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  1. Aetiology of chronic diarrhoea in children: experience at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A M

    1994-01-01

    Forty-eight cases of chronic diarrhoea in children seen at King Khalid University Hospital over a 5-year period were analysed. The mean age at presentation was 1.8 years (range 0.08-10 years); 34 were boys and 14 girls. Forty-four patients were Saudi and four were non-Saudi Arabs. Most children presented with failure to thrive and pallor. The aetiological factors identified were: the post-gastro-enteritis syndrome with or without lactose intolerance in 16 (33%); coeliac disease in ten (21%); congenital chloride diarrhoea in five (10%); glucose-galactose malabsorption and acrodermatitis enteropathica, each in three (6%); ulcerative colitis, intestinal lymphangiectasia, cow's milk protein intolerance and ataxia telangiectasia, each in two (4%); and giardiasis, immune deficiency and cystic fibrosis, each in one (2%). Five children died.

  2. Perceptions and attitudes of Riyadh university students towards products derived from genetically modified crops in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jebreen, Dalal Hamad

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted during 2008 to assess the attitudes and perceptions of the Riyadh University students towards genetically modified crops and foods. Using descriptive analysis, it was found that the majority of surveyed students had good knowledge of genetic modifications, but lack knowledge about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) values. Most respondents would not purchase clearly labelled GMO products, though considerable number of the respondents was ready to taste or try the products. It is evident from these results that majority of university students who participated in this survey, in general had very little information or didn't know the genetic engineering technology e.g., gene therapy, fingerprinting, role in reducing pesticide application etc., as appeared in the results, therefore, most of the participants did not know or thought GM foods are harmful and could not be easily detected. The implication of this result is that majority will not support GM products.

  3. Factors Influencing the Career Choices among Medical University students of King Saub bin Abdulaziz University, Riyadh Saudi Arabia; A Cross-sectional Study Design

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    Abeer Al Subait

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study investigated the factors that influence career choice among second year dental, medical and nursing students at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Methodology: One hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed to 2nd year pre-professional medical, dental and nursing students (50 questionnaires per group. First part of questionnaire was regarding demographics and in the second part consisted of 23 factors that might influence the students’ career choices which were divided into six dimensions namely social status, economy, profession, vocation/service, interest in science/education, and personal background. Results: We received 119 completed questionnaires (medical = 40, dental = 40 and nursing = 39 with the response rate of 79.3%. We found that the social status of being a doctor or a dentist motivated medical and dental students compared to being a nurse for nursing students and the difference was significant among three groups (P value: 0.01. Furthermore, dental students when compared to both medical and nursing students were more likely to be motivated by factors related to profession that were job security, flexible timings and many others. On the other hand, with regard to factors relating to personal background, medical students showed lower motivation in comparison with dental and nursing students. Nevertheless the difference in attitude related to personal background was significantly different among three groups (P value <0.01. Conclusions: Through this study we concluded that factors related to professional security, personal background influenced the career choices of pre-professional medical, dental and nursing students. However we cannot generalize the finding as it was done in one hospital of Riyadh. Nevertheless, this study was able to provide valuable information on the reasons for choosing a professional career among Saudi Arabian students. Further multicenter studies are needed

  4. Orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis attending public versus private dental practices in Riyadh

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    Al-Jobair AM; Baidas LF; Al-Hamid AA; Al-Qahtani SG; Al-Najjar AT; Al-Kawari HM

    2016-01-01

    Asma M Al-Jobair,1,2 Laila F Baidas,1,2 Anfal A Al-Hamid,2 Sara G Al-Qahtani,2 Amani T Al-Najjar,2 Huda M Al-Kawari1,2 1Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, 2College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: To assess and compare the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis receiving free treatment at public dental practices versus those paying for treatment at private practices. Materials and methods: This retrospecti...

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Metapneumovirus in Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia.

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    Amer, Haitham Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of respiratory tract illness in children. Two HMPV subgroups, A and B, and four genotypes, A1, A2, B1 and B2, have been identified. Concurrent circulation of the different genotypes in yearly epidemics has been recorded globally, but not in Saudi Arabia. The current report was designed to study HMPV epidemiology in Saudi children and to analyze the genetic diversity and circulation patterns. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 174) were collected from hospitalized children in Riyadh (2008-2009). The screening of samples using real-time RT-PCR identified 19 HMPV strains. The majority of the strains belonged to subgroup B, while all strains of subgroup A were members of genotype A2. In 2008, only subgroup B was recognized, whereas in 2009 both subgroups were identified to be cocirculating at similar rates. The full-length attachment (G) gene and a partial sequence of the fusion (F) gene of positive samples were sequenced. The G gene showed a high degree of genetic diversity and exhibited a variable number of positively selected sites in different lineages. In contrast, the F gene demonstrated an extensive genetic stability with a higher tendency toward purifying selection. This is the first report on HMPV genotype circulation in Saudi Arabia; however, the exact circulation kinetics requires further retrospective and prospective study.

  6. Detection of Toxic Metalsin Lipsticks Products in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Khairia Mohamed Ahmed Al-Qahtani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Since the dawn of civilization cosmetics have constituted a part of routine body care not only by the upper strata of society but also by middle and low class people. Heavy metals contamination in cosmetic products is becoming an important health problem in both worldwide and locally at the level of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA.The aim of this study was tostudy.Quantitatively estimated heavy metals “lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic” using graphite.Methods: total of 21 popular brands used lipstick products sold in Riyadh market samples from 3 different types of lipsticks frequently used among females in Saudi Arabia was digested. The digested samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic using graphite furnace- atomic absorption spectrometry. Results:the mercury concentration was high followed by arsenic and cadmium, finally lead. The results indicate that the toxic heavy metals in all the samples were below the US FDA and SFDA permissible limits for cosmetic products with the exception the mercury content in some lipstick samples was higher than SFDA. There was no significant difference among the lipsticks in price categories.Conclusion: Continuous use and possible unintended ingestion of these toxic heavy metals, though in low levels in the cosmetics, may pose potential health risk due to their bioaccumulation in body organs.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Aboudi, Ibrahim Suliman; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The EuroQoL-five-dimensional (EQ-5D) scale was used to assess HRQoL. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. The brief diabetic knowledge test in questionnaire format developed by the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center and the attitude toward self-care questionnaire based on the diabetic care profile were used. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of a history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were in the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. A moderate level of HRQoL (0.71 ± 0.22) was recorded in the study cohort. The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs. 0.74 ± 0.20). The mean score of Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test was 8.96 ± 2.1 and the median score was 9.00. Of 75 diabetic patients, 14.7% had poor knowledge; 72% had moderate knowledge, and only 13.3% had good knowledge. The average attitude score of all respondents was 6.38 ± 2.11. There was a significant positive association between attitude and EQ-5D score. Conclusion: HRQoL and knowledge scores were moderate in type 2 diabetic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patient attitude toward the disease was positive, and this was positively associated with HRQoL; most respondents believed they are responsible for their care. It is likely that a high quality of diabetes self-management education program will provide benefits and affect significantly on type 2 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27413347

  8. Intestinal parasites infection among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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    Al-Megrin, Wafa A I

    2010-04-15

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal(-1)) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p < 0.001), followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

  9. 76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...

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    2011-12-15

    ... leader in the region. The mission will help participating firms gain market insight, make industry... and loss. Saudi Arabia also relies on desalination plants to produce 70% of its potable water, using.... Ice-breaker with FCS Staff/Q&A. Sunday, April 15--Day 2 Riyadh U.S. Embassy Briefing....

  10. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Gaffas EM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic

  11. Achieving Competitive Advantage in Human Resource Management in General School District of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia

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    Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…

  12. The Impact of Bilingualism on the Creative Capabilities of Kindergarten Children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Al Saud, Al Johara Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that encounter the issue of bilingualism due to the spread of private schools that offer programs in different languages. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of bilingualism on the creative capabilities (Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, Details) of kindergarten children in Riyadh. It aims at…

  13. Measurements of indoor gamma radiation and radon concentrations in dwellings of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Saleh, Ferdoas S. [Physics Department, Girls College of Education in Riyadh, P.O. Box 27329, Riyadh 11417 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: ferdoasalsaleh@hotmail.com

    2007-07-15

    Indoor gamma radiation measurement at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia using TLD has been performed. Measurements were carried out from October 2004 to June 2005. The city was divided into five sectors, for four categories of bed rooms, living rooms, bathrooms and kitchens. The indoor gamma annual absorbed dose of Riyadh city is in the range from 303{+-}57 to 700{+-}38 {mu}Gy y{sup -1} with an average value of 455.1{+-}45 {mu}Gy y{sup -1}. The calculated corresponding annual effective dose to the adult population of the locations will vary from 212{+-}40 to 490{+-}27 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} with an average value of 318.57{+-}31 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}.{sup 222}Rn concentration was measured at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia to estimate effective annual dose to the public from {sup 222}Rn and its progeny. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured using CR-39 detector. The range of annual mean {sup 222}Rn concentrations for all sites was 2-69 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 18.4 Bq m{sup -3}. The effective annual dose was estimated to be 0.46 mSv y{sup -1}.

  14. Measurements of indoor gamma radiation and radon concentrations in dwellings of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Ferdoas S

    2007-07-01

    Indoor gamma radiation measurement at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia using TLD has been performed. Measurements were carried out from October 2004 to June 2005. The city was divided into five sectors, for four categories of bed rooms, living rooms, bathrooms and kitchens. The indoor gamma annual absorbed dose of Riyadh city is in the range from 303+/-57 to 700+/-38microGyy(-1) with an average value of 455.1+/-45microGyy(-1). The calculated corresponding annual effective dose to the adult population of the locations will vary from 212+/-40 to 490+/-27microSvy(-1) with an average value of 318.57+/-31microSvy(-1).(222)Rn concentration was measured at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia to estimate effective annual dose to the public from (222)Rn and its progeny. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured using CR-39 detector. The range of annual mean (222)Rn concentrations for all sites was 2-69Bqm(-3) with an average of 18.4Bqm(-3). The effective annual dose was estimated to be 0.46mSvy(-1).

  15. Evaluation of TRMM satellite-based precipitation indexes for flood forecasting over Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

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    Tekeli, Ahmet Emre; Fouli, Hesham

    2016-10-01

    Floods are among the most common disasters harming humanity. In particular, flash floods cause hazards to life, property and any type of structures. Arid and semi-arid regions are equally prone to flash floods like regions with abundant rainfall. Despite rareness of intensive and frequent rainfall events over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); an arid/semi-arid region, occasional flash floods occur and result in large amounts of damaging surface runoff. The flooding of 16 November, 2013 in Riyadh; the capital city of KSA, resulted in killing some people and led to much property damage. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) Real Time (RT) data (3B42RT) are used herein for flash flood forecasting. 3B42RT detected high-intensity rainfall events matching with the distribution of observed floods over KSA. A flood early warning system based on exceedance of threshold limits on 3B42RT data is proposed for Riyadh. Three different indexes: Constant Threshold (CT), Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF) and Riyadh Flood Precipitation Index (RFPI) are developed using 14-year 3B42RT data from 2000 to 2013. RFPI and CDF with 90% captured the three major flooding events that occurred in February 2005, May 2010 and November 2013 in Riyadh. CT with 3 mm/h intensity indicated the 2013 flooding, but missed those of 2005 and 2010. The methodology implemented herein is a first-step simple and accurate way for flash flood forecasting over Riyadh. The simplicity of the methodology enables its applicability for the TRMM follow-on missions like Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  16. An up close and personal look at Saudi Arabia (Jeddah and Riyadh): history, culture, and health care.

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    Brown, Geraldine

    2005-01-01

    Saudi Arabia was one of the greatest travel destinations that I have had the opportunity to experience. I made this pilgrimage to Jeddah and Riyadh, and was truly welcomed into the kingdom. After almost three years of caring for those precious gems (the five surviving babies of the famous Saudi Arabian Septuplets) born July 2001 in the Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, I was issued a visa and asked to serve as the Nurse Escort in taking these babies home. Through a detailed glimpse of everyday life, I was privileged to enter an arena of not only forming lifelong friendships, but exploring how a country so difficult to gain entry, is also a land of astonishing natural beauty. A visit to that famous King Faisal Hospital made me a believer that Saudi Arabia has one of the best medical facilities in the Middle East, with well-trained nurses and physicians, who many are from other countries, including the United States. Observing health care professionals providing competent nursing and medical care in that environment was unique, because it evolved a culture based on an amalgam of religion and politics.

  17. First Report of Necrophagous Insects on Human Corpses in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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    Alajmi, R A; AlGhufaili, H; Farrukh, A; Aljohani, H; Mashaly, A M A

    2016-11-01

    Necrophagous species of insects provide useful complementary data to estimate the postmortem interval in forensic cases. Here, for the first time, we report on insect specimens collected from human corpses in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. During the study, 14 beetle larvae were collected from the outdoor corpse (case report one) and five flies and seven beetles were collected from the indoor corpse (case report two). Sequencing was performed to study the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as the prospective basis of an identification technique. The sequencing focused on a section of the cytochrome oxidase I encoding region of mtDNA. Two beetle species, Dermestes frischii (Kugelann) and Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), and one fly species, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were identified. These results will be instrumental in the implementation of a Saudi database of forensically relevant insects.

  18. Patterns of tobacco consumption in food facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmed Mandil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%; food handlers/hospitality workers (20 % and employers (5 %. Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WHO-CDC-Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use at food facilities was found to be 40.3 %, of which 74% were customers, 18.8% were food handlers and 7.2% were managers. The consumption of tobacco was higher at restaurants (39.9%, but lowest at food courts of shopping malls. Water pipe (55.3% was the main consumption type, followed by cigarettes (42.6% and chewing tobacco (2.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that gender (male, marital status (single, and type of food facility (Estaraha and café/coffee shop were independent risk factors associated with tobacco use at food facilities. Conclusion: Tobacco use is very common in food facilities in Riyadh as reflected by results of our study, especially among single males Saudis. We should build on success encountered in banning smoking in airports, airplanes, shopping malls, market places, educational institutions and healthcare facilities, extending the ban to include food facilities as well. This is important for the health of non-smokers as well as smokers themselves.

  19. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

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    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  20. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  1. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

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    Nora A. ALFaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  2. Four new records of mites (Acari: Astigmata phoretic on insects in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed W. Negm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out to investigate astigmatid mites associated with four unrelated insect species, belonging to four families. The four insect species, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1785 (Diptera: Muscidae, Labidura riparia (Pallas, 1773 (Dermaptera: Labiduridae, Gryllus bimaculatus (DeGeer, 1773 (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, and Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria: Blattidae, collected from different localities in Riyadh, were observed. Four astigmatid mites (Caloglyphus csibbii Eraky, Histiostoma camphori Eraky, Histiostoma pickaxei Eraky and Shoker, and Myianoetus lili Eraky belonging to two families, Acaridae and Histiostomatidae, were recorded on G. bimaculatus, L. riparia, P. americana, and M. domestica, respectively. All recorded mites are considered new to Saudi Arabian mite fauna. One individual of Copronomoia sphaerocerae (Vitzthum (Histiostomatidae mite, previously recorded in Saudi Arabia, was found on M. domestica. For each mite species found, notes on density and attachment sites are given. An identification key, based on deutonymphal stages, for the five mite species reported in this study and other phoretic astigmatid mites previously recorded on insects in Saudi Arabia is provided.

  3. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Obeidat Sadek A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.

  4. Prevalence Rate of Intestinal Parasites in Camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites in camels was studied in the Riyadh region, central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was carried out over a population of 240 animals which examined their feces by coprological methods. Out of 240 samples of feces examined, 143 cases (59.6% were positive for intestinal parasites of whom 82 were male (34.2% and 61 were female (25.4%. There was a significant difference between male and female (pTrichostrongylus spp. (15.4%, Haemonchus spp. (10.4%, Trichuris spp. (8.8%, Nematodirus spp. (5%, Osrtertagia spp. (2.9% and cestoda: Moniezia expansa (6.7%, Stilesia spp. (3.3% coccidia: Eimeria cameli (7.1%. The high prevalence of intestinal parasites among camels reported during summer season.

  5. The prevalence of obesity among saudi males in the Riyadh region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammari, S A; Khoja, T A; Al-Maatouq, M A

    1996-05-01

    Attendees of 15 health centers in urban and rural areas in the Riyadh region were screened for obesity during May and June 1994. Systemic selection yielded 1580 Saudi males for analysis. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 13.5 years and body mass index (BMI) was 26.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m(2). Only 36.6% of subjects were their ideal weight (BMI 40 kg/m(2)). Middle age, lower education and joblessness predicted a higher risk for obesity. Patients living in a rural areas had greater BMIs than those living in urban areas (P diabetis mellitus, hypertension, stroke, heart disease, sleep apnea syndrome and osteoarthritis of the knees. Young parents who are at risk of developing obesity and who play a central role in perpetuating it in their offspring should be the target of obesity-prevention programs.

  6. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQuaiz, AlJohara M.; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A. M.; AlSharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Hammad, Durdana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24205435

  7. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    AlJohara M. AlQuaiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68% women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80 g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL was present in 40% (390 women. Mean (±SD for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17 fL, 26.37 (±6.21 pg, 32.36 (±4.91 g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76 and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05 were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97 was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Mental illness in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi AF

    2015-01-01

    Adel F Almutairi Population Health Research Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaWhile I was reading on this topic, I came across an online article attributed to a Saudi psychologist that contained information about mental illness among the Saudi population. What really struck me right away was the estimate that was given for the number of m...

  9. Analysis and Comparison of Trends in Extreme Temperature Indices in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1985–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ali S. Alghamdi; Todd W. Moore

    2014-01-01

    This study employed the time series of thirteen extreme temperature indices over the period 1985–2010 to analyze and compare temporal trends at two weather stations in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The trend analysis showed warming of the local air for the city. Significant increasing trends were found in annual average maximum and minimum temperatures, maximum of minimum temperature, warm nights, and warm days for an urban and a rural station. Significant decreasing trends were detected in the ...

  10. Feeding and dietary practices of nursing caries children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, A H; Chohan, A N; al-Begomi, R

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the feeding and dietary practices of Saudi nursing caries children in Riyadh. A sample of nursing caries children attending the dental clinics of three health care facilities in Riyadh was selected for the study. The information about the feeding and dietary practices was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 74 nursing caries children, 34 (45.9%) male and 40 (54.1%) female with a mean age of 55.0 (SD 20.0) months participated in the study and, their mothers completed the questionnaire. About two-thirds of the children (65.0%) were breast-fed before sleep and a similar percentage (60.8%) was breast-fed during sleep. More than two-thirds (68.9%) were bottle-fed with liquids such as fresh fruit juices (51.4%), packed juices (43.2%) and soft drinks (81.1%). The mean age of starting to drink in a cup was 25.1 (SD 10.4) months. The most popular (71.6%) drinks in a cup were fruit juices. More than two-thirds (71.6%) of the children were taking soft drinks directly from a container and, about two-thirds (60.0%) of the children started drinking directly from a container at or before the age of 24 months. Almost all the children (93.2%) were taking sweets; about half (45.9%) of them taking sweets twice or more daily. It was concluded that the study children have feeding and dietary characteristics (typical of nursing caries) such as breast-feeding before/during sleep, nocturnal/nap-time bottle-feeding, excessive consumption of fruit juices/soft drinks from a container and a high frequency of sweet intake.

  11. Indication of the radioactive fallout in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-02-01

    On March 2011, a severe damage has occurred to Fukushima Di-iachi nuclear reactor complex in Japan following the huge earthquake and the resulting Tsunami. Consequently, vast amounts of radioactive fallout were released into the atmosphere and contaminated the environment in Japan. Soon after the accident, traces of anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in environmental samples collected in many parts in the northern hemisphere even very far away from Japan creating a global concern. There is no information about radioactive contamination in the Arabian Peninsula caused by the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident. The first evidence of Fukushima radioactive fallout in Riyadh (24° 43' N, 46° 38' E), Saudi Arabia has been confirmed in April 8, 2011. The airborne fission products (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were measured in air samples. The radionuclide concentrations were determined by identifying their characteristic gamma rays using a germanium detector. Their activity concentrations were studied as a function of time over a period of 20 days at the end of which they had mostly fallen below our limit of detection. The maximum activity concentration of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in air of, respectively, 323.7 ± 18.5, 17.2 ± 1.0 and 26.0 ± 1.8 μBq m(-3) were observed on April 10-11, 2011. The (131)I/(137)Cs and (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio values in air were presented and discussed. Finally, the effective doses to the public of Riyadh city from inhalation of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs due to contribution from Fukushima incident was found far below levels of concern.

  12. Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in a cohortcommunity--based study in Riyadh and hail regions of Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Faleh Faleh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia used to be hyperendemic for HBV infection. Most of infection occurs in early life. HBV vaccine was, therefore, introduced in 1989 as the seventh primary immunogen of the EPI Program. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this program in Riyadh and Hail Regions. Method and Patients: A cohort follow-up study of children from Riyadh and Hail, who had been vaccinated in 1989, evaluated in 1991 and tested for HBV markers six years later. Results: The files of 303 children from Riyadh and Hail, who were investigated in 1991 retrieved and only 119, were available for testing. Fifty percent of the children have still a protective anti-HBs tittre. One vaccinated child was found to be positive for HBsAg. According to this study, the efficacy rate against HBsAg carriage is 88%. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the tremendous effect of HB vaccine on the HBV infection of Saudi children in these two regions

  13. Carrion beetles succession in three different habitats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali

    2017-02-01

    A main objective of the study is the establishment of a forensic entomological database for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Decomposition processes and beetle succession were analysed on rabbit carcasses in three different habitats (agricultural, desert and urban) in the period from May to July 2014. Due to the effects of the high temperature at the study sites, carrion reached the dry stage within 12 days in the agricultural habitat, and 6 days in the desert and urban habitats. A total of 125 beetles belonging to eight species and five families were collected during the decaying process, with their abundances increasing from the fresh to decay stages. The prevailing species belonged to the families of Dermestidae and Histeridae. It was not possible to confirm any definitive relationship between the occurrence of a single species and a particular stage of decomposition. The beetle communities were also not distinctively different between desert and urban habitats, but a distinct community was evident in the agriculture habitat. In addition, there were distinct beetle communities between the decay stage and the other stages. The dry stage recorded the lowest number of beetles. This study indicated that, the habitat type had an effect on the decay process and the abundance rate of the beetles.

  14. Atmospheric turbidity and transmittance of solar radiation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shobokshy, Mohammad S.; Al-Saedi, Yaseen G.

    During the last two decades, the urban areas in the city of Riyadh—the capital of Saudi Arabia—were increasing at an exceptionally high rate through a series of development plans. The major plans had been completed by the end of 1982. Some other big utility projects were started and completed during 1987. As a consequence, the air quality has deteriorated markedly and air pollution episodes recorded during these activities showed that particulates were present in the atmosphere at high concentrations. Later in January 1991 the Gulf war started and the firing of the oil fields in Kuwait soon followed. It was estimated that soot particulates were emitted at a rate of 600 ton d -1 along with high rates of other gases. This event has led to significant air quality and visibility problems. Direct normal solar radiation has been measured during the summer months of July and August which were characterized by very dry and cloudless weather for the period between 1982 and 1992. A year-to-year trend of the transmittance of direct normal solar irradiance was then determined. The atmospheric fine aerosol (data during the same period were used to establish a correlation between the aerosol concentration and the extinction coefficient. The total horizontal and direct normal solar radiation measurements during some days when the dark smoke emitted from the oil field fires in Kuwait were passing over Riyadh are presented. The reduction in solar irradiation reflects the intensity of dark smoke at a distance of 500 km from Kuwait.

  15. Preferences of Dental Students towards Teaching Strategies in Two Major Dental Colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Eman M. AlHamdan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore and compare undergraduate dental students’ views and preferences towards various teaching strategies. Methods. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to 345 male and female undergraduate dental students from the two major dental schools in Riyadh (College of Dentistry, King Saud University [KSU], and Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy [RCsDP]. Students’ preferences for various components of the lecture courses were investigated. Descriptive and crosstab analyses were used to compare the students’ preferences for each school and between genders; the chi-square test was used to measure the significance level (P=0.05. Results. The majority of students preferred having the lecture schedule announced in advance. Females preferred morning lectures, whereas male students preferred afternoon lectures. Nearly half of the students thought that attending lectures should be mandatory; most of them were from KSU. Most of the students reported preferring a PowerPoint presentation lecture. The students, particularly female students, also preferred to receive lecture handouts and study materials before the session and to have practical demonstrations after the lecture. Conclusion. Teachers should consider students’ opinions when constructing courses because this feedback would have a positive impact on the teaching environment and students’ performance.

  16. A comparative study of oral health amongst trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 1 caries, malocclusion, trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Alsarheed, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trisomy 21 (T21) is a genetic disorder stemming from a chromosomal abnormality and characterized by general and mental retardation. Depending on the population, T21 is known to affect 1 in every 600–2000 live births. The current literature provides a mixed view on the oral health status of T21 individuals. Aim: To establish the prevalence of dental caries, malocclusion, and trauma amongst children with T21 compared with non-T21 children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This...

  17. Abundance Of Insects And Mites Infesting Stored Grain And Animal Feed In Riyadh And Dammam Provinces, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rostom, Zaky M. F. [زكي محمد فتحي رستم

    1994-01-01

    Insects and mites infesting wheat, maize and wheat bran, stored in plants at Riyadh and Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were scanned in 2 seasons, 1987 and 1988. Grains from the local markets and dust from both provinces were also surveyed. Infestation of these commodities by a granivorous group of pests, expressed as least squares means of sum of the pests, was found to be dependent upon factors of season, province, height inside bin, type of commodity and storing/sampling period within season (main e...

  18. The present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed

    The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend

  19. Genetic diversity in the G protein gene of group A human respiratory syncytial viruses circulating in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajhdi, Fahad N; Farrag, Mohamed A; Amer, Haitham M

    2014-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a frequent cause of hospitalization and mortality in children worldwide. The molecular epidemiology and circulation pattern of HRSV in Saudi Arabia is mostly uncharted. In the current study, the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships of HRSV type A strains circulating in Riyadh Province were explored. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from hospitalized children with acute respiratory symptoms during the winter-spring seasons of 2007/08 and 2008/09. Among 175 samples analyzed, 39 (22.3 %) were positive for HRSV by one-step RT-PCR (59 % type A and 41 % type B). Propagation of positive samples in HEp-2 cells permitted the recovery of the first Saudi HRSV isolates. Genetic variability among Saudi HRSV-A strains was evaluated by sequence analysis of the complete attachment (G) protein gene. The nucleotide sequence was compared to representatives of the previously identified HRSV-A genotypes. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains examined in this study were very closely related at both the nucleotide and amino acid level, and all of them are clustered in the GA2 genotype (and mostly belonged to the NA-1 subtype). A total of 23 mutation sites, 14 of which resulted in an amino acid change, were recorded only in Saudi strains. This is the first report on genetic diversity of HRSV-A strains in Saudi Arabia. Further analysis of strains on a geographical and temporal basis is needed to fully understand HRSV-A circulation patterns in Saudi Arabia.

  20. High prevalence of the PER-1 gene among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, M M; Abu Alsoud, N M; Elrobh, M S; Al Johani, S M; Balkhy, H H

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Saudi Arabia and their resistance genetic mechanisms are yet to be identified. We studied the prevalence and genetic diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes, particularly the PER-1 gene, among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains from patients at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2006 and 2014. Fresh subcultured samples were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total genomic DNA was extracted from each isolate and further used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping, sequence-based typing (SBT) of PER-1 and OXA-51-like gene, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of positive isolates. Randomly selected clinical isolates (n = 100) were subjected to MLST. A total of 503 isolates were characterized as multidrug-resistant (MDR) using the MIC. Isolates were further PCR tested for bla -TEM and bla -PER-1 resistance genes (n = 503). The genotyping results showed that 68/503 (14 %) isolates were positive to bla TEM. The genotyping results of PER-1-like genes showed that 384/503 (76.3 %) were positive among MDR Acinetobacter isolates. Based on SBT, the majority of these isolates were clustered into three main groups including isolates harboring PER-1: AB11 (bla -PER-1), isolate AB16 (bla -PER-1), and, finally, the plasmid pAB154 (bla -PER-7). Remarkably, many isolates were concealing the PER-1 gene and harboring the TEM resistance genes as well. MLST results for selected isolates (n = 100) identified four main sequence types (STs: 2, 19, 20, and 25) and four novel isolates (ST 486-489). We report 76.3 % prevalence of the PER-1 resistance gene among Acinetobacter clinical isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Further work is needed to explore the clinical risks and patient outcome with such resistance related to healthcare-associated infections and investigate the genetic and molecular mechanisms that confer the MDR

  1. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 hemagglutinin-neuramindase gene: sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the Saudi strain Riyadh 105/2009

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    Almajhdi Fahad N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human parainfluenza type 2 (HPIV-2 virus is an important respiratory pathogen, a little is known about strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. Findings Among 180 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from suspected cases in Riyadh, only one sample (0.56% was confirmed HPIV-2 positive by nested RT-PCR. The sample that was designated Riyadh 105/2009 was used for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the most variable virus gene; the haemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN. Comparison of HN gene of Riyadh 105/2009 strain and the relevant sequences available in GenBank revealed a strong relationship with Oklahoma-94-2009 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four different clusters of HPIV-2 strains (G1-4. Twenty-three amino acid substitutions were recorded for Riyadh 105/2009, from which four are unique. The majority of substitutions (n=18 had changed their amino acids characteristics. By analyzing the effect of the recorded substitutions on the protein function using SIFT program, only two located at positions 360 and 571 were predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions The presented changes of Riyadh 105/2009 strain may possess potential effect on the protein structure and/or function level. This is the first report that describes partial characterization of Saudi HPIV-2 strain.

  2.  Public Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Complementary and AlternativeMedicine in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia

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    Abdullah M.N. AlBedah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.Results: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70�0Saudi and 30�0non-Saudis. About 89�0ofthe participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g.(T.V., newspapers and radio and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5�0and46.3�0respectively. Nearly 85�0of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write, as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89� prayer (54� honey and bee products (54� hijama (35.71�nd cauterization or medical massage therapy (22�20were thecommonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8� regulations for CAM(94.9� health education (96.6� specialized centers (94.8�20and CAM clinics (92.7� While only 8.3�0of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positiv eattitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.

  3. Association between dietary habits and body mass index of adolescent females in intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muammar, M N; El-Shafie, M; Feroze, S

    2014-02-11

    Obesity among Saudi youth is a growing public health challenge. This cross-sectional study measured body mass index (BMI) and determined the eating habits and lifestyle of 107 randomly selected female adolescent students (age 12-15 years) at schools in Riyadh. The students' heights and weights were measured and a pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on diet and lifestyle. The majority of the students' families had monthly income > 10 000 riyals (US$ 1 = 3.75 riyals). About half the students (53.3%) were within normal weight, 28.6% were underweight, 12.4% overweight and 5.7% obese. The majority of the students did not have healthy dietary or exercise habits. There were no significant differences between BMI category and dietary pattern and lifestyle. Increasing educational programmes with healthy dietary concepts to improve the dietary pattern of female adolescents is recommended.

  4. Analysis and Comparison of Trends in Extreme Temperature Indices in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1985–2010

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    Ali S. Alghamdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed the time series of thirteen extreme temperature indices over the period 1985–2010 to analyze and compare temporal trends at two weather stations in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The trend analysis showed warming of the local air for the city. Significant increasing trends were found in annual average maximum and minimum temperatures, maximum of minimum temperature, warm nights, and warm days for an urban and a rural station. Significant decreasing trends were detected in the number of cool nights and cool days at both stations. Comparison of the trends suggests that, in general, the station closer to the city center warmed at a slower rate than the rural station. Significant differences were found in a lot of the extreme temperature indices, suggesting that urbanization and other factors may have had negative effects on the rate of warming at the urban station.

  5. Measurements and source apportionment of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qijing; Alharbi, Badr; Collett, Jeffrey; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Pasha, Mohammad J.

    2016-07-01

    Ambient air samples were obtained in Riyadh, the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia, during two measurement campaigns spanning September 2011 to September 2012. Sixteen particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were quantified in 167 samples. Pyrene and fluoranthene were the most abundant PAH, with average of 3.37 ± 14.01 ng m-3 and 8.00 ± 44.09 ng m-3, respectively. A dominant contribution from low molecular weight (LMW) PAH (MW < 228) suggested a large influence of industrial emissions on PAH concentrations. Monte Carlo source apportionment using diagnostic ratios showed that 80 ± 10% of the average LMW PAH concentrations were contributed by petroleum vapor emissions, while 53 ± 19% of high molecular weight (HMW) PAH were from solid fuel combustion emissions. The positive matrix factorization model estimated that oil combustion emissions dominated total PAH concentrations, accounting for on average 96%, likely due to widespread use of oil fuels in energy production (power plants and industries). Our results demonstrate the significant influence of petroleum product production and consumption on particulate-phase PAH concentrations in Riyadh, but also point to the importance of traffic and solid fuel burning, including coke burning and seasonal biomass burning, especially as they contribute to the ambient levels of HMW PAH.

  6. Association of overweight and obesity with decline in academic performance among female high-school students, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaili, M A; Mohamed, A G; Alkhashan, H

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between overweight/obesity and future academic performance among high-school students in Saudi Arabia. This was a retrospective cohort study of 257 12th grade female students in Alabna (Ministry of Defence) high schools in Riyadh during 2013/14. Overweight/obesity was based on weight and height at 10th grade. Decline in academic performance was defined as a reduction by > 1 standard deviation in marks between 10th and 12th grades. One hundred and five students were overweight/obese and 30 had declined academic performance. Self-esteem scale was similar in both groups. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, study-related lifestyle and self-esteem, overweight/obesity was associated with declining academic performance. Other independent associates included paternal and maternal education, and living outside governmentally provided housing. We report a negative independent association between overweight/obesity and subsequent academic performance among female high-school students in Saudi Arabia. The results highlight the need for community and school programmes to target overweight/obesity among high-school students.

  7. Building capacity for quality and safety in critical care: A roundtable discussion from the second international patient safety conference in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Yaseen M Arabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion from the Second International Patient Safety Conference held in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to: (1 review the conceptual framework for building capacity in quality and safety in critical care. (2 examine examples of leading international experiences in building capacity. (3 review the experience in Saudi Arabia in this area. (4 discuss the role of building capacity in simulation for patient safety in critical care and (5 review the experience in building capacity in an ongoing improvement project for severe sepsis and septic shock.

  8. Recall of Theoretical Pharmacology Knowledge by 6th Year Medical Students and Interns of Three Medical Schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    A. A. Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24% and 122 males (76%. A total of 36 (22% students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78% students studied at problem based learning (PBL schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19% of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48% of them obtained a correct score of (4–6 out of 10, and 53 students (33% scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology.

  9. Assessment and heavy metal behaviors of industrial waste water: A case study of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

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    Abdullah S. Al-Farraj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the temporal monitoring and chemical analysis of two pathways, unpadded and open drain canal, of the surface industrials effluent on industrial city of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (Major, Minor, and Heavy metals is determined and compared with Saudi Arabia and USEPA standards. The obtained results indicated that most collected water samples exceeded the acceptable limits set by standards used for most parameters determined. The concentrations of total suspended solids, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Mo, As, B, NO3-, and NH4+ in industrial effluents decreases away from the point source of pollutions. On the other hand, the SAR , RSC, total hardness, and soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+,Na+, K+, Cl-, CO3 2-, HCO3-, and SO4 2-, remained constant. Most heavy metals on wastewater effulent were above permissible limits. On the other hand, the filtration of wastewater decreases the heavy metal concentrations to permissible levels. The highest average metals concentration in digested effluents for deferent locations and sampling periods were Fe (17.1 mg/L followed by Mo (11.6 mg/L, then Co (0.03 mg/L. However the Mo recorded the highest value in filtrated effluents (23.2 ug/L followed by Fe (21.6 ug/L, and then Cd (8.02 ug/L. The monitoring of wastewater heavy metals concentrations (determined on filtrate for both pathway recorded that the concentration of Fe, Mo, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Ni, and Mn decreased from (60-100 ug/L at point sources to be (5-10 ug/L at 1000 m from point sources, however no clear behavior was recorded for Cu and Co. Moreover the concentrations of all heavy metals by the last sampling point on downstream were remained at 10 ug/L or less. The study emphasis that continuous application of industrial wastewater on Riyadh environment will lead to more accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and natural plants, and also high possibilities of groundwater contamination by nitrate.

  10. Determination of the frequency of the most immunogenic Rhesus antigens among Saudi donors in King Abdulaziz Medical City – Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayid, Mohieldin; Al Qahtani, Faris Saeed; Al Qarni, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Almajed, Faisal; Al Saqri, Faisal; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is one of the most polymorphic and immunogenic systems known in humans, because of its immunogenicity along with ABO grouping, RhD antigen testing was made mandatory before issuing a compatible blood. At present, there are five major antigens, i.e., D, C, E, c, and e in Rh blood group system. Aims: The aim of this study is to provide essential data about the distribution of the major Rh antigens and the most common phenotype among the Saudi population. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to evaluate the Rh grouping and Rh sub-groups performed among some donors who donated blood or blood products at the department of donation center at King Abdulaziz Medical City Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. Sample size included 600 donors. Donors are males and females and their ages are above 18 years. Results: The incidence of RhD was 84.8% and only 15.2% of samples were negative for D antigen. The Incidence of other Rh antigens C, E, c, and e were 62.3%, 23.5%, 74.3%, and 95.0%, respectively. The most common phenotype among RhD positive donors was DCcee (28.7%) and among RhD negative donors was dccee (13.7%). However, three donors (0.5%) were negative for antithetical antigens C and c. Conclusion: This study shows that there is a wide racial and geographical variation in the distribution of Rh antigens and phenotypes among study participants. The Rh blood group system has a vital role in population genetic study and in resolving medical legal issues and more importantly in transfusion medicine practice. PMID:28250675

  11. Preferences and attitudes of the Saudi population toward receiving medical bad news: A primary study from Riyadh city

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    Mohammed O. Alrukban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. Objectives: This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: In this study, 474 (46.8% were males and 539 (53.2% were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6% preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5% preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants′ perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Factors such as marital status, age, and gender, and education play significant roles in how bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task.

  12. A study on the behaviour of TLD-100 glow peaks at extreme ambient temperatures in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj, Abdalla N; Lagarde, Charlie S

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the temperature-induced variations in the TLD-100 response and the modifications in its glow peaks are investigated in real environmental exposure conditions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, where ambient temperatures during summer reach >45 degrees C and with relative humidity of 8814 TLD cardholders were deployed as environmental dosemeters for a period of approximately 1 month for 12 consecutive months. One group was irradiated to 5 mGy 137Cs prior to deployment; another was irradiated to the same dose after deployment, while the last group was left unirradiated. Analysis of glow curves was done using commercially available glow curve deconvolution software (CGCD). Monthly variations in peak 3, 4 and 5 areas relative to the corresponding peak areas of a prompt glow curve are presented. Results of this study show good TL signal compensation between peaks 4 and 5 at all ambient temperatures encountered in this experiment, despite the observed individual variations experienced by each of these peaks. The sum of peak 4 and 5 areas is constant to within approximately 10%, for both pre- and post-irradiated dosemeters, during this 12-month cycle.

  13. Can a polycentric structure affect travel behaviour? A comparison of Melbourne, Australia and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Alqhatani; S. Setunge; S. Mirodpour

    2014-01-01

    This study models the impact of the shift from a monocentric private-car-oriented city to polycentric public-transport-oriented city. Metropolitan areas have suffered traffic problems-in particular increase in travel time and travel distance. Urban expansion, population growth and road network development have led to urban sprawl in monocentric cities. In many monocentric cities, travel time and distance has steadily increased and is only expected to increase in the future. Excessive travel leads to several problems such as air pollution, noise, congestion, reduction in productive time, greenhouse emissions, and increased stress and accident rates. This study examines the interaction of land use and travel. A model was developed and calibrated to Melbourne and Riyadh conditions and used for scenario analysis. This model included two parts: a spatial model and a transport model. The scenario analysis included variations of residential and activity distribution, as well as conditions of public transport service.

  14. A preliminary analysis of the inhalable particulate lead in the ambient atmosphere of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shobokshy, M. S.

    The inhalable particles in the ambient atmosphere in the city of Riyadh have been sampled during the working day (7 a.m.-4 p.m.) over the test period. Samples were taken every 3 h using an Automatic Dichotomous Sampler placed in the College of Engineering, King Saud University at a height of 25 m above the ground. A weather station 3 m above the sampler was used to record (simultaneously) the meteorological data. These data were used to determine the wind rose and the hourly standard deviation of the horizontal wind direction, which, in turn, gives the hourly atmospheric stability class. The particulates in each size range: coarse (2.5-15 μm) and fine (concentration of lead during the working day is about twice the international standards. The concentration decreases during the weekends (Thursday and Friday) due to the reduction in traffic loads, and decreases to a minimum on Fridays when most of industrial activities are stopped. More than 70% of the lead fluxes passed by the sampler are associated with wind from E to S which is the direction of the city center and the industrial site of Riyadh.

  15. Improving the care of sepsis: Between system redesign and professional responsibility: A roundtable discussion in the world sepsis day, September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Yaseen; Alamry, Ahmed; Levy, Mitchell M; Taher, Saadi; Marini, Abdellatif M

    2014-07-01

    This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion in September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as part of the World Sepsis Day held in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to (1) review the chasm between the current management of sepsis and best practice, (2) discuss system redesign and role of the microsystem in sepsis management, (3) emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the care of sepsis and that improvement of the care of sepsis is the responsibility of all, (4) discuss the bundle concept in sepsis management, and (5) reflect on the individual responsibility of the health care team toward sepsis with a focus on accountability and the moral agent.

  16. Medical gamma processing facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and radiation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecz, N.; Hahn, E.W.; Jouris, W.E.

    1985-09-01

    A medical cobalt-60 facility was opened at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in 1984. Features of the facility are that it can be heated to 120-190F during irradiation and has an on-line 30 kw microwave oven. It can be used for small scale batch irradiation or large scale conveyor irradiation. Programs under development are the sterilization of hospital supplies, radiation processing of Saudi foods and radiation of infectious hospital wastes.

  17. Impact of a health education program for secondary school Saudi girls about menstruation at Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetohy, Ebtisam M

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the impact and suitability of menstrual education program (MEP) for 1st and 2nd graders at a girls' secondary school in Riyadh city. The MEP was conducted on 5 classes, through one session and one assessment. The results revealed that the mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of the intervention classes (1st and 2nd graders) were significantly higher than that of the control classes. Stepwise linear regression models show that the age of menarche and grade were the predictors of students' knowledge among the control group and explained 7.8% of the variation of the knowledge score. Knowledge was a predictor of students' attitude of both groups (control and intervention) (beta = 0.359, 0.300 respectively). Knowledge was also a predictor of students' menstrual practice among control group (beta = -2.12). Attitude was a predictor of students' menstrual practice for both groups (beta = 0.360, 0.252 respectively). The study recommended the replication of the same program among elementary, preparatory, and other secondary schools for improvement of students' menstrual knowledge, attitudes and practice.

  18. Sustainable development of streetscape in the desert city of Riyadh-Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OmarS.BaHammam

    2003-01-01

    Trees have been associated with human settlements since the dawn of time. In modem time, trees play a major role in shaping healthy and beautiful cities. They scatter among the urban fabric mostly along public streets. Cities all over the world gave serious attention to street trees in order to overcome the decline of the natural environment as a result of the new industrialized urban growth. Riyadh City, as one of the fastest growing cities in the world with harsh arid environment, face the challenge of developing its streetscape in a hostile environment. A sustainable approach is important to be adapted in order to carry on development that saves energy, protect resources and fulfill the needs. This study is trying to assess the existing situation of planting, the proper techniques for planting and designing streetscape in desert city. The study will identify appropriate designing ideas for existing and future applications. In order to address this research, different techniques were applied to answer the research concerns.

  19. Screening of coeliac disease in undetected adults and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulrahman S. Al-Ajlan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20–39-years and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40–59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable.

  20. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Leafy Vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and then examining the sediment. Results of the present study has shown that 76 out of 470 samples (16.2% contained parasite stages. Depending on the type of leafy plant, examined the prevalence of parasitic stages in these plants, was found to be 27.8% (17/61 in lettuce, 22.8% (13/57 in watercress, 20.6% (7/34 in leek, 19.1% (9/47 in green onion, 17.4% (15/87 in parsley, 15.4% (4/26 in spinach, 13.6% (3/22 in basil, 11.5% (3/26 in coriander, 9.4% (3/32 in radish, 5.3% (1/19 in dill and 4.7% (2/42 in mint. No parasites were detected in 17 samples collected from cabbage. Stages of intestinal parasites detected were Entamoeba coli (35.5%, Giardia lamblia (31.6%, Dicrocoelium sp. (28.9%, Ascaris sp. (26.3%, Taenia sp. (19.7%, Blastocystis hominis (17.1%, Fasciola sp. (14.5%, Hymenolepis sp. (14.5%, Ancylostoma sp. (11.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (6.6% and Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%. The results indicated a significant seasonal variation (p<0.05, with highest prevalence in spring (23.1%, followed in descending order by Summer (17.9%, Autumn (10.6% and Winter (9.9%.

  1. Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

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    Mitwalli A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

  2. The dangers of incense burning: COPD in Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Kassimi FA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.

  3. Pharmacy students′ use, knowledge and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine at Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia

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    Hussain Abdulrahman Al-Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey was conducted to explore use, knowledge and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among pharmacy students at the college of pharmacy, King Saud University. A total of 133 fourth- and fifth-year pharmacy students completed a questionnaire designed to explore their use, knowledge and attitudes toward CAM therapies at the college of pharmacy, King Saud University. Study lasted for 3 months from 1 st of October until 31 st of December in 2007. Nutrition and herbal medicine therapies were the most known therapies by 65% and 53% of the students, respectively. Knowledge about CAM therapies among the students was limited. Thirty-nine percent of the students reported use of some form of CAM at least once in their lifetime. CAM was used for acute, chronic and mild illness as well as nutrition. Herbal medicine, nutrition, massage, relaxation exercises, yoga and mega-dose vitamin were the most CAM used. Lectures were the chief CAM information source. More than one half of the respondents (53-70% believed that five of the 15 CAM modalities were useful, namely massage, herbal medicine, nutrition, yoga and relaxation exercises. Respondents had a positive attitude toward statements that favoured CAM. Most students strongly agreed or agreed that most CAM therapies were efficacious, whereas 52.6% of the respondents did believe that CAM therapies can be harmful to public health. The study showed that the students had positive attitude toward CAM and exhibited relatively high level of self-reported use of CAM therapies. Overall, students′ knowledge of CAM is limited. The students perceived interest in learning and training in CAM. A separate course in CAM including its various components is needed. Also, availability of a reliable CAM information sources will aid the students to increase their knowledge of CAM.

  4. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Computing by Saudi University Hospitals

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    Seham S. Almubarak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the adoption of Cloud Computing in Saudi university hospitals and to investigate the factors that impact the adoption. This study integrates the Technological, Organizational, Environmental (TOE framework and the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory, and adds the decision maker context to the original model. The study sample included Saudi university hospitals in Riyadh city. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire. The result of this study determines the five most significant factors influencing the adoption of cloud computing in Saudi university hospitals, which are in sequence: Relative advantage, Decision-maker's innovativeness, Decision-maker's knowledge in IT, Compatibility, and Top management support. Moreover, among the four different contexts, the most important context is the Decision-maker context, followed by the Technological context, then the Organizational context, and finally the Environmental context. The findings are beneficial for hospitals to guide them to make better decisions regarding cloud computing adoption. Scholars can use this study to gain a more holistic understanding of cloud computing adoption and apply new theories in this field.

  5. Effect of Lead and Copper on the Growth of Heavy Metal Resistance Fungi Isolated from Second Industrial City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siham, Al-Kadeeb A.

    In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.

  6. Land Use and Land Cover Changes and Urban Sprawl in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: AN Analysis Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Data and SHANNON'S Entropy Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    The city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia has experienced rapid population growth and urban expansion over the past several decades. Due to such growth, the capital city faces many short and long-term social and environmental consequences. In order to monitor and mitigate some of these consequences, it is essential to examine the past changes and historical growth of the city. It is also essential to measure its urban sprawl over the past few decades. The objective of this study is to fulfil these goals. It does so by first examining the historical growth of the city of Riyadh. To do so, Landsat data over the past two and half decades are classified using a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification techniques. Based on the classification results, the study then uses Shannon's Entropy to measure the urban sprawl in the city. The results show that from 1990-2009, the urban built-up area of the city has increased by 90% in the western, south-eastern, and northern parts. The Shannon's entropy values show that the city is dispersing towards the outskirts of the city. The results from this study will assist city planners and government officials to plan, reduce, and perhaps mitigate some of the social and environmental consequences and enable the growth of the city in a sustainable manner in the near future.

  7. Awareness of droplet and airborne isolation precautions among dental health professionals during the outbreak of corona virus infection in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shahzeb-Hasan; AlShamrani, Sultan-Saleh; Alakras, Abdul-Rahman; Mahrous, Raif; Alenazi, Abdul-Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of airborne and droplet isolation precautions among Dental Health Professionals (DHPs) (dental students, interns, practitioners and auxiliaries) during the outbreak of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), corona virus infection in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 406 dental health professionals (DHPs) working in selected dental facilities in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia during the outbreak of MERS (April-June 2013). A structured, close-ended, self-administered questionnaire explored the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards droplet and isolation precautions. Collected data was subjected to descriptive statistics to express demographic information, mean knowledge score, mean attitude score and practice score of DHPs. Inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests, p < 0.05) were used to examine differences between study variables. Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify the association between the knowledge-attitude, knowledge-practice, and attitude-practice. Results A response rate of rate of 90.22% (406 out of 452) was obtained. The mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 10.61 ± 1.19, 50.54 ± 7.53 and 8.50 ± 2.14 respectively. Spearman’s correlation test revealed a significant linear positive correlation between knowledge and attitude (r-0.501, P- 0.01), knowledge and practice (r-0.185, P-0.01) and attitude and practice (r-0.351, P- 0.01) of DHPs about airborne isolation precautions. Conclusions Dental health professionals considered in the present study showed good knowledge, positive attitude and good practice towards droplet and airborne isolation precautions during outbreak of MERS. Key words:Knowledge, attitude, practice, droplet, airborne, precaution, dental professionals. PMID:27703605

  8. Self-perceived halitosis and related factors among adults residing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross sectional study

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    Salwa Abdulrahman AlSadhan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of self-perceived halitosis among the population in Riyadh is within the range reported in other countries. Self-perceived halitosis is related to gender, inadequate oral hygiene practices and cigarettes and shisha smoking however, it is not related to age.

  9. Perception among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, regarding alcohol and substance abuse in the community: a cross-sectional survey

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    Al-Haqwi Ali I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early

  10. Lack of facilities rather than sociocultural factors as the primary barrier to physical activity among female Saudi university students

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    Samara A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anastasia Samara,1 Anne Nistrup,1 Tamader Y AL-Rammah,2 Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion and Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Faculty of Rehabilitation and Health Sciences, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women’s low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females.Patients and methods: Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor’s programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1 socioeconomic status, 2 physical activity, 3 self-efficacy 4 social factors, and 5 barriers and facilitators related to physical activity.Results: The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14. Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%. Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10. Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity.Conclusion: The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of

  11. Blended Learning in Saudi Universities: Challenges and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah

    2010-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended…

  12. Sources of organic compounds in fine soil and sand particles during winter in the metropolitan area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I; Al-Mutlaq, Khalid; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2005-11-01

    Major advances have been made in molecular marker analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic organic matter inputs to the atmosphere. Resuspension of soil and sand by wind is one of the major mechanisms that produces particle dusts in the atmosphere. Soil and sand samples from the Riyadh area were collected in winter 2002, sieved to remove coarse particles and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1, v:v). The total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the contents and identify the potential sources of the organic components. The major organic compounds of these extracts were derived from natural biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Organic compounds from natural sources, mainly vegetation, were major in samples from outside the city of Riyadh and included n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n- alkanols, methyl alkanoates, and sterols. Anthropogenic inputs were significant in the fine particles of soil and sand samples collected from populated areas of the city. They consisted mainly of n-alkanes, hopanes, UCM (from vehicular emissions), and plasticizers (from discarded plastics, e.g., shopping bags). Carbohydrates had high concentrations in all samples and indicate sources from decomposed cellulose fibers and/or the presence of viable microbiota such as bacteria and fungi.

  13. Determination of the most common morphological patterns of anemia among Saudi anemic patients attending King Abdul-aziz Medical City-Riyadh

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    Mohieldin Elsayid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia is a medical condition in which the red blood cells (RBCs count and hemoglobin (Hb are less than the normal range. The main causes of anemia are a decrease in RBCs, their destruction and decrease of Hb synthesis. A useful method for diagnosis and classification of anemias is based on the morphological appearance of RBCs on an ideal stained blood smear. The main terms used in such classification are normocytic normochromic, microcytic hypochromic and macrocytic anemia. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the most common morphological pattern of anemia in Saudi anemic patients who were admitted at King Abdul-aziz Medical City-Riyadh. Materials and Methods : Retrospectively we evaluated the results of complete blood count (CBC and peripheral blood picture (PBP of all anemic patients attending during the year 2013 (from 1 st January to 31 st December. Results: Participants in this study included 150 patients (13 infants, 27 children, 12 youths, 52 adults and 46 old. The gender distribution showed 70 males and 80 females. The results of CBC and PBP showed that 113 (75.3%, 36 (24% and 1 (0.7% of the patients had normocytic normochromic, microcytic hypochromic and macrocytic pattern of anemia respectively. Conclusion: The normocytic normochromic pattern of anemia is highly frequent among this sample of Saudi patients while the macrocytic pattern of anemia is the lowest. According to gender groups microcytic hypochromic pattern of anemia is more common among females; malnutrition, increase of blood loss due to pregnancy or menstruation, and lack of iron absorption are the main causes, while the normocytic normochromic is highly frequent among males, which are mainly due to blood loss or chronic diseases.

  14. Factors Related to Teachers' Attitudes towards the Inclusive Education of Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities in Riyadh, Saudi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquraini, Turki A.

    2012-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the majority of students with severe intellectual disabilities are still educated in special schools that do not meet their unique needs for interaction with their typically developing peers in public schools settings where they could improve social, communication and academic skills. One of the most significant obstacles to…

  15. Depression and associated factors among adolescent females in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsa Raheel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.

  16. Book Review: Al-Seghayer, Khalid 2011, English Teaching in Saudi Arabia: Status, Issues, and Challenges, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Hala Print CO. 175 pages, ISBN 978-6030079254

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghsoon Reda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this book, Khalid Al-Seghayer offers a thorough study of the history and status of English language teaching in Saudi Arabia, highlighting deficiencies and suggesting remedies in an attempt to cure the current standards of English education, particularly in public schools which, in his own words, “have deteriorated perhaps beyond hope of recovery” (p. 95.

  17. A survey of the attitude and practice of research among doctors in Riyadh Military Hospital primary care centers, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad H Al-Abdullateef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the attitude and practice of doctors in the Military Hospital Primary Care Centers in Riyadh (RMH toward research and to identify the main barriers to conduct research. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2010, at RMH primary care centers. The sample included all general practitioners (GPs working in primary healthcare centers. A self-administered questionnaire was formulated from different sources and used as a tool for data collection. Results: The response rate was 75%. Among the respondents 96.9% agreed that research in primary care was important for different reasons. Most of the GPs had a positive attitude toward research: 68% had been influenced by research in their clinical practice and 66% had an interest in conducting research, and74.2% of the respondents had plans to do research in the future. Insufficient time was the most frequently cited barrier (83.5% for participating in research, followed by the lack of support (58.8%. Conclusions: Many of the GPs had a positive attitude toward research, but had no publications or plan for new research. Lack of time, support, and money were the main constraints for carrying out research.

  18. Prevalence and associated factors of cigarette smoking among medical students at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh of Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulaziz F Al-Kaabba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking among medical students at the medical college at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, and assess the association between smoking and socio-demographical factors, smoking contacts, reasons for smoking and attempts to quit. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey in which anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used to survey the cigarette smoking habits of the first- and second-year medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City in June 2009. Results: Overall 39.8 % of the investigated students (153 had smoked before, and 17.6% were current smokers. The mean age of initiating smoking was 15.8 (΁3.3. There were significantly more males than females. The most important reasons for smoking were leisure, imitation of other people and a means of relieving psychological pressure. Reasons for not smoking were mostly health and religion-based. Smokers tended to have friends who smoked. Conclusion: Cigarettes smoking is highly prevalent among medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City. Contact with smokers particularly friends are the major risk factors for the initiation of the habit. Health and religious considerations are important motives for not smoking, quitting or attempting to quit. These findings can be of help in designing future intervention strategies.

  19. Students' Perceptions of E-Assessment at Saudi Electronic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadoon, Hamadah

    2017-01-01

    This study explored students' perceptions of E-assessment at Saudi Electronic University. The university recently implemented this mode of assessment in the learning management system it uses. Therefore it is important to examine the students' perceptions of this mode at the university level. The results were encouraging. Students had positive…

  20. Characteristics of landfill leachates and bio-solids of municipal solid waste (MSW in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

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    M.I. Al-Wabel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The liquid and bio-solids (landfill sediments product from landfills has many toxic substances, which may adversely affect on the environmental health. Thus in order to have a better management of characteristics of Riyadh landfill leachates, 80 representative landfill leachate samples were collected and analyzed from February to May 2008. The analysis of landfill leachates includes pH, ECw, concentrations of soluble ions, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, and heavy metals contents. The obtained results showed that the landfill leachates are characterized by high concentrations of COD (13,900–22,350 mg L−1, TSS of (2280–8912 mg L−1, ECw values of (42.5–58.3 dS m−1 but the pH values ranged 5.49–6.32. Moreover, the leachates had higher concentrations of soluble Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl−, HCO3- and SO42-. In addition, the leachates contained Fe, Mn, As, Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu in concentrations equivalent to: 104, 11.0, 1.4, 0.6, 0.25, 0.2 and 0.14 mg L−1, respectively. While in the bio-solids (landfill sediments the average content of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni and V reached to 10, 242, 234, 48,608, 190, 18, 166 and 24 mg kg−1. The relatively higher variations between the upper and lower limits (maximum and minimum values of the studying parameters lead to conclude that it is essential to conduct a long-term monitoring program to obtain representative information and this fluctuation should be considered when operating the leachate treatment plant.

  1. Saudi English-Major Undergraduates' Academic Writing Problems: A Taif University Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khairy, Mohamed Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a) the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b) Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c) the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and…

  2. Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Sudanese Primary School Pupils in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators.

  3. Prevalence and Complications of Pregestational and Gestational Diabetes in Saudi Women: Analysis from Riyadh Mother and Baby Cohort Study (RAHMA

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    Hayfaa Wahabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the burden of diabetes and to explore the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with pregestational diabetes mellitus (pre-GDM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM among the Saudi pregnant population. In this subcohort, we compared the maternal and the neonatal outcomes of diabetic women with pre-GDM and GDM to the outcomes of nondiabetic mothers who delivered during the same period. From the total cohort, 9723 women participated in this study. Of the participants, 24.2% had GDM, 4.3% had pre-GDM, and 6951 were nondiabetic. After adjustment for confounders, women with GDM had increased odds of delivering a macrosomic baby (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2–2.1. Women with pre-GDM were more likely to deliver by Cesarean section (OR: 1.65; CI: 1.32–2.07 and to have preterm delivery < 37 weeks (OR: 2.1; CI: 1.5–2.8. Neonates of mothers with pre-GDM were at increased risk of being stillbirth (OR: 3.66; CI: 1.98–6.72, at increased risk of admission to NICU (OR: 2.21; CI: 1.5–3.27, and at increased risk for being macrosomic (OR: 2.40; CI: 1.50–3.8. The prevalence of GDM and pre-GDM in the Saudi pregnant population is among the highest in the world. The conditions are associated with high maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities.

  4. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  5. Seed oil from Harmal (Rhazya stricta Decne grown in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia: A potential source of δ-tocopherol

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    Imededdine Arbi Nehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhazya stricta (R. stricta known as Harmal is widely distributed in Saudi Arabia and throughout the Middle East. It is used as a medicinal plant in traditional cultures and the seeds are a source of unsaturated oil. In the present study, tocol (tocopherol and tocotrienol, triacylglycerol, and fatty acid compositions, pigment content, thermal behavior, and various physicochemical properties of R. stricta oil were characterized to determine the potential uses of this seed oil. Our results indicate that the oil is a rich source of bioactive molecules, including δ-tocopherol (896 mg/100 g, γ-tocopherol (148 mg/100 g and carotenoids (15.67 mg/kg. The oil content of the seeds was 13.68% and the triacylglycerols mainly consisted of linoleic acid (59.03%, and oleic acid (27.01%. The major triacylglycerols were trilinoleate, dilinoleate and monolinoleate. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA in the oil was high (9.20. Additionally, the oil showed a high degree of thermal stability and a low melting point of approximately −25 °C. These data indicate that R. stricta seed oil, which is low in saturated fats and rich in bioactive compounds, is potentially useful in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  6. Protocol study: sexual and reproductive health knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi women: a questionnaire survey of university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), a basic right for women worldwide, is infrequently researched in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). No empirical studies of SRH among Saudi women exist. This protocol describes a study to explore the SRH knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes of Saudi female university students. Methods/Design This study will administer a questionnaire survey to female students at 13 universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was developed following a literature search to identify relevant content, with psychometrically tested tools used when available. The content layout and the wording and order of the questions were designed to minimize the risk of bias. The questionnaire has been translated into Arabic and piloted in preparation for administration to the study sample. Ethical approval for the study has been granted (reference no. QMREC2012/54). After questionnaire administration, the data will be collated, analysed and reported anonymously. The findings will be published in compliance with reporting guidelines for survey research. Discussion This study will be the first to provide fundamental information concerning Saudi females university students SRH knowledge and information needs. PMID:24885041

  7. Saudi dental students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of an effective dental teacher

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jobair AM; AlSarheed MA

    2016-01-01

    Asma M Al-Jobair, Maha A AlSarheed Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: To evaluate Saudi dental students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of an effective dental teacher.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May 2014 at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all students enrolled in th...

  8. Evaluation Models for E-Learning Platform in Riyadh City Universities (RCU with Applied of Geographical Information System (GIS

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    Abdulaziz I. Alharrah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available E-learning that integrates digital knowledge content, network and information technology has become an emerging learning method. As the e-learning platform approach is becoming an important tool to allow the flexibility and quality requested by such a kind of learning process. There is a new kind of problem faced by organizations consisting in the selection of the most suitable e-learning platform. This paper proposes evaluation model for E-Learning platform in Riyadh City universities (RCU with Applied Geographic Information System (GIS. The E-Learning platform solution selection is a multiple criteria decision-making problem that needs to be addressed objectively taking into consideration the relative weights of the criteria for any organization. We formulate the quoted multi criteria problem as a decision hierarchy to be solved using GIS. AGIS-based evaluation index system and web-based evaluating platform were established. In this paper we will show the general evaluation strategy and some obtained results using our model to evaluate some existing commercial platforms.The results of evaluation model are outlined as follows: Total weights of the proposed framework in management feature is 20.25/25, in collaborative feature is 9.2/10, in adaption learning path is 6.8/10 and in interactive learning object is 5/5. The total weights of all features are 41.25/50. In this study an evaluation model was applied on Riyadh City universities like KSU, IMAMU, NAUSS, YU and FU. Then, the results were compared with each other. The total weighs of KSU was 41. While the total weights of FU, IMAMU, YU and NAUSS was 40, 37, 36 and 32, respectively. Evaluation process shows that the proposed framework satisfied the objectives with applied GIS.

  9. Prevalence of stress in junior doctors during their internship training: a cross-sectional study of three Saudi medical colleges’ hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulghani HM; Irshad M; Al Zunitan MA; Al Sulihem AA; Al Dehaim MA; Al Esefir WA; Al Rabiah AM; Kameshki RN; Alrowais NA; Sebiany A; Haque S

    2014-01-01

    Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani,1 Mohammad Irshad,1 Mohammed A Al Zunitan,1,2 Ali A Al Sulihem,1,2 Muhammed A Al Dehaim,1,2 Waleed A Al Esefir,1,2 Abdulaziz M Al Rabiah,1,2 Rashid N Kameshki,1,2 Nourah Abdullah Alrowais,2 Abdulaziz Sebiany,3 Shafiul Haque1 1Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, Universit...

  10. The Value and Attributes of an Effective Preparatory English Program: Perceptions of Saudi University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Maram George

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of gender and geographical location on the perceptions of Saudi university students regarding the value of preparatory English programs and their attributes. Data was collected during the fall of 2013 from three sample universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using an online survey as the instrument.…

  11. Evidence-Based Decision Making in Public Health: Capacity Building for Public Health Students at King Saud University in Riyadh

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    Hayfaa A. Wahabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation of research evidence into public health programs is lagging in Eastern Mediterranean Region. Graduate level public health curriculum at King Saud University (KSU, College of Medicine, Riyadh, is designed to equip students to integrate best available evidence in public health decision making. The objectives of study were to explore students’ opinion about the evidence based public health (EBPH courses and to survey the knowledge, opinion, and attitude of the students towards EBPH and perceived barriers for implementation of EBPH in decision making in public health. EBPH courses are designed based on a sequential framework. A survey was conducted at the completion of EBPH courses. Forty-five graduate students were invited to complete a validated self-administered questionnaire. It included questions about demography, opinion, and attitude towards EBPH and perceived barriers towards implementation of EBPH in the work environment. The response rate was 73%. Mean age of students was 30.1 (SD 2.3 years, and 51% were males. More than 80% had sound knowledge and could appreciate the importance of EBPH. The main perceived barriers to incorporate EBPH in decision making were lack of system of communication between researchers and policy makers and scarcity of research publications related to the public health problems.

  12. Strategic directions for university hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards.

  13. An Investigation of Technical and Scale Efficiency of Public Universities in Saudi Arabia

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    Nasser Saad Al Kahtani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher education sector in Saudi Arabia had a phenomenal growth over the last decade. This study sets out to empirically examine the technical and scale efficiency of government universities in Saudi Arabia. In general, the technical efficiency of Saudi public universities appears to be high. However, majority of public universities relative performance is a dismal when the scale efficiency is taken into consideration. Only two universities out of the total sample of twenty are on the frontier in comparison to five universities based on the VRS efficiency.

  14. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administ...

  15. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Adminis...

  16. Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

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    Tarek Tawfik Amin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7% at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay

  17. Chronic Hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia: Three Years Local Experience in a University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Hisham O; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Qattan, Faten; Fallatah, Hind I.; Al Rumani, Maha

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a global infection. In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of CHC is declining due to the implementation of a blood screening program. However, CHC still remains a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Objectives This is a retrospective study of CHC patients at the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods Out of a total of 291 CHC patients from the hepatology clinic at King Abdul Aziz University h...

  18. Willingness to Communicate in English among Saudi Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turjoman, Mona Obaid Alrahman Ashik

    2016-01-01

    Since the English Language teaching system differs from public schools to private ones, it is presumed that this would have a great impact of students' willingness to communicate in English in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of private and public school education on WTC in English among Saudi Female…

  19. Extreme intrafamilial variability of Saudi brothers with primary hyperoxaluria type 1

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    Alfadhel M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1 Khalid A Alhasan,2 Mohammed Alotaibi,3 Khalid Al Fakeeh41Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1 is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency culminating in end-stage renal disease, and a wide range of clinical features related to systemic oxalosis in different organs. It is caused by autosomal recessive deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase due to a defect in AGXT gene.Case report: Two brothers (one 6 months old; the other 2 years old presented with acute renal failure and urinary tract infection respectively. PH1 was confirmed by high urinary oxalate level, demonstration of oxalate crystals in bone biopsy, and pathogenic homozygous known AGXT gene mutation. Despite the same genetic background, same sex, and shared environment, the outcome of the two siblings differs widely. While one of them died earlier with end-stage renal disease and multiorgan failure caused by systemic oxalosis, the older brother is pyridoxine responsive with normal development and renal function.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of extreme intrafamilial variability of PH1 and international registries are needed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in such disorder.Keywords: primary hyperoxaluria, oxalosis, PH1, intrafamilial variability

  20. Lifestyle of health sciences students at Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

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    Fahad Alfhaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background We all want to live a long, happy and healthy life with an abundance of energy and vitality to perform well both mentally and physically. A healthy lifestyle is a valuable resource for reducing the incidence and impact of health problems, enabling you better to cope with life stressors, as well as improving your quality of life. Aims The study was aimed to assess the lifestyle (eating habits and physical activity of health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. Methods This cross-sectional institutional based study was conducted from 25th November 2014-3 rd May 2015. A total of 450 students (370 males and 80 females aged between 18–28 years were randomly chosen. Self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection from the College of Medicine, College of Applied Medical Sciences and College of Dentistry. Results Majority of the students, 62.4 per cent, were physically inactive. Students from the College of Medicine, 40.4 per cent, were the most physically active. The most common reason that restrained the students from being active was time limitation. In addition to that, many of the participants, 29.6 per cent, have never had breakfast at home. Also, most of the participants, 42.7 per cent, were not satisfied with their eating habits. Almost one quarter of students were consuming soft drinks more than four times a day. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. There is an urgent need for arranging health education programs for promoting healthy and active living among health sciences students of Majmaah University in Saudi Arabia.

  1. THE LEARNERS' SATISFACTION TOWARD ONLINE E-LEARNING IMPLEMENTED IN THE COLLEGE OF APPLIED STUDIES AND COMMUNITY SERVICE, KING SAUD UNIVERSITY, SAUDI ARABIA: Can E-Learning Replace the Conventional System of Education?

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    Fahad N. AL-FAHAD

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth of distance education course offerings is an indication of its importance to students. The purpose of this study is to investigate learners' satisfaction toward online e-learning implemented in the College of Applied Studies and Community Service, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In the meantime, also, this study was conducted to assess whether substitution of conventional learning with e-learning can improve the educational standard and knowledge of people especially in this information world. The target group consists of 201 university students (female from the College of Applied Studies and Community Service. The results of the statistical analysis demonstrate that students’ satisfaction has been very positive toward e-learning as a teaching assisted tool, and provides more benefits than conventional learning.

  2. Prevalence of the Emotional (Emo) Subculture among University Students in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Alsukah, Aljawharh; Algadheeb, Nourah Abdulrhman

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the prevalence of the emotional (emo) subculture among students at Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University (PNU), Saudi Arabia, and to detect differences in emo behavior and orientation among university departments and academic levels. A questionnaire assessing emo behavior/orientation was developed and…

  3. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

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    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  4. Sinopec Given Green Light to Saudi Arabian Energy Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ On March 7, China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec), together with Saudi Arabia Oil Company (Aramco), signed a Natural Gas Exploration And Development Agreement upon Section B in Rub Alkhali Basin with the Petroleum Ministry of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia.

  5. Medical students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of complementary and alternative medicine: a pre- and post-exposure survey in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Mansour MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Abdullah Al Mansour,1 Abdullah MN Al-Bedah,2 Mohammed Othman AlRukban,3 Ibrahim S Elsubai,2 Elsadiq Yousif Mohamed,4 Ahmed Tawfik El Olemy,2 Asim AH Khalil,2 Mohamed KM Khalil,2 Meshari Saleh Alqaed,2 Abdullah Almudaiheem,2 Waqas Sami Mahmoud,4 Khalid Altohami Medani,4 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi2 1College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, 2National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, 3Department of Family Medicine and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 4Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, Saudi Arabia Background: Evidently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is a recognized medical practice that efficiently uses multiple treatment therapies and techniques in the prevention and management of a variety of human disorders. Many medical schools have integrated CAM curriculum in medical education system worldwide. Research in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of diverse health professionals exposed to CAM courses is important from many perspectives including improvement in KAP and teaching skills of faculty, together with capacity building and curriculum development.Objective and setting: This pre- and post-design cross-sectional study aimed to assess CAM-KAP of two intakes of medical students in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia.Methods: The second-year medical students of the first (year 2012–2013 and second (year 2013–2014 intake (n=26 and 39, respectively were selected for this study. A reliable, 16-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all the students for answering before and after the 48-hour CAM course. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test of significance.Results: Medical students’ knowledge and attitude toward CAM significantly improved across some subitems of CAM questionnaire with a positive trend in the rest of its items

  6. Students' Struggle with First-Year University Mathematics Courses in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Ali, Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    Universities and colleges at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assess new applicants using academic indicators, such as high school grade point average (HSGPA) and the score of a national standardized test (the General Aptitude Test), to ensure that they are academically fit to join the institution. Such criteria have been suggested in previous research…

  7. Effect of Professional Development on Classroom Practices in Some Selected Saudi Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, AbdulKhaliq Hajjad; Bin Sihes, Ahmad Johari

    2016-01-01

    "Scientific studies found the impact of professional development on effective classroom practices in Higher Education." This paper hypothesizes no statistically significant effect of lecturers' professional development on classroom practices in some selected Saudi Universities not as highlighted in the model. Hierarchical multiple…

  8. Critical Success Factors for eLearning in Saudi Arabian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhabeeb, Abdullah; Rowley, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer insights into the development of eLearning systems and the perceptions of key players in the management of eLearning systems in three large universities in Saudi Arabia. It establishes the relative importance of different factors and compares these findings with studies conducted elsewhere in the…

  9. Stages of change in physical activity, self efficacy and decisional balance among Saudi university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensaf S.A. Gawwad

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion : Physical inactivity is common among KSU students. A considerable proportion of them was not ready to become more physically active. The study highlights the need to adapt PA promotion programs to states of readiness for PA. University and public policies as well as environmental changes are necessary to encourage active living within the context of Islamic rules and Saudi culture.

  10. Health Science Students' Perception about Research Training Programs Offered in Saudi Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to examine the perceptions of students of health sciences on research training programs offered at Saudi universities. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional survey design was adopted to capture the perceptions of health science students about research training programs offered at selected Saudi…

  11. Measuring the Efficiency of Public Universities: Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to Examine Public Universities in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulmenem, Fahad Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that allot substantial amount of government resources for education. Thus, it is important to measure how these resources are used to generate favorable academic outcomes for its nationals. In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to measure the relative efficiency of 25 public universities in…

  12. Perceptions of pre-clerkship medical students and academic advisors about sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance: a cross-sectional perspective from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlFakhri, Lama; Sarraj, Jumana; Kherallah, Shouq; Kuhail, Khulood; Obeidat, Akef; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background The medical student population is believed to be at an increased risk for sleep deprivation. Little is known about students’ perceptions towards sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. The aim of study is to explore the perceptions of medical students and their academic advisors about sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. Methods The study took place at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An online, anony...

  13. Evaluation of the orthopedic residency training program in Saudi Arabia and comparison with a selected Canadian residency program

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    Al-Ahaideb A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdulaziz Al-Ahaideb,1 Hamza M Alrabai,1 Osama A Alrehaili,1 Abdulaziz N Aljurayyan,1 Ranyah M Alsaif,2 Nizar Algarni,1 Hazem M Al-Khawashki,1 Abdulrahman D Algarni1 1Department of Orthopedics, 2Department of Physiotherapy, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology: As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results: The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002. The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (P<0.0001. Most residents preferred studying multiple-choice questions before examinations. Saudi and Canadian participants considered their programs to be overcrowded. Unlike Canadian participants, Saudi trainees reported an inadequate level of training (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Educational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents' progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers. Keywords: evaluation, medical education, orthopedic board, residency program, training

  14. Significance of communication sharing between the Saudi universities using Long Term Evaluation Technology: Evaluation proposal based on Jazan University

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    Prakash Kuppuswamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evaluation, is a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for data transaction terminal and mobile technology. LTE is to provide an extremely high performance radio-access technology that offers full vehicular speed mobility and that can readily coexist with High Speed Packet Access and earlier networks. LTE technology commonly agreed upon, both by industry and academia, and hence conceived to be an unwritten standard. Saudi Government giving more importance for promoting the Educational standards. Every year, Saudi government spending millions of money for the growth of Educational sector. Almost all the Saudi Universities are interconnecting with various community colleges on Region based. This paper first discusses the suitability of LTE and related technologies for interconnecting colleges for communication service provisioning. Next, it discuss the argument that the most plausible future scenarios to deliver the increasingly data-intensive applications demanded by the colleges. We are trying to obtain best evaluation benefits of interconnecting colleges under Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  15. EFL Teachers’ Perceptions, Evaluations and Expectations about English Language Courses as EFL in Saudi Universities

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    Hussain Ahmed Liton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers’ perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit and non-credit Foundation English courses as a part of their program, which are not being very effective. These courses do not promote the students in dealing with their disciplines or programs oriented courses. Even after completion of the Foundation English courses in consecutive two or three semesters, students fail to grasp comprehensive control over the reading materials of their discipline-oriented courses. This is a common scenario in almost all the universities in KSA. The author of this paper ventured to study the predicament of EFL courses in some universities through survey questionnaires, observation as well as primary and secondary sources. The data were collected through questionnaires from a total of 25 EFL teachers at renowned Saudi universities. The research results revealed that the existing Foundation English Course syllabus is not tailored appropriately to the needs of the students so far as the higher studies concerned, and EFL classroom is not conducive to task-based language teaching (TBLT practice due to large class size (100-140. It, therefore, suggests that university Foundation English Courses should be redesigned in assimilating the learners’ standard and previous learning, and course contents should cover the socio-cultural factors of the learners. The study also concludes with some effective implications and recommendations based on the findings of the present research.

  16. Knowledge Management in Higher Education : Applicability of LKMC Model in Saudi Universities

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    Farzana Shafique

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper stresses on the need of using Knowledge Management (KM in the higher education institutions of Saudi Arabia. The paper is based on the literature review and personal experience of the author in the education sector. The paper aims at highlighting the importance of KM for the educational institutions particularly for developing countries. It also revi ews the readiness of Saudi Arabia for KM application by illustrating different development i nitiatives taken by the Saudi government in different sectors. However, the literature also ide ntifies many barriers on the way. Keeping the importance of KM for the higher educati on institutions in view, this paper proposes to adopt the model of Library Knowledge Management Center (LKMC with needed modifications for Universities of Saudi Arabia. Thi s LKMC model was proposed by Parker, Nitse, and Flowers (2005 for the small business co rporate for providing the Knowledge Management (KM and Competitive Intelligence (CI s ervices. The paper discusses different components of the LKMC model and their relevance to the education sector.

  17. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

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    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

  18. Comparative Arabic and English Literacy: A Study of Female University Students' Practices in Saudi Arabia

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    Islam Ababneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of Arabic and English literacy skills and practices for Saudi female university students at their homes and at their school as indicated by the students themselves using literacy questionnaires. The study did not evaluate the proficiency of the students in any aspect of the language such as phonology, vocabulary, or grammar but rather compiled students' answers to the availability of literacy resources in English and in Arabic in their homes/school and the students' practices of literacy in both languages. Data was gathered by distributing two types of questionnaires (Arabic and English to 200 students of English major at the department of linguistics and translation at the University of Tabuk, which is a government university in Saudi Arabia. Supporting data of cultural and religious influences on literacy was obtained through the researcher's own notes and observations. The purpose of the questionnaires was to investigate mainly: the students' literacy practices and frequency of using Arabic and English and the literacy infrastructure and literacy resources available to the students at their homes and at their school. The students' answers to the questionnaires indicated that most students interacted using mainly Arabic and very little English at their homes and they used some English at their school, which is related to reading their school academic books, doing homework assignments, and having rare English conversations with their classroom teachers.Keywords: Arabic literacy, English literacy, Saudi Arabia

  19. E-mail use by the faculty members, students and staff of Saudi Arabian and Gulf states Universities

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    Fahad Alturise

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail systems (Email constitute one of the most important communication and business tools that people employ. Email in the workplace can help a business improve its productivity. Many organisations now rely on email to manage internal communications as well as other communication and business processes and procedures. This paper compares email use by university stakeholders (i.e. faculty members, staff and students between Saudi Arabia on one hand, and the Gulf States - Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Bahrain – on the other. A questionnaire that was expertreviewed and pilot-tested, was used to collect data from ten universities in Saudi Arabia and five universities in the Gulf States. Slight differences emerged in the Saudi Arabia and Gulf States universities’ stakeholders’ use of email in terms of having email, frequency of checking email, and skills in using email. The Saudi Arabian universities must improve their IT infrastructure, including the provision of suitable connection networks and formal training of staff in utilising IT resources. This study’s findings aim to advise the Saudi Arabian and Gulf States’ universities on their plans and programmes for e-learning and the consolidation of required resources.

  20. Ability of admissions criteria to predict early academic performance among students of health science colleges at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadlaq, Adel M; Alshammari, Osama F; Alsager, Saleh M; Neel, Khalid A Fouda; Mohamed, Ashry G

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of admissions criteria at King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to predict students' early academic performance at three health science colleges (medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy). A retrospective cohort study was conducted with data from the records of students enrolled in the three colleges from the 2008-09 to 2010-11 academic years. The admissions criteria-high school grade average (HSGA), aptitude test (APT) score, and achievement test (ACT) score-were the independent variables. The dependent variable was the average of students' first- and second-year grade point average (GPA). The results showed that the ACT was a better predictor of the students' early academic performance than the HSGA (β=0.368, β=0.254, respectively). No significant relationship was found between the APT and students' early academic performance (β=-0.019, p>0.01). The ACT was most predictive for pharmacy students (β=0.405), followed by dental students (β =0.392) and medical students (β=0.195). Overall, the current admissions criteria explained only 25.5% of the variance in the students' early academic performance. While the ACT and HSGA were found to be predictive of students' early academic performance in health colleges at KSU, the APT was not a strong predictor. Since the combined current admissions criteria for the health science colleges at KSU were weak predictors of the variance in early academic performance, it may be necessary to consider noncognitive evaluation methods during the admission process.

  1. Attitudes of students and employees towards the implementation of a totally smoke free university campus policy at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional baseline study on smoking behavior following the implementation of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2014-10-01

    Tobacco smoking is the preventable health issue worldwide. The harmful consequences of tobacco smoking and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke are well documented. The aim of this study is to compares the prevalence of smoking among students, faculty and staff and examines their interest to quit. Study also determines the difference on perceptions of smoking and non-smoking students, faculty and staff with regard to implementation of a smoke-free policy. A cross-sectional survey was administered to one of the largest universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the academic year of 2013. A Likert scale was used on questionnaires towards attitude to smoking and smoking free policy. The Chi squared test was used to determine the difference of support on completely smoke free campus for smokers and non-smokers. Smoking rates were highest among staff members (36.8 %) followed by students (11.2 %) and faculty (6.4 %). About half of the smokers (53.7 %) within the university attempted to quit smoking. Students (OR 3.10, 95 % CI 1.00-9.60) and faculty (OR 4.06, 95 % CI 1.16-14.18) were more likely to make quit smoking than staff members. Majority of the respondents (89.6 %) were supportive of a smoking--free policy and indicated that should be strictly enforced especially into public places. Results also showed that smokers were more likely to support a smoke-free policy if there are no fines or penalties. These baseline findings will provide information among administrators in formulating and carrying out a total smoke free policy. Although the majority of people within the King Saud University demonstrate a high support for a smoke-free policy, administrators should consider difference between smokers and non-smokers attitudes when implementing such a policy.

  2. Students’ Assessment of Campus Sustainability at the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia

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    Ismaila R. Abubakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions are major drivers of change in achieving environmental sustainability both within college campuses and beyond campuses in communities at large. However, achieving campus sustainability is not possible without the involvement of students as one of the major stakeholders of a university. Based on survey of 152 students of the College of Architecture and Planning, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, this study explores students’ assessment of campus sustainability components: curriculum and research; campus operations; and community involvement. The results show that even though the students indicate a great deal of awareness and concern about campus environmental sustainability, they lack interest and willingness to participate in initiatives towards achieving sustainability. Apart from some sustainable landscaping and waste recycling practices, there are few sustainability initiatives in transportation and energy and water conservation on the campus. Offered courses and student projects have also been reported to have modest focus on sustainability. The article concludes by highlighting the roles of incorporating sustainability into campus operations, and training university students in promoting environmental sustainability in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East.

  3. Assessment of current undergraduate anesthesia course in a Saudi University

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    Tarek Shams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of the anesthesia course in our university comprises Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs, in conjunction with portfolio and multiple-choice questions (MCQ. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of different forms of anesthesia course assessment among 5 th year medical students in our university, as well as study the influence of gender on student performance in anesthesia. Methods: We examined the performance of 154, 5 th year medical students through OSCE, portfolios, and MCQ. Results: The score ranges in the portfolio, OSCE, and MCQs were 16-24, 4.2-28.9, and 15.5-44.5, respectively. There was highly significant difference in scores in relation to gender in all assessments other than the written one (P=0.000 for Portfolio, OSCE, and Total exam, whereas P=0.164 for written exam. In the generated linear regression model, OSCE alone could predict 86.4% of the total mark if used alone. In addition, if the score of the written examination is added, OSCE will drop to 57.2% and the written exam will be 56.8% of the total mark. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that different clinical methods used to assess medical students during their anesthesia course were consistent and integrated. The performance of female was superior to male in OSCE and portfolio. This information is the basis for improving educational and assessment standards in anesthesiology and for introducing a platform for developing modern learning media in countries with dearth of anesthesia personnel.

  4. English Language Instructors' Perceptions about Technology-Based Language Learning at Northern Border University in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqlain, Nadeem; Mahmood, Zahir

    2013-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to explore English language teachers' perceptions about the use of technology for language learning at Northern Border University (NBU) in Saudi Arabia. Data collection relied on interviews. Stream of behaviour chronicles was also used as a strategy of non interactive data collection.14 non native…

  5. The ICT Proficiencies of University Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Case Study to Identify Challenges and Encouragements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageel, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the use of information communications technology (ICT) is prevalent in higher education across all countries. This study focuses on the level of use of ICT among teachers at a leading university in Saudi Arabia. 16 in-depth interviews reveal that the majority of teachers do not make use of ICT in their teaching. A number of attitudes were…

  6. Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, R. Sreerama; Abdel-Shafi, Nabil Yassien [Saudi Electricity Company Chair for DSM and EE, Vice Presidency for Projects, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abdulaziz, Abdulaziz Uthman M.; Obaid, Ramzy R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.

  7. Risk profile of coronary heart disease among the staff members of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohair, Sultan A. L.; Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A. L.; Sharaf, Fawzy; Naeem, Zahid; Midhet, Farid; Homaidan, Homaidan A. L.; Winter, Sandra J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the risk profile of coronary heart disease (CHD) among the staff members of Qassim University and assess their knowledge in a screening campaign in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among male and female staff at Qassim University campus. All employees of Qassim University were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The study sample size was 233 staff and employees. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 18. The data analysis focused on providing point estimates for the risk factors. Results: The study found that 30% of participants have one or more risk factors for CHD, namely obesity 20.6%, diabetes 10.3%, hypertension 12.4%, dyslipidemia 10.7%, and smokers (11.6%). About 54% of the participants have a family history of at least one chronic disease as a risk factor for CHD. Conclusion: The most common risk factor of CHD among the staff members is obesity by 20.6%. Risk factors for CHD are quite common among Qassim University staff. These findings need to increase the health education and disease promotion program as an important intervention to reduce the occurrence and severity of CHD risk factors and to improve the quality of the life of the staff members of Qassim University.

  8. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples

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    Abolfotouh MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility

  9. Investigating the Correlation between Food Prices and University Students Awareness of the Effects of Fast Food Consumption on their Health

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Aklabi, Nouf; Al-Dowsari, Wejdan; Andrioti, Despena

    2016-01-01

    Background: The price of a given food product is an indicative measure of its nutritious value. Forthis reason, people belonging to low-income groups are specifically vulnerable to malnutrition. Thisstudy aims to identify nutritional patterns among students at the Princess Nora University, Riyadh,Saudi Arabia, quantify students’ level of awareness of health risks associated with fast food consumption,examine how price affects their choice of food, and provide general guidelines for improving ...

  10. Multi-drug carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection carrying the OXA-48 gene and showing variations in outer membrane protein 36 causing an outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Taher uz Zaman

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: This is probably the first reported outbreak of multidrug/carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella infection involving the OXA-48 gene from Saudi Arabia. Although the presence of ESBLs such as OXA, CTX-M, TEM, and SHV are predictable reasons for resistance, variations in the Omp-36 gene might also have precipitated this phenomenon. Disruption of the Omp-36 sequence by large insertional elements, the insertion of two amino acids in a very crucial part of this protein, and the presence of a premature stop codon in one isolate might have rendered this protein incomplete and non-functional. The study also demonstrated that more than one type of clone was responsible for this reported apparent outbreak and that ST29, a clone not reported from this region before, was the major clone responsible.

  11. Use of hormones and nutritional supplements among gyms′ attendees in Riyadh

    OpenAIRE

    Alshammari, Sulaiman A.; Mishal A AlShowair; Abdulmalik AlRuhaim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, studies have shown a high prevalence of hormones and nutritional supplement use by athletes and gym members. Many athletes consume unproven, potentially harmful or even banned supplements. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of the use of hormones and nutritional supplements by people who exercise in gyms in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and the types of supplements they most commonly use and to obtain a general view of the main reasons for using these enhancements. M...

  12. Saudi dental students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of an effective dental teacher

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    Al-Jobair AM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asma M Al-Jobair, Maha A AlSarheed Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: To evaluate Saudi dental students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of an effective dental teacher.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May 2014 at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all students enrolled in the 2013/2014 academic year. The questionnaire contained 43 items regarding students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of a good dental teacher. The attributes were grouped into two main categories: performance and personality. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for each item and then for the whole category. Performance and personality were compared between male and female students and between junior and senior students using Mann–Whitney U test.Results: Four hundred and seventy-seven questionnaires were completed, representing a response rate of 79%. Performance attributes were significantly more important than personality attributes to Saudi dental students (P<0.001. Perceptions of performance and personality attributes did not differ between male and female students; however, junior students put more emphasis on personality attributes than senior students.Conclusion: Saudi dental students consider performance attributes more important than personality attributes for their successful learning. Teachers’ educational skills are valued more than the attributes, which do not connect directly to students’ learning process. Keywords: perceptions, dental students, characteristics, dental teacher

  13. Mind Maps to Modify Lack of Attention among Saudi Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghistan, Bulquees Ismail Abdul Majid

    2016-01-01

    This research study aims at investigating the impact of Mind Maps on modifying the lack of attention in Arabic language class among Saudi Kindergarten children. To achieve the goals of this study the researcher used an experimental design with a random sample from AlRae'd Kindergarten's children in Riyadh -Saudi Arabia for the academic year…

  14. Male Saudi Arabian freshman science majors at Jazan University: Their perceptions of parental educational practices on their science achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of education and participant's choice of science major were used to identify groups for the purpose of data analysis. Data were gathered using five independent variables concerning parental educational practices (attitude, involvement, autonomy support, structure and control) and the dependent variable of science scores in high school. The sample consisted of 338 participants and was arbitrarily drawn from the science-based colleges (medical, engineering, and natural science) at Jazan University in Saudi Arabia. The data were tested using Pearson's analysis, backward multiple regression, one way ANOVA and independent t-test. The findings of the study reveal significant correlations for all five of the variables. Multiple regressions revealed that all five of the parents' educational practices indicators combined together could explain 19% of the variance in science scores and parental attitude toward science and educational involvement combined accounted for more than 18% of the variance. Analysis indicates that no significant difference is attributable to parental involvement and educational level. This finding is important because it indicates that, in Saudi Arabia, results are not consistent with research in Western or other Asian contexts.

  15. Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhayal A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: After almost a decade of implementing competency-based programs in postgraduate training programs, the assessment of technical skills remains more subjective than objective. National data on the assessment of technical skills during surgical training are lacking. We conducted this study to document the assessment tools for technical skills currently used in different surgical specialties, their relationship with remediation, the recommended tools from the program directors’ perspective, and program directors’ attitudes toward the available objective tools to assess technical skills.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of surgical program directors (PDs. The survey was initially developed using a focus group and was then sent to 116 PDs. The survey contains demographic information about the program, the objective assessment tools used, and the reason for not using assessment tools. The last section discusses the recommended tools to be used from the PDs’ perspective and the PDs’ attitude and motivation to apply these tools in each program. The associations between the responses to the assessment questions and remediation were statistically evaluated.Results: Seventy-one (61% participants responded. Of the respondents, 59% mentioned using only nonstandardized, subjective, direct observation for technical skills assessment. Sixty percent use only summative

  16. Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression among Female Medical Students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAHIM, Nahla; AL-KHARBOUSH, Dania; EL-KHATIB, Lamis; AL-HABIB, Ahd; ASALI, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical education & medical profession are among the most challenging and most stressful ones. Anxiety and depression represents an escalating public health problem among medical students. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence & predictors of anxiety and depression among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during 2010–2011. A stratified random sample method was used to sel...

  17. Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Aujan S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ≥18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction

  18. A new alpha chain hemoglobin variant: Hb Al-Hammadi Riyadh [alpha75(EF4)Asp-->Val (alpha2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnichon, Nelly; Lacan, Philippe; Becchi, Michel; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Aubry, Martine; Mowafy, Mohammed; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2006-01-01

    A new hemoglobin (Hb) variant in the heterozygous state, Hb Al-Hammadi Riyadh [codon 75 (GAC-->GTC); alpha75(EF4)Asp-->Val (alpha2)] corresponding to an A-->T transversion on the second exon of the alpha2-globin gene, is described. The variant was characterized by DNA sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS). The variant was found during a routine Hb analysis for anemia in a 16-month-old boy who lived in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  19. The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A.; Al-Dhwayan, Madhawi M.; Alharbi, Abdulhameed A.; Khudhair, Basema K. Al; Nozha, Omar M. Al; Al-Qahtani, Nawal M.; Alzahrani, Saad H.; Bardisi, Wedad M.; Sallam, Reem M.; Riva, John J.; Brożek, Jan L.; Schünemann, Holger J.; Moore, Ainsley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assist healthcare providers in evidence-based clinical decision-making for the management of overweight and obese adults in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assembled an expert Saudi panel to produce this clinical practice guideline in 2015. In collaboration with the methodological working group from McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, which describes both the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence Results: After identifying 11 questions, corresponding recommendations were agreed upon as guidance for the management of overweight and obese adults. These included strong recommendations in support of lifestyle interventions rather than usual care alone, individualized counseling interventions rather than generic educational pamphlets, physical activity rather than no physical activity, and physical activity in addition to diet rather than diet alone. Metformin and orlistat were suggested as conditional recommendations for the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Bariatric surgery was recommended, conditionally, for the management of obese adults (body mass index of ≥40 or ≥35 kg/m2 with comorbidities). Conclusions: The current guideline includes recommendation for the non-pharmacological, pharmacological, and surgical management of overweight and obese adults. In addition, the panel recommends conducting research priorities regarding lifestyle interventions and economic analysis of drug therapy within the Saudi context, as well as long term benefits and harms of bariatric surgery. PMID:27652370

  20. Assessment Methods of an Undergraduate Psychiatry Course at a Saudi University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Amr

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In Arab countries there are few studies on assessment methods in the field of psychiatry. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of different forms of psychiatric course assessment among fifth year medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We examined the performance of 110 fifth-year medical students through objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE, traditional oral clinical examinations (TOCE, portfolios, multiple choice questions (MCQ, and a written examination. Results: The score ranges in TOCE, OSCE, portfolio, and MCQ were 32–50, 7–15, 5–10 and 22–45, respectively. In regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between OSCE and all forms of psychiatry examinations, except for the MCQ marks. OSCE accounted for 65.1% of the variance in total clinical marks and 31.5% of the final marks (P = 0.001, while TOCE alone accounted for 74.5% of the variance in the clinical scores. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a consistency among the students’ assessment methods used in the psychiatry course, particularly the clinical component, in an integrated manner. This information would be useful for future developments in undergraduate teaching.

  1. Perceived Stress Scores among Saudi Students Entering Universities: A Prospective Study during the First Year of University Life

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    Nasser M. Al-Daghri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010−2011 academic year were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35 and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35, while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively. These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.

  2. Perceived stress scores among Saudi students entering universities: a prospective study during the first year of university life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2014-04-10

    In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010-2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.

  3. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant

  4. Estimation of rainfall using remote sensing for Riyadh climate, KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHassoun, Saleh A.

    2013-05-01

    Rainfall data constitute an important parameter for studying water resources-related problems. Remote sensing techniques could provide rapid and comprehensive overview of the rainfall distribution in a given area. Thus, the infrared data from the LandSat satellite in conjunction with the Scofield-oliver method were used to monitor and model rainfall in Riyadh area as a resemble of any area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA). Four convective clouds that covered two rain gage stations were analyzed. Good estimation of rainfall was obtained from satellite images. The results showed that the satellite rainfall estimations were well correlated to rain gage measurements. The satellite climate data appear to be useful for monitoring and modeling rainfall at any area where no rain gage is available.

  5. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  6. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bcheraoui C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam

  7. Promoting Communicative Skills and Cultural Understanding among Saudi EFL Students Joining Summer English Programs at US Universities: A Web-Based Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-wossabi, Sami Ali Nasr

    2016-01-01

    As English is one of the most spoken languages in the globally interconnected world of today, many Saudi universities are enrolling their EFL students in summer intensive English programs at US universities. The main purpose is to enhance their EFL students' oral competencies. This new policy is, in fact, the result of the failure of CLT practices…

  8. Indoor air quality levels in a University Hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud F El-Sharkawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The complex hospital environment requires special attention to ensure a healthy indoor air quality (IAQ to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections and occupational diseases. Poor hospital IAQ may cause outbreaks of building-related illness such as headaches, fatigue, eye, and skin irritations, and other symptoms. The general objective for this study was to assess IAQ inside a large University hospital at Al-Khobar City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Different locations representing areas where most activities and tasks are performed were selected as sampling points for air pollutants in the selected hospital. In addition, several factors were studied to determine those that were most likely to affect the IAQ levels. The temperature and relative percent humidity of different air pollutants were measured simultaneously at each location. Results: The outdoor levels of all air pollutant levels, except volatile organic compounds (VOCs, were higher than the indoor levels which meant that the IAQ inside healthcare facilities (HCFs were greatly affected by outdoor sources, particularly traffic. The highest levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs and those less than 10 microns (PM 10 inside the selected hospital were found at locations that are characterized with m4ore human activity. Conclusions:Levels of particulate matter (both PM 10 and TSP were higher than the Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs. The highest concentrations of the fungal species recorded were Cladosporium and Penicillium. Education of occupants of HCF on IAQ is critical. They must be informed about the sources and effects of contaminants and the proper operation of the ventilation system.

  9. Attitudes of Saudi Nursing Students on AIDS and Predictors of Willingness to Provide Care for Patients in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. Abolfotouh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and risk perception among Saudi nursing students, and to identify predictors of their willingness to provide care for patients with AIDS. A cross-sectional study of 260 baccalaureate nursing students at King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was done using a previously validated instrument. Students’ knowledge percentage mean score (PMS on AIDS was 72.93 ± 10.67 reflecting an average level of knowledge. There were many misconceptions about how AIDS is transmitted, for example, use of same toilets and bathrooms and washing clothes together (24.9%, swimming (53.7%, and coughing and sneezing (49.6%. Nursing students reported an overall negative attitude toward AIDS, with a PMS of 43.48 ± 9.21. The majority of students agreed that AIDS patients should be isolated from other patients (83%, and should not share the room with other noninfected patients (81.8%, and some reported that people living with AIDS deserve what has happened to them (24.7%. After controlling for confounders, students’ poor knowledge and negative attitude were associated only with having never been given nursing education as their primary university education “Stream 2 students” (p = .012 and p = .01, respectively. These findings have implications for development of teaching strategies and curricular approaches for nursing to address this health care issue.

  10. Female University Students’ Physical Activity Levels and Associated Factors—A Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Khalaf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5. Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagy, M M; Gohar, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on Sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. The most common fungi were Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, Aspergillus flavus followed by Acremonium strictum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Ulocladium atrum, Mucor racemosus and Fusarium solani and A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma viride, P. chrysogenum, Ulocladium atrum, Chaetomium globosum, C. spirale, Stachybotrys chartarum and Mucor racemosus on the two media, respectively.

  12. Level of Need for Cognition and Metacognitive Thinking among Undergraduate Kindergarten Female Students at King Sa'ud University in Sa'udi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghistani, Bulquees

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at examining the level of need for cognition and metacognitive thinking among undergraduate kindergarten female students in Education Faculty at King Sa'ud University in Sa'udi Arabia from their own perceptions. Results showed that the need for the cognition level was moderate, but metacognitive thinking level was high. In…

  13. Prostatic diseases under focus in a university hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Nemer, Areej M Al; Aldamanhori, Reem B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the spectrum of pathologies diagnosed in prostatic biopsies of Saudi men, and test whether the frequency of diagnosing the malignant fraction has been changed over the last 15 years, and assess the association between chronic inflammation (CI) with both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and cancer (PCa), and investigate the histological findings of cases presented with acute urinary retention (AUR) clinically. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study including all...

  14. Perspectives of interns and residents toward do-not-resuscitate policies in Saudi Arabia

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    Amoudi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah S Amoudi,1 Mohammed H Albar,2 Amjed M Bokhari,3 Sultan H Yahya,4 Anas A Merdad1 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, 4Department of Radiology, King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objective: Do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders in Saudi Arabia were first regulated by a fatwa on a national level in 1988, one that excludes the patient and their families from decision making. Although the core of this policy is taken up by all hospitals in Saudi Arabia, there is no homogeneity in implementation. Here, we appraise what interns and residents know of these policies and their attitudes toward DNR. Methods: Interns and residents in four major hospitals in Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, National Guard Hospital, King Fahad General Hospital, and King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, were given a questionnaire in English with four blocks of questions. Results: A total of 140 questionnaires were included in our study. From these questionnaires, we conclude a lack of familiarity with DNR's policies and the fatwa and also a lack of understanding when it comes to treating DNR-labeled patients. The majority opinion was to include the patient in the decision-making process who is excluded according to the fatwa. Participants considered patients' dignity, religious concerns, and legal concerns to be important in considering resuscitation. Conclusion: We conclude a need to emphasize the issue of DNR and treatment of DNR patients in medical ethics classes in Saudi Arabia and put more effort to enact national DNR laws that include the patient in the decision-making process. Keywords: passive euthanasia, Middle East, cross-sectional study

  15. Emergence of Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci at a Teaching Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Fawzia E; Bukhari, Elham E

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a major and emerging hospital-acquired pathogen associated with high mortality, particularly among the critically ill and Intensive Care Units (ICUs) patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and demographic and clinical characteristics of VRE among patients admitted to a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A study was conducted during the period from September 2014 to November 2015 at King Khalid University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, including in-patients with VRE infection. Data were collected using laboratory results and the medical records of admitted patients and were analyzed using SPSS version 19.0 statistical software. Results: In a one-year period, 231 enterococci were isolated from blood, urine, exudates, sputum, stool, and body fluid. There were 191 (82.7%) vancomycin-sensitive enterococci (VSE) and 40 (17.3%) isolates were VRE. The Enterococcus species included E. faecalis 168 (72.7%), E. faecium, 53 (22.8%) E. gallinarum 5 (2.2%), and E. avium 5 (2.2%). VRE were more significant from blood specimens (P < 0.0001) while VSE were significantly more predominant from urine specimens (P < 0.0001). VRE were more commonly isolated from patients in ICUs and oncology unit (P = 0.0151 and P < 0.001, respectively) while VSE were more predominant in the medical and surgical areas (P = 0.0178 and P = 0.0178, respectively). Conclusions: This study highlights the high prevalence of VRE in the hospital and the association of enterococcal infections with high-risk areas and oncology units, which warrant more studies looking for better management of these infections. PMID:28139519

  16. Similarities and variances in perception of professionalism among Saudi and Egyptian Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Kamran; Roff, Sue; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: Professionalism has a number of culturally specific elements, therefore, it is imperative to identify areas of congruence and variations in the behaviors in which professionalism is understood in different countries. This study aimed to explore and compare the recommendation of sanctions by medical students of College of Medicine, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and students from three medical colleges in Egypt. Methods: The responses were recorded using an anonymous, self-administered survey “ Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic Integrity”. In the study 750 medical students of College of Medicine, KSU, Riyadh were invited and a questionnaire was electronically sent. They rated the importance of professionalism lapses by choosing from a hierarchical menu of sanctions for first time lapses with no justifying circumstances. These responses were compared with published data from 219 students from three medical schools in Egypt. Results: We found variance for 23 (76.66%) behaviors such as “physically assaulting a university employee or student” and “plagiarizing work from a fellow student or publications/internet”. We also found similarities for 7 (23.33%) behaviors including “lack of punctuality for classes” and drinking alcohol over lunch and interviewing a patient in the afternoon”, when comparing the median recommended sanctions from medical students in Saudi Arabia and Egypt. Conclusion: There are more variances than congruence regarding perceptions of professionalism between the two cohorts. The students at KSU were also found to recommend the sanction of “ignore” for a behavior, a response, which otherwise was absent from Egyptian cohort. PMID:28083032

  17. Serratia marcescens-contaminated baby shampoo causing an outbreak among newborns at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, T A; Alsaedi, S; James, L; Eldeek, B S; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Alawi, M M; Marwan, D; Cudal, M; Macapagal, M; Bahlas, R; Farouq, M

    2011-05-01

    During November 2008 to January 2009, 11 babies in the neonatal intensive care (NICU) and three babies in the nursery were infected with Serratia marcescens at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Overall, fifteen infections were identified among 11 newborns in the NICU: septicaemia (five cases), purulent conjunctivitis (three), urinary tract infection (two), meningitis (two) and cellulitis (one). Three newborns in the nursery had three infections: purulent conjunctivitis (two cases) and omphalitis (one). Thirteen of 14 babies recovered fully but one died from S. marcescens meningitis and septicaemia. All infections were traced to intrinsically contaminated baby shampoo introduced to the units five days before the first reported case. The outbreak terminated following withdrawal of the shampoo product.

  18. Lead Contamination in Selected Foods from Riyadh City Market and Estimation of the Daily Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeid A. Al Othman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine lead contamination in 104 of the representative food items in the Saudi diet and to estimate the dietary lead intake of Saudi Arabians. Three samples of each selected food items were purchased from the local markets of Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Each pooled sample was analyzed in triplicate by ICP-AES after thorough homogenization. Sweets (0.011–0.199 μg/g, vegetables (0.002–0.195 μg/g, legumes (0.014–0.094 μg/g, eggs (0.079 μg/g, meat and meat products (0.013–0.068 μg/g were the richest sources of lead. Considering the amounts of each food consumed, the major food sources of lead intake for Saudi can be arranged as follows: vegetables (25.4%, cereal and cereal products (24.2%, beverages (9.7% sweets (8.2%, legumes (7.4%, fruits (5.4% milk and milk products (5.1%. The daily intake of lead was calculated taking into account the concentration of this element in the edible part of the daily consumption data which were derived from two sources, (a the KSA food sheet provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO and (b from questionnaires distributed among 300 families in Riyadh city. The results showed that the daily intakes of lead according to the two sources are 22.7 and 24.5 μg/person/day respectively, which are lower than that mentioned by The Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, whereas it is comprabale with that of other countries.

  19. Investigating student experiences of learning English as a foreign language in a preparatory programme in a Saudi university

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In today’s world, knowledge is power; it is the capital that has the ability to transform nations. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has oil, giving it huge revenue that can be invested into the development of the country. Despite the massive expenditure to develop Saudi higher education, the question of the quality of teaching and learning is still debatable (Alkhazim, 2003). In particular, the low level of English language competency among the graduates of many higher Saudi higher education...

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression among Female Medical Students in King Abdulaziz University Jeddah Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical education & medical profession are among the most challenging and most stressful ones. Anxiety and depression represents an escalating public health problem among medical students. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence & predictors of anxiety and depression among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross- sectional study was carried out during 2010-2011. A stratified random sample method was used to select 450 medical students. A confidential, anonymous & self administered questionnaire included Standardized Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale was used.Results: The mean scores for anxiety and depression were 9.32 ± 3.77 & 6.59 ± 3.62, respectively. There is a positive correlation between anxiety & depression scores (r= 0.52, P< 0.001. Prevalence of morbid anxiety and depression were 34.9% and 14.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the first predictor of morbid anxiety was depression (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 3.28; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.85-5.82, P < 0.001. Students complained from condensed academic course, had academic and emotional failures during the 6 months preceded the study were about 2 times more prone to anxiety. Predictors of depression were having anxiety, nationality (being non-Saudi & having emotional failure.Conclusion: Medical students encountered high rates of anxiety & depression compared to others. Academic problems and major life events were the main predictors. Enhancing faculty preventive & curative mental health services is recommended. Initiation of stress management courses & enhancing academic advising services are required since the start of medical education.

  1. Analysis of hemoglobin electrophoresis results and physicians investigative practices in Saudi Arabia

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    Syed Riaz Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Riyadh and central province falls in a moderate prevalent zone of hemoglobinopathies in Saudi Arabia. However, it has been observed that the physicians working in Saudi Arabia invariably advise all cases of anemia for hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE. The present work was carried out to study the yield of the HE in Riyadh and the investigative practices of the physicians advising HE. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in the hospitals of King Saud University from 2009 to 2011 in order to assess the yield of HE in referred cases of clinical anemia. Materials and Methods: A total of 1073 cases divided in two groups of males and females had undergone complete blood count and red blood cell morphology. Cellulose acetate HE was performed and all the positive results were reconfirmed on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results were analyzed for the type of hemoglobinopathies. For statistical analysis Statistical Package for Social Sciences 15 version (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA was used. Results: A total of 405 males and 668 females blood samples were included in the present study. 116 (28.5% males and 167 (25% females showed an abnormal pattern on HE. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait was higher in females while sickle cell trait was predominantly seen in males. Red cell indices were reduced considerably in thalassemias, but were unaffected in sickle cell disorders, except those which had concurrent alpha trait. The total yield of HE was 26.6% which was much less than expected. Conclusion: The physicians are advised to rule out iron deficiency and other common causes of anemia before investigating the cases for hemoglobinopathies, which employs time consuming and expensive tests of HE and HPLC.

  2. Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2014-01-01

    Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

  3. The Use of Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching: A Study in the Saudi Girls Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal A.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of faculty in girls colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, investigated teaching experience, academic rank, importance of audiovisual aids, teacher training, availability of audiovisual centers, and reasons for not using audiovisual aids. Proposes changes to increase use of audiovisual aids: more training courses, more teacher release time,…

  4. Prevalence and future prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A systematic review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-06-01

    To highlight the prevalence and future projections of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The systematic analytic study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from Dec 2014 to April 2015. Systematic bibliographic search of scientific databases including ISI-web of science, PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted with key words of "diabetes mellitus" "prevalence", "incidence". Total 46 peer reviewed papers were selected and examined. All the experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia were included. There was no restriction on publication prestige and language of the publication. Finally, we included 21 publications and remaining 25 papers were excluded. The future predicted prevalence of type 2 diabetes was calculated on the results of the published studies by regressing the 33 years (1982-2015) of prevalence rate of diabetes against the time period. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia is 32.8%. However, the predicted prevalence will be 35.37% in 2020; 40.37% in 2025 and 45.36% in the year 2030. The coefficient on time factor indicated that prevalence rate has increased during 1982-2015. Saudi Arabia has a highest prevalence (32.8%) of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We forecast that the incidence of type 2 diabetes will increase from 32.8% in 2015 to 45.36% in 2030. Saudi Arabia should include diabetes preventive measures on a war footing basis in their national health policy to minimize the burden of the disease.

  5. A Study of the Inter-Cultural Sensitivity among the Faculty of English Language Centre of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

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    Saeed Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available study explored intercultural sensitivity of 103 faculty members of the English Language Centre (ELC of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative and non-experimental design was adopted for this study in which intercultural sensitivity of the English language teachers was evaluated on five demographic variables (e.g. gender, education, religion, total teaching experience, and experience of teaching in intercultural context. The results revealed that the international faculty of ELC abreast the basic canons of Intercultural adjustments. This suggests that the teachers are not only familiar with different cultural patterns (like beliefs, values and communication styles they are willing to minimize these differences and adopt universal set of values for effective educational practices. The results indicate the participants’ higher level of empathy, respect for others’ culture, tolerance on differences and high willingness to integrate with other cultures. The data reveals no statistically significant difference between the two groups in three variables, i.e. gender (Male & Female, qualification (Masters' & Ph.D and religion (Muslims & Non-Muslims. However, there was found a statistically significant difference in the two groups (Less than ten years & More than ten years in two variables, i.e. total teaching experience and teaching experience in intercultural context. Keywords: Adaptability, English Teaching, Intercultural Sensitivity

  6. Psychometric Properties of Creative Self-Efficacy Inventory Among Distinguished Students in Saudi Arabian Universities.

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    Alotaibi, Khaled N

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of Abbott's Creative Self-Efficacy inventory. Saudi honors students (157 men vs. 163 women) participated. These students are undergraduates (M age = 19.5 year, SD = 1.9) who complete 30 credit hours with a grade point average of no less than 4.5 out of 5. The results showed that the internal consistency (α = .87) and the test-retest reliabilities (r = .73) were satisfactory. The study sample was separated into two subsamples. The data from the first subsample (n = 60) were used to conduct an exploratory factor analysis, whereas the data from the second subsample (n = 260) were used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis. The results of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis indicated that creative self-efficacy was not a unidimensional construct but consisted of two factors labeled "creative thinking self-efficacy" and "creative performance self-efficacy." As expected, this two-factor model fit the data adequately, supporting prior research that treated creative self-efficacy as multidimensional construct.

  7. Pediatric pulmonary services in Saudi Arabia

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    Abdullah A Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the available pediatric pulmonary services, in terms of workforce, resources, and distribution across Saudi Arabia. This would help in proper utilization of resources and direct future planning. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among pediatric pulmonologists registered in the Saudi Thoracic Society. Results: Among 43 practicing pediatric pulmonologist in Saudi Arabia, 29 have responded to the survey (response rate of 67.4%. The majority of practicing pediatric pulmonologists were young graduates with less than 5 years′ experience (44.8% and were North American training programs graduates (69%. The majority of the respondents (51% were located in Riyadh, 27% in Jeddah, 14% in the Eastern region and 3% in Madinah and Al-Majma′a. Most of the respondents had access to basic diagnostic tools required in the subspecialty, a majority of them (85% lack dedicated pediatric pulmonary function laboratories. Nearly, 80% of the hospitals performed less than 50 flexible bronchoscopies/year. Conclusion: Pediatric pulmonology is a growing subspecialty in Saudi Arabia with well-trained and experienced physicians. Our study represents an overview of the available pediatric pulmonology services in Saudi Arabia, which would help in future planning and better utilization of the available resources.

  8. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among patients with different gastrointestinal disorders in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed S. Alhussaini

    2017-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori is an important gastrointestinal pathogen associated with gastritis, peptic ulcers, and an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. The present study was carried out to determine the relationship between this organism with different gastrointestinal ailments.Methods: 150 outpatients referrals to Saudi Arabian Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was recruited in January to June 2015. Each patient was subjected to endoscopic examination. Biopsy specimens we...

  9. Epidemiology and outcome of Crohn′s disease in a teaching hospital in Riyadh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah S. Al-Ghamdi; Ibrahim A. Al-Mofleh; Rashed S. Al-Rashed; Saleh M. Al-Amri; Abdulrahman M. Aljebreen; Arthur C. Isnani; Reda El-Badawi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To know the epidemiology and outcome of Crohn′s disease at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to compare the results from other world institutions.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients seen for 20 years (between 1983 and 2002). Individual case records were reviewed with regard to history, clinical, findings from colonoscopy, biopsies, small bowel enema, computerized tomography scan, treatment and outcome.RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients with Crohn′s disease were revisited, 13% presented the disease in the first 10 years and 87% over Ge last 10 years. Thirty-three patients (42.9%)were males and 44 (57.1%) were females. Age ranged from 11-70 years (mean of 25.3±11.3 years). Ninety-two (92%) were Saudi. The mean duration of symptoms was 26±34.7 mo. The mean annual incidence of the disease over the first 10 years was 0.32:100 000 and 1.66:100 000over the last 10 years with a total mean annual incidence of 0.94:100 000 over the last 20 years. The chief clinical features included abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss,anorexia, rectal bleeding and palpable mass. Colonoscopic findings were abnormal in 58 patients (76%) showing mostly ulcerations and inflammation of the colon. Eighty nine percent of patients showed nonspecific inflammation with chronic inflammatory cells and half of these patients revealed the presence of granulomas and granulations on bowel biopsies. Similarly, 69 (89%) of small bowel enema results revealed ulcerations (49%), narrowing of the bowel lumen (42%), mucosal thickening (35%) and cobblestone appearance (35%). CT scan showed abnormality in 68(88%) of patients with features of thickened loops (66%)and lymphadenopathy (37%). Seventy-eight percent of patients had small and large bowel disease, 16% had small bowel involvement and only 6% had colitis alone. Of the total 55 (71%) patients treated with steroids at some point in their disease history, a satisfactory response to therapy was seen in 28 patients (51

  10. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012

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    Rabia Latif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to 2012. The search was limited to medical and biomedical subjects. Results were saved in a text file and later checked carefully to exclude false positive errors. The quality of the publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report 2012. Results: Biomedical research production in KSA in those 5 years showed a clear linear progression. Riyadh was the main hub of medical and biomedical research activity. Most of the publications (40.9% originated from King Saud University (KSU. About half of the articles were published in journals with an Impact Factor (IF of < 1, one-fourth in journals with no IF, and the remaining one-fourth in journals with a high IF (≥1. Conclusion: This study revealed that research activity in KSA is increasing. However, there is an increasing trend of publishing in local journals with a low IF. More effort is required to promote medical research in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Predicting Relationship of Smoking Behavior Among Male Saudi Arabian College Students Related to Their Religious Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA.

  12. Promoting Communicative Skills and Cultural Understanding among Saudi EFL Students Joining Summer English Programs at US Universities: A Web-Based Project

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    Sami Ali Nasr Al-wossabi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As English is one of the most spoken languages in the globally  interconnected  world of today, many Saudi universities are enrolling their EFL students in summer intensive English programs at US universities. The main purpose is to enhance their EFL students' oral competencies. This new policy is, in fact, the result of the failure of CLT practices in local universities (Liao, 2004; Nunan, 2003, large EFL classes and students' low proficiency (Yu, 2001; Li, 1998 and EFL teachers' preference for using traditional methods rather than communicative ones (Chowdhry, 2010; Littlewood, 2007. However, Saudi students, upon arrival to the US, encounter challenging communicative situations. The present study, therefore, advocates the implementation of four-week language software program in Jazan university prior to the later four-week language program in US universities. The aim is to prepare EFL Saudi students for the communicative and academic situations and cultural norm they would be encountering and experiencing in the USA. The project includes two modalities; online learning and in class learning. The online learning entails a language software content-based program with emphasis on listening, vocabulary, writing, grammar and reading skills.  The in-class learning includes only speaking activities that are paralleled and compatible to the online thematic content. Thus, the main focus of the present paper will primarily be directed to providing a detailed description of the online language software and the different elements involved in constituting it. Keywords: language software components, integrated skills, communicative competencies, intensive language programs, cultural and sociolinguistic norms

  13. Health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Al-Manaa, Hamad A.; Khoja, Tawfik A.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Aburisheh, Khaled H.; Youssef, Amira M.; Alotaibi, Metib S.; Al-Gamdi, Ali A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and diabetes health care expenditure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was part of a nationwide, household, population based cross-sectional survey conducted at the University Diabetes Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2007 and December 2009 covering 13 administrative regions of the Kingdom. Using patients’ interview questionnaires, health care services data were collected by trained staff. Results: A total of 5,983 diabetic patients were chosen to assess health care services and expenditure. Approximately 92.2% of health services were governmental and the remaining 7.8% were in private services. The mean annual number of visits to physicians was 6.5±3.9 and laboratories was 5.1±3.9. Diabetic patients required one admission every 3 years with a mean admission duration of 13.3±28.3 days. General practitioners managed 85.9% of diabetic cases alone, or shared with internists and/or endocrinologists. Health care expenditure was governmental in 90% of cases, while it was personal in 7.7% or based on insurance payment in 2.3%. Conclusion: Health services and its expenditure provided to diabetic citizens in Saudi Arabia are mainly governmental. Empowerment of the role of both the private sector and health insurance system is badly needed, aside from implementing proper management guidelines to deliver good services at different levels. PMID:26446334

  14. Advancing adolescent health and health services in Saudi Arabia: exploring health-care providers' training, interest, and perceptions of the health-care needs of young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlBuhairan FS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fadia S AlBuhairan,1–3 Tina M Olsson3,4 1Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Adolescent health is regarded as central to global health goals. Investments made in adolescent health and health services protect the improvements witnessed in child health. Though Saudi Arabia has a large adolescent population, adolescent health-care only began to emerge in recent years, yet widespread uptake has been very limited. Health-care providers are key in addressing and providing the necessary health-care services for adolescents, and so this study was conducted with the aim of identifying opportunities for the advancement of knowledge transfer for adolescent health services in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This Web-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at four hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Physicians and nurses were invited to participate in an online survey addressing their contact with adolescent patients, and training, knowledge, and attitudes towards adolescent health-care. Results: A total of 232 professionals participated. The majority (82.3% reported sometimes or always coming into contact with adolescent patients. Less than half (44%, however, had received any sort of training on adolescent health during their undergraduate or postgraduate education, and only 53.9% reported having adequate knowledge about the health-care needs of adolescents. Nurses perceived themselves as having more knowledge in the health-care needs of adolescents and reported feeling more comfortable in communicating with adolescents as compared with physicians. The majority of participants were interested in gaining further skills and knowledge in adolescent health-care and agreed or strongly agreed that adolescents have

  15. Prevalence of Sleep Deprivation and Relation with Depressive Symptoms among Medical Residents in King Fahd University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

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    Esraa M. Al-Maddah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sleep deprivation is common among medical residents of all specialties. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms among medical residents in King Fahd University Hospital (KFUH in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the association between sleep deprivation, sleepiness and depressive symptoms was examined. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between February and April 2012 and involved 171 KFUH medical residents of different specialties. Data were collected using a specifically designed questionnaire eliciting demographic information, working hours and number of hours of sleep. In addition, validated Arabic versions of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-2 (BDI-2 were used. Results: The prevalence of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep deprivation among residents in KFUH was 85.9% and 63.2%, respectively. The prevalence of overall sleepiness was 52%; 43.3% reported being excessively sleepy in certain situations while 8.8% reported being excessively sleepy regardless of the situation. Based on the BDI-2, the prevalence of mild, moderate and severe depressive symptoms was 43.3%, 15.2% and 4.7%, respectively. Significant associations were found between sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms; depressive symptoms and sleepiness, and depressive symptoms and being a female resident. Conclusion: The vast majority of medical residents had acute sleep deprivation, with more than half suffering from chronic sleep deprivation. The number of hours and quality of sleep among the residents were strongly associated with depressive symptoms. New regulations are recommended regarding the number of working hours and night duties for medical residents. Further studies should assess these new regulations on a regular basis.

  16. Faculty Perception of Stress and Coping Strategies in a Saudi Private University: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Adnan; Kokash, Husam

    2011-01-01

    Teaching profession was once viewed as a "low stress occupation" and they have been envied for tenure, light workloads, flexibility and other perks such as foreign trips for study and conference. However, some recent studies suggest that university faculty is among the most stressed occupational group. The present study was conducted to…

  17. Introducing Project-Based Instruction in the Saudi ESP Classroom: A Study in Qassim University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsamani, Abdul-Aziz Saleh; Daif-Allah, Ayman Sabry

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the impact of introducing an integrative pedagogical approach in the ESP classes on developing the English language vocabulary of Computer Science and Information Technology students in the College of Science, Qassim University. The study suggests a framework for an ESP course-design employing students' project…

  18. Gastroenteritis attributable to rotavirus in hospitalized Saudi Arabian children in the period 2007–2008

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    Khalil M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Khalil,1 Esam Azhar,2,3 Moujahed Kao,3 Noura Al-Kaiedi,3 Hatim Alhani,4 Ibrahim Al Olayan,5 Robert Pawinski,6,7 Kusuma Gopala,8 Walid Kandeil,7 Sameh Anis,7,9 Leen Jan Van Doorn,10 Rodrigo DeAntonio7 1Public Health and Research Development, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, 3Special Infectious Agents Unit, Bio-Safety Level 3, King Fahad Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia; 6Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals, Slough, UK; 7GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium; 8GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; 9AbbVie Biopharmaceuticals GmbH, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 10DDL Diagnostic Laboratory, Rijswijk, the Netherlands Purpose: Rotavirus (RV is a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE in children across the world. As there is a lack of epidemiological data for RV gastroenteritis (RVGE in Saudi Arabia, this hospital-based study was designed to estimate the disease burden of RVGE and assess the prevalent RV types in Saudi children younger than 5 years of age.Patients and methods: Children hospitalized for acute GE were enrolled at four pediatric referral hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from February 2007 to March 2008 and used the World Health Organization's generic protocol for RVGE surveillance. The Vesikari severity scale was used to assess the severity of RVGE. Stool samples were tested for RV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples were further typed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and hybridization assay for determining the G and P types.Results: A total of 1,007 children were enrolled; the final analysis included 970 children, of whom 395 were RV positive, 568 were RV negative, and seven had unknown RV status

  19. Scaffolding Pronunciation in Saudi EFL Classroom at Majma'ah University

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    El-Sadig Yahya Ezza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The College of Education at Majma'ah University shifted from King Saud University EFL syllabus to Gassim University EFL syllabus at the second term of the academic year 1432/1433. The new syllabus introduces the students to the English pronunciation before introducing them to linguistics. Contrary to the general paradigm, this situation is argued to deprive the students from a proper socialization into the academic discourse of linguists that could have otherwise helped them   to understand the English phonology.  Also, the students' pre-college education trained them to base their English pronunciation on the letters of alphabet despite all the irregularities inherent in the English spelling system. For these reasons, among others, it became necessary to adopt the scaffolding theory as an interventionist teaching strategy to achieve four objectives: to facilitate and enhance the students' understanding of the English pronunciation, to provide them with more opportunities to practise pronunciation, to train them to use authentic pronunciation sources and to help them to become autonomous learners who could actively take responsibility for  their own learning. Keywords: pronunciation, accent, scaffolded instruction, sounds, transcription, articulation, mispronunciation, spelling, dictionary, listener-friendly

  20. Seismic noise study for a new seismic station at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaka, S. I.

    2012-04-01

    We have carried out a seismic noise study in order to understand the noise level at three selected locations at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The main purpose is to select a suitable site with low seismic noise and good signal-to-noise ratio for our new broadband seismic station. There are several factors involved in the selection of a site location for a new station. Most importantly, we need to strike a balance between a logistically convenient site versus a technically suitable site. As a starting point, we selected six potential sites due to accessibility and proximity to the seismic processing center laboratory in the Department of Earth Sciences (ESD) at KFUPM. We then eliminated two sites that are relatively close to possible low-frequency noise sources. We have considered many possible noise sources which include: vehicle traffic / heavy machinery, the direct path of air flowing from air conditioning vent, tall trees / power poles and metal doorways. One more site was eliminated because the site was located in the open where it experiences maximum wind speed which is considered a major source of noise. All three potential sites are situated within the Dammam Dome where both lower middle and upper Rus Formations are exposed. The upper Rus is mainly made up of fine grained chalky limestone and the lower Rus is made up of alternation of marls and thin dolomitic limestone. The area is not known for any major faults and considered very low seismicity and hence the identification of seismoteconic features is not required. Before conducting the noise study, we calibrated and tested the seismic recording system, which was recently acquired by the ESD at KFUPM. The system includes a seismic recorder and a sensor with a GPS device. We deployed the system in order to measure the low-frequency background noise. Knowing the low frequency noise will help in predicting the high-frequency noise. The recording systems were

  1. Proteinuria in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease is not associated with identifiable risk factors

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    Aleem Aamer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal involvement in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD is associated with signi-ficant morbidity and mortality. Proteinuria is common in patients with SCD and is a risk factor for future development of renal failure. We sought to identify risk factors, if any, associated with pro-teinuria in adult Saudi patients with SCD. We studied 67 patients with SCD followed-up at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All patients underwent 24-hour urine collection to measure creatinine clearance and to quantify proteinuria. In addition, blood was examined for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Clinical information was gathered from review of the patients′ charts. A urine protein level of more than 0.150 grams/24 hours was consi-dered abnormal. Urine protein was correlated with various clinical and laboratory parameters. Thirty-one males and 36 females were evaluated. The mean age of the cohort was 23.8 (± 7.2 years. Twenty-seven patients (40.3% had proteinuria of more than 0.150 grams/24 hours. The study group had a mean hemoglobin level of 8.5 (± 2.8 g/dL and mean fetal hemoglobin (HbF level of 14.4% (± 7.3%. Majority of the patients (61 had hemoglobin SS genotype and six patients had S-β0 thala-ssemia. None of the parameters evaluated correlated with proteinuria although there was a border-line association with older age and higher systolic blood pressure (P = 0.073 and 0.061 respec-tively. Hydroxyurea use for more than a year was not beneficial. In conclusion, our study suggests that proteinuria in adult Saudi patients is not associated with any clear identifiable risk factors.

  2. Risky health behaviors among students in Majmaah University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Tahir; Alghamdi, Talal; Alzahrani, Mansour; Alfhaid, Fahad; Sami, Waqas; Aldahash, Bader A.; Aldukhayel, Dukhayel S.; Alshanbah, Fahad S.; Almutairi, Naif M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Risky behaviors are those that potentially expose people to harm, or significant risk of harm, which prevent them from reaching their potential in life and which can cause significant morbidity or mortality. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the overall prevalence of risky behaviors among university students; to determine the prevalence of smoking, drifting, fast driving and physical inactivity among university students; and to determine the associations between such behavior and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study conducted in three colleges. The data were randomly collected from 340 students aged 18-30 years from February to March 2015 using a self-administered questionnaire in Arabic. The data were entered using SPSS v 22.0. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for quantitative variables, and frequency and percentages were computed for categorical variables. Chi-square or Fisher's Exact test, as appropriate, were used to test for statistical significance. Results: The overall prevalence of risky behaviors (smoking, drifting, fast driving, and physical inactivity) among students was 47.35%. Overall, 28% of the students were smokers, 25.2% were involved in drifting, 60.9% reported driving fast, and 66.4% were physically inactive. The age between 18-20 years was significantly associated with higher rates of drifting, fast driving, and physical inactivity. Conclusion: The prevalence of risky behaviors among university students was high. Physical inactivity and fast driving were the most common identified risky behaviors. Increasing awareness of these risks in the youth may significantly decrease related morbidities, complications, and even mortalities. PMID:27625578

  3. Morbidity patterns among King Faisal university students, Al Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulrashid C Choudary

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To explore the prevalent morbidity problems among students at King Faisal University. To identify the nature of referred cases and assess the efficiency of the referral system. Subjects and Methods : This was a retrospective, records-based descriptive study, involving the examination of the health records of students at King Faisal University, who attended the Medical Center for Primary Health Care services in a five-year period. A pre-tested compilation sheet was used for data collection. Results : Out of 2472 consultations, about 58 % of the diagnosed morbidity conditions were of infectious nature, mostly affecting the respiratory (62%, dental (14%, gastrointestinal (7%, and skin infections (5 %, with more prevalence among males. The non-infectious morbidity conditions were recorded more among females and included muscle and joints problems (16 %, allergic conditions (15 %, gastrointestinal (8 %, and trauma (5 %. Some of the encountered morbidity demonstrated seasonal variation. Case referrals were about 6 %, more in the non-infectious conditions, with a deficient feedback system. Conclusion : Quality improvement of the medical records and the establishment of a proper referral system are necessary. Health education on preventable morbid conditions should be organized and implemented.

  4. Thermal comfort requirements in hot dry regions with special reference to Riyadh Part 2: for Friday prayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, S.A.R. [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architecture and Building Science

    1996-01-01

    This study is an attempt to define thermal comfort requirements for Friday prayer during the hot season of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. According to Islam, a Muslim should perform his prayers five times a day. The obligatory five prayers are Subuh prayer immediately before dawn, Thohor prayer in the afternoon, Assor prayer in late afternoon, Maghreb prayer immediately after sunset, and Ishaa prayer early evening. Generally, Muslims are encouraged to perform all five prayers in a mosque. Friday prayer that replaces Thohor prayer once a week, should take place in one of the main mosques of the neighbourhood. The mosque where Friday prayer could be performed is known as Friday mosque. Usually Friday prayer is attended by hundreds of worshippers and takes place in the afternoon. Since the summer of Riyadh is characterised by a very high temperature and a very low relative humidity, the indoor climate of the Friday mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Gamae) need a special study. This is the second part of a series of field investigations dealing with thermal comfort requirements in the hot-dry region of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  5. Group B strains of human respiratory syncytial virus in Saudi Arabia: molecular and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajhdi, Fahad N; Farrag, Mohamed A; Amer, Haitham M

    2014-04-01

    The genetic variability and circulation pattern of human respiratory syncytial virus group B (HRSV-B) strains, identified in Riyadh during the winters of 2008 and 2009, were evaluated by partial sequencing of the attachment (G) protein gene. The second hypervariable region (HVR-2) of G gene was amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to representatives of different HRSV-B genotypes. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Saudi strains belonged to the genotype BA, which is characterized by 60-nucleotide duplication at HVR-2. Only strains of 2008 were clustered with subgroup BA-IV, while those isolated at 2009 were clustered among the most recent subgroups (particularly BA-X and CB-B). Amino acid sequence analysis demonstrated 18 amino acid substitutions in Saudi HRSV-B strains; among which five are specific for individual strains. Furthermore, two potential N-glycosylation sites at residues 230 and 296 were identified for all Saudi strains, and an additional site at amino acid 273 was found only in Riyadh 28/2008 strain. O-glycosylation was predicted in 42-43 sites, where the majority (no = 38) are highly conserved among Saudi strains. The average ratio between non-synonymous and synonymous mutations (ω) implied stabilizing selection pressure on G protein, with evidences of positive selection on certain Saudi strains. This report provides preliminary data on the circulation pattern and molecular characteristics of HRSV-B strains circulating in Saudi Arabia.

  6. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M;

    2015-01-01

    : This case and control study was nested within a 3-year prospective cohort study to examine patterns of fetal and neonatal malformations in Saudi women at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh -Saudi Arabia. Consanguineous marriages were defined as marriages with first or second cousins......BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS...

  7. Intervention Strategies in a Saudi English Classroom at Majma'ah University

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    El-Sadig Yahya Ezza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Verbal reports and English teachers’ classroom experience at   Community College of Majma'ah University (MU warn that underachievement is an educational crisis in the making. And in the paucity of research findings to raise the institutional awareness of the phenomenon, coupled with the lack of relevant professional training programs to deal with the situation, the crisis could be further aggravated. This study is an attempt to address underachievement among English students at Community College; it particularly reports a tripartite teaching strategy comprising three intervention methods: orientation, use of the students' first language (L1 and multiple mid-term exams. This teaching strategy has been devised to achieve two objectives: to motivate the students to improve their performance; and to help them acquire new (college-related study skills. In the light of what has so far been done, it can be concluded that the majority of the students are able to excel academically provided that they are properly informed   and guided to discover these abilities.

  8. Attitudes and perceptions towards HPV vaccination among young women in Saudi Arabia

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    Aneela N Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rising incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer can be reduced by effective vaccination. Saudi Food and Drug Administration approved prophylactic HPV vaccine in 2010 for females of 11-26 years. Objectives: To determine the awareness of HPV infection, its health sequel and the attitude and barriers to the acceptance of HPV vaccine by young women in Saudi Arabia. Dynamics influencing the decision of patients and parents regarding vaccination were assessed to foster effective and strategically focused interventions. Materials and Methods: All patients of Family Medicine department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh were invited to participate in this study from January 2012 to June 2014. A culturally sensitive and specially designed questionnaire was administered using an interview-based model to assess the knowledge, perception, and associated sociodemographic factors of HPV. Results: A total of 325 patients participated as per the inclusion criteria: 87.4% were Saudis, 53.5% had university or higher education and 65.2% were adolescents (age 11-19 years. The questionnaire was answered by participants (50.8% or guardians (49.2%. About 34.5% of the population was aware of HPV infection, and 27.4% were aware of its relation with cervical cancer. However, awareness of the HPV vaccine, perception of its prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related disease was relatively low (32.3%, Saudis (29.9% versus non-Saudis (48.8% (P = 0.016. More guardians (41.2% were aware of the HPV vaccine and its impact than participants (27.9% (P = 0.01. Higher educational background (43.1% increased the knowledge of HPV compared to less than high school education (24.5% (odds ratio: 2.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.44-3.76. Nearly 64.3% of participants agreed, and 35.7% refused to receive the HPV vaccine. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception of HPV infection as an sexually transmitted infections and

  9. Patterns of psychotropic medication use in inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alosaimi FD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Abdulhadi Alhabbad,2 Mohammed F Abalhassan,3 Ebtihaj O Fallata,4 Nasser M Alzain,5 Mohammad Zayed Alassiry,6 Bander Abdullah Haddad71Department of Psychiatry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Prince Mohammed Medical City, Aljouf, 3Department of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 4Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Hospital, Jeddah, 5Department of Psychiatry, Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, 6Medical Services Department, Abha Psychiatric Hospital, Abha, 7Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To study the pattern of psychotropic medication use and compare this pattern between inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia.Method: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between July 2012 and June 2014 on patients seeking psychiatric advice at major hospitals in five main regions of Saudi Arabia. Male (n=651 and female (n=594 patients who signed the informed consent form and were currently or had been previously using psychotropic medications, irrespective of the patient’s type of psychiatric diagnosis and duration of the disease, were included. A total of 1,246 patients were found to be suitable in the inclusion criteria of whom 464 were inpatients while 782 were outpatients.Results: Several studied demographic factors have shown that compared with outpatients, inpatients were more likely to be male (P=0.004, unmarried (P<0.001, have less number of children (1–3; P=0.002, unemployed (P=0.001, have a lower family income (<3,000 SR; P<0.001, live in rural communities (P<0.001, have a lower body mass index (P=0.001, and are smokers (P<0.001; however, there were no differences with regard to age or educational levels. The current frequency of use of psychotropic medications in overall patients was antipsychotics (76.6%, antidepressants (41.4%, mood stabilizers

  10. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

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    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Estimation of dune migration rates north Riyadh City, KSA, using SPOT 4 panchromatic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutiry, M.; Hermas, E. A.; Al-Ghamdi, K. A.; Al-Awaji, H.

    2016-12-01

    Irq Al-Rethmah is located north of Riyadh City, KSA, as elongated NW-SE sand accumulations. Its formation and development are highly controlled by the ridge-and-valley landscape dominant in the east of Saudi Arabia. The active dunes of Irq Al-Rethmah are basically represented by barchan and transverse dunes. These active dunes either superimpose the old stable dunes and sand sheets or directly occur over the alluvial plain adjacent to the western reaches of old stable dunes. The Co-registration of optically sensed images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) technology was conducted on two SPOT 4 panchromatic images acquired in 2006 and 2009 respectively to determine the migration rates and direction of the active dunes. The average annual migration rates of active dunes ranged from 1.6 to 2.25 m/yr. The migration rates decrease where the active dunes superimpose the old stable dunes and sand sheets. On the other hand, these rates increase when the active dunes are located over the alluvial plain along the western margins of Irq Al-Rethmah. The calculated vector displacement field by COSI-Corr technology suggest a southward direction of dune migration indicating that the predominant wind direction is northerly. Although the calculated rates are generally low in comparison to other measured migration rates of sand dunes in the east of Saudi Arabia, the spatial analysis implies potential hazards of active dunes against many landuse components such as roads, powerlines, and recreational facilities in the study area.

  12. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  13. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

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    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  14. The Influencing Factors of Cultural Knowledge in Translating Cultural Specific Concepts from Arabic into the English at Jazan University in Saudi Arabia

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    Amin Ali Almubark

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was set out to explore and evaluate the importance of having mastered the cultural knowledge throughout the process of depicting the culture-specific concepts involving two languages namely Arabic and English. In doing so, the participants sampled in this study were a group of final year Bachelor’s degree students majoring in Translation in ALAradha College at the Jazan University. The findings of the study method employed in this study statistically confirmed that the students of the Translation at AL AlAradh college- Saudi Arabia faced considerable difficulties throughout the process of translating cultural concepts owing to inadequate mastery of knowledge in relation to the culture involved. Among the measures which can be taken in addressing the issues in this context are training the learners by means of exposure to real cases involving culture-specific concepts which may help them deal with such difficulties in the translation process. Keywords: Culture, Translation, Influencing factors

  15. APPLICATION OF SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY TO REDUCE MEDICATION ERRORS IN THE OUTPATIENT PHARMACY UNIT: A CASE STUDY FROM THE KING FAHD UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, SAUDI ARABIA

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    Ahmed Al Kuwaiti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medication errors will affect the patient safety and quality of healthcare. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of Six Sigma (DMAIC methodology in reducing medication errors in the outpatient pharmacy of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Saudi Arabia. It was conducted through the five phases of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC model using various quality tools. The goal was fixed as to reduce medication errors in an outpatient pharmacy by 20%. After implementation of improvement strategies, there was a marked reduction of defects and also improvement of their sigma rating. Especially, Parts per million (PPM of prescription/data entry errors reduced from 56,000 to 5,000 and its sigma rating improved from 3.09 to 4.08. This study concluded that the Six Sigma (DMAIC methodology is found to be more significant in reducing medication errors and ensuring patient safety.

  16. Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development.

  17. Prevalence and genotyping ofToxoplasma gondii among Saudi pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Jawahir; Elamin, Maha Hussein; Alhabib, Samia

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan that can infect all mammals, who serve as intermediate host. It causes congenital, neurological, eyes complications and mild or asymptomatic infections in humans. Purpose of this study: To investigate not only the prevalence of T. gondii, but also to find out its genotyping using multiple sequential molecular methods to predict exactly the precise genotyping of T. gondii among Saudi pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage methods. Initial stage involved enrolment of 250 Saudi pregnant women from multi-centre healthcare and community based settings in the capital of Saudi Arabia Riyadh. The second stage was embracement of the laboratory investigation that included Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), DNA extraction, PCR, nested-PCR assay, and genotyping of the seropositive cases. Results: 203 women agreed to take part in our study with a response rate of 81.2% (203/250). Using ELISA, we found that the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 32.5% and 6.4%, respectively. We found that 29 samples (80.6%) were of genotype II; however 7 samples (19.4%) were of genotype III. Conclusion: Defining the population structure of T. gondii from Saudi Arabia has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity, pathogenesis, and in planning preventive strategies. Relationship between such variation in structure and disease manifestation in pregnant women is still difficult to assess due to the role of host immune status and genetic background on the control of infection, and of other parasitic features such as the infecting dose or parasite stage. Our finding of the genotyping of T. gondii might facilitate and inform future studies on comparative genomics and identification of genes that control important biological phenotypes including pathogenesis and transmission among Saudi women.

  18. 26. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alzeidan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4500 university employees and their families aged ⩾18 years old, using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance of CVRFs. CVR was then calculated for participants using the Framingham Coronary Heart Risk Score calculator. The mean age of participants was 39.3±13.4 years. The prevalence of CVRFs was as follows: low fruit/vegetable consumption of 10% risk to develop CVD within the following 10-years. Furthermore, this study showed that expatriates had significant negative effects on behavioural risk factors after residing in KSA, namely: high rate of physical inactivity, high consumption of fast food, low consumption of fruit and vegetable. However, there was no effect on the pattern of tobacco use. The prevalence of CVRFs is substantially high among the study population. To combat the future expected burden of CVDs, a proposed prevention programme for employees’ cardiovascular wellness is designed and recommended to be implemented and institutionalized within the university.

  19. 74. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: Developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alzeidan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4500 university employees and their families aged ⩾18 years old, using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance of CVRFs. CVR was then calculated for participants using the Framingham Coronary Heart Risk Score calculator. The mean age of participants was 39.3 ± 13.4 years. The prevalence of CVRFs was as follows: low fruit/vegetable consumption of 10% risk to develop CVD within the following 10-years. Furthermore, this study showed that expatriates had significant negative effects on behavioural risk factors after residing in KSA, namely: high rate of physical inactivity, high consumption of fast food, low consumption of fruit and vegetable. However, there was no effect on the pattern of tobacco use. The prevalence of CVRFs is substantially high among the study population. To combat the future expected burden of CVDs, a proposed prevention programme for employees’ cardiovascular wellness is designed and recommended to be implemented and institutionalized within the university.

  20. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.

  1. Investigating the Correlation between Food Prices and University Students Awareness of the Effects of Fast Food Consumption on their Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aklabi, Nouf; Al-Dowsari, Wejdan; Andrioti, Despena

    2016-01-01

    Background: The price of a given food product is an indicative measure of its nutritious value. For this reason, people belonging to low-income groups are specifically vulnerable to malnutrition. This study aims to identify nutritional patterns among students at the Princess Nora University, Riyadh......, Saudi Arabia, quantify students’ level of awareness of health risks associated with fast food consumption, examine how price affects their choice of food, and provide general guidelines for improving students nutrition. Methods: Quantitative data, gathered from distributing a standard questionnaire...... food prices are notably lower than healthier food choices in the University restaurants. Price is indeed a determining factor for food choice among students, which is to be expected given that the majority of them belong to middle or low income social groups. Students seem to be adequately aware...

  2. Collectivists' Decision-Making: Saudi Arabian Graduate Students' Study Abroad Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakaboski, Tamara; Perez-Velez, Karla; Almutairi, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    The authors in this qualitative study explored how Saudi Arabian students selected a teaching focused research institution by examining Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and U.S. national influences, institutional factors, and personal influencers. Despite the continued rise in Saudi Arabian students studying at U.S. universities, limited published research…

  3. Polymorphisms in RAD51 and their relation with breast cancer in Saudi females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulbah S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sahar Tulbah,1 Huda Alabdulkarim,2 Mohammad Alanazi,3 Narasimha Reddy Parine,3 Jilani Shaik,3 Akbar Ali Khan Pathan,3 Abdullah Al-Amri,3 Wajahatullah Khan,4 Arjumand Warsy1 1Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Center of Scientific and Medical Colleges, 2Department of Hematology/Oncology, King Fahad Medical City Hospital, Comprehensive Cancer Center, 3Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, 4Basic Sciences Department, College of Science and Health Professions, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between rs1801320 (G>C, rs1801321 (G>T, and rs2619681 (C>T RAD51 gene polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer development in Saudi females. The genotypes were analyzed using TaqMan genotyping assay and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotype and allele frequencies were computed using chi-square or Fisher’s exact test (two-tailed by SPSS 21 software. The results showed that rs1801321G>T GG genotype and G allele frequency were strongly (P<0.0001 related to an elevated risk of breast cancer, while the mutant T allele appeared to provide protection against breast cancer development as observed from the significantly lower (P<0.0001 frequencies of the TT and GT genotypes in cancer patients compared to the healthy controls. The variant rs1801320G>C showed no significant differences in the frequencies of the genotypes and alleles in the patients and the control groups. The CC genotype and C allele frequency of rs2619681 (C>T variant were significantly (P=0.012 higher in cancer patients, whereas the T allele showed a protective effect against cancer development. The frequencies of the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms did not differ in cancer patients with different tumor grades and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status (+ or

  4. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Learning English: Experiences and Needs of Saudi Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Susan; Obeidat, Fayiz

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, Saudi engineering students talk openly of their experiences learning English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and as university students in the United States (US). These students reported that they learned only the basics of vocabulary and grammar in KSA. Consequently, they came to the US with few English skills. In…

  6. Tuberculosis trends in Saudis and non-Saudis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia--a 10 year retrospective study (2000-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S Abouzeid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB remains a public health problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, which has a very large labour force from high TB endemic countries. Understanding the epidemiological and clinical features of the TB problem, and the TB burden in the immigrant workforce, is necessary for improved planning and implementation of TB services and prevention measures. METHODS: A 10 year retrospective study of all TB cases reported in KSA covering the period 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2009. Data was obtained from TB reporting forms returned to the Ministry of Health. Data were then organised, tabulated and analysed for annual incidence rates by province, nationality, country of origin and gender. RESULTS: There was an annual increase in the number of TB cases registered from 3,284 in 2000 to 3,964 in 2009. Non-Saudis had nearly twice the TB incidence rate compared to Saudis (P = <0.05. All but four provinces (Najran, Riyadh, Makkah, Tabuk showed decreasing TB incidence rates. The highest rates were seen in the 65+ age group. In the 15-24 year age group the incidence rate increased from 15.7/100,000 in 2000 to 20.9/100,00 in 2009 (P = <0.05. The incidence of TB in Saudi males was higher than Saudi females. Conversely, for non-Saudis the TB incidence rates were significantly higher in females compared to males. CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant investments in TB control over 15 years, TB remains an important public health problem in the KSA affecting all age groups, and Saudis and non-Saudis alike. Identification of the major risk factors associated with the persistently high TB rates in workers migrating to KSA is required. Further studies are warranted to delineate whether such patients re-activate latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb infection or acquire new M.tb infection after arrival in KSA. Appropriate interventions are required to reduce TB incidence rates as have been implemented by other countries.

  7. Analysis of reported e-prescribing near misses in King Saud Medical City, Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Zaagi IA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Abdulaziz Al-Zaagi,1 Khalid Abdulrahman Aldhwaihi,2 Dalal Salem Al-Dossari,1 Sara Osama Salem,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi41Pharmaceutical Care and Medication Safety, King Saud Medical City, 2General Administration of Pharmaceutical Care, Ministry of Health, 3Drug Poisoning Information Center, King Saud Medical City, 4General Administration of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In the health care context, a “near miss” is a drug presciption error that happened but did not affect the patient. These errors are captured and corrected before reaching the patient fortuitously or purposefully by designed system controls. This study analyzed the reported near misses in a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh city.Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated consecutively collected near miss report forms over a period of 6 months from January 1, 2012 to June 30, 2012.Results: The total number of near miss report forms was 1,025 and each form contained one or more near misses. Of these near miss report forms, 58.73% (n = 602 were related to male patients. Most frequently reported near misses were wrong frequency (n = 266, 25.95%, followed by improper doses (n = 250, 24.39%, wrong drug prescribed (n = 126, 12.29%, wrong duration (n = 97, 9.46%, wrong concentration (n = 92, 8.98%, and wrong dosage form (n = 57, 5.56%. Stages where most near misses were identified included transcription and entering (n = 676, 55.32%, physician ordering (n = 397, 32.49%, and dispensing and delivery (n = 115, 9.41%. Physicians and nurses made most of the near misses (n = 929, 89.1%, whereas pharmacists identified most of the near misses (n = 1,002, 97.3%. Most frequently reported reasons for near misses were lack of staff training (n = 419, 34.12%, communication problems related to drug order (n = 387, 31.5%, staff, workflow and milieu problems (n = 199, 16.2%, and missing drug information (n = 121, 9.85%. Sites related to

  8. The impact of obesity related websites on decision making among students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrak, Ahmed I; Mohammed, Rafiuddin; Zakaria, Nasriah; Alyousef, Lujain M; Almefgai, Noura B; Alqahtani, Hend D; Alamer, Hanan S; Alsulaiman, Ahlam A

    2016-09-01

    Background & Objectives: The present study was to investigate the use of the internet among university students accessing obesity health information and further to measure their satisfaction and in decision-making. Methods: A cross sectional study, among students at King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study received ethical clearance from Institutional Review Board, College of Medicine, KSU. Female and male of undergraduate and postgraduate, enrolled through a random sampling. The survey questionnaire was self-administered and consisted of two sections. Results: A total of 448 students (177 males and 271 females) participated in this study. The response rate was 66.86. The study showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male compared to female students. Majority of the students (58.7%) were of normal Body Mass Index (BMI). It also revealed that 187 (41.7%) reported always acquire obesity health information from the internet whereas 203 (45.35) sometimes use the internet. Half of the respondents reported using a search engine to seek information. Forty-five percent reported spending at least an hour per week. Nearly 52.2% of participants are taking decision related to their lifestyle and showed statistical significant (P = 0.0001). More than half of the students believed that the obesity information in the websites are very useful. Furthermore, 84.4% reported, language presented in the websites are easy to understand. With respect to quality, 46.9% rated as excellent whereas 39.5% as average. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present study findings have demonstrated that university students are using internet in higher rates for finding obesity health information and are satisfied with the decision they are making. Finally, the study concludes that the internet online health information considered as an essential tool for health promotion among student population regarding weight control or managing obesity.

  9. Saudi Entrepreneurs Delegation Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Adelegation of Saudi entrepreneurs headed by Abdul-Rahman Ali AlJeraisy, president of the Saudi Arabia-China Friendship Association (SACFA) and chairman of the Council of Saudi Chambers of Commerce and Industry (CSCCI),

  10. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  11. Ability of Saudi mothers to appropriately and accurately use dosing devices to administer oral liquid medications to their children

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    Almazrou S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Saja Almazrou, Hind Alsahly, Huda Alwattar, Lamya Alturki, Mona Alamri Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Most liquid medications are packaged with administration devices, which may be used inappropriately or inaccurately, and sometimes are not used at all. Because of the importance of their proper use for children's health, this study was designed to assess Saudi mothers' experiences with measuring cups, syringes, and droppers for oral liquid medications; to compare accuracy of dosing across these devices; and to determine the effects of mothers' education statuses and pharmacist counseling on dosing accuracy. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which mothers were observed as they used a set of commonly available dosing devices which are a dosing cup, syringe, and dropper. Interviews were conducted in the outpatient pharmacy waiting area in several tertiary hospitals and primary clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March and April 2013. Saudi women who were mothers of children aged 12 years old or younger and who gave their consent were eligible. Caregivers other than mothers and subjects with vision problems or cognitive/physical disabilities were excluded. We gathered demographic information such as age, number of children, and education status. Subjects were asked if they had had counseling on how to use measuring devices and which device they preferred. Then, the mothers were required to demonstrate how to measure 5 mL of paracetamol (acetaminophen syrup using a cup and a syringe and 1 mL of paracetamol syrup using a dropper. Dosing errors were evaluated visually as overdosing, underdosing, or no error (if the dose was accurate. The data were entered into Microsoft Excel and evaluated using Stata 11.1. Logistic regression was employed to determine relationships. Results: The results revealed that 58% of participants measured an accurate dose of paracetamol

  12. Correlation Between UpToDate Searches and Reported Cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome During Outbreaks in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorner, Anna R; Cao, Bin; Jiang, Terrence; Warner, Amy J; Bonis, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  UpToDate is an online clinical decision support resource that is used extensively by clinicians around the world. Digital surveillance techniques have shown promise to aid with the detection and monitoring of infectious disease outbreaks. We sought to determine whether UpToDate searches for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) could be used to detect and monitor MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Methods.  We analyzed daily searches related to MERS in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during 3 outbreaks in these cities in 2014 and 2015 and compared them with reported cases during the same periods. We also compared UpToDate MERS searches in the affected cities to those in a composite of 4 negative control cities for the 2 outbreaks in 2014. Results.  UpToDate MERS searches during all 3 MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia showed a correlation to reported cases. In addition, UpToDate MERS search volume in Jeddah and Riyadh during the outbreak periods in 2014 was significantly higher than the concurrent search volume in the 4 negative control cities. In contrast, during the baseline periods, there was no difference between UpToDate searches for MERS in the affected cities compared with the negative control cities. Conclusions.  UpToDate search activity seems to be useful for detecting and monitoring outbreaks of MERS in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Prevalence of stress in junior doctors during their internship training: a cross-sectional study of three Saudi medical colleges’ hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulghani HM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani,1 Mohammad Irshad,1 Mohammed A Al Zunitan,1,2 Ali A Al Sulihem,1,2 Muhammed A Al Dehaim,1,2 Waleed A Al Esefir,1,2 Abdulaziz M Al Rabiah,1,2 Rashid N Kameshki,1,2 Nourah Abdullah Alrowais,2 Abdulaziz Sebiany,3 Shafiul Haque1 1Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of  Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia Background: Medical science is perceived as a stressful educational career, and medical students experience monstrous stress during their undergraduate studies, internship, and residency training, which affects their cognitive function, practical life, and patient care. In the present study, an assessment of the prevalence of self-perceived stress among new medical graduates during their internship training has been performed, and correlations of self-perceived stress with sex, marital status, and clinical rotations have been evaluated.Patients and methods: Interns of the King Khalid, King Abdulaziz, and King Fahd University hospitals in Saudi Arabia were invited to complete a stress inventory known as the Kessler 10, which is used for stress measurement. Apart from stress evaluation, the questionnaire collected personal data, such as age, sex, and marital status, in addition to information relevant to hospital training, assigned duties, and clinical training rotations.Results: Our results showed that nearly 73.0% of interns were under stressed conditions. Most of the interns were affected by a severe level of stress (34.9%, followed by mild (19.3% and moderate (18.8% levels of stress. The stress level was significantly higher (84.0% among female interns in comparison with male interns (66.5% (odds ratio =2.64; confidence interval =1.59–4.39; P<0.0002. There were statistically significant differences between the

  14. Curriculum design of emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanazi AF

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Foraih AlanaziCollege of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was adapted from the integrated problem-based learning curriculum of Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the major adaptations required for adoption of the full-fledged PBL curriculum, use of sequential blocks, and multilayer alignment of the curriculum.Methods: A logical model and step-by-step approach were used to design the curriculum. Several studies using Delphi methods, focus group interviews, and expert opinions were performed to identify the priority health problems; related competencies, learning objectives, and learning strategies; the web-based curriculum for delivery; student assessment; and program evaluation.Results: Sixty priority health problems were identified for inclusion in different blocks of the curriculum. Identified competencies matched the satisfaction of different stakeholders, and ascertained learning objectives and strategies were aligned with the competencies. A full-fledged web-based curriculum was designed and an assessment was created that aligned with a blueprint of the objectives and the mode of delivery.Conclusion: Step-by-step design ensures the multilayer alignment of the curriculum, including priority health problems, competencies, objectives, student assessment, and program evaluation.Keywords: emergency medical services, problem-based learning, logical model, step-by-step approach, multilayer alignment

  15. Plasma Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Levels in Angiographically Defined Coronary Artery Disease Among Saudis

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    Syed Shahid Habib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA. Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006 and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015.Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.

  16. Malnutrition among hospitalized patients in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, I A; Al-Kanhal, M A

    1998-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of malnutrition among hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study of patients were evaluated for findings suggestive of protein calorie malnutrition (PCM). Hundred and sixty patients admitted to the medical and surgical wards over a period of five months were studied. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were used. Nutrition status was calculated based on some nutrition parameters weight for height, midarm, circumference, serum albumin and total lymphocyte count. Anthropometric measurements, weight for height and midarm circumference reflected malnutrition (PCM) of 33.8% and 30% respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity was 21%. A higher proportion (23.9%) of medical cases were found to be obese compared to surgical cases (19.7%). If malnutrition can be documented on hospital admission, attempts can be made to reverse malnutrition in the high risk patients.

  17. Malnutrition among hospitalized patients in King Khalid university hospital, Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani Ibrahim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of malnutrition among hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study of patients were evaluated for findings suggestive of protein calorie malnutrition (PCM. Hundred and sixty patients admitted to the medical and surgical wards over a period of five months were studied. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were used. Nutrition status was calculated based on some nutrition parameters weight for height, midarm, circumference, serum albumin and total lymphocyte count. Anthropometric measurements, weight for height and midarm circumference reflected malnutrition (PCM of 33.8% and 30% respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity was 21%. A higher proportion (23.9% of medical cases were found to be obese compared to surgical cases (19.7%. If malnutrition can be documented on hospital admission, attempts can be made to reverse malnutrition in the high risk patients.

  18. Malnutrition among hospitalized patients in King Khalid university hospital, Riyadh

    OpenAIRE

    Bani Ibrahim; Al-Kanhal Mohammad

    1998-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of malnutrition among hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study of patients were evaluated for findings suggestive of protein calorie malnutrition (PCM). Hundred and sixty patients admitted to the medical and surgical wards over a period of five months were studied. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were used. Nutrition status was calculated based on some nutrition parameters weight for height, midarm, circumference, ...

  19. A Prospective Study of Renal Biopsies Performed Over One-year at the Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital

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    Mousa D

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of all native kidney biopsies performed over one year at the Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted. During this period, 52 kidney biopsies were performed of which, 49 had adequate tissue. All biopsies were processed for light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The indications for biopsy included the nephrotic syndrome (n=28; 53.8%, asymptomatic proteinuria (n=12; 21.2%, acute nephritic presentation (n=7; 13.5% and asymptomatic hematuria (n=7; 13.5%. Primary glomerulonephritis (GN, excluding IgA nephropathy (IgAN was seen in 34 of the 49 patients (77.6%. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferative GN were the most common histological diagnoses (31% and 20.4% respectively. Surprisingly, we found a high prevalence of IgA nephropathy (IgAN of 14.5% in comparison with other studies. The prevalence of mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN was low (2% and can only be explained as incidental. The study patients were followed-up for an average of 26.3 weeks. At the end of the observation period, 50% has unchanged course, 37.5% had improved their renal function and protein excretion, and 12.5% had deteriorated. The prognosis of different GN groups and renal survival rate cannot be assessed or calculated in this study because of the relatively short duration of follow-up. Our study further emphasizes the need for a national GN registry and long-term follow-up, in order to recognize the common patterns of GN, their natural histories, the appropriate line of management, and to try and arrest their progression to end-stage renal disease.

  20. BREASTFEEDING PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CENTERS IN RIYADH

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amoud, Maysoon M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To study the patterns of breastfeeding of last children, duration, factors and reasons for it. (2) To study the factors affecting breastfeeding among mothers who are breastfeeding and the reasons for continuing or failure to continue, at the primary health care centers (PHC) in Riyadh. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing 1000 questionnaires in 10 PHC centers. The breastfeeding practices were categorized on WHO terms. Results: Most of the studied last ...

  1. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... universities. Billions more are going toward ultra-modern mega-commerce and tourism projects, and the country's... practices in Saudi Arabia to security; Pre-scheduled meetings with potential partners, distributors,...

  2. Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms, two new cases from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed G. Turkmani; Abdulaziz H. Al-Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms (AWP) is a rare dermatologic disease. It was first described four decades ago as a potential test for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) by detecting “skin wrinkling” in response to water immersion. We are reporting two cases of AWP diagnosed at Derma Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The first case was a 9-year old girl and the second case was a 17-year adolescent male. The second case was associated with palmer hyperhidrosis. Both patients denied any medication use. Additiona...

  3. Risk factors for amputation in extremities vascular injuries in Saudi Arabia

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    Al Wahbi A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Al Wahbi, Salman Aldakhil, Saud Al Turki, Abdulrahman El Kayali, Hussein Al Kohlani , Abdulaziz Al Showmer Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Amputation is most closely associated with blunt, lower limb injuries associated with vascular trauma. These vascular injuries require a special attention to prevent life and limb loss. Patient outcomes can also be improved by organizing vascular trauma data into appropriate systems to facilitate future studies. Keywords: vascular injuries, extremities trauma, amputation, ischemia

  4. Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

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    Naif A. Bawazeer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

  5. A Comparative Study of the Relationships between Conflict Management Styles and Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Propensity to Leave the Job among Saudi and American Universities' Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study used Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form C to examine the preference for conflict management styles among Saudi and American faculty members. Additionally, the study examined the relationships between conflict management styles and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and propensity to leave the job. A random sample…

  6. Fast food intake and prevalence of obesity in school children in Riyadh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Mohammed; Alsaadi, Muslim; Almajwal, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a new challenge for healthcare providers. The issue is not limited to certain parts of the world; its prevalence is increasing worldwide. The causes of obesity are poorly understood and continue to be debated and studied. It is a multifactorial disorder which involves dietary, behavioral, environmental as well as genetic factors. The increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to high obesity rates among children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake on the occurrence of childhood obesity, and study other associated factors including the education, occupation and income of parents and the living status. Normal healthy school girls (n =196) and school boys (n = 85) between the age of 6- 15 were recruited for the study. We found that obesity among children in Riyadh City was significantly associated with fast food intake (p = 0.0280). It was also observed that 72.5% of the overweight or obese students consumed fast food at least 4 times/week, and the other 15.9% were taking fast food 1- 3 times/week, while only 11.6% of the same overweight or obese group did not consume any fast food/ week. Father’s and mother’s occupations were not significantly correlated to their children’s body weight. The prevalence of childhood obesity is changing and increasing yearly and is attributed to the nutritional risk factors for the Saudi school-age children. It is interesting to know that most of overweight or obese school students belonged to the families of highincome. Parents must take necessary precautions for the diet of their children and should adopt healthy life style in order to prevent or manage obesity of their children. PMID:27493393

  7. Fast food intake and prevalence of obesity in school children in Riyadh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuhanna, Monira Abdulrahman; Alsaif, Mohammed; Alsaadi, Muslim; Almajwal, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a new challenge for healthcare providers. The issue is not limited to certain parts of the world; its prevalence is increasing worldwide. The causes of obesity are poorly understood and continue to be debated and studied. It is a multifactorial disorder which involves dietary, behavioral, environmental as well as genetic factors. The increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to high obesity rates among children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake on the occurrence of childhood obesity, and study other associated factors including the education, occupation and income of parents and the living status. Normal healthy school girls (n =196) and school boys (n = 85) between the age of 6- 15 were recruited for the study. We found that obesity among children in Riyadh City was significantly associated with fast food intake (p = 0.0280). It was also observed that 72.5% of the overweight or obese students consumed fast food at least 4 times/week, and the other 15.9% were taking fast food 1- 3 times/week, while only 11.6% of the same overweight or obese group did not consume any fast food/ week. Father's and mother's occupations were not significantly correlated to their children's body weight. The prevalence of childhood obesity is changing and increasing yearly and is attributed to the nutritional risk factors for the Saudi school-age children. It is interesting to know that most of overweight or obese school students belonged to the families of highincome. Parents must take necessary precautions for the diet of their children and should adopt healthy life style in order to prevent or manage obesity of their children.

  8. Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.

  9. Medical students’ perception of the learning environment at King Saud University Medical College, Saudi Arabia, using DREEM Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Mona M; Sattar, Kamran; Alnassar, Sami; Alsaif, Faisal; Alswat, Khalid; Alghonaim, Mohamed; Alhaizan, Maysoon; Al-furaih, Nawaf

    2017-01-01

    Background The students’ perception of the learning environment is an important aspect for evaluation and improvement of the educational program. The College of Medicine at King Saud University (KSU) reformed its curriculum in 2009 from a traditional to a system-oriented hybrid curriculum. Objective The objective of the present study was to determine the perception of the second batch (reformed curriculum) of medical graduates about the educational environment at the College of Medicine, KSU, using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) scale. Methods The fifth year medical students were asked to evaluate the educational program after graduation in May 2014. The questionnaire was distributed to the graduate students electronically. The DREEM questionnaire consisted of 50 items based on Likert’s scale; and five domains, namely, students’ perceptions of learning, perceptions of teachers, academic self-perceptions, perceptions of atmosphere, and social self-perceptions. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results A total of 62 students participated in the study. The score for students’ perception of learning among medical students ranged from 2.93 to 3.64 (overall mean score: 40.17). The score for students’ perception of teachers ranged from 2.85 to 4.01 (overall mean score: 33.35). The score for students’ academic self-perceptions ranged from 3.15 to 4.06 (overall mean score: 28.4). The score for students’ perception of atmosphere ranged from 2.27 to 3.91 (overall mean score: 41.32). The score for students’ social self-perceptions ranged from 2.85 to 4.33 (overall mean score: 24.33). The general perceptions of the students in all five sub-scales were positive. Conclusion The overall student’s perception about the educational environment was satisfactory. This study was important to evaluate the students’ perception of the learning environment among medical graduates of the reformed curriculum and provided guidance on areas of

  10. Association of Interleukin-10 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms in Saudi Patients with Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abanmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The promoter region of human Interleukin −10 gene is highly polymorphic and has been associated with numerous autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have linked vitiligo with defective autoimmune system. This study is aimed to explore a possible association between IL-10 gene polymorphism and vitiligo in Saudi population. This case control study consisted of 184 Saudi subjects including 83 vitiligo patients (40 males, 43 females mean age 27.85 ± 12.43 years and 101 matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples of healthy controls and Vitiligo patients visiting out patient clinic of Department of Dermatology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, using QIA ampR DNA mini kit (Qiagen CA, USA. Interleukin-10 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using Arms primers to detect any polymorphism involved at positions −592, −819 and −1082.

  11. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

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    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  12. Knowledge and Attitude of Saudi Health Professions’ Students Regarding Patient’s Bill of Rights

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    Salwa B. El-Sobkey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Patient’s rights are worldwide considerations. Saudi Patient’s Bill of Rights (PBR which was established in 2006 contained 12 items. Lack of knowledge regarding the Saudi PBR limits its implementation in health facilities. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professions’ students at College of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS Riyadh Saudi Arabia regarding the existence and content of Saudi PBR as well as their attitude toward its ineffectiveness. Method A 3-parts survey was used to collect data from 239 volunteer students participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS. Results Results showed that although the majority of students (96.7% believe in the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights, half (52.3% of them had perceptual knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and only 7.9% of them were knowledgeable about some items (1–4 items of the bill. Privacy and confidentiality of patient was the most common known patient’s rights. Students’ academic level was not correlated to neither their knowledge regarding the bill existence or its content nor to their attitude toward the bill. The majority of the students (93% reported that only one course within their curriculum was patient’s rights-course related. About one quarter (23.4% of the students reported that teaching staff used to mention patient’s rights in their teaching sessions. Conclusion The Saudi health professions students at CAMS have positive attitude toward the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights nevertheless they showed limited knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and its contents. CAMS curriculums do not support the subject of patient’s rights.

  13. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

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    Alabdulaali Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  14. Working environment and specialty of choice chosen by the dental students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sam, George; Alghmlas, Abdullah Saud; Alrashed, Muath I.; Alaskar, Ziyad A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the specialty chosen by the dental students for postgraduate studies and the future aspirations of students in a Saudi Arabia dental college. Materials and Methods: Of the total number of 120 questionnaires that were distributed, 107 subjects responded with selective responses and a response rate of 89%. A descriptive survey was conducted using one of the questionnaires among the students of dentistry at the dental college, Princ...

  15. A Retrospective Study of Causes of Low Vision in Saud Arabia, A Case of Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z Alotaibi, Abdullah

    2015-10-20

    Vision is the ability of seeing with a definite understanding of features, color and contrast, and to distinguish between objects visually. In the year 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness formulated a worldwide project for the eradication of preventable loss of sight with the subject of "Vision 2020: the Right to Sight". This global program aims to eradicate preventable loss of sight by the year 2020. This study was conducted to determine the main causes of low vision in Saudi Arabia and also to assess their visual improvement after using low vision aids (LVD).The study is a retrospective study and was conducted in low vision clinic at Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The file medical record of 280 patients attending low vision clinics from February 2008 to June 2010 was included. A data sheet was filled which include: age, gender, cause of low vision, unassisted visual acuity for long distances and short distances, low vision devices needed for long distances and short distances that provides best visual acuity. The result shows that the main cause of low vision was Optic atrophy (28.9%). Retinitis pigmentosa was the second cause of low vision, accounting for 73 patients (26%) followed by Diabetic retinopathy and Macular degeneration with 44 patients (15.7%) and 16 patients (5.7%) respectively. Inter family marriage could be one of the main causes of low vision. Public awareness should be embarked on for enlightenment on ocular diseases result in consanguineous marriage. Also, it is an important issue to start establishing low vision clinics in order to improve the situation.

  16. Sustainability Assessment of Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

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    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.

  17. Hypertension in Renal Transplantation: Saudi Arabian Experience

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    Souqiyyeh Muhammad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence, etiologic factors and therapy of hypertension in actively followed up transplant population in Saudi Arabia; we retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. These subjects were transplanted between January 1979 and November 1998. The patients were grouped according to the measurement of blood pressure; group 1 (considered normo-tensive: blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg, group2: blood pressure between 140-159/90-99, group 3: blood pressure 160-179/100-109 group 4: equal to or above 180/110. There were 1115 patients′ records included in the study. The mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 ± 50.1 months. According to the level of measured blood pressure, there were 641 (57.5% patients in the normotensive group (group 1, 404 (36.3% patients in the mildly hypertensive group (group 2 64 (5.7% patients in the moderately severe hypertension group (group 3 and only six (0.5% patients in the severe hypertension group (group 4. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in this study was almost 85%. We found no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension in terms of gender, year of transplantation, duration of transplantation, type of donor, number of previous transplants, diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, etiology of kidney disease, diagnosis of diabetes after transplantation, diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents, or mean dose of prednisolone and cyclosporine. There was a statistically significant association between increased level of blood pressure and old age (above 50 years, original disease associated with hypertension, history of hypertension on dialysis, acute rejection (once or more, presence of protienuria (more than 0.3 mg/day, abnormality of ECG, or serum creatinine above 300 µmol/L. We conclude that hypertension is highly prevalent in the renal transplant population in Saudi Arabia. Risk

  18. From barriers to bridges: An investigation on Saudi student mobility (2006-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

    2011-08-01

    Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by increasing funding for higher education through grants and scholarships, enabled Saudi students to study at overseas universities. A number of non-Saudi students are also enrolled at Saudi Arabian universities. After a brief introduction to the cultural and educational history of the Arab region and Saudi identity, this article turns to contemporary higher education in Saudi Arabia. It introduces the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme and then goes on to present detailed enrolment data for 2006-2009, demonstrating trends and policy changes and identifying patterns in student mobility.

  19. Periodontal health and diabetes awareness among Saudi diabetes patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bahammam MA

    2015-01-01

    Maha A BahammamDepartment of Periodontology, King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: This study aimed to examine diabetic patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, regarding their general diabetic and oral health-related awareness and practices, their awareness of the association of diabetes with periodontal disease, and their sources of diabetes-related information.Methods: Diabetic patients (n=454) who were receiving care at...

  20. Knowledge and attitudes of Saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory.

  1. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmad Alghadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.

  2. Selected dietary nutrients and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult males and females in Saudi Arabia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alfawaz, Hanan A; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2013-11-19

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.

  3. Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among health professionals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh

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    Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.

  4. The Effects of Using Peer and Teacher Feedback into Saudi Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaisoni, Eid; Alzuoud, Khalid

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the efficacy of two commonly used techniques of feedback in teaching writing: teachers' feedback and peers' feedback in the Saudi educational context. The study was comprised of 132 Saudi EFL students enrolled at the Department of English in the University of Hai'l. The data collection was carried out through a…

  5. Aging in Saudi Arabia

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    Nancy J. Karlin PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes.

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with low bone mineral density in Saudi women: a community based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a public health issue in Saudi Arabia. This study measured the prevalence and factors associated with low BMD in Saudi women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross sectional study using two stage cluster sampling technique was conducted in Riyadh, 2009. Thirty clusters, each comprising of 300 houses were randomly chosen and from each cluster 38–40 households were selected to identify 1150 women of >40 years. Women were invited to primary health care center for filling of self-administered questionnaire (n = 1069) comprising of sociodemographic, health, diet and physical activity variables. 1008 women underwent screening for low BMD using the quantitative ultrasound technique. 535 (53%) women with positive screening test were referred to King Khalid Hospital for Dual X-ray Energy absorptiometry (DXA). Results 362 women underwent DXA and 212 (39.6%) were screened low BMD either at lumbar spine or femur neck. Mean age of women was 55.26(±8.84) years. Multivariate logistic analysis found; being aged 61 to 70 years (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.32-1.48), no literacy (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.44 - 6.12) or primary education (OR 4.12, 95% CI:2.05-8.29), history of fractures (OR 2.20, 95% CI:1.03- 4.69) and not drinking laban(diluted yogurt) (OR 2.81, 95% CI:1.47- 5.37) significantly associated with low BMD. Conclusions Women with low level of education, who do not drink laban and had history of fractures were at high risk of low BMD. PMID:24400907

  7. Inter-Species Differences Between Lead Concentration in the Feathers of Pycnonotus leucogenys and Streptopelia seneglenses from Different Cities of Saudi Arabia

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    Mansour I. Almansour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to determine lead accumulation in feathers of wild white-cheeked bulbul (Pycnonotus leucogenys and wild palm dove (Streptopelia seneglenses in order to find which is more suitable to monitor the lead environmental pollution. Feather samples of 270 of Pycnonotus leucogenys and 309 of Streptopelia seneglenses were collected from three different cities of Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Riyadh and Al-Kharj and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results obtained in this study revealed that the feathers of Streptopelia seneglenses have more capacity to retain lead than Pycnonotus leucogenys in Jeddah and Riyadh (pStreptopelia seneglenses is more suitable as a biological monitor for environmental lead exposure than Pycnonotus leucogenys.

  8. Parents’ satisfaction with pediatric dental care provided by dental college, Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMutairi, Manal A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the level of parents’ satisfaction with pediatric dental care provided by dental students at the College of Dentistry and explore the factors associated with various parents’ demographics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among parents (n = 150) whose children received dental care in dental colleges in King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh. The parents were asked to fill a self-administered dental satisfaction questionnaire between Februry and April 2016. Data were recorded and analyses using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Results indicated that only 10.7% of the parents strongly agreed that before being seen they had to wait for a long time in the waiting area, and 36% strongly agreed that one of the causes for which they went to the KSU dental college is that there were inadequate pedodontics in their region. More than half of parents (60%) strongly agreed that the KSU dental clinic is up to date and very modern. Conclusions: The results indicate that the pediatric department has been successful in achieving parents’ satisfaction with dental students, their treatment, as well as operational aspects related to access. There was a strong degree of satisfaction from parents regarding the KSU dental college being modern and up to date. PMID:28032046

  9. Health Beliefs Related to Diabetes Mellitus Prevention among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

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    Reem L. Al-Mutairi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is growing rapidly in the Saudi population. The purpose of this study was to assess the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as they relate to T2DM lifestyle and prevention behaviours among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2013 among 426 non-diabetic secondary school students from randomly selected schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An Arabic version of an adapted English language questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and attitudes related to the severity and prevention of T2DM. A preventative behaviour assessment was also conducted to assess physical activity and dietary habits. Results: The majority of the students (63.4% had at least one diabetic family member. Obesity was more frequent in males compared to females (P = 0.013. Awareness about the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight to prevent T2DM was lower in males than females (P = 0.037, although males engaged in routine exercise more often (P = 0.001. Males were less likely than females to recognise the risks for T2DM, including obesity (P = 0.030, heredity (P = 0.013 and high fat intake (P = 0.001. Conclusion: An alarmingly high number of Saudi students were unaware of T2DM severity and associated risk factors. Female students were more aware of the benefits of T2DM preventative lifestyle behaviours than males, although males engaged in routine exercise more often. Raising adolescents’ awareness about the primary prevention strategies for T2DM should be a public health priority in Saudi Arabia. The HBM could inform further research on diabetes prevention among Saudi adolescents.

  10. Puitsillad Saudi Araabiasse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto

  11. First record of three African trichodinids (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia with re-evaluation of their host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh; Al Ghamdi, Ali; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2017-02-18

    Saudi Arabia has a developing aquaculture industry that farms primarily tilapia. Although trichodinids are presumably the most usually encountered protozoan parasites in these cultured fish, they have rarely been studied in this context, and there is no data on the species that might infect cultured tilapia in Saudi Arabia. The present study was therefore carried out as a general survey to investigate the occurrence and identify the species of trichodinids that can infect cultured tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia. A total of 500 tilapia fish were collected from fish farms in Riyadh city and examined in order to determine the species of trichodinids present in the positive specimens. Three species of trichodinids (Trichodina maritinkae, T. centrostrigeata and T. frenata) were isolated and described as new records in Saudi Arabia. These trichodinids were found simultaneously in the same fish with overall prevalence of 20% (100/500). The identification and characterization of these three species are documented based on Riyadh specimens, for the first time. Additionally, the present paper confirms the existence of T. frenata for the second time globally and establishes this trichodinid as a new parasite for O. niloticus. T. maritinkae is highly specific to clariids, and previously, it has not been reported from any fish species other than clariids. The present work also confirmed that T. centrostrigeata can also infest cichlid fish. The list of host records of these species is expanded and their host specificity re-evaluated based on the results of this study in addition to the previously published data. We conclude that there is a need for further study of the impacts of these Trichodina spp. on Saudi Arabian fishery sector.

  12. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M.; Abdalla, Omer A.; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A.; Amer, Mahmoud A.

    2017-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it. PMID:28167887

  13. The Transfer of HRM Policies and Practices in American Multinational Hotels in Saudi Arabia

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    Amal Hatem Alkhaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global competition in the international business environment has pushed companies to achieve competitive advantage through mergers, acquisitions and through locating their subsidiaries in less developed counties for cost effectiveness. Consequently, the competitive pressure has increased the significance of human resource management (HRM in multinational companies (MNCs, and MNCs have recognised the significance of the transfer HRM process across borders. This study examines the transfer of HRM policies and practices of US MNCs to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to determine the extent to which US MNCs transfer HRM policies and practices from their Headquarters to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia; and identify the factors that facilitate and inhibit HRM transfer. The paper is based on an investigation of the interaction between home-country and host-country effects in determining HRM policies and practices in MNCs in the context of the Middle East. The study adopts a mixed methods approach of documentary analysis, focus group interviews of employees and in depth interviews of key informants in four subsidiaries of US owned international hotel chains located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  14. Attitudes toward medical and genetic confidentiality in the Saudi research biobank: An exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-03-01

    Achieving a balance between giving access to information and respecting donors' confidentiality is a crucial issue for any biobank, with its large number of samples and associated information. Despite the existence of much empirical literature on confidentiality, there are too few surveys in the Middle East about the topic, particularly in the Saudi context. A survey was conducted of 200 respondents at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among 5 groups of equal size, comprised of researchers, physicians, medical students, donors and laypersons, respectively. The majority of participants agreed that confidentiality is an important issue and that it is well protected in the Saudi biobank. All 5 groups showed different attitudes toward disclosing information to various third parties. They were in favor of allowing treating physicians, and to a certain extent family members, to have access to medical and genetic results from research. No significant differences were found between views on medical and genetic confidentiality. The majority of respondents agreed that confidentiality might be breached in cases with specific justified reasons. Even considering differences in religion, culture and other factors, the results of the study were consistent with those reported in the literature and research conducted in other countries. We therefore place emphasis on the importance of protecting and promoting patient/donor confidentiality and privacy.

  15. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M; Abdalla, Omer A; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1-97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8-97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  16. Effects of Honey on Oral Mucositis among Pediatric Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemo/Radiotherapy Treatment at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaouni, Soad K.; Al Muhayawi, Mohammad S.; Hussein, Abear; Elfiki, Iman; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Al Muhayawi, Saad M.; Almasaudi, Saad

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common complications of cancer chemotherapy is oral mucositis. This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of honey with the focus on grade III and IV oral mucositis, reduction of bacterial and fungal infections, duration of episodes of oral mucositis, and body weight in pediatric leukemic patients undergoing chemo/radiotherapy. This is an open labeled randomized controlled study conducted at our hospital on 40 pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemo/radiotherapy. All the 40 patients included in this study experienced a sum total of 390 episodes of fever and neutropenia associated with oral mucositis. A significant reduction of oral mucositis, associated Candida, and aerobic pathogenic bacterial infections was noted in patients in the honey treatment group. Also, there is a significant decrease in the duration of hospitalization for all those in the treatment group combined with a significant increase of body weight, delayed onset, and decreased severity of pain related to oral mucositis. Complications of oral mucositis can be tremendously reduced by the topical application of local Saudi honey and honey should be used as an integrative approach in prophylaxis and treatment of chemo/radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in pediatric cancer patients. Further research is needed to elucidate and better understand the underlying mechanism.

  17. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dent...

  18. Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms, two new cases from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Turkmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms (AWP is a rare dermatologic disease. It was first described four decades ago as a potential test for Cystic Fibrosis (CF by detecting “skin wrinkling” in response to water immersion. We are reporting two cases of AWP diagnosed at Derma Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The first case was a 9-year old girl and the second case was a 17-year adolescent male. The second case was associated with palmer hyperhidrosis. Both patients denied any medication use. Additionally, signs and symptoms suggesting CF were lacking. Local dermatologists should be aware of rare conditions such as AWP and lack of previous reports from the region may indicate under-reporting rather than lack of cases.

  19. Prevalence and predictors of antibiotic prescription errors in an emergency department, Central Saudi Arabia

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    Alanazi MQ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Menyfah Q Alanazi,1 Majed I Al-Jeraisy,2,3 Mahmoud Salam2 1Drug Policy and Economic Center, 2King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, 3King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Inappropriate antibiotic (ATB prescriptions are a threat to patients, leading to adverse drug reactions, bacterial resistance, and subsequently, elevated hospital costs. Our aim was to evaluate ATB prescriptions in an emergency department of a tertiary care facility. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing charts of patients complaining of infections. Patient characteristics (age, sex, weight, allergy, infection type and prescription characteristics (class, dose, frequency, duration were evaluated for appropriateness based on the AHFS Drug Information and the Drug Information Handbook. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied. Results: Sample with equal sex distribution constituted of 5,752 cases: adults (15 years =61% and pediatrics (<15 years =39%. Around 55% complained of respiratory tract infections, 25% urinary tract infections (UTIs, and 20% others. Broad-spectrum coverage ATBs were prescribed for 76% of the cases. Before the prescription, 82% of pediatrics had their weight taken, while 18% had their weight estimated. Allergy checking was done in 8% only. Prevalence of inappropriate ATB prescriptions with at least one type of error was 46.2% (pediatrics =58% and adults =39%. Errors were in ATB selection (2%, dosage (22%, frequency (4%, and duration (29%. Dosage and duration errors were significantly predominant among pediatrics (P<0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively. Selection error was higher among adults (P=0.001. Age stratification and binary logistic regression were applied. Significant predictors of inappropriate prescriptions were associated with: 1 cephalosporin prescriptions (adults: P<0.001, adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] =3.31 (pediatrics: P<0.001, adj OR

  20. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  1. Human Resource Development in Saudi Arabia: An International Affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Saudi Arabia has a modern nationwide school system that embraces institutions from kindergarten through the university level and encompasses special, adult, industrial, and commercial education. Education is not compulsory, and coeducation does not exist. Secondary vocational industrial schools have been established for young men who have…

  2. Religious Fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…

  3. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in camels, cattle, goats, and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest.

  4. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  5. Knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS in illegal residents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A Memish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in illegal residents, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted among the illegal residents from four regions in Saudi Arabia: Jeddah, Makkah, Riyadh, and Jazan. Results: The survey enrolled 5,000 participants, 79%male (39.6% from Jeddah; 20% from Riyadh; and 20% from Jazan, aged between 15 and 45 years. Of the total, 1288 (25.8% had not heard about HIV/AIDS. Knowledge of HIV transmission was poor in 90% of the respondents. Of the total, 737 had read about HIV/AIDS materials and 649 participants had been previously tested for HIV. The majority of participants (85% held a negative attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Those who were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS expressed more a positive attitude. One-fifth (968, majority were men; single 55%, married 45% had engaged in non-marital sexual activity. The largest proportion of the individuals who had engaged in non-marital sex were single (54.9% followed by the married ones (40.4%. Men cited pleasure as the main reason for such activity (84.6%, whereas women (73.4% cited financial gain. Of the respondents, 53.9 and 32.1% believed that TV and schools were the best media through which information with regard to HIV/AIDS could be imparted. Conclusions: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and prevention measures was poor. Educational programs specifically targeted toward this group were required.

  6. Participation in Online and Face-to-Face Discussions: Perceptions of Female Saudi Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazy, Manal M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the Saudi government started a new scholarship program that sent many female and male students to some Western countries including the United States of America. When Saudi female students enroll in universities in the United States and register for mixed-gender (face-to-face and online) classes, they have to participate in the classroom.…

  7. Infection control: Knowledge and compliance among Saudi undergraduate dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Tarakji, Bassel; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; AlMasri, Ousamah

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: In der Studie sollten die Kenntnisse, die Einstellung und die praktische Umsetzung infektionspräventiver Maßnahmen bei Studenten der Zahnmedizin analysiert werden.Methode: In einer Querschnittsstudie wurde ein selbst zu beantwortender Fragebogen zur Erfassung des Impfstatus, der Kenntnisse und der Einstellung zur Infektionsprävention an 600 Studenten im 4., 5. und 6. Ausbildungsjahr des Al-Farabi College für Dentistry und Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, verschickt. Die Daten wurden mittels SPSS analysiert. Das Signifikanzniveau wurde mit p<0,05 festgelegt.Ergebnisse: Die Responserate betrug 85% (512 von 600). Während die Mehrzahl der Studenten (90%) gegen Hepatitis B geimpft war, war nur bei 37,4% anti-HBs bestimmt worden. 98,8% bzw. 90,8% trugen stets Schutzhandschuhe bzw. Mund-Nasen-Schutz bei der zahnärztlichen Behandlung, während das Tragen einer Schutzbrille nur in 29,2% angegeben wurde. Ein signifikant höherer Anteil der Studenten zeigte im 6. Ausbildungsjahr eine positive Einstellung zur Behandlung von Patienten mit Infektionskrankheiten im Vergleich zum 4. und 5. Ausbildungsjahr. Etwa ein Drittel der Studenten gab an, dass sich ein oder mehrere arbeitsbedingte Verletzungen bei der Patientenbehandlung ereignet hatten.Schlussfolgerung: Obwohl die Studenten ein solides Wissen und eine gute Einstellung zur Infektionsprävention hatten, war die Compliance zur praktischen Umsetzung gering. Die Ergebnisse unterstreichen die Notwendigkeit der kontinuierlichen Erziehung Saudischer Zahnmedizinstudenten zur Infektionsprävention.

  8. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

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    Sulaiman O. Aljaloud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

  9. HEALTH AWARENESS AMONG FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonazi, Wadi B; Albaiz, Alyaa S; Albejaidi, Fahd M; Alenazi, Fatimah Z

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the level of health awareness (HA) among students attending three undergraduate programs in the Colleges of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (SA). A modified self-reported survey was utilized to measure HA demonstrating four domains: Nutrition (NU), Personal Health (PH), Physical Exercise (PE), and Body Build (BB). The questionnaire was distributed to 302 female students attending the first semester of the academic year 2014-2015 BS degree in Radiology Sciences (RS), Clinical Laboratory (CL), and Health Education (HE) departments. Bloom's taxonomy was utilized to describe the three cognitive levels. Synthesizing, creating, and evaluating were grouped to represent high level indicators; applying cognitive skills only revealed an intermediate level; while memorizing and listing demonstrated low levels. In a 5-point Likert scale, the overall mean (M) of HA among CAMS students was 3.82 with the highest among students attending HE (M = 3.89). The domain of PH ranked first with a high average (M = 4.30). There were significant differences (α = 0.05), in the level of HA in PH and BB domains, among students in terms of program specialty only, but no such significant differences were found for other characteristics. The study recommended incorporating health promotion concepts within teaching curricula and conducting health and education campaigns by health education institutions.

  10. New age estimations for the western outer city wall of ancient Tayma (NW Saudi Arabia) based on OSL and radiocarbon data and geomorphologic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; Klasen, N.; Brückner, H.; Eichmann, R.; Hausleiter, A.; Al-Najem, M. H.; Al-Said, S. F.; Schneider, P. I.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2004 tremendous progress has been achieved in deciphering the cultural genesis of the Tayma oasis (NW Saudi Arabia), due to the joint investigations of the German Archaeological Institute Berlin (DAI), the General Commission for Tourism and Antiquities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the Department of Archaeology and Epigraphy, King Saud University Riyadh. Nevertheless, archaeological research is still suffering from a lacking locally-based absolute chronology of buildings. The pattern of ancient constructions at Tayma is dominated by a prominent city wall system surrounding the ancient town center (Qraya) and stretching 15 km around the oasis. Its internal structure indicates several building periods, i.e. phases of wall modification or extension of the entire system. So far, according to silex and carnelian fragments included in the mud bricks and a previous 14C age of charcoal remains from the central excavation district (wall section at Area A), an initial construction date of the wall between the late 3rd and the early 2nd millennium BC seemed likely. At the excavated western outer city wall a new systematic dating approach - combining the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C methods - has been applied to generate a reliable age for the oldest branch of the wall system which nowadays is covered by aeolian sand. The dune deposit is genetically related to the existence of the wall and, therefore, dating its accumulation provides termini ante quem for the construction of the wall. Five OSL dates were generated from the dune deposit providing ages between 4,900 and 3,500 yrs. Two radiocarbon ages support the dating sequence and also contribute to its consistency. By combining the results with geomorphologic evidence we draw the following conclusions: Initial settlement activities at Qraya were accompanied by a regulation of wadi dynamics and the construction of the outer city wall, indicated by the abrupt boundary between the pre-settlement alluvial

  11. Diabetic retinopathy: Knowledge, awareness and practices of physicians in primary-care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Raghad Al Rasheed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study uncovered areas of defects in knowledge among PCP regarding DR. This needs to be addressed in future seminars and workshops with an emphasis on the proper ophthalmological screening and management of diabetic patients.

  12. Comparative study of oral health among trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 2, gingival condition

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    M.A. AlSarheed

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: T21 children have significantly elevated plaque levels, resulting in greater prevalence of gingivitis, compared to healthy children. Preventive measure, such as oral health awareness programs, should be delivered early to parents and continued at school to encourage and motivate children.

  13. A comparative study of oral health amongst trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 1 caries, malocclusion, trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AlSarheed

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: While there was no significant difference in the incidence of caries between children with and without T21, practitioners should be aware of the disparities in malocclusion and trauma in this vulnerable population.

  14. Zinc oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis in human cancer cells through reactive oxygen species

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Mohd Javed Akhtar1,2, Maqusood Ahamed3, Sudhir Kumar1, MA Majeed Khan3, Javed Ahmad4, Salman A Alrokayan31Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India; 2Fibre Toxicology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India; 3King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have received muc...

  15. Increased cesarean section rate in Central Saudi Arabia: a change in practice or different maternal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kadri HM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Sultana A Al-Anazi,1 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, 2College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Cesarean section (CS rate has shown creepy increase. We aimed in this work to identify factors contributing to increasing rate of CS in central Saudi Arabia.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City. Two groups of women were included (G1 and G2. G1 had delivered by CS during the year 2002 (CS rate 12%, and G2 had delivered by CS during the year 2009 (CS rate 20%. We compared the included women’s characteristics, neonates, CS indications, and complications. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 program. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated to report precision of categorical data results. A P-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant.Results: A total of 198 women were included in G1 and 200 in G2. Both groups had comparable maternal and fetal characteristics; however, absence of antenatal care has resulted in 70% increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.008, OR =0.30, CI 0.12–0.76. Previous vaginal surgeries have contributed to tenfold increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.006, OR =10.37, CI 1.32–81.78. G2 had eight times increased CS deliveries than G1 due to intrauterine growth restriction, P=0.02, OR =8.21, CI 1.02–66.25, and 80% increased risk of CS was based on maternal demand, P=0.02, OR =0.20, CI 0.02–1.71. Decision taken by less-experienced staff was associated with 2.5-fold increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.002, OR =2.62, CI 1.39–4.93. There was a significant increase in CS deliveries under regional analgesia and shorter duration of hospital stay for G2, P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively. G2 women had 2.75-fold increase in neonatal intensive care unit admission, P=0.03, OR =2.75, CI 1.06–7.15.Conclusion: CS delivery rate

  16. Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents

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    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19 years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400 and females (1506 aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use, physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire, and dietary habits (intake frequency per week. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk, but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level = 0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR and frequency of breakfast (aOR for  Conclusions The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by

  17. Case study of the 9 April 2009 ‘brown’ cloud: Observations of usually high cloud droplet concentrations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delene, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Cloud droplets nucleate on aerosol particles termed cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is well known that a larger number concentration of CCN results in a larger number concentration of droplets in developing cumulus clouds. However, the conditions where dust particles can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence change cloud droplet concentration and precipitation formation processes is uncertain. Aircraft measurements of cloud droplet concentration between 13:20 and 13:30 UTC during the 9 April 2009 flight near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, show total cloud droplet concentration (3-50 µm in diameter) of 800 to 1200 #/cm-3 at a altitude of 18000 ft. Typical cloud droplet concentration for this type of cloud in the Riyadh region is approximately 400 #/cm-3 and is typical of observation made between 13:00 and 13:20 UTC during the 9 April 2009 flight at 18,000 ft. Photographs of ice accumulation on the unprotected leading edge of the aircraft’s wing due to the freezing of super cooled droplets show a color changed from white during the time of low droplet number condensation to brown during the high droplet number concentration. It is hypothesized that high droplet number concentration observations were the result of ingestion of a large about of dust particles by the cloud. : Case Study of the 9 April 2009 ‘Brown’ Cloud: Observations of Usually High Cloud Droplet Concentrations in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Framingham Risk Scores for coronary heart disease in a cohort of Saudi Arabian men and women with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Qureshi, Ahmed Zaheer; Ayaz, Saeed Bin; Rathore, Farooq Azam

    2016-06-01

    People with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed at predicting CHD risk in a cohort of Saudi patients with SCI in comparison with patients without SCI and to correlate different demographic and clinical factors with Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in SCI patients. The study was conducted at the rehabilitation and the main hospitals of King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; on sixty patients with SCI and sixty controls of age ≥20 years. FRS was calculated on a web-based calculator. For the SCI group, sub-groups were made for statistical analysis based on gender, cigarette smoking, neurological level and completeness of injury. The mean FRS for the SCI group (2 ± 7.9) was significantly higher (P Saudi patients with SCI had a higher FRS as compared to controls, however, majority had a low risk of developing CHD in next 10 years. The age, SBP and total cholesterol surfaced as positive predictors of CHD in SCI patients. Time since SCI, smoking, and neurological level or completeness of injury did not influence the resultant FRS and thus the development of CHD.

  19. The Transfer of HRM Policies and Practices in American Multinational Hotels in Saudi Arabia (P.155-164

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Hatem Alkhaldi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global   competition   in   the   international   business   environment has   pushed companies to achieve competitive advantage through mergers, acquisitions and through locating their subsidiaries in less developed counties for cost effectiveness. Consequently, the competitive pressure has increased the significance of human resource management (HRM in multinational companies (MNCs, and MNCs have recognised the significance of the transfer HRM process across borders. This study examines the transfer of HRM policies and practices of US MNCs to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to determine the extent to which US MNCs transfer HRM policies and practices from their Headquarters to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia; and identify the factors that facilitate and inhibit HRM transfer. The paper is based on an investigation of the interaction between home-country and host-country effects in determining HRM policies and practices in MNCs in the context of the Middle East. The study adopts a mixed methods approach of documentary analysis, focus group interviews of employees and in depth interviews of key informants in four subsidiaries of US owned international hotel chains located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Keywords: Home  country, host  country, human  resource  managem transfer,Institutional theory, culture conditions.

  20. Reading-Induced Absence Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1995-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl with a 2-year history of absence seizures induced by reading and diagnosed by video EEG is reported from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, and Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia.

  1. Saudi Cancer Patients’ Attitudes towardsDisclosure of Cancer Information

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    Ali M. Al-Amri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore Saudi cancer patients' views regarding cancer information disclosure and whether differences existed between regions or gender.Methods: In this cross-sectional questionnaire-based prospective survey, we interviewed 332 Saudi cancer patients who received oncological care at King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia from July 2002 to July 2009 to explore their attitudes regarding disclosure of cancer information. Results: The vast majority of Saudi cancer patients wanted to know the diagnosis of cancer (98% and only 2% wanted the information to remain undisclosed. Seventy percent of the women wanted family members to know compared to only 39% of themen (P<0.001. Only 10% of the patients wanted their friends to know. In this study,99% and 98%, respectively, wanted to know about the benefits of therapy and about their diagnosis of cancer. Of both genders, 98% also wanted to know the side effects of therapy and the prognosis. The attitudes of Saudi men and women with cancer were almost identical apart from sharing information with their family members. 99% ofeastern region cancer patients wanted the diagnosis of cancer disclosed compared to74% of those from other regions (P=0.04. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that most Saudi cancer patients wanted disclosure of cancer information. Significantly more women than men wanted to share information with their family. More Eastern region patients wanted to know about their diagnosis of cancer compared to patients from other regions.

  2. Medical students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of complementary and alternative medicine: a pre- and post-exposure survey in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Naseem; AlMansour,Mohammed; AlBedah,Abdullah; AlRukban,Mohammed; Elsubai,Ibrahim; Mohamed,Elsadig; Ahmed,Elolemy; Khalil,Asim; Khalil, Mohamed; Alqaed,Meshari; Almudaiheem,Abdullah; Mahmoud,Waqas; Medani,Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Mohammed Abdullah Al Mansour,1 Abdullah MN Al-Bedah,2 Mohammed Othman AlRukban,3 Ibrahim S Elsubai,2 Elsadiq Yousif Mohamed,4 Ahmed Tawfik El Olemy,2 Asim AH Khalil,2 Mohamed KM Khalil,2 Meshari Saleh Alqaed,2 Abdullah Almudaiheem,2 Waqas Sami Mahmoud,4 Khalid Altohami Medani,4 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi2 1College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, 2National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, 3Department of Family Medicine and Community Medic...

  3. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Results Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). Conclusions A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words:Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia. PMID:27957258

  4. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing.

  5. Serologic association of human herpesvirus eight with posttransplant Kaposi's sarcoma in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qunibi, W; Al-Furayh, O; Almeshari, K; Lin, S F; Sun, R; Heston, L; Ross, D; Rigsby, M; Miller, G

    1998-02-27

    In Saudi Arabia, Kaposi's sarcoma occurs in 4.1% of renal transplant recipients and accounts for 70% of malignancies in this group. Human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) has been identified in the DNA of many of these patients. The association between HHV8 and Kaposi's sarcoma was investigated further in post-renal transplant Kaposi's sarcoma patients from a tertiary care hospital (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (n = 14), and non-Kaposi's sarcoma controls with renal transplant (n = 18), chronic renal failure (n = 14), other cancers that did not affect renal function (n = 15), and healthy volunteers (n = 15). The median time from transplant to Kaposi's sarcoma was 13 months. A serum sample was assumed to have antibodies to HHV8 if antibody to either p40 or sVCA was detected. The prevalence of HHV8 seroreactivity was 13/14 (93%) in cases, 5/18 (28%) in renal transplants without Kaposi's sarcoma, and 11/62 (18%) in the aggregate control group. HHV8 seroreactivity was significantly more common (p 0.001) among transplant patients with Kaposi's sarcoma than those without this cancer (odds ratio, 33.80; 95% confidence interval, 2.96-904). These findings suggest an etiologic link between HHV8 and Kaposi's sarcoma presumably due to immunologic or cellular factors that influence host-virus interactions.

  6. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  7. An Evaluation of the Second Intermediate Saudi English Language Textbook from the Teachers' Point of View

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    Reem BinObaid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates the quality of the second intermediate grade English language textbook for Saudi girls' schools "from the teachers point of view" which was introduced at the intermediate stage by the Ministry of Education in 2004. This research project evaluates a new textbook that is considered to be the foundation stone in the English language program in Saudi Arabia. A survey questionnaire was used in this study to elicit the perspectives of 50 English language teachers and the population is about 220 teachers in Riyadh Educational Zone about the textbook in question. The questionnaire consisted of 23 items grouped under 5 main categories that are listed as: CB objectives, content, language style, skills, technical aspect and appearance of the CB. The data was subjected to analysis through descriptive statistics. The analysis of the results used several statistical methods which are as follows: Cronbach's alpha, means, percentage, chi square and standard deviations. The findings were generally in favor of the textbook except for the language style and some other sub-items. Out of 23 items in the questionnaire, only 4 items had arithmetic means less than 3.50 (the average. The category that had the highest mean was the one on technical aspects, while the category that had the lowest mean was the one on language style. Keywords:  Evaluation, textbook, content, curriculum and syllabus, goals and objectives, materials evaluation

  8. Report on Influenza A and B Viruses: Their Coinfection in a Saudi Leukemia Patient

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    Fahad N. Almajhdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Influenza A and B viruses are the leading cause of respiratory infections in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. There is a lack of data on coinfection of influenza A and B viruses circulating in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we aimed to identify the circulation of influenza viruses that contribute to respiratory tract infections in Saudi children. Methods. We collected 80 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs from hospitalized children with acute respiratory illness (ARI at Riyadh during the period extended from October 2010 till April 2011. Samples were tested for the common respiratory viruses including influenza viruses by RT-PCR. Results. Overall, 6 samples were found positive for influenza A and/or B viruses. Among these positive clinical samples, only one collected sample from a female one-year-old immunocompromised child with leukemia showed a coinfection with influenza A and B viruses. In present study coinfection was confirmed by inoculation of the clinical specimen in specific pathogenfree embryonating chicken eggs and identification of the virus isolates by hemagglutination and one-step RT-PCR. Conclusion. This study opens the scene for studying the role of influenza virus’s coinfection in disease severity and virus evolution. Further studies are required to better understand the clinical importance of viral coinfection.

  9. The perception of safety culture among nurses in a tertiary hospital in Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonazi, Aisha A; Saeed, Elshazaly; Mohamed, Sarar

    2016-01-01

    Developing a patient safety culture was one of the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to assist hospitals in improving patient safety. Nurses are the key to safety improvements in hospitals. It is necessary to know their awareness and perception regarding institutional safety climate. The aim of this study is to explore perceptions of patient safety among nursing staff in a tertiary hospital in Central Saudi Arabia in different discipline units. The current study was conducted at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), a tertiary center in Riyadh, Central Saudi Arabia. In November 2014, five hundred nurses were randomly selected to participate in this study. A survey questionnaire with Likert scale was adopted covering characteristics of participants together with their views on patient safety issues. Two hundred and twenty-four participants filled the questionnaire with a response rate of 44.8%. The overall perception of patient safety among participants was (57.9%). The majority (74.1%) thought that the existing system is good at preventing errors and only one third indicated that they have patient safety problems. Most of the participants were happy with the existing patient safety culture including organizational learning/continuous improvement (95.5%), and errors feedback and communication (76.64%). In conclusion, this study showed that perception of patient safety was sub-optimal among nurses and there are several areas for improvement regarding safety culture. PMID:28096559

  10. Stress, anxiety, and depression among medical students in a multiethnic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Kulsoom B; Afsar NA

    2015-01-01

    Bibi Kulsoom,1 Nasir Ali Afsar2 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Contemporary literature suggests that medical education might adversely affect students’ mental health. Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is a developing institution; hence, there has been a concern regarding the mental well-being of the students.Objectives: This study was designed to assess the traits of dep...

  11. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

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    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  12. Centro de Conferencias, Hotel y Mezquita Riyadh - Arabia Saudita

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    Dannatt, Trevor

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex, designed and built for the Finance Ministry of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is located on a 78,000 m2 lot, close to the intersection of highways crossing the Arabian desert, which connect the location directly with the area of public buildings of the city and with the airport as well. The complex situates the Convention Hall, with 23,230 m2 of constructed surface, in the southeast half of the lot; the Hotel, with 14,860 m2 of constructed surface, Is on the other half. Each has independent accesses, as is the case of the Mosque which is located at one end of the lot. Individual dwellings three-storeys high, gardens, parking areas, service roads an auxiliary buildings have been constructed next to the Mosque.

    El conjunto, diseñado y construido para el Ministerio de Finanzas del Reino de Arabia Saudita, está situado en una parcela de 78.000 m2, próxima a la intersección de carreteras que cruzan el desierto arábigo y que conectan directamente la parcela con el área de edificios públicos de la ciudad y con el aeropuerto. El complejo sitúa en la mitad sudoeste el Centro de Conferencias, de 23.230 m2 de edificabilidad, y el Hotel, de 14.860 m2 de superficie construida, en la otra mitad; cada uno de ellos con accesos independientes, al igual que la Mezquita emplazada en un extremo de la parcela. Junto a ésta se han construido viviendas unifamiliares de tres plantas, así como jardines, aparcamientos, carreteras de servicio y locales auxiliares.

  13. Inflammation as a contributing factor among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Aziz, Ibrahim; Yakout, Sobhy; Aljohani, Naji J; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Amer, Osama E; Sheshah, Eman; Younis, Ghaida Zakaria; Al-Badr, Fahad Badr M

    2017-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important metabolic bone disease characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the postmenopausal period. Recently, the most prevalent form of clinically significant osteopenia and osteoporosis involves various inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between proinflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) with bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal Saudi women with and without osteoporosis. A total of 200 postmenopausal Saudi women ≥50 years old, 100 with osteoporosis and 100 without osteoporosis (control) were recruited under the supervision of qualified physicians in King Salman Hospital and King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined using Luminex xMAP technology. N-telopeptides of collagen type I (NTx) was assessed using ELISA, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin were determined using electrochemiluminescence, serum calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured by a chemical analyzer. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, NTx, and PTH levels in women with osteoporosis were significantly higher than controls. Although IL-4 and osteocalcin were significantly lower than controls. IL-1β and TNF-α were positively associated with NTx in osteoporosis women. TNF-α, IL-6, and TNF-α were positively correlated with IL-lβ in both groups. A significant negative correlation between osteocalcin and IL-1β in healthy women and women with osteoporosis were observed. Findings of the present study implicate a role for cytokine pattern-mediated inflammation in patients with osteoporosis.

  14. The predictors of poor quality of life in a sample of Saudi women with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anwar E; Alharbi, Abdulrahman G; Alsadhan, Mohannad A; Almuzaini, Alaa S; Almuzaini, Hanin S; Ali, Yosra Z; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Background The protocols for treatment, along with many adverse effects, can strongly affect cancer patients’ quality of life (QoL). As there is limited research on the QoL of Saudi Arabian women being treated for breast cancer, the purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of poor QoL in a sample of Saudi women with breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 145 Saudi women with breast cancer who attended the Oncology Outpatient Clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh for routine follow-up. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected for each patient, and a Medical Outcome Study Health Survey 36-Item Short Form (SF-36) instrument was used to assess QoL. Results Of 145 breast cancer patients studied, 42.1% had a family history of cancer and 52.4% were newly diagnosed cancer patients (first-year-after-cancer diagnosis). According to linear regression analyses, cancer patients with metastasis tended to have pain, along with poor physical function, little vitality, and poor general health (a decrease in SF-36 scores of 22.9, 15.0, 19.4, and 16.9, respectively). Regular exercise was a positive predictor of poor general health (an increase in the SF-36 score of 8.2). Patients with first-year-after-cancer diagnoses tended to have poor emotional well-being (a decrease in the SF-36 score of 8.5). Conclusion In breast cancer patients, regular exercise was a significant positive predictor of better general health. Breast cancer patients with multiple tumors, metastasis, or fever tended to experience significantly poor QoL in several SF-36 domains. Clearly, a routine assessment of QoL in breast cancer patients is important. PMID:28223845

  15. Prevalence of Syphilis among Blood and Stem Cell Donors in Saudi Arabia: An Institutional Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al amro, Mohamed; Pereira, Winston Costa; Alsuhaibani, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syphilis is one of the known transfusion-transmissible infections and causes 100,000 deaths yearly, with around 90% of these deaths occurring in the developing world. Little data is available regarding the prevalence of syphilis among Saudi blood and stem cell donors. We conducted a survey on the incidence of syphilis among all blood and stem cell donors. Methods This study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the 10 years period data during 2006–2015. Data were analyzed about full history, physical examination, age, sex, weight, profession, marital status, number of the donations, data of last donation, having a relation who received blood transfusion, as well as the screening test results of the donated blood. We determined the seroprevalence of infection and compared by sex and other variable through frequency analysis, Chi square, Fisher, and prevalence ratios. Results Approximately 240,000 blood donors were screened and studied in the period of study. Most of the blood donors were male (98.3%) and 89% of them were citizens of Saudi Arabia. According to our findings, we estimated that, in the last 10 years, approximately 0.044% of all the blood donors were syphilis positive cases. No cases were detected as positive for syphilis among stem cell donors. Only 60 blood donors tested positive for syphilis. In addition, we studied 202 stem cell transplant donors during the same period, of which 59% were male and none texted positive for syphilis. Conclusions A concerted effort between the government, health care providers, regulatory bodies and accreditation agencies have all contributed in eliminating the risk of spreading syphilis among blood donors.

  16. Satisfaction of trainees of Saudi Diploma Family Medicine, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaldi, Yahia M; AlDawood, Kassim M; AlKhudeer, Basima K; AlSaqqaf, Abdullah A

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to assess trainees' satisfaction with the process and assessment aspects of the Saudi Diploma of Family Medicine (SDFM). This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2015 among trainees undertaking the SDFM. A questionnaire was distributed to all trainees in four examination centres in Saudi Arabia, under the supervision and guidance of the investigators (four members of the scientific committee of SDFM). There was a total of 97 participants in this study, the majority of whom were Saudis. More than 85% were satisfied with most elements of training including; an adequate number and variety of patients and cases, allocating time for training, giving regular written evaluation. Satisfaction with mentoring and giving constructive feedback scored less well and trainees were less satisfied with some hospital clinical rotations, which requires further exploration.

  17. Clinical characteristics of patients with atrial fibrillation at a tertiary care hospital in the central region of Saudi Arabia

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    Salih A Bin Salih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report on the clinical presentation, etiology, and laboratory features of acute and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied records of 720 patients with AF seen in outpatients and inpatients departments at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2008. Results: Documented acute and chronic AF was present in 157 (21.8% and 563 (78.1% patients, respectively. Palpitations, dizziness and syncope were the most frequent symptoms in acute AF, while dyspnea and palpitations were the most common symptoms in the chronic type. Acute respiratory problems and acute myocardial infarction were significantly more common in acute AF, while congestive heart failure and acute respiratory problems (chest infection, bronchial asthma, and pulmonary embolism were significantly more common in chronic AF. The most common causes of both types of AF were diabetes mellitus (DM in 68.8%, hypertension (HTN in 59.3%, chronic lung diseases (bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease in 31.8%, valvular heart disease in 23.6%, and ischemic heart disease (IHD in 23.1%. In 9 (1.3% patients, no cause was detected. The echocardiographic findings of left ventricular hypertrophy, valve lesions, and depressed left ventricular function were significantly more common in chronic AF (P<0.01. Conclusions : Nowadays, DM, HTN, and IHD are becoming the most common predisposing factors for AF in the central region of Saudi Arabia and require prevention and control

  18. Saudi dental students’ perceptions of pediatric behavior guidance techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jobair, Asma M; Al-Mutairi, Manal A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental students receive theoretical and clinical training in pediatric behavioral guidance techniques at university. Therefore, the content of the educational course and the degree of training in behavioral techniques may have an impact on the students’ perceptions and practice of such techniques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Saudi dental students’ perceptions of behavior guidance techniques used in pediatric dentistry, and to assess the changes in their perceptions af...

  19. Learning Critical Thinking in Saudi Arabia: Student Perceptions of Secondary Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamnakhrah, Alhasan

    2013-01-01

    Saudi scholars have been agitating for education reforms to incorporate critical thinking in education programs. This paper is a qualitative case study undertaken at King Abdul Aziz University and Arab Open University and examines students' perception of learning critical thinking in secondary pre-service teacher education programs in Saudi…

  20. Pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population: A single-center, five-year retrospective study

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    Z Nawaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerular diseases continue to be the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD globally. Hence, it is important to recognize the pattern of glomerular diseases in different geographical areas in order to understand the patho-biology, incidence and progression of the disorder. Published studies from different centers in Saudi Arabia have reported contradicting results. In this retrospective study, we report our experience at the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 348 native renal biopsies performed at our center on patients with proteinuria >1 g, hematuria and/or renal impairment during a period of 5 years (between January 2005 and December 2009 were studied by a histopathologist using light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and were categorized. Results showed that primary glomerular disease accounted for 55.1% of all renal biopsies. The most common histological lesion was focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (27.6%, followed by minimal change disease (MCD (17.7% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (13.0%. Secondary glomerular disease accounted for 37.9% of the glomerular diseases, with lupus nephritis (LN being the most common lesion (54.5%, followed by hypertensive nephrosclerosis (22%, post-infectious glomerulonephritis (7.5%, diabetic nephropathy (DN (6.8% and vasculitides (4.5%. Four percent of all biopsies turned out to be ESRD while biopsy was inadequate in 2.8% of the cases. In conclusion, our study showed that FSGS was the most common primary GN encountered, while LN was the most common secondary GN. We encountered 14 cases of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Also, the prevalence of MPGN, MCD, IgA nephropathy and membranous GN was many folds higher in males when compared with the Western data. We believe that it is mandatory to maintain a Saudi Arabian Renal Biopsy Registry to understand better the pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population and to follow

  1. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

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    Benjamin P Kear

    Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

  2. 39. Predictors of coronary artery disease in young Saudi patients

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    G. ALbarqy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is defined as obstruction of the lumen of the coronary artery due to formation of atherosclerotic plaque. This eventually leads to reduced blood supply to the heart. It could lead to high morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for CAD are divided into modifiable or non-modifiable. Modifiable such as diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking while non-modifiable risks are family history, age, and gender according to previous studies.The aim of this study is to identify the predictors and the prevalence of coronary disease risk factors among young Saudi patients.This study reviewed 1061 patients referred to the cardiac catheterization lab in King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center in Riyadh between the year 2010 and 2013. Included patients were males and females aged 18-45 years who underwent coronary angiography for various clinical indications.The results were divided into two groups; Group A aged 35 years. Male gender in Gp.A 143 (16.1% vs. Gp.B 747 (83.9% p-value = 0.500. Smoking Gp.A 84 (15.8% vs. Gp.B 446 (84.2% p = 0.680. Obesity Gp.A 43 (14.1% vs. Gp.B 262 (85.9% p = 0.234. Family history Gp.A 24 (23.1% vs. 80 (76.9% p = 0.069. Hyperlipidemia Gp.A 40 (12.9% vs. Gp.B 271 (87.1% p = 0.045. Hypertension Gp.A 20 (8.2% vs. Gp 233 (91.8% p = 35 years we found that HTN and Diabetes were statistically significant risk factors. Therefore, a modification of lifestyle habits is recommended.

  3. Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students

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    Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.

  4. Workforce localisation policies in multi-national enterprises: the determinants of successful implementation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alanezi, Abdullah N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Workforce Localisation policies in Saudi Arabia (commonly known as ‘Saudisation’) have passed their nineteenth year, aiming at replacing foreign employees in the private sector with local employees. The government’s rationale behind the localisation of the workforce includes both the high rate of unemployment amongst Saudi nationals and the massive presence of expatriates in the labo...

  5. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  6. [The weight of immigration in Saudi Arabia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Klebnikoff, S

    1982-01-01

    The social, political, and economic implications of the immigrant presence in Saudi Arabia are explored. The author notes that about one-third of the population of the country is made up of working nonnationals. The tensions that exist are examined, with reference to the exclusion of the migrants from Saudi Arabian society and the extreme imbalance in the sex ratio caused by predominately male migration. The author suggests that dependence on migrant labor is likely to increase rather than decrease as Saudi nationals are oriented toward nontechnical studies and Saudi women are excluded from the labor force.

  7. Linguistic Analysis of Saudi Pidginized Arabic as Produced by Asian Foreign Expatriates

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    Hameed Yahya A. Al-Zubeiry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing the system of SPA (Saudi pidginized Arabic as produced by AFEs (Asian foreign expatriates working in Saudi Arabia with specific reference to universal characteristics of reduction and simplification in the system of morpho-syntactic structure of Saudi Arabic. The study is based on data collected through a semi-structured interview technique probing into the features of SPA system. Thirty informants were randomly selected from among expatriates working in Saudi Arabia and belonging to different linguistic backgrounds – Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Tagalog, Indonesian, and Malayalam- as representatives of AFEs. The study showed that the AFEs tend to use simplified and reduced system of SA in order to communicate with its native speakers. This was reflected in producing variations of sentence word order that are not compatible with the sentence word order of SA, reduced inflectional verb forms and simplified noun phrase lacking agreement within its structure. The study concluded with the following implications: 1 SPA could be considered as an emerging contact variety among Asian expatriates in Saudi Arabic; 2 it has universal characteristics of reduction and simplification as shown in its structural system; 3 substrate languages play an essential role in the formation of the SPA.Keywords: Pidgin, simplification, reduction, SPA, AFEs, SA.

  8. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-14

    Turki Al Faisal, were entitled to foreign sovereign immunity for their official acts. [Burnett v. Al Baraka Inv. and Development Corp., 292 F.Supp.2d 9...the Palestinian Authority (PA), donations to charitable organizations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and by means of direct assistance to over...killing others by means of suicide bombings, and Saudi religious leaders have condemned the taking of innocent lives.” See [http://www.saudiembassy.net

  9. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

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    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  10. The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population

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    Mokhtar HA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadeel A Mokhtar, Layla W Abuljadayel, Reem M Al-Ali, Mohammed Yousef Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop® software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the “gummy: smile picture (P-value =0.003, diastema picture (P-value =0.000 and the “Reverse” smile picture (P-value =0.004. As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009. Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. “Dental background” participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the “nondental” group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. Keywords: diastema, gummy, reverse

  11. Teacher Evaluation as a Tool for Professional Development: A Case of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Badia Muntazir

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the use of teacher evaluation and appraisal process as a tool for professional development. A group of 30 teachers from seven different nationalities with diverse qualifications and teaching experiences participated in this case study at the English Language Institute (ELI) at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabia.…

  12. Investigating Foreign Language Learning Anxiety: A Case of Saudi Undergraduate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khasawneh, Fadi Maher

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the level and sources of foreign language learning anxiety experienced by Saudi students studying at King Khalid University (KKU). It also aims to examine the differences between the level of language anxiety and the students' study level. For this purpose, 97 English majored students from different levels were purposively…

  13. The Impact of Native Language Use on Second Language Vocabulary Learning by Saudi EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Saleem

    2016-01-01

    This paper strives to explore the impact of Native Language use on Foreign Language vocabulary learning on the basis of empirical and available data. The study is carried out with special reference to the English Language Programme students in Buraydah Community College, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The Native Language of these students is…

  14. Market Tested Business Education: Corporate Sector Perceptions of Saudi Graduates Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Adnan; Zenchenkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    University-industry collaboration patterns in more advanced economies have greatly impacted expectations for higher educational systems in developing countries. In Saudi Arabia, generally poor innovation performance of domestic industry has been perceived as a constraint in global competitiveness. The purpose of this study was to determine if…

  15. Saudi EFL Preparatory Year Students' Perception about Corrective Feedback in Oral Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaysony, Maha

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the attitudes of Saudi EFL students towards corrective feedback (henceforth CF) on classroom oral errors. The subjects were 3200 (1223 male and 1977 female) students enrolled in an intensive English language programme in the preparatory year at the University of Ha'il. A questionnaire was the main instrument. This…

  16. Factors Influencing the Use of Learning Management System in Saudi Arabian Higher Education: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Mohammed J. Sherbib; Mahmud, Rosnaini bt; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi bin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the theoretical framework underlying a research on factors that influence utilization of the Jusur Learning Management System (Jusur LMS) in Saudi Arabian public universities. Development of the theoretical framework was done based on library research approach. Initially, the existing literature relevant to…

  17. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alam, Mohammed S., E-mail: m.s.alam@bham.ac.uk [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Harrison, Roy M., E-mail: r.m.harrison@bham.ac.uk [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources.

  18. Brief Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire: An investigation into craving and heavy smoking in Saudi Arabian males

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    Abdulaziz A Albrithen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the craving of tobacco by Saudi males and its influence on daily smoking. Subjects were recruited under the auspices of the Tobacco Control Program in Jeddah City and Riyadh. Methods: The American English version of the tobacco craving questionnaire (TCQ-12 is a valid measure of four distinct aspects (factors of tobacco craving. The TCQ-12 was translated into Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire (ATCQ-12 and administered to a sample of 322 male smokers. Predictive validity was determined by examining the relationship between the factors and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD. Results: In a general linear multivariate analysis of variance model, CPD increased significantly as either ATCQ-12 Factor 1 (emotionality or Factor 3 (compulsiveness increased. A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low. Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low. Conclusions: The ATCQ-12 is a rapid measure of craving and valid predictor of CPD and heavy smoking. Craving in anticipation of smoking as relief from a negative mood (emotionality is an indicator of psychological withdrawal symptoms, while craving in anticipation of the inability to control tobacco use (compulsiveness is an indicator of physical dependence.

  19. Diversity of Molecular Mechanisms Conferring Carbapenem Resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed H. Al-Agamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study described various molecular and epidemiological characters determining antibiotic resistance patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Methods. A total of 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were isolated from samples collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2011. Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were performed. Results. All isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, and more than half were highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC > 256 mg/L. Fifteen isolates had MIC values ≥64 mg/L for any of the carbapenems examined. Vietnamese extended-spectrum β-lactamase (VEB-1 (n=16/34 and oxacillinase (OXA-10 (n=14/34 were the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase and penicillinase, respectively. Verona imipenemase (VIM-1, VIM-2, VIM-4, VIM-11, and VIM-28 and imipenemase (IMP-7 variants were found in metallo-β-lactamase producers. A decrease in outer membrane porin gene (oprD expression was seen in nine isolates, and an increase in efflux pump gene (MexAB expression was detected in five isolates. Six serotypes (O:1, O:4, O:7, O:10, O:11, and O:15 were found among the 34 isolates. The predominant serotype was O:11 (16 isolates, followed by O:15 (nine isolates. PFGE analysis of the 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates revealed 14 different pulsotypes. Conclusions. These results revealed diverse mechanisms conferring carbapenem resistance to P. aeruginosa isolates from Saudi Arabia.

  20. Innovative Framework for e-Government adoption in Saudi Arabia: A Study from the business sector perspective

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    Saleh Alghamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Government increases transparency and im-proves communication between the government and the users. Providing e-Government services to business sector is a fun-damental mission of governmental agencies in Saudi Arabia. However, the adoption of e-Government systems is less than satisfactory in many countries, particularly in developing coun-tries. This is a significant factor that can lead to e-Government failure and, therefore, to the waste of budget and effort. One pertinent, unanswered question is what are the key factors that influence the adoption and utilisation level of users from business sector. Unlike much research in the literature that has utilised common technology acceptance models and theories to analyse the adoption of e-Government, which may not be sufficient for such analysis, this study proposes a conceptual framework following a holistic approach to analyse key factors that influence the adoption and utilisation of e-Government in Saudi Arabia. The developed framework, E-Government Adoption and Utilisation Model (EGAUM, was developed based on critical evaluation of several common models and theories related to technology acceptance and use including Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT, in conjunction with analysis of e-Government adoption literature. The study involved 48 participating business entities from two major cities in Saudi Arabia, Riyadh and Jeddah. The descriptive and statistical analyses are presented in this paper and the results indicated that all the proposed factors have degree of influence on the adoption and utilisation level. Perceived Benefits, Awareness, Previous Experience, and Regulations & Policies were found to be the significant factors that are most likely to influence the adoption and usage level of users from business sector.

  1. Some Silurian (Llandovery) monograptids from Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Khayal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of Monograptus are recognized from Qusayba, Al-Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia. The Qusayba Shales Member of the Tabuk Formation in central Saudi Arabia contains M. decipiens decipiens, M. ex gr. barrandei and M. elongatus, associated with other graptolites. This assemblage is indicative

  2. Partial Immersion Program for Saudi Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulami, Sumayyah Qaed

    2017-01-01

    English is taught as a foreign language in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Although the government tries gradually to integrate teaching English in all grades: secondary, intermediate and elementary, learning English is still limited and need more developing. This essay is a brief review about bilingualism in Saudi education. This essay will be divided…

  3. Epilepsy and Spinocerebellar Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A large consanguinous family from Saudi Arabia with 4 affected children presenting with an autosomal recessive ataxia, generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy and mental retardation is reported from the Institut de Genetique, Universite Louis Pasteur, Illkirch, France; Division of Pediatric Neurology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; and other centers.

  4. Clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulrahman M. Aljebreen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn′s disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn′s disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS, was used to register Crohn′s disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients′ characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Results: Among 497 patients with Crohn′s disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI: 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ≤16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Conclusion: Crohn′s disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.

  5. A New Phenomenon in Saudi Females’ Code-switching: A Morphemic Analysis

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    Mona O. Turjoman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This sociolinguistics study investigates a new phenomenon that has recently surfaced in the field of code-switching among Saudi females residing in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. This phenomenon basically combines bound Arabic pronouns, tense markers or definite article to English free morphemes or the combination of bound English affixes to Arabic morphemes. Moreover, the study examines the factors that affect this type of code-switching. The results of the study indicate that this phenomenon provides data that invalidates Poplack’s (1980 universality of the ‘Free Morpheme Constraint’. It is also concluded that the main factors that influence this type of code-switching is solidarity and group identity among other factors. Keywords: Code-switching, Saudi females, sociolinguistics, CS factors, morphemic analysis

  6. The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in long-distance travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hameed, Fahad M.; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Abdelaal, Mohamed A.; Alaklabi, Ali; Bakhsh, Ebtisam; Alomi, Yousef A.; Baik, Mohammad Al; Aldahan, Salah; Schünemann, Holger; Brozek, Jan; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Darzi, Andrea J.; Waziry, Reem; Akl, Elie A.

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a preventable disease. Long distant travelers are prone to variable degree to develop VTE. However, the low risk of developing VTE among long-distance travelers and which travelers should receive VTE prophylaxis, and what prophylactic measures should be used led us to develop these guidelines. These clinical practice guidelines are the result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia involving an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo Embolism (a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society). The McMaster University Guideline working group provided the methodological support. The expert panel identified 5 common questions related to the thromboprophylaxis in long-distance travelers. The corresponding recommendations were made following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. PMID:28042639

  7. Healthcare Personnel's Use of E-Information Sources in Riyadh Governmental Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudair, Ahmad A.; Cooke, Louise

    2008-01-01

    ICT has enabled a wide dissemination of information and a sharp increase in the magnitude of electronic information sources. The use of e-information sources by healthcare personnel within Saudi Arabia has received little research attention. This paper discusses the use of e-information sources by healthcare personnel in the kingdom. A…

  8. Economical Feasibility of Utilizing Photovoltaics for Water Pumping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Z. Sahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and water are the two major need of the globe which need to be addressed for the sustenance of the human beings on this planet. All the nations, no matter most populous, developed and developing need to diversify the means and ways of producing energy and at the same time guarding the environment. This study aims at techno economical feasibility of producing energy using PV solar panels and utilizing it to pump-water at Dhahran, Riyadh, Jeddah, Guriat, and Nejran regions in Saudi Arabia. The solar radiation data from these stations was used to generate electricity using PV panels of 9.99 kW total capacity. Nejran region was found to be most economical in terms of minimal payback period and cost of energy and maximum internal rate of return whereas PV power production was concerned. Water-pumping capacity of the solar PV energy system was calculated at five locations based on the PV power production and Goulds model 45J series of pumps. Monthly total and annual total water pumping capacities were determined. Considering the capital cost of combined solar PV energy system and the pump unit a cost analysis of water pumping for a well of 50 m total dynamic head (TDH was carried out. The cost of water pumping was found to vary between 2 and 3 /m3.

  9. Simulating and Forecasting Flooding Events in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghostine, Rabih; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-05-01

    Metropolitan cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as Jeddah and Riyadh, are more frequently experiencing flooding events caused by strong convective storms that produce intense precipitation over a short span of time. The flooding in the city of Jeddah in November 2009 was described by civil defense officials as the worst in 27 years. As of January 2010, 150 people were reported killed and more than 350 were missing. Another flooding event, less damaging but comparably spectacular, occurred one year later (Jan 2011) in Jeddah. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision and rescue plans. We have developed a coupled hydro-meteorological model for simulating and predicting flooding events in the city of Jeddah. We use the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model assimilating all available data in the Jeddah region for simulating the storm events in Jeddah. The resulting rain is then used on 10 minutes intervals to feed up an advanced numerical shallow water model that has been discretized on an unstructured grid using different numerical schemes based on the finite elements or finite volume techniques. The model was integrated on a high-resolution grid size varying between 0.5m within the streets of Jeddah and 500m outside the city. This contribution will present the flooding simulation system and the simulation results, focusing on the comparison of the different numerical schemes on the system performances in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  10. Spatiotemporal Modeling of Urban Growth Predictions Based on Driving Force Factors in Five Saudi Arabian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah F. Alqurashi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of four driving forces, including elevation, slope, distance to drainage and distance to major roads, on urban expansion in five Saudi Arabian cities: Riyadh, Jeddah, Makkah, Al-Taif and Eastern Area. The prediction of urban probabilities in the selected cities based on the four driving forces is generated using a logistic regression model for two time periods of urban change in 1985 and 2014. The validation of the model was tested using two approaches. The first approach was a quantitative analysis by using the Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC method. The second approach was a qualitative analysis in which the probable urban growth maps based on urban changes in 1985 is used to test the performance of the model to predict the probable urban growth after 2014 by comparing the probable maps of 1985 and the actual urban growth of 2014. The results indicate that the prediction model of 2014 provides a reliable and consistent prediction based on the performance of 1985. The analysis of driving forces shows variable effects over time. Variables such as elevation, slope and road distance had significant effects on the selected cities. However, distance to major roads was the factor with the most impact to determine the urban form in all five cites in both 1985 and 2014.

  11. Awareness, attitudes, and practices related to the swine influenza pandemic among the Saudi public

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    Al-Jumah Mohammad A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During an infectious disease outbreak, it is critical to learn as much as possible about the concerns, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of the public. Such information can be crucial to the improvement of communication efforts by public health officials and clinicians. The aim of this study was to identify awareness, attitudes, and practices related to influenza A (H1N1 among the Saudi public. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,548 adult subjects recruited from various shopping malls in Riyadh and Jeddah was conducted. All of the subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire that tested their knowledge, attitudes, and use of precautionary measures in relation to the H1N1 influenza pandemic. Results More than half (54.3%, 840/1548 of the participants showed high concern, 43.7%(677/1548 showed a low level of knowledge, and 60.8%(941/1548 had taken minimal or no precautionary measures. After adjusting for other variables, education level was the only significant predictor of the level of concern (p Conclusions High concern did not translate into a higher compliance with precautionary recommendations, possibly due to the low level of knowledge about the disease among the public. Frequent communication between physicians and the public is recommended to help dispel myths about the disease and to spread better information about the role that the public can play in limiting the spread of the disease.

  12. Analysis of a Solar Cooling System for Climatic Conditions of Five Different Cities of Saudi Arabia

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    M. Mujahid Rafique

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air high in humidity leads to uncomfortable conditions and promotes the growth of different fungi and bacteria, which may cause health problems. The control of moisture content in the air using traditional air conditioning techniques is not a suitable option due to large consumption of primary energy and hence emission of greenhouse gases. The evaporative cooling technology is a cost effective and eco-friendly alternative but can provide thermal comfort conditions only under low humidity conditions. However, the evaporative cooling method can be used effectively in conjunction with desiccant dehumidifiers for better control of humidity. Such systems can control the temperature and humidity of the air independently and can effectively utilize the low-grade thermal energy resources. In this paper, the theoretical analysis of desiccant based evaporative cooling systems is carried out for five cities in Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Jazan, Riyadh, Hail, and Dhahran. It has been observed that the coefficient of performance (COP of the system varies from 0.275 to 0.476 for different locations. The water removal capacity of the desiccant wheel is at its maximum for the climatic conditions of Jazan and at its minimum for Hail. The effect of climatic conditions of five cities on regeneration temperature, air mass flow rate, and potential of solar energy has been evaluated using RET Screen software.

  13. Patient Experience of Nursing Quality in a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia

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    M Al Momani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients' expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received.Methods: A cross- sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011 from a convenience sample of 448 patients using a 42- items questionnaire assessing six dimensions of the nursing care provided to, during hospitalization.Results: On a four-point scale (4-higly agree,3-agree, 2-disagree, and 1-higly disagree. The individual items of nursing care showing the lowest means were the information received from the nurses about self-help (2.81, the information about the laboratory results (2.76 and the way the nurse shared the patient's feeling (2.72. A strong correlation existed between the overall perception level and the variables of gender (P=0.01, and the types of department (0.004.Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate negative experiences of patients with nursing care in dimensions of information, caring behavior, and nurse competency and technical care. Awareness of the importance of these dimensions of nursing care and ongoing support to investigate patients' perception periodically toward quality of nursing care are critical to success the philosophy of patient centered health care.

  14. Patient Experience of Nursing Quality in a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Momani, M; Al Korashy, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients’ expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011) from a convenience sample of 448 patients using a 42-items questionnaire assessing six dimensions of the nursing care provided to, during hospitalization. Results: On a four–point scale (4-higly agree,3-agree, 2-disagree, and 1-higly disagree). The individual items of nursing care showing the lowest means were the information received from the nurses about self-help (2.81), the information about the laboratory results (2.76) and the way the nurse shared the patient's feeling (2.72). A strong correlation existed between the overall perception level and the variables of gender (P=0.01), and the types of department (0.004). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate negative experiences of patients with nursing care in dimensions of information, caring behavior, and nurse competency and technical care. Awareness of the importance of these dimensions of nursing care and ongoing support to investigate patients’ perception periodically toward quality of nursing care are critical to success the philosophy of patient centered health care. PMID:23113223

  15. Aptitude Tests and Successful College Students: The Predictive Validity of the General Aptitude Test (GAT) in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Aptitude tests should predict student success at the university level. This study examined the predictive validity of the General Aptitude Test (GAT) in Saudi Arabia. Data for 27420 students enrolled at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University were analyzed. Of these students, 17565 were male students, and 9855 were female students. Multiple…

  16. Designing an ESP Curriculum for Saudi Science Students

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    Fahad Saleh Suleiman Alfallaj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study looks at available views on ESP especially for students of science both as an academic tool and as an occupational need. It also endeavours to present a curriculum for the undergraduate students of Science at Qassim University, KSA. It is an objective of the paper to propose a use and need based syllabus to prepare the learners for life. The study concludes with a set of recommendations and suggestions that would improve the Academic and occupational aspects of the ESP scenario at all institutions of Higher Learning in the Kingdom where English is a secondary subject.Keywords: Designing curriculum, Saudi students, ESP

  17. Cellulose - Decomposing Fungi From Saudi Arabian Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Bahkali, Ali H.; Khiyami, Mohammad A.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty fungal species belonging to fifteen genera were collected from 30 soil samples on cellulose Czapek agar. The highest number of fungal species was isolated from Dammam (20 species) followed by Niomas (18 species), Makkah and Riyadh (17 species each), Tabouk (16) species and Jizan (11 species). The most frequent genera isolated were Aspergillus, Pencillium, Alternaria, Ulocladium and Curvularia. Throughout this study, six fungal species belonging to four genera; Ulocladiun septosporum, E...

  18. Awareness, practices, and barriers regarding smoking cessation treatment among physicians in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jradi, Hoda

    2017-01-01

    Smoking cessation counseling and therapy provided by physicians play an important role in helping smokers quit. Awareness and practices of the clinical practice guidelines for tobacco dependence (in particular the 5A's: Ask, Assist, Assess, Advise, and Arrange) among physicians and perceived barriers for their implementation is needed to improve care for individuals who smoke/use tobacco products in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted among 124 general and family practitioners in primary health care clinics belonging to 2 major medical centers in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Descriptive statistics were reported for all survey variables. Logistic regression was used to examine the predictors of physicians' use of the 5A's for smoking cessation counseling and therapy. Among the 216 contacted physicians, 124 responded (57.4%). The majority (63.7%) were males, between the ages of 40 and 49 years (52.4%), practicing full-time (95.2%), and had not received smoking cessation training during medical school education or residency training (68.6%). Approximately 85.5% reported some experience with the guidelines (heard, read, or used). Asking (71.8%) and advising (87.9%) were the most implemented for smoking cessation, while assisting (15.3%) and arranging for follow-up (17.7%) were the least implemented. Most (96.0%) did not prescribe pharmacotherapy and 53.2% reported documenting the patient's smoking status. Reported barriers were mostly lack of time (72.6%) and lack of training (66.9%). Awareness of the guidelines, physician's smoking status, perceived competence in ability to provide smoking cessation counseling and therapy, reporting the ineffectiveness of smoking cessation therapy as a barrier, and the perceived benefit of reducing patient's physical symptoms were independently statistically significant predictors of the implementation of the 5A's for smoking cessation therapy. This preliminary study showed that smoking cessation

  19. Medical internship training in Saudi Arabia: interns’ views and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaid AI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ali I Swaid,1 Abdelkhalig H Elhilu,2 Mohamed S Mahfouz3 1Department of ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85 enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results: Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively. Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32, while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39. Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively. The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%, while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion: It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Jazan University, internship program, gynecology and

  20. President Li Xiaolin Visits Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Min

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of Prince Alwaleed,chairman of Kingdom Holding Company of Saudi Arabia,CPAFFC President Li Xiaolin led a delegation to visit Saudi Arabia from Feb 16 to 20.During the visit,Ms.Li met with the prince,visited Kingdom Hospital and Kingdom School and held working talks with Alwaleed Philanthropies.During the meeting with Prince Alwaleed,Ms.Li mentioned that Chi-

  1. The Use of EFL Authentic Materials: A Gender-Line University Teachers' Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulRahman Al Asmari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to explore the role of authentic materials (henceforth AM in the interaction of the Saudi EFL university classrooms with an emphasis placed on gender-based analysis of EFL university teachers' classroom practices. Moreover, it introduces the concepts of what define AM, and presents various perceptions of researchers, teachers on their usefulness. To examine this phenomenon, Saudi EFL teachers’ perceptions about the use of authentic materials were investigated to improve English language skills at Saudi EFL university classrooms. After employing a structured questionnaire, the results indicated that Saudi EFL university teachers authenticated the significance of AM for improving language skills of Saudi EFL university students. Also, the results reflected that Saudi EFL teachers showed their preferences for the use of balanced AM and English for Academic Purposes (EAP textbooks. The findings elicited the meaningful implications for the use of AM especially for the Saudi EFL university students. Keywords: Saudi EFL university teachers, beliefs, authentic materials, EAP books, EFL context

  2. Periodontal health and diabetes awareness among Saudi diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahammam MA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Maha A BahammamDepartment of Periodontology, King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: This study aimed to examine diabetic patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, regarding their general diabetic and oral health-related awareness and practices, their awareness of the association of diabetes with periodontal disease, and their sources of diabetes-related information.Methods: Diabetic patients (n=454 who were receiving care at the diabetes clinic in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to May 2014, completed a six-part questionnaire assessing their sociodemographic characteristics, general and oral health awareness and practices, and sources of diabetes-related information. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results.Results: The responses indicated inadequate health-related practices in the surveyed group: 22.2% brushed their teeth twice daily, 73.6% never flossed their teeth, and while 80.2% visited a physician in the past year, only 12.6% visited a dentist during the same year. Of the respondents, 94.8% reported that they had never received advice on oral hygiene tasks in relation to diabetes from a health professional. Awareness about the diabetes and periodontal disease association was limited: 46.7% knew that diabetics have gum problems more often if their blood sugar stays very high, and only 21.8% knew that gum disease makes it harder to control blood sugar in diabetic patients. A significant association (P<0.05 was found between a higher level of education and greater general and oral awareness, as well as a significant association (P<0.05 between longer duration of disease, regular exercise, and regular visits to the physician and awareness about diabetes mellitus. Additionally, a significant association (P<0.05 was found between regular dental visits and both periodontal disease and diabetes awareness. Family and friends were the main source of

  3. Knowledge and attitudes of Saudi intensive care unit nurses regarding oral care delivery to mechanically ventilated patients with the effect of healthcare quality accreditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Alotaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a major morbid outcome among intensive care unit (ICU patients. Providing oral care for intubated patients is an important task by the ICU nursing staff in reducing the mortality and morbidity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of ICU nurses regarding oral care delivery to critically ill patients in Saudi Arabian ICUs. The findings were further correlated to the presence of healthcare quality accreditation of the institution. Materials and Methods: The nurses′ knowledge, attitudes, and healthcare quality accreditation status of the hospital were recorded. Two hundred fifteen nurses conveniently selected from 10 random hospitals were included in this study from Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study in the form of a questionnaire. Results: When comparing the knowledge of the participants to their level of education, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups of nurses. The majority of the nurses agreed that the oral cavity is difficult to clean and that oral care delivery is a high priority for mechanically ventilated patients. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in the attitudes between nurses working in accredited and nonaccredited hospitals. Conclusion: The presence of healthcare quality accreditation did not reflect any significance in attitudes or knowledge of the ICU nurses in regard to mechanically ventilated patients. Factors affecting oral care delivery should be evaluated on the personal and institutional level to achieve better understanding of them.

  4. A retrospective observational study of functional outcomes, length of stay, and discharge disposition after an inpatient stroke rehabilitation program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M; Mawajdeh, Hussam; Vennu, Vishal; Alhaidary, Hisham

    2016-08-01

    Functional outcomes, length of stay (LOS), and discharge disposition have become frequent outcome measures among stroke patients after rehabilitation programs. To examine the trends of changes in functional outcomes, LOS, and discharge disposition in stroke patients discharged from an inpatient rehabilitation facility.All patients (n = 432) were admitted to a tertiary inpatient rehabilitation hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with stroke diagnoses from November 2008 to December 2014. The functional independence measure (FIM) instrument used to assess the patient's functional status. The LOS was measured as the number of days the patients spent in the hospital from the day of admission to the day of discharge. The FIM efficiency was used to measure the patient's rehabilitation progress. All of the variables of the prospectively collected data were retrospectively analyzed.There were significant changes by years in the total FIM ranging from 23 to 29 (P stroke rehabilitation program between 2008 and 2014 even with a constant LOS. Discharge disposition has remained unstable over this period. To improve the efficiency of the stroke rehabilitation program in Saudi Arabia, there is a need to decrease the LOS and emphasize a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach.

  5. Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali

    2006-01-01

    After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to…

  6. Noteworthy: oil markets: Saudis abandon WTI price as benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Thies

    2010-01-01

    Saudi Arabia's state-owned oil company no longer uses West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil as its pricing benchmark. Saudi Aramco, the third largest U.S. oil supplier, switched to the Argus Sour Crude Index (ASCI) in January.

  7. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  8. Nedtur. Griske prinser svækker Saudi-Arabien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2016-01-01

    I analyze the ability of Saudi-Arabia to adjust to present low oil prices. I analyze the political foundations of the Saudi state and its weak autonomy in relation to its power bases: the avaricious princes and the fundamentalist religious Sheikhs. I am pessimistic as to the likelyhood of Saudi-Arabia...... making the needed ajdustments due to current low oil prices. This is the second of two articles on Saudi-Arabia....

  9. Recent incidence and descriptive epidemiological survey of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Ansari, Abid A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number of women with BC increased steadily from 1990-2010. On the basis of the number of cases, the percentage distribution of BC appears to be increasing. There were 1152 female BC cases in 2008 in comparison with 1308 in 2009, and 1473 in 2010. Breast cancer ranked first among females accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers (5378) in the year 2010. The average age at the diagnosis of BC was 48; weighted average was 49.8, and range 43-52. Conclusion: Among Saudi patients, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of BC, which occurs at an earlier age than in Western countries. Continued vigilance, mammographic screening, and patient education are needed to establish early diagnosis and perform optimal treatment. PMID:26446327

  10. The Saudi Clinical Practice Guideline for the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hameed, Fahad M.; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Al-Momen, Abdulkarim M.; Algahtani, Farjah H.; Al-Zahrani, Hazzaa A.; Al-Saleh, Khalid A.; Al-Sheef, Mohammed A.; Owaidah, Tarek M.; Alhazzani, Waleed; Neumann, Ignacio; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Brozek, Jan; Schünemann, Holger; Akl, Elie A.

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. After diagnosis, its management frequently carries significant challenges to the clinical practitioner. Treatment of VTE with the inappropriate modality and/or in the inappropriate setting may lead to serious complications and have life-threatening consequences. As a result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo-Embolism (a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society) and the Saudi Scientific Hematology Society with the methodological support of the McMaster University Guideline working group, this clinical practice guideline was produced to assist health care providers in VTE management. Two questions were identified and were related to the inpatient versus outpatient treatment of acute DVT, and the early versus standard discharge from hospital for patients with acute PE. The corresponding recommendations were made following the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. PMID:26219456

  11. A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

  12. The Association of Adiposity Indices and Plasma Vitamin D in Young Females in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Ibrahim Al Asoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. Some evidences indicate its association with metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In the current study we aim to study the association of vitamin D level and indicators of adiposity in young Saudi females. Subjects and Methods. 87 young healthy Saudi females were recruited from University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Each subject filled vitamin D questionnaire and had exercise stress test to determine VO2 peak. Body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, and ratios were determined. Blood was analyzed for 25-OH vitamin D, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and differential cholesterol. Results. 25-OH vitamin D/body weight was negatively associated with waist circumference and waist/stature ratio. No significant difference was found between the groups of BMI with regard to the data of questionnaire or 25-OH vitamin D/body weight. Obese and overweight subjects had lower VO2 peak. Conclusion. In young Saudi females we found that the relative value of vitamin D to body weight is a better indicator of vitamin D status particularly in obese subjects and it is negatively associated with adiposity measures of waist circumference and waist/stature ratio.

  13. 9th May 2008 - Members of Saudi government visiting ATLAS control room and cavern with Technical Coordinator M. Nessi and Adviser to the Director-General D. Blechschmidt.

    CERN Multimedia

    Mona Schweizer

    2008-01-01

    CERN-HI-0804043 05: from left to right 1st row Mrs. Ibtesam Badhrees, ATLAS Collaboration user Mr. Nadhmi Al-Nassr, Interim President, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, KAUST H.E. Dr. Khaled S. Al-Sultan, Rector, King Fahd University for Petroleum and Minerals Mr. Abdallah S. Jum’ah, President and Chief Executive Officer, Saudi Aramco H.E. Dr. Ibrahim A. Al-Assaf, Minister of Finance H.E. Dr. Abdul Rahman Al-Tuwaijri, Chairman of Capital Markets Authority H.E. Dr. Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel, President, King Abdul Aziz City for Science & Technology KACST; 2nd row Mr. Salim S. Al-Aydh, Senior Vice President – Engineering & Project Management, Saudi Aramco Mr. Khalid A. Al-Falih, Executive Vice President – Operations, Saudi Aramco Mr. A. Othman, Saudi Aramco Mr. Peter Woicke, Member of the Saudi Aramco Board of Directors Mr. Abdulaziz F. Al-Khayyal, Senior Vice President – Industrial Relations, Saudi Aramco Mr. James W. Kinnear, Retired President & Chief Executive Office...

  14. A Reciprocal Model of Psychographic Attributes Related to Their Learning among Preparatory Year of Undergraduate Students in West Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Feras

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the level of psychographic attributes among the preparatory year students enrolled at the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The study sample consists of 209 students chosen with the help of random sampling and questionnaire survey was employed for data collection. Based on the findings, the entire study variables, which are…

  15. Effect of the School Facilities Factor and Sport Activities Factor on Parents in Terms of Private and Public School Choice at Riyadh City Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsauidi, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    There are several, primarily carried out in the Western World, that have explored the reasons why parents' choice a school, which they consider best meets their children's needs and parental aspirations for their children. In order to contribute to the established knowledge it was essential to conduct an explore into parents' reasons for their…

  16. Determination of heavy metals in the fruit of date palm growing at different locations of Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldjain, Ibrahim M; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Al-Showiman, Salim S; Siddiqui, Manzer H

    2011-04-01

    Exposure of heavy metals to human beings has risen dramatically in the last 50 years. In today's urban and industrial society, there is no escaping from exposure to toxic chemicals and heavy metals. Humans are more likely to be exposed to heavy metal contamination from the dust that adheres to edible plants than from bioaccumulation. This is because it is very difficult to wash off all the dust particles from the plant material before ingesting them. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in washing residues and in the tissues of fruits of date palm growing in 14 sites of Riyadh and also to assess whether the fruits were safe for human consumption. The washing residues and tissue of date palm fruits collected from different sites showed the presence of significant amounts of the Pb and Cd. The concentration of Pb in the dust and fruit tissue increased with increasing anthropogenic sources. Therefore, fruits of date palm might be used as a pollution indicator; it might be recommend that fruits of date palm could be safe for human consumption after washing. The mean concentration of Pb and Cd in all the samples collected from different sites is within the safe limits recommended by FAO/WHO.

  17. Assessing the Effectiveness of Microelement Removal in the South Tertiary Wastewater Plant, Riyadh KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda G. Bousiakou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the monitoring of trace element removal from the Riyadh South Tertiary Wastewater Treatment plant using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Considering that the final effluent originating from the plant is directed for irrigation purposes towards the farms of Al- Dirayia, Dirab and Wadi Hanifa it is important to consider the possible presence of elevated microelement concentrations that could pose potential threats to the human health. All samples were collected from the initial entrance to the plant representing the raw influent as well as the final exit after chlorination, i.e. the final effluent used for irrigation purposes. Results showed that the concentration of aluminium (Al, phosphorus (P, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and lead (Pb were initially elevated at their entrance to the plant compared to the recommended values by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and the World Health Organisation (WHO, while zinc (Zn, chromium (Cr, molybdenum (Mo, selenium (Se, cobalt (Co, uranium ( U, mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, and cadmium (Cd were within permissible levels. All microelements showed significant reduction of concentration with values well below the maximum recommendations. The observed results are important for assessing the functions and effectiveness of the treatment methods of the plant as well as ensuring that the final effluent is appropriate for agricultural use.

  18. Early Sequential Excision of Chemical Burns - our Experience in Riyadh Burns Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the treatment of chemical burns in a burns unit in Saudi Arabia in the 10-yr period 1993 to 2003. In 1993, in line with new approaches, the protocol for treating deep chemical burns in the first 48 h was modified to employ sequential excision followed by a second-look approach after 24 h, at which stage autografts/homografts were effected, depending upon the extent of the burn and having ascertained that the wound was bleeding and that there was no necrotic tissue. Resul...

  19. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad A. Al-Amri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ⩾50 years and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause <50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  20. Consanguinity pattern and heritability of Vitiligo in Arar, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaifallah A Alenizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Epidemiological studies have shown that vitiligo is a complex trait, involving combinations of pathogenic effects of multiple susceptibility genes as well as environmental risk factors. Aim: To observe whether consanguinity increased the incidence of vitiligo in Saudi patients from Arar. Patients and Methods: This study included 69 Saudi patients with vitiligo and their families. These patients, selected from the experience specialist dermatology center in Arar, from April 2011 to 2012, were interviewed by a dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and complete a questionnaire. Results: A total of 69 patients, 40 males and 29 females were selected. Their mean age was 34.5 ± 11.8 years with the median age of 23 years. The mean age at onset of disease was 27.9 ± 12.9 years. The mean duration of the disease was 9.7 ± 5.3 years. The frequency of focal, vulgaris, universal, and acrofacial subtypes was 22 (31.9%, 21 (30.4%, 8 (11.6%, and 18 (26.1%, respectively. A positive family history of vitiligo was obtained in 45 (65.2% cases. A comparison of the frequency of vitiligo among siblings in relation to the general population was more in accord with the multifactorial model. Conclusion: Consanguinity in marriage increases the incidence of the disease. Therefore, genetic counseling and premarital examination would be important contributions to lower the prevalence of vitiligo.

  1. Saudi Moumouvirus, the first group B mimivirus isolated from Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hussein Bajrai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of novel giant viruses identified and characterized from the recently proposed order Megavirales has increased in recent years and new questions have been raised regarding viral diversity and evolution. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of Saudi moumouvirus (SDMV, a new giant virus belonging to Mimivirus lineage B, isolated from a sewage sample taken from the King Abdulaziz University hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. SDMV presented 500 nm icosahedral particles with a 1,046,087 bp genome, which is larger than moumouvirus-like genomes which have been described in the past. The SDMV genome was predicted to encode 868 ORFs, ranging in size from 54 to 2,914 amino acids, with a mean size of 349 aa. Furthermore, this genome was predicted to encode 40 new genes (ORFans without similarity with other sequences (ORFan L850 transcript was detected by qPCR in infected amoeba, in addition to 42 hypothetical proteins (pseudo-ORFs with less than 100 aa, which matched other sequences in the NCBI nr database. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SDMV clustered together with mimiviruses from lineage B, including moumouvirus-like strains. It is, therefore, the 3rd Mimivirus to be isolated in Asia and the first of group B.

  2. Premedication for neonatal intubation: Current practice in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Mosalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strong evidence of the benefits of rapid sequence intubation in neonates, it is still infrequently utilized in neonatal intensive care units (NICU, contributing to avoidable pain and secondary procedure-related physiological disturbances. Objectives: The primary objective of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the practice of premedication and regimens commonly used before elective endotracheal intubation in NICUs in Saudi Arabia. The secondary aim was to explore neonatal physicians′ attitudes regarding this intervention in institutions across Saudi Arabia. Methods: A web-based, structured questionnaire was distributed by the Department of Pediatrics, Umm Al Qura University, Mecca, to neonatal physicians and consultants of 10 NICUs across the country by E-mail. Responses were tabulated and descriptive statistics were conducted on the variables extracted. Results: 85% responded to the survey. Although 70% believed it was essential to routinely use premedication for all elective intubations, only 41% implemented this strategy. 60% cited fear of potential side effects for avoiding premedication and 40% indicated that the procedure could be executed more rapidly without drug therapy. Treatment regimens varied widely among respondents. Conclusion: Rates of premedication use prior to non-emergent neonatal intubation are suboptimal. Flawed information and lack of unified unit policies hampered effective implementation. Evidence-based guidelines may influence country-wide adoption of this practice.

  3. Saudi Moumouvirus, the First Group B Mimivirus Isolated from Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrai, Leena H.; de Assis, Felipe L.; Azhar, Esam I.; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; Abrahão, Jônatas; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The number of novel giant viruses identified and characterized from the recently proposed order Megavirales has increased in recent years and new questions have been raised regarding viral diversity and evolution. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of Saudi moumouvirus (SDMV), a new giant virus belonging to Mimivirus lineage B, isolated from a sewage sample taken from the King Abdulaziz University hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. SDMV presented 500 nm icosahedral particles with a 1,046,087 bp genome, which is larger than moumouvirus-like genomes which have been described in the past. The SDMV genome was predicted to encode 868 ORFs, ranging in size from 54 to 2,914 amino acids, with a mean size of 349 aa. Furthermore, this genome was predicted to encode 40 new genes (ORFans) without similarity with other sequences (ORFan L850 transcript was detected by qPCR in infected amoeba), in addition to 42 hypothetical proteins (pseudo-ORFs) with less than 100 aa, which matched other sequences in the NCBI nr database. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SDMV clustered together with mimiviruses from lineage B, including moumouvirus-like strains. It is, therefore, the third Mimivirus to be isolated in Asia and the first of group B. PMID:28066355

  4. DDT and its metabolites are linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes among Saudi adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Othman, AbdulAziz A; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Al-Daghri, Nasser M

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have recently been associated with type 2 diabetes in several non-Asian general populations. As there is currently an epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asia. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes is increasing rapidly worldwide including many Arab Gulf countries. According to a community-based national epidemiological health survey, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Saudi adults (age group of 30-50 years) is 23.7%. A recent study by Al-Daghri et al. (BMC Med 9:76, 2011) reported that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is 31.6%. We investigated the associations between OC pesticides and type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia using a simple, sensitive, rapid, and selective gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method that has been recently developed. A total of 280 Saudi adults (136 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and 144 non-DM controls) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. The diagnosis of diabetes was based on established diagnosis and medications taken. Blood dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivatives were quantified using GC-MS. Residues of DDT and its derivatives were analyzed in serum by means of gas chromatography with a mass spectrometry detector. Associations between DDT exposure and T2DM were analyzed by logistic regression. DDT and its derivatives and serum concentrations of DDT and its derivative DDE showed the strongest and most significant association to type 2 diabetes in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. Associations of DDT and its derivatives varied across different diabetes-related components of the metabolic syndrome. It positively and significantly associated with four of the five of these components especially elevated triacylglycerol, high fasting glucose, high blood pressure, and HOMA-IR but negatively and significantly with HDL. Possible biological mechanisms are discussed. This study

  5. The education quality model: Saudi and British perspectives on pillars of quality in education

    OpenAIRE

    Abaalkhail, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Research Purpose: This study aims to build a new model of quality for education based on a Saudi-British consensus regarding the major factors contributing to education quality and after considering other models (such as EFQM) and other authors’ perspectives. Research Methodology: The research relies on realism philosophy and as a multiple case study with 15 cases, it utilises a mainly qualit...

  6. Exploring Saudi Pre-service Teachers' Knowledge of Critical Thinking Skills and their Teaching Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Amani K. Gashan

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate Saudi pre-service teachers’ knowledge about the general concepts of critical thinking, as well as its skills. In addition, the study explored their perceptions about critical thinking and its teaching in classrooms with an aim to develop learning and teaching process. The study was conducted with twenty-nine male students at a teacher education program in the College of Education, King Saud University. The quantitative method was used, employing a three-...

  7. Time distribution of the precipitable water vapor in central Saudi Arabia and its relationship to solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, A. H.; Al Dajani, H. M.

    2014-04-01

    Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas. It plays a major role in the dynamics of atmospheric circulation, radiation exchange within the atmosphere, and climate variability. Knowledge of the distribution of water vapor is important for understanding climate change and global warming. In this study, radiosonde data from 1985 to 2012 were used to examine the monthly, interannual, and annual variations and trends of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in central Saudi Arabia in the city of Riyadh (24° 43‧N; 46° 40‧E, 764 m a.s.l.). The results revealed a clear seasonal cycle of PWV with a maximum during the summer months (June-August) and a minimum during the winter (December-February). This variation follows the mean monthly variation of air temperature. The PWV displays considerable variability at the interannual scale. We could not attribute the variations to the air temperature because no relationship was found between the two variables when the interannual variations were examined. Study of the annual variations of the PWV showed cyclic variations with a period of approximately 10-11 years. The two maximums and minimums were in 1996 and 2007 and 1989 and 2000, respectively. The results showed that the annual PWV values are anticorrelated with solar activity, represented by sunspot number, during solar cycles 22 and 23. The physical mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This finding is preliminary, and future investigations are recommended.

  8. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Pazheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

  9. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective role of gold nanoparticles against murine hepatic schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dkhil MA; Bauomy AA; Diab MSM; Al-Quraishy S

    2015-01-01

    Mohamed A Dkhil,1,2 Amira A Bauomy,2,3 Marwa SM Diab,4 Saleh Al-Quraishy21Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Laboratory Sciences, College of Science & Arts, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia; 4Molecular Drug Evaluation Department, National Organization for Drug Control & Research (NODCAR), Giza, EgyptAbstract: In...

  10. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Updated for 2011, the Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  11. Over-the-counter antibiotics in Saudi Arabia, an urgent call for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Nafisah, Sharafaldeen; Bin Nafesa, Salahaldin; Alamery, Aliyah H; Alhumaid, Mazen A; AlMuhaidib, Haitham M; Al-Eidan, Fahad A

    2017-02-02

    Antibiotics over-consumption is a pandemic that has a tremendous cost on the overwhelmed healthcare system. The accessibility of antibiotics coupled with the misconception of public toward those drugs both of which implicated in the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of the community toward antibiotics, its purpose and harmfulness, in addition to the accessibility of those drugs as over the counter and without prescriptions. We also investigated the behavior toward antibiotic prescriptions when perceived unnecessary. This is a cross-sectional study in Riyadh-Saudi Arabia based upon a structured self-administered questionnaire. The study included 473 individuals with a mean age of 27 years old. Forty eight percent (n=227) of the participants obtain antibiotics without prescriptions. Ninety two percent (n=208) of those noted pharmacist counseling as their method of acquisition. Self-prescription noted in 8.4% (n=19). Viral illnesses accounted for the highest percentage for seeking antibiotics in 35.5% (n=166) more commonly among females. Thirty one point eight percent (n=149) used antibiotics for analgesia while 13.7% (n=64) believed in their prophylactic use. We also noted that the prevalence of sharing antibiotics is 19.7%. The perceived unnecessary prescriptions uncovered 122 of the participants who reported throwing the prescribed antibiotics away after acquisition. Dispensing antibiotics without prescription is an issue that mandates a political intervention and implementation of the existing laws that prohibit dispensing without proper prescription. We advocate public health measures targeting both healthcare providers and the public on the use and misuse of antibiotics.

  12. Effect of Adalimumab on Work Ability Assessed in Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Patients in Saudi Arabia (AWARDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Waleed; Janoudi, Nahid; Noorwali, Abdulsalam; Omran, Narges; Baamer, Matouqa; Assiry, El Hussain; Alrayes, Hanan; Alosaimi, Hanan; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Gohary, Shereen; Mignuet, Joan; Almoallim, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disabling disease that can jeopardize the ability of affected individuals to participate in paid work. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-month course of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist (adalimumab) on work ability, overall health, and fatigue in RA patients. Methods : Between October 2012 and February 2014, this prospective, observational study enrolled 63 consecutive patients with established adult RA at outpatient clinics in Makkah, Jeddah, Riyadh and Abha (Saudi Arabia). Patients received subcutaneous injections of adalimumab (40 mg every 2 weeks). Outcomes were measured at baseline and 6 months using the following tools: Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI), Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Visual Analog Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F), and work disability self-assessment. Results : All outcomes showed improvements after 6 months of adalimumab therapy. Significant improvements from baseline were observed in absenteeism (64% ± 11.62 to 11.60% ± 11.17 [p<0.0001]), presenteeism (62.15% ± 20.11 to 34.92% ± 20.61 [p<0.0001]), overall work impairment (69.08% ± 18.86 to 40.73% ± 22.29 [p<0.0001]), overall activity impairment (68.46% ± 18.58 to 36.46% ± 20.79 [p<0.0001]), HAQ score (1.69 ± 0.57 to 0.81 ± 0.61 [p<0.0001]), and FSS score (47.08 ± 9.55 to 27.86 ± 13.43 [p<0.0001]). Conclusion : A 6-month course of adalimumab improved work ability, fatigue, and overall health assessments in patients with established RA. Our findings encourage randomized controlled trials investigating the cost-effectiveness and long-term effects of TNF inhibitors on work disability. PMID:26312105

  13. Medical internship training in Saudi Arabia: interns’ views and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaid, Ali I; Elhilu, Abdelkhalig H; Mahfouz, Mohamed S

    2017-01-01

    Background Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85) enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively). Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32), while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39). Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively). The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%), while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:28203115

  14. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  15. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  16. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  17. Exploring CLT Practices in Saudi International Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Ahmed Saad

    2014-01-01

    This is a research study conducted on 17 teachers who teach English in Saudi international schools. It mainly aims at exploring teaching practices in these schools in terms of the principles of communicative language teaching (CLT). It also investigates the appropriateness of CLT in this context from the point of view of teachers. Two research…

  18. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  19. A SURVIVABILITY MODEL FOR SAUDI ICT STARTUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Almakenzi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation and entrepreneurship are critical elements in the transition to the knowledge-based economy and future competition. Unfortunately, innovation tends to be absent in Arab states for many reasons. To promote innovation in Saudi Arabia, for instance, it is necessary to support inventors’ ideas to turn inventions into start-up companies, which are companies in their early stage. At the same time, it seems that there is a need for more academic research to study the success factors of Saudi information and communication technology (ICT start-up companies. ICT start-ups are important to the economy because they are needed for the progress of all industries. Therefore, this study will identify the factors that lead to successful ICT start-up projects. Then, it will develop a model for the best practices in the interplay among the defined factors that will increase the opportunity to initiate successful start-ups. This research involves a factor analysis study based on a quantitative method to measure the interdependences among the success factors for ICT start-ups. The identified factors are verified using a sample of Saudi start-up companies. The study will contribute to enhancing the technological content to diversify the Saudi economy in order to prepare for the post-oil era. The study result is a survivability model for Saudi-incubated ICT startups. The resulting model has two phases, as follows: (1 the incubation period, which includes the relationships among three factors leading to constant and successful updates and upgrades of the ICT startup business model; and (2 the postincubation period, which include relationships among the three factors that help to deal with the changing nature of the market and the emergence of competing products. This solution can be applied within startups with similar conditions.

  20. Internal medicine residents' perspectives and practice about do not resuscitate orders: survey analysis in the western region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljohaney A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Aljohaney, Yasser Bawazir Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions and practices of internal medicine residents in the western region of Saudi Arabia regarding the implementation of do not resuscitate (DNR orders to improve future training practices among physicians. Methods: Medical residents involved in training programs in the western region of Saudi Arabia, including Jeddah, Makah, Medinah, and Taif, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey regarding DNR orders. The 16-question survey was distributed to residents in all training programs in the region using surveymonkey.com, and the results were collected and tabulated. Results: Of 364 residents, 157 completed the questionnaire, resulting in a 43% response rate. The study showed that most (66% internal medicine residents in the western region of Saudi Arabia participate in DNR discussions with patients and family or surrogate decision-makers. In addition, 43% were observed by faculty members, and half of them (51.9% reported feeling comfortable during these discussions. Furthermore, most residents believed that additional educational programs would enhance their competence in addressing issues related to DNR discussions. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for a structured curriculum to teach skills relating to end-of-life issues such as DNR orders to residents in the Saudi Arabian medical system. The majority of residents surveyed believe they would benefit from additional training in DNR discussions. Therefore, an evidence-based curriculum providing instruction for improving discussions regarding DNR orders would improve physician confidence and effectiveness in caring for critically ill patients. Keywords: medical residents, do not resuscitate, internal medicine training program, Saudi Arabia

  1. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    Saudi Arabia needs to continue to take steps to exercise oversight of fundraising activities in the Kingdom and Saudi charitable activities abroad...a personal minute to Attorney General in December 2006, Prime Minister Blair wrote “it is in my judgment very clear that the continuation of the SFO...nationwide fundraising campaign under the auspices of the Saudi Committee to Support the Palestinian People in response to Israel’s military

  2. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    position—from one of repeated surpluses to one of actual and projected deficits—rooted in drastic reductions in global market prices for crude oil. Oil... market , its vast wealth, and its global investment posture. Saudi Military Campaigns and Policy in Yemen Saudi Arabia has long exercised a strong role...America, and Saudi officials have appeared committed to preserving and expanding the kingdom’s share of global oil markets , with apparently mixed

  3. The attitudes of dental interns to the use of the rubber dam at Riyadh dental colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander Mohammed Al-Abdulwahhab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The rubber dam is one of the best tools for tooth isolation and infection control in the dental field. Our aim is to evaluate the attitudes toward the use of rubber dams by dental interns in Riyadh Dental Colleges (RCsDP and determine the barriers to their use. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was designed and used for data collection. 150 questionnaires were distributed by hand to the dental interns of RCsDP over a period of two weeks. Information sought included the attitudes toward and difficulties for the use of the rubber dam, the time needed to apply the rubber dam, and the patients′ allergic history of the rubber dam. Respondents were asked to state their preference on a five point Likert type scale ranging from "strongly dislike" to "strongly like". The information and data of the completed questionnaires were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Friedman test. Results: Of 150 questionnaires distributed, 150 were completed and returned (response rate = 100%. Of those, 46.7% were males and 53.3% were females. In general; (43.3%, interns strongly liked the use of the rubber dam and the rest (46.7% liked the use of the rubber dam. The majority of respondents liked to use rubber dam in direct restorations more than in indirect restorations and 46.7% strongly liked to use it in posterior teeth for composite restoration. Most dental interns felt that they would strongly like to use a rubber dam for endodontic treatment whether in posterior teeth (73.3% or anterior teeth (68.7%. 66.7% of interns asked their patients if they had an allergy to latex prior to the use of the rubber dam. Child behavior (mean rank about seven is the most important reason for not using rubber dam. The time is taken to apply the rubber dam was less than five minutes in most cases. Conclusion: Most dental interns prefer to use rubber dams in the general dental field and are enthusiastic to use it in future.

  4. Bored boys, graffiti, and YouTube - tracing recent groundwater level changes in a Saudi Arabian cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Nils; Dirks, Heiko; Schulz, Stephan; Kempe, Stephan; Schüth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The Dahl Hith cave is located approximately 30 km southeast of Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. In the past decades, the groundwater table exposed inside the cave became subject to appreciable changes. After a decline due to agricultural water abstraction for irrigation purposes, the water table exhibited a rapid rise in the last few years. Considering that most of the aquifers of the country show a depletion of the largely fossil groundwater, the mentioned rise is quite unusual. The area does not host an observation well, i.e., reliable data on the piezometric changes is hitherto not available. Hence, two uncommon data sources were used to reconstruct the water level changes: (1) YouTube videos and (2) graffiti inscriptions. (1) The cave is frequently visited by locals and expats from Riyadh and many visitors are willing to share their cave adventures on YouTube. Identifying certain reference points in the uploaded videos (e.g. specific boulders, cave graffiti) and estimating their position relative to the water table allows for an approximate reconstruction of the recent groundwater rise. Information on the observation time is derived from the uploading date. Occasionally, also the exact date of the visit is provided as part of the footage description. (2) Some people documented their visit by graffiti inscriptions. These do not only serve as a marker in the videos, but also contain genuine data on historic water levels: if written on parts of the cave wall, which are only accessible from the water, they indicate the water level at the time of their creation. Fortunately, some graffiti also feature the date of the visit. In order to improve the reliability of the water level estimations, measurements conducted in the course of own site visits in the past few years were considered for the evaluation. Also photographs taken during these surveys helped to improve the quality of the water level reconstruction. The described "Youtube Approach" could be interpreted

  5. Impact of the March 2009 dust event in Saudi Arabia on aerosol optical properties, meteorological parameters, sky temperature and emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, A.; Alharbi, B.; Tapper, N.

    2011-04-01

    On 10th March 2009 a widespread and severe dust storm event that lasted several hours struck Riyadh, and represented one of the most intense dust storms experienced in Saudi Arabia in the last two decades. This short-lived storm caused widespread and heavy dust deposition, zero visibility and total airport shutdown, as well as extensive damage to buildings, vehicles, power poles and trees across the city of Riyadh. Changes in Meteorological parameters, aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent α, infrared (IR) sky temperature and atmospheric emissivity were investigated before, during, and after the storm. The analysis showed significant changes in all of the above parameters due to this event. Shortly after the storm arrived, air pressure rapidly increased by 4 hPa, temperature decreased by 6 °C, relative humidly increased from 10% to 30%, the wind direction became northerly and the wind speed increased to a maximum of 30 m s -1. AOD at 550 nm increased from 0.396 to 1.71. The Angstrom exponent α rapidly decreased from 0.192 to -0.078. The mean AOD at 550 nm on the day of the storm was 0.953 higher than during the previous clear day, while α was -0.049 in comparison with 0.323 during the previous day. Theoretical simulations using SMART software showed remarkable changes in both spectral and broadband solar radiation components. The global and direct radiation components decreased by 42% and 68%, respectively, and the diffuse components increased by 44% in comparison with the previous clear day. IR sky temperatures and sky emissivity increased by 24 °C and 0.3, respectively, 2 h after the arrival of the storm. The effect of aerosol loading by the storm on IR atmospheric emission was investigated using MODTRAN software. It was found that the effect of aerosols caused an increase of the atmospheric emission in the atmospheric window (8-14 μm) such that the window emissions resembled those of a blackbody and the atmospheric window was almost closed.

  6. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in a tertiary-care facility: emergence of new clonal complexes in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senok, A; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Al-Saedan, R; Somily, A

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continue to be reported. This study was carried out to characterize MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. MRSA isolates causing nosocomial infections (n = 117) obtained from 2009-2015 at a tertiary-care facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray (Alere Technologies, Jena, Germany). Fourteen clonal complexes (CC) were identified, with the most common being CC80 (n = 35), CC6 (n = 15), CC5 (n = 13) and CC22 (n = 12). With the exception of nine ST239 MRSA-III isolates, all others were of community-associated MRSA lineages. The following strains are identified for the first time in Saudi Arabia: ST8-MRSA-IV [PVL(+)/ACME(+)], USA300 (n = 1); ST72-MRSA-IV USA700 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-IV, [PVL(+)/edinA(+)], WA MRSA-121 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-V+SCCfus, WA MRSA-14/109 (n = 2), CC97-MRSA-IV, WA MRSA-54/63; CC2250/2277-MRSA-IV and WA MRSA-114. CC15-MRSA (n = 3) was identified for the first time in clinical infection in Saudi Arabia. None of the isolates harboured vancomycin resistance genes, while genes for resistance to mupirocin and quaternary ammonium compounds were found in one and nine isolates respectively. Fifty-seven isolates (48.7%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. While the staphylokinase (sak) and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) genes were present in over 95% of the isolates, only 37.6% had the chemotaxis-inhibiting protein (chp) gene. Increasing occurrence of community-acquired MRSA lineages plus emergence of pandemic and rare MRSA strains is occurring in our setting. Strict infection control practices are important to limit the dissemination of these MRSA strains.

  7. Gender-segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms the Saudi Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roula Baki

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by considering segregation, women's mobility, videoconferencing courses, and the roles of professors. I attempt to explain how the current education system fails to prepare its students for the global economy: by limiting women's access to the labor market, and by not preparing men for the realities of the global market and therefore creating the need for migrant workers. In conclusion, conserving culture is significant, but for economic change to occur, the extent of cultural conservatism and its effect on the education system need to be re-evaluated.

  8. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for testicular germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alotaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation, medical, and surgical management of patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor-node-metastasis staging system 7th edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence level, they are based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health care policy makers in the management of patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors.

  9. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Tumors of the eye in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, A; Cavender, J C

    1991-11-01

    The geographic incidence of tumors usually uncovers the influence that environment, race and culture exert upon the prevalence of cancer. Therefore this study of tumors of the eye is presented as a baseline for Saudi Arabia between the years 1982G and 1989G. The most common malignant tumors, in decreasing order of frequency, are retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, and malignant melanoma. The most common benign tumors, in the same order, are nevi, epithelial cysts, hemangiomas and dermoid cysts. There are, in Saudi Arabia, certain unique features for retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Furthermore, these conditions have distinctive incidence rates when compared with cancer incidence in Western countries.

  11. Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island.

  12. The Emergent Concern of Hepatitis B globally with special attention to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljarbou, Ahmad N

    2013-11-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis is highly prevalent and creates a substantial burden to healthcare systems globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 350 and 250 million people worldwide are chronic carrier of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection respectively. These two diseases are the cause of significant global mortality and morbidity with approximately 1 million deaths each year attributable to them and their sequelae, liver disease and primary liver cancer. Although the efforts have been met with the long-lasting level of success and holds the promise for large reductions in disease burden in spite of the huge numbers of HBV infected population. The viral hepatitis has also been emerged as a leading public health concern and continues to be major disease burden in the Eastern Mediterranean. The WHO, estimates that approximately 4.3 million persons are infected with HBV in the Region each year. Saudi Arabia has been classified as a country with an intermediate prevalence of HBV showed up to 7% in Saudi children in late 1980s but declined to as low as 0.3% in 1997 since the introduction of universal vaccination of all Saudi children in 1989. In spite of this remarkable decline, the burden of decompensated liver disease secondary to hepatitis B is estimated to increase drastically in the next 40 years as the previously infected children start aging.

  13. Strategic initiatives to maintain pharmaceutical care and clinical pharmacists sufficiency in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkareem M Albekairy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The shortage of clinical pharmacists in Saudi Arabia has limited the full implementation of pharmaceutical care in most of its hospitals. The National Guard Health Affairs hospitals. This work discussed the Department of Pharmaceutical Care, and the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Pharmacy four initiatives that were planned in 2009–2010 to develop and recruit clinical pharmacists, practitioners, or faculty. Methods: The combined initiatives were aimed at (1 instituting a 4-year clinical skills development career ladder, (2 expanding the National Guard Health Affairs postgraduate residency program, (3 offering scholarships to qualified pharmacy graduates to pursue the PharmD degree and a PGY-1 residency training in the United States, and (4 recruiting non-Saudi clinical pharmacists educated and trained in the United States to ameliorate the current shortage of practitioner. Results: The current number of clinical pharmacists practicing at the National Guard Health Affairs at central region is 24, most of whom are Board Certified by the American Pharmacists Association Board of Pharmacy Specialties. Conclusions: The four initiatives, based on current trends, suggest that 60–65 positions will be added by 2017–2018, barring attrition. Saudi Arabia and many developing countries will continue to experience a shortage in clinical pharmacists due to the high demand for clinical pharmacy services. A multifaceted approach is recommended to address the problem.

  14. Saudi dental students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of an effective dental teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jobair, Asma M; AlSarheed, Maha A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate Saudi dental students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of an effective dental teacher. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May 2014 at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all students enrolled in the 2013/2014 academic year. The questionnaire contained 43 items regarding students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of a good dental teacher. The attributes were grouped into two main categories: performance and personality. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for each item and then for the whole category. Performance and personality were compared between male and female students and between junior and senior students using Mann–Whitney U test. Results Four hundred and seventy-seven questionnaires were completed, representing a response rate of 79%. Performance attributes were significantly more important than personality attributes to Saudi dental students (Pstudents; however, junior students put more emphasis on personality attributes than senior students. Conclusion Saudi dental students consider performance attributes more important than personality attributes for their successful learning. Teachers’ educational skills are valued more than the attributes, which do not connect directly to students’ learning process. PMID:27729821

  15. Dietary Practices in Saudi Cerebral Palsy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hammad, Nouf S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the dietary practices of Saudi cerebral palsy (CP) children. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the following information from parents of CP children: demographics, main source of dietary information, frequency of main meals, foods/drinks used for main meals and in-between-meals. Results: Parents of 157 CP children participated. Parents were divided into three, while children were divided into two age groups. The main sources of dietary inf...

  16. Apology Strategies Employed by Saudi EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzouq Nasser Alsulayyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the apology strategies used by 30 Saudi EFL teachers in Najran, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, paying special attention to variables such as social distance and power and offence severity. The study also delineates gender differences in the respondents’ speech as opposed to studies that only examined speech act output by native and non-native speakers of English. To this end, the study employs a Discourse Completion Task (DCT that consists of 10 situations designed to test how the respondents would react if they imagine that they belong to different types of social status whether higher, lower or equal. In addition, social distance and power have been taken into consideration in designing the ten situations included in the test used in this study. The results reveal that Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID is the most used apology strategy by the Saudi respondents followed by downgrading responsibility (DR, upgrader, offer of repair, taking on responsibility and then verbal redress. The results also reveal that gender has a great impact on the use of apology strategies in various ways. For instance, the IFID strategy and the upgrader strategy are used by males more than their female counterparts, whereas females use the DR strategy more than their male counterparts. It has been argued that some of the respondents’ answers to the test were influenced by their mother tongue, as reported in previous studies conducted on apology strategies. The study discusses the results elicited via the DCT and compares them with those of previous studies on apology strategies and other speech acts. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research. Keywords: pragmatics, apology strategies, Saudi EFL teachers, interlanguage pragmatics, target culture

  17. The New Saudi Educational Renaissance: In between the "Capacity to Aspire" and the "Capacity to Remember"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia investments in higher education have increased exponentially in recent years, and the New Saudi Educational Renaissance is attracting the attention of international academia. The purpose of this study is to draw on Saudi sources, with the aim of allowing Saudi voices to introduce their strategies for the design of a…

  18. Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2014-01-01

    The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered.

  19. Diversity of Meq gene from clinical Marek’s disease virus infection in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud H. A. Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the genomic features of Meq gene of Marek’s disease virus (MDV recently circulating in Saudi Arabia (SA. Materials and Methods: Two poultry flocks suffering from mortalities and visceral tumors were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University, SA. Subjected to different diagnostic procedures: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy as well as polymerase chain reaction followed by Meq gene sequence analysis. Results: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy were suggestive of MDV infection. The Meq gene was successfully detected in liver and spleen of infected chickens. A 1062 bp band including the native Meq ORF in addition to a 939 bp of S-Meq (short isoform of Meq were amplified from Saudi 01-13 and Saudi 02-13, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acids sequences of the amplified Meq genes of both Saudi isolates showed distinct polymorphism when compared with the standard USA virulent isolates Md5 and GA. The sequence analysis of the S-Meq gene showed a 123 bp deletion representing 41 amino acids between two proline-rich areas without any frameshift. The Meq gene encoded four repeats of proline-rich repeats (PRRs sequences, whereas the S-Meq contains only two PRRs. Interestingly, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of SA MDV isolates are closely related to the MDV strains from Poland. Conclusion: The two MDV isolates contain several nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in distinct amino acid substitutions. It is suggested that migratory and wild birds, as well as world trading of poultry and its by-products, have a great contribution in the transmission of MDVs overseas.

  20. Diversity of Meq gene from clinical Marek’s disease virus infection in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mahmoud H. A.; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M.; Al-Habeeb, Malik A.; Al-Hammady, Yousef M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the genomic features of Meq gene of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) recently circulating in Saudi Arabia (SA). Materials and Methods: Two poultry flocks suffering from mortalities and visceral tumors were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University, SA. Subjected to different diagnostic procedures: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy as well as polymerase chain reaction followed by Meq gene sequence analysis. Results: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy were suggestive of MDV infection. The Meq gene was successfully detected in liver and spleen of infected chickens. A 1062 bp band including the native Meq ORF in addition to a 939 bp of S-Meq (short isoform of Meq) were amplified from Saudi 01-13 and Saudi 02-13, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acids sequences of the amplified Meq genes of both Saudi isolates showed distinct polymorphism when compared with the standard USA virulent isolates Md5 and GA. The sequence analysis of the S-Meq gene showed a 123 bp deletion representing 41 amino acids between two proline-rich areas without any frameshift. The Meq gene encoded four repeats of proline-rich repeats (PRRs sequences), whereas the S-Meq contains only two PRRs. Interestingly, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of SA MDV isolates are closely related to the MDV strains from Poland. Conclusion: The two MDV isolates contain several nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in distinct amino acid substitutions. It is suggested that migratory and wild birds, as well as world trading of poultry and its by-products, have a great contribution in the transmission of MDVs overseas. PMID:27397979

  1. "I Am Different from Other Women in the World": The Experiences of Saudi Arabian Women Studying Online in International Master Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that investigated seven female Saudi Arabian students of the University of Liverpool's online Masters programmes. Qualitative, first-person research methods and hermeneutic phenomenology were chosen for the analysis and interpretation of transcripts (Langeveld, 1983; van Manen, 1997; Creswell,…

  2. The Impact of Open Discussion Sessions on Enhancing the Oral Communicative Abilities of Saudi English Language Majors at Buraydah Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daif-Allah, Ayman Sabry; Khan, Mohammad Imran

    2016-01-01

    The importance of developing the communicative needs of English language majors has been found a fundamental concern of Buraydah Community college in Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study has been to identify English language speaking skill needs of English language majors and investigate the impact of using Open Discussion…

  3. Prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among adolescents 15- to 19-year olds: A cross-sectional study from three major cities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate sleep has been considered important for the adolescent′s health and well being. On the other hand, self-imposed sleep curtailment is now recognized as a potentially important and novel risk factor for obesity. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among Saudi adolescents. Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study with self-reported sleep questionnaires. It was conducted during the years 2009/2010 in three cities in Saudi Arabia; Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants were 2868 secondary-school males (1379 and females (1389 aged 15 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, BMI, and sleeping duration. Logistic regression analysis while adjusted for age, gender, and location was used to examine the associations between sleep duration and obesity measures. Results: The mean (SD of sleep duration was 7.2 (1.6 hours/day with no significant differences between males and females. About 31% of the participants obtain less than 7 hours of sleep per day, while approximately 50% of the sample gets less than 8 hours of daily sleep. Two-way ANCOVA results while controlling for the effect of age revealed a significant gender by school-type interaction (P<0.001. In addition, adequate sleep duration increased the odds of having normal weight (adjusted odds ratios = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.50, P = 0.003. Conclusion: The present study observed a high prevalence of short sleep duration among Saudi adolescents 15- to 19-year olds and that short sleep duration was significantly associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. Future interventions should investigate whether adopting a healthy lifestyle by adolescents with short sleep duration would improve their sleeping habits or not.

  4. Common Diseases and Some Demographic Characteristics among Saudi Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haramlah, Ahmed Abdulrahman; Al-Bakr, Fawziah; Merza, Haniah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the common diseases among Saudi women and their relationship with the level of physical activity and some variables. This study was applied to 1233 Saudi woman in different regions of the Kingdom, and adopted to explore the common diseases: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol and asthma. The study results showed…

  5. A Year of Milestones in Saudi Aramco's Relations with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Geng

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2010 has been a year of outstanding milestones in the bilateral relationship between China and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.China and Saudi Arabia conducted the fourth meeting of the Joint Committee on Economy and Trade this year,agreeing that bilateral trade will surpass US$60 billion annually by 2015.

  6. Educational R&D in Saudi Arabia: An Ethnomethodological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Paul

    Educational development in Saudi Arabia is closely related to Moslem religious belief. A review of the socio/cultural behavior based upon Saudi religious belief can provide insight to educators on how to make educational and research activities in developing nations more relevant to people with a non-Western frame of reference. Among muslims,…

  7. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  8. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  9. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... interested in participating in the ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia must complete and submit an application... Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011... representatives from a variety of U.S. ICT industry suppliers and service providers. This trade mission...

  10. Kas Saudi Araabia naftatulu leiab tee Rootsi pangandusturule? / Romet Enok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Enok, Romet

    2008-01-01

    Autor vaatleb, kes võiks enim olla huvitatud Põhjala pangandusturu ümberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kõige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on võimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kõne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB kõrvale Nordeat ostma

  11. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

      - Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network.  It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks.  It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researchers...... to use their intelligence data (Ressler S., 2006).  Very few researchers (Krebs, V., 2002, Sageman, M., 2004 and Rodriguez, J. A., 2004) collected data from open sources, and to the best of our knowledge, no knowledge base is available in academia for the analysis of the terrorist events.   To counter...... of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist...

  12. Screening for psychosocial problems in children attending the pediatric clinic at king Khalid university hospital (KKUH in Riyadh (KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H Al-Ayed

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed the feasibility of screening for behavioral problems of children in an outpatient setting. It is necessary to implement screening procedures for psycho-behavioral problems, and train pediatricians to screen children presenting at clinics.

  13. Improving Students' English Speaking Proficiency in Saudi Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Awadh Alharbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In English as a foreign language (EFL contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students’ limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues ultimately affect students’ English speaking capacity. Focusing on the Saudi EFL context, this paper attempted to identify the causes of Saudi students’ low proficiency in English communication and provide some recommendations to address these issues. The most significant findings of the paper were: (1 reforming specific Ministry of Education and Higher Education policies in Saudi Arabia is crucial; (2 the Saudi education system should reinforce the use of contemporary approaches to teaching that emphasise problem solving and critical thinking skills and put students in charge of their own learning; and (3 the ministry should consider converting some Saudi public schools into bilingual schools.

  14. Motivation for domestic tourism : a case study of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bogari, Naima Bakor

    2002-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia there is a growing amount of leisure time and a high percentage of disposable income is being spent on various forms of tourism; such trends have increased the number of Saudis travelling to tourist destinations, internationally or domestically. Spending the annual holiday away from Saudi is normal for most Saudi families and it is estimated that the total expenditure on domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia is only 16.7% of total tourism expenditure. International e...

  15. The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawi, Elsadig Mohamed Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi…

  16. In the era of corona virus: health care professionals’ knowledge, attitudes, and practice of hand hygiene in Saudi primary care centers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alfahan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand hygiene is one of the essential means to prevent the spread of infections. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP of hand hygiene in primary care settings. Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self-reported questionnaire was conducted in primary care settings located in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, under the service of King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC. The Institutional Review Board of KAMC Research Centre approved the study. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software. Results: A total of 237 participants were included in the analysis. Participants who received hand hygiene training within the last 3 years (2012–2014 scored higher on a knowledge scale. Generally, there was an overall positive attitude from participants toward hand hygiene practice. In total, 87.54% acknowledged that they routinely used alcohol-based hand rub, 87.4% had sufficiently decontaminated hands even under high work pressure, and 78.6% addressed that this practice was not affected by less compliant colleagues. Conclusion: Practicing hand hygiene was suggested to be influenced by variables related to the environmental context, social pressure, and individual attitudes toward hand hygiene. We believe that addressing beliefs, attitudes, capacity, and supportive infrastructures to sustain hand-hygiene routine behaviors are important components of an implementation strategy in enhancing health care workers’ KAP of hand hygiene.

  17. Urban Land Cover Change Modelling Using Time-Series Satellite Images: A Case Study of Urban Growth in Five Cities of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah F. Alqurashi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the expansion of urban growth and land cover changes in five Saudi Arabian cities (Riyadh, Jeddah, Makkah, Al-Taif and the Eastern Area using Landsat images for the 1985, 1990, 2000, 2007 and 2014 time periods. The classification was carried out using object-based image analysis (OBIA to create land cover maps. The classified images were used to predict the land cover changes and urban growth for 2024 and 2034. The simulation model integrated the Markov chain (MC and Cellular Automata (CA modelling methods and the simulated maps were compared and validated to the reference maps. The simulation results indicated high accuracy of the MC–CA integrated models. The total agreement between the simulated and the reference maps was >92% for all the simulation years. The results indicated that all five cities showed a massive urban growth between 1985 and 2014 and the predicted results showed that urban expansion is likely to continue going for 2024 and 2034 periods. The transition probabilities of land cover, such as vegetation and water, are most likely to be urban areas, first through conversion to bare soil and then to urban land use. Integrating of time-series satellite images and the MC–CA models provides a better understanding of the past, current and future patterns of land cover changes and urban growth in this region. Simulation of urban growth will help planners to develop sustainable expansion policies that may reduce the future environmental impacts.

  18. Perceptions of the Educational Contract among Saudi Residents and Western Staff Physicians in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajeh, Saad

    1995-01-01

    A 2-year study investigated the attitudes of 63 Saudi medical residents and their 74 Western clinical teachers concerning the teacher-student relationship. Conflicts in perceptions in the first year were found to be largely resolved in the second year, possibly because of the study itself. (MSE)

  19. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  20. The application of Shari’ah and international human rights law in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rodiman, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University The present dissertation provides an analytical and comparative study of the application of Islamic law (Shari’ah) and international human rights law in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It provides an analysis of the sources of Islamic law as well as the sources of international law to set the background for analysis and defines the nature of both laws. It also tackles the subject of the domes...

  1. Impediments of Activating E-Learning in Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalefah A. K. Al-Masaud

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the real reasons which constraint the application of the E-learning in higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia (Case study: Qassim University)and some suggested solutions. A questionnaire has been designed for the study include 48 paragraphs, divided into 5 parts, the first include the principle information, the second define how the technology can be used in the E-learning, the third deals with how to support the E-learning idea, the fourth part, asking the difficul...

  2. Perceived challenges for adopting the Personal Health Record (PHR) at Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA)- Riyadh

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Background The Personal Health Record (PHR) is an electronic record that allows patients to maintain, manage and access their health information in one secure location. However, despite these potential capabilities, the adoption rate of the PHR has been slow due to various challenges. Objectives This study, being the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia, investigates the perceived barriers and /or challenges for PHR adoption in the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA). The study exp...

  3. Interactions of mineral dust with pollution and clouds: An individual-particle TEM study of atmospheric aerosol from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pósfai, Mihály; Axisa, Duncan; Tompa, Éva; Freney, Evelyn; Bruintjes, Roelof; Buseck, Peter R.

    2013-03-01

    Aerosol particles from desert dust interact with clouds and influence climate on regional and global scales. The Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) aerosol campaign was initiated to study the effects of dust particles on cloud droplet nucleation and cloud properties. Here we report the results of individual-particle studies of samples that were collected from an aircraft in April 2007. We used analytical transmission electron microscopy, including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, electron diffraction, and imaging techniques for the morphological, chemical, and structural characterization of the particles. Dust storms and regional background conditions were encountered during four days of sampling. Under dusty conditions, the coarse (supermicrometer) fraction resembles freshly crushed rock. The particles are almost exclusively mineral dust grains and include common rock-forming minerals, among which clay minerals, particularly smectites, are most abundant. Unaltered calcite grains also occur, indicating no significant atmospheric processing. The particles have no visible coatings but some contain traces of sulfur. The fine (submicrometer) fraction is dominated by particles of anthropogenic origin, primarily ammonium sulfate (with variable organic coating and some with soot inclusions) and combustion-derived particles (mostly soot). In addition, submicrometer, iron-bearing clay particles also occur, many of which are internally mixed with ammonium sulfate, soot, or both. We studied the relationships between the properties of the aerosol and the droplet microphysics of cumulus clouds that formed above the aerosol layer. Under dusty conditions, when a large concentration of coarse-fraction mineral particles was in the aerosol, cloud drop concentrations were lower and droplet diameters larger than under regional background conditions, when the aerosol was dominated by submicrometer sulfate particles.

  4. Characteristics of autism spectrum disorders in a sample of egyptian and saudi patients: transcultural cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hanan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a biological disorder with clearly defined phenomenology. Studies from the Middle East on this topic have been particularly rare. Little is known about the influence of culture on clinical features, presentations and management of autism. The current study was done to compare characteristics of autism in two groups of Egyptian as well as Saudi children. Methods The sample included 48 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. They were recruited from the Okasha Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt and Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were grouped into an Egyptian group (n = 20 and a Saudi group (n = 28. They were assessed both clinically and psychometrically using the GARS, the Vineland adaptive behavioral scale, and the Stanford Binnet IQ test. Results Typical autism was more prevalent than atypical autism in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical variables like regression, hyperactivity, epilepsy or mental retardation. Delayed language development was significantly higher in the Egyptian group while delay in all developmental milestones was more significant in the Saudi group. The Vineland communication subscale showed more significant severe and profound communication defects in the Saudi group while the Gilliam developmental subscale showed significantly more average scores in the Egyptian group. Both groups differed significantly such that the age of noticing abnormality was younger in the Saudi group. The age at diagnosis and at the commencement of intervention was lower in the Egyptian group. The Saudi group showed a higher percentage of missing examinations, older birth order and significantly higher preference to drug treatment, while the Egyptian group showed a high preference to behavioral and phoniatric therapies, higher paternal and maternal education, higher employment among parents and higher family

  5. Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim K Alhowaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380 than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our

  6. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  7. Further records of pseudoscorpions (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnert, Volker; Sharaf, Mostafa; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2014-02-11

    Five species of pseudoscorpions are recorded from the southwestern mountains of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pseudochthonius arabicus Mahnert n. sp. is described as new to science; this genus was previously known only from sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America and represents the first record of the family Chthoniidae from the Arabian Peninsula. Paratemnoides ellingseni (Beier, 1932), a widespread species in tropical Africa, and Withius piger (Simon, 1878) are added to the faunal list of Saudi Arabia. Minniza monticola Mahnert, 1991 and Rhacochelifer sonyae Mahnert, 1991 are apparently endemic to the southwestern mountains of Saudi Arabia.

  8. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian secondary preservice teachers toward teaching practices in science: The adequacy of preparation to use teaching strategies in classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabber, Jabber M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Saudi Arabian secondary preservice science teachers (SPSTs) toward a variety of science teaching practices. An ultimate, essential goal of this study was to use generated information and findings to improve the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia and to develop better science teacher practices. The selected practices were posted by the National Research Council in 1999. These indicated that students learn science best through understanding of science rather than memorization of scientific facts and concepts, building new knowledge and understanding on what is already known and believed, formulating new knowledge by modifying and refining current concepts and by adding new concepts to what is already known, taking care of their own learning, social learning environments and interactions, and application of knowledge to novel situations. The study's sample consisted of all (147) SPSTs enrolled in the spring semester of 2003 in four Teachers' Colleges: Riyadh, Makkah, Taif, and Dammam. All participants were performing student teaching in secondary schools. This study used quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. Only three SPSTs were purposefully selected from each college for seven semi-structured interview questions, lasting an hour per interview. They were asked to complete a 58-item questionnaire survey and respond to four open-ended survey questions. To assess their attitudes toward the above science teaching practices, data was analyzed using the Rasch analysis model, other parametric tests (e.g., a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent-samples t-test), and non-parametric tests (e.g., a chi-square of independent test). Furthermore, qualitative procedures were also used to assess SPSTs' views of some specific aspects about science teaching and the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved through a careful

  9. Teaching Science Subjects in Arabic: Arab University Scientists' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamami, Munassir

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates Arab university scientists' views of the status of English and Arabic in the 21st century, and their attitudes towards using English and Arabic as media of instruction in science faculties in the Arab world. Twenty-seven science instructors at a Saudi University coming from different backgrounds responded to a written…

  10. Factors leading to refractory asthma in patients from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moamary, Amal M.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Al Moamary, Mohamed S.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristic of patient with refractory asthma (RA) from Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This paper prospectively studied in a university hospital factors leading to RA in a cohort of patients who have inadequately controlled asthma or with frequent exacerbations despite optimum controller therapy. It also studied patients with asthma that requires extended periods of oral steroids to control. RESULTS: The mean age was 45.1 years (±9.1) where 74 patients were enrolled in this study with the age group (37–48 years) is having the highest percentage (64.8%). Female patients represented 62.2%. The two major comorbid conditions were allergic rhinitis (54.1%) and gastroesophageal reflux (33.8%). The vast majority (72 patients) had at least one trigger factor for asthma (97.3%). The asthma control test showed that 86.4% had an uncontrolled status. Spirometry showed mild disease in 9.5%, moderate in 47.3%, and severe in 43.2%. Eosinophilia was seen in only 16.2%. Immunoglobulin E level between 70 and 700 μg/L was found in 58.1% of patients. CONCLUSION: RA has certain clinical characteristics and associated comorbid conditions as well as precipitating factors that facilitate the identifications of these cases. PMID:28197221

  11. Gender Clash: Why Is Saudi Arabia So Angry at Sweden?

    OpenAIRE

    Behravesh, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    Far from being essentially a dispute over democratic governance or even human rights, the current Saudi-Swedish row basically represents a clash of state genders, pitting a “masculine” religious autocracy against a “feminine” social democracy.

  12. The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Khalid

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

  13. EFL Teacher Preparation Programs in Saudi Arabia. Trends and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, Sultan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia and argues that available program options are in adequate for EFL teacher preparation. Recommendations are offered for improving EFL teacher education programs. (Author/VWL)

  14. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey

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    Ahmed G. Hegazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

  16. Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afify AR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance

  17. An Overview of the Saudi Arabian Telecommunications System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Arabia for its crude oil production , even though its economy consists of more than oil. Industries, agriculture, construction, services, and banking are...supported a moderate price for crude oil. Table 2 and Figure 2 list Saudi Arabian crude oil production from 1970 to 1988. [Refs. 1, 2,3] As the owner of...31 TABLE 2. CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION IN SAUDI ARABIA 1970-1988 YEAR PRODUCTION INDEX NUMBER (millions of barrels) (1970 = 100) 1970 1286.7 100.0 1971

  18. Stakeholding as a new development strategy for Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    The transition from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy requires that the Saudi population dramatically increases its level of human capital. This paper argues that noncognitive skills may be a bottleneck in the formation of human capital and proposes a policy to indirectly strengthen those skills. The core of the proposal is a government-financed gift to each Saudi citizen reaching adult age, the SSGY.

  19. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in two unrelated Saudi patients

    OpenAIRE

    Alangari, Abdullah; Al-Harbi, Abdullah; Al-Ghonaium, Abdulaziz; Santisteban, Ines; Hershfield, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due...

  20. C.N.S. tumors in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A W

    1992-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, there were no attempts previously to describe a population based frequency or incidence, particularly so the age adjusted incidence of various CNS tumors. This paper presents the primary CNS tumors from a population based tumor registry over two years period, from January 1987 till December 1988. There was a total of 85 cases representing 5.4% of the total captured cases (1,568 cases of malignant tumors at all sites). The population of the Eastern Province is estimated to be 1.37 million, the Saudis forming 80% of the total population. Out of the 85 cases captured over two years, there were 64 cases diagnosed in indigenous Saudi population forming 75%. The remaining occurred in non-Saudi residents. The male/female ratio in Saudis was 1:1.1 with a slight predominance of the female, while the reverse is true in the non-Saudis (2:1). The total captured cases per annum is 43, making the incidence of primary CNS neoplasms in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia 3.1/100,000 of all the population and 2.9/100,000 in Saudi nationals. Comparing this incidence to the international figure, it was clear that it is far less than the incidence reported from North America and Europe, particularly in the Caucasian population, but similar to incidences reported in the Chinese, black Americans, Romanians and Yugoslavians, but certainly less than the Ashkenazi or Safari Jews, and slightly higher than the incidence reported in Japan and Southeast Asia. Malignant brain tumors of various types dominated the primary CNS neoplasms reported over these two years forming 69% of the cases and 52% of the primary brain tumors.

  1. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  2. A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

  3. Mobile Computing Trends in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlaq B. Alotaibi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the adoption behavior of mobile computing in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to acquire new insight into mobile computing trends, specifically in Saudi Arabia, in order to develop hypotheses and formulate precise criteria for mobile computing evaluation. In order to achieve these aims, the researcher created a focus group by recruiting eight participants with solid background knowledge of usability engineering and mobile computing. The focus group proposed a four-phase process: determination, qualification, categorization and evaluation of the mobile computing applications developed by Saudi organizations. During the determination phase, two hundred and twenty seven (n=227 mobile applications were determined as having been developed by organizations in Saudi Arabia. During the qualification phase, one hundred and forty two (n=142 mobile applications were qualified. Within the categorization phase, the experts categorized only the qualified applications into a two-level categorization hierarchy. Finally, in the evaluation phase, the qualified applications were evaluated in terms of purpose, platform, visual appearance, content, organization and usability. The results herein revealed that 43% of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia were M-Government applications, while 57% were M-Business applications. In addition, the study proposed a sample of thirty six (n=36 applications as having statistical significance from all of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  5. 78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ..., Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular goods... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

  6. Origin and development of forensic medicine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madani, Osama Mohamed; Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Al Moghannam, Salah Ali; Moulana, Ashraf Abdul Raheem

    2012-06-01

    The medicolegal death investigation system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unique in the world. It is exclusively derived from Islamic judiciary based on Shari'ah law, which is the definitive Islamic law or doctrine. This law is applied on Saudi citizens as well as foreigners. This is different from other Islamic countries, which have a combination of Islamic and other judiciary systems.The forensic medicine centers in KSA are related administratively to the Ministry of Health (MOH) and its subdivisions in the different governorates. They are concerned with forensic medical examination and autopsy, as well as the clinical forensic medical examination of sexual assault cases, and those injured in civil and criminal cases. The assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology, forensic chemistry) are working independently under the funding of MOH, whereas the DNA laboratory and other departments of forensic sciences, for example, counterfeiting and forgery unit are related administratively to the Ministry of Interior represented by the Administration of Criminal Evidences. Efforts concerning crime scene investigations are shared with Administration of Criminal Evidences' crime scene investigators.Forensic medicine education in KSA developed in the past few years after the foundation of Saudi specialty certificate in forensic medicine. The certificate is a postgraduation qualification equivalent to a doctorate degree in forensic medicine and requires completion of a 4-year training program in both MOH- and Ministry of Interior-related departments, as well as passing annual evaluation and examination.This review is aimed at providing in the next decade the medicolegal centers with national forensic specialists throughout the kingdom and granting skillful headships for the next generations. Moreover, this review suggests more scientific associations with the academic universities in the various fields of forensic sciences through academic

  7. Changing patterns of hepatitis A prevalence within the Saudi population over the last 18 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faleh AI Faleh; Suliman AI Shehri; Saleh AI Ansari; Mohammed AI Jeffri; Yaqoub AI Mazrou; Ahmad Shaffi; Ayman A Abdo

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis A (HAV) amongst Saudi children and compare it with previously reported prevalence data from the same population.METHODS:A total of 1357 students were randomly selected between the ages of 16 and 18 years (689 males and 668 females) from three different regions of Saudi Arabia (Madinah,Al-Qaseem,and Aseer) and tested for anti-HAV-IgG.RESULTS:The overall prevalence of anti-HAV-IgG among the study population was 18.6%.There was no difference between males and females but there was a significant difference in the seroprevalence (P=0.0001) between the three different regions,with Madinah region showing the highest prevalence (27.4%).When classified according to socioeconomic status,lower class students had a prevalence of 36.6%,lower middle class 16.6%,upper middle class 9.6%,and upper class 5.9% (P=0.0001).Comparing the current study results with those of previous studies in 1989 and 1997 involving the same population,there was a marked reduction in the overall prevalence of HAV from 52% in 1989,to 25% in 1997,to 18.6% in 2008 (P<0.0001).CONCLUSION:Over the last 18 years,there has been a marked decline in the prevalence of HAV in Saudi children and adolescents.The current low prevalence rates call for strict adherence to vaccination policies in high-risk patients and raises the question of a universal HAV vaccination program.

  8. Knowledge and attitude towards organ donation among adult population in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sandeep; Binsaleem, Saud; Al-Homrani, Mohammed; Al-Juhayim, Abdullaziz; Al-Harbi, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advanced medical science and technology, shortage of organs had led to a growing gap between the demand for organs and the number of donors. With a limited number of studies on the subject and based on those findings, the public knowledge and attitudes must be assessed to understand more clearly that why many people are opposing donating their organs in Saudi Arabia. The objective of our study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the adult population toward organ donation in Saudi Arabia. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study where the information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was distributed in both King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, and data gathered analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0). There were a total of 403 respondents. Nearly 35.6% did not have the knowledge that organ donation is legal in the KSA. Almost 97% did not know where to go if they want to become donors. All of who were willing to donate, the most common reason was to save someone's life (92.7%). Body distortion (39%) and fear of health complications (35%) were the most common causes people opposed donation. It was suggested that, in order to increase the awareness for organ donation, the important role of health workers and hospital displays should be immediately addressed and public lectures should be held on regular basis. Information regarding organ donation should be incorporated with clear messages in various mass media.

  9. Sustainability Matters in National Development Visions—Evidence from Saudi Arabia’s Vision for 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability advocates for a universally shared common vision of progress towards a society that is just, safe and sustainable for humanity. Beyond environmental protection, the concept recognizes the urgent need to improve life quality through strategies that build socio-economic growth and address a wide range of cross cutting issues. While consensus abound that a more sustainable society serves everyone, opinions on what sustainability means and how it can be achieved are diverse. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, through the 2030 Vision and the 2020 National Transformation Program (NTP outlines an agenda for a more balanced growth and socio-economic development. The extent to which the vision systematically aligns with sustainability principles, however, remains unexplored. This research is a maiden attempt to investigate how much sustainability substance is in the 2030 Vision and the NTP of Saudi Arabia. The Sustainable Society Index (SSI has been employed to examine the 2030 Vision and the NTP to understand the Kingdom’s commitment to building resilient, inclusive and sustainable societies. The vision and NTP texts were matched against five broad measures and 22 sub-measures of the SSI to identity the points of convergence. While both the 2030 Vision and the NTP align with the SSI measures in some respect, the goals and objectives are, at best, a reflection of the needs, aspirations and context of Saudi Arabia. The paper concludes that the success of the 2030 Vision rests on the active involvement and empowerment of relevant stakeholders at all levels as well as the development of comprehensive assessment mechanisms based on which to measure progress towards sustainability.

  10. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field.

  11. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Husson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period  is scarce. This article also  is concerned with describing the evolution  of certain striking  aspects of the close  relation  between  the pilgrimage to Mecca  and Indonesian migrants  looking  for work.  We need to consider  the methods  of hiring  labor,  the networks  involved  in recruiting it, the organization  of travel,  as well as the increasing indebtedness  of the migrants  through  intermediaries  who, more and more professionally, arrange  these attempts  to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire  for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767

  12. The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis of the first deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Al-Hameed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT may be challenging due to the inaccuracy of clinical assessment and diversity of diagnostic tests. On one hand, missed diagnosis may result in life-threatening conditions. On the other hand, unnecessary treatment may lead to serious complications. As a result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo-Embolism (SAVTE; a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society with the methodological support of the McMaster University Working Group, produced this clinical practice guideline to assist healthcare providers in evidence-based clinical decision-making for the diagnosis of a suspected first DVT of the lower extremity. Twenty-four questions were identified and corresponding recommendations were made following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach. These recommendations included assessing the clinical probability of DVT using Wells criteria before requesting any test and undergoing a sequential diagnostic evaluation, mainly using highly sensitive D-dimer by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and compression ultrasound. Although venography is the reference standard test for the diagnosis of DVT, its use was not recommended.

  13. Contributions of Saudi Institutions in Applied Linguistics’ Journals Indexed in SSCI: Perspectives from Academics and Journals’ Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a new tendency for institutions to augment their publications in journals indexed in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI. Non-native English researchers may find it hard to get their submissions published in applied linguistics journals that are solely indexed in SSCI, which are known for their high rate of rejection. This could minimize the opportunity for researchers to get their manuscripts accepted for publication. This paper aims to collect data for academics’ perceptions of Saudi institutions to see their attitudes towards submitting and publishing in these journals. The article also aims to check the perceptions of journals’ editors on the submissions affiliated to Saudi universities to check the rate of rejection and the main reasons that lie behind the rejection. Thirty seven academics responded to an online survey designed to gauge their perceptions about submitting and publishing in applied linguistics journals indexed in SSCI. Academics perceive that publishing in such journals is difficult due to the high rate of rejection, long time of turnaround review, and a stringent peer review. Editors—those who responded to another survey—reported that a combination of outdated issues being investigated, poor research design and the lack of generalizability of research findings are the main reasons for rejecting submissions from Saudi academic institutions. On the bases of the study findings, limitations and tips for future studies are highlighted.

  14. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  15. The Role of Learning Styles in the Success of TBLT in EFL Classrooms in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badia Hakim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recognition of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT in English language learning classes in different contexts, its successful implementation in EFL contexts has attracted insufficient attention. As an offshoot of communicative language teaching, TBLT can provide EFL language learners with ample opportunities to embark on using language for more communicative purposes through interaction and engaging in collaborative tasks. The present study adopts an action research approach to implementing TBLT in a traditional language learning context at a major international university in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it intends to determine the students’ (N = 25 learning styles using Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM and to use varying tasks to tackle the common learning problems such as lack of participation in learning activities and low motivation. The analysis of data from different data collection instruments revealed that applying TBLT approach in this context helped students enhance their interaction with their classmates and teacher and used English for more authentic purposes while performing a series of learning tasks. In addition, the implementation of TBLT in this context motivated students to engage in different learning activities. At the end, implications of the findings for further research are discussed. Keywords: TBLT; FSLSM; action research; EFL; Saudi Arabia

  16. Parallel Assessment of Bone Mineral Density and RANKL/OPG Ratio in Saudi Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a significant risk factor for morbidity, and its high prevalence among Saudi women should be considered to be a public health problem. Quantitative ultrasound was recommended for bone mineral density (BMD screening. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG and their ratio are critical for physiological bone remodelling, and related abnormalities may lead to several osteopathies. Methods: The BMD of 499 Saudi females aged 20 to 65 years was measured using quantitative ultrasound from the beginning of October 2013 to the end of March 2014 at the female medical unit of Taibah University, Madinah, KSA. Possible associated risk factors for low BMD were studied. Blood RANKL and OPG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: No significant differences were found between participants with normal and low BMD regarding the studied risk factors. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.05 between BMD and regular physical activity among participants aged 20 years to less than 35 years, and women aged 35–50 years with higher body mass index (BMI had higher BMD. The RANKL/OPG ratio was inversely associated (p = 0.04 with BMD. Conclusions: Regular physical activity is crucial for maximizing BMD in young females and decreasing the possibility of developing osteoporosis with ageing. The RANKL/OPG ratio might be considered a useful and easy-to-use tool for the prediction of low BMD.

  17. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.

  18. Marketing Strategies and National Culture: an empirical investigation of customers’ acceptance of the online banking channel in the context of Saudi national culture

    OpenAIRE

    Altwaijri, Ahmad Saleh

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Technology and the development of the Internet has led to greater awareness among organisations of the role the Internet can play in improving services through online channels. Banks, financial institutions and the relevant government authorities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) have made great progress towards improving their e-services; however, these efforts came with a lack o...

  19. CLINICAL PATTERN OF ACNE VULGARIS AND ITS ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE OF KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: A HOSPITAL-BASED CLINICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ameer, Ali M.; Al-Akloby, Omar M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to review the clinical pattern of acne vulgaris cases referred to one hospital in the Eastern Province. Methods: Two hundred cases diagnosed in the Dermatology Department at King Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia were studied Results: Inflammatory acne was the predominant type observed in both males and females (76% and, 79%, respectively). Seborrhea (greasy skin) was the most frequently associated condition 22 (11%) followed by dandru...

  20. Method for the fast determination of bromate, nitrate and nitrite by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and their monitoring in Saudi Arabian drinking water with chemometric data treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Busquets, Rosa; Naushad, Mu

    2016-05-15

    A rapid, sensitive and precise method for the determination of bromate (BrO3(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in drinking water was developed with Ultra performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MS). The elution of BrO3(-), NO3(-) and NO2(-) was attained in less than two minutes in a reverse phase column. Quality parameters of the method were established; run-to-run and day-to-day precisions were water from Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Dammam and Riyadh areas) and commercial bottled water (from well or unknown source) after mere filtration steps. The quantified levels of NO3(-) were not found to pose a risk. In contrast, BrO3(-) was found above the maximum contaminant level established by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 25% and 33% of the bottled and metropolitan waters, respectively. NO2(-) was found at higher concentrations than the aforementioned limits in 70% and 92% of the bottled and metropolitan water samples, respectively. Therefore, remediation measures or improvements in the disinfection treatments are required. The concentrations of BrO3(-), NO3(-) and NO2(-) were mapped with Principal Component analysis (PCA), which differentiated metropolitan water from bottled water through the concentrations of BrO3(-) and NO3(-) mainly. Furthermore, it was possible to discriminate between well water; blend of well water and desalinated water; and desalinated water. The point or source (region) was found to not be distinctive.

  1. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group; Al-Hazzaa HM

    2011-01-01

    Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical acti...

  2. Patient's medicinal knowledge in Saudi Arabia: Are we doing well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M

    2016-09-01

    Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s) and their medication(s) which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals. In Saudi Arabia, different stakeholders such as hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, healthcare professionals, health societies and association and governmental agencies do not do their job as patient education. Aim of this paper was to throw some light about the current situation in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

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    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  4. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  5. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia

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    Magdy A. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years attending primary health care centers (PHCCs in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%, smoking in front of children (11.3%, overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%, noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3% and children (68%, children watching television (T.V more than 2 hours (50%, adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%, and late solid food introduction (65.3%. Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services.

  6. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Jobran M. Alqahtani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5% were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353 reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma. In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management.

  7. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Jobran M.; Asaad, Ahmed M.; Awadalla, Nabil J.; Mahfouz, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5%) were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353) reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma). In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management. PMID:28036050

  8. Surface gene variants of hepatitis B Virus in Saudi Patients

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    Ahmed Y Al-Qudari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV continues to be one of the most important viral pathogens in humans. Surface (S protein is the major HBV antigen that mediates virus attachment and entry and determines the virus subtype. Mutations in S gene, particularly in the “a” determinant, can influence virus detection by ELISA and may generate escape mutants. Since no records have documented the S gene mutations in HBV strains circulating in Saudi Arabia, the current study was designed to study sequence variation of S gene in strains circulating in Saudi Arabia and its correlation with clinical and risk factors. Patients and Methods: A total of 123 HBV-infected patients were recruited for this study. Clinical and biochemical parameters, serological markers, and viral load were determined in all patients. The entire S gene sequence of samples with viral load exceeding 2000 IU/mL was retrieved and exploited in sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Results: A total of 48 mutations (21 unique were recorded in viral strains in Saudi Arabia, among which 24 (11 unique changed their respective amino acids. Two amino acid changes were recorded in “a” determinant, including F130L and S135F with no evidence of the vaccine escape mutant G145R in any of the samples. No specific relationship was recognized between the mutation/amino acid change record of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia and clinical or laboratory data. Phylogenetic analysis categorized HBV viral strains in Saudi Arabia as members of subgenotypes D1 and D3. Conclusion: The present report is the first that describes mutation analysis of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia on both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Different substitutions, particularly in major hydrophilic region, may have a potential influence on disease diagnosis, vaccination strategy, and antiviral chemotherapy.

  9. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants

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    Ihsanullah Daur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical drugs; therefore, the interest in the analysis of their chemical composition is increasing. In this study, selected medicinal plants including Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk Sch., Amaranthus viridis L., Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., Chenopodium album L., and Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist were collected from the rangeland of western regions (Bahra and Hada areas of Saudi Arabia to study their chemical composition. Eight minerals (Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and free-radical scavenging ability were examined in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of these plants. All the plants were found to be rich sources of minerals and antioxidants, although there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in their chemical composition, which may provide a rationale for generating custom extracts from specific plants depending on the application. The findings of this study will thus facilitate herbalists in their efforts to incorporate these plants into various formulations based on their chemical composition.

  10. Incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis within 6 months of surgeries over a 2-year period at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A review

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    Rajiv Khandekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We present the incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis between July 2010 and June 2012 at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On its basis, we recommended recommendations to strengthen the infection prevention and control strategies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of health records type of study. The details of cases reported having endophthalmitis among those operated in 2 years of study period were studied. The incidence of endophthalmitis was calculated for different eye surgeries and epidemiological variables. The causative organisms in vitreous tap were reviewed. The visual outcomes 6 weeks following intervention/treatment of endophthalmmitis were also studied. Results: Of the 22,554 cases operated, 17 developed endophthalmitis. The incidence was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.11. The incidence of endophthlamitis among cataract surgeries was 0.12% (95% CI 0.04-0.21. Five specimens did not show any bacteria or fungus. Staphylococcus epidermis (3 cases was the main pathogen identified. In 8 (47% eyes, vision deteriorated in spite of treatment. In 5 (29% eyes, it became stable and in 4 (23.5% eyes, it improved following treatment. Signs of infection were noted in 1 st week, 3 weeks and 12 weeks in 4, 6 and 5 eyes respectively. Late presentation of infection (6 months postoperatively was reported in two eyes. Conclusions: A vigilant infection control unit in a large eye hospital helps in monitoring endophthalmitis related catastrophes and suggests timely preventive measures to reduce the occurrence and appropriate measures to limit visual disabilities following eye surgery related endophthalmitis.

  11. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life among Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Ayman A. Al Hayek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetes mellitus (DM is associated with high mortality, morbidity, poor general health, and loss of health-related quality of life (HRQOL. The objective of the study was to assess the factors associated with HRQOL among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsThis was a cross sectional study conducted among 283 T2DM patients during June 2011 and September 2012 at a major tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The respondents were purposively and conveniently selected according to their availability during their routine visit to the outpatient clinics and they were interviewed using the Arabic version of the Short-Form 36-item survey (SF-36 to assess the HRQOL.ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 56.4±13.2 years. Around 63% (178 were males and 37% (105 were females. Glycosylated hemoglobin level was found to be significantly higher among female and HRQOL was higher among male. Respondents who were more than 50 years old had poor HRQOL than less than 50 years age group. Poor economic status, reported diabetic complications and longer duration of diabetes were significantly associated with poor HRQOL. The respondents treated with combination of therapies (oral medication plus insulin indicated better HRQOL than patients with insulin therapy alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, economic status (except subscale energy, and complications of DM (except subscale energy as independent risk factor for HRQOL.ConclusionGender, economic status, and complication of DM were independent risk factors for majority of the subscales of HRQOL.

  12. Undergraduate Arab International Students' Adjustment to U.S. Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Rabia, Hazza M.

    2017-01-01

    The adjustment process and issues of 16 Arab international students enrolled at two universities in the Northeast of the United States were examined through this qualitative, exploratory study. The participants were from Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and United Arab Emirates and had been in the US for 2 to 5 years. In-depth…

  13. Effects of Riyadh cement industry pollutions on some physiological and morphological factors of Datura innoxia Mill. plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Hediat M H; Al-Rumaih, M M; Al-Dosary, M A

    2011-07-01

    Cement factory emissions into air cause serious air pollution and affect the plant and animal life in the environment. Herein, we report the effects of cement industry emissions (O3, SO2 and NO2) in air, as pollutants, at Riyadh City on Datura innoxia Mill. plant. Morphological characters including plant height, leaves area and number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root systems of D. innoxia showed a significant reduction from their normal control plants as a response to exposure to pollutant emissions. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents recorded reductions in values compared to control plant, and the lowest values of chlorophyll A, B, total chlorophyll, carotenoids and total pigments were 0.431, 0.169, 0.60, 0.343 and 0.943 mg/g respectively at a distance of 1-5 m from the cement factory in fruiting stage. These changes in values may be attributed to a probable deceleration of the biosynthetic process rather than degradation of pigments. Further D. innoxia showed a significant (P plant. The root system recorded the lowest values of reducing sugars (0.350 mg/g f. wt.), non-reducing sugars (0.116 mg/g f. wt.), total sugars (0.466 mg/g f. wt.), protein content (0.931 mg/g f. wt.) and total lipids content (0.669 mg/g f. wt.) in fruiting stage at a distance of 1-5 m from the cement factory. The peroxidase activity of shoot and root systems of the studied plant was also significantly higher than those of control plant. Thus a highest value of (29.616 units/g f. wt.) peroxidase activity was recorded in vegetative stage of shoot system at a distance 1-5 m from the cement factory. Results of the study indicated that cement industry emission strongly influence the physiology and morphology of date palm D. innoxia which contribute date fruits, a staple food in the Arab world.

  14. Accreditation and Quality Assurance in Post Secondary Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Abdullah ALMUSALLAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has a diverse system of post-secondary education, and it is expanding rapidly in response to demographic changes and increasing demands for participation. There is also very rapid economic and industrial development and increasing exposure to international competition in many areas of activity. Post-secondary education must continue to expand and standards of education and training that are equivalent to international best practice must be achieved and widely recognized. The standards must be achieved in all institutions and in all programs. These requirements have led the government to establish the National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment as an independent agency for quality assurance and accreditation. The Commission has responsibility for establishing standards, supporting quality improvement, and accreditation and in all post-secondary institutions other than those in defense. Its focus will be on both quality of institutions as a whole, and the quality of education and training programs. Principles underlying the system the Commission is developing include encouraging continuing improvement rather than being satisfied with minimally acceptable standards, encouraging diversity, ensuring cooperation and mutual support among the different agencies involved and designing approaches tailored to Saudi Arabia’s traditions and requirements rather than adopting a system developed elsewhere. In doing this the Commission is drawing on the best ideas we can find elsewhere in the world, but the system we develop will be our own. Pilot programs have been conducted in two universities involving institutional and program self-studies and independent external reviews to trial and refine the procedures involved. Developmental reviews are being carried out in a number of other universities and colleges to provide experience with the new processes. Most higher education institutions conducted initial self-evaluations based

  15. The Arab University Students' Use of English General Service and Academic Vocabulary: A Lexical Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhs, Dina Abdel Salam

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have attempted to assess the English vocabulary knowledge of high-school students and undergraduate university students in contexts where English is a foreign language (EFL). The present paper explores the lexical development of Arab undergraduates at a Saudi University where EFL is the medium of instruction.…

  16. Attitudes of Faculty Members at Najran University towards Students' Assessment for Their Teaching Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakri, Ali; Qablan, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of faculty members at Najran University towards students' assessment for their teaching performance. The sample of the study consisted of (184) faculty members from Najran University, Kingdome of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to the sample of the study. The result showed…

  17. The Impact of Online Communication on Learning English: A Case Study of Saudi EFL Learners

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    Bakr Bagash Mansour Al-Sofi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the perceptions and views of Saudi undergraduate EFL learners regarding the role of online communication in improving their English, including the basic skills and the other aspects of language learning. It also aimed to identify the impact of some factors on the learners' perceptions on the role of online communication in developing their English level.  This study is quantitatively designed in which a written questionnaire was used to collect the data of the study during the first semester of the academic year 2015-2016 from 171 randomly selected students who joined different levels in English Department, College of Sciences and Arts, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia. For analyzing the data of the study, different statistical techniques in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, 21.0 version were ran. The results indicated that the students had high positive perceptions of the significant role of online communication in fostering their English. Furthermore, it was found that there were statistically significant differences in the online communication scores for the factors of foreign friendship, university level, and the frequent use of the Internet. On the contrary, the results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences in the online communication scores for the other two factors of age and the frequent use of English online. Students are invited more than ever before to grasp every online chance for developing their English. In particular, they are required to employ online communication not only for socialization purposes, but for using it as an educational tool as well. Keywords: Online communication, basic English skills, language learning aspects

  18. The effect of obesity and components of metabolic syndrome on urinary and sexual functions in Saudi men

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    Mosli HA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hisham A Mosli,1 Hala H Mosli,2 Akram A Bokhari1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Objective: To establish a possible association between obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC and body mass index (BMI, and voiding and sexual functions in a random cohort of Saudi men. Materials and methods: An outpatient men’s health clinic was set up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and men were invited to discuss their sexual and urinary functions. The data collected included age, WC, weight, height, blood pressure, history of diabetes, hypertension, and smoking. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS and the International Inventory of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 questionnaire were used to assess urinary tract symptoms and sexual function, respectively. Serum testosterone, prostate-specific antigen and cholesterol levels were measured and documented. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: We recruited 113 participants. The mean WC and BMI of the men were 104 ± 14.599 cm and 29.706 kg/m2, respectively. Thirty-seven men (32.7% had an IPSS ≥ 8 points. Sexual disorders were reported in 19 men; 16 men had erectile dysfunction, while three had premature ejaculation. Of the whole cohort, 37 men were diabetic, of which 15 (40.5% had an IPSS ≥ 8 and 13 (35% were either overweight or obese. Conclusion: Increased WC and BMI were associated with diabetes mellitus and large percentages of voiding and sexual disorders. Keywords: obesity, waist circumference, body mass index, voiding function, sexual function

  19. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  20. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Intakhab Alam

    2011-01-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as…

  1. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  2. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and

  3. Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi…

  4. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  5. Strategic Importance of Saudi Arabia - Neither A Friend Nor Foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    civilizations to include Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia, Rome , Byzantium, India, China, and Persia to mention just a few.2 The Koran, or book of faith for... catapulted the United States’ relationship with Saudi Arabia into the limelight. Many Americans around the country, to include influential members

  6. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  7. Mineral deposits in western Saudi Arabia; a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ralph Jackson; Greenwood, William R.; Worl, Ronald G.; Dodge, F.C.W.; Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1975-01-01

    Mineral deposits in Saudi Arabia include a variety of deposits which were formed in many geologic environments. These include magmatic and late magmatic deposits in igneous masses, contact metamorphic deposits along the margins of igneous bodies, and stratiform sulfide deposits and veins. Notable deposits of sedimentary origin include deposits of iron oxides and phosphate.

  8. Teaching English for Specific Purposes: Attitudes among Saudi Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Majed Ali

    2015-01-01

    Attitude is considered as one of the most crucial factors for learning a second or foreign language for a specific purpose. It plays a major role in arousing student's interest and motivation towards learning. The main purpose for conducting this research is to identify the attitude among engineering students in Saudi Arabia towards learning…

  9. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

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    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

  10. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse them

  11. Do Saudi EFL Teachers Promote Creativity in Their Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Abdulaziz Ali

    2016-01-01

    Despite the efforts made by the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia, there is still much to be done in order to nourish creativity in schools. According to a number of studies, there is an urgent need to reconsider the role of creativity in the current educational programmes because there is an increasing gap between the reality of the…

  12. Metacognitive Listening Strategies Used by Saudi EFL Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaison, Eid

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the metacognitive listening strategies among Saudi EFL medical students. The participants were 104 males and females, randomly selected to fill in the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ), developed and validated Vandergrift Goh, Mareschal, and Tafaghodtari (2006). The results revealed that…

  13. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  14. On Selected Morphemes in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carla; Schneider, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Following a year of study of Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL), we are documenting our findings to provide a grammatical sketch of the language. This paper represents one part of that endeavor and focuses on a description of selected morphemes, both manual and non-manual, that have appeared in the course of data collection. While some of the…

  15. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  16. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  17. iPad Acceptance by English Learners in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Barry A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003) model to investigate factors predicting the acceptance of iPad tablets by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at a technical vocational college in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was conducted on 199 male learners,…

  18. The demographic and clinical characteristics of leprosy in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammad H; Bahammam, Salman A; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Bahnassy, Ahmed A; Hassan, Imad S; Alothman, Adel F; Alkayal, Abdulkareem M

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although the occurrence of leprosy has declined in Saudi Arabia, it has not yet been eradicated. To our knowledge, this descriptive retrospective study is the first to assess the clinical presentation of leprosy at the time of diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. All study subjects were leprosy patients admitted to Ibn Sina hospital, the only referral hospital for leprosy in Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and May 2012. A total of 164 subjects, the majority of whom (65%) were between 21 and 50 years of age, were included, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Of these 164 patients, 63% were Saudis, and 77% of all admitted patients were from the western region. Lepromatous leprosy was observed most frequently (33%), and 31% of cases had a positive history of close contact with leprosy. At the time of diagnosis, 84% of all subjects presented with skin manifestation. The prevalence of neurological deficit at the time of diagnosis was 87%. Erythema nodosum leprosum (E.N.L.) developed in only 10% of all subjects. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics pertaining to each type of leprosy in the region, and training courses in caring for and diagnosing patients with leprosy should be organized for health workers.

  19. Mercury (Hg) exposure and its effects on Saudi breastfed infant's neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Nester, Michael; Abduljabbar, Mai; Al-Rouqi, Reem; Eltabache, Chafica; Al-Rajudi, Tahreer; Elkhatib, Rola

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study analyzed mercury (Hg) levels in healthy Saudi mothers and their infants (age 3-12 months) and examined the influence of Hg on the infants' neurodevelopment using screening tools, such as the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) and Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS). A total of 944 mothers and their 944 infants were recruited from 57 Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh. The total Hg (THg) levels were measured in the mothers' and infants' urine (UTHg-M and UTHg-I) and hair (HTHg-M and HTHg-I) samples and in the breast milk and mothers' blood. Methylmercury (MeHg) levels were determined in hair samples from the mothers (MeHg-M) and infants (MeHg-I). Only 40.1% of the infants were breast-fed when enrolled, and 59.9% had stopped breastfeeding. Only 1.8% of the mothers and 0.3% of the infants had MeHg levels above the Environmental Proection Agency (EPA) reference dose (1 μg/g), with low medians of 0.132 and 0.091 μg/g dw, respectively, but the MeHg levels were significantly associated with infant DDST-II performance. The levels of corrected UTHg-M for creatinine (Cr), HTHg-M, HTHg-I, and HMeHg-M, however, displayed an association with infant PEDS performance. The medians and percentage of the tested population that exceeded the recommended limits for Hg in urine and hair set by the World Health Organization (5 μg/g Cr) and EPA (1 μg/g) were 0.695 μg/g Cr and 3% UTHg, 0.118 μg/g dw and 4.1% HTHg-M, 0.101 μg/g dw and 2.8% HTHg-I, and 0.132 μg/g dw and 1.8% HMeHg-M. Our study provides evidence of an association between some Hg measures and delays in infant neurodevelopment, despite their low levels and regardless of the infant's breastfeeding status. The results are of potential concern, because delayed psychomotor or mental performance in infants could be an indicator of later neurocognitive development in children, which may persist into adulthood, as shown in other studies. The absence of local

  20. Introducing medical humanities in the medical curriculum in Saudi Arabia: A pedagogical experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie E Abdel-Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a marked shift from the modern positivist materialist philosophy that influenced medical education for more than a century, Western medical educators are now beginning to realize the significance of the spiritual element of human nature. Consensus is currently building up in Europe and North America on the need to give more emphasis to the study of humanities disciplines such as history of medicine, ethics, religion, philosophy, medically related poetry, literature, arts and medical sociology in medical colleges with the aim of allowing graduates to reach to the heart of human learning about meaning of life and death and to become kinder, more reflective practitioners. The medicine taught and practiced during the Islamic civilization era was a vivid example of the unity of the two components of medical knowledge: natural sciences and humanities. It was also a brilliant illustration of medical ethics driven by a divine moral code. This historical fact formed the foundation for the three medical humanities courses presented in this article reporting a pedagogical experiment in preparation for starting a humanities program in Alfaisal University Medical College in Riyadh. In a series of lectures alternating with interactive sessions, active learning strategies were employed in teaching a course on history of medicine during the Islamic era and another on Islamic medical ethics. Furthermore, a third course on medically relevant Arabic poetry was designed and prepared in a similar way. The end-of-the-course feedback comments reflected effectiveness of the courses and highlighted the importance of employing student-centered learning techniques in order to motivate medical students to become critical thinkers, problem solvers, life-long learners and self-learners.