education in Saudi universities, which were (731. The study used survey analytical developmental method, represented by the construction of the questionnaire so as to design the proposed strategy of all stages. Statistical means, standard deviations, as well as the equation Cronbach alpha coefficient to find out the internal consistency were used. The results showed that the teaching staff’s estimations of the manifestations of change in the Saudi community were moderate (3.66, whereas their estimations of the challenges facing Saudi universities were high (3.72. In light of these findings, the study proposed a strategy for the Saudi universities to address the educational changes and challenges. The mission of the strategy is centered around supporting members of the knowledge community and developing their leadership skills so as to be able to face educational changes. The vision of the strategy is to make universities the milestones for promising future.
Halimic, Aida; Gage, Heather; Raats, Monique; Williams, Peter
To explore the impact of price manipulation and healthy eating information on intended food choices. Health information was provided to a random half of subjects (vs. information on Saudi agriculture). Each subject chose from the same lunch menu, containing two healthy and two unhealthy entrees, deserts and beverages, on five occasions. Reference case prices were 5, 3 and 2 Saudi Arabian Reals (SARs). Prices of healthy and unhealthy items were manipulated up (taxed) and down (subsidized) by 1 SAR in four menu variations (random order); subjects were given a budget enabling full choice within any menu. The number of healthy food choices were compared with different price combinations, and between information groups. Linear regression modelling explored the effect of relative prices of healthy/unhealthy options and information on number of healthy choices controlling for dietary behaviours and hunger levels. University campus, Saudi Arabia, 2013. 99 women students. In the reference case, 49.5% of choices were for healthy items. When the price of healthy items was reduced, 58.5% of selections were healthy; 57.2% when the price of unhealthy items rose. In regression modelling, reducing the price of healthy items and increasing the price of unhealthy items increased the number of healthy choices by 5% and 6% respectively. Students reporting a less healthy usual diet selected significantly fewer healthy items. Providing healthy eating information was not a significant influence. Price manipulation offers potential for altering behaviours to combat rising youth obesity in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Faiza A. Qari
Full Text Available Objectives: To review the incidence, spectrum of clinical manifestation, course, risk factors, as well as treatment of diabetes insipidus (DI following neurosurgery of the pituitary gland. Methods: The files of 24 patients that underwent neurosurgery for sellar lesions, or tumor near the hypothalamus or pituitary gland at the Department of Neurosurgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were retrospectively reviewed between January 2011 to December 2014. A total of 24 patients were studied, and were divided into 2 groups namely; DI and non-DI. Patient characteristics were studied using descriptive statistics. The differences in proportion between the 2 groups were found out using Z-test for proportion in 2 populations. The mean differences in the hormonal abnormalities for the 2 groups were assessed using independent t-test. All statistics are considered statistically significant when p less than 0.05. Results: During hospitalization, 13 (54.2% out of 24 patient that underwent neurosurgery had manifestations of DI, which was transient in 5 (38.8% and permanent in 8 (61.2%. The DI subgroup contained higher prevalence of prolactinoma, craniopharyngioma, pre-operative panhypopituitarism, and macroadenoma in MRI imaging and transphenoidal surgery. Furthermore, urine osmolality was significantly lower in the DI group post-operatively with a significant p=0.023. It was recognized that the permanent DI documented more significant numbers than other studies. Conclusion: In our study group, it was recognized that permanent DI meant that our patients needed desmopressin for more than 3 months, which documented a more significant number than other studies.
Nahla Khamis Ibrahim
Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that can cause disability and economic burden. Nurses are a vital part of the medical team and their well-being is an important issue. Yet, few studies have been done concerning IBS among nurses. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, severity, and predictors of IBS among nurses working at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 229 nurses who fulfilled the eligibility criteria. They were selected by stratified random sampling during 2014–2015. A validated, confidential, self-administered data collection sheet was used for collection of personal and sociodemographic data. Rome III Criteria, IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were included. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were done. A multiple logistic regression analysis was done to determine the predictors of IBS. Results: The prevalence of IBS among nurses was 14.4%, and IBS-Mixed type was the commonest variety (54.5%. Positive family history of IBS, working in outpatient clinics, having day shift, poor sleep quality, and high anxiety and depression scale scores were significantly associated with IBS. After controlling for confounding factors in regression analysis, the predictors of IBS were food hypersensitivity (aOR=4.52; 95% CI: 1.80−11.33, morbid anxiety (aOR=4.34; 95% CI: 1.49–12.67, and positive family history of IBS (aOR=3.38; 95% CI: 1.12–13.23. Conclusion: The prevalence of IBS was 14.4%. Food hypersensitivity, morbid anxiety, and family history were the predictors of IBS. Screening and management of IBS, food hypersensitivity, and psychological problems among nurses are recommended.
Qari, Faiza A; AbuDaood, Elaff A; Nasser, Tariq A
To review the incidence, spectrum of clinical manifestation, course, risk factors, as well as treatment of diabetes insipidus (DI) following neurosurgery of the pituitary gland. The files of 24 patients that underwent neurosurgery for sellar lesions, or tumor near the hypothalamus or pituitary gland at the Department of Neurosurgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were retrospectively reviewed between January 2011 to December 2014. A total of 24 patients were studied, and were divided into 2 groups namely; DI and non-DI. Patient characteristics were studied using descriptive statistics. The differences in proportion between the 2 groups were found out using Z-test for proportion in 2 populations. The mean differences in the hormonal abnormalities for the 2 groups were assessed using independent t-test. All statistics are considered statistically significant when p less than 0.05. During hospitalization, 13 (54.2%) out of 24 patient that underwent neurosurgery had manifestations of DI, which was transient in 5 (38.8%) and permanent in 8 (61.2%). The DI subgroup contained higher prevalence of prolactinoma, craniopharyngioma, pre-operative panhypopituitarism, and macroadenoma in MRI imaging and transphenoidal surgery. Furthermore, urine osmolality was significantly lower in the DI group post-operatively with a significant p=0.023. It was recognized that the permanent DI documented more significant numbers than other studies. In our study group, it was recognized that permanent DI meant that our patients needed desmopressin for more than 3 months, which documented a more significant number than other studies.
Mahmoud F El-Sharkawy
Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The complex hospital environment requires special attention to ensure a healthy indoor air quality (IAQ to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections and occupational diseases. Poor hospital IAQ may cause outbreaks of building-related illness such as headaches, fatigue, eye, and skin irritations, and other symptoms. The general objective for this study was to assess IAQ inside a large University hospital at Al-Khobar City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Different locations representing areas where most activities and tasks are performed were selected as sampling points for air pollutants in the selected hospital. In addition, several factors were studied to determine those that were most likely to affect the IAQ levels. The temperature and relative percent humidity of different air pollutants were measured simultaneously at each location. Results: The outdoor levels of all air pollutant levels, except volatile organic compounds (VOCs, were higher than the indoor levels which meant that the IAQ inside healthcare facilities (HCFs were greatly affected by outdoor sources, particularly traffic. The highest levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs and those less than 10 microns (PM 10 inside the selected hospital were found at locations that are characterized with m4ore human activity. Conclusions:Levels of particulate matter (both PM 10 and TSP were higher than the Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs. The highest concentrations of the fungal species recorded were Cladosporium and Penicillium. Education of occupants of HCF on IAQ is critical. They must be informed about the sources and effects of contaminants and the proper operation of the ventilation system.
Alsunni, Ahmed A; Badar, Ahmed
There are safety concerns about energy drinks alongside marketing claims of physiological and behavioural benefits. There is no scientific data about usage of energy drinks in Saudi Arabia. This study determined consumption patterns of energy drinks as well as perceived benefits and side effects amongst students at a Saudi university. This study was carried out in students of University of Dammam from October to December 2010. A questionnaire about energy drink use, reasons for use, benefits and side effects experienced was distributed amongst the university students. Frequencies of responses and differences between male and female students were analysed. A total of 412 students (282 males and 130 females) responded, out of whom 54.60% males and 26.15% female students were energy drink users. Mean age at first use was significantly (pcompany of friends, to keep awake, for more energy and for better performance in driving, sports or exams. Amongst many the commonest (p<0.05) benefit reported was ability to stay awake longer. The students reported a number of adverse effects. Increased urination and insomnia were the commonest in males and females respectively. Only 36.70% males and 14.28% females never experienced an adverse effect. A significant proportion of students at university of Dammam use energy drinks, they have reported a number of effects (perceived as benefits) along with a variety of adverse effects.
the results from the random parameters model seem more reasonable. Age and nationality of the driver, excessive speed, wet road surface and dark lighting conditions and single vehicle crashes are associated with increased probability of fatal crashes. More specifically, the probability of having a fatal crash increases with the age of the driver and Saudi drivers (relative to non-Saudi drivers are associated with the probability of fatal crashes (relative to serious injury crashes. A crash involving a single vehicle is found to be more severe than a crash involving a multiple vehicles. The results from the frequency models suggest that percentage of non-Saudi found positively associated with serious injury crashes; percentage of illiterate people and the income per capita found to be positively significant with the frequency of fatal and serious injury crashes; and the increased residential, transport, and educational areas of land use is associated with the decreased level of fatal and serious injury crashes occurrences. Based on the findings, a range of countermeasures are proposed to reduce the severity and frequency of traffic crashes in Riyadh city.
Wedad Mohammad Saleh Alkferi
Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the level of self-confidence among female students of Hail University, and whether there were significant differences at the level of the students' self-confidence attributed to the variables of age and specialization. The study sample, which was randomly selected, consisted of 802 students from various disciplines at the university (medicine, engineering, psychology, and Islamic culture enrolled for the second semester of the academic year (2015/2016. To achieve the objectives of the study a confidence Scale developed by Kawasmeh and Farah (1996. The scale was checked for its validity and reliability. The statistical package SPSS was used to extract the results. Results of the study revealed a low level of self-confidence for the students of the university, whereas there were no statistically significant differences due to the variables of age and specialization. Keywords: Self-confidence, Students of Hail University, Saudi Arabia, Some variables.
Atiyat, Omar Khalil
This study aimed at measuring the level of the psychological burnout in the teachers of students that have autism symptoms in Al-Riyadh area--kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In light of variables. These variables are the gender, the teaching place, the academic qualification of the teachers, the experience of the teachers, the age of the teachers, and…
Al-Tannir, Mohamad A.; Kobrosly, Samer Y.; Al-Badr, Ahmad H.; Salloum, Nourhan A.; Altannir, Youssef M.; Sakkijha, Husam M.
Objectives To characterize sleeping habits, assess sleep disturbance prevalence, and identify associated factors among Saudi adults. Methods A total of 1720 adults were approached for this observational cross-sectional study between October 2014 and March 2015. The study took place in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. We used a questionnaire to describe sleeping characteristics in relation to existing chronic diseases, smoking status, obesity, daily performance and sociodemographic variabl...
Yousef Abu Alsuood
Full Text Available This article reports an investigation into societal and organizational cultural influences on academic leadership in Saudi Arabian higher education, a previously underexplored area. In Saudi Arabia, it is currently unclear how university deans are negotiating the balance between organizational cultural values and contemporary influences, and how the values they embrace may influence their leadership practices and effectiveness. The study has been conducted in eight main governmental universities under the Ministry of Education. Qualitative data has been collected, involving interviews with fifteen university deans, with data scrutinized by an interpretive thematic analysis. The deans’ responses indicated dissatisfaction with the broad societal culture around them and the negative influence this had on leadership practices. Tensions were apparent between traditional values and change, and the influence of family and tribal backgrounds. Five organizational cultural themes were identified as influences on deans’ leadership—a centralized environment, strict regulations, the authority of top management, selection and promotion issues, and reputational factors. The study’s outcomes contribute to the understanding of leadership perceptions and practices within a particular cultural context.
Khalaf, Atika; Ekblom, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Berggren, Vanja; Westergren, Albert; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa
The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. This study raises four important determinants for female university students' PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.
Khalaf, Atika; Ekblom, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Berggren, Vanja; Westergren, Albert; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa
Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23939387
Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5. Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.
Khalid K. Alharbi
Full Text Available Large scale studies in Europeans have clearly identified common polymorphism affecting BMI and obesity. We undertook a genotype study to examine the impact of variants, known to influence obesity, in a sample from the Saudi Arabian population, notable for its profound combination of low mean physical activity indices and high energy intake. Anthropometry measures and genotypes were obtained for 367 Saudis, taken from King Saud University and Biomarker Screening Project in Riyadh (Riyadh Cohort. We observed large effect sizes with obesity for rs10767664 (BDNF (OR = 1.923, P=0.00072 and rs3751812 (FTO (OR = 1.523, P=0.016 in our sample and, using weighted genetic risk scores, we found strong evidence of a cumulative effect using 11 SNPs taken predominantly from loci principally affecting appetite (OR = 2.57, P=0.00092. We used conditional analyses to discern which of our three highly correlated FTO SNPs were responsible for the observed signal, although we were unable to determine with confidence which best marked the causal site. Our analysis indicates that markers located in loci known to influence fat mass through increased appetite affect obesity in Saudi Arabians to an extent possibly greater than in Europeans. Larger scale studies will be necessary to obtain a precise comparison.
Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al Noaim, Khalid Ibrahim; Bu Saad, Mohammed Ahmed; Al Malhm, Turki Ahmed; Al Mulhim, Abdullah Abdulaziz; Al Awas, Marwah Abdulaziz
No previous studies have reported the knowledge of Saudi medical students about Standard Precautions (SPs) and infection control. The objectives of this study were to assess medical students' knowledge in clinical years at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia about SPs' and to explore their attitudes toward the current curricular/training in providing them with effective knowledge and necessary skills with regard to SPs. This cross sectional study targeted students in clinical stage at College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested anonymous self administered data collection form was used. Inquires about students' characteristics, general concepts of infection control/SPs, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, sharp injuries and disposal, and care of health providers were included. The main source of information for each domain was also inquired. The second part dedicated to explore the attitudes toward the curricular and teaching relevant to SPs. A total of 251 students were included. Knowledge scores in all domains were considerably low, 67 (26.7%) students scored ? 24 (out of 41points) which was considered as an acceptable level of knowledge, 22.2% in 4th year, 20.5% in 5th year and 36.8% in 6th year. Sharp injuries, personal protective equipment and health care of the providers showed the least knowledge scores. The main sources of knowledge were self learning, and informal bed side practices The majority of students' believed that the current teaching and training are insufficient in providing them with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding SPs. The overall knowledge scores for SPs were low especially in the domains of hand hygiene, sharp management, and personal protective equipment reflecting insufficient and ineffective instructions received by medical students through the current curriculum posing them vulnerable to health facilities related infections. Proper curricular reform and training are required to protect
Alsunni, Ahmed; Majeed, Farrukh; Yar, Talay; AlRahim, Ahmed; Alhawaj, Ali Fouad; Alzaki, Muneer
Consumption of energy drinks has adverse effects on the heart that might be potentiated in obese individuals. Since the incidence of obesity and use of energy drinks is high among Saudi youth, we used non-invasive tests to study hemodynamic changes produced by altered autonomic cardiac activ.ity following consumption of energy drinks in obese male students. This cross-sectional study was carried out at Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, over a one-year period from December 2013 to December 2014. In Saudi male university students we measured continuous ECG recordings and a one-minute deep breathing maneuver to measure the expiratory-to-inspiratory ratio, the mean heart rate range (MHRR), the mean percentage variability. (M%VHR) and the corrected QT interval (QTc) at 0, 30 and 60 minutes after consumption of energy drink. We enrolled 31 students (18 overweight/obese and 13 normal weights. QTc was significantly in.creased at 60 min as compared with the resting state in overweight/obese subjects (P=.006). Heart rate variability was significantly less in obese as compared with normal weight subjects at 60 minutes as indicated by E:I ratio, (P=.037), MHRR (P=.012), M%VHR (P=.040) after energy drink consumption. Significant increases in diastolic (P=.020) and mean arterial blood pressure (P=.024) were observed at 30 minutes in the obese group. Hemodynamic changes after intake of energy drinks in obese subjects indicate that obesity and energy drinks could synergistically induce harmful effects. This finding warrants efforts to caution the obese on intake of energy drinks and timely intervention to motivate changes in lifestyle.
Al Jumah K
Full Text Available Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to explore patients’ adherence to antidepressant medications, and the factors associated with adherence.Methods: A non-experimental cross-sectional design was used to measure adherence to antidepressants among major depressive disorder patients, and the factors associated with adherence. The patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between August 2013 and January 2014. Eligible participants met with one of the research coordinators for assessment of their adherence. Adherence was investigated indirectly by use of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and patients’ beliefs were assessed through the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire. Information about the severity of their depression, demographics, and other study variables were collected.Results: A total of 403 patients met the inclusion criteria and participated in the study. Of those, 203 (50.37% were females, while the remaining 200 (49.6% were males. There was an average age of 39 years (standard deviation, ±11 years. Half of the patients (52.9% reported low adherence to their antidepressant medication, with statistically significant differences between the low adherence and high adherence scores relating to sex, age, and duration of illness. Conclusion: Low medication adherence is a common problem among major depressive disorder
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant
... Riyadh and Dhahran; and Networking receptions in two cities of the trade mission. Proposed Mission... (Sipchem) complex, which will produce synthetic fibers. The planned expansion at Jubail Industrial City II.... Among Saudi Arabia's super-projects are as many as six ``economic cities,'' to be completed by the year...
Alshora, Weam Bashier I; Mohammad Kalo, Bakr
Medical profession is a stressful occupation as it carries potential risk for pregnancy outcome. There is lack of researches regarding the pregnancy loss among physicians working in hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The current study aims at estimating the prevalence and factors associated with pregnancy loss among female physicians working at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, September, 2015. A cross sectional study has been conducted, which included all the female physicians working at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah by filling a self-administered online questionnaire. Out of all responding physicians (n = 92), the majority were Saudis (93.5%), who were mostly married (89.1%) and rest were either divorced (8.7%) or widowed (2.2%). Seventeen female physicians had pregnancy loss before (18.5%) with a total of 25 losses, which were mostly occurred during first trimester, especially while working as residents (40%), the average monthly working hours in the first pregnancy loss was (median; IQR, 160, 110-198 h). No statistically significant difference could be detected regarding the variation in pregnancy losses according to nationality marital status nor specialty. Most of the pregnancy losses in physicians occurred in first trimester during residency with a relatively longer monthly working hours. Further researches are needed on a larger sample and wider scale with inclusion of other pertinent factors to enable judging on the independent relationship of pregnancy loss and medical profession. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour A; Alshammari, Thamir M; Al-Dhaeefi, Mohammed; Le Louet, Herve; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Pitts, Peter J
To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals were invited to participate in the discussion. The predefined themes of the study were the current practice and major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in regulatory bodies, hospitals, the community, and academia, as well as recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance practice. Of the 29 participants invited, 27 attended the discussion. Challenges facing regulatory bodies included complicated adverse drug reactions (ADR) reporting forms, lack of feedback on ADRs submitted to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority, lack of decisions from the local authority to withdraw medications, and lack of data on pharmacovigilance. The challenges to pharmacovigilance in hospitals included the lack of knowledge of the significance of ADR reporting, workload, blaming culture, and lack of collaboration between regulatory bodies and hospitals. However, challenges facing pharmaceutical industries included the lack of drug manufacturers in Saudi Arabia and lack of interest in pharmacovigilance. Recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance included the need for communication, stronger regulatory requirements, the need for research, the need for unified ADRs reporting, and continuous education and training. The study has identified the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and made certain recommendations to overcome them. These recommendations might be helpful for regulatory bodies to enhance spontaneous reporting and promote pharmacovigilance.
Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)
Jammah, Anwar A.; Alshehri, Anwar S.; Alrakhis, Afaf A.; Alhedaithy, Asma S.; Almadhi, Asma M.; Alkwai, Hala M.; Alhamad, Maram M.; Alzahrani, Saad H.
Objective: To determine the reference intervals for thyroid function tests and the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in the Saudi population. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January to June 2013. History and physical examination were obtained. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were measured by Electro-chemiluminescence Immunoassay system-assay. Anti-thyroperoxidase, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay. Subjects with previous or a family history of thyroid disorders, those taking medications affecting thyroid function, pregnant or lactating women, and those with goiter were excluded. Individuals with positive antibodies were excluded from the final analysis of the TSH reference range, but were used to determine the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. Results: Out of 337 Saudi subjects initially screened, 132 (aged 13-60 years) were candidates for reference calculation, the mean±standard deviation, and (2.5th-97.5th) percentile of TSH (mIU/L) was 1.96±0.9 (0.59-4.37), for FT4 (pmol/L) was 15.47±1.83 (12.04-19.13), and for FT3 (pmol/L) was 5.22±0.7 (4.07-6.76). The TSH was higher in the antibodies positive group (2.5±1.17 mIU/L) compared with the negative one (1.96±0.9 mIU/L) (pantithyroid antibodies. Conclusion: The TSH reference range was similar to laboratory references. Thyroid antibodies were prevalent in Saudis, necessitating further work in larger scale studies. PMID:25987111
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.
Objective was to report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrence of stroke in Saudi children. We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and laboratory data following retrieval from a specially designed comprehensive protocol. Of the 104 children in the cohort (aged one month to 12 years), 5 (4.8%) died during the study period and 9(8.7%) were lost to follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up for the remaining 90 children was 40 months (median 33 months). Recovery was judged complete in 6(6.7%) of these 90 children. We detected residual hemiparesis (irrespective of its effect on daily functions) in 73 (81%) and this was combined with other motor deficits in 45 children (50%). Forty-one children (46%) had residual dysphasia or language deficits, whereas 45 (50%) were judged to have had cognitive deficit. Psychometry revealed an abnormal intelligence quotient test (70) in 19 of 26 (73%) children. Other neurologic sequelae included epilepsy in 52 (58%), recurrent headaches in 13 (14%) and hydrocephalus in 4 (4.4%) patients, Six of the 95 (6.3%) children, who were ascertained to have died or kept their follow-up, had one or more occurrences, one month to 5 years after initial stroke (median 23 months). Patients who had recurrent strokes were significantly more likely to be the product of consanguineous marriages (p=0.04). Regarding the group of 23 children with perinatal stroke, neither deaths nor recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. However, 20 (87%) of them had significant delays in their developmental milestones. The toll of stroke in Saudi children is demanding, with most children demonstrating
This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail
Al-Shamlan, Nouf A; Jayaseeli, Nithya; Al-Shawi, Moneera M; Al-Joudi, Abdullah S
Workplace violence against health-care workers is a significant problem worldwide. Nurses are at a higher risk of exposure to violence. Studies available in Saudi Arabia are few. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of verbal abuse of nurses at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, and to identify consequences and the demographic and work-related characteristics associated with it. This cross-sectional study of 391 nurses by total sample was conducted between November and December 2015, using a modified self-administered questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Data was entered, and analyzed using SPSS Version 16.0. The descriptive statistics were reported using frequency and percentages for all categorical variables. Chi-squared tests or Fisher's Exact test, as appropriate, were performed to test the associations of verbal abuse with the demographic and work-related characteristics of the participants. Variables with p violence in their workplace were more vulnerable to workplace verbal abuse. Workplace verbal abuse is a significant challenge in KFHU. For decision makers, it is rather disturbing that a lot of cases go unreported even though procedures for reporting exist. Implementation of an efficient transparent reporting system that provides follow-up investigations is mandatory. In addition, all victims should be helped with counseling and support.
Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed
Few studies have reported the correlation between hand hygiene (HH) practices and infection rates in Saudi Arabia. This work was aimed to study the effect of a multicomponent HH intervention strategy in improving HH compliance and reducing infection rates at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia between January 2014 and December 2016. A yearlong multicomponent HH intervention, which included various strategies recommended by the World Health Organization, was introduced. HH compliance among staff and infection rates observed in the inpatient wards were assessed and compared at pre- and post-interventional phases. There was a significant increase in mean HH compliance from 50.17% to 71.75% after the intervention ( P infection (HAI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates decreased from 3.37 to 2.59 and from 3.73 to 1.75, respectively ( P infection rates. Further studies on cost-effectiveness of such a model could augment to these findings.
Ramli, Rindra M.
An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.
This study aims at examining the level of need for cognition and metacognitive thinking among undergraduate kindergarten female students in Education Faculty at King Sa'ud University in Sa'udi Arabia from their own perceptions. Results showed that the need for the cognition level was moderate, but metacognitive thinking level was high. In…
Alquraini, Turki Abduallh S.; Rao, Shaila M.
Educators all over the world are trying to revise and/or build their teacher education programmes to ensure pre-service teachers working on their teaching credentials are competent and ready to manage classrooms from day one. This study surveyed 179 faculty from 30 colleges and universities in Saudi Arabia to find out the extent to which they…
Nashashibi, I. A.; Shaikh, H. S.; Sarhan, O. A.
The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)
Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; Briggs, Stella T; Chijuka, John C; Alanazi, Saud A; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C
Optometry is a primary health-care profession (PHCP) and this study aimed to elucidate the factors influencing the choice of optometry as a career for Saudi students, the students' perceptions of optometry and the effect of gender. Two hundred and forty-seven students whose average age was 21.7 ± 1.5 (SD) years and who are currently enrolled in two colleges of optometry in Saudi Arabia--King Saud University (KSU) and Qassim University (QU)--completed self-administered questionnaires. The survey included questions concerning demography, career first choice, career perception and factors influencing career choices. The response rate was 87.6 per cent and there were 161 male (64.9 per cent) students. Seventy-nine per cent of the participants were from KSU (males and females) and 20.6 per cent were from QU (only males). Seventy-three per cent come from Riyadh and 19 per cent are from Qassim province. Regarding the first choice for their careers, the females (92 per cent) were 0.4 times more likely (p = 0.012) to choose optometry than males (78.3 per cent). The males were significantly more likely to be influenced by the following factors: the Doctor of Optometry (OD) programs run at both universities, good salary and prospects (p optometry. Females were more likely to opt for a career in optometry and males were more likely to be influenced by the new OD programs, good salary and job prospects. Service provision to others in the community was a primary motivation to opt for a career in optometry among young Saudis. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.
El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Othman, Saleh M.; Fouda, Mona A.
This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)
AlKheraif, Abdulaziz A; Mobarak, Fahmy A
In view of the risk of infection of dental health care workers and patients, interruption of possible chains of infection is to be demanded. The objective of this study was to assess infection control practice in private dental laboratories in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted on thirty-two private dental laboratories in Riyadh City regarding infection control practiced by these laboratories. The instrument of the study consisted of ten open-ended questions that were asked from the laboratories directors. A large percentage of the surveyed laboratories (87.5 %) did not implement any infection control protocol during their practice. The mean number of impressions received per week was 16. Most of the surveyed laboratories (90.6 %) had no way of communication with the clinics regarding the disinfection procedures. The results indicated that 62.5 % of the laboratories reported that they were aware that they may get infection from non-disinfected items. Only a small percentage (6.2%) of the laboratories added disinfecting agent to pumice slurry. Wearing laboratory coats was reported by 75% of the laboratory workers. The use of gloves during work was reported by 59.3% of the laboratories while 56.2% reported the use protective eyewear. Only 21.8% of the laboratories use face masks during work. Construction of infection control manuals that contain updated and recommended guidelines to ensure aseptic practice in private dental laboratories is highly recommended. Also, a way of communication between dentists and dental technicians regarding disinfection of laboratory items should be strongly encouraged. (author)
Al-Swiahb, Jamil N.; Al-Ammar, A.; Al-Dousary, Surayie H.
Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)
Madani, T A; Alsaedi, S; James, L; Eldeek, B S; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Alawi, M M; Marwan, D; Cudal, M; Macapagal, M; Bahlas, R; Farouq, M
During November 2008 to January 2009, 11 babies in the neonatal intensive care (NICU) and three babies in the nursery were infected with Serratia marcescens at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Overall, fifteen infections were identified among 11 newborns in the NICU: septicaemia (five cases), purulent conjunctivitis (three), urinary tract infection (two), meningitis (two) and cellulitis (one). Three newborns in the nursery had three infections: purulent conjunctivitis (two cases) and omphalitis (one). Thirteen of 14 babies recovered fully but one died from S. marcescens meningitis and septicaemia. All infections were traced to intrinsically contaminated baby shampoo introduced to the units five days before the first reported case. The outbreak terminated following withdrawal of the shampoo product. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Alzahrani, Nujood Abdulwahed; Batwie, Afnan Ateeg; Abushal, Razan Abdulaziz; Almogati, Ghazwa Ghazzay; Sattam, Munirah Abdulrahman; Hussin, Bodour Khalid
To assess Quality of Life, job satisfaction and their related factors among nurses working in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 268 nurses, 2014/2015. A validated, confidential data collection sheet was utilized. It contained the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), and Job Descriptive Index/Job in General (JDI/JIG) scales. The majority of nurses (83.5%) perceived their general QOL as very good and good. Age, marital status, having children, nationality, income, education, residence, working experience, department and shift time were associated with QOL domains (p income, shifts, working in inpatient and surgical departments were associated with job satisfaction. Positive correlations were found between job satisfaction and different QOL domains, and between different JDI/JIG subscales together. Improvement of the modifiable factors as nurses' income and shift time is needed for better QOL and job satisfaction.
Shaffi Ahamed Shaik
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of socio demographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women on their physical activity. Methods: An observational quantitative cross sectional design was carried out in the delivery ward and paediatrics clinic of king Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study subjects included all women who had delivered in the last three months, during the study period between 2013- 2014. The sample size was 336. Data collection included socio-demographic variables, pregnancy related variables and the physical activity by using validated pregnancy physical activity questionnaire. Results: The mean (standard deviation total physical activity score of all the study subjects was 197.39(72.1. The physical activity scores are statistically significantly higher in younger women, graduation education level, and among those who were employed. The physical activity scores were statistically significantly higher in women who had normal delivery, did not have any illness and those who had followed the advice to perform physical activity. Conclusion: The levels of physical activity along with their socio demographic and clinical characteristic were assessed among the pregnant women. The study found low pursuance of physical activity during pregnancy. Any kind of illness suffered during pregnancy further reduced the physical activity levels. It was only the young and educated pregnant women who held onto regular physical activity as advised during their pregnancy.
Al-Turki, Yousef Abdullah
The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) were calculated for all patients. The total number of participants was 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily basis, 51.2% exercised sometimes and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming and other sports club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI =30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits and minimization of fat and suits) encouraging exercise and walking and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the community. It is an important health plan priority to concentrate on improving life styles in the Saudi community, to prevent cardiovascular risk
Alam, Awatif Ali
We conducted this study to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and sources of information about breast cancer among women in Riyadh. We also analyzed whether associations existed between demographic variables. Knowledge of breast cancer and, and the practice of breast self examination and use of mammography screening. Women interested in participating in this community based descriptive study provided data by completing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Of 864 participating women, 84% were Saudi 45% were married and 67.8% had a university level education*0% were between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Knowledge of breast self examination (BSE) was high 82% (95% CI, 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE, 61% (95% CI confidence intervals [CI], 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE , while 61% [95%CI, 57.9%-64.5%] knew about mammography but only 41.2% [95% CI, 37.9%-44.5%] had performed BSE and 18.2% (95% CI, 15.5%-20.8%)had had mammography screening Knowledge of breast cancer, risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer was moderate. There was a statistically significant association between demographic characteristics (marital status, educational status and family history of breast cancer) and knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography. Though it has limitations, this study revealed an imbalance between the knowledge and practice of BSE among women. It also showed that there is only that there is only moderate knowledge of risks and protective factors for breast cancer and that knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography vary according to marital and educational status. Hence, frequent community based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to prevent breast cancer. (author)
Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz
[Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first b...
Al-Khlaiwi, Thamir; Meo, Sultan A.
The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saudi University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources. (author)
Al-Arfaj, Abdurhman S.; Al-Boukai, Ahmad A.
The aim of the study was to characterize the pattern of radiographic changes in the hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi patients. The radiographs of hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period extending from March to June 2001, were examined and reported for the presence of osteopenia, joint space narrowing, and erosions. Fifty-six rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied. Their mean age was 50 + 1.9 years, and mean disease duration was 9.07 + 0.84 years. Generalized osteopenia was seen in 16/56 (29%) and periarticular osteopenia in 38/56 (68%). Joint space narrowing was present in 9/56 (16%) of feet and 35/56 (63%) of hand x-rays. Erosions were seen in 3/56 (6%) of feet and in 22/56 (39%) of hand x-rays. Significant correlation was seen between joints space narrowing, joint erosions, and disease duration. Radiographic changes in hands and feet of Saudi rheumatoid arthritis patients are less severe than those reported from the West, and the pattern is also different with less affection of the feet. (author)
Gosadi, Ibrahim M; Alatar, Abdullah A; Otayf, Mojahed M; AlJahani, Dhaherah M; Ghabbani, Hisham M; AlRajban, Waleed A; Alrsheed, Abdullah M; Al-Nasser, Khalid A
To create a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed to capture the dietary habits of Saudis and test its validity and reliability. Methods: This investigation is a longitudinal, test-retest study conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and March 2016. A list of 140 food items was included in the questionnaire where a closed-ended and open-ended approach was used. Regarding past year food frequency consumption and 24 hours dietary recall, body weight and height were collected. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, completeness of the food list, and criterion validity were assessed. Results: One-hundred and thirty eight participants were interviewed to complete the 24 hours dietary recall and the constructed questionnaire. Approximately 85% of the food items reported in the dietary recall were covered in the food frequency questionnaire. The association of body mass index with meats (regression coefficients: 2.28) and dairy products consumption frequency was statistically significant (regression coefficients: 2.31). A high overall reproducibility rate of the questionnaire was detected (Pearsons' correlation coefficient: 0.78 p less than 0.001). Conclusion: The developed questionnaire has a high reliability and reasonable validity, and suitable for use in nutritional epidemiological investigations in Saudi Arabia.
Wiseman, Alexander W.; Al-bakr, Fawziah; Davidson, Petrina M.; Bruce, Elizabeth
How does teachers' gender influence their information and communication technology-based instruction in Saudi Arabian government schools? Using unique data collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2014, the analyses presented here show that male and female teachers in intermediate school classrooms differently use information and communication…
An elevated resting heart rate (Rhr) has been linked with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obese people have altered autonomic balance that could lead to elevated Rhr and altered responses to postural changes. As no comparative data are available on Rhr in young normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) adults in Saudi Arabia, the present study was aimed at finding out the effect of adiposity on RHR and RHR response to change in posture. Methods: Second-year male students (n=231; age:19-20 years), were recruited from the Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during the period September 2008 to October 2009. Anthropometric measures were obtained and indices of obesity (body mass index [EMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-stature ratio [WSR]) were calculated. RHR in standing and supine positions were obtained from radial pulse. Pearson's correlation (r) between obesity indices and RHR as well as the differences between RHR in NW and OB groups were calculated. Results: General obesity (BMI greater or equal to 25.0 kg/m1 was found in 45.5% students. Central obesity (WC>85 cm or WSR>50.0) was found in 36.8% students. RHR was significantly correlated with BMI, WC and WSR (r=O.305, 0.300, 0.299 respectively, p< O.01) . Subjects above the obesity indices cut-off points had significantly higher values of RHR in both standing and supine positions compared to NW individuals (p<0.05). There was a greater reduction in RHR on changing the posture to supine state in OB group. Conclusion: A significantly higher RHR and a greater change in RHR on changing the posture point towards an altered autonomic balance in OB group of young adolescent males. This underscores the need to implement health education program to combat obesity at school and college levels. (author)
Full Text Available Abdullah S Amoudi,1 Mohammed H Albar,2 Amjed M Bokhari,3 Sultan H Yahya,4 Anas A Merdad1 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, 4Department of Radiology, King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objective: Do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders in Saudi Arabia were first regulated by a fatwa on a national level in 1988, one that excludes the patient and their families from decision making. Although the core of this policy is taken up by all hospitals in Saudi Arabia, there is no homogeneity in implementation. Here, we appraise what interns and residents know of these policies and their attitudes toward DNR. Methods: Interns and residents in four major hospitals in Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, National Guard Hospital, King Fahad General Hospital, and King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, were given a questionnaire in English with four blocks of questions. Results: A total of 140 questionnaires were included in our study. From these questionnaires, we conclude a lack of familiarity with DNR's policies and the fatwa and also a lack of understanding when it comes to treating DNR-labeled patients. The majority opinion was to include the patient in the decision-making process who is excluded according to the fatwa. Participants considered patients' dignity, religious concerns, and legal concerns to be important in considering resuscitation. Conclusion: We conclude a need to emphasize the issue of DNR and treatment of DNR patients in medical ethics classes in Saudi Arabia and put more effort to enact national DNR laws that include the patient in the decision-making process. Keywords: passive euthanasia, Middle East, cross-sectional study
Full Text Available Abeer A Alharbi,1 Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Postpartum depression (PPD is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Materials and methods: Data were collected by interviewing females 8–12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby's sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Results: Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%. Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8% had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5% females were anemic during pregnancy (P≤0.05. These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.74; P=0.03. Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15–0.95, but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary. Keywords: postpartum depression, hemoglobin level, anemia, EPDS
To determine the mean eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors and to compare the relationship of mean eruption time with body mass index (BMI) in Saudi female primary school children from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The mean age of children was 89.3 (SD 9.6) months ranging from 71 months to 109 months. The maxillary right first molar had the lowest mean eruption time of 77.4 (SD 3.9) months and the maxillary right lateral incisor was the last tooth to erupt with eruption time of 98.4 (SD 6.5) months. Furthermore, the mandibular incisors erupted significantly earlier than maxillary incisors. By the age of 100 months, 97% of the girls had all their first permanent molars erupted. There was no significant correlation observed between eruption times with BMI of the studied teeth except the maxillary right lateral incisor. However, an inverse relationship may exist between the eruption times and BMI. The Saudi female primary school children showed later eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors when compared with the reported results of other national studies. Key words: Eruption time, permanent teeth, Saudi Arabia, female children. (author)
Full Text Available study explored intercultural sensitivity of 103 faculty members of the English Language Centre (ELC of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative and non-experimental design was adopted for this study in which intercultural sensitivity of the English language teachers was evaluated on five demographic variables (e.g. gender, education, religion, total teaching experience, and experience of teaching in intercultural context. The results revealed that the international faculty of ELC abreast the basic canons of Intercultural adjustments. This suggests that the teachers are not only familiar with different cultural patterns (like beliefs, values and communication styles they are willing to minimize these differences and adopt universal set of values for effective educational practices. The results indicate the participants’ higher level of empathy, respect for others’ culture, tolerance on differences and high willingness to integrate with other cultures. The data reveals no statistically significant difference between the two groups in three variables, i.e. gender (Male & Female, qualification (Masters' & Ph.D and religion (Muslims & Non-Muslims. However, there was found a statistically significant difference in the two groups (Less than ten years & More than ten years in two variables, i.e. total teaching experience and teaching experience in intercultural context.
Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Banjar, Shorooq; Al-Ghamdi, Amal; Al-Darmasi, Moroj; Khoja, Abeer; Turkistani, Jamela; Arif, Rwan; Al-Sebyani, Awatif; Musawa, Al-Anoud; Basfar, Wijdan
Problem-based learning (PBL) is the most important educational innovations in the past 4 decades. The objective of the study was to compare between the preference of medical students for PBL and the preference for traditional lectures regarding learning outcomes (e.g., knowledge, attitude, and skills) gained from both methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students who studied the hybrid curriculum (PBL and traditional lectures) in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in 2011. Data was collected through a pre-constructed, validated, confidentially anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. Students' perceptions toward PBL and traditional lectures were assessed through their response to 20 statements inquired about both methods of learning using a five-point Likert scale. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed using SPSS, version 21 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill., USA). Learners preferred PBL more to traditional lectures for better linking the knowledge of basic and clinical sciences (t test=10.15, P .05) was observed regarding the amount of basic knowledge recalled from both methods. Students preferred PBL more to lectures for better learning attitudes, skills, future outcomes, and learning satisfaction (P learn better than lecturing (P traditional lectures for improving most of learning outcome domains, especially, learning attitudes and skills. Introducing hybrid-PBL curriculum in all Saudi universities is highly recommended.
Al Shareef, Saad M.; Almeneessier, Aljohara S.; Hammad, Omeima; Smith, Richard M.; BaHammam, Ahmed S.
Objectives: To establish baseline sleep architecture during an acute attack of Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) in a cohort of Saudi Arabian KLS patients and compare these characteristics with other published cohorts. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of the polysomnographic characteristics of 10 typical symptomatic Saudi Arabian KLS patients attending the University Sleep Disorders Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2015. Data were captured by nocturnal polysomnography during an acute attack of hypersomnia and compared with other published cohorts identified via a systematic literature search. Results: Self-reported time asleep during episodes (11.1±6.7 hours) and recorded total sleep time (TST) (322.5±108.7 minutes) were generally shorter than other published cohorts. Sleep efficiency was poor at 75.0%±25.1%, with low relative amounts of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (16.5±5.9% of TST) and deep non-REM sleep (stage N3; 10.5±6.0% of TST) and high relative amounts of non-REM sleep (stage N1; 7.0±4.3% of TST). The sleep architecture of Saudi Arabian KLS patients was similar to other published cohorts. Conclusions: Sleep architecture of our cohort was relatively normal and broadly similar to other published studies, the main features being low sleep efficiency and low relative amounts of REM and stage N3 sleep. Time-course polysomnography studies with functional imaging may be useful to further establish the exact pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:29332107
Asiri, Yousif A
The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of "medical and pharmacy education" is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of "pharmacy education" to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective.
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A.; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim A.; Al-Rowaily, Mohammed A.
Aim. (i) To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic abnormalities among Saudi college students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and (ii) to investigate the association between different indicators of body composition and these abnormalities. Methods. A total of 501 college students participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric assessments, BP measurements, and biochemical assessment were done. Metabolic abnormalities were identified. Results. Applying BMI, 21.9 % and 20.6% of students were...
Full Text Available Nurdan Kokturk,1 Mehmet Polatli,2 I Kivilcim Oguzulgen,1 Sarfraz Saleemi,3 Mohammed Al Ghobain,4 Javed Khan,5 Adam Doble,6 Luqman Tariq,7 Fayaz Aziz,7 Abdelkader El Hasnaoui7 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey; 3Section of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Medicine, King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 6Foxymed, Paris, France; 7GlaxoSmithKline, Dubai, UAE Background: COPD affects millions of people worldwide. Poor treatment adherence contributes to increased symptom severity, morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate adherence to COPD treatment in Turkey and Saudi Arabia. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study in adult COPD patients in Turkey and Saudi Arabia. Through physician-led interviews, data were collected on sociodemographics and disease history, including the impact of COPD on health status using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT; quality of life, using the EuroQol Five-Dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D; and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Treatment adherence was measured using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Multivariate logistic regression analysis examined the predictors of non-adherence and the impact of adherence on symptom severity. Results: Four hundred and five COPD patients participated: 199 in Turkey and 206 in Saudi Arabia. Overall, 49.2% reported low adherence (MMAS-8 <6. Of those, 74.7% reported high disease impact (CAT >15 compared to 58.4% reporting medium/high adherence (p=0.0008. Patients with low adherence reported a lower mean 3-level EQ-5D
AlTurki, Yousef Abdullah
The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all patients. The total numbers of participants were 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily bases, 51.2% exercised sometimes, and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming, and other sport club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI<25), 37.4% were overweight (BMI 25 to <30), while 37.7% of the participants were obese (BMI ? 30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Conclusion and recommendation: Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits, and minimization of fat and sweets), encouraging exercise and walking, and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the
Mastour S Alghamdy
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Medication Errors can result in drug-related problems (DRPs. Insight into the frequency, type, and severity of DRPs could help reduce their incidence. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of admissions as a result of DRPs at the Emergency Department (ED of a university hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Files of suspected cases of DRPs reporting to ED in the year 2012 were scrutinized. Suspicion arose from the hospital record system based on Diagnosis Code Numbers (ICD-9-CM, Professional 2010 and from triggers, such as some drugs, laboratory tests, and signs and symptoms pointing to DRPs. Results: Of 5574 admissions, 253 (4.5% were DRPs and were categorized as: Overdose toxicity and side effects of drugs 50 (19.8%, drug-interactions 29 (11.5%, accidental and suicidal drug ingestions 26 (10.3%, drug abuse 18 (7.1%, drug allergy 10 (4%, super-infections 8 (3.2%, and noncompliance to treatment 112 (44.3%. About 70% of DRPs were preventable; 67 (26.5% required hospital admission for 7-102 days and 10 (4% died. Conclusions: Noncompliance to treatment, overdose toxicity, drug interactions, and drug abuse are important causes of hospital admissions as a result of DRPs. Awareness of prescribers to the problem and their education would help to prevent them and improve patient care.
Abalkhail, Mohammed S; Alzahrany, Mohannad S; Alghamdi, Khaled A; Alsoliman, Muath A; Alzahrani, Mosa A; Almosned, Badr S; Gosadi, Ibrahim M; Tharkar, Shabana
Outbreaks of influenza epidemics are common but influenza vaccination is sub-optimal among the healthcare staff including the medical students. The study aims to assess the rate of vaccine uptake among medical students, its associated barriers and levels of awareness. A cross sectional study was done at a University Hospital in Saudi Arabia on 421 medical students by self administered questionnaire from February to March 2015. The immunization rate of seasonal influenza vaccine was just 20.7% in 2015, while it was 57% for cumulative of previous three-year period. The intended uptake among those offered vaccination was 68%. The significant determinants of vaccine uptake were clinical years of medical study (pinfluencing vaccine uptake decision were health department guidelines, medical training, social and media influence. Barriers of vaccination constituted, assumption of not being at risk of influenza (37.9%), vaccine side effects (28.9%), questioned effectiveness of the vaccine (14.5%), and inability to allocate time (11%). Knowledge levels were unsatisfactory and males scored lower (5.4±1.7) than females (6.5±1.4) out of total score of 9. Both knowledge and uptake of annual influenza vaccination was inadequate. Policy makers can formulate strategies with a focus on larger coverage of medical students. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Mahmood, Shahid; Al Jeaidi, Zaid; Al-Onazi, Mashari; Al-Shehri, Ahmed; Al-Harbi, Ahmed
To determine the use of information technology (IT) among students of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy in Prince Sattam Bin AbdulAziz University, Al-Khraj, Saudi Arabia (PSAU). Across-sectional survey. From September 2014 to January, 2015. Aclose-ended questionnaire consisting of 30 multiple choice questions (MCQs) was distributed to the students. The questions were related to their access to computers, skills and training, computer activities, and internet access. Data analyses and descriptive analyses for various variables were performed using SPSS version 17.0. An overall response rate of 84.9% (488 out of 575) was obtained. All of the students (100%) had an access to the computers. Most of the students (61.9%) used computers for academic purposes. Amajority of the students (74.4%) preferred the use of powerpoint presentations aided by marker-and-board method for teaching. For communication from the colleges, 62.9% of the respondents preferred it through the email; 100% of the students had an email account. All of the students (100%) used internet; 83.1% considered the information as accurate. The internet was used by 47.6% of the students for seeking the medical information. All of the students had an access to ITand used it for their educational purposes.
Alzahrani, Sami H; Alamri, Sultan H
Malnutrition is a nutritional disorder that adversely affects the body from a functional or clinical perspective. It is very often observed in the elderly population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized elderly patients and its associated factors and outcomes in terms of length of stay and mortality in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly patients using the most recent version of the short form of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). A total of 248 hospitalized patients were included (70.0 ± 7.7 years; 60% female). According to the MNA-SF, a total of 76.6% patients were either malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Malnourished patients had significantly lower levels of serum albumin (28.2 ± 7.7), hemoglobin (10.5 ± 1.8), and lymphocyte (1.7 ± 0.91). They had increased tendency to stay in the hospital for longer durations (IQR, 5-11 days; median = 7 days) and had a mortality rate of 6.9%. Malnutrition was highly prevalent among hospitalized elderly and was associated with increased length of stay and mortality.
Mhasen Ali Khalil Alhaj
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the present situation of field training for the students of the accounting education in Saudi Universities, so as to raise its level and make the best use of it to gain practical experience and professional skills in accounting and other relevant field skills. To achieve this, a field study was conducted on trainee students of the Accounting Department – Princess Nourah University. To collect data for the study, a questionnaire consisting of two parts was used and distributed to groups of female students who were selected through the stratified random method. The sample represented students who were expected to graduate from the department, and who were registered in the Field Training Program. The sample involved students from different three academic levels, and various training days. The results showed statistically significant differences at (α =0.05 in the type of training for building accounting knowledge and skills of the students in the accounting department. This is attributed to the different training institutions. The results also revealed that writing graduation research simultaneously with the training program, whose allotted time is inadequate, would reduce the chance of gaining the desired experiences of field training. It was also clear that discontinuous training would hinder the students from getting the appropriate training opportunities, and that conducting training during the summer semester seemed sufficient and appropriate. Keywords: Accounting education, Field training.
Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…
Al Rashidi, Sultan H; Alhumaidan, H
Computers and other visual display devices are now an essential part of our daily life. With the increased use, a very large population is experiencing sundry ocular symptoms globally such as dry eyes, eye strain, irritation, and redness of the eyes to name a few. Collectively, all such computer related symptoms are usually referred to as computer vision syndrome (CVS). The current study aims to define the prevalence, knowledge in community, pathophysiology, factors associated, and prevention of CVS. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Qassim University College of Medicine during a period of 1 year from January 2015 to January 2016 using a questionnaire to collect relevant data including demographics and various variables to be studied. 634 students were inducted from a public sector University of Qassim, Saudi Arabia, regardless of their age and gender. The data were then statistically analyzed on SPSS version 22, and the descriptive data were expressed as percentages, mode, and median using graphs where needed. A total of 634 students with a mean age of 21. 40, Std 1.997 and Range 7 (18-25) were included as study subjects with a male predominance (77.28%). Of the total patients, majority (459, 72%) presented with acute symptoms while remaining had chronic problems. A clear-cut majority was carrying the symptoms for 1 month. The statistical analysis revealed serious symptoms in the majority of study subjects especially those who are permanent users of a computer for long hours. Continuous use of computers for long hours is found to have severe problems of vision especially in those who are using computers and similar devices for a long duration.
Fida, Nadia M.; Al-Aama, J.; Nichols, W.; Al-Qahtani, M.
Objective was to estimate the incidence of major and minor congenital malformations among live born infants at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Estimation of risk factors was also evaluated. Between March 2004 and May 2005, a total of 5356 babies born at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, were enrolled in this study for malformations. Details of cases were recorded after parent's interviews, clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluations. One hundred and forty-seven (27.06/1000 livebirth) and 13 (2.39/1000 birth) stillbirth have congenital anomalies. In all livebirth, incidences of major anomalies were 93.9% and minor were 6.1%. Mothers of 95.9% with congenital malformation were healthy, 3.4% were diabetic and 0.7% had cardiac malformation. In 38.8% of cases parents were consanguineous. Among the liveborn births, the most common system involved was cardiovascular (7.1/1000), followed by musculoskeletal/limb (4.1/1000), external genitilia (2.8/1000), urinary (2.6/1000),multiple chromosomal (2.2/1000), orofacial (1.9/1000), central nervous system (1.9/1000), skin (1.7/1000), multiple single gene (1.3/1000), multiple sequence (0.75/1000), eyes (0.56/1000), unclassified (0.19/1000), musculoskeletal/abdominal (0.19/1000), endocrine (0.19/1000). High incidence of major malformation was found in Jeddah. Importance of Genetic Counseling is revealed in our study since more than three quarters of mothers were under 36 years and may well plan future pregnancies. (author)
AlEisa, Einas; Tse, Cynthia; Alkassabi, Othman; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao
Job satisfaction is an important consideration in the recruitment and retention of physiotherapists (PTs). To date, the job satisfaction of PTs working in Saudi Arabia has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to measure the level of job satisfaction of PTs working in Saudi Arabia and evaluate predictors of job satisfaction. This was a cross-sectional observational study among licensed physical therapists working across 11 health care centers and university hospitals in Riyadh between 2013 and 2014. A total of 183 physical therapists participated in the survey. Level of job satisfaction and factors influencing satisfaction were explored using a purpose-designed job satisfaction questionnaire. It consisted of 8 survey domains, and the scores were normalized to allow between-domain comparison. Global job satisfaction was 37%. The highest levels of job satisfaction were seen in the domains of professional development and teamwork and the lowest levels of job satisfaction in the domains of supervisory/ management relationship (75%) and working environment (60%). Predictors of job satisfaction were gender (OR [odds ratio] 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-2.3), age (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9), relationships with supervisors and managers (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.9), working environment (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-2.3), and opportunities for professional development (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-3.7). Saudi PTs were moderately satisfied with their job; strategies should be designed in such a way that they experience a high level of job satisfaction and retention thus resulting in improved rehabilitation services in Saudi Arabia.
Salih, Mustafa S.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmad A.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.
Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography
Alsamani, Abdul-Aziz Saleh; Daif-Allah, Ayman Sabry
The aim of this paper is to study the impact of introducing an integrative pedagogical approach in the ESP classes on developing the English language vocabulary of Computer Science and Information Technology students in the College of Science, Qassim University. The study suggests a framework for an ESP course-design employing students' project…
Yusuf A. Adenle
Full Text Available A total of 21 metric tons of CO2 per person in terms of per capita emissions from consumption of energy was recorded in Saudi Arabia in 2011 and forecasts have shown that this emission of CO2 is increasing. This poses the threat of climate change and global warming and therefore the need for the sustainability of the country. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s Vision for 2030 addresses environmental sustainability that includes a reduction in CO2 emissions as well as diversified economic growth. Universities have been regarded as institutions with significant responsibilities to resolve the issues of sustainability as well as serve as role model to society by implementing a sustainability plan. This study established a spatial evaluation, estimation, and visualization of the CO2 emissions of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST, Saudi Arabia. The data required for this study were collected from the overall coverage of the university campus buildings by transforming raster data from the satellite image to vector data in the form of polygons, and then multiplying the area by the number of floors of the individual building. ArcGIS 10.3® (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA software was used for this campus CO2 emissions evaluation and visualization. The overall estimate of the CO2 emissions for the university campus was 127.7-tons CO2 equivalent. The lowest emission was 0.02-tons CO2 equivalent while the maximum value was 20.9-tons of CO2 equivalent. By this ArcGIS-based evaluation, it is evident that geographically integrated model for campus estimation and visualization of CO2 emissions provides the information for decision makers to develop viable strategies for achieving a higher standard in overall campus sustainability and addressing the issue of climate change.
AlYahya, A. S.; Selirn, H. A.; Guile, E. E.
Endodontic patients treated at a University Dental Clinic over a two year period were studied. A total of 281 patients seen in a beginning endodontic course were analyzed to determine (1) the etiology of the pulpal disease presenting and (2) the signs and symptoms of pulpal disease. Results indicated that caries was the most prevalent reason for endodontic treatment. Most cases (40.6%) were asymptomatic. Lower molars were the most commonly affected and there was no significant difference in endodontic treatment distribution between males and females in the patient population studied. (author)
Oil - it is what has made Saudi Arabia rich. Without this black gold, none of the country's shopping malls, luxury hotels, six-lane highways or the airconditioned comfort that keeps the terrible heat at bay would be possible. From the first deposits harvested in the early 1950s, Saudi Arabia is now the world's leading exporter of petroleum, which accounts for nearly three-quarters of government revenue. And without the wealth from oil, the huge new King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), built on hard, desert soil in less than two years, would have been impossible.
Kaka, S. I.
We have carried out a seismic noise study in order to understand the noise level at three selected locations at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The main purpose is to select a suitable site with low seismic noise and good signal-to-noise ratio for our new broadband seismic station. There are several factors involved in the selection of a site location for a new station. Most importantly, we need to strike a balance between a logistically convenient site versus a technically suitable site. As a starting point, we selected six potential sites due to accessibility and proximity to the seismic processing center laboratory in the Department of Earth Sciences (ESD) at KFUPM. We then eliminated two sites that are relatively close to possible low-frequency noise sources. We have considered many possible noise sources which include: vehicle traffic / heavy machinery, the direct path of air flowing from air conditioning vent, tall trees / power poles and metal doorways. One more site was eliminated because the site was located in the open where it experiences maximum wind speed which is considered a major source of noise. All three potential sites are situated within the Dammam Dome where both lower middle and upper Rus Formations are exposed. The upper Rus is mainly made up of fine grained chalky limestone and the lower Rus is made up of alternation of marls and thin dolomitic limestone. The area is not known for any major faults and considered very low seismicity and hence the identification of seismoteconic features is not required. Before conducting the noise study, we calibrated and tested the seismic recording system, which was recently acquired by the ESD at KFUPM. The system includes a seismic recorder and a sensor with a GPS device. We deployed the system in order to measure the low-frequency background noise. Knowing the low frequency noise will help in predicting the high-frequency noise. The recording systems were
Khalil, Mutasim I., E-mail: email@example.com [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia)
A total of 30 clay samples were collected from the area around Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A complete chemical analysis was carried out using different techniques. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay samples were mainly of the smectite group with traces of the kaolinite one. The samples studied were classified as nontronite clay minerals. One of the clay fraction has been studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy as raw clay fraction and after being fired at 950-1,000 Degree-Sign C. The Moessbauer spectra showed accessory iron compounds in the form of hematite and goethite. The structural iron contents disintegrate on firing transforming into magnetic iron oxide and a paramagnetic small particles iron oxide.
Mostafa A. Arafa
To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary care physicians towards prostate cancer counseling and screening. This cross sectional study was conducted in May 2009 to October 2009 through a survey questionnaire, which was distributed to all licensed primary care physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study took place in the Princes Al-Johara Al-Ibrahim Center for Cancer Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Data was obtained from 204 primary care physicians using self-reports of prostate cancer screening practices, knowledge, attitudes towards prostate cancer screening, and continuous medical education preferences. Respondents' characteristics were also collected. Approximately 54.7% of the respondents were practicing counseling and referring prostate cancer patients. The mean correct knowledge score was 54.3%, their attitude was not strong; the only statement that approximately 70% of physicians agreed upon was about the value of screening, however, the reliability and evidence to support digital rectal examination and prostatic specific antigen were in question. Our primary care physicians had self-confidence in suspecting and referring high-risk patients for screening, but not for management and treatment. Knowledge and attitude were found to be the most significant predictors that determine physicians' self practice. Physicians' practice towards a screening procedures or early detection of diseases should rely on a good background of information, which in turn enhances their self-efficacy and develops a good and positive attitude towards their practice skills (Author).
Almutairi, Khalid M
This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA.
Al-Nakshabandi, Nizar A.; Zayed, Mohamed A.; Elsharkaway, Mohamed S.; Al-Boukai, Ahmad S.; Al-Omar, M.
Objective was to identify 650 patients who underwent Ct for renal colic and review them for age and gender in Saudi Arabia. Scans were performed on a 16 multislice scanner. A total of 650 patients with the clinical suspicion of ureteric colic were reviewed; 220 females (33.8%) and 430 males (66.2%), with a female to male ratio of 1:2. Examinations were carried out from January 2005 to November 2006, at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and ninety five patients out of 650 had stones; 2 of 395 (0.5%) had stones in the 5-15 years age group, 28 (7.%) in the 16-25 years age group, 99 (25.1%) in the 26-35 years, 106 (26.8%) in the 36-45 age group, 84 (21.9%) in the 46-55 age group, 51 (12.9%) in the 56-65 age group, and 25 (6.3%) in the above 66 years age group. The most significant finding in our study is that as the patients age increases so does the percentage of stones up to the age of 56, with a peak at age group of 26-35 where stone percentage reaches 26.8%. Unenhanced helical CT is useful for the diagnosis of ureterolithiasis. (author)
Al-Amri, F.; Saeedi, M.Y.; Al-Tahan, F.M.; Alomary, S.A.; Kassim, K.A.; Ali, A.M.; Mostafa Arafa, M.; Ibrahim, A.K.; Ali, A.M.
Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the breast-screening program, a case-control study was conducted on women living in Riyadh, KSA. A sample of 349 women (58 cases and 290 controls) was recruited to examine the different breast cancer correlates. Multivariate regression model was built to investigate the most important risk factors. Results: The mean age of cases was 48.5 ± 7.1 years. Age at marriage, number of pregnancy, age at menopause, oral contraceptive pills, breast feeding and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative were identified as the most important correlates among the studied cohort. Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ≥50 years, and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause<50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.
Norah Faleh Al-Mutairi
Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is the best natural essential nutrition to newborns and infants. However, the practice of breastfeeding (BF has declined in Saudi Arabia. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of BF with their determinants among mothers in Riyadh. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 252 mothers attending the well-baby clinics in Riyadh from March 2016 to May 2017 were selected randomly with their consent and studied by a standardized questionnaire. Results: Of the 252 women, 69.4% were 25–35 years of age and 56.7% with a bachelor degree or higher education. Nearly 75% mothers had education on BF before our study. Mixed feeding was the most preferred method (51.6% followed by artificial milk (29.4%. The most reported reason for discontinuing BF was breast milk insufficiency (37.3% and of breastfeed continuation was their perceived benefit (36.6%. Excellent knowledge was observed among 12.7%, good knowledge in 57.1%, and unsatisfactory level in 30.2% mothers. The regression model shows that high school education improved the knowledge by 10.9 points (P = 0.024 and undergraduate by 18.7 points (P value = 0.001 when compared to women who were literate. Women with parity> 5 improved knowledge score by 17.3 points (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We observed that majority (57.1% of Saudi mothers had a moderate level of knowledge on BF benefits and 19% had practiced exclusive BF. There is a need for better educational programs to increase awareness on its benefits for the health situation in the country on the long term.
Al-Qurashi, Mansour M.; El-Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al-Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al-Salloum, AbdullhA.; Al-Omar, Ahmad A.
Objective was to determine the prevalence and regional distribution ofsickle cell disease in Saudi children. A sample size of 45,682 children andadolescents from newborn to 19 years of age was selected by multistage randomprobability sampling of the Saudi households from each of the 13 regions ofthe country. The study is cross-sectional, community based and conducted over2 years from 2004 to 2005. Data including history and clinical examinationwere collected with house-to-house survey of all selected households. Datamanagement and analysis was carried out at King Saud University, Riyadh,Saudi Arabia. Sickle cell disease was detected in 108 of 45,682 children andadolescents with a prevalence of 24 per 10,000. The regional distribution ofsickle cell disease showed eastern region dominance with a prevalence of 145per 10,000, followed by the southern region with a prevalence of 24 per10,000, western region 12 per 10,000and central region with 6 per 10,000. Nocases were found in the northern region. The male to female ratio wasapproximately 1:1. The results of this national wide community-based surveyshow a high prevalence of sickle cell disease. In the community and thedisease is more common in eastern and southern regions of the country.National or regional newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease usinghematological tests should be planned. This study shows that the populationat risk has an uneven geographical distribution. For this reason, selectiverather than universal neonatal screening is likely to be more appropriate inthe country. (author)
Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Mahnashi, Morooj; Al-Dhaheri, Amal; Al-Zahrani, Borooj; Al-Wadie, Ebtihal; Aljabri, Mydaa; Al-Shanketi, Rajaa; Al-Shehri, Rawiah; Al-Sayes, Fatin M; Bashawri, Jamil
Nowadays, Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) represents an escalating worldwide public health problem. Providing consistent data on the magnitude and risk factors of CVDs among young population will help in controlling the risks and avoiding their consequences. The objective was to estimate the prevalence of risk factors of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) among medical students during their clinical clerkship (4th - 6th years). A cross-sectional study was done during the educational year 2012-2013 at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah. Ethical standards were followed and a multistage stratified random sample method was used for selection of 214 medical students. Data was collected through an interviewing questionnaire, measurements and laboratory investigations. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were done by SPSS version 21. CHD risk percent in thirty years was calculated using Framingham algorithm for each student, then the risk among all students was determined. The commonest risk factors of CHDs were daily intake of high fat diet (73.4%), physical inactivity (57.9%), overweight/or obesity (31.2%) and daily consumption of fast food (13.1%). Hyper-cholesterolemia (17.2%) and hypertension (9.3%) were also prevalent risk factors. Smoking prevalence was low (2.8%). Males had significantly higher mean scores for most of CHD risk factors compared to females (p Students't test = 4.74, p students was 10.7%, 2.3% and 0.5% for mild, moderate and severe risk, respectively. An alarmingly high prevalence of CHD risk factors was prevailed among medical students, especially among males. However, a low prevalence of smoking may indicate the success of "Smoke-free Campus" program. Screening risk factors of CHD among medical students and implementation of intervention programs are recommended. Programs to raise awareness about CHD risk factors, encourage young adult students to adopt a healthy dietary behavior and promote physical exercise should be initiated.
Saeed, S.A.R. [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architecture and Building Science
This study is an attempt to define thermal comfort requirements for Friday prayer during the hot season of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. According to Islam, a Muslim should perform his prayers five times a day. The obligatory five prayers are Subuh prayer immediately before dawn, Thohor prayer in the afternoon, Assor prayer in late afternoon, Maghreb prayer immediately after sunset, and Ishaa prayer early evening. Generally, Muslims are encouraged to perform all five prayers in a mosque. Friday prayer that replaces Thohor prayer once a week, should take place in one of the main mosques of the neighbourhood. The mosque where Friday prayer could be performed is known as Friday mosque. Usually Friday prayer is attended by hundreds of worshippers and takes place in the afternoon. Since the summer of Riyadh is characterised by a very high temperature and a very low relative humidity, the indoor climate of the Friday mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Gamae) need a special study. This is the second part of a series of field investigations dealing with thermal comfort requirements in the hot-dry region of Saudi Arabia. (author)
Full Text Available Fadia S AlBuhairan,1–3 Tina M Olsson3,4 1Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Adolescent health is regarded as central to global health goals. Investments made in adolescent health and health services protect the improvements witnessed in child health. Though Saudi Arabia has a large adolescent population, adolescent health-care only began to emerge in recent years, yet widespread uptake has been very limited. Health-care providers are key in addressing and providing the necessary health-care services for adolescents, and so this study was conducted with the aim of identifying opportunities for the advancement of knowledge transfer for adolescent health services in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This Web-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at four hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Physicians and nurses were invited to participate in an online survey addressing their contact with adolescent patients, and training, knowledge, and attitudes towards adolescent health-care. Results: A total of 232 professionals participated. The majority (82.3% reported sometimes or always coming into contact with adolescent patients. Less than half (44%, however, had received any sort of training on adolescent health during their undergraduate or postgraduate education, and only 53.9% reported having adequate knowledge about the health-care needs of adolescents. Nurses perceived themselves as having more knowledge in the health-care needs of adolescents and reported feeling more comfortable in communicating with adolescents as compared with physicians. The majority of participants were interested in gaining further skills and knowledge in adolescent health-care and agreed or strongly agreed that adolescents have
Diab, H.M.; Abd-El Hafeez, A.I.
The spatial variation of radon concentration within the building of the preparatory year located in Riyadh was studied. Nuclear track detectors (CR-39) were used to measure radon concentration for two consecutive six month periods in more than 40 rooms of the surveyed building. Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as a measure of relative variation of radon concentration between floors and between rooms on the same floor. Floor mean ratios, with ground floor as a reference level, were calculated also in order to study the correlation between radon concentration and floor levels in case of using advanced Italian granite building material. All the results of this study were investigated and compared with usual Indian granite building material and it was found that the k nowledgement building i s a healthy work place which may be due to uses of advanced building materials.
Full Text Available Ahmed Marzouk Maklad,1,2 Yasser Bayoumi,2,3 Mohamed Abdalazez Senosy Hassan,2,4 AbuSaleh A Elawadi,5,6 Hussain AlHussain,2 Ashraf Elyamany,7,8 Saleh F Aldhahri,9 Khalid Hussain Al-Qahtani,10 Mubarak AlQahtani,11 Mutahir A Tunio12 1Clinical Oncology, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 2Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Radiation Oncology, NCI, Cairo University, Cairo, 4Radiation Oncology, Minia Oncology Center, Minia, 5Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 6Medical Physics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 7Medical Oncology, SECI-Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 8Medical Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, King Fahad Medical City, 9Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, King Saud University, 10Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, 11Department of ENT, King Fahad Medical City, 12Radiation Oncology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: We aimed to investigate the patterns of failure (locoregional and distant metastasis, associated factors, and treatment outcomes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT combined with chemotherapy. Patients and methods: From April 2006 to December 2011, 68 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were treated with IMRT and chemotherapy at our hospital. Median radiation doses delivered to gross tumor volume and positive neck nodes were 66–70 Gy, 63 Gy to clinical target volume, and 50.4–56 Gy to clinically negative neck. The clinical toxicities, patterns of failures, locoregional control, distant metastasis control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were observed. Results: The median follow-up time was 52.2 months (range: 11–87 months. Epstein–Barr virus infection was positive in 63.2% of
Salih, Mustafa A.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Al-Rayees, Molham; Ruitenbeek, W.; Zeviani, M.
Objective was to report on the clinical and biochemical features of patients who presented with stroke due to mitochondrial disorders amongst a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the periods July 1992 to February2001 (retrospective study)and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Open muscle biopsies were obtained from patients suspected to have mitochondrial disorders, and examined using conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Biochemical, molecular pathological investigations, or both, of muscle could be arranged for only some of the patients. Mitochondrial disorders were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 4 (3.8%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). Three patients (one male and 2 females) had Leigh syndromes (LS) and one had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). At the time of stroke, the 3 children with LS were 11 months, 15 months, and 7 years old. They presented with psychomotor regression and seizures. Muscle histology and histochemistry showed mild non-specific changes but no ragged red fibers. Biochemical analysis of muscle (in one patient) revealed deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), [the other 2 patients] was negative for the 2 point mutations (T-G and T-C) at nucleotide position 8993, and for two T-C point mutations (at position 8851 and 9176 of the ATPase 6 gene) that have been described in patients with LS. The girl with MELAS syndrome presented with a stroke-like episode at the age of 29 months and had focal brain lesions in the media aspect of the left occipital and temporal lobes, and in the posteromedial aspect of the left thalamus, which resolved within 7 weeks. She had
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Al-Nasser, Mohammad N.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.
To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Neuroimaging for suspected cases of stroke consisted of cranial CT, MRI, or both. During the study period, 23 (22%) of 104 children (aged one months to 12 years) were diagnosed to have had perinatal stroke. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. Ten (67%) of the 15 children who had unilateral ischemic involvement had their lesion in the left hemisphere. The presentation of the ischemic result was within 24-72 hours of life in 13 (57%) patients, and in 6 children (26%), motor impairment was recognized at or after the age of 4 months. Nine children (39%) had seizures at presentation. Pregnancy, labor, and delivery risk factors were ascertained in 18 (78%) cases. The most common of these included emergency cesarean section in 5 cases, and instrumental delivery in other 5. Screening for prothrombotic risk factors detected abnormalities in 6 (26%) patients on at least one test carried out between 2 months and 9 years of age. Four children (17%) had low protein C, which was associated low protein S and raised anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in one patient, and low antithrombin III in another. Low proteins S was detected in a 42-month-old boy. The abnormality in the sixth child was confined to raised ACA. The present study highlights the non-specific features by which stroke presents during the neonatal period. The data are in keeping with the potential role for inherited and acquired thrombophilia as being the underlying cause. However, the high prevalence of
Full Text Available Adel F Almutairi,1,2 Mahmoud Salam,1,2 Samiyah Alanazi,1 Manal Alweldawi,1 Najad Alsomali,1 Najla Alotaibi1 1King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences, 2Science and Technology Unit, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Many studies have discovered a number of factors that can contribute to the risk of developing postpartum depression (PPD, including, but not limited to, life stressors, lack of social support, low economic status, and quality of the marital relationship. However, these studies were conducted in various countries with participants from different cultural backgrounds.Purpose: This study aimed to examine the impact of general help-seeking behavior (GHSB and partner support (PS on PPD among Saudi women in primary health care clinics in Riyadh city.Methods: Data were collected by using self-administered measures of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, General Help-Seeking Questionnaire (GHSQ, and Partner Support Scale (PSS. Frequency distribution was used to analyze the categorical data, and Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance were employed to compare the numerical data. Linear regression analysis was used to control for all confounders.Results: The findings showed that 9% and 28% of women had good and poor GHSB, respectively, 16% had poor PS, and 25.7% could be classified as probably depressed. Negative relationships between GHSB versus PPD and PS versus PPD were observed. Adjusting by mode of delivery and controlling for confounders in linear regression showed that women who underwent normal vaginal delivery, with higher para rates (β=0.250, t=2.063 and lower PS scores (β=-0.238, t=-2.038, were more likely to suffer higher depression scores (adj P=0.043 and adj P=0.045, respectively. Women who underwent cesarean-section, with postpartum duration ≥6 weeks (β=0.374, t=2.082, were more likely to
Full Text Available Renal involvement in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD is associated with signi-ficant morbidity and mortality. Proteinuria is common in patients with SCD and is a risk factor for future development of renal failure. We sought to identify risk factors, if any, associated with pro-teinuria in adult Saudi patients with SCD. We studied 67 patients with SCD followed-up at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All patients underwent 24-hour urine collection to measure creatinine clearance and to quantify proteinuria. In addition, blood was examined for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Clinical information was gathered from review of the patients′ charts. A urine protein level of more than 0.150 grams/24 hours was consi-dered abnormal. Urine protein was correlated with various clinical and laboratory parameters. Thirty-one males and 36 females were evaluated. The mean age of the cohort was 23.8 (± 7.2 years. Twenty-seven patients (40.3% had proteinuria of more than 0.150 grams/24 hours. The study group had a mean hemoglobin level of 8.5 (± 2.8 g/dL and mean fetal hemoglobin (HbF level of 14.4% (± 7.3%. Majority of the patients (61 had hemoglobin SS genotype and six patients had S-β0 thala-ssemia. None of the parameters evaluated correlated with proteinuria although there was a border-line association with older age and higher systolic blood pressure (P = 0.073 and 0.061 respec-tively. Hydroxyurea use for more than a year was not beneficial. In conclusion, our study suggests that proteinuria in adult Saudi patients is not associated with any clear identifiable risk factors.
Mohammed A. AL-Saleh
Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.
Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Al-Saran, Yazeed; Al-Moawi, Ahlam; Bin Dous, Abdullah; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Kachanathu, Shaji John
The study aim was to determine the prevalence of neck, shoulder, and low-back pains and to explore the factors associated with musculoskeletal pain (MSP) among medical students at university hospitals in central Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a government institution using an online self-administered, modified version of the Standardised Nordic Questionnaire in the English language. A total of 469 students responded to our survey. The prevalence of MSP in at least one body site at any time, in the past week, and in the past year was 85.3%, 54.4%, and 81.9%, respectively. Factors significantly associated with MSP in at least one body site at any time were being in the clinical year ( P = 0.032), history of trauma ( P = 0.036), history of depressive symptoms ( P < 0.001), and history of psychosomatic symptoms ( P < 0.001). On multivariable regression analysis, factors associated with MSP were history of trauma ( P = 0.016) and depressive ( P = 0.002) or psychosomatic symptoms ( P = 0.004). MSP among Saudi medical students is high, particularly among those in the clinical years and those with history of trauma and with depressive or psychosomatic symptoms. Medical institutions should be aware of this serious health issue and preventive measures are warranted.
Alghamdi, Abdullah S; Yahya, Mohammed A; Alshammari, Ghedeir M; Osman, Magdi A
Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity and increases in associated diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in the Saudi population, no studies have addressed the spread of obesity among Saudi police officers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associations with biochemical parameters among the police in Riyadh. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 160 police officers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar levels were measured for all individuals. According to the results, the average body mass index (BMI) was 27.5 ± 5.1, indicating an increase in overweight in this population and 66.9% were overweight or obese. Moreover, the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were 119.5 and 79.4 mmHg, respectively, within normal limits. The mean total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels were 187.5, 43.9, 119.5 and 124.5 mg/100 ml, respectively. These BMI and biochemical findings suggest a high proportion of overweight and obese individuals in the sample population, as well as an increase in the proportion of individuals with high levels of biochemical indicators who are therefore susceptible to heart disease and diabetes. The study recommends using preventive programs to combat obesity and overweight and related diseases and conducting further studies using measures other than BMI.
Full Text Available Nazri Omar,1,2 Charbel T Bou Chacra,1 Khalid F Tabbara1,3,4 1The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in Saudi Arabia. Methods: In a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series, the medical records of patients who underwent PKP from January 2000 to December 2008 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. All corneas were obtained from eye banks in the US. Indications, complications, and outcomes of surgery were recorded. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Results: Eighty-five consecutive eyes were included in this study. There were 52 (61.2% males and 33 (38.8% females. The median age was 35.0 years (range 3–85 years, and the median follow-up period was 24 months (range 6–108 months. The indications for PKP were keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, corneal scars, corneal dystrophy, and corneal regraft. The overall graft survival time was 88.9 months ± 4.9 months (mean ± standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4 months -98.4 months while the 3-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 90.7% and 84.3%, respectively. Surgical indication (P = 0.038, immune rejection (P < 0.001, preoperative corneal vascularization (P = 0.022, and perioperative high intraocular pressure (P = 0.032 were associated significantly with corneal graft failure in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis reduced these significant associations to rejection (P < 0.001 and vascularization (P = 0.009. Relative risk for failure in rejected cornea was 16.22 (95% CI 4.99–52.69 and
Al Hayek, Ayman A.; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Al Dawish, Mohamed A.; Braham, Rim B.; Goudeh, Hanouf S.; Al Sabaan, Fahad S.
Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the impact of insulin pump therapy on diabetes treatment satisfaction and glycemic control among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Saudi Arabia. Methods A 6-month, prospective study was conducted among 47 patients (aged 17?24?years) with T1DM who attended the Insulin Pump Clinic at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2014 and November 2014. The respondents were purposively and conveniently se...
AlQahtani, Sakher; Kawthar, Alemad; AlAraik, Ayman; AlShalan, Ahmad
Teeth plays a major role in forensic sciences especially in age assessment of an individual, which can be used to aid in criminal or civil matters. The importance of teeth comes from their ability to survive inhumation well and because they are hardly affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Third molars are the only teeth still developing after the age of 14 years and during the legal age of adulthood, which is 18 years. The consequences of criminal violation can strongly affect the individual's life, it is important to set different parameters to decide whether an individual is a minor or an adult in the absence of documents. Depending on the different legal requirement, such parameters can set above 90% probability for criminal matters and from 51% to civil matters. The aim of this research was to find the cut-off value of third molar development for the legal age of 18 amongst Saudi individuals using the third molar maturity index method by Cameriere et al. (2008) . This was a cross sectional study on 300 archived orthopantomogram (OPG) of healthy Saudi patients between the ages 14 and 22 years attending the Dental Hospital at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All OPGs were taken by PLANMECA - ProMax machine and evaluated by the Romaxis software. The inclusion criteria were good quality OPGs taken during the course of treatment. All patients were healthy with no systemic diseases or disorders with the presence of third molars and clear root apex. The lower left mandibular third molar (LL3rdM) was assessed using third molar maturity index (I3m) to determine if the individual is younger or older than 18 years old. The cut-off value of I3m for the Saudi population was (I3mage of adulthood in Saudi population and the cut-off value of I3m is similar to other populations. Although dental age assessment by means of third molar development is useful, it still has its limitation because of its variation in position, morphology and development
Moussa, Ihab M; Hessan, Ashgan M; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A; Salem-Bekhit, Mounier M; AlRejai, Salim A
To prepare and evaluate the protective efficacy of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) prepared against local Saudi Cerastes cerastes snake venom. The study was conducted between October 2009 and October 2011 at the Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study designed as follow; 4 groups of 8 chickens were immunized intramuscularly with Cerastes cerastes snake venoms mixed with Freund's complete adjuvant. Three weeks later, the injections were repeated with the venoms with incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Three boosters were given with the venoms at 3 weeks intervals. The IgY was extracted by ammonium sulphate-caprylic acid method, the antibody titer were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay, and the protective efficacies of the extracted immunoglobulins were performed. Immunoglobulin Y preparation extracted by ammonium sulphate-caprylic acid method showed lack of low molecular weight bands. The bands representing IgY-antibodies, which have molecular weights ranged from 180-200 KD, appeared sharp and clear. Furthermore, evaluation of the prepared protective value of IgY-antibodies revealed one ml of extracted IgY-antibodies containing 15 mg/ml anti Cerastes cerastes; specific IgY could produce 100% protection against 50 LD50. Laying hens could be used as an alternative source of polyclonal antibodies against Cerastes cerastes snake venoms due to several advantages as compared with mammals.
Amin Ali Almubark
Full Text Available This study was set out to explore and evaluate the importance of having mastered the cultural knowledge throughout the process of depicting the culture-specific concepts involving two languages namely Arabic and English. In doing so, the participants sampled in this study were a group of final year Bachelor’s degree students majoring in Translation in ALAradha College at the Jazan University. The findings of the study method employed in this study statistically confirmed that the students of the Translation at AL AlAradh college- Saudi Arabia faced considerable difficulties throughout the process of translating cultural concepts owing to inadequate mastery of knowledge in relation to the culture involved. Among the measures which can be taken in addressing the issues in this context are training the learners by means of exposure to real cases involving culture-specific concepts which may help them deal with such difficulties in the translation process.
Ahmed Al Kuwaiti
Full Text Available Medication errors will affect the patient safety and quality of healthcare. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of Six Sigma (DMAIC methodology in reducing medication errors in the outpatient pharmacy of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Saudi Arabia. It was conducted through the five phases of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC model using various quality tools. The goal was fixed as to reduce medication errors in an outpatient pharmacy by 20%. After implementation of improvement strategies, there was a marked reduction of defects and also improvement of their sigma rating. Especially, Parts per million (PPM of prescription/data entry errors reduced from 56,000 to 5,000 and its sigma rating improved from 3.09 to 4.08. This study concluded that the Six Sigma (DMAIC methodology is found to be more significant in reducing medication errors and ensuring patient safety.
Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.)
Sam, George; Alghmlas, Abdullah Saud; Alrashed, Muath I; Alaskar, Ziyad A
This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the specialty chosen by the dental students for postgraduate studies and the future aspirations of students in a Saudi Arabia dental college. Of the total number of 120 questionnaires that were distributed, 107 subjects responded with selective responses and a response rate of 89%. A descriptive survey was conducted using one of the questionnaires among the students of dentistry at the dental college, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj among male students (men's college) for a period of 2 months. The data were analyzed using the statistical software program, predictive analytics software Statistics version 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A hundred and seven of the 120 students took part in the study. A passion for orthodontics (42.9%) was reported to be the most important factor that influenced the decision to pursue specialty training in orthodontics followed by intellectual stimulation/challenge (25%). The decision to pursue orthodontics was made by 32.1% of the respondents while in dental school; 35.7% took the decision after completing dental school during private practice and 14.3% during a dental residency, whereas 3.6% had already decided before initiating their dental school studies. Working in a private practice environment was preferred by 11 residents (39.3%). Only four residents indicated that they would most likely be practicing in an academic setting while 10 were undecided. The zest for nonclinical specialties is less among students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University's dental college, Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Abdulhadi Alhabbad,2 Mohammed F Abalhassan,3 Ebtihaj O Fallata,4 Nasser M Alzain,5 Mohammad Zayed Alassiry,6 Bander Abdullah Haddad71Department of Psychiatry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Prince Mohammed Medical City, Aljouf, 3Department of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 4Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Hospital, Jeddah, 5Department of Psychiatry, Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, 6Medical Services Department, Abha Psychiatric Hospital, Abha, 7Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To study the pattern of psychotropic medication use and compare this pattern between inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia.Method: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between July 2012 and June 2014 on patients seeking psychiatric advice at major hospitals in five main regions of Saudi Arabia. Male (n=651 and female (n=594 patients who signed the informed consent form and were currently or had been previously using psychotropic medications, irrespective of the patient’s type of psychiatric diagnosis and duration of the disease, were included. A total of 1,246 patients were found to be suitable in the inclusion criteria of whom 464 were inpatients while 782 were outpatients.Results: Several studied demographic factors have shown that compared with outpatients, inpatients were more likely to be male (P=0.004, unmarried (P<0.001, have less number of children (1–3; P=0.002, unemployed (P=0.001, have a lower family income (<3,000 SR; P<0.001, live in rural communities (P<0.001, have a lower body mass index (P=0.001, and are smokers (P<0.001; however, there were no differences with regard to age or educational levels. The current frequency of use of psychotropic medications in overall patients was antipsychotics (76.6%, antidepressants (41.4%, mood stabilizers
. Private sector focus, privatization of state owned entities and salary cuts in the public sector were proposed. But the item that drew most attention was the plan to sell a 5 per cent stake in the oil company Saudi Aramco, the national pride of the Kingdom, which was seen by many as selling the family...
Nora A. Al-Faris
Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.
Al-Faris, Nora A
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.
Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Khalid, Aleissa; Ghazi, Alzeer
Full text: Building materials used for construction of houses represent a major source of indoor radon. In this investigation, indoor radon concentrations are found to vary substantially among the different building materials, ventilation, cooling and heating systems used. This paper presents the effects of these factors on the radon concentration in Riyadh city dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm Electret ion chamber. The study covered more than 700 houses and apartments, which were selected to cover the most common type of houses. The concentration range was found to be 1.02 to 196 Bq.m -3 , with an average value of 17.5 ± 3 Bq.m -3 . The results show that the radon concentration is higher in houses where the white bricks, no ventilation systems, plastic paint and Freon air conditioners are used, but relatively lower in houses where the red bricks, window ventilation, and water air conditioner is used. (author)
Bazarbashi, Shouki; Al Eid, Haya; Minguet, Joan
Background: In order to most appropriately allocate healthcare and research funding for cancer, it is important to have accurate population-based incidence data. The Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) provides such information, covering the time period from 1994 to the present day. The current report concerns an overview of cancer incidence statistics for Saudi Arabia in 2012. Methods: The SCR collects data from healthcare facilities throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All newly diagnosed cases of cancer are recorded, with information on site and histology. For the present report, age-standardised and age-specific incidence rates (ASR, AIR, respectively) were calculated, with attention to gender-specific and regional differences. Results: The total number of incident cases of cancer identified by the SCR in 2012 was 14,336, with 6,791 (47.5%) among males and 7,545 (52.6%) among females. Of this total, 11,034 cases (76.9%) occurred in patients of Saudi origin. For Saudi males, the overall ASR (inc. all cancer sites) was 78.1 per 100,000 people, while that for females was 86.7. Incidence varied by region, with the Eastern region and Riyadh displaying the highest ASRs for both males and females, and Hail and Jazan displaying the lowest. Incidence varied by gender, with colorectal cancer (13.3%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; 8.4%), and leukaemia (8.2%) being the most common types in males, and breast (25.8%), thyroid (11.7%), and colorectal cancers (9.3%) being the most common in females. Conclusions: This analysis of cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia demonstrated significant differences according to gender, age, and region of the Kingdom. The data should help ensure the most appropriate allocation of resources, with the aim of minimising the healthcare burden associated with cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License
Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.
The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).
Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4500 university employees and their families aged ⩾18 years old, using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance of CVRFs. CVR was then calculated for participants using the Framingham Coronary Heart Risk Score calculator. The mean age of participants was 39.3 ± 13.4 years. The prevalence of CVRFs was as follows: low fruit/vegetable consumption of 10% risk to develop CVD within the following 10-years. Furthermore, this study showed that expatriates had significant negative effects on behavioural risk factors after residing in KSA, namely: high rate of physical inactivity, high consumption of fast food, low consumption of fruit and vegetable. However, there was no effect on the pattern of tobacco use. The prevalence of CVRFs is substantially high among the study population. To combat the future expected burden of CVDs, a proposed prevention programme for employees’ cardiovascular wellness is designed and recommended to be implemented and institutionalized within the university.
Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4500 university employees and their families aged ⩾18 years old, using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance of CVRFs. CVR was then calculated for participants using the Framingham Coronary Heart Risk Score calculator. The mean age of participants was 39.3±13.4 years. The prevalence of CVRFs was as follows: low fruit/vegetable consumption of 10% risk to develop CVD within the following 10-years. Furthermore, this study showed that expatriates had significant negative effects on behavioural risk factors after residing in KSA, namely: high rate of physical inactivity, high consumption of fast food, low consumption of fruit and vegetable. However, there was no effect on the pattern of tobacco use. The prevalence of CVRFs is substantially high among the study population. To combat the future expected burden of CVDs, a proposed prevention programme for employees’ cardiovascular wellness is designed and recommended to be implemented and institutionalized within the university.
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Abdel-Gader, Mohamed O.; Gadelrab, Mohamed O.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.
Objective was to report on the role of infectious and inflammatory disorders as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke, were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included haemostatic assays, microbiological and serological tests. Neuroimaging included cranial CT, MRI magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scan. Of the 104 Saudi children with stroke, seen during the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory systems were identified risk factors in 18 (17.3%). Five children had stroke following acute bacterial meningitis at ages ranging between 5-21 months. The causative organism was identified in 3 of them and consisted of Haemophilus influenza (in a 5-months-old girl), Streptococcus pneumonia (in a 21-months-old girl complicated by subdural empyema and sinovenous thrombosis), and Staphylococcus aureus in a 6-months-old boy who had an underlying chronic granulomatous disease. Unspecified meningitis/meningoencephalitis affected 4 patients, whereas 3 children had an underlying congenital infection as a cause for their stroke. Two of the latter 3 children were diagnosed to have congenital toxoplasmosis, and the third had congenital rubella syndrome. Two girls had stroke following septicemia at ages of one and 2 months. Neurobrucellosis caused stroke in 2 boys at the ages of 4 1/2 and 4 years. In both patients, neuroimaging revealed lacunar and other infects involving mainly the deep cerebral nuclei, secondary to occlusion of small penetrating end
Almalak, Haya; Albluwi, Ala'a Ibrahim; Alkhelb, Dalal Ahmed; Alsaleh, Hajar Mohmmed; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Aljadhey, Hisham
To explore the use of over the counter (OTC) medicines among students during exams in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was designed; using a self-administered twenty-two item online questionnaire for the students' convenience and easy response disclosure. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13®. A total of N = 1596 students participated in this survey, of whom 829 (51.9%) were university students and 767 (48.1%) were high school students. Overall, 80.0% of the respondents disclosed the use of OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for headache and pain relief. In addition, other substances used during the exams were Energy Drinks (5.0%), Flu Medication (5.0%), Vitamins (5.0%) and Antibiotics (5.0%). Female students were found to be more knowledgeable about safety issues concerning the use of OTC medicines (5.11 ± 1.27, p = media were the main factors disclosed by the respondents that may result in an increase in the use of OTC products. The use of OTC medicines was generally higher among female students (p = 0.001). The use of OTC medication during exams was more among high school and university students. Gender, age and educational institution were found significantly affecting the use of OTC medicines during exams.
Alkhaneen, Hadeel; Alhusain, Faisal; Alshahri, Khalid; Al Jerian, Nawfal
Choosing a medical specialty is a poorly understood process. Although studies conducted around the world have attempted to identify the factors that affect medical students' choice of specialty, data is scarce on the factors that influence the choice of specialty of Saudi Arabian medical students, in particular those planning a career in emergency medicine (EM). In this study, we investigated whether Saudi medical students choosing EM are influenced by different factors to those choosing other specialties. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAUHS), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire distributed among all undergraduate and postgraduate medical students of both sexes in the second and third phases (57% were males and 43% were females). A total of 436 students answered the questionnaire, a response rate of 53.4%. EM group was most influenced by hospital orientation and lifestyle and least influenced by social orientation and prestige provided by their specialty. Unlike controllable lifestyle (CL) group and primary care (PC) group, EM reported lesser influence of social orientation on their career choice. When compared with students primarily interested in the surgical subspecialties (SS), EM group were less likely to report prestige as an important influence. Moreover, students interested in SS reported a leaser influence of medical lifestyle in comparison to EM group. When compared with CL group, EM group reported more interest in medical lifestyle. We found that students primarily interested in EM had different values and career expectations to other specialty groups. The trends in specialty choice should be appraised to meet future needs.
In April 2016 Saudi Arabia took the world by surprise with the launch of its Vision 2030 plan. The surprise was not the plan in itself, as the kingdom has since 1970 guided its development through a series of 5-year plans, but rather the radical approach to development contained in the plan. Priv...... silver. Later in 2016 the Vision 2030 plan was followed by the National Transformation Plan 2020 which is a far more detailed plan or operational plan, posting specific benchmarks and targets for the economy in order to fulfill the aims of the Vision 2030.......In April 2016 Saudi Arabia took the world by surprise with the launch of its Vision 2030 plan. The surprise was not the plan in itself, as the kingdom has since 1970 guided its development through a series of 5-year plans, but rather the radical approach to development contained in the plan...
Elshafie, D E; Al-Khashan, H I; Mishriky, A M
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia. The study objective was to compare vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Royal Guard primary health care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a consecutive sample of 50 Saudi married couples attending the center without complaints related to vitamin D deficiency. Data were collected through an interview questionnaire addressing the risk factors and dietary habits. Quantitative determination of total 25-hydroxy vitamin D in blood was done by Electro-Chemical Luminescence assay. Fieldwork was carried out from December 2010 to January 2011. Men had higher sun exposure (P = 0.001), more use of light clothes at home (P = 0.002) and more intake of milk (P = 0.023) and soft drinks (P = 0.001). Vitamin D was higher in men with mean difference about 9 nmol/l (P activity and the intake of milk as statistically significant positive independent predictors of vitamin D level, adjusted for factors as age, sun exposure, clothing, skin color, BMI, soft drinks and animal protein intake. Vitamin D deficiency is very high among Saudi married couples, especially wives. Female gender is an independent predictor of lower vitamin D level, in addition to sedentary lifestyle and low milk consumption. There is a need to revise the levels set for the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in the study region.
Igor V. Kryuchkov
Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation of a new foreign policy strategy of Saudi Arabia in conditions of the changing situation in the Middle East after the “Arab spring” and the “nuclear deal” with Iran. It is shown in the article that the instability of domestic policy and economic problems connected with oil price drop have influence on the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. Struggle with Iran for domination in the region becomes the basis of its policy in the Middle East. The author notes that the complication of relations with the USA also greatly influences the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom condemned the nuclear program agreement of Iran. Riyadh didn’t manage to neutralize the growth of influence of Iran in Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Yemen. Riyadh places a bet on B. Asad opponents support in the Syrian conflict aiming to strengthen its positions in the country and to dislodge Iran and Russia from it. Confrontation with Iran forced Saudi Arabia to interfere with the civil war in Yemen and to carry out a successful operation in Bahrein. The article shows the aspiration of Saudi Arabia to withhold Egypt, Jordan and a number of other countries of the region in the sphere of its foreign policy through financial aid to these countries. It is proved that the reasons of the conflict of Saudi Arabia with Iran were of economic, geopolitical and religious nature, and that Saudi Arabia aspired to strengthen its positions in the Middle East and East Africa. A great breakthrough was acquisition of two islands in the Red Sea from Egypt by Riyadh.
Faten N. Al-Zaben
Full Text Available Objectives: To examine relationship between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety among women with breast cancer (BC in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited a consecutive series of 49 married women with BC seen in the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA in early 2013. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spouse Perception Scale, and Quality of Marriage Index forms, and answered questions on demographic and cancer characteristics. Results: Anxiety symptoms indicating “possible” anxiety disorder were present in 10.4% and “probable” anxiety disorder in 14.6% (25% total. No significant relationship was found between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety symptoms (B=-0.04, standard error=0.05, t=-0.81, p=0.42. Anxiety was primarily driven by low education, poor socioeconomic status, and young age. Conclusion: Anxiety symptoms are prevalent among married women with BC seen in a university-based clinic in the KSA. Further research is needed to determine whether a diagnosis of BC adversely affects marital relationship, and whether this is the cause for anxiety in these women.
Arun Vijay Subbarayalu
Full Text Available Higher Education institutions in Saudi Arabia is currently performing several evaluations by both students and teaching staff as a measure to improve the quality by understanding the perception of its stakeholders. In order to retain the best and efficient work force to carry out the teaching roles in these universities, the Quality of Work Life (QoWL prevailing in these Educational institutions needs to be studied. Accordingly, this study was conducted among the teaching staff of the University of Dammam [UOD] to capture their experiences related to various aspects of the QoWL. The teaching staff opinion was captured through a pre-tested QoWL questionnaire and the data were analyzed through six sigma analytical tool using the Poisson distribution model. From the non-conformance level captured through the responses from the faculty/teaching staff about the various aspects of quality of work life prevailing in their respective colleges, the corresponding sigma rating for each component of QoWL was calculated. Subsequently, an innovative six point quality rating system was established for each sigma values. The overall opinion of teaching staff about the QoWL prevailing at UOD is rated as "Adaptable" signifying that there is room for further improvement and appropriate strategies need to be employed to improve it.
Suaad S. AlWakeel
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the bacterial species colonizing the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a microbiological and molecular level. Throat and nasal swab samples were obtained from 29 fuel station attendants in the period of time extending from March to May 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Microbiological identification techniques were utilized to identify the bacterial species isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was assessed for each of the bacterial isolates. Molecular identification techniques based on PCR analysis of specific genomic sequences was conducted and was the basis on which phylogeny representation was done for 10 randomly selected samples of the isolates. Blood was drawn and a complete blood count was conducted to note the hematological indices for each of the study participants. Nineteen bacterial species were isolated from both the nasal cavity and the oropharynx including Streptococcus thoraltensis, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus hominis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and several others. We found 100% sensitivity of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Whereas cefotaxime and azithromycin posted sensitivities of 85.7% and 91.4%, respectively. Low sensitivities (<60% sensitivity to the antibiotics ampicillin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and norfloxacin were observed. Ninety-seven percent similarity to the microbial bank species was noted when the isolates were compared to it. Most hematological indices recorded were within the normal range. In conclusion, exposure to toxic fumes and compounds within fuel products may be a contributing factor to bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract in fuel workers.
Imran, Muhammad; Sayedalamin, Zaid; Alsulami, Salhah S; Atta, Magdi; Baig, Mukhtiar
This study explored the knowledge and awareness about colorectal cancer (CRC) among undergraduate students of one of the leading universities in Saudi Arabia, along with the mode of information access. The present cross-sectional study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, among students of different faculties. The study questionnaire, containing 28 items, was adapted from surveys identified in the relevant literature. The CRC awareness questionnaire consisted of an awareness section (early CRC signs and symptoms, and risk factors) and a knowledge section. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 21.0. A total of 525 undergraduate students participated in the study. The majority were females (63.0%) and approximately half (56.8%) were medical students. The majority of the students (82.3%) were aware of CRC, and 68% thought that CRC is a preventable disease. Regarding colorectal cancer screening tests, only one-third of students (33%) had actual knowledge, while the majority of the students (77.0%) thought that there are tests which help in early detection. Only 4% of the participants had a family history of CRC. The majority of the participants (84%) thought that CRC is a disease that can be cured. Almost 50-60% participants had good awareness level regarding risk factors, and signs and symptoms. Regarding knowledge, participant responses varied for family history (52%), age (59%), chronic infection of the colon (72%), obesity and lack of exercise (66%). More than one-third of the students had received information material regarding CRC from their curriculum followed by social media (20.4%), and nearly 40% from other sources such as TV, hospital and mass media. Female participants had significantly better awareness in a few questions regarding CRC awareness as compared to their male counterparts. There was a significant difference observed between medical and non-medical students (knowledge about CRC while no significant
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah; Ahmed, A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; A-Jarallah, Abdullah S.; Al-Saadi, Muslim M.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.
Objective was to ascertain the role of cardiac diseases as a risk factor for stroke in a cohort of Saudi children who were evaluated in a retrospective and prospective study. Children with cardiac diseases were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who presented with stroke. They were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards or evaluated at the Outpatient Clinics of the Division of Pediatric Neurology (DPN), and the Division of Pediatric Cardiology at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). A comprehensive form for clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological and laboratory data retrieval was designed and completed for each patient. Cardiac evaluation included 12-lead ECG and serial echocardiograms. Cardiac catheterization and 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) were conducted on clinical discretion. Cardiac diseases were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 6 (5.8%) of the 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). The patients (4males and 2 females) were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 5.3 years (range=1-8 years; median 6.5 years). Onset of stroke was at a mean age of 34 months (range= 4 months - 8 years; median = 30 months). Five patients had stroke in association with congenital heart disease (CHD), whereas the sixth had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The identified CHD consisted of membranous ventricular septal defect in a 5-year-old boy who had moyamoya syndrome and sickle cell b-thalassemia, asymptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a 17-months-old girl, atrioventricular canal defect and PDA in an 8-year-old boy who also had Down syndrome, partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in a one-year-old boy. The latter patient developed hemiparesis secondary to a septic embolus, which evolved into brain abscess involving the right fronto-preital region. This was successfully managed surgically
Full Text Available Riyadh A Alzaheb,1 Abdullah H Altemani2 1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia Background: Although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is rising sharply in Saudi Arabia, data on glycemic control, crucial to reducing diabetes mellitus complications, remain scarce. This study therefore investigated glycemic control status and the factors influencing poor glycemic control among adult T2DM patients in Saudi Arabia.Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 423 T2DM patients at a diabetic center in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia between September 2016 and July 2017. Glycemic levels were measured via fasting blood glucose (FBG levels, and “poor glycemic control” was defined as FBG >130 mg/dL. Poor glycemic control’s risk factors were identified using a logistic regression.Results: In the sample, 74.9% of the patients had poor blood glycemic control. Logistic regression revealed that T2DM patients had an increased chance of poorly controlled diabetes if they had family histories of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7.38, 95% CI 4.09–13.31, longer diabetic durations (AOR =2.33, 95% CI 1.14–4.78 for 5–10 years and AOR =5.19, 95% CI 2.50–10.69 for >10 years, insufficient physical exercise (AOR =19.02, 95% CI 6.23–58.06, or were overweight (AOR =3.79, 95% CI 2.00–7.18, or obese (AOR =5.35, 95% CI 2.72–12.59.Conclusion: A high proportion of the sampled patients had poor glycemic control, therefore, health care professionals should manage the associated risk factors to limit disease complications and improve the health of patients with diabetes. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, glycemic control, Saudi Arabia
Full Text Available Fatimah Basil Al-Mukaynizi,1 Mohammed Alanazi,1 Sooad Al-Daihan,1 Narasimha Reddy Parine,1 Majid Almadi,2 Abdulrahman Aljebreen,2 Nahla Azzam,2 Othman Alharbi,2 Maha Arafah,3 Arjumand Warsy4 1Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, 4Central Laboratory, Female Center for Scientific & Medical Colleges, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Considerable interest is directed toward the enzyme aromatase (CYP19A1 and the development of cancer, due to CYP19A1’s role in estrogen biosynthesis. Several cancers display excessive intra-tumor accumulation of estrogens, and aromatase inhibitors are used for treatment. The CYP19A1 gene exhibits polymorphism and mutations that can alter its expression or aromatase activity and influence estrogen production. We designed this study to investigate the link between CYP19A1 polymorphism and susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC development in Saudis. Patients and methods: Blood samples from 100 CRC patients and 100 healthy controls were drawn for DNA extractions. Three polymorphic sites, rs4774585, rs936308, and rs4775936, were genotyped using Taqman genotyping by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Allelic and genotype frequencies were calculated and compared in the two groups. Results: All single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were polymorphic in Saudis, and comparison of allele frequencies showed several differences when compared to other populations. None of the SNPs were associated with the risk of CRC development in Saudis (P>0.05. Some gender and location (colon or rectal differences were observed. Discussion: The results of this study highlighted the genetic heterogeneity existing between populations in the prevalence of different SNPs and their relation to disease state. It showed that, although rs4774585, rs936308, and rs4775936 are involved in CRC development in several populations, their role
Sobaih, Badr H
To assess infants' cognitive function at the corrected age of 24-36 months, and to identify factors associated with adverse outcome and examine the correlation between Bayley Infants Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS) score and Gesell Schedule of Child Development (GSCD). Methods: This retrospective study was performed on Saudi very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants born in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 1997 and 2014 by the use of BINS as screening test and GSCD as definitive test. Results: Of 561 enrolled infants, 367 (65.4%) continued to follow-up. Three-hundred and fifteen infants (85.6%) had a normal cognitive function. In addition to lower birth weight (beta = -0.003) (p less than 0.001), male gender (OR =3.9) (p=0.001)and cerebral palsy (OR =33.9) (p less than 0.001) were the strongest factors associated with poor cognitive outcome. Approximately 75.4% of infants with normal BINS score had normal cognitive function and 7.6% of total infants had sever cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The majority of VLBW infants in our center have normal cognitive function at the corrected age of 24-36 months. Male gender, lower birth weight, and cerebral palsy are major predictors of poor outcome. The BINS scores were correlated with GSCD as a valid predictor for future developmental outcome.
Al-Husain, M.; Salih, Mustafa A.M.; Zaki, Osama K.; Al-Othman, L.; Al-Nasser, Mohammed N.
Studies on fragile X syndrome are scarce in Saudi Arabia and othercountries of the Arabian Peninsula. The few studies previously done haveeither been in the form of case reports or those performed oninstitutionalized mentally retarded patients. The aim of this study was todetermine the prevalence of fragile X syndrome among cases with mentalretardation who have been referred to the pediatric neurology clinics of KingKhalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh. Cytogenetic studies wereperformed in 94 cases that were referred to the pediatric neurology clinicsof KKUH because of mental retardation and/or delayed milestones ofdevelopment, from July 1995 to December 1997. Six male probands (6.4%) showedthe classic fragile X chromosome and another six (including a four year oldgirl) were detected, following extension of the cytogenetic studies to all 32first-degree relatives. Affection of more than one sibling was ascertained infour families. One family had four brothers with fragile X syndrome, whereasanother formed part of a large kindred with twelve males and five females whowere mentally retarded. A clinical, physical and psychological screeningchecklist was applied to the eleven affected males. Large testicular size,long face and short attention span were the most frequent features and eachwas detected in nine patients (82%). Pes planus and history of delayed speechwere found in eight patients (73%). The study showed that the fragile Xsyndrome clinical screening checklist has been applied in other populationsmight equally valuable and applicable among the population of Saudi Arabia.However, the presence of pale blue eyes can be excluded and more weight givento positive family history of mental to the most common clinical diagnosticfeatures of fragile X syndrome. (author)
Silva, M J; Alhowaish, L; Ghanim, A; Manton, D J
This was to investigate the perception of general dental practitioners (GDPs), specialist dentists and dental students regarding the prevalence, severity and aetiological factors of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). Questionnaires were distributed to 407 general and specialist dentists who were members of the Saudi Dental Association and 222 fourth and fifth year dental students at College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh. The questionnaires investigated the perception and knowledge of MIH, including clinical experience, treatment, views on aetiology and need for further training in management of MIH. A total of 230 (56.5 %) dental practitioners and 149 (67.1 %) dental students completed the questionnaire. The majority of GDPs (76.9 %) and specialists (86.3 %) had encountered MIH in their practice. The majority of specialist dentists (56.1 %) and GDPs (60.4 %) reported that MIH could come second to dental caries as a public health concern. A range of possible aetiological factors were identified by both students and dentists with genetics the most common. The majority of GDPs (90.5 %) and specialists (72.4 %) reported a need for further training in MIH, in particular, regarding treatment. The majority of dental students (64 %) had not heard of MIH and most were in favour of including MIH-associated cases in the undergraduate curriculum of paediatric dentistry. Students were more likely to request training in diagnosis than treatment. MIH is a condition encountered by Saudi dentists who advocated the need for clinical training regarding MIH-aetiological and therapeutic fields. Students have little exposure to MIH and are likely to have similar concerns upon commencement of dental practice.
Alameri, Hatem F.; Alem, A.; Al-Momen, A.; Kardas, W.; Owais, M.; Jehangir, A.
Objective was to examine pulmonary function, dyspnea, and exercise capacity in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. The patients were recruited from the hematology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh from January to December 2005. The study involved 39 patients with stable SCD 20 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 22.7+/- 7.1 years, hemoglobin level of 95.5+/-14.6g/L and hemoglobin F level of 13.7+/08.6. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests PFT forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide [DLco] data are presented as a percentage of the normal prediction, a 6- minute walk test 6MWT and echocardiography. Dyspnea was assessed using the Borg score. The 6MWT data were compared to body mass index matched healthy controls. Forty-one percent of SCD patients had mild dyspnea at rest and this increased to 61% at the end of the 6MWT. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 51%, 36% of patients had a restrictive pattern, 10% had isolated decrease in DLco and 5% had a mixed restrictive-obstrutive pattern. The 6MWD was shorter in SCD patients compared to the controls 368+/-67 versus 407+/-47m, p=0.005. No hematological variables correlated with outcome variables. Chronic pulmonary complications in adult Saudi SCD patients are relatively mild but common. Pulmonary function in these patients differs from that published for African-origin SCD patients. The difference may reflect a different natural history of SCD in the 2 populations. (author)
Almalki, Sami A; Almojali, Abdullah I; Alothman, Ali S; Masuadi, Emad M; Alaqeel, Meshal K
To assess levels of burnout in medical students, and to explore the influence of extracurricular activities on burnout at a medical school in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was conducted with first to fourth year medical students at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Socio-demographic, burnout level (the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, MBI-SS) and participation in extracurricular activities data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson's chi-square test and binary logistic regression. From the 306 medical students approached, 249 (81.4%) completed the questionnaire. The level of high burnout was 67.1% (n=167). The study revealed that the majority (62.3%, n=155) of students had high levels of cynicism, 58.6% (n=146) had high levels of emotional exhaustion, and 60.2% (n=150) had low levels of professional efficacy. Most of the students (73.5%, n=183) participated in extracurricular activities, and 112 (45%) students were organizers of extracurricular activities. No significant association was found between burnout levels and the frequency of involvement in extracurricular activities (χ 2 =2.2, df=2, p=0.333). However, students who were organizing extracurricular activities were less likely to have low professional efficacy (OR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.27- 0.96). High levels of burnout were reported at this medical school. Although the burnout level is not significantly associated with the frequency of involvement in extracurricular activities, leading and organizing extracurricular activities might result in lower levels of burnout. Therefore, improving the students' leadership skills should be considered in curriculum planning, and greater emphasis should be placed on the quality of involvement in extracurricular activities rather than the quantity.
Habib, Syed Rashid; Shiddi, Ibraheem Al; Al-Sufyani, Mohammed D; Althobaiti, Fahad A
To determine the relationship of tooth form with the face form by different observers and further investigate the inter observer agreement on tooth forms, face forms, their relationship among male Saudis. A comparative cross-sectional study. Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA, from February till August 2013. Ninety four male participants aged 18 - 35 years were randomly recruited for the study. Full-face and anterior teeth (intraoral) digital photographs in the frontal plane were recorded. The outline tracings of the face and the tooth were obtained using Autocad (version 2010) software. The outline of the tooth was enlarged proportionately, without altering the length to width ratio to fit the face outline. The outlines were then evaluated visually by 6 prosthodontists and results were tabulated. The most common type of face form (49.65%) and tooth form (56.38%) was square tapering. Using the visual method, a good relationship (31.41%), moderate relationship (35.31%), weak relationship (19.68%) and no relationship (13.65%) between the tooth form and face form was found by the observers. Overall kappa for inter observer agreement on face form, tooth form and their relationship was 0.24, 0.17 and 0.26 respectively. The kappa values showed a fair agreement between the observers. The study results indicated that there was no highly defined relationship between the tooth form and face form in the studied Saudi subpopulation. A fair agreement was found between the observers for classifying the tooth forms, face froms and their relationship.
Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)
Alrajhi, M.; Hawarey, M.
The General Directorate for Surveying and Mapping (GDSM) of the Deputy Ministry for Land and Surveying (DMLS) of the Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the exclusive mandate to carry out aerial photography and produce large-scale detailed maps for about 220 cities and villages in the KSA. This presentation is about the comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for the Ar-Riyadh region, Central KSA, that was founded on country-wide horizontal geodetic ground control using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) within the MOMRA's Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (MTRF2000) that is tied to International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (ITRF2000) Epoch 2004.0, and vertical geodetic ground control using precise digital leveling in reference to Jeddah 1969 mean sea level, and included aerial photography of area 3,000 km2 at 1:5,500 scale and 10,000 km2 at 1:45,000 scale, full aerial triangulation, and production of orthophoto maps at scale of 1:10,000 (480 sheets) for 10,000 km2, with aerial photography lasting from July 2007 thru August 2007.
Althoubaity, Fatima K.
Objective was to determine the negative appendectomy rate; utilization, accuracy of Alvarado scale, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) in diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Hospital records of 124 female patients admitted for suspicious of acute appendicitis from January 2003-January 2004 to the Emergency Department (ED) at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were reviewed retrospectively. We reviewed the age of patients, clinical presentation, Alvarado scale, US, CT, histopathalogical diagnosis of appendicular specimen. A total of 124 female patients aged 6-64 years were presented to ED with right iliac fossa pain. Of the total, 103 patients have appendectomies (83.1%), 21 (16.9%) patients underwent conservative treatment. Prevalence of advanced appendicitis was 13.7% and negative appendectomy rate was 27.2%. Accuracy rate of appendicitis with Alvarado scale 67.7%, US was 57.9% CT was 66.7%. Postoperative correlation was found between advanced cases and Alvarado scale (r=0.338), and hospital stay duration (r=0.250, p<0.01). Clinical findings and experiments remain of major importance in appendicitis-diagnosis. When appendicitis appears with atypical presentations, it remains a clinical challenge. In such cases, laboratory and imaging investigation may be useful in establishing a correct diagnosis. Alvarado scoring system is easy, simple and cheap complementary aid for supporting the diagnosis of acute appendicitis especially for junior surgeons. (author)
Al-Otaibi, Dalal H.; Babay, Nadir A.; Habib, Syed S.; Almas, K.
Objective was to study the extent of periodontal disease in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients and to investigate the relationship of dyslipidemia and periodontal disease, in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients. This is a cross-sectional study at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences College of Dentistry and Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February 2003 to June 2004. A total of 90 patients was recruited and divided into 3 equal groups of 30 subjects, with age and gender matched, and divided as follows: group 1 healthy group: periodontally and systemically healthy subjects, group 2 periodontitis group: chronic periodontitis patients with no systemic disease, group 3 diabetic group: chronic periodontitis patients with chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth PPD, and clinical attachment level CAL were measured at the time of initial examination. The glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein were also measured. Periodontal parameters PPD and CAL were of significantly higher value in the diabetic patients, when compared to the periodontitis patients p<0.05. The total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride were also found to be significantly higher among the periodontitis patients than the healthy subjects p<0.05. This study indicated that type 2 diabetic patients had a higher risk to developed advanced periodontal disease hat the non-diabetic subjects. It also highlighted the association of dyslipidemia in periodontitis patients. (author)
Al-Khowaiter, Saad S.; Al-Ali, Abdulaziz S.; Al-Maawi, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.; Abdo, Ayman A.; Al-Obaidy, Mamdoh S.; Al-Sedrani, Yasser A.
Objective was to assess the patient's awareness of their medicalconditions, identify the factors affecting their awareness and assesspatient's satisfaction with their doctor's explanations of medicalconditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2005 in theoutpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom ofSaudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.The statistical package for Social Science was used for analysis. Fivehundred and one patients were included in the study. The mean age was45.6+-16.8. Fifty-five percent were female and 29% were highly educated. Mostof the patients (64.1%) knew their diagnoses. This was significantlyassociated with educational level; chronicity of the disease and theawareness of other issues related to their illness such as complications andname of their medications (p>0.05). Few patients (20%) knew complications oftheir diseases. Seventy percent of the patients were satisfied with theirdoctor's explanation of their disease. Knowing the diagnosis (p=0.001) andthe disease complications (p=0.014) were associated significantly withpatient's satisfaction. These figures are less than what they should be.Physicians must be advised of the importance of proper patient education. Inaddition, the lack of proper education by physicians demonstrated in thisstudy should be compensated for by an increase in non-physician basededucation tools. (author)
Al-Otaibi, Dalal H; Babay, Nadir A [Dept. of Preventive Dental Services, Coll. of Dentistry, King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Habib, Syed S [Dept. of Physiology, Habib Coll. of Medicine, King Khalid Univ. Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Almas, K [Dept. of Periodontology, Univ. of Connecticut (United States)
Objective was to study the extent of periodontal disease in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients and to investigate the relationship of dyslipidemia and periodontal disease, in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients. This is a cross-sectional study at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences College of Dentistry and Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February 2003 to June 2004. A total of 90 patients was recruited and divided into 3 equal groups of 30 subjects, with age and gender matched, and divided as follows: group 1 healthy group: periodontally and systemically healthy subjects, group 2 periodontitis group: chronic periodontitis patients with no systemic disease, group 3 diabetic group: chronic periodontitis patients with chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth PPD, and clinical attachment level CAL were measured at the time of initial examination. The glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein were also measured. Periodontal parameters PPD and CAL were of significantly higher value in the diabetic patients, when compared to the periodontitis patients p<0.05. The total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride were also found to be significantly higher among the periodontitis patients than the healthy subjects p<0.05. This study indicated that type 2 diabetic patients had a higher risk to developed advanced periodontal disease hat the non-diabetic subjects. It also highlighted the association of dyslipidemia in periodontitis patients. (author)
Outif, Ahmad M.; Hendi, Awatif A.; Al-Ghandi, Safar S.; Al-Dihan, Abdulaziz A.
Despite the fact that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was a pioneer in developing its bone mineral density (BMD) reference population (RP), BMD is still reported in most Saudi dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) centers according to Lebanese RP. The aim of the current work was to assess the implication of using normal ranges other than Saudi female normal range in reporting BMD of Saudi female patients (SFP). This study was conducted at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Three published Arabian female DEXA RPs were reviewed and statistically compared. The implication of using RPs other than Saudi female reference population (SFRP) in reporting SFP was assessed in 1653 patients who were reported according to SFRP, Lebanese female reference population (LFRP) and Kuwaiti female reference population (KFRP). All female patients BMD data performed between June 1995 and July 2003 were included in the study. This study was conducted at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Three published Arabian female DEXA RPs were reviewed and statistically compared. The implication of using RPs other than Saudi female reference population (SFRP) in reporting SFP was assessed in 1653 patients who were reported according to SFRP, Lebanese female reference population (LFRP) and Kuwaiti female reference population (KFRP). All female patients BMD data performed between June 1995 and July 2003 were included in the study. The current use of LFRP in reporting SFP should be discontinued and instead SFRP should be used. Further national studies are needed to reassure the Saudi RP and to resolve the differences between the current 2 SFRP at the second and fifth age decades. (author)
Taha, Asia; Azhar, Saira; Lone, Talib; Murtaza, Ghulam; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Mumtaz, Amara; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Kousar, Rozina; Karim, Sabiha; Tariq, Imran; Ul Hassan, Syed Saeed; Hussain, Izhar
Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. The aim of this questionnaire based survey study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in reproductive age women, and their relation to variables such as age, marital status, education with those attending obstetrics and gynecology outpatient of King Faisal University Health Centre in Al-Ahsa in eastern region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study was conducted for the period of 6 month staring from September 2012 to February 2013. The questionnaire had three sections on personal information: their educational indicators, gynecological clinical history, and hematological indices. The average age was 25.97±7.17 years. According to the gynecological clinical history of the respondents, 15 (48.4%) respondents were pregnant while 16 (51.6%) were not pregnant. There was significant effect of pregnancy status on Hb level. Majority of the anemic respondents 15/17 were married. Moreover 14/17 anemic women were experiencing severe menstrual bleeding, 11/17 respondents were pregnant. 54.8% of respondents were hemoglobin deficient while 77.4% were found to have low Hct. In 87.1 % of the respondents, transferrin saturation was found to be abnormal. In this study iron deficiency anemia is quite prevalent in the university community especially among pregnant women. The fetus's and newborn infant's iron status depends on the iron status of the pregnant woman and therefore, iron deficiency in the mother-to-be means that growing fetus probably will be iron deficient as well. Thus iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy in well-educated set up needs more attention by the concerned authorities.
Kaminski, Michael A.; Hammad Malik, Muhammad; Setoyama, Eiichi
We report the occurrence of an Ammobaculoides-dominated assemblage in the lowermost member of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation exposed west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The new species Ammobaculoides dhrumaensis n.sp. is described from the green shale of the D1 unit (also known as the Balum Member) of the Dhruma Formation, which has been assigned an early Bajocian age based on ammonites. Our new finding constitutes the oldest reported worldwide occurrence of the agglutinated foraminiferal genus Ammobaculoides Plummer, 1932.
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Murshid, Waleed R.; Elgamal, Essam A.; Al-Salman, Mussaad M.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Othman, Saleh A.; El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Maldergem, L. V.
To report on moyamoya syndrome (MMS) as a risk factor for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. The usual and novel associations of MMS in this cohort will also be described. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February201 to March 2003 (retrospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included hemostatic assays, biochemical, and serological tests. Neuroimaging included CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) brain scan and conventional cerebral angiography. Moyamoya syndrome was the underlying risk factor for stroke in 6 (5.8%) of the 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). They were 4 females and 2 males. Their first cerebral ischemic event occurred at a mean age of 45 months (median = 44 months, range 17-66 months). In all 6 cases, MMS was associated with an underlying hematologic abnormality or other diseases. Protein C deficiency was identified in one girl and protein S deficiency in another. Two patients had retrospectively, sickle cell disease (SCD) and sickle cell-b-thalassemia (Sb-thalssemia), which had been associated in the latter with membranous ventricular septal defect. Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS, OMIM 100300) was associated with MMS in an 18-month-old girl. A 4-year-old boy had wrinkly skin syndrome (WWS, OMIM 278250) phenotype. The association of MMS and protein C deficiency was first reported in this cohort of patients, whereas the association of the syndrome with WWS and AOS has not, hitherto, been described. The 3 patients who had MMS associated with protein C deficiency, SCD, and AOS underwent successful revascularization surgery in the form of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis. Moyamoya syndrome constitutes an important risk factor of
Allari, Rabia S; Ismaile, Samantha; Househ, Mowafa
Professional values are essential to nursing practice because they guide standards for working, provide a structure for evaluating behavior, and influence decisions making. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of Saudi female nursing students on professional values and to assess the correlation between their perception of professional values in relation to their year of academic studies. We used a cross-sectional descriptive study where a survey was administered to 150 Saudi female nurses living in Riyadh. Results show that Saudi female nurses have a high perception of professional values relating to confidentiality, privacy, moral and legal rights, health and safety, and the work environment. Whereas Saudi nursing students have a low perception for participating in professional nursing activities, utilizing research in practice, peer review, public policy, and engaging in on-going self-evaluation. There was positive correlation between different professional values and academic years. The highest correlations were for the items related to caring and trust more than activism because nursing students at higher academic levels viewed the relationship with patients as more important than advancing health care systems through public policy, research, and professional organizations. In conclusion, nursing program administrators should put emphasis on improving the development of professional values through a role modeling approach to promote activism and professional values through the arrangement of meetings, exchange forums, and conferences with other nurses, managers, policy makers, innovators, and researchers within the nursing field.
Full Text Available Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,1 Madonna J Matar,2 Rima Moghnieh,3 Adel F Alothman,4 Thamer H Alenazi,5 Fayssal Farahat,1 Shelby Corman,6 Caitlyn T Solem,6 Nirvana Raghubir,7 Cynthia Macahilig,8 Seema Haider,9 Jennifer M Stephens6 1Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, 3Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanese Republic; 4Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Central Region, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, 5Infection Prevention & Control Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 6Real World Evidence: Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, 7Medical Affairs, Pfizer, New York, NY, 8Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 9Outcomes & Evidence, Global Health and Value, Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods: A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities, treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials, hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay, and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality. Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Results: Chart
The purpose of this study was to investigate concerns regarding the adoption of online teaching as expressed by faculty and instructors in six departments in the College of Arts and Humanities at King Abdulaziz University. Additionally, it investigated faculty professional development needs in adopting online teaching. The data in this study were…
Nada M. Albawardi
Full Text Available Research in Saudi Arabia has revealed a shocking level of insufficiently physically active adults, particularly women. The risk of sedentary behavior will likely increase as the number of women with office-based jobs increases. The aim of this study is to determine the level of sedentary behavior, and its associated factors, among Saudi women working office-based jobs in the city of Riyadh. A cross-sectional study of 420 Saudi female employees at 8 office-based worksites were measured to determine body mass index and were given a self-administered survey to evaluate their level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Median sitting time on work days was 690 min per day (interquartile range, IQR 541–870, with nearly half accumulated during work hours, and 575 min per day (IQR 360–780 on non-work days. Predictors of work day sitting time were level of education, number of children, and working in the private sector. Number of children, whether they were single, and whether they lived in a small home were found to predict non-work day sitting time. This study identifies Saudi women in office-based jobs as a high-risk group for sedentary behavior. There is a need to promote physical activity at worksites and reduce prolonged sitting.
Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Almalki, Abdulla A; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
Research in Saudi Arabia has revealed a shocking level of insufficiently physically active adults, particularly women. The risk of sedentary behavior will likely increase as the number of women with office-based jobs increases. The aim of this study is to determine the level of sedentary behavior, and its associated factors, among Saudi women working office-based jobs in the city of Riyadh. A cross-sectional study of 420 Saudi female employees at 8 office-based worksites were measured to determine body mass index and were given a self-administered survey to evaluate their level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Median sitting time on work days was 690 min per day (interquartile range, IQR 541-870), with nearly half accumulated during work hours, and 575 min per day (IQR 360-780) on non-work days. Predictors of work day sitting time were level of education, number of children, and working in the private sector. Number of children, whether they were single, and whether they lived in a small home were found to predict non-work day sitting time. This study identifies Saudi women in office-based jobs as a high-risk group for sedentary behavior. There is a need to promote physical activity at worksites and reduce prolonged sitting.
Alshammari, Sulaiman A.; AlShowair, Mishal A.; AlRuhaim, Abdulmalik
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, studies have shown a high prevalence of hormones and nutritional supplement use by athletes and gym members. Many athletes consume unproven, potentially harmful or even banned supplements. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of the use of hormones and nutritional supplements by people who exercise in gyms in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and the types of supplements they most commonly use and to obtain a general view of the main reasons for using these enhancements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted at gyms in Riyadh that were selected randomly from different sectors of the city. The sample size was estimated at 289, but the actual number of randomly selected participants in the study was 457. RESULTS: The number of gym members who participated in this study was 457. Approximately 47.9% of the sample reported an intake of nutritional supplements and 7.9% reported that they took hormones. Protein powder was consumed by 83.1% of the participants. Approximately 16.8% of supplement users had noticed some side effects, and 25.7% of those who took hormones had stopped taking them because of adverse effects. Only half of the hormone users (54.2%) reported that they had had medical checkups. The major source of information on supplement and hormone use was non-health professionals; friends being major source (40%) of information on the use of hormones. The use of nutritional supplements was significantly associated with BMI (OR = 1.89, CI = 1.06–3.39), duration of daily exercise (OR = 4.23, CI = 2.06–8.68), and following a special diet (OR = 8.42, CI = 5.37–13.2). There was a very strong association between nutritional supplement consumption and hormone use (P gyms took nutritional supplements, and most had received their information from nonhealth professionals. There was an association between the duration of exercise and the use of hormones and supplements. Fewer than half of
Abdullah A. Bin Shalhoub
Full Text Available Objectives: To identify and describe the hospital disaster preparedness (HDP in major private hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional survey study performed in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Thirteen major private hospitals in Riyadh with more than 100 beds capacity were included in this investigation. Results: The 13 hospitals had HDP plan and reported to have an HDP committee. In 12 (92.3% hospitals, the HDP covered both internal and external disasters and HDP was available in every department of the hospital. There were agreements with other hospitals to accept patients during disasters in 9 facilities (69.2% while 4 (30.8% did not have such agreement. None of the hospitals conducted any unannounced exercises in previous year. Conclusion: Most of the weaknesses were apparent particularly in the education, training and monitoring of the hospital staff to the preparedness for disaster emergency occasion. Few hospitals had conducted an exercise with casualties, few had drilled evacuation of staff and patients in the last 12 months, and none had any unannounced exercise in the last year.
Fatimah Ali Albusalih
Full Text Available Pharmacy and medical students are expected to be more knowledgeable regarding rational use of medications as compared to the general public. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of pharmacy and medicine colleges of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia using a survey questionnaire. The duration of the study was six months. The aim was to report self-medication prevalence of prescription and non-prescription drugs among pharmacy and medical students. The prevalence of self-medication in the pharmacy college was reported at 19.61%. Prevalence of self-medication at the medical college was documented at 49.3%. The prevalence of multivitamin use was reported at 30.53%, analgesics; 72.35%, antihistamines; 39.16%, and antibiotic use at 16.59%. The prevalence of anti-diarrheal medicines and antacids use among students was found to be 8.63% and 6.64%, respectively. The variable of college and study year was statistically associated with the nature of the medicines. The most common justifications given by students indulging in self-medication were ‘mild problems’ and ‘previous experience with medicines’. Our study reported that prevalence of self-medication in the College of Clinical Pharmacy was low, i.e., 19.61%. The figure has been reported for the first time. Students were mostly observed self-medicating with OTC drugs, however, some reported using corticosteroids and isotretenoin, which are quite dangerous if self-medicated. Students have a positive outlook towards pharmacists as drug information experts.
Nahla K. Ibrahim
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP of patients attended dental clinics at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH regarding cross infections and infection control in dentistry. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 225 patients who attended the dental clinics of KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2014. A standardized, confidential, anonymous, interviewing questionnaire was used. Knowledge about dental infections was assessed by 12 MCQs. The attitudes were assessed through answering seven statements on a three- point Likert scale. Patients’ self reported practices were also evaluated. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done.Results of the study revealed that 39.5%, 38.7% and 21.8% of the participants obtained poor, fair and satisfactory level of knowledge about infections and infection control in dentistry, respectively. Social media was the commonest source of information about dental infection. Participant's educational level was significantly associated with the level of knowledge about dental infection. Patients had positive attitudes towards infection control in dentistry. Regarding self-reported practice, only few participants would ask dentists about sterilization of dental instruments (9.3%, wearing face mask (13.3% and gloves (16.4% if they don’t do so. In conclusion, our participants had good attitudes towards infection control in dentistry. However, their knowledge and practice need improvements. Conduction of educational programs is needed through social media, mass media, schools and public places. These programs involve both patients and providers. Keywords: Patient safety, Cross infection, Dental infection, Infection control, Emerging diseases, KAP
... have at least 51 percent U.S. content of the value of the finished product or service. Selection Criteria for Participation Selection will be based on the following criteria: Suitability of the company's... applicant's submission and not considered during the selection process. Timeframe for Recruitment and...
Bishi Al Garni
Conclusion: The majority of the patients surveyed were willing to pay the median price for an implant. Willingness to pay (WTP is a multifactorial variable which is significantly influenced by the income of the patient, the setting of the clinic and the gender; the most significant factor being the acceptability of the implant to the patient.
Omar A Al-Mohrej
Conclusions: The awareness of DDH should be increased among paediatricians to decrease the incidence of late DDH diagnosis. A structured screening program has to be created and implemented in all hospitals of the country to detect DDH earlier and to provide treatment as early as possible.
Nasser Mansour Assery
Conclusion: Dentists who participated in dental implantology workshops had a higher tendency to answer correctly compared to dentists who were given didactic courses in their undergraduate studies in issues associated with hands-on training. This shows that hands-on training in the undergraduate studies would result in a better understanding of dental implants, its complications, and management.
Mostafa A Arafa
Conclusion: Beliefs and attitudes have a great impact, at every stage of the cancer continuum, this attitudes depends mainly on level of knowledge and quantity of information provided to patients and their families. Such attitudes should rely on a solid background of proper information and motivation from physicians to enhance and empower attitudes toward PC screening behavior.
Thamer A. Alsulaiman
Conclusion: Deficiencies were observed regarding the diabetics' annual follow-up at our clinic during the year 2013. A more consistent approach is needed in requesting the lab investigations and referrals for diabetics in order to meet the clinic's target. Repeat auditing in a year's time is recommended to monitor improvement.
Albogami, Saad S; Alotaibi, Meshal R; Alsahli, Saud A; Masuadi, Emad; Alshaalan, Mohammad
ARTIs have a huge impact in health systems in which 20-30% of all hospital admissions and 30-60% of practitioner visits are related to respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and seasonal variation of respiratory viruses. This study was descriptive retrospective study in which all patients 14 years of age and below who presented with signs and symptoms of ARTIs between January 2013 and December 2014 and had respiratory specimen tested by direct immunofluorescence assays for viruses identification were included in the study. During that period, a total of 4611 patients who presented with ARTIs from January 2013 to December 2014 were investigated, viruses were detected in 1115 (24%). RSV was associated with 97.4% of the total viral pathogens. Viruses were detected throughout all the two years with a peak in winter; Dec (n: 265), Jan (n: 418), Feb (n: 218), and Mar (n: 109). Viral pathogens are very important cause of ARTIs in our region. RSV was the most common virus detected with the highest detection rate in children who are two years old and below. A multi-center surveillance with more sensitive detection methods like PCR may help to provide a comprehensive understanding of virus distribution in our area, which may contribute implant an effective prevention approach for each virus. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Nofal, F H; Saeed, A A; Anokute, C C
The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented.
Full Text Available Muhammad M Hammami,1,2 Safa Hammami,1 Hala A Amer,1 Nesrine A Khodr1 1Clinical Studies and Empirical Ethics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, 2College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Understanding culture-and sex-related end-of-life preferences is essential to provide quality end-of-life care. We have previously explored end-of-life choices in Saudi males and found important culture-related differences and that Q-methodology is useful in identifying intraculture, opinion-based groups. Here, we explore Saudi females’ end-of-life choices.Methods: A volunteer sample of 68 females rank-ordered 47 opinion statements on end-of-life issues into a nine-category symmetrical distribution. The ranking scores of the statements were analyzed by averaging analysis and Q-methodology.Results: The mean age of the females in the sample was 30.3 years (range, 19–55 years. Among them, 51% reported average religiosity, 78% reported very good health, 79% reported very good life quality, and 100% reported high-school education or more. The extreme five overall priorities were to be able to say the statement of faith, be at peace with God, die without having the body exposed, maintain dignity, and resolve all conflicts. The extreme five overall dis-priorities were to die in the hospital, die well dressed, be informed about impending death by family/friends rather than doctor, die at peak of life, and not know if one has a fatal illness. Q-methodology identified five opinion-based groups with qualitatively different characteristics: “physical and emotional privacy concerned, family caring” (younger, lower religiosity, “whole person” (higher religiosity, “pain and informational privacy concerned” (lower life quality, “decisional privacy concerned” (older, higher life quality, and “life quantity concerned, family dependent” (high life quality, low life satisfaction. Out of the
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...
Butt, Mohsin Jamil; Assiri, Mazen Ebraheem; Ali, Md. Arfan
The aim of this study is to investigate the variability of aerosol over The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For this analysis, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue (DB) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) product from Terra and Aqua satellites for the years 2000–2013 is used. The product is validated using AERONET data from ground stations, which are situated at Solar Village Riyadh and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Jeddah. The results show that both Terra and Aqua satellites exhibit a tendency to show the spatial variation of AOD with Aqua being better than Terra to represent the ground based AOD measurements over the study region. The results also show that the eastern, central, and southern regions of the country have a high concentration of AOD during the study period. The validation results show the highest correlation coefficient between Aqua and KAUST data with a value of 0.79, whilst the Aqua and Solar Village based AOD indicates the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) values which are, 0.17 and 0.12 respectively. Furthermore, the Relative Mean Bias (RMB) based analysis show that the DB algorithm overestimates the AOD when using Terra and Solar Village data, while it underestimates the AOD when using Aqua with Solar Village and KAUST data. The RMB value for Aqua and Solar Village data indicates that the DB algorithm is close to normal in the study region. - Highlights: • The significance of aerosol in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is addressed. • MODIS (Terra and Aqua), AERONET and ground based sand event data is used. • MODIS DB product is used to prepare annual aerosol maps and monthly AOD variability. • A comparison is made between Terra and Aqua AOD product over bright surface. • MODIS DB AOD product is validated using AERONET data at Solar Village and KAUST. - This research highlighted the aerosol variability over The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using Satellite, AERONET
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Murshid, Waleed R.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Tjan, G. T.
To explore the role of and report congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology (Dpn), or were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Stroke work-up for each suspected case included hemostatic assays, serological, biochemical and neurophysiological tests. Neuroimaging modalities included routine skill x-rays, CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and conventional cerebral angiography. Of 104 children with stroke, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying risk factor in 7 (6.7%). The patients were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 66 months (range = 8 months to 11 years, median = 6 years); and they had stroke at a mean age of 48 months (range = 2 months to 10 years, median = 8 months). Four patients had stroke in association with neurocutaneous syndromes. Two had Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), one had Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome associated with SWS, and the fourth had neurofibromatosis type 1. Two patients had intracranial hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm. A girl (aged 9 years and 4 months) had left posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. She was diagnosed to have autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease following renal ultrasonography. She died 5 months later despite surgical intervention (clipping of aneurysm). The second child was an 8-months-old boy who presented with subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) following ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. He recovered with no residual symptoms following successful clipping of the aneurysm. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) caused IVH in a 7-year-old boy who reported to hospital 5 hours
Unruh, Susan; Obeidat, Fayiz
In this qualitative study, Saudi engineering students talk openly of their experiences learning English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and as university students in the United States (US). These students reported that they learned only the basics of vocabulary and grammar in KSA. Consequently, they came to the US with few English skills. In…
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.
Naif A. Bawazeer
Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.
Albarrak, Ahmed I; Mohammed, Rafiuddin; Zakaria, Nasriah; Alyousef, Lujain M; Almefgai, Noura B; Alqahtani, Hend D; Alamer, Hanan S; Alsulaiman, Ahlam A
Background & Objectives: The present study was to investigate the use of the internet among university students accessing obesity health information and further to measure their satisfaction and in decision-making. Methods: A cross sectional study, among students at King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study received ethical clearance from Institutional Review Board, College of Medicine, KSU. Female and male of undergraduate and postgraduate, enrolled through a random sampling. The survey questionnaire was self-administered and consisted of two sections. Results: A total of 448 students (177 males and 271 females) participated in this study. The response rate was 66.86. The study showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male compared to female students. Majority of the students (58.7%) were of normal Body Mass Index (BMI). It also revealed that 187 (41.7%) reported always acquire obesity health information from the internet whereas 203 (45.35) sometimes use the internet. Half of the respondents reported using a search engine to seek information. Forty-five percent reported spending at least an hour per week. Nearly 52.2% of participants are taking decision related to their lifestyle and showed statistical significant ( P = 0.0001). More than half of the students believed that the obesity information in the websites are very useful. Furthermore, 84.4% reported, language presented in the websites are easy to understand. With respect to quality, 46.9% rated as excellent whereas 39.5% as average. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present study findings have demonstrated that university students are using internet in higher rates for finding obesity health information and are satisfied with the decision they are making. Finally, the study concludes that the internet online health information considered as an essential tool for health promotion among student population regarding weight control or managing obesity.
A Comparative Study of the Relationships between Conflict Management Styles and Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Propensity to Leave the Job among Saudi and American Universities' Faculty Members
This study used Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form C to examine the preference for conflict management styles among Saudi and American faculty members. Additionally, the study examined the relationships between conflict management styles and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and propensity to leave the job. A random sample…
Bajabaa, Aysha Sulaiman
Using technology effectively has been proven to enhance education. The status quo in Saudi Arabia reflects low-level usage of technology in K-12 classrooms. Preparing 21st Century teachers to integrate technology in their future classrooms for meaningful learning requires College of Education faculty to model using technology effectively. This…
Alshahrani, Hamed A.; Walker, David A.
This exploratory, descriptive study examined instructor and female student attitudes toward asynchronous online discussion (AOD) in Saudi Arabia. Preliminary results, derived from an attitudinal-based survey, indicated that, in aggregate, instructors and students had positive attitudes toward using AOD at a female institution of higher education…
Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer Khaled; Syed, Sadiqa Badar; Fayed, Amel Ahmed; Al-Shaikh, Reem Ali; Al-Mussaed, Eman Mohammed; Khan, Farida Habib; Elmorshedy, Hala Nasser
To evaluate the effectiveness of health education programme on the knowledge of human papilloma virus among female medical students. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014 at the Princess Nourah bint Abulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and comprised female medical students. An intervention programme was implemented in the form of lectures, videos, posters, etc. on human papillomavirus. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. There were 535 participants in the study. There mean age was 20.3±1.3 years. After the intervention, there was a significant increase in the level of knowledge. Of all, 495(92%) students recognised avoidance of sexually transmitted disease, vaccination and screening as effective preventive measures. In comparison to pre-intervention results, significantly higher percentage of students defined risk factors: sexually transmitted disease 392(73.3%) versus 329(61.8%), and human papillomavirus 293(54.8%) versus 151(28.4%). Knowledge regarding sensitivity, 280(52.3%) after the campaign versus 160(30.1%)before, and time to perform Pap smear,229(42.8%) versus 113(21.1%),increased significantly (plevel of knowledge on human papillomavirus.
Almuhanna, Monira Abdulrahman; Alsaif, Mohammed; Alsaadi, Muslim; Almajwal, Ali
Childhood obesity has become a new challenge for healthcare providers. The issue is not limited to certain parts of the world; its prevalence is increasing worldwide. The causes of obesity are poorly understood and continue to be debated and studied. It is a multifactorial disorder which involves dietary, behavioral, environmental as well as genetic factors. The increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to high obesity rates among children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake on the occurrence of childhood obesity, and study other associated factors including the education, occupation and income of parents and the living status. Normal healthy school girls (n =196) and school boys (n = 85) between the age of 6- 15 were recruited for the study. We found that obesity among children in Riyadh City was significantly associated with fast food intake (p = 0.0280). It was also observed that 72.5% of the overweight or obese students consumed fast food at least 4 times/week, and the other 15.9% were taking fast food 1- 3 times/week, while only 11.6% of the same overweight or obese group did not consume any fast food/ week. Father's and mother's occupations were not significantly correlated to their children's body weight. The prevalence of childhood obesity is changing and increasing yearly and is attributed to the nutritional risk factors for the Saudi school-age children. It is interesting to know that most of overweight or obese school students belonged to the families of highincome. Parents must take necessary precautions for the diet of their children and should adopt healthy life style in order to prevent or manage obesity of their children.
Al-Tuwijri, Abdulmohsin A [Dept. of Family Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Rukban, Mohammed Othman [Dept. of Family and Community Medicine, Coll. of Medicine, King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)
Al-Tuwijri, Abdulmohsin A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed Othman
The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)
Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory
Bassuni, W.; Asindi, A.A.; Mustafa, F.S.; Hassan, B.; Din, Z.S.; Kumar, R.K.
A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)
Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.
Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215
Batais, Mohammad Ali
The doctor-patient relationship has been influenced by the appearance of physicians, and there is an association between a physician's physical appearance and the patients' initial perceptions of physician competence. This study aims to explore patients' preferences toward the attire of a male physician, and to examine if a physician's choice of uniform influences the degree of trust, confidence, and follow-up care among respondents. A cross-sectional survey conducted among patients of the Alwazarat family medicine center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 300 patients (50% were male and 83.6% had received a secondary education; the mean age was 33.4 [10.1] years) in the Alwazarat family medicine center in Riyadh. The questionnaire was also customized for the local setting with the inclusion of photos of a male doctor in Saudi Arabian national costume, and 3 other dress styles (Western dress with white coat, scrubs with white coat, and scrubs only). Overall, across all questions regarding physician dress style preferences, participants significantly preferred Western dress (39.9%, P patients (P=.002). Respondents were more likely to favor a physician wearing Western attire with a white coat. However, Saudi national dress, followed by Western dress, is the preferred attire when physicians are dealing with social, sexual, and psychological problems.
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alshehri, Youssef; Alfraih, Ibrahim; Alghamdi, Ayedh; Aldahash, Saleh; Alkhuzayem, Haifa; Albeeeshi, Haneen
We investigated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to Faith Healers (FHs) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We also studied the sociodemographic profiles for these visitors, in addition to their past psychiatric history, reason(s) for seeking FH help, and past and current treatment experience with FHs. We conducted a cross-sectional study among the visitors (n=321) to a number of faith healing settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using a specially designed questionnaire and validated Arabic version of The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Most of the participants were young adults (35.1±10.8 years) and males with intermediate and secondary levels of education who had not sought medical help prior to their visits. A high proportion of the FH visitors have diagnosable mental illnesses. Depressive and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent among the study participants; few visitors were affected by psychotic or bipolar disorders. The present study provides insight for understanding the type of patients with psychiatric disorders who visit Faith Healers.(FHs). The study highlights the tendency of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia to visit FHs, which could reflect the importance of further studies to clarify the impact of FHs on the management of those patients.
Abdulrahman Salih Hariri
The Saudi Cabinet of Ministers approved the Saudi General Environment System (SGES) in 2001. This approval is considered a step forward towards preserving the environment in Saudi Arabia. One of the targets of this system is to make environmental planning as an un-replaceable part of every comprehensive development planning in all industrial, agricultural, and architectural sectors. Achieving such a target requires a specialized labor force. Therefore, College of Engineering should act positively and actively in disseminating environmental awareness among engineers since they play a major rule in development projects. A degree in environmental engineering is a must at present, which is not available yet at any university in Saudi Arabia. Details of a B. Sc degree in environmental engineering offered by two universities in USA, are discussed. The syllabus of a degree in environment engineering adapted for the Saudi environment and culture is outlined
Full Text Available Saja Almazrou, Hind Alsahly, Huda Alwattar, Lamya Alturki, Mona Alamri Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Most liquid medications are packaged with administration devices, which may be used inappropriately or inaccurately, and sometimes are not used at all. Because of the importance of their proper use for children's health, this study was designed to assess Saudi mothers' experiences with measuring cups, syringes, and droppers for oral liquid medications; to compare accuracy of dosing across these devices; and to determine the effects of mothers' education statuses and pharmacist counseling on dosing accuracy. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which mothers were observed as they used a set of commonly available dosing devices which are a dosing cup, syringe, and dropper. Interviews were conducted in the outpatient pharmacy waiting area in several tertiary hospitals and primary clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March and April 2013. Saudi women who were mothers of children aged 12 years old or younger and who gave their consent were eligible. Caregivers other than mothers and subjects with vision problems or cognitive/physical disabilities were excluded. We gathered demographic information such as age, number of children, and education status. Subjects were asked if they had had counseling on how to use measuring devices and which device they preferred. Then, the mothers were required to demonstrate how to measure 5 mL of paracetamol (acetaminophen syrup using a cup and a syringe and 1 mL of paracetamol syrup using a dropper. Dosing errors were evaluated visually as overdosing, underdosing, or no error (if the dose was accurate. The data were entered into Microsoft Excel and evaluated using Stata 11.1. Logistic regression was employed to determine relationships. Results: The results revealed that 58% of participants measured an accurate dose of paracetamol
Abdulkareem O Alsuwaida
There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).
Al-Tannir, Mohamad; Kobrosly, Samer Y; Al-Badr, Ahmad H; Salloum, Nourhan A; Altannir, Youssef M
To characterize sleeping habits, assess sleep disturbance prevalence, and identify associated factors among Saudi adults. Methods: A total of 1720 adults were approached for this observational cross-sectional study between October 2014 and March 2015. The study took place in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. We used a questionnaire to describe sleeping characteristics in relation to existing chronic diseases, smoking status, obesity, daily performance and sociodemographic variables. Results: The response rate was 79.6% (1369 participants), 61.6% have or may have sleeping disturbances of which 18.6% claimed either slowed or stopped breathing during sleep. Women reported a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances (65.2%). Feeling tired was significantly associated with sleep disturbance (49% versus 19.7%) (p greater than 0.001). Approximately 78.4% of those with sleep disturbance significantly believed that their ability to perform daily tasks is affected (p=0.005). Moreover, smoking and obesity were significantly associated with sleep disturbances (p less than 0.01). Participants with asthma, hypertension, chronic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus reported significantly more sleeping disturbance (p=0.016 to p=0.001). Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are associated with obesity, smoking, chronic health conditions, and lower performance among Saudi adults.
Syed Shahid Habib
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA. Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006 and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015.Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.
Al-Durihim, H; Al-Hussaini, M; Bin Salih, S; Hassan, I; Harakati, M; Al Hajjaj, A
We surveyed the records of 21 of the 28 snakebite victims seen at King Fahad National Guard Hospital in Riyadh over the 20-year period 1986-2005. The most common symptoms were local pain and swelling and the most common signs oedema and tenderness. Neurotoxicity was not noted in any case. Coagulopathy was recorded for 14/21 patients (66.7%) and 5/19 (26.4%) had leukocytosis. All patients were given tetanus toxoid (100%) and 20 (95.2%) received antivenom. Blood products were administered in 2 cases and prophylactic antibiotics in 10 (47.6%). No allergic reaction to antivenom was reported.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.
This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation
Hemida, M G; Perera, R A; Wang, P; Alhammadi, M A; Siu, L Y; Li, M; Poon, L L; Saif, L; Alnaeem, A; Peiris, M
In Saudi Arabia, including regions of Riyadh and Al Ahsa, pseudoparticle neutralisation (ppNT) and microneutralisation (MNT) tests detected no antibodies to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in sheep (n= 100), goats (n= 45), cattle (n= 50) and chickens (n= 240). Dromedary camels however, had a high prevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infected sera from cattle had no cross-reactivity in MERS-CoV ppNT or MNT, while many dromedary camels’ sera reacted to both BCoV and MERS-CoV. Some nevertheless displayed specific serologic reaction profiles to MERS-CoV.
Full Text Available Introduction. The Royal Monarchy in Saudi Arabia decreed that all sectors of the workforce would be subject to a policy of “Saudisation” to reduce the reliance on the expatriate workforce and to reduce the unemployment rate of Saudi nationals (Al-Mahmoud et al., 2012. Methodology. A cross-sectional design was chosen to investigate the research questions. The population of this study comprised Saudi Registered Nurses working in MOH hospitals in Riyadh which is the main health care provider in Saudi Arabia (Aboul-Enein, 2002; MOH, 2009. Results and Findings. A total number of 1,198 questionnaires were distributed and 61.2% (n=741 were returned. The findings of the study showed that the questionnaires were collected from an equal portion of the study locale and that a sample of 741 is enough to create a strong conclusion and answer the problem set in this study and all the questions in the study have been provided with answers with enough data and literatures to supports its findings. Conclusion and Recommendations. The results indicate that an increase in the recruitment of Saudi males may simply reflect cultural issues such as gender specific facilities and the Saudisation program’s nondiscriminatory approach to employment of both genders into nursing.
Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Ouda, Omar K. M.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.
The concept of virtual water content (VWC) may facilitate an understanding of total water demand for commodity production. The water consumption for livestock production forms a significant fraction of freshwater demand in arid regions, i.e., Saudi Arabia. In this paper, VWC was estimated for different livestocks in the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. The VWC for camel production was also estimated, which has not been investigated in the previous studies. The overall VWC for livestock in Saudi Arabia was about 10.5 and 8.9 billion m3 in 2006 and 2010, respectively. This study shows the decreasing trend of overall VWC in producing livestock in Saudi Arabia. The VWC were highest in Riyadh followed by Eastern region, Qaseem, Hail, and Makkah with ranges of 3587-4112, 1684-2044, 1007-1331, 644-810, and 504-715 million m3/year, respectively. The results demonstrate that a shift in diet from the high VWC meat to low VWC meat may reduce the overall VWC for livestock production. The findings of this analysis provide an assessment of the quantity and trend of water demand for livestock production in Saudi Arabia, which is useful to assess the development of an information-based agricultural water management strategy.
Al-Kharboush, Ghada H; Al-Balkhi, Khalid M; Al-Moammar, Khalid
The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in a group of Saudi subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP), to examine potential sex-based associations of these anomalies, and to compare dental anomalies in Saudi subjects with CLP with published data from other population groups. This retrospective study involved the examination of pre-treatment records obtained from three CLP centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in February and March 2010. The pre-treatment records of 184 subjects with cleft lip and palate were identified and included in this study. Pre-treatment maxillary occlusal radiographs of the cleft region, panoramic radiographs, and orthodontic study models of subjects with CLP were analyzed for dental anomalies. Orthopantomographs and occlusal radiographs may not be reliable for the accurate evaluation of root malformation anomalies. A total of 265 dental anomalies were observed in the 184 study subjects. Hypodontia was observed most commonly (66.8%), followed by microdontia (45.6%), intra-oral ectopic eruption (12.5%), supernumerary teeth (12.5%), intra-nasal ectopic eruption (3.2), and macrodontia (3.2%). No gender difference in the prevalence of these anomalies was observed. Dental anomalies were common in Saudi subjects with CLP type. This will complicate the health care required for the CL/P subjects. This study was conducted to epidemiologically explore the prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi Arabian subjects with CLP.
Alhamlan, F S; Khayat, H H; Ramisetty-Mikler, S; Al-Muammar, T A; Tulbah, A M; Al-Badawi, I A; Kurdi, W I; Tulbah, M I; Alkhenizan, A A; Hussain, A N; Ahmed, M; Al-Ahdal, M N
To determine the prevalence and the sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a hospital-based cohort of women in Saudi Arabia. Cervical specimens and questionnaire data were collected from women attending clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Cervical specimens were examined for abnormal cytology using a standard Pap test and for the presence of HPV-DNA using PCR and reverse line blot hybridization tests. Approximately 73% of the 400 women tested were Saudi nationals. Nearly 50% were under 40 years old (range 22-80 years, mean±standard deviation 41.20±10.43 years). Approximately 17% of the women were HPV-positive. The most commonly detected HPV types were HPV-18 (34%) and HPV-16 (19%), with multiple infections detected in 10% of positive specimens. Multivariate analyses revealed that smoking and multiple partners were significant risk factors for HPV infection (pSaudi women. However, a high prevalence of HPV infection was found, with smoking and multiple partners as significant risk factors, in this hospital-based cohort of predominantly Saudi women. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Alkhunizan, Muath; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Basudan, Loay
The age of the population in Saudi Arabia is shifting toward elderly, which can lead to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia) among elderly patients in a community-based setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, we included patients aged 60 years and above who were seen in the Family Medicine Clinics affiliated with King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre. Patients with delirium, active depression, and patients with a history of severe head trauma in the past 3 months were excluded. Patients were interviewed during their regular visit by a trained physician to collect demographic data and to administer the validated Arabic version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. One hundred seventy-one Saudi patients were recruited based on a calculated sample size for the aim of this study. The mean age of included sample was 67 ± 6 years. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 45%. The prevalence of MCI was 38.6% and the prevalence of dementia was 6.4%. Age, low level of education, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were risk factors for cognitive impairment. Prevalence of MCI and dementia in Saudi Arabia using MoCA were in the upper range compared to developed and developing countries. The high rate of risk factors for cognitive impairment in Saudi Arabia is contributing to this finding.
Z Alotaibi, Abdullah
Vision is the ability of seeing with a definite understanding of features, color and contrast, and to distinguish between objects visually. In the year 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness formulated a worldwide project for the eradication of preventable loss of sight with the subject of "Vision 2020: the Right to Sight". This global program aims to eradicate preventable loss of sight by the year 2020. This study was conducted to determine the main causes of low vision in Saudi Arabia and also to assess their visual improvement after using low vision aids (LVD).The study is a retrospective study and was conducted in low vision clinic at Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The file medical record of 280 patients attending low vision clinics from February 2008 to June 2010 was included. A data sheet was filled which include: age, gender, cause of low vision, unassisted visual acuity for long distances and short distances, low vision devices needed for long distances and short distances that provides best visual acuity. The result shows that the main cause of low vision was Optic atrophy (28.9%). Retinitis pigmentosa was the second cause of low vision, accounting for 73 patients (26%) followed by Diabetic retinopathy and Macular degeneration with 44 patients (15.7%) and 16 patients (5.7%) respectively. Inter family marriage could be one of the main causes of low vision. Public awareness should be embarked on for enlightenment on ocular diseases result in consanguineous marriage. Also, it is an important issue to start establishing low vision clinics in order to improve the situation.
Al-Muammar, T.; Hassan, A.; Kessie, G.; Cruz, D.M.D.; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N.; Mohammed, Gamal E.
Prevalence information is lacking on human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) infections in cervical tissues of women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, there are no observations on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Pap smear and HPV-16/18 detection by PCR followed by Southern blotting was performed on 120 subjects (Saudi and other Arab nationals) during routine gynecological examination. Some HPV-positive was followed for 4 years by Pap smears at every 6 months and by HPV DNA detection at the end of four years. Overall HPV-16/18 prevalence was 31.6%. HPV-16 prevalence alone was 13.3%, HPV-16 as a mixed infection with HPV-18 was 15% and all HPV-18 was 18.3%. Ten subjects had cervical abnormalities with the Pap smear test, six of whom were HPV-16/18 positive, 1 with HPV-16, 1 with HPV-18 and 4 with a mixed infection of HPV-16/18. Of all 23 HPV-16/18-positive subjects, either as individual or mixed infection, followed for years, 7 showed abnormal cytology, 6 at initial examination and 1 during follow-up. Of these 7, 6 reverted to normal without treatment and 1 was treated and became normal after 3 years. None of the subjects progressed to CIN-III. A high prevalence of HPV-16/18 was found, but with low rate of progression to CIN. A significant association with abnormal cytology was found only in patents with HPV-16/18 mixed infection. (author)
Sabbagh, Heba J.; Innes, Nicola P.; Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Hamdan, Mustafa A.; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Khozami, Amaal I.; Abdulhameed, Fatma D.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Mossey, Peter A.
Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC) and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035) born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133) were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233) matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL) was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP) was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP) was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46), particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity. PMID:26318465
Heba J. Sabbagh
Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035 born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133 were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233 matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46, particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity.
Otair, Ibrahim; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd
Anxiety is an important factor in foreign language learning. Very few studies have been done on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Saudi students in listening classes. Therefore, this pilot study was aimed at exploring the causes of listening comprehension anxiety from EFL Saudi learners' perspectives at Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. The…
Vitamin D status correction in Saudi Arabia: an experts' consensus under the auspices of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis, and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO).
Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Aljohani, Naji; Sulimani, Riad; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M; Alfawaz, Hanan; Fouda, Mona; Al-Amri, Fahad; Shahrani, Awad; Alharbi, Mohammed; Alshahrani, Fahad; Tamimi, Waleed; Sabico, Shaun; Rizzoli, Rene; Reginster, Jean-Yves
Vitamin D deficiency is common in the Middle East and in Saudi Arabia, in particular. While several international recommendations on the management of vitamin D deficiency have been documented and practiced globally, these recommendations should be adapted to the conditions of the Middle Eastern region. To address this challenge, the Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis (PMCO) in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, KSA, together with local experts and in cooperation with the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO), organized a panel that formulated unified recommendations in the diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in the region. The selection of local and international experts commenced during the 2nd International Vitamin D Symposium conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, last January 20--21, 2016. Reviews of the most recent literature were done, and face-to-face meetings were conducted for revisions and final recommendations. Vitamin D sufficiency is defined as circulating serum 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol (≥20 ng/ml) for the general population and vitamin D adequacy as serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L l (>30 ng/ml) for the frail and osteoporotic elderly. Despite overwhelming prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, universal screening is not recommended. Recommendations for the general population, children, pregnant/lactating women, post-menopausal women, the elderly, and those with subsequent metabolic diseases were provided. Vitamin D sufficiency is defined as circulating serum 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol (≥20 ng/ml) for the general population and vitamin D adequacy as serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L l (>30 ng/ml) for the frail and osteoporotic elderly. Despite overwhelming prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, universal screening is not recommended. Recommendations for the general population, children, pregnant/lactating women, post-menopausal women, the elderly, and those with subsequent metabolic diseases were
Shaik, Shaffi Ahamed; Almarzuqi, Ahmed; Almogheer, Rakan; Alharbi, Omar; Jalal, Abdulaziz; Alorainy, Majed
To assess learning approaches of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd-year medical students by using revised two-factor study process questionnaire, and to assess reliability and validity of the questionnaire. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2014. The revised two-factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) was completed by 610 medical students of both genders, from foundation (first year), central nervous system (second year), medicine and surgery (third year) courses. The study process was evaluated by computing mean scores of two research study approaches (deep & surface) using student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance. The internal consistency and construct validity of the questionnaire were assessed using Cronbach's α and factor analysis. The mean score of deep approach was significantly higher than the surface approach among participants(t (770) =7.83, p= 0.000) for the four courses. The mean scores of deep approach were significantly higher among participants with higher grade point average (F (2,768) =13.31, p=0.001) along with more number of study hours by participants (F (2,768) =20.08, p=0.001). The Cronbach's α-values of items at 0.70 indicate the good internal consistency of questionnaire used. Factor analysis confirms two factors (deep and surface approaches) of R-SPQ-2F. The deep approach to learning was the primary approach among 1st, 2nd and 3rd-year King Saud University medical students. This study confirms reliability and validity of the revised two-factor study process questionnaire. Medical educators could use the results of such studies to make required changes in the curriculum.
Bin Nafisah, Sharafaldeen; Bin Nafesa, Salahaldin; Alamery, Aliyah H; Alhumaid, Mazen A; AlMuhaidib, Haitham M; Al-Eidan, Fahad A
Antibiotics over-consumption is a pandemic that has a tremendous cost on the overwhelmed healthcare system. The accessibility of antibiotics coupled with the misconception of public toward those drugs both of which implicated in the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of the community toward antibiotics, its purpose and harmfulness, in addition to the accessibility of those drugs as over the counter and without prescriptions. We also investigated the behavior toward antibiotic prescriptions when perceived unnecessary. This is a cross-sectional study in Riyadh-Saudi Arabia based upon a structured self-administered questionnaire. The study included 473 individuals with a mean age of 27 years old. Forty eight percent (n=227) of the participants obtain antibiotics without prescriptions. Ninety two percent (n=208) of those noted pharmacist counseling as their method of acquisition. Self-prescription noted in 8.4% (n=19). Viral illnesses accounted for the highest percentage for seeking antibiotics in 35.5% (n=166) more commonly among females. Thirty one point eight percent (n=149) used antibiotics for analgesia while 13.7% (n=64) believed in their prophylactic use. We also noted that the prevalence of sharing antibiotics is 19.7%. The perceived unnecessary prescriptions uncovered 122 of the participants who reported throwing the prescribed antibiotics away after acquisition. Dispensing antibiotics without prescription is an issue that mandates a political intervention and implementation of the existing laws that prohibit dispensing without proper prescription. We advocate public health measures targeting both healthcare providers and the public on the use and misuse of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Health ATMs are terminals which are connected to a centrally located database storing patients' electronic healthcare records (EHR). These machines are capable of collecting information in a far superior fashion than humans and are also able to rectify obsolete data in a manner that humans are generally not inclined to. The main goal of this study is to assess the importance of adopting health ATMs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which can improve the confidence of patients, reward health self-management, and achieve positive health outcomes through their easy-to-use applications that are secure and accessible through various devices. Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis was used to assess the efficiency of adopting health ATMs in KSA and reveal the said characteristics. Three focus groups assembled in the cities of Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam during the period 2013-2014. The groups consisted of individuals experienced in the function of health ATMs. It was found that the sector possessed a number of strengths that would help it in reaching the goals outlined therein, thereby achieving successful outcomes. Health ATMs could be a promising new advancement in the field of health if the project were to be planned and implemented correctly. Their benefits would consequently reach organizational and national levels. It is, therefore, crucial to educate the project managers about the benefits of learning from others as well as educating them about the needs and the requirements of the concerned organization.
Tabbara, Khalid F; Omar, Nazri; Hammouda, Ehab; Akanuma, Masataka; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Ariga, Toshihide; Tagawa, Yoshitsugu; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Susumu; Aoki, Koki; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Ohno, Shigeaki
Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis is a major cause of ocular morbidity and may lead to visual loss. Adenovirus types 8, 19, and 37 may cause epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. The main objective of this study was to determine the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a non-interventional observational clinical study. Seventy three eyes from 65 patients who presented to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with clinical features of acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis were included. Each patient underwent complete clinical examination and features such as membranous reaction, conjunctival hemorrhage, subepithelial corneal infiltrates, and preauricular lymph node enlargement were recorded. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from patients with presumed acute viral conjunctivitis. Immunochromatography (IC) and restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) were performed on the conjunctival swabs obtained from each eye. Serotype identification was performed using direct sequencing technique. Forty-nine (67.1%) were adenovirus type 8, 8 (11.0%) were adenovirus type 3, 6 (8.2%) type 37, 5 (6.8%) were adenovirus type 4, and 2 (2.3%) type 19. The remaining 5 were types 14, 19, and 22. The prevalence of membranous conjunctivitis was highest (83%) among eyes with adenovirus type 37 while subepithelial corneal opacities were most commonly seen among eyes with adenovirus type 8 (47%). Immunochromatography tests were positive for adenovirus in 48 (65.7%) out of 73 eyes. This study determined the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis at one center in Saudi Arabia. Direct sequencing techniques is an efficient, accurate, and rapid means of diagnosing adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. The most common causes of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia were adenovirus types 8, 3, and 37. Membranous conjunctivitis and subepithelial opacities had the highest frequency of adenovirus types 37 and 8
Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M
Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site...
Salwa B. El-Sobkey
Full Text Available Background Patient’s rights are worldwide considerations. Saudi Patient’s Bill of Rights (PBR which was established in 2006 contained 12 items. Lack of knowledge regarding the Saudi PBR limits its implementation in health facilities. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professions’ students at College of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS Riyadh Saudi Arabia regarding the existence and content of Saudi PBR as well as their attitude toward its ineffectiveness. Method A 3-parts survey was used to collect data from 239 volunteer students participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS. Results Results showed that although the majority of students (96.7% believe in the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights, half (52.3% of them had perceptual knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and only 7.9% of them were knowledgeable about some items (1–4 items of the bill. Privacy and confidentiality of patient was the most common known patient’s rights. Students’ academic level was not correlated to neither their knowledge regarding the bill existence or its content nor to their attitude toward the bill. The majority of the students (93% reported that only one course within their curriculum was patient’s rights-course related. About one quarter (23.4% of the students reported that teaching staff used to mention patient’s rights in their teaching sessions. Conclusion The Saudi health professions students at CAMS have positive attitude toward the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights nevertheless they showed limited knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and its contents. CAMS curriculums do not support the subject of patient’s rights.
Nermin K. Saeed; Abdulmageed M. Kambal; Noura A. El-Khizzi
To assess the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria causing infections in patients at the intensive care units (ICUs) of Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH), as well as their antimicrobial resistance patterns for one year. A retrospective, cohort investigation was performed. Laboratory records from January to December 2009 were studied for the prevalence of MDR Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance in ICU patients from RMH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1210 isolates were collected from various specimens such as: respiratory (469), blood (400), wound/tissue (235), urinary (56), nasal swabs (35), and cerebro-spinal fluid (15). Regardless of the specimen, there was a high rate of nosocomial MDR organisms isolated from patients enrolled in the General ICU (GICU) in Riyadh. Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) comprised 40.9%, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) - 19.4%, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) formed 16.3% of these isolates. The P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (methycillin sensitive and methycillin resistant), and Staphylococccus coagulase negative are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in the GICU of RMH. Respiratory tract specimens represented nearly 39% of all the specimens collected in the ICU. The most common MDR organisms isolated in this unit were A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae (Author).
Habib M. Alshuwaikhat
Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.
AlNafie, Abdulatif H
This paper presents the phyto geography of Saudi Arabia and examines its phytogeographic location within the complex plant geographical regions of the Middle East. It reviews and discuses works have that been published so far by plant geographers and biogeographers on the phytogeographical regions of Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa, and determines the location of Saudi Arabia within it. The delimitation of the frontiers between plant-regions in Saudi Arabia, especially the south western part, which has always created some difficulties for biogeographers as well as phytogeographers who have studied the region. (author)
Full Text Available Adel F Alothman,1 Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,2 Madonna J Matar,3 Rima Moghnieh,4 Thamer H Alenazi,1 Fayssal M Farahat,2 Shelby Corman,5 Caitlyn T Solem,5 Nirvana Raghubir,6 Cynthia Macahilig,7 Claudie Charbonneau,8 Jennifer M Stephens5 1College of Medicine, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, King AbdulAziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, Lebanon; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Real-world Evidence/Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 6Pfizer, New York, NY, 7Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, USA; 8Pfizer International Operation, Paris, France Objectives: The objective of this study was to document the burden and treatment patterns associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs due to Candida and Aspergillus species in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods: A retrospective chart review study was conducted using data recorded from 2011 to 2012 from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of IFI due to Candida or Aspergillus, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics, treatment patterns, hospital resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Descriptive results were reported. Results: Five hospitals participated and provided data on 102 patients with IFI (51 from Lebanon and 51 from Saudi Arabia. The mean age of the patients was 55 years, and 55% were males. Comorbidities included diabetes (41%, coronary artery disease (24%, leukemia (19%, moderate
Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence, etiologic factors and therapy of hypertension in actively followed up transplant population in Saudi Arabia; we retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. These subjects were transplanted between January 1979 and November 1998. The patients were grouped according to the measurement of blood pressure; group 1 (considered normo-tensive: blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg, group2: blood pressure between 140-159/90-99, group 3: blood pressure 160-179/100-109 group 4: equal to or above 180/110. There were 1115 patients′ records included in the study. The mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 ± 50.1 months. According to the level of measured blood pressure, there were 641 (57.5% patients in the normotensive group (group 1, 404 (36.3% patients in the mildly hypertensive group (group 2 64 (5.7% patients in the moderately severe hypertension group (group 3 and only six (0.5% patients in the severe hypertension group (group 4. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in this study was almost 85%. We found no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension in terms of gender, year of transplantation, duration of transplantation, type of donor, number of previous transplants, diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, etiology of kidney disease, diagnosis of diabetes after transplantation, diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents, or mean dose of prednisolone and cyclosporine. There was a statistically significant association between increased level of blood pressure and old age (above 50 years, original disease associated with hypertension, history of hypertension on dialysis, acute rejection (once or more, presence of protienuria (more than 0.3 mg/day, abnormality of ECG, or serum creatinine above 300 µmol/L. We conclude that hypertension is highly prevalent in the renal transplant population in Saudi Arabia. Risk
Mohammad Abdul Baseer
Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.
Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.
Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by increasing funding for higher education through grants and scholarships, enabled Saudi students to study at overseas universities. A number of non-Saudi students are also enrolled at Saudi Arabian universities. After a brief introduction to the cultural and educational history of the Arab region and Saudi identity, this article turns to contemporary higher education in Saudi Arabia. It introduces the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme and then goes on to present detailed enrolment data for 2006-2009, demonstrating trends and policy changes and identifying patterns in student mobility.
To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author).
Abulfaraj, W.H.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.
Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University Oil is an important part of the Saudi economy. With the volatility of oil prices and the pressing needs of economic growth and development, the Saudi Arabian government has planned to diversify its sources of income. To this end, the majority of effort has focused on developing the non-oil export sectors, particularly in manufacturing. Despite government efforts to enhance the ratio of non-...
Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan
Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.
Balkhy, Hanan H; El Beltagy, Kamel; El-Saed, Aiman; Aljasir, Badr; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem; Alothman, Adel F; Alshalaan, Mohammad; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan
The annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) data in Saudi Arabia has not been updated since 1993. To estimate the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) and ARTI in a population-based sample in Saudi Arabia using Tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold in tube (QFT-GIT) test. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013. Participants were randomly selected from the population served by the primary healthcare centers of the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs in Riyadh, Jeddah, Alhassa and Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1369 participants were included. The overall prevalence of LTBI was similar using TST and QFT-GIT (9.3% and 9.1% respectively, p=0.872) but stratified prevalence rates were variable in all sociodemographic groups except marital status. Additionally, the prevalence rates of LTBI using either test alone showed significant differences by several sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. The overall ARTI was 0.36% using TST and 0.35% using QFT-GIT. We are reporting much lower estimates for the prevalence of LTBI and the ARTI in a population-based sample in Saudi Arabia relative to the data that have been used for more than two decades. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Aldrees, Turki; Al-Eissa, Sami; Badri, Motasim; Aljuhayman, Ahmed; Zamakhshary, Mohammed
Job satisfaction refers to the extent to which people like or dislike their job. Job satisfaction varies across professions. Few studies have explored this issue among physicians in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study is to determine the level and factors associated with job satisfaction among Saudi and non-Saudi physicians. In this cross-sectional study conducted in a major tertiary hospital in Riyadh, a 5-point Likert scale structured questionnaire was used to collect data on a wide range of socio-demographic, practice environment characteristics and level and consequences of job satisfaction from practicing physicians (consultants or residents) across different medical specialties. Logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with job satisfaction. Of 344 participants, 300 (87.2%) were Saudis, 252 (73%) males, 255 (74%) married, 188 (54.7%) consultants and age [median (IQR)] was 32 (27-42.7) years. Overall, 104 (30%) respondents were dissatisfied with their jobs. Intensive care physicians were the most dissatisfied physicians (50%). In a multiple logistic regression model, income satisfaction (odds ratio [OR]=0.448 95% CI 0.278-0.723, P job satisfaction identified in this study should be addressed in governmental strategic planning aimed at improving the healthcare system and patient care.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.
AlQuadeib, Bushra T; Eltahir, Eram K D; Banafa, Rana A; Al-Hadhairi, Lama A
Shampooing is the most common form of hair treatment. Shampoos are primarily products aimed at cleansing the hair and scalp. There are many brands of shampoos in Saudi Arabia, available from different sources, locally and imported from other countries. This study aims to investigate whether such brands comply with the Saudi standard specifications for shampoos, issued by the National Center for Specifications and Standards, and to what extent these specifications are applied. Six shampoo brands were randomly collected from Riyadh market (Pantene®, Sunsilk®, Herbal essences®, Garnier Ultra Doux®, Syoss® and L'Oreal Elvive®). The selected shampoos were evaluated according to their physicochemical properties, including organoleptic characterization, pH measurement, percentage of solid content, rheological measurements, dirt dispersion level, foaming ability and foam stability, and surface tension. All shampoos had a good percentage of solids, excellent foam formation with stable foam and a highly viscous nature. Regarding the pH measurement, all shampoo samples were within the specified range with good wetting ability.
With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)
Bushra T. AlQuadeib
Full Text Available Shampooing is the most common form of hair treatment. Shampoos are primarily products aimed at cleansing the hair and scalp. There are many brands of shampoos in Saudi Arabia, available from different sources, locally and imported from other countries. This study aims to investigate whether such brands comply with the Saudi standard specifications for shampoos, issued by the National Center for Specifications and Standards, and to what extent these specifications are applied. Six shampoo brands were randomly collected from Riyadh market (Pantene®, Sunsilk®, Herbal essences®, Garnier Ultra Doux®, Syoss® and L'Oreal Elvive®. The selected shampoos were evaluated according to their physicochemical properties, including organoleptic characterization, pH measurement, percentage of solid content, rheological measurements, dirt dispersion level, foaming ability and foam stability, and surface tension. All shampoos had a good percentage of solids, excellent foam formation with stable foam and a highly viscous nature. Regarding the pH measurement, all shampoo samples were within the specified range with good wetting ability. Keywords: Shampoo, Physicochemical approach, Evaluation
Several controversies exist regarding the use of vitamin and mineral supplements in treating hair loss. To explore practices, knowledge, and attitudes for using vitamins and minerals in treating hair loss among dermatologists in Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire containing 33 questions was distributed to 177 dermatologists attending a national dermatology conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2012. Of the 177 attending dermatologists, 144 responded to the questionnaire (81% response rate). Vitamins and minerals were recommended for treating at least one type of hair loss by 60%. Vitamins and minerals were most commonly used for acute telogen effluvium (62%). The majority (72%) reported a good knowledge of vitamins and minerals toxicity. Although dermatologists in Saudi Arabia displayed positive believes in the usefulness of vitamins and minerals in treating hair loss, further research is needed to prove their role in the management of different hair loss disorders.
Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M
Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site of injury was the knee. We believe that specialised Sports Injury Clinics, initially based at the University Hospitals should be established here, to give guidance and education concerning avoidance of injuries, and for the treatment and follow-up of those injured and enable them to return to sports early.
Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nada A; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Qahwaji, Dina M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O
Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p intake but not with sedentary behaviors. The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among
Alsaghir, Abdullah H.; Al-Mobeireek, Abdulla F.; Al-Jahdali, H.; Al-Etihan, A.; Al-Otair, H.; Al-Dayel, F.
Because reports of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) are lacking from the Middle East, we conducted a retrospective review of all histopathologically proven cases of BOOP over 10-year period at three tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh and describe the clinical features and outcome. Charts at the three hospitals were searched using a specific code for BOOP or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). Lung specimens have to show histological proof of BOOP with a compatible clinical picture. Chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were reviewed. Twenty cases of biopsy-proven BOOP had well documented clinical and radiograph data. There were 11 males and 9 females (mean age 58 years; range 42-78). The clinical presentation f BOOP was acute or subacute pneumonia-like illness with cough (85%), fever (70%) dyspnea, (85%) and crackles (80%). The most frequent radiological pattern was a bilateral alveolar infiltrate. The most common abnormality on pulmonary function testing (n=14) was a restrictive pattern (11 patients). Most patients (70%) had no underlying cause (idiopathic BOOP). Other associations included thyroid cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis and Wegner's granulomatosis. Ten patients (50%) had a complete response to steroids, 6 (30%) had a partial response and 3 (15.8) with secondary BOOP had rapid progressive respiratory failure and died. The clinical presentation of BOOP in our patients is similar to other reported series. A favorable outcome occurs in the majority of cases. However, BOOP may occasionally be associated with a poor prognosis, particularly when associated with an underlying disease. (author)
Al-Nozha, Mansour M.; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Al-Maatouq, Mohammed A.
Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)
A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)
Treatment patterns, resource utilization, and outcomes among hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia
Full Text Available Madonna J Matar,1 Rima Moghnieh,2 Adel F Alothman,3 Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,4 Thamer H Alenazi,3 Fayssal M Farahat,4 Shelby Corman,5 Caitlyn T Solem,5 Nirvana Raghubir,6 Cynthia Macahilig,7 Seema Haider,8 Jennifer M Stephens5 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Notre Dame des Secours University Hospital, Jbeil, Lebanon; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Infection Prevention and Control, King AbdulAziz Medical City, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 5Pharmerit International, Real-World Evidence/Data Analytics, Bethesda, MD, 6Pfizer, New York, NY, 7Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 8Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA Objectives: To describe treatment patterns and medical resource use for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon in terms of drug selection against the infecting pathogen as well as hospital resource utilization and clinical outcomes among patients with these infections. Methods: This retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from five hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA cSSTI, which was culture-proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients with each infection type to capture demographics, treatment patterns, hospital resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Statistical analysis was descriptive. Results: Data were abstracted from medical records of 87 patients with MRSA cSSTI; mean age 52.4±25.9 years and 61% male. Only 64% of patients received an MRSA active initial therapy, with 56% of first
Al-Wakeel, Jamal Saleh
Predictive equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in different clinical conditions should be validated by comparing with the measurement of GFR using inulin clearance, a highly accurate measure of GFR. Our aim was to validate the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations by comparing it to the GFR measured using inulin clearance in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Cross-sectional study performed in adult Saudi patients with CKD. King Saud University Affiliated Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2014. We compared GFR measured by inulin clearance with the estimated GFR calculated using CKD-EPI and MDRD predictive formulas. Correlation, bias, precision and accuracy between the estimated GFR and inulin clearance. Comparisons were made in 31 participants (23 CKD and 8 transplanted), including 19 males (mean age 42.2  years and weight 68.7  kg). GFR using inulin was 51.54 (33.8) mL/min/1.73 m2 in comparison to inulin clearance, the GFR by the predictive equations was: CKD-EPI creatinine 52.6 (34.4) mL/ min/1.73 m2 (P=.490), CKD-EPI cystatin C 41.39 (30.30) mL/min/1.73 m2 (P=.002), CKD creatinine-cystatin C 45.03 (30.9) mL/min/1.73 m2 (P=.004) and MDRD GFR 48.35 (31.5) mL/min/1.73 m2 (P=.028) (statistical comparisons vs inulin). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that GFR estimated by the CKD-EPI creatinine was the most accurate compared with inulin clearance, having a mean difference (estimated bias) and limits of agreement of -1.1 (15.6,-17.7). By comparison the mean differences for predictive equations were: CKD-EPI cystatin C 10.2 (43.7,-23.4), CKD creatinine-cystatin C 6.5 (29.3,-16.3) and MDRD 3.2 (18.3,-11.9). except for CKD-EPI creatinine, all of the equations underestimated GFR in comparison with inulin clearance. When compared with inulin clearance, the CKD-EPI creatinine equation is the most accurate, precise and least biased equation for estimation of GFR
Saudi Arabia is preparing itself to replace half fossil energies by a mix of nuclear and renewable energies. Although the nuclear program is not yet well implemented, Saudi Arabia and France have signed an agreement to develop cooperation in the nuclear sector. A joint committee was created to give a frame to assess the best practices in terms of nuclear regulations, waste management, scientific cooperation and training. Concerning nuclear regulations, waste management and scientific cooperation the French contacts of KACARE (King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy) are respectively IRSN, ANDRA and CEA. Concerning scholar and professional training, a cooperation involving I2EN (International Institute for Nuclear Energy), EDF and AREVA on one side and the King Saud University, the Prince Mohammad University, the EFFAT University and the Dar Al Hekma College on the other side, has been set to develop training in nuclear engineering in Saudi Arabia. In parallel, AREVA and EDF have developed a program to find and qualify local subcontractors. (A.C.)
Adel Ali Alshehri
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Patient satisfaction after anesthesia is an important outcome of hospital care. The aim is to evaluate the postoperative patient satisfaction during the patient stay at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and fifty-three patients who underwent surgery under general/regional anesthesia were surveyed. They were interviewed face to face on the first postoperative day. We recorded pain and pain controls in addition to some common complication of anesthesia like nausea and vomiting (postoperative nausea and vomiting as a parameter to assess the rate of patient′s satisfaction. Results: The overall level of satisfaction was high (95.2%; 17 (4.8% patients were dissatisfied with their anesthetic care. There was a strong relation between patient dissatisfaction and: (i Patients with poor postoperative pain control 13 (12.4%, (ii patients with moderate nausea 8 (11.1% and (iii patients with static and dynamic severe pain 6 (21.4. Several factors were associated with dissatisfaction can be prevented, or better treated. Conclusion: We concluded that the patient satisfaction was high. Postoperative visit should be routinely performed in order to assess the quality and severity of postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting and the other side-effects postoperatively.
Alkhalife, Ibrahim S.; Hassan, Rafiaa R.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmed A.; Al-Khayal, Laila A.
We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed. (author)
The article examines the foundational elements of the Saudi state: idea, governing institutions and physical basis. The author notes, that its supra-national ideas will be challenged by on-going reforms without attenuating tensions with its Shia minority population. Governing institutions of it...
Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto
Qarawi, A.A.; Mridha, M.A.U.; Alghamdi, O.M.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regarded as ubiquitous soil fungi which help in improving plant growth under harsh conditions. Petunia hybrida is one of the most favorite ornamental plants growing all over the Riyadh city of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, we would like to highlight the Petunia as a mycotrophic plant for the management of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Roots along with rhizosphere soils of P. hybrida were collected from various sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to study AM colonization and biodiversity of AMF. The data obtained in this study indicated that P. hybrida is a very highly mycotrophic plants, and all the samples produced very high colonization with mycelium, vesicles, coiled hyphae and arbuscules. The significant variation was found with the occurrence of mycelium and vesicles among the locations but in case of arbuscules more or less same range of occurrence was found. Only different species of Glomus were observed in all the locations. Glomus showed diversity in all the locations as indicated by the Shanon Diversity Index. As the P. hybrida is a highly mycotrophic plant, so this plant may be grown under harsh condition of Saudi Arabia to manage the plant growth under different stresses viz., water stress, saline soils and heavy metal toxicity conditions. (author)
Reem L. Al-Mutairi
Full Text Available Objectives: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is growing rapidly in the Saudi population. The purpose of this study was to assess the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as they relate to T2DM lifestyle and prevention behaviours among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2013 among 426 non-diabetic secondary school students from randomly selected schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An Arabic version of an adapted English language questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and attitudes related to the severity and prevention of T2DM. A preventative behaviour assessment was also conducted to assess physical activity and dietary habits. Results: The majority of the students (63.4% had at least one diabetic family member. Obesity was more frequent in males compared to females (P = 0.013. Awareness about the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight to prevent T2DM was lower in males than females (P = 0.037, although males engaged in routine exercise more often (P = 0.001. Males were less likely than females to recognise the risks for T2DM, including obesity (P = 0.030, heredity (P = 0.013 and high fat intake (P = 0.001. Conclusion: An alarmingly high number of Saudi students were unaware of T2DM severity and associated risk factors. Female students were more aware of the benefits of T2DM preventative lifestyle behaviours than males, although males engaged in routine exercise more often. Raising adolescents’ awareness about the primary prevention strategies for T2DM should be a public health priority in Saudi Arabia. The HBM could inform further research on diabetes prevention among Saudi adolescents.
Alshammari, Thamir M; Alamri, Khaled K; Ghawa, Yazeed A; Alohali, Noura F; Abualkol, Shaza A; Aljadhey, Hisham S
Drug safety has major implications for patients' lives. However, this concept is still considered new to some healthcare professionals. This study aims to investigate the knowledge and awareness of Saudi healthcare professionals to pharmacovigilance (PV). Setting Governmental and private hospitals at three main cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Jeddah, and Dammam). A cross-sectional survey among healthcare professionals (pharmacists, physicians, and nurses) within 12 Saudi hospitals was conducted between November and December 2012. The questionnaire consisted of 18 questions assessing the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards science and the concept of PV. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS 9.3). Main outcome measure Knowledge, attitude and practice of HCPs toward pharmacovigilance. Three-hundred and thirty-two healthcare professionals completed the survey (response rate 72 %), 110 (34 %) physicians, 106 (33 %) pharmacists, and 104 (32 %) nurses. More than half of the participants (55 %) did not know the correct definition of PV. Two-thirds of the respondents, 207 (65.5 %), had knowledge of the aim of post-marketing surveillance, yet only 113 (36.9 %) were aware that the National Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Center is the official body for monitoring adverse drug reaction in Saudi Arabia. In addition, 34.7 % agreed that lack of time could be a major barrier for reporting. The majority of the respondents (78.4 %) believed that reporting was a professional obligation and hospitals should have a drug safety department. There was a limited knowledge of pharmacovigilance that could have affected reporting incidence. Educational intervention and a practical training program need to be applied by the drug regulatory body as well as health authorities to enhance the pharmacovigilance and drug safety culture in Saudi Arabia.
Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi
Full Text Available To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following low student performances on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in 2003 and 2007. There is a growing demand for national assessment standards for all key subject areas to monitor students’ learning progress. This study acknowledges extant research on this important topic and offers a strategy of national assessment to guide educational reform.
Al Ghobain Mohammed
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls, the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.
Al Ghobain, Mohammed O; Al Moamary, Mohamed S; Al Shehri, Sulieman N; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S
To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) tool to achieve our objectives. Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls), the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls). The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls). Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.
Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest.
Fnais, Naif; al-Nasser, Muhammad; Zamakhshary, Mohammad; Abuznadah, Wesam; Dhukair, Shahla Al; Saadeh, Mayssa; Al-Qarni, Ali; Bokhari, Bayan; Alshaeri, Taqreed; Aboalsamh, Nouf; Binahmed, AbdulAziz
Multiple surveys of medical residents have shown a high incidence of harassment and discrimination in academic health centers. Harassment has a negative effects on residents' health and on their ability to function. No previous study has documented the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents in Saudi Arabia. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents at a tertiary care academic hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional survey conducted at National Guard Hospitals in Riyadh, Jeddah and Al-Ahsa'a from 27 July to 20 August 2010. The survey included questions on the prevalence of harassment of different types, inlcuding verbal, academic, physical and sexual harassment, as well as discrimination on the basis of gender, region of origin or physical appearance. Of 380 residents, 213 (56%) returned a completed questionnaire (123 male, 57.8%). At least one of type of harassment and discrimination was reported by 83.6% of respondents. The most frequently reported forms were verbal harassment and gender discrimination (61.5% and 58.3%, respectively). Sexual harassment was commonly reported (19.3%) and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (P=.0061). Harassment and discrimination of Saudi residents is common with more than three-quarters reporting having had such an experience. Identification of the risk factors is a necessary first step in clarifying this issue and could be used when planning strategies for prevention.
Amer, Saud M. Bin; Maqbool, Z.; Nirmal, Maimoona S.; Hussain, Syed S.; Jeprel, Hatim A.; Qattan, Amal T.; Tulbah, Asma M.; Malik, Osama A.; Al-Tweigeri, Taher A.
Objective was to generate consensus gene expression profiles of invasive breast tumors from a small cohort of Saudi females and to explore the possibility that they may be broadly conserved between Caucasian and Middle Eastern populations. This study was performed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2005 to January 2007. Gene expression profiles were generated from 38 invasive breast tumors and 8 tumor adjacent tissues (TATs) using BD Atlas cDNA expression arrays containing 1176 genes. Results were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by 2-dimensional unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The analysis identified 48 differentially expressed genes in tumors from which 25 are already reported by various western studies. Forty-three of these genes were also differentially expressed in TATs. The same data set has been able to distinguish between tumors and the TAT's, interestingly by using only 4 of the differentially expressed genes. Moreover, we were able to group the patients according to prognosis to an extent by hierarchical clustering. Our results indicate that expression profiles between Saudi females with breast cancer and the Caucasian population are conserved to some extent, and can be used to classify patients according to prognostic groups. We also suggest 3 differentially expressed genes (IGHG3, CDK3 and RPS9) in tumors may have a novel role in breast cancer. In addition, the role of TATs is much more essential in breast cancer and needs to be explored thoroughly. (author)
Amal Hatem Alkhaldi
Full Text Available Global competition in the international business environment has pushed companies to achieve competitive advantage through mergers, acquisitions and through locating their subsidiaries in less developed counties for cost effectiveness. Consequently, the competitive pressure has increased the significance of human resource management (HRM in multinational companies (MNCs, and MNCs have recognised the significance of the transfer HRM process across borders. This study examines the transfer of HRM policies and practices of US MNCs to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to determine the extent to which US MNCs transfer HRM policies and practices from their Headquarters to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia; and identify the factors that facilitate and inhibit HRM transfer. The paper is based on an investigation of the interaction between home-country and host-country effects in determining HRM policies and practices in MNCs in the context of the Middle East. The study adopts a mixed methods approach of documentary analysis, focus group interviews of employees and in depth interviews of key informants in four subsidiaries of US owned international hotel chains located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Almuneef, Maha A; Alghamdi, Linah A; Saleheen, Hassan N
To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients' files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (less than 6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors.
Alahmad, Ghiath; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Dierickx, Kris
Achieving a balance between giving access to information and respecting donors' confidentiality is a crucial issue for any biobank, with its large number of samples and associated information. Despite the existence of much empirical literature on confidentiality, there are too few surveys in the Middle East about the topic, particularly in the Saudi context. A survey was conducted of 200 respondents at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among 5 groups of equal size, comprised of researchers, physicians, medical students, donors and laypersons, respectively. The majority of participants agreed that confidentiality is an important issue and that it is well protected in the Saudi biobank. All 5 groups showed different attitudes toward disclosing information to various third parties. They were in favor of allowing treating physicians, and to a certain extent family members, to have access to medical and genetic results from research. No significant differences were found between views on medical and genetic confidentiality. The majority of respondents agreed that confidentiality might be breached in cases with specific justified reasons. Even considering differences in religion, culture and other factors, the results of the study were consistent with those reported in the literature and research conducted in other countries. We therefore place emphasis on the importance of protecting and promoting patient/donor confidentiality and privacy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Al-Khathaami, Ali M.; Alshahrani, Saeed M.; Kojan, Suleiman M.; Al-Jumah, Mohammed A.; Alamry, Ahmed A.; El-Metwally, Ashraf A.
Objectives: To determine the degree of satisfaction and acceptance of stroke patients, their relatives, and healthcare providers toward using telestroke technology in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2012 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Remote Presence Robot (RPR), the RP-7i® (FDA- cleared) provided by InTouch Health was used in the study. Patients and their relatives were informed that the physician would appear through a screen on top of a robotic device, as part of their clinical care. Stroke patients admitted through the emergency department, and their relatives, as well as healthcare providers completed a self-administered satisfaction questionnaire following the telestroke consultation sessions. Results: Fifty participants completed the questionnaire. Most subjects agreed that the remote consultant interview was useful and that the audiovisual component of the intervention was of high quality; 98% agreed that they did not feel shy or embarrassed during the remote interview, were able to understand the instruction of the consultant, and recommended its use in stroke management. Furthermore, 92% agreed or strongly agreed that the use of this technology can efficiently replace the physical presence of a neurologist. Conclusion: Results suggest that the use of telestroke medicine is culturally acceptable among stroke patients and their families in Saudi Arabia and favorably received by healthcare providers. PMID:25630777
Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6% and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%. Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.
Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M; Abdalla, Omer A; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A
A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1-97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8-97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum , Nicotiana occidentalis , Chenopodium glaucum , and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.
Mostafa A. Abolfotouh
Full Text Available Aim. (i To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic abnormalities among Saudi college students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and (ii to investigate the association between different indicators of body composition and these abnormalities. Methods. A total of 501 college students participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric assessments, BP measurements, and biochemical assessment were done. Metabolic abnormalities were identified. Results. Applying BMI, 21.9 % and 20.6% of students were classified as overweight and obese, respectively. Central obesity was prevalent in 26.9% and 42.2% of students based on WC and WHtR, respectively. Other metabolic abnormalities were hypertension (23.6% and abnormal FPG level (22.6%. Three or more abnormalities were prevalent in 7.8% of students and increased significantly to 26.4%, 20%, and 17.6 in obese subjects based on BMI, WC, and WHtR, respectively. With the exception of abnormal FPG, prevalence of individual metabolic abnormalities as well as the number of these abnormalities significantly increased with increasing BMI, WC, and WHtR (P<0.001 each. Conclusion. Our findings provide evidence for the presence of MS in Saudi college students. Central adiposity contributes to the high incidence of individual MS components. College health programs that promote healthful lifestyle and avoidance of adult weight gain are recommended.
Babiker, Amir M I; Al Jurayyan, Nasir A M; Al Jurayyan, Rushaid N A; Al Gadi, Iman; Drop, Stenvert L S
Diabetes insipidus is a rare but serious endocrine disorder. Paediatric patients were evaluated for polyuria at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over a decade (2000-13). Relevant clinical examination and/or a triad of high serum osmolality, hypernatremia and low urine osmolality due to increased urine output confirmed the diagnosis. Water deprivation test was required in some cases with non-classic presentations. Appropriate brain imaging was performed whenever central diabetes insipidus (CDI) was suspected. Twenty-eight patients, 15 males (53.6%) and 13 females (46.4%), aged 0-17 years (mean: 6 years) were included. The calculated period prevalence was 7 in 10,000. In our cohort, 60.7% (17 of 28 patients) had CDI, 21.4% (6 of 28) were diagnosed with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and 17.9% (5 of 30) had psychogenic polydipsia. CDI was due to variable aetiology. Though CDI was the commonest, NDI was not a rare encounter in our community, possibly because of high consanguineous marriages. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ahmed, Anwar E; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Fatani, Abdulhamid; Al-Rouqi, Khalid; Al-Jahdali, Fares; Al-Harbi, Abdullah; Baharoon, Salim; Ali, Yosra Z; Khan, Mohammad; Rumayyan, Ahmad
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of insomnia among the Saudi adult population. A cross-sectional insomnia survey was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The presence of insomnia was defined by difficulty initiating sleep, early morning awakening, or frequent awakening, in addition to the second-day effect in the form of fatigue, tiredness, or changes in the mode because of lack of sleep. The crude prevalence of insomnia was 77.7% (95% CI = 75.9-79.5%). The gender-adjusted prevalence of insomnia was higher for females, 88.7% (95% CI = 86.4-90.7%) than for males, 70.4% (95% CI = 67.8-72.9%), p-value = .001. The age-adjusted prevalence of insomnia was higher for the elderly, 93.7% (95% CI = 90.6-96.0%) than for the middle aged, 79.8% (95% CI = 77.4-82.1%), or for the young group, 64.2% (95% CI = 59.9-68.4%), p-value = .001. The Chi-square analyses revealed that (1) being elderly, widowed/divorced, females, or housewives, (2) having a lack of education, and (3) excessive tea consumption were significantly associated with elevated risks for insomnia (p-values Saudi females and the elderly Saudi population.
Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa
Full Text Available This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648 and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158. The participants (14–18 year-olds were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3% was significantly (p < 0.001 higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%. The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week. Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001 higher among Saudi adolescents (64% compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%. The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively. The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05 gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001 gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.
Omar A. Al-Mohrej
Conclusions: The overall results showed a slightly high rate of propanol misuse among medical and dental students. The majority of users are aware of the risks and potential side effects of self-prescribing medications, however; the anxiety relieving effect of propranolol increased its use prior to oral exams and presentations. Educational activity targeting students must be implemented.
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alshehri, Youssef; Alfraih, Ibrahim; Alghamdi, Ayedh; Aldahash, Saleh; Alkhuzayem, Haifa; Al-Beeshi, Haneen
In this study, we compared the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the characteristics of those who either use or do not use faith healers (FHs) services. We also assessed the independent factors of study subjects associated with using FHs. This cross-sectional study compared those who use FHs (n = 383) with a control group of those who do not use them (i.e., shopping mall visitors, n = 424) using a survey of sociodemographic characteristics and a validated Arabic version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6.0). Participants who ranked higher among FH users included males, people who were either married, divorced, or widowed, those with less education, and those with lower income. They were more likely to report past medical and psychiatric history. Those with diagnosable psychiatric disorders were more likely to visit FHs, especially if the diagnosis was of psychotic and bipolar disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was higher among FH users, and depressive and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent. The study showed that having past psychiatric history and a current psychiatric disorder are risk factors for using FHs. Also, a high percentage of FH users had a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Further research should assess how to facilitate their access to the mental health system.
Yassin, Syed M.
Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dent...
Habib M. Alshuwaikhat; Yusuf A. Adenle; Bilal Saghir
Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i) Teaching and Curriculum; (ii) Research and Scholarship; (iii) Campus Operations; ...
Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in